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Sample records for nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated loci

  1. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

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    Stenmark, Matthew H., E-mail: stenmark@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); McHugh, Jonathan B. [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Worden, Francis P. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mukherji, Suresh K. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Carey, Thomas E. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings.

  2. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Schipper, Matthew; Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine; Feng, Felix Y.; Worden, Francis P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Carey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated peptide: NAP-1

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    Zhou Wen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is one of the most commons cancers in Southeast Asia and Southern China. Several NPC-associated genes have been so far described and here we describe the identification and the characterization of a novel nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated peptide: NAP-1. NAP-1 was identified with the human genome draft searching method combined with nested PCR mapping of the chromosome 4q13 region. NAP-1 encodes an 85 amino acid alkaline peptide with a calculated isoelectric point of 9.3, three phosphorilation sites and a proline-rich region. Northern blot analysis revealed that NAP-1 is expressed as a 0.6 kb transcript in normal lymph nodes and trachea. In addition, reverse transcription (RT-PCR showed that NAP-1 is expressed not only in NPC but in normal nasopharynx (NP and various other tumors and tissues of the head and neck including: tonsils, lymph nodes, carcinoma of the tonsil, T cell lymphomas, squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate, papilloma of the nasopharynx, nasopharyngitis, lymphoma of the tongue root and follicular dendritic cells (FDC. In addition, NAP-1 is not expressed in normal tissues or tumors from other anatomical regions and was not expressed by NPC cell lines. Surprisingly, differential RT-PCR demonstrated decreased expression of NAP-1 in NPC compared with paired NP biopsies in 42.5 % of cases (17 out of 40. In addition, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that NAP-1 is expressed by S100+ CD35+ FDCs of the germinal center and not in other normal immune cells infiltrating NP or NPC. Therefore, it is likely that NAP-1 is secreted by FDC in the NP and may play an immune modulatory role in NPC.

  4. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Associated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

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    Hsu Wu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: HLH is a disease with high fatality. Whenever there is a degree of clinical suspicion for HLH, etoposide-based chemotherapy should be started as soon as possible, and the underlying causes of the disease should be treated. We report this patient with NPC and HLH, which can be associated with either EBV or NPC. We treated both etiologies, and the patient's symptoms and liver function improved. The interactions between EBV, NPC, and HLH are interesting and merit further investigation.

  5. Ovarian carcinoma associated with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Gokhan; Selcuk, Ilker; Yazıcıoğlu, Aslıhan; Tuncer, Zafer Selçuk

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between endometriosis and development of ovarian cancer. A study was performed to evaluate the cases of ovarian carcinoma associated with endometriosis. The study includes patients with ovarian carcinoma associated with endometriosis diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 at Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. A total of 1086 patients who underwent surgical staging for ovarian carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively for the presence of histologically documented endometriosis. The clinical and pathological characteristics of 45 ovarian carcinoma patients associated with endometriosis were evaluated including histologic subtype, stage and grade. Ovarian carcinoma was found to be associated with endometriosis in 4.1% (45/1086) of the cases. Of them, 17 patients (37.8%) had clear cell, 15 (33.3%) had endometrioid, 6 (13.3%) had serous papillary, 4 (8.9%) had mucinous and the remaining 3 patients had an undifferentiated subtype of ovarian carcinoma. Twenty-three (51.1%) patients had stage I, 4 (8.9%) had stage II and 18 (40.0%) had stage III disease. The frequency of coexistence of endometriosis was 20.4% (17/83) for clear cell carcinoma and 9.3% (15/161) for endometrioid cell carcinoma. Only a small proportion of ovarian cancer cases were found to be associated with endometriosis. Endometriosis was most frequently associated with clear cell and endometrioid types of ovarian carcinoma. Ovarian carcinoma associated with endometriosis seems to represent a distinct disease entity with different histological subtypes, early presentation and a relatively favorable outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Brennan Bernadette

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a tumor arising from the epithelial cells that cover the surface and line the nasopharynx. The annual incidence of NPC in the UK is 0.3 per million at age 0–14 years, and 1 to 2 per million at age 15–19 years. Incidence is higher in the Chinese and Tunisian populations. Although rare, NPC accounts for about one third of childhood nasopharyngeal neoplasms. Three subtypes of NPC are recognized in the World Health Organization (WHO classification: 1 squamous cell carcinoma, typically found in the older adult population; 2 non-keratinizing carcinoma; 3 undifferentiated carcinoma. The tumor can extend within or out of the nasopharynx to the other lateral wall and/or posterosuperiorly to the base of the skull or the palate, nasal cavity or oropharynx. It then typically metastases to cervical lymph nodes. Cervical lymphadenopathy is the initial presentation in many patients, and the diagnosis of NPC is often made by lymph node biopsy. Symptoms related to the primary tumor include trismus, pain, otitis media, nasal regurgitation due to paresis of the soft palate, hearing loss and cranial nerve palsies. Larger growths may produce nasal obstruction or bleeding and a "nasal twang". Etiological factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, genetic susceptibility and consumption of food with possible carcinogens – volatile nitrosamines. The recommended treatment schedule consists of three courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, irradiation, and adjuvant interferon (IFN-beta therapy.

  7. The nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternitskaya, Yu.P.

    2003-01-01

    The CT and MRT features of the nasopharyngeal angiofibroma on basis of 12 patients was studied. Combined CT and MRT examination allowed to define nasopharyngeal angiofibroma's typical signs, to appreciate limits, to contribute to differential diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses

  8. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originati...

  9. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma During Pregnancy

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    Tsung-I Lin

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: The possibility of rare nasopharyngeal carcinoma should be considered in any pregnant woman with presenting symptoms of persistent headache and abnormal nasal discharge, and a detailed thorough investigation is indicated. Successful pregnancy outcome can be achieved after tailored use of a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  10. OCTREOTIDE FOR MEDULLARY-THYROID CARCINOMA ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMID, WM; DULLAART, RPF

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma associated diarrhoea can be disabling. A 75-yr-old man with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma and refractory diarrhoea is described. Subcutaneous administration of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, 100-mu-g thrice daily, resulted in a sustained improvement in

  11. Nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst

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    Po-Shao Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Second branchial cleft cysts are almost always located in the neck; thus, their presence in the nasopharynx is extremely rare. A 44-year-old man was referred to our department because a cystic mass was fortuitously found in the right lateral nasopharyngeal wall during transnasal esophagogastroscopy. He had suffered from intermittent right-sided nasal obstruction since childhood. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense signals. Marsupialization was performed by diode laser via an endoscopy-guided approach. No immediate postoperative complications occurred, and there was no recurrence 6 months following surgery. When a cystic lesion presents in the lateral nasopharynx, branchial cleft cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In our experience, marsupialization by diode laser via an endoscopy approach is a safe and straightforward method of treating nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst, with no adverse effects.

  12. General Information about Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat nasopharyngeal cancer. External radiation ...

  13. Nasolacrimal relapse of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Sia, K J; Tang, I P; Kong, C K L; Tan, T Y

    2012-08-01

    To describe three rare cases of nasolacrimal relapse of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and to discuss the route of tumour spread from nasopharynx to lacrimal system as well as the relevant computed tomography findings. We report three cases of nasolacrimal relapse in patients with previously treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The common initial presentations in these cases were epiphora and medial canthal swelling. The tumour spread from the nasopharynx to the lacrimal sac along the lateral nasal wall and nasolacrimal canal. Computed tomography demonstrated nasolacrimal canal invasion and osteomeatal complex obliteration by the tumour. Distant metastasis was detected in two cases. More targeted radiotherapy should be delivered to prevent under-treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Nasolacrimal relapse of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an advanced disease with a poor prognosis.

  14. Nasopharyngeal turbinates in brachycephalic dogs and cats.

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    Ginn, Jennifer A; Kumar, M S A; McKiernan, Brendan C; Powers, Barbara E

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study reports the presence and incidence of nasal turbinates in the nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal turbinates) in a population of brachycephalic dogs and cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease. Medical records were reviewed for 53 brachycephalic dogs and 10 brachycephalic cats undergoing upper airway endoscopy. Nasopharyngeal turbinates were identified in 21% of brachycephalic animals, including 21% of dogs and 20% of cats. Pugs accounted for 32% of all dogs in the study population and 82% of dogs with nasopharyngeal turbinates. The presence of nasopharyngeal turbinates may play a role in upper airway obstruction in the brachycephalic airway syndrome.

  15. Nasopharyngeal cancer through maxillary swing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Ojeda, Luis; Chicaiza Acosta, Jorge; Ulloa Miranda, Darwin

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer is very rare in Ecuador. Radiotherapy associated to concurrent chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. In case of tumor recurrence, these two treatment modalities are usually not effective. For this reason, several studies about the satisfactory results of salvage surgery in terms of locoregional control of the disease, have appeared recently in the literature. We report our first experience of surgical salvage resection of a recurrent tumor through an anterolateral approach (maxillary swing) with an initial satisfactory result. (The author)

  16. Clinical presentation of nasopharyngeal cancer in Yemen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe clinical presentation of nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods: Study performed on 100 patients who had been histologically diagnosed as having nasopharyngeal cancer between October 2002 and September 2005 in ENT department, Al-Thawra Teaching Hospital, Sana\\'a, Yemen. A detailed medical ...

  17. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with pericardial metastasis

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    Shang-Wen Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is prevalent in Taiwan and is characterized by a high frequency of nodal metastasis. The most common organs with distal metastases are the bones, lungs, and liver, with extremely rare cases to the pericardium. Herein, we report a rare case with NPC who presented with dyspnea and orthopnea. Serial studies, including pericardial biopsy, revealed NPC with pericardial metastasis and pericardial effusion. The tumor cells of both the original and metastatic tumors were positive for Epstein–Barr virus by in situ hybridization. This is the first histologically confirmed case of NPC with pericardial metastasis.

  18. Imaging diagnosis of nasopharyngeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Ilka; Souza, Ricardo Pires de

    2007-01-01

    The nasopharynx is located in the upper aero digestive tract. Its roof is formed by the basisphenoid, basiocciput and the anterior aspect of the first two cervical vertebrae, in front of the clivus. The lateral walls are formed by the margins of the superior constrictor muscle and the pharyngobasilar fascia, pharyngeal recess, torus tubarius and pharyngeal opening of auditory tube. The inferior margin of the nasopharynx is a horizontal plane passing through the hard palate and palatopharyngeal muscle. Anteriorly, it is in direct continuity with the nasal cavity through the posterior choanae. It is approximately 2.0 cm in anteroposterior diameter and about 4.0 cm in craniocaudal extent. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 70% to 98% of nasopharyngeal malignant lesions found in adults. This tumor presents a high incidence in Asians, most frequently in men, and is the third most frequent cancer in women. The clinical presentation of this disease depends on the size and site of the lesion, with small-sized lesions being asymptomatic. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play essential and complementary roles in the staging and treatment of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. (author)

  19. Olfactory Training in Improving Sense of Smell After Radiation Therapy in Patients With Paranasal Sinus or Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-11

    Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage 0 Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage I Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage I Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage II Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IIA Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IIB Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage III Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVA Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVB Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVC Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVC Paranasal Sinus Cancer

  20. Radiation therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Y. J.; Cho, J. G.; Ahn, S. D.; Choi, E. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, O. C.; Chang, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to evaluate the results of radiation therapy and prognostic factors influencing the results in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. From October 1989 to May 1996, 56 patients were treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma at Department of Radiation Oncology. According to stage, patients were distributed as follows: stage I (2), II (13), III (11), IV (30). Twenty-eight patients were treated with radiation therapy and weekly CDDP. After external beam radiotherapy of 60Gy, 46 patients received boost dose with intracavitary radiation and 9 patients with 3D conformal therapy. One patient received boost dose with 2 dimensional photon beam therapy. The tumor dose ranged from 69.4Gy to 86.2Gy with median dose of 74.4Gy. The follow-up period ranged from 5 months to 92 months with a median of 34 months. Forty-seven patients achieved complete response and 8 patients showed partial response. One patient showed minimal response. Patterns of failure were as follows: locoregional recurrence (8) and distant metastasis (18). Among these patients, 2 patients failed locoregionally and distantly, The sites of distant metastasis were bone (8), lung (8) and liver (4). Five years survival rate was 67.2% and 5 years disease-free survival rate was 53.6%. KPS (P=0.005) and response of radiation therapy (P=0.0001) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. KPS (P=0.02) and response of radiation therapy (P=0.005) were significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival. This retrospective study showed that distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of relapse in nasopharyngeal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or weekly CDDP did not influence the distant metastasis-free survival. For advanced T stage, 3D conformal therapy provided an improved dose coverage compared to ICR. But further follow-up was needed in patients with 3D conformal therapy to assess the efficacy of this therapy. Development of techniques of radiation therapy to improve locoregional

  1. Retreatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, M.D.; Fletcher, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty patients with recurrent primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma were reirradiated between 1949 and 1976. Twenty eventually demonstrated recurrence at or near the primary site, involving the nasopharynx in 4 and the central nervous system in 16. Long-term palliation was often achieved, and there were no severe complications except for one patient who died of necrosis of the base of the skull. The most frequent problems were hearing loss and trismus; necrosis of the nasopharynx was seen in only 2 patients. With therapy in the range of 18-25 MeV, significant palliation and an occational cure can be achieved without excessive risk. Recurrent disease involving the skull may be controlled for several years using current techniques

  2. Retreatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, M.D.; Fletcher, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty patients with recurrent primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma were reirradiated between 1949 and 1976. Twenty eventually demonstrated recurrence at or near the primary site, involving the nasopharynx in 4 and the central nervous system in 16. Long-term palliation was often achieved, and there were no severe complications except for one patient who died of necrosis of the base of the skull. The most frequent problems were hearing loss and trismus; necrosis of the nasopharynx was seen in only 2 patients. With therapy in the range of 18-25 MeV, significant palliation and an occational cure can be achieved without excessive risk. Recurrent disease involving the skull may be controlled for several years using current techniques.

  3. Nasopharyngeal bursitis: from embryology to clinical presentation

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    AE El-Shazly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AE El-Shazly, S Barriat, PP LefebvreDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Liege University Hospital, Liege, BelgiumAbstract: Nasopharyngeal bursitis is a relatively rare syndrome characterized by a collection of symptoms that multidisciplinary specialists should be aware of. Here we present an audit of cases presenting to a rhinology clinic over a two-year period, as well as an overview of the relevant embryology and different clinical presentations of nasopharyngeal bursitis. For 2008–2009, six patients were diagnosed to have nasopharyngeal bursitis, including four males and two females, of mean age 54 years. Two distinct pathologic types were observed, comprising three patients with classical Tornwaldt’s cyst and three with crust-type bursitis. This audit highlights the importance of recognition of the crust-type of nasopharyngeal bursitis and its anatomic and clinical features. A combined endonasal and transoral endoscopic approach is a minimally invasive procedure and an effective method of treating both types of the disease. Our findings are discussed in relation to the embryology of the disorder, with a clinical emphasis on crust-type nasopharyngeal bursitis.Keywords: nasopharyngeal bursitis, crust type, Tornwaldt’s cyst, endoscopic disruption

  4. CT findings of nasopharyngeal cancer

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    Kim, Kie Hwan; Byun, Hong Sik; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    CT findings in 64 patients of nasopharyngeal cancer are analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the region of origin and the route of spread. The results are as follows: 1. The most frequently involved wall is lateral well (90%), followed by posterior wall (78%) and superior wall (58%). 2. There are invasion to parapharyngeal space (86%), retropharyngeal and prevertebral space (72%), carotid space (46%), and masticator space (18%) in that order. 3. Involved anatomic sites are Rosenmueller fossa (90%), torus tubarius (78%), E-tube orifice (68%), carotid sheath (46%), soft palate (50%), nasal cavity (36%), skull base (28%), prevertebral muscle (26%) and intracranial fossa (16%). 4. Direct extension to intracranial fossa is via sphenoid sinus (6/8), foramen lacerum (5/8), foramen ovale (4/8), and jugular foramen (4/8) in that order. 5. Invasion to prevertebral space leads to intraspinal extension (3/13). 6. Cervical lymph node metastasis of found in internal jugular (82%),spinal accessory (56%) and retropharyngeal chain (42%) in that order. 7. After radiation therapy, most frequent site of recurrence is posterior wall (10/14) followed by lateral wall (9/14), superior wall (5/14) and cervical lymph node (6/14), but the presence of recurrence is difficult to determine based on CT only.

  5. The battle against nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne W.M.; Ng, W.T.; Chan, Y.H.; Sze, Henry; Chan, Connie; Lam, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of the evolving efforts to understand and combat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a most peculiar cancer with a distinctly skewed geographic and ethnic distribution. Multifactorial etiology with dynamic interplay of genetic predisposition, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection and environmental carcinogens is suggested. With changing lifestyle in Hong Kong, the age-standardized incidence rate has decreased by more than 50% during the past 30 years. The advent of megavoltage radiotherapy has transformed this once lethal cancer into one that is readily curable. Advances in technology and addition of chemotherapy have led to gratifying improvements. Overall survival exceeding 75% at 5 years could now be achieved; series using advanced technique with intensity-modulation consistently achieved excellent locoregional control. Studies are on-going to develop more potent systemic therapy for distant control. Serious late toxicities remain a serious concern demanding further improvement in radiotherapy technique and optimization of dose fractionation. Translational researches are increasingly important for the ideal goals of prevention, early detection and more accurate prognostication/prediction to work toward personalized medicine. The battle against NPC is one of the most fascinating successes in oncology, it is highly hopeful that with international collaborations and concerted efforts, we can totally conquer this cancer.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yasushi; Tamaki, Susumu; Kurata, Kyosuke; Honjo, Iwao; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasopharynx, the eustachian tube and the middle ear was performed in nine patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI revealed the extent of the tumor more clearly than CT (computed tomography) when the tumor was situated in the parapharyngeal space. But when the tumor extended superficially in the nasopharyngeal mucosa, its margin could not be identified clearly by either MRI or CT because of hypervascularity and long T1 and T2 of the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Seven of the nine patients had unilateral otitis media with effusion. Their eustachian tube ventilation function was evaluated by an inflation-deflation technique. Failure of active equalization of negative pressure applied to the middle ear was found to be a characteristic disorder of their eustachian tube ventilation function. This dysfunction seemed to be correlated with the lateral dislocation of the eustachian tube cartilage caused by the tumor. (author)

  7. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (a report of 19 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, R S; Desai, A A; Aiyer, R G; Pandya, V K; Bansal, S; Varghese, A M

    2000-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma is a relatively rare benign, but locally aggresive tumor of the nasopharynx afflicting the adolescent males. The management of these tumors has been a subject of much interest and controversy in the past Here we present a series of 19 patients of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (with CT Scan as the main stay of diagnosis) managed over the last 5 years at ENT and Head & Neck Surgery Department of S.S.G. Hospital, Vadodara, with infraoperative internal maxillary artery ligation via the trans maxillary approach permitting accurate removal of tumor with no major post operative complications, minimal blood loss, good cosmetic result and no recurrence till date. If further experience with this approach to management in a larger series of patients has the same results, surgery should be the gold standard in treatment of Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

  8. How genome-wide SNP-SNP interactions relate to nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Su

    Full Text Available This study is the first to use genome-wide association study (GWAS data to evaluate the multidimensional genetic architecture underlying nasopharyngeal cancer. Since analysis of data from GWAS confirms a close and consistent association between elevated risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and major histocompatibility complex class 1 genes, our goal here was to explore lesser effects of gene-gene interactions. We conducted an exhaustive genome-wide analysis of GWAS data of NPC, revealing two-locus interactions occurring between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and identified a number of suggestive interaction loci which were missed by traditional GWAS analyses. Although none of the interaction pairs we identified passed the genome-wide Bonferroni-adjusted threshold for significance, using independent GWAS data from the same population (Stage 2, we selected 66 SNP pairs in 39 clusters with P<0.01. We identified that in several chromosome regions, multiple suggestive interactions group to form a block-like signal, effectively reducing the rate of false discovery. The strongest cluster of interactions involved the CREB5 gene and a SNP rs1607979 on chromosome 17q22 (P = 9.86×10(-11 which also show trans-expression quantitative loci (eQTL association in Chinese population. We then detected a complicated cis-interaction pattern around the NPC-associated HLA-B locus, which is immediately adjacent to copy-number variations implicated in male susceptibility for NPC. While it remains to be seen exactly how and to what degree SNP-SNP interactions such as these affect susceptibility for nasopharyngeal cancer, future research on these questions holds great promise for increasing our understanding of this disease's genetic etiology, and possibly also that of other gene-related cancers.

  9. Genius loci / Madis Kõiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõiv, Madis, 1929-2014

    2005-01-01

    Ettekanne 37. Kreutzwaldi päevadel Tartu Kirjandusmuuseumis 18.-19. dets. 1993, pealkirjaga "Kus on see Valga, kus on see Tartu...: Genius loci B. Kangro ja V. Uibopuu romaanides". Varem ilmunud: Akadeemia, 1994, nr. 4

  10. Susceptibility Pattern of Nasopharyngeal Isolates of Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the rate of nasopharyngeal colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae among nursery school children in Enugu urban and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern particularly the penicillin resistant strains. Methods: Specimens were collected from the nasopharynx of 385 apparently healthy ...

  11. Nasopharyngeal Malignancy Presenting as Proptosis in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients also developed reduced hearing, epistaxis, severe and disturbing headache and neck swelling. There was profound vision loss in three eyes of the three patients. Their eyeballs showed restricted ocular movements. Radiological imaging showed features suggestive of nasopharyngeal cancer involving the ...

  12. carcinomes nasopharynges localement avances locally advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teur de carcinome nasopharyngé localement avancé traités à l'Institut Salah Azaiz (ISA) et de préciser l'impact de la chimiothérapie neoadjuvante (CNA) ainsi que les .... se définit par une convexité des ongles en verre de montre, associé à une .... travers le foramen jugulaire (appelé aussi trou déchiré pos- térieur) (16).

  13. Emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lu Zhang,1,2 Qiu-Yan Chen,1,2 Huai Liu,1,2 Lin-Quan Tang,1,2 Hai-Qiang Mai1,21State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is endemic in Asia and is etiologically associated with Epstein–Barr virus. Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality. The role of systemic therapy has become more prominent. Based on multiple phase III studies and meta-analyses, concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy is the current standard of care for locally advanced disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer manual [7th edition] stages II–IVb. The reported failure-free survival rates from phase II trials are encouraging for induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Data from ongoing phase III trials comparing induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy will validate the results of these phase II studies. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques are recommended if the resources are available. Locoregional control exceeding 90% and reduced xerostomia-related toxicities can now be achieved using intensity-modulated radiotherapy, although distant control remains the most pressing research problem. The promising results of targeted therapy and Epstein–Barr virus-specific immunotherapy from early clinical trials should be validated in phase III clinical trials. New technology, more effective and less toxic chemotherapy regimens, and targeted therapy offer new opportunities for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, molecular targeted agents, immunotherapy, prognostic markers

  14. Clinical and Histological Characteristics of Nasopharyngeal Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8(26.7%),cranial nerve involvement 7(23.3%) and visual impairment 6(20%). According to the UICC 1997 staging for nasopharyngeal carcinoma,23(76.7%) and 7(23.3%) were T3 and T4 or stages III and IV respectively.The histological diagnoses were squamous cell carcinoma 23(76.7%) cases, non-Hodgkins lymphoma ...

  15. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Our experience and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Júnior, Ronaldo Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, and histologically benign tumor, generally observed in male adolescents. It shows very aggressive behavior due to local invasiveness and is associated with various symptoms. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma originates in the sphenopalatine forame, causing epistaxes and nasal obstruction. Objective: To retrospectively describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Scientific drawing: Retrospective, descriptive study conducted after approval from the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (protocol 0114.0.107.000 -11. Methods: We analyzed findings in 20 patients who underwent surgery between 2004 and 2011. Factors analyzed include patient age and gender, symptoms, stages, treatment, length of surgery, intraoperatory bleeding, postoperative need for nasal tampons, hospitalization time, complications, and tumor recurrence. Results: Patients were aged 10-29 years. All patients were treated surgically, including 17 who underwent endoscopic surgery. The mean operation time was 120 min, and the mean bleeding volume was 300 mL. Seventeen patients required clamping of the external carotids and tumor embolization. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery alone or with other conventional techniques was safe for the treatment of angiofibromas of different stages.

  16. Late neurotoxicity after nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siala, W.; Mnejja, W.; Daoud, J.; Khabir, A.; Boudawara, T.; Ben Mahfoudh, K.; Ghorbel, A.; Frikha, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A retrospective analysis of risk factors for late neurological toxicity after nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy. Patients and methods Between 1993 and 2004, 239 patients with non metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated by radiotherapy associated or not to chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered with two modalities: hyperfractionated for 82 patients and conventional fractionation for 157 patients. We evaluated the impact of tumour stage, age, gender, radiotherapy schedule and chemotherapy on neurological toxicity. Results After a mean follow-up of 107 months (35-176 months), 21 patients (8.8%) developed neurological complications, such as temporal necrosis in nine cases, brain stem necrosis in five cases, optics nerve atrophy in two cases and myelitis in one case. Five- and ten-year free of toxicity survival was 95 and 84% respectively. Young patients had greater risk of temporal necrosis, and hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with a significantly higher risk of neurological complications (14.6% vs 5.7%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, hyperfractionation and age were insignificant. Conclusion Late neurological toxicity after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma was rare. Younger age and hyperfractionation were considered as risk factors of neurological toxicity in our study

  17. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Marcotullio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma “de novo.” We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported.

  18. Histopathological pattern of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Benin City

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective analysis of nasopharyngeal tissue biopsies sent to the department of histopathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital over a ten year period (January 2000 to December 2009) was carried out to define the histopathological pattern of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Nigerian patients in Edo state.

  19. Radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate on nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ETF may be useful for treating naso-pharyngeal carcinoma in combination with radiation therapy. Keywords: Ethyl caffeate, Radio-sensitizing effects, Caspase, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, CNE-2 cell line, β-irradiation. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  20. Histologically diagnosed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histologically diagnosed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in two Nigerian children within one year period: case reports and review of literature. ... Ten to twenty percent of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Nigeria occurs in children. Aim: To increase the ... Keywords: Airway, cervical, children, lymphadenopathy, tuberculosis ...

  1. Nuclear localization and transactivating capacities of the papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated TFE3 and PRCC (fusion) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterman, M. A. J.; van Groningen, J. J.; Jansen, A.; van Kessel, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    The papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated t(X;1)(p11;q21) leads to fusion of the transcription factor TFE3 gene on the X-chromosome to a novel gene, PRCC, on chromosome 1. As a result, two putative fusion proteins are formed: PRCCTFE3, which contains all known domains for DNA binding,

  2. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Computed tomography scanning in nasopharyngeal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, In Sook; Choi, Young Sook; Choi, Jin Ok; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [ChonJu Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-06-15

    This report is a retrospectively review of 39 cases of histologically proven nasopharyngeal tumors treated in the Dept. of tumor clinic, PMC from Jan. 1982 to Dec. 1988. The results were as follows: 1. Histopathologically, the tumors were composed of 21 cases (53.8%) of epidermoid carcinoma, 9 cases (23.0%) of lymphoepithelioma and 4 cases (10.3%) of malignant lymphoma. 2. The most frequently involved wall is lateral wall (82%), followed by posterior wall (33.3%) and superior wall (25.6%). 3. Involved anatomic sites are Rosenmuller fossa (84.6%), torus tubaris(74.4%), parapharyngeal space (74.3%). E-tube orifice (58.9%), carotid sheath (53.8%), nasal cavity(53.8%) and prevertebral muscle (46.2%). 4. CT seems to be essential for staging work-up, estimating the prognosis, and assessing the effect of radiotherapy of the nasopharyngeal tumor because it clearly shows the whole extent of the tumors including deep tissue invasion.

  4. Synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Boruban

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas in a-50-year old male patient with long standing smoking history. The patient was initially presented with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. During staging process, the abdominal computed tomography detected a right renal solid mass, 6.5 cm in diameter, originating from posterior portion of the right renal cortex. Right radical nephrectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma. Smoking was thought to be a risk factor for both cancers. Systemic evaluation of kidney should not be discarded in patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma living in western countries with a smoking history.

  5. Combined modality treatment in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sang Mo [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Cheol; Park, In Kyu [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis to compare short term results of induction chemotherapy-radiotherapy versus concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. From Oct. 1989 to May 1998, 62 patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (induction group) or concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (concurrent group). Induction chemotherapy was done for 50 patients, and concurrent chemotherapy for 12 patients. Age, sex, performance status, and pathologic types were evenly distributed between two groups. Stage distribution showed 32% with llB, 30% with III, and 38% with IV in induction group, and 50%, 33.3%, and 16.7% in concurrent group, respectively. Chemotherapy regimen was CF (cisplatin and 5-FU) in both groups, and drug delivery method also same. Cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} was intravenously infused on day 1, and 5-FU 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} on day 2-6. This was repeated at 3 weeks interval. At the end of radiotherapy, total cycles of chemotherapy were 1-3 (median 2) in both groups. Conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with daily fraction size 1.8-2.0 Gy and 5 fractions/week was done. Total dose was 69.4-86 Gy(median 73.4 Gy) for induction group, and 69.4-75.4 Gy (median 70.8 Gy) for concurrent group. Follow-up time was 9 -116 months (median 40.5 months) for induction group, 14-29 months (median 21 months) for concurrent group, respectively. Overall 2 year survival rate (2YSRj for all patients was 78.7%. According to treatment modality, 2YSR were 77% for induction group, 87% for concurrent group (p>0.05). 2 year disease-free survival rate were 56% and 81% (p>0.05), respectively. Complete response to treatment were 75.5% for induction group and 91.7% for concurrent group, but there was no statistical difference. The incidence of grade 3- 4 hematologic toxicity during radiotherapy was not differ between two groups, but grade 2 leukopenia was more frequent in

  6. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, R; Robinson, M; Lei, M; Sibtain, A; Hickey, S

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. Although much commoner in the eastern hemisphere, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 0.39 per 100 000 population, cancers of the nasopharynx form one of the rarer subsites in the head and neck.1 This paper provides recommendations on the work up and management of nasopharyngeal cancer based on the existing evidence base for this condition. Recommendations • Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) should be assessed with rigid and fibre-optic nasendoscopy. (R) • Nasopharyngeal biopsies should be preferably carried out endoscopically. (R) • Multislice computed tomographic (CT) scan of head, neck and chest should be carried out in all patients and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) where appropriate to optimise staging. (R) • Radiotherapy (RT) is the mainstay for the radical treatment for NPC. (R) • Concurrent chemoradiotherapy offers significant improvement in overall survival in stage III and IV diseases. (R) • Surgery should only be used to obtain tissue for diagnosis and to deal with otitis media with effusion. (R) • Radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for stage I and II disease. (R) • Intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques should be employed. (R) • Concurrent chemotherapy with radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for stage III and IV disease. (R) • Patients with NPC should be followed-up and assessed with rigid and/or fibre-optic nasendoscopy. (G) • Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), CT or MRI scan should be carried out at three months from completion of treatment to assess response. (R) • Multislice CT scan of head, neck and chest should be carried out in all patients and MRI scan whenever possible and specially in advanced cases with suspected recurrence. (R) • Surgery in form of nasopharyngectomy should be considered as a first line

  7. The adult nasopharyngeal microbiome as a determinant of pneumococcal acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Amelieke Jh; Zomer, Aldert L; Gritzfeld, Jenna F; Ferwerda, Gerben; van Hijum, Sacha Aft; Ferreira, Daniela M; Shak, Joshua R; Klugman, Keith P; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; de Jonge, Marien I; Gordon, Stephen B; Hermans, Peter Wm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several cohort studies have indicated associations between S. pneumoniae and other microbes in the nasopharynx. To study causal relationships between the nasopharyngeal microbiome and pneumococcal carriage, we employed an experimental human pneumococcal carriage model. Healthy adult

  8. Recombinant breast carcinoma-associated mucins expressed in a baculovirus system contain a tumor specific epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P; Wright, S E

    1998-10-01

    Mucins are highly immunogenic glycoproteins that are abundantly expressed by breast and other adenocarcinomas. In order to progress in the understanding of the structure immunity relationship of the breast tumor associated mucin and normal tissue mucin, two forms of breast carcinoma associated mucin, muc7-BV and pem-BV, were expressed in a baculovirus expression system. The muc7-BV was constructed by inserting the seven tandem repeats of mucin core cDNA fragment into transfer vector pAc360, forming a fusion protein containing 14 amino acids of the baculovirus polyhedrin N-terminus. The pem-BV was constructed by cloning full-length mucin cDNA into the transfer vector pVL1392. The recombinant mucins were purified using immunoaffinity chromatography. The purified muc7-BV and pem-BV had molecular weights of 28 and 59 kd, respectively. No carbohydrate was detected on these recombinant mucins and is speculated to explain why both forms of recombinant mucin showed strong affinity to tumor-specific monoclonal antibody SM3. These recombinant mucins may have the potential value to develop vaccines against breast and other adenocarcinomas and to induce cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lines for immunotherapy of the same.

  9. Ovarian carcinoma associated with pregnancy: A clinicopathologic analysis of 23 cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaemmaghami Fatemeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze and describe cases of ovarian cancer in pregnant women treated at our center and to review the literature concerned, and to discuss the rationale for therapy. Methods Twenty-Three patients of ovarian malignancies during pregnancy were treated at Vali- Asr Hospital between 1991 and 2002. Data on treatment and follow-up were evaluated. Results The incidence of ovarian carcinoma associated with pregnancy in our series was 0.083/1000 deliveries. Eleven (47.8% were found with ovarian malignant germ cell tumors, five (21.7% with low malignant potential tumors, four (17.4% with invasive epithelial tumors, and three (13% with sex cord stromal tumors. Seventeen (73.9% of the patients were diagnosed in stage I and had complete remission. Five of the six in advanced stage died. The mean follow-up was 36.3 months. The prognosis was significantly related with stage and histological type (P Conclusion Early finding of ascitis by ultrasound and persistent large ovarian mass during pregnancy may be related to malignancy and advanced stage. Pregnant women in advanced stage of ovarian cancer seem to have poor prognosis.

  10. Nasopharyngeal encephalocele: a rare cause of upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Gokhan; Paksu, Sukru; Asilioglu, Nazik; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal encephalocele is a rare, benign congenital anomaly. It has the potential to be fatal due to airway obstruction. Here, we report on a 34-day-old infant with pneumonia who underwent mechanical ventilation. An upper airway evaluation was performed due to prolonged intubation, and revealed the presence of a nasopharyngeal encephalocele. The patient tolerated extubation and oral feeding after surgical resection of the lesion. Awareness of the condition can help clinicians arrive at an earlier diagnosis and enhance management.

  11. Synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Boruban,Cem; Yavas,Ozlem; Altundag,Kadri; Sencan,Orhan

    2006-01-01

    We report a rare case of synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas in a-50-year old male patient with long standing smoking history. The patient was initially presented with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. During staging process, the abdominal computed tomography detected a right renal solid mass, 6.5 cm in diameter, originating from posterior portion of the right renal cortex. Right radical nephrectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed re...

  12. Therapeutic vaccination strategies to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham S; Steven, Neil M

    2016-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects most people worldwide. EBV has oncogenic potential and is strongly associated with several lymphomas and carcinomas, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), that together total 200,000 cases of cancer each year. All EBV-associated cancers express viral proteins that allow highly selective immunotherapeutic targeting of the malignant cells. A number of therapeutic EBV vaccines have been tested in clinical trials with evidence of immune boosting and clinical responses in NPC patients. Therapeutic vaccination could be used after adoptive T-cell transfer to increase and sustain the number of infused T-cells or combined with immunotherapies acting at different stages of the cancer immunity cycle to increase efficacy. The therapeutic EBV vaccines tested to date have been well tolerated with minimal off-target toxicity. A safe therapeutic vaccine that was also able to be mass produced could, in principle, be used to vaccinate large numbers of patients after first line therapy to reduce recurrence.

  13. Assessment of nasopharyngeal airway and adenoid by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Myung Suk; Hur, Gham; Kim, Yong Hoon; Joe, Eun Ok; Lee, Seong Sook [Sanggae Paik Hospital, College of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Adenoid is a kind of tonsil located in the posterior wall of nasopharynx. Enlargement of the adenoid can produce obstruction of the nasopharynx and Eustachian tube. Disturbance in discharge of nasal and paranasal secretions can be a cause of chronic rhinitis, sinusitis, and otitis media. Diagnosis of enlarged adenoid simply by inspection is different due to its location. Measurement of nasopharyngeal airway and adenoid using lateral radiographs of nasopharynx may be inaccurate for magnification and rotation. It was some limitations in demonstrating the actual state of nasopharyngeal airway and adenoid because it gives only two dimensional information. The authors measured the size and areas of nasopharyngeal airway and adenoid using MRI with sagittal and oblique coronal pilot views of T1 weighted spin echo. We categorized the patients into 4 groups according to the scoring system by symptoms such as apnea, mouth breathing, and snoring. The results of several measurment and their ratios were evaluated in these 4 categorized patients. The ratios of area of adenoid and nasopharyngeal airway (AA/Na) in each patient group were 6.52, 7.76, 10.53, 15.93, respectively. And the ratios of adenoid and nasopharyngeal airway (A/N) by Fujioka's method were 0.6, 0.65, 0.69, 0.71, respectively. We found that AA/Na might be the most effective index as an objective indicator in the evaluation of nasopharyngeal obstruction by the enlarged adenoid.

  14. Clinical analysis on nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianzhong; Luo Jingwei; Xu Guozhen; Gao Li; Xiao Jianping; Li Suyan; Yi Junlin; Huang Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features, treatment outcome and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma(ACC). Methods: From March 1963 to August 2002, 33 patients with ACC were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 13 received multimodality therapy (S + R in 9 and R + S in 4) and the remaining 20 received radiotherapy alone. The interval between the first visit and clinical diagnosis was 12 months (1.0-36.4 months). The misdiagnosis rate was 55% (18/33 ), with the most common error of otitis media. The clinical symptoms of ACC were similar to those of squamous carcinoma in nasopharynx, though the cervical lymph node metastasis was rare (12%) and cranial nerve invasion was common (58%). Results: After a median follow-up of 60.8 months (5.0-245.2 months), the 5- and 10-year overall survival rates, free-disease survival rates, local regional control rates and metastasis-free survival rates were 66% and 29%, 41% and 27%, 61% and 40%, 62% and 62%, respectively. Among the 20 patients (61%) with recurrence, 15 had local regional failure (13 in situ and 2 in cervical lymph node), and 9 had distant metastasis (5 in the lung, 2 in the lung and bone, 1 in the liver and 1 in the bone). Univariate analysis showed that clinical stage was a prognostic factor (I + II vs III + IV, P=0.009), while treatment modality(radiotherapy alone vs multimodality therapy) was not. Conclusions: Nasopharyngeal ACC is a locally aggressive disease with a long course. Either radiotherapy alone or multimodality therapy( S + R/R + S) is effective in the treatment. (authors)

  15. Differentiation between endobronchial tuberculosis and bronchogenic carcinoma associated with atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Jung Hyuk

    1995-01-01

    Endobronchial tuberculosis and bronchogenic cancer are common causes of atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis in Korea. Differentiation between endobronchial tuberculosis and bronchogenic carcinoma is important for the treatment and prognosis but it is sometimes difficult to differentiate these two lesions with radiologic examinations. The purpose of this study was to find the differential points between endobronchial tuberculosis and bronchogenic carcinoma associated with atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis. Forty patients in whom atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis was detected on chest radiographs comprised the study. A definite mass opacity was not observed on chest radiographs in all patients. In these patients, the causes of obstruction were endobronchial tuberculosis (n = 20) and bronchogenic cancer (n = 20) which were microbiologically or pathologically confirmed. Double obstructive lesions were more frequently found in endobronchial tuberculosis (8/20) than in bronchogenic cancer (1/20). Multiple calcification along the bronchial wall and severe distortion of bronchi were observed only in endobronchial tuberculosis (4/20) and associated low density mass at obstruction site was only observed in bronchogenic cancer (6/20). Bronchial dilatation (11/20) and parenchymal calcifications (14/20) distal to obstruction site, air containing bronchogram at post obstructive bronchus (14/20) were more frequently found in endobronchial tuberculosis. Contour bulging at obstruction site (14/20), and only mucus bronchogram at post obstructive bronchus (14/20) were more frequently found in bronchogenic carcinoma. In patients with atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis, endobronchial tuberculosis is characterized by double obstructive lesion, multiple calcifications at the bronchial wall, and severe distortion of the bronchi. Endobronchial carcinoma is characterized by a low density mass at the obstructive site

  16. Photodynamic therapy in the therapy for recurrent/persistent nasopharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildeman, Maarten A. M.; Nyst, Heike J.; Karakullukcu, Baris; Tan, Bing I.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Photodynamic therapy of patients with recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma we reviewed all available literature. Since the treatment options for recurrent or persistent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma are limited, the survival rates poor and the complications severe; there is

  17. Solitary splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report and systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Genova, Pietro; Brunetti, Francesco; Bequignon, Emilie; Landi, Filippo; Lizzi, Vincenzo; Esposito, Francesco; Charpy, Cecile; Calderaro, Julien; Azoulay, Daniel; de?Angelis, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background Solitary splenic metastases are a rare occurrence, and the nasopharyngeal carcinoma represents one of the most uncommon primary sources. The present study aimed to describe a rare case of a solitary single splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to assess the number of cases of isolated nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastases to the spleen reported in the literature. Main body We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and complete...

  18. Classification of nasopharyngeal microvessels detected by narrow band imaging endoscopy and its role in the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Qing-Qing; Wang, Gui-Qi

    2017-05-01

    The new NBI classification of nasopharyngeal mucosal microvessels was helpful in differential diagnosis for benign and malignant lesions of the nasopharyngeal region. NBI endoscopy facilitates the detection of superficial nasopharyngeal lesions and might enable early diagnoses of NPC. To propose a new microvessel diagnostic classification using narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy and to investigate the role of an NBI classification in the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Between January 2009 and December 2010, a total of 290 patients with a suspected nasopharyngeal tumor were enrolled in this study. The NBI endoscopic system was used to examine the nasopharynx. Each lesion was observed by NBI endoscopy and judged according to the detailed morphologic findings of epithelial microvessels. The superficial microvessel patterns were classified into five types (types I-V). The diagnostic effectiveness of NBI for benign and malignant nasopharyngeal lesions was evaluated. Approximately 93.5% (29/31) of lymphoid hyperplasia appeared as the type II microvessel pattern under NBI endoscopy, whereas 96.2% (51/53) of nasopharyngeal radiation-induced inflammation exhibited the type III or IV microvessel pattern. The characteristics of NPC under NBI endoscopy mainly appeared as a type V microvessel pattern (79.5%, 167/210), and the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of type V in the diagnosis of NPC were 79.5%, 91.3%, 96.0%, and 62.9%, respectively. NBI endoscopy could significantly improve the detection of superficial lesions (χ 2  =   12.789, p = .000).

  19. Library Spirit and Genius Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlkild, Nan

    2009-01-01

    The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style".......The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style"....

  20. Salted fish and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Eng, A C

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for a hypothesis that eating salted fish is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is reviewed. The hypothesis was tested among Malaysian Chinese using a matched case-control design. The kinds of salted fish and patterns of use were also investigated in a control group comprising 100 Chinese, 50 Malay and 50 Indian households. During 1980, in Selangor, Malaysia, interviews with 100 Chinese cases of NPC and 100 non-disease controls indicated that salted fish consumption during childhood was a significant risk (relative risk = 3.0, P = 0.04), with an elevated risk for daily as opposed to less frequent consumption. Salted fish consumption during adolescence was a less significant risk, and current consumption not at all. There were 19 kinds of fishes reported as being eaten as salted fish by the 200 control households. There were marked differences between ethnic groups in preference for different kinds: Chinese preferred red snapper (74% of households), Malay jewfish (54%) and Indian red snapper (28%). Salted fish was hardly ever eaten daily by any household; weekly was a moderate frequency in all ethnic groups; less than weekly most common. There were no statistically significant differences between Chinese NPC case and non-disease control participants in kind of salted fish eaten. Results were the same when the data were analyzed by sex, subethnic group and income.

  1. T Cell Therapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Basso, M Zecca, P Merli, A Gurrado, S Secondino, G Quartuccio, I Guido, P Guerini, G Ottonello, N Zavras, R Maccario, P Pedrazzoli, P Comoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the novel biologic therapeutics that will increase our ability to cure human cancer in the years to come, T cell therapy is one of the most promising approaches. However, with the possible exception of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes therapy for melanoma, clinical trials of adoptive T-cell therapy for solid tumors have so far provided only clear proofs-of-principle to build on with further development. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated malignancies offer a unique model to develop T cell-based immune therapies, targeting viral antigens expressed on tumor cells. In the last two decades, EBV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL have been successfully employed for the prophylaxis and treatment of EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised hosts. More recently, this therapeutic approach has been applied to the setting of EBV-related solid tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The results are encouraging, although further improvements to the clinical protocols are clearly necessary to increase anti-tumor activity. Promising implementations are underway, including harnessing the therapeutic potential of CTLs specific for subdominant EBV latent cycle epitopes, and delineating strategies aimed at targeting immune evasion mechanisms exerted by tumor cells.

  2. Evolution and currents in the treatment of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Jimenez, Luis Diego

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, its management and treatment was specified through a literature review on recent results of retrospective clinical history studies. The clinical characteristics of the population with this tumor are described as a function of the location, size and extent of the tumor. Diagnostic imaging techniques such as computerized axial tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance and angiography were used for the diagnosis of tumor extension and invasion. The most frequent differential diagnoses were determined. The three most frequent staging systems for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are shown in tables for better interpretation. The response to the different types and schemes of applied treatment was specified in the revised literature, according to the clinical evolution and the stage of the disease. The characteristics of postoperative evolution and recurrences are described in patients operated on for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. The new treatment modalities are specified and the advantages of these are compared [es

  3. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a 32-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarey, Patrick O; David, Abel P; Payne, Spencer C

    2018-02-08

    Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (NA) is a benign, highly vascularised tumour of the nasopharynx, which typically occurs in young males aged 14-25 years. We report an interesting case of an NA arising de novo in a 32-year-old male. He was referred to our facility for severe nasal haemorrhage after biopsy of a left nasopharyngeal mass. In the operating room, extensive bleeding was noted, and an endoscopic medial maxillectomy was performed, and the left internal maxillary artery was ligated allowing for near total resection of the lesion. The pathological specimen confirmed the diagnosis of NA. To our knowledge, this is one of the oldest patients presenting with a de novo NA, in his fourth decade of life, confirming that this diagnosis must be considered in all those with large nasopharyngeal masses. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Computed tomography in planning radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinci, M.; Raffetto, N.; Trinci, C.; Marini, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors compare the results obtained by CT with clinics and conventional radiography in the staging of nasopharyngeal tumors. The accurate evaluation of tumor size, localization, and spread, helps optimize treatment planning and fit radiation boosts on small fields. Twenty-six patients underwent clinical examination, radiography of the skull and neck, lateral stratigraphy of epipharinx, and CT of head and neck. We compared the results obtained in the study of: nasopharyngeal walls, parapharyngeal space, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, bone erosion of the base of the skull, and continuous invasion without bone erosions. Our results point to conventional radiology as the examination of choice for the study of upper nasopharyngeal wall, while CT allows a better evaluation of the lateral wall, and is clearly superior in demonstrating parapharyngeal space, contiguous intracranial invasion, and neck nodes involvement

  5. Diagnosis of Nasopharyngeal Obstruction by Lateral Cephalometric Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ravanmehr

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Nasopharyngeal obstruction by adenoid enlargement is one of the main causes of mouth breathing. Diagnostic indices of nasopharyngeal obstruction by lateral cephalometric radiography are controversial.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to diagnose the nasopharyngeal obstruction by means of lateral cephalometric radiography.Materials and Methods: In this research two groups, (study and control, of 6 to 15 years old were studied. In the study group, 46 mouth breathers were clinically examined by an orthodontist and an Otolaryngologist to confirm the nasopharyngeal obstruction.Control group was also comprised of 46 nasal breathers within the same age groups. A lateral cephalogram in centric occlusion was obtained for each patient. After tracing,following 7 nasopharyngeal variables were measured: 1- pp (palatopharyngeal depth.2- Ad.Pmp (nasopharyngeal airway depth. 3- Air area (nasopharyngeal airway area. 4-NP area (bony area of nasopharynx. 5- Ba.Pmp (bony depth of nasopharynx. 6- d(bony depth of nasopharynx. 7- h (bony height of nasopharynx.Statistical t-test was conducted following calculating the mean, standard deviation and p-value of parameters. Discriminant function analysis was employed subsequent to thet-test for the significant variables, in order to find a method by which the values for several variables could be used simultaneously to determine whether obstruction exists.Qualitative variables of sex and age groups (6-10, 11-12, and 13-15 years old were alsoused in discriminant analysis.Results: In the study group, mean value of pp, Ad.pmp, air area, Np area and Ba.pmp were significantly decreased, whereas mean of d and h variables were not considerably lessened. After performing analysis stage, the following discriminant function equationwith critical point of 3.88 and correct classification of 94.57% was determined:D=0.345 (pp +0.064 (Ad.pmp-0.001(NP area + 0.03(Air area +0.505(Age1.If a person’s age is

  6. [Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis revealing an undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Fatima Zahra; Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Najib, Rajae; Kanab, Rajae; Arifi, Samia; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra; Mellas, Nawfal

    2016-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is an inflammatory disease of unknown origin that manifests as a myopathy associated with typical skin lesions. Association between DM and cancer is frequent (from 18% to 32% according to case series). It was described for the first time by Stertz in 1916 in association with gastric cancer. All histological types and sites of cancer in the general population may be associated with DM. Its association with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rarely described and the incidence proportion is 1 case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma per 1.000 persons.

  7. Treatment of nasopharyngeal tumors: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, G.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Vignot, S.; Mazeron, J.J.; Noel, G.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The conventional radiotherapy and the associated treatments improved the prognostic of nasopharyngeal cancer. A better selection of the patients who must have a more aggressive treatment also probably contributed to this improvement. Even if a relation could be found between the locoregional relapse rate and the distant relapse rate, these two events remain often independent. It results from it that the improvement of local control rate necessarily does not result in a better control of the disease. The patients with a locally advanced tumor, with or not an invasion of the base of the skull and/or neurological symptoms, must have an aggressive locally treatment. This probably includes the increase in dose delivered to the tumor via a more conformational radiotherapy, a brachytherapy, radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions or other techniques. Dose within the tumor must be at least 70 Gy and the prophylactic nodal dose, at least 50 Gy. CT scan and MRI are essential for delineating the volumes of interest. The protocols of hyperfractionated radiotherapy did not give convincing results. Association with chemotherapy allowed, on the other hand, an improvement of the prognostic locally advanced cancers. Neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was largely used to attempt to limit the risks of systemic dissemination, but an improvement of results was not clearly demonstrated. An improvement of the rates of survival and control of the disease, on the other hand, was observed in a certain number of studies with the chemoradiotherapy. In the event of locoregional relapse, an aggressive attitude can allow the control of the disease in the absence of systemic dissemination. Salvage treatments are, however, disappointing for when distant relapse occurs which suggests. (author)

  8. Validation of bidimensional measurement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ting-Shou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous study showed a close relationship between computed tomography (CT-derived bidimensional measurement of primary tumor and retropharyngeal nodes (BDMprn and gross tumor volume of primary tumor and retropharyngeal nodes (GTVprn in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and better prognosis for NPC patients with smaller BDMprn. In this study, we report the results on of a study to validate the use of BDM in a separate cohort of NPC patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 103 newly diagnosed NPC cases who were treated with radiotherapy/concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT or CCRT with adjuvant chemotherapy from 2002 to 2009. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to measure BDMprn. We calculated overall survival, recurrence-free and distant metastasis-free survival curves and set a BDMprn cut off point to categorize patients into a high- or low-risk group. We then used Cox proportional hazard model to evaluate the prognostic influence of BDMprn after correcting age, gender and chemotherapy status. Results After adjusting for age, gender, and chemotherapy status, BDMprn remained an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis [Hazard ratio (HR = 1.046; P = 0.042] and overall survival (HR = 1.012; P = 0.012. Patients with BDMprn 2 had a greater 3-year overall survival rate than those with BDMprn ≧ 15 cm2 (92.3% vs. 73.7%; P = 0.009. They also had a greater 3-year distant metastasis-free survival (94% vs.75%; P = 0.034. Conclusion The predictive ability of BDMprn was validated in a separate NPC cohort. A BDMprn of 15 cm2 can be used to separate NPC patients into high- and low-risk groups and predict survival rates and metastasis potential. It can, therefore, be used as a reference to design clinical trials, predict prognosis, and make treatment decisions.

  9. Oncogene mutational profile in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Zi-Chen Zhang,1,* Sha Fu,1,* Fang Wang,1 Hai-Yun Wang,1 Yi-Xin Zeng,2 Jian-Yong Shao11Department of Molecular Diagnostics, 2Department of Experimental Research, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common tumor in Southern China, but the oncogene mutational status of NPC patients has not been clarified. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 238 mutation hotspots in 19 oncogenes were examined in 123 NPC patients. The relationships between mutational status and clinical data were assessed with a χ2 or Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan–Meier method with the log-rank test. In 123 patients, 21 (17.1% NPC tumors were positive for mutations in eight oncogenes: six patients had PIK3CA mutations (4.9%, five NRAS mutations (4.1%, four KIT mutations (3.3%, two PDGFRA mutations (1.6%, two ABL mutations (1.6%, and one with simultaneous mutations in HRAS, EGFR, and BRAF (1%. Patients with mutations were more likely to relapse or develop metastasis than those with wild-type alleles (P=0.019. No differences or correlations were found in other clinical characteristics or in patient survival. No mutations were detected in oncogenes AKT1, AKT2, CDK, ERBB2, FGFR1, FGFR3, FLT3, JAK2, KRAS, MET, and RET. These results demonstrate an association between NPC and mutations in NRAS, KIT, PIK3CA, PDGFRA, and ABL, which are associated with patient relapse and metastasis. Keywords: NPC, oncogene, mutation

  10. Durable control of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma with metronomic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsiang Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metronomic chemotherapy has shown encouraging efficacy and low toxicity in various tumor types and is one of the best treatment options for heavily pretreated patients or patients with advanced age and/or poor performance status. We demonstrated a patient with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma who experienced durable disease control under etoposide-based combination metronomic chemotherapy.

  11. Radiation-induced xerostomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: This study reports a case of radiation-induced xerstomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer, to emphasize the need for prompt oral care to prevent untoward effects of xerostomia and to improve patients' quality of life. CASE REPORT: A 60 year old man diagnosed of radiation-induced xerostomia, after 6 ...

  12. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a Cameroonian girl, a rare tumour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the nasopharynx. It arises from the mucosal epithelium of the nasopharynx, predominantly the Fossa of Rosenmüller. In most parts of the world, it is relatively rare, but in Asian countries where salted smoked fish containing nitrosamines is popularly consumed, ...

  13. Chemo-radiation in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of a patient with advanced nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, (T4 N2 MO) who had chemo-radiation with Cisplatin based chemotherapy and total midplane dose of 60 Gray external beam radiation. Six years after treatment patient has remained disease free and the primary site histologically confirmed ...

  14. Neonatal airway obstruction caused by rapidly growing nasopharyngeal teratoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maartens, I.A.; Wassenberg, T.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Andriessen, P.

    2009-01-01

    A case report is presented of a rapidly growing congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) in a preterm infant, leading to severe upper airway obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography did not reveal the condition because the tumour masses were initially small and there was no

  15. Nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Catherine M; Thompson, Margret S; Meisner, René; Lock, Brad; Lindsay, William A

    2002-12-01

    An 18- to 25-yr-old intact female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) was diagnosed antemortem and postmortem with nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma metastatic to the lung, chronic lymphoplasmacytic otitis media, and lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic stomatitis. Myxosarcomas are rare in domestic animals and seldom metastasize; this tumor has not been previously reported in an exotic felid. Computed tomography of the skull was used during the diagnoses.

  16. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a 20 year old Nigerian male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents misdiagnosis of a 20 year old male with Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Methods: The case record of a 20year old male who presented with recurrent spontaneous profuse epistaxis, progressive nasal obstruction, hyponasality and conductive hearing loss with mass in the post nasal space ...

  17. Solitary splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report and systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Pietro; Brunetti, Francesco; Bequignon, Emilie; Landi, Filippo; Lizzi, Vincenzo; Esposito, Francesco; Charpy, Cecile; Calderaro, Julien; Azoulay, Daniel; de'Angelis, Nicola

    2016-07-15

    Solitary splenic metastases are a rare occurrence, and the nasopharyngeal carcinoma represents one of the most uncommon primary sources. The present study aimed to describe a rare case of a solitary single splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to assess the number of cases of isolated nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastases to the spleen reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and complete remission after chemo-radiotherapy. Three months after complete remission, positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan revealed a hypermetabolic splenic lesion without increased metabolic activity in other areas. After laparoscopic splenectomy, the pathology report confirmed a single splenic metastasis from undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type. The postoperative period was uneventful. We also performed a systematic review of the literature using MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. All articles reporting cases of splenic metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with or without histologic confirmation, were evaluated. The literature search yielded 15 relevant articles, which were very heterogeneous in their aims and methods and described only 25 cases of splenic metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The present review shows that solitary splenic metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma are a rare event, but it should be considered in patients presenting with splenic lesions at imaging and a history of primary or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. No evidence supports a negative impact of splenectomy in patients with solitary splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  18. Nasopharyngeal Epstein-Barr Virus Load: An Efficient Supplementary Method for Population-Based Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufeng; Zhao, Weilin; Lin, Longde; Xiao, Xue; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ming, Huixin; Huang, Tingting; Liao, Jian; Li, Yancheng; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Huang, Guangwu; Ye, Weimin; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Serological detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies is frequently used in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mass screening. However, the large number of seropositive subjects who require close follow-up is still a big burden. The present study aimed to detect the nasopharyngeal EBV load in a high-risk population seropositive for antibodies against EBV, as well as to examine whether assay for nasopharyngeal EBV DNA load might reduce the number of high-risk subjects for follow-up and improve early detection of NPC. A prospective and population-based cohort study was conducted in southern China from 2006 through 2013. Among 22,186 participants, 1045 subjects with serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against viral capsid antigen (VCA) titers ≥ 1:5 were defined as high-risk group, and were then followed-up for NPC occurrence. Qualified nasopharyngeal swab specimens were available from 905 participants and used for quantitative PCR assay. Our study revealed that 89% (802/905) subjects showed positive EBV DNA in nasopharyngeal swab. The nasopharyngeal EBV load in females was higher than that in males. The nasopharyngeal EBV load increased with increasing serum VCA/IgA titers. Eight cases of newly diagnosed NPC showed an extremely elevated EBV load, and 87.5% (7 of 8 patients) were early-stage NPCs. The EBV loads of 8 NPCs were significantly higher than those of 897 NPC-free subjects (mean, 2.8 × 10(6) copies/swab [range 4.8 × 10(4)-1.1 × 10(8)] vs. 5.6 × 10(3) [range 0-3.8 × 10(6)]). Using mean EBV load in NPC-free population plus two standard deviations as cut-off value, a higher diagnostic performance was obtained for EBV load test than serum VCA/IgA test (area under ROC, 0.980 vs 0.895). In conclusion, in a prospective and population-based study we demonstrated that an additional assay of EBV load in the nasopharynx among high-risk individuals may reduce the number of subjects needed to be closely followed up and could serve as part of a NPC screening

  19. Correlative study on anemia and radiotherapy effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinsheng; Jiang Yuanshi; Cao Xibiao; Zhan Yongzhong; Yang Liye; Chen Jianxiu; Chen Chengwu; Li Yang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of oxygen-carrying ability of blood efficacy of radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Altogether 161 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were classified according to severity of anemia, and Hb, RBC, MCH, HCT, MCV, MCHC and RDW were tested before, during and after radiotherapy. The patients were followed-up for up to 5 years, the relationship and mechanism among anemia, radiotherapy effects and survival rate was discussed. Results: The survival rate between anemia group and non-anemia group was different significantly (P<0.05). Anemia before radiotherapy, anemia appearance or anemia deterioration during radiotherapy were sensitive factors affecting radiotherapy results. The anemia more severe, the radiotherapy worse. Conclusion: Anemia-hypohemoglobinemia leads to decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, resulting in oxygen deficiency of tumor cells and their radiotherapy resistance. Therefore this method is worthy of further studies

  20. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  1. Choanal atresia and secondary nasopharyngeal stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolman, B R; Marretta, S M; McKiernan, B C; Zachary, J F

    1998-01-01

    A 20-month-old, intact male shih tzu was evaluated for chronic upper airway disease. Endoscopic examination established a diagnosis of choanal atresia, a developmental anomaly of the posterior nasal cavity. Although surgical intervention provided temporary relief, stenosis of the nasopharynx by obstructive scar tissue was confirmed within four weeks. A permanent tracheostomy provided long-term relief of the respiratory difficulty. This is the first report of choanal atresia or nasopharyngeal stenosis in a dog.

  2. Bile acids cycle disruption in patients with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Cite as: Wang C-S, Liu S-H, Peng J, Tang C, Zhu W-G. Bile acids cycle disruption in patients .... stein-Barr virus in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chin. J. Cancer 2014; 33(11): 556 PubMed. -568. 2. Mrizak D, Martin N, Barjon C, Jimenez-Pailhes AS,. Mustapha R, Niki T, Guigay J, Pancre V, ...

  3. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in Irradiated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Shaoyan; Fan, Yunping; Guo, Liqing; Liang, Zibin; Mi, Jiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. It has been assumed that postirradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients are prone to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). The purpose of this study was to better understand this clinical entity. Materials and Methods. From September 2003 to June 2011, we conducted a retrospective study of 11 irradiated NPC patients with BPPV in our institute. During the same period, 11 irradiated NPC patients without BPPV were randomly selected and enrolled as the control group. All m...

  4. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pa...

  5. Treatment of Snoring with a Nasopharyngeal Airway Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Macario; Chang, Edward T.; Fernandez-Salvador, Camilo; Capasso, Robson

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To study the feasibility of a standard nasopharyngeal airway tube (NPAT) as treatment for snoring. Methods. An obese 35-year-old man, who is a chronic, heroic snorer, used NPATs while (1) the patient's bedpartner scored the snoring and (2) the patient recorded himself with the smartphone snoring app ?Quit Snoring.? Baseline snoring was 8?10/10 (10 = snoring that could be heard through a closed door and interrupted the bedpartner's sleep to the point where they would sometimes have ...

  6. Tension Pneumocephalus Related to Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Jimenez, Esther; Martí, Sebastià Sabater; Villas, M. Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Tension pneumocephalus (TP) is a very rare complication related to radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Case Presentation. A 46-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with an altered mental status and aqueous rhinorrhea for several hours of evolution. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed TP, a defect in the skull base and nasocranial fistula. The patient was receiving a second course of radiotherapy for local relapse. With medical treatment the patient recover...

  7. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat; Asnir, R. A.; Yudhistira, A.; Daulay, E. R.; Puspitasari, D.; Yulius, S.

    2018-03-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of head and neck cancer with a poor prognosis because of the position of the tumor adjacent to the skull base and vital structures. Degradation of extracellular matrix that will cause tumor cells to invade surrounding tissues, vascular or lymphatic vessels. One that plays a role in the extracellular matrix degradation process is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). MMP-9 plays a role in tumor invasion process, metastasis and induction of tumor tissue vascularization. To determine the expression of MMP-9 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a descriptive study was conducted by examining immunohistochemistry MMP-9 in 30 NPC tissues that had never received radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combination. Frequency distribution of NPC patient mostly in the age group 41-50 years old and 51-60 years were nine people (30.0%); men (73.3%) and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (53.3%) histopathology type. The overexpression of MMP-9 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were mostly found in advance stage.

  8. Clinical application of preoperative TAE in the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu'e; Zhang Jingxian; Tang Wenheng; Yan Zhiping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of the preoperative intra-arterial embolization of the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas. Methods: The treatment group of 7 male patients with the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas were undergone angiographic evaluation and embolization of tumor-feeding vessels before surgery. All patients were embolized with gelfoam particles and PVA. The control group of 7 patients received surgical treatment without preoperative embolization. The authors compared the volumes of intraoperative bleeding and the blood transfusions during operations between the two groups. Results: All patients achieved symptomatic remission, with no complications. Comparing with the control group, the amount of intraoperative bleeding and the blood transfusions during operations were much less in the treatment group submitted to endovascular embolization. Marked edema in the peripheral region of tumor of the treatment group made the tumor easy to be dissociated. Conclusion: The intraoperative bleeding can be reduced significantly by preoperative embolization of supplying arteries to the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, therefore it should be used routinely as an adjunct to surgery. (authors)

  9. A Case of Neurotrophic Keratopathy Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Sato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of neurotrophic keratopathy associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Case Report: A 59-year-old man who had been diagnosed with a nasopharyngeal carcinoma was referred to the authors because of visual disturbance and pain in his right eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed a corneal epithelial defect and corneal stromal edema surrounding the epithelial defect area in his right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass in his cavernous sinus, which was identified as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. We diagnosed neurotrophic keratopathy associated with NPC and initiated treatment with preservative-free artificial tears, antibiotic eye drops, fibronectin, a therapeutic contact lens, and amniotic membrane transplantation. However, the persistent corneal epithelial defect was unresponsive to these treatments. Conclusion: Neurotrophic keratopathy secondary to NPC is thought to be rare. We presented a case of neurotrophic keratopathy associated with cavernous sinus metastasis of an NPC. The development of new and more effective treatments for this refractory disease is anticipated.

  10. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sai Wah; Tsang, Chi Man; Lo, Kwok Wai

    2017-10-19

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple types of human cancer, including lymphoid and epithelial cancers. The closest association with EBV infection is seen in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is endemic in the southern Chinese population. A strong association between NPC risk and the HLA locus at chromosome 6p has been identified, indicating a link between the presentation of EBV antigens to host immune cells and NPC risk. EBV infection in NPC is clonal in origin, strongly suggesting that NPC develops from the clonal expansion of a single EBV-infected cell. In epithelial cells, the default program of EBV infection is lytic replication. However, latent infection is the predominant mode of EBV infection in NPC. The establishment of latent EBV infection in pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelium is believed to be an early stage of NPC pathogenesis. Recent genomic study of NPC has identified multiple somatic mutations in the upstream negative regulators of NF-κB signalling. Dysregulated NF-κB signalling may contribute to the establishment of latent EBV infection in NPC. Stable EBV infection and the expression of latent EBV genes are postulated to drive the transformation of pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelial cells to cancer cells through multiple pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. The usefulness of CA15.3, mucin-like carcinoma-associated antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen in determining the clinical course in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deprés-Brummer, P.; Itzhaki, M.; Bakker, P. J.; Hoek, F. J.; Veenhof, K. H.; de Wit, R.

    1995-01-01

    Levels of mucin-like carcinoma-associated antigen (MCA), CA15.3 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were measured in consecutive serum samples of 40 women with metastatic breast cancer. A change in antigen level of more than 25%, either an increase or a decrease, was considered to predict progressive

  13. Bone scans in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: local experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiong, S.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tops the list of malignancy in Malaysia and ranks first in male malignancy in the state of Sarawak. The majority of the NPC patients presented in the advanced stages and often with distal metastasis usually to the bones. In our local hospital is the new practice of bone scan using Tc99 started last year. Over a period of 9 months from July 2003 to March 2004, 41 NPC patients had the bone scans and our experience in these are reviewed and presented. Method: The NPC patients are selected consecutively including both new and treated patients. The scanner used is Siemen E.cam plus and Technecium (Tc99) the radio-active isotope used. The scan images are read and reported by qualified and trained Radiologists. The bone scans are requested from the ENT Specialist of the ENT department of the Hospital. The bone scan reports are checked by the ENT Specialists and the decisions made as to clinical correlation and further definitive imaging studies. Results: 41 NPC patients were included in the studies, 29 newly diagnosed and bone-canned before treatment started and 12 treated of which 3 being diagnosed having recurrent NPC. Of the 29 newly diagnosed patients, one was found true positive bone scan having increased radio-tracer uptake and confirmed Xray imagings. 3 of the treated patients had true positive bone scan with increased radio-tracer uptake and confirmed Xray imagings. Hence a total of 4 out of the 41 patients (9.8%) had bone metastasis on positive bone scans. Of the 29 newly diagnosed patients, 14 were found false positive bone scan having increased radio-tracer uptake but no confirmed X ray imagings. 4 of the treated patients had false positive bone scan with increased radio-tracer uptake but no confirmed X ray imagings. Hence a total of 18 out of the 41 patients (44%) had no bone metastasis on positive bone scans. There were 6 patients with symptoms referable to the bones' distal to the head and 2 had true positive bone

  14. Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Diversity Changes over Time in Children with Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pérez-Losada

    Full Text Available The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome of infants and adults during health and disease; less is known, however, about the composition and temporal dynamics (i.e., longitudinal variation of microbiotas from children and adolescents. Here we use NGS technology to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiomes of asthmatic children and adolescents (6 to 18 years and determine their stability over time.Two nasopharyngeal washes collected 5.5 to 6.5 months apart were taken from 40 children and adolescents with asthma living in the Washington D.C. area. Sequence data from the 16S-V4 rRNA gene region (~250 bp were collected from the samples using the MiSeq platform. Raw data were processed in mothur (SILVA123 reference database and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU-based alpha- and beta-diversity metrics were estimated. Relatedness among samples was assessed using PCoA ordination and Procrustes analyses. Differences in microbial diversity and taxon mean relative proportions were assessed using linear mixed effects models. Core microbiome analyses were also performed to identify stable and consistent microbes of the nasopharynx.A total of 2,096,584 clean 16S sequences corresponding to an average of 167 OTUs per sample were generated. Representatives of Moraxella*, Staphylococcus*, Dolosigranulum, Corynebacterium, Prevotella, Streptococcus*, Haemophilus*, Fusobacterium* and a Neisseriaceae genus accounted for 86% of the total reads. These nine genera have been previously found in the nasopharynxes of both infants and adults, but in different proportions. OTUs from the five genera highlighted (* above defined the nasopharyngeal core microbiome at the 95% level. No significant differences in alpha- and beta-diversity were observed between seasons, but bacterial mean relative proportions of Haemophilus

  15. Current and emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spratt DE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Spratt, Nancy LeeDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: In this article, we focus on the current and emerging treatments in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC. A detailed evolution of the current standard of care, and new techniques and treatment options will be reviewed. Intergroup 0099 established the role for chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Multiple randomized Phase III trials have shown the benefit of chemo-RT; however, none of these studies utilized modern radiotherapy (RT techniques of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. IMRT has the ability to deliver high doses of radiation to the target structures while sparing adjacent bystander healthy tissues, and has now become the preferred RT treatment modality. Chemotherapy also has had a shifting paradigm of induction and/or adjuvant chemotherapy combined with RT alone, to the investigation with concurrent chemo-RT. New treatment options including targeted monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being studied in NPC. These new biologic therapies have promising in vitro activity for NPC, and emerging clinical studies are beginning to define their role. RT continues to expand its capabilities, and since IMRT and particle therapy, specifically intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT, has reports of impressive dosimetric efficacy in-silica. Adaptive RT is attempting to reduce toxicity while maintaining treatment efficacy, and the clinical results are still in their youth. Lastly, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV DNA has recently been studied for prediction of tumor response and its use as a biomarker is increasingly promising to aid in early detection as well as supplementing the current staging system. RT with or without chemotherapy remains the standard of care for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Advances in RT technique, timing of chemotherapy, biologically

  16. Differential diagnosis of primary nasopharyngeal lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma focusing on CT, MRI, and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Kang, Dae-Woon; Kim, Hak-Jin; Lee, Jong-Kil; Roh, Hwan-Jung

    2012-04-01

    No study has done a comparative analysis of radiologic imaging findings between primary nasopharyngeal lymphoma (PNL) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to analyze computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images and to evaluate the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max) of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT between PNL and NPC, knowing the imaging features that distinguish PNL from NPC. Cross-sectional study. University tertiary care facility. The authors analyzed the features on CT, MR imaging, and PET/CT of 16 patients diagnosed with PNL and 32 patients diagnosed with NPC histopathologically. Patients with PNL had a larger tumor volume and showed symmetry of tumor shape than did patients with NPC. Patients with PNL also had higher tumor homogeneity than NPC patients on CT, T2-weighted, and postcontrast MR images. All PNL patients showed a high degree of enhancement without invasion to the adjacent deep structure. The involvement of the Waldeyer ring was significantly higher in PNL patients. Cervical and retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy and PET/CT SUV max showed no significant difference between PNL and NPC. If the images present a bulky, symmetric nasopharyngeal mass with marked homogeneity, a high degree of enhancement, and a higher Waldeyer ring involvement combined with no invasion into the deep structure, PNL should be considered over NPC.

  17. Nasopharyngeal cancer mimicking otitic barotrauma in a resource-challenged center: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adekunle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Nasopharyngeal cancer commonly manifests with cervical lymphadenopathy, recurrent epistaxis and progressive nasal obstruction. Neuro-ophthalmic and otologic manifestations can also occur. Isolated otologic presentations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare and the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer may not be foremost in the list of differentials. Case presentation We present the case of a 29-year-old Nigerian woman with bilateral conductive hearing loss and tinnitus after air travel. There were no other symptoms. The persistence of the symptoms after adequate treatment for otitic barotrauma necessitated re-evaluation, which led to a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer. Conclusion Isolated otologic manifestations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare in regions with low incidence of the disease. There is a need for it to be considered as a possible differential in patients presenting with bilateral serous otitis media.

  18. Detection of local failures after management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, S M; Erfan, F A; Khalifa, M A; Korayem, E M; Tawfik, H A

    2008-11-01

    To conduct a prospective study (1) to evaluate and compare the efficacies of nasopharyngeal endoscopy and computed tomography in the diagnosis of local failure of external beam radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and (2) to assess whether multiple endoscopic nasopharyngeal biopsies are superior to a single, targeted biopsy, for the same purpose. Forty-six patients who had been treated with external beam radiotherapy for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma were enrolled in the study. For every patient recruited, computed tomography, rigid nasopharyngeal endoscopy and nasopharyngeal biopsies were performed 12 weeks after radiotherapy. Twelve weeks after treatment, six patients (13 per cent) had evident disease on histological examination of biopsies. Nasopharyngeal endoscopy showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 66.6, 95, 66.6 and 95 per cent, respectively. There was statistically significant agreement between the endoscopic findings and the histological findings (Kappa reliability coefficient = 0.617, p Computed tomography showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 50, 45, 12 and 85.7 per cent, respectively. There was no statistically significant agreement between the computed tomography findings and the histological findings (Kappa reliability coefficient = 0.021, p > 0.05). A targeted, single biopsy performed under endoscopic control demonstrated excellent sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, being 83.3, 100, 100 and 97.5 per cent, respectively. The Kappa test showed a very statistically significant agreement between the histological findings for the single and the multiple endoscopic biopsies (Kappa reliability coefficient = 0.897, p nasopharyngeal endoscopy should be considered the primary follow-up tool after radiotherapy treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with computed tomography being reserved for

  19. Lactate is a mediator of metabolic cooperation between stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts and glycolytic tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattigan, Yanique I.; Patel, Brijesh B.; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Sukenick, George; Koutcher, Jason A.; Glod, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are bone marrow-derived stromal cells, which play a role in tumor progression. We have shown earlier that breast cancer cells secrete higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) under hypoxia, leading to the recruitment of hMSCs towards hypoxic tumor cells. We found that (i) MDA-MB-231 cells secrete significantly higher levels of lactate (3-fold more) under hypoxia (1% O 2 ) than under 20% O 2 and (ii) lactate recruits hMSCs towards tumor cells by activating signaling pathways to enhance migration. The mRNA and protein expression of functional MCT1 in hMSCs is increased in response to lactate exposure. Thus, we hypothesized that hMSCs and stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment have the capacity to take up lactate expelled from tumor cells and use it as a source of energy. Our 13 C NMR spectroscopic measurements indicate that 13 C-lactate is converted to 13 C-alpha ketoglutarate in hMSCs and CAFs supporting this hypothesis. To our knowledge this is the first in vitro model system demonstrating that hMSCs and CAFs can utilize lactate produced by tumor cells.

  20. Lactate is a mediator of metabolic cooperation between stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts and glycolytic tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattigan, Yanique I.; Patel, Brijesh B. [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Ackerstaff, Ellen [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Sukenick, George [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Research Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 415 E 68th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Koutcher, Jason A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Glod, John W. [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); and others

    2012-02-15

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are bone marrow-derived stromal cells, which play a role in tumor progression. We have shown earlier that breast cancer cells secrete higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) under hypoxia, leading to the recruitment of hMSCs towards hypoxic tumor cells. We found that (i) MDA-MB-231 cells secrete significantly higher levels of lactate (3-fold more) under hypoxia (1% O{sub 2}) than under 20% O{sub 2} and (ii) lactate recruits hMSCs towards tumor cells by activating signaling pathways to enhance migration. The mRNA and protein expression of functional MCT1 in hMSCs is increased in response to lactate exposure. Thus, we hypothesized that hMSCs and stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment have the capacity to take up lactate expelled from tumor cells and use it as a source of energy. Our {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic measurements indicate that {sup 13}C-lactate is converted to {sup 13}C-alpha ketoglutarate in hMSCs and CAFs supporting this hypothesis. To our knowledge this is the first in vitro model system demonstrating that hMSCs and CAFs can utilize lactate produced by tumor cells.

  1. Ultrasonographic Findings of Renal Cell Carcinomas Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwu Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was to investigate the features of renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2-RCC on conventional ultrasound (US and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS. Methods. US and CEUS features of twenty-two cases with histopathologically proven Xp11.2-RCC were retrospectively reviewed. Results. 22 patients (11 males, 11 females were included in this study, with a mean age of 28.3 ± 20.4 years. Eight tumors (36.3%, 8/22 were in left kidney, and 14 tumors (63.7%, 14/22 were in right kidney. All tumors (100%, 22/22 were mixed echogenicity type. 13 tumors (59.1%, 13/22 presented small dotted calcifications. The boundary of 14 tumors (63.6%, 14/22 was sharp and the other 8 tumors’ (36.4%, 8/22 boundary was blurry. By CEUS, in early phase, the solid element of all tumors showed obvious enhancement. In delayed phase, 13 tumors showed hypoenhancement, seven tumors showed isoenhancement, and 2 tumors showed hyperenhancement. There were irregular nonenhancement areas in all tumors inside. Conclusions. By US and CEUS, when children and adolescents were found to have hyperechoic mixed tumor in kidney with sharp margin and calcification, and the tumors showed obvious enhancement and hypoenhancement with irregular nonenhancement areas in the tumor in early phase and delayed phase, respectively, Xp11.2-RCC should be suspected.

  2. Otitis Media and Nasopharyngeal Colonization inccl3-/-Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniffel, Dominik; Nuyen, Brian; Pak, Kwang; Suzukawa, Keigo; Hung, Jun; Kurabi, Arwa; Wasserman, Stephen I; Ryan, Allen F

    2017-11-01

    We previously found CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) to be a potent effector of inflammation during otitis media (OM): exogenous CCL3 rescues the OM phenotype of tumor necrosis factor-deficient mice and the function of macrophages deficient in several innate immune molecules. To further delineate the role of CCL3 in OM, we evaluated middle ear (ME) responses of ccl3 -/- mice to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). CCL chemokine gene expression was evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice during the complete course of acute OM. OM was induced in ccl3 -/- and WT mice, and infection and inflammation were monitored for 21 days. Phagocytosis and killing of NTHi by macrophages were evaluated by an in vitro assay. The nasopharyngeal bacterial load was assessed in naive animals of both strains. Many CCL genes showed increased expression levels during acute OM, with CCL3 being the most upregulated, at levels 600-fold higher than the baseline. ccl3 -/- deletion compromised ME bacterial clearance and prolonged mucosal hyperplasia. ME recruitment of leukocytes was delayed but persisted far longer than in WT mice. These events were linked to a decrease in the macrophage capacity for NTHi phagocytosis and increased nasopharyngeal bacterial loads in ccl3 -/- mice. The generalized impairment in inflammatory cell recruitment was associated with compensatory changes in the expression profiles of CCL2, CCL7, and CCL12. CCL3 plays a significant role in the clearance of infection and resolution of inflammation and contributes to mucosal host defense of the nasopharyngeal niche, a reservoir for ME and upper respiratory infections. Therapies based on CCL3 could prove useful in treating or preventing persistent disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical and radiographic findings in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, I.S.; Haller, J.O.; Berdon, W.E.; Barlow, B.; Carsen, G.; Khakoo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in childhood occurs so infrequently that it is not suspected in affected children until the disease has been present for a long time and local spreading has occurred. The survival rates are therefore quite poor. Six children with NPC are described. A massive local lymph node spread simulating lymphoma was present in half of the patients; in the other half the disease was more subtle, presenting with epistaxis and CNS involvement. If an evaluation of the nasopharynx were part of the initial physical examination in children, the diagnosis of NPC would be made earlier and survival rates would improve

  4. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical and radiographic findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, I.S.; Haller, J.O.; Berdon, W.E.; Barlow, B.; Carsen, G.; Khakoo, Y.

    1985-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in childhood occurs so infrequently that it is not suspected in affected children until the disease has been present for a long time and local spreading has occurred. The survival rates are therefore quite poor. Six children with NPC are described. A massive local lymph node spread simulating lymphoma was present in half of the patients; in the other half the disease was more subtle, presenting with epistaxis and CNS involvement. If an evaluation of the nasopharynx were part of the initial physical examination in children, the diagnosis of NPC would be made earlier and survival rates would improve.

  5. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Keyur Kamlesh; Ahmad, Sabina Qureshi; Shah, Vikas; Lee, Haesoon

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR) was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management.

  6. Helical tomotherapy optimized planning parameters for nasopharyngeal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawichai, K.; Chitapanarux, I.; Wanwilairat, S.

    2016-03-01

    Helical TomoTherapy(HT) planning depends on optimize parameters including field width (FW), pitch factor (PF) and modulation factor (MF). These optimize parameters are effect to quality of plans and treatment time. The aim of this study was to find the optimized parameters which compromise between plan quality and treatment times. Six nasopharyngeal cancer patients were used. For each patient data set, 18 treatment plans consisted of different optimize parameters combination (FW=5.0, 2.5, 1.0 cm; PF=0.43, 0.287, 0.215; MF2.0, 3.0) were created. The identical optimization procedure followed ICRU83 recommendations. The average D50 of both parotid glands and treatment times per fraction were compared for all plans. The study show treatment plan with FW1.0 cm showed the lowest average D50 of both parotid glands. The treatment time increased inversely to FW. The FW1.0 cm the average treatment time was 4 times longer than FW5.0 cm. PF was very little influence on the average D50 of both parotid glands. Finally, MF increased from 2.0 to 3.0 the average D50 of both parotid glands was slightly decreased. However, the average treatment time was increased 22.28%. For routine nasopharyngeal cancer patients with HT, we suggest the planning optimization parameters consist of FW=5.0 cm, PF=0.43 and MF=2.0.

  7. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyur Kamlesh Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management.

  8. Treatment of Snoring with a Nasopharyngeal Airway Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macario Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the feasibility of a standard nasopharyngeal airway tube (NPAT as treatment for snoring. Methods. An obese 35-year-old man, who is a chronic, heroic snorer, used NPATs while (1 the patient’s bedpartner scored the snoring and (2 the patient recorded himself with the smartphone snoring app “Quit Snoring.” Baseline snoring was 8–10/10 (10 = snoring that could be heard through a closed door and interrupted the bedpartner’s sleep to the point where they would sometimes have to sleep separately and 60–200 snores/hr. Several standard NPATs were tested, consisting of soft polyvinyl chloride material raging between 24- and 36-French (Fr tubes. Results. The 24 Fr tube did not abate snoring. The 26 Fr tube was able to abate the snoring sound most of the night (smartphone app: 11.4 snores/hr, bedpartner VAS = 2/10. The 28 and 30 Fr tubes abated the snoring sound the entire time worn (smartphone app: 0 snores, bedpartner VAS 0/10 but could not be tolerated more than 2.5 hours. The tube of 36 Fr size could not be inserted, despite several attempts bilaterally. Conclusion. Appropriately sized nasopharyngeal airway tubes may abate the snoring sound; however, as in this patient, they may be too painful and intolerable for daily use.

  9. Treatment of Snoring with a Nasopharyngeal Airway Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Macario; Chang, Edward T; Fernandez-Salvador, Camilo; Capasso, Robson

    2016-01-01

    Objective . To study the feasibility of a standard nasopharyngeal airway tube (NPAT) as treatment for snoring. Methods . An obese 35-year-old man, who is a chronic, heroic snorer, used NPATs while (1) the patient's bedpartner scored the snoring and (2) the patient recorded himself with the smartphone snoring app "Quit Snoring." Baseline snoring was 8-10/10 (10 = snoring that could be heard through a closed door and interrupted the bedpartner's sleep to the point where they would sometimes have to sleep separately) and 60-200 snores/hr. Several standard NPATs were tested, consisting of soft polyvinyl chloride material raging between 24- and 36-French (Fr) tubes. Results . The 24 Fr tube did not abate snoring. The 26 Fr tube was able to abate the snoring sound most of the night (smartphone app: 11.4 snores/hr, bedpartner VAS = 2/10). The 28 and 30 Fr tubes abated the snoring sound the entire time worn (smartphone app: 0 snores, bedpartner VAS 0/10) but could not be tolerated more than 2.5 hours. The tube of 36 Fr size could not be inserted, despite several attempts bilaterally. Conclusion . Appropriately sized nasopharyngeal airway tubes may abate the snoring sound; however, as in this patient, they may be too painful and intolerable for daily use.

  10. Choanal stenosis: a rare complication of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfils, P.; Preobrajenski, N. de; Florent, A.; Bensimon, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Choanal stenosis is usually a congenital anomaly in children. Acquired choanal stenosis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a very rare pathology; only two publications report seven cases in the literature. We describe the clinical history, preoperative evaluation, surgical treatment and outcome of a case of acquired choanal stenosis after radiotherapy. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, presented with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (T2- NO-MO) one year before that had been successful treated with radiotherapy (68 Gy). At the end of radiotherapy, she complained of complete nasal obstruction, anosmia and hearing loss due to a bilateral serous otitis media. Bilateral complete choanal stenosis was confirmed by endoscopy and CT scan. Functional endoscopic surgery was performed, and nasal stents were left in place for 3 weeks. One year after, the patient have good airflow, and a patent nasopharynx without choanal stenosis. In conclusion, choanal stenosis is an unusual complication of radiotherapy that can be successfully treated with trans-nasal endoscopic resection. (authors)

  11. Laser induced fluorescence imaging system for localization of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lina; Xie, Shusen

    2007-11-01

    A laser induced fluorescence imaging system for localization of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma is developed. In this fluorescence imaging system, the fluorescence intensity with information of detected objection is gained by an image intensifier, which makes color information of the fluorescence image eliminated and the result is a monochrome image of the fluorescence with thermally induced noise. The monochrome fluorescence image is sent to a CCD and captured by an image board, which is controlled by a computer. Image processing is carried out to improve the image quality and therefore improve the system's ability to differentiate carcinomas from normal tissue. Gaussian smoothing is implemented in order to reduce the noise. Image binarizing process is realized to obtain an optimal threshold of the image. Image pixels with grey value below this threshold are assigned as diseased and those above are normal. A pseudo color processing is then accomplished to get better visual perception and understanding of the image, greatly increasing the detail resolution of the grey image. The processed image is then displayed on the screen of the computer in real time. The real time laser induced fluorescence imaging system with the image processing methods developed is efficient for localization of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  12. Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood: nasopharyngeal carcinoma as a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martinez Vianna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a carcinoma that arises from the nasopharyngeal mucosa and differs from other head and neck carcinomas by its unique histologic, epidemiologic, and biologic characteristics. NPC is rare in most countries, especially Europe and North America. However, it has a high incidence in several regions of South China. The incidence variability of NPC, among different geographical and ethnic groups, indicates a combination of genetic susceptibility, infection by Epstein-Barr virus and environmental factors. NPC is classified into three histological subtypes according to the 1991 World Health Organization classification: squamous cell carcinoma, nonkeratinizing carcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The symptoms of patients with NPC are related to the primary tumor site and the degree of dissemination. Therefore, patients can remain asymptomatic during a long period of time. Imaging exams and biopsy of the tumor mass generally are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. NPC is a rare disease among children. The authors report a case of a 12-year-old boy who sought medical attention complaining of a progressive growing tumoral mass on the right side of the neck. The computed tomography images of the head and neck and the histological examination of a cervical lymph node biopsy diagnosed a metastatic NPC.

  13. Thyroid mass: Metastasis from nasopharyngeal cancer - an unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley C Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid gland is an uncommon site of metastasis, and metastasis to the gland secondary to nasopharyngeal carcinoma is seldom seen. We were only able to identify eight reported cases in the literature. A 61-year-old man, diagnosed case of nasopharyngeal cancer–second primary ( first primary-oropharynx, was found to have a thyroid nodule on routine follow-up positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT scan. There was no evidence of metastases at any other sites. The thyroid nodule was confirmed as metastatic carcinoma by fine needle aspiration cytology. He was treated with multimodal treatment comprising of surgery followed by reirradiation with concurrent chemotherapy. Subsequently, at the first follow-up (2 months after completion of all treatment, the patient remained asymptomatic, but the response assessment with PET-CT scan was suggestive of lung metastases with no evidence of locoregional disease. Although thyroid parenchymal metastasis is an uncommon occurrence and signifies a poor prognosis, in appropriately selected patients, aggressive therapy with reirradiation and chemotherapy may improve local control and quality of life.

  14. Automated wholeslide analysis of multiplex-brightfield IHC images for cancer cells and carcinoma-associated fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Andersson, Emilia; Vega Harring, Suzana; Sade, Hadassah; Grimm, Oliver; Bredno, Joerg

    2017-03-01

    Multiplex-brightfield immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and quantitative measurement of multiple biomarkers can support therapeutic targeting of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF). This paper presents an automated digitalpathology solution to simultaneously analyze multiple biomarker expressions within a single tissue section stained with an IHC duplex assay. Our method was verified against ground truth provided by expert pathologists. In the first stage, the automated method quantified epithelial-carcinoma cells expressing cytokeratin (CK) using robust nucleus detection and supervised cell-by-cell classification algorithms with a combination of nucleus and contextual features. Using fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as biomarker for CAFs, the algorithm was trained, based on ground truth obtained from pathologists, to automatically identify tumor-associated stroma using a supervised-generation rule. The algorithm reported distance to nearest neighbor in the populations of tumor cells and activated-stromal fibroblasts as a wholeslide measure of spatial relationships. A total of 45 slides from six indications (breast, pancreatic, colorectal, lung, ovarian, and head-and-neck cancers) were included for training and verification. CK-positive cells detected by the algorithm were verified by a pathologist with good agreement (R2=0.98) to ground-truth count. For the area occupied by FAP-positive cells, the inter-observer agreement between two sets of ground-truth measurements was R2=0.93 whereas the algorithm reproduced the pathologists' areas with R2=0.96. The proposed methodology enables automated image analysis to measure spatial relationships of cells stained in an IHC-multiplex assay. Our proof-of-concept results show an automated algorithm can be trained to reproduce the expert assessment and provide quantitative readouts that potentially support a cutoff determination in hypothesis testing related to CAF-targeting-therapy decisions.

  15. Rationale behind targeting fibroblast activation protein-expressing carcinoma-associated fibroblasts as a novel chemotherapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, W Nathaniel; Isaacs, John T; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2012-02-01

    The tumor microenvironment has emerged as a novel chemotherapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer. This is most clearly exemplified by the antiangiogenesis class of compounds. Therapeutic strategies that target fibroblasts within the tumor stroma offer another treatment option. However, despite promising data obtained in preclinical models, such strategies have not been widely used in the clinical setting, largely due to a lack of effective treatments that specifically target this population of cells. The identification of fibroblast activation protein α (FAP) as a target selectively expressed on fibroblasts within the tumor stroma or on carcinoma-associated fibroblasts led to intensive efforts to exploit this novel cellular target for clinical benefit. FAP is a membrane-bound serine protease of the prolyl oligopeptidase family with unique post-prolyl endopeptidase activity. Until recently, the majority of FAP-based therapeutic approaches focused on the development of small-molecule inhibitors of enzymatic activity. Evidence suggests, however, that FAP's pathophysiological role in carcinogenesis may be highly contextual, depending on both the exact nature of the tumor microenvironment present and the cancer type in question to determine its tumor-promoting or tumor-suppressing phenotype. As an alternative strategy, we are taking advantage of FAP's restricted expression and unique substrate preferences to develop a FAP-activated prodrug to target the activation of a cytotoxic compound within the tumor stroma. Of note, this strategy would be effective independently of FAP's role in tumor progression because its therapeutic benefit would rely on FAP's localization and activity within the tumor microenvironment rather than strictly on inhibition of its function.

  16. A case series of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma among Indians, a low risk population, in Perak State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, B; Philip, R; Norain, K; Harvinder, S; Gurdeep, S M

    2012-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare among people of Indian ethnicity. A short retrospective case review of clinical records of Indian patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a period of 5 years was conducted. Their slides were further subjected to EBV encoded RNA (EBER) - In- situ Hybridization (ISH). The histologic subtype was nonkeratinizing carcinoma in all 4 patients. All were Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) positive. We believe that the crucial factor responsible for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is genetics; either a genetic susceptibility among high risk groups or genetic resistance/immunity in low risk groups. Further genetic studies are required to look for somatic or inherited chromosomal mutations among the various risk populations.

  17. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  18. Original Article. Evaluation of Rapid Detection of Nasopharyngeal Colonization with MRSA by Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Feng-feng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical application of Real-Time PCR for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA directly from nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

  19. Study on change of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ling; Chen Jiaxin; Zhang Lixiang; Wang Tiejian; Han Min; Lu Xiaoling

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible changes of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy. Methods: Altogether 48 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving primary conventional external beam irradiation were examined before and after radiotherapy to determine their brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP), short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SLSEP) and pattern reversal visual-evoked potential (PRVEP). Results: In comparison with the conditions before radiotherapy, in different periods after radiotherapy abnormal peak latency and interval latency difference were found in BAEP, SLSEP and PRVEP. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy may cause abnormal function of nerve conduction in early periods, which can be showed by BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP, and injury can be timely detected if the three evoked potentials are used together. Thus authors suggest BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP should be examined in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients during and after the radiotherapy so as to find early damage in auditory somatosensory and visual conduction pathways

  20. Nasopharyngeal (Tornwaldt’s Cyst: Rare Finding in a Habitual Snorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng WSJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A nasopharyngeal (tornwaldt’s cyst is uncommon. It is often asymptomotic; however it may cause problem if it too big becomes. We present a case of a 24-year-old Malay girl who had been a habitual snorer for years but was unaware of the significance of her problem. opportunities for an earlier referral and assessment were missed since we were not aware of her history despite previous related but non-specific consultations at our primary healthcare centre. she was referred to us a few years later when her nasopharyngeal cyst became infected. After a course of antibiotics, she proceeded with an endoscopic resection of the nasopharyngeal cyst. A follow-up visit six months later did not reveal a recurrence. this case highlights the importance of a good history for the diagnosis of a nasopharyngeal cyst.

  1. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively

  2. Smac mimetics in combination with TRAIL selectively target cancer stem cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man-Si; Wang, Guang-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Qiang; Liang, Yi; Wang, Heng-Bang; Wu, Miao-Yi; Min, Ping; Chen, Li-zhen; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Yang, Dajun

    2013-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a common malignancy in Southern China. After radiotherapy and chemotherapy, a considerable proportion of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma suffered tumor relapse and metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been shown with resistance against therapies and thus considered as the initiator of recurrence and metastasis in tumors, where the antiapoptotic property of CSCs play an important role. Smac/DIABLO is an inverse regulator for the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family (IAP), which have been involved in apoptosis. Here, the effects of Smac mimetics on the CSCs of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were studied both in vitro and in vivo, using two clones of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2 as models. We found that one of the clones, S18, had CSC-like properties and IAPs were overexpressed. The combination of Smac mimetics and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can reduce the percentage of SP cells and inhibit the colony- and sphere-forming abilities of S18 cells, indicating their ability to attenuate the CSCs. Moreover, in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft model, the administration of Smac mimetics in combination with TRAIL also led to the elimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma stem cells. Furthermore, the Smac mimetics in combination with TRAIL induced the degradation of cIAP1 and XIAP and thus induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data show that Smac mimetics exerted an antitumor effect on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cancer stem cells, and this combination treatment should be considered as a promising strategy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  3. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with secondaries at the porta hepatis presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, S; Jayakumar, C R

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have dispelled the previously held concept that head and neck cancer rarely metastases beyond the cervical lymph nodes. Nasopharyngeal cancer has been reported to have a higher incidence of distant metastases compared to other head and neck cancers, the common sites being bone, lung and liver. A case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma presenting as obstructive jaundice because of secondaries at the porta hepatis is presented here.

  4. Enhanced endocytosis of nano-curcumin in nasopharyngeal cancer cells: An atomic force microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth, R.; Nair, Greshma; Girish, C. M.

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies in drug development have shown that curcumin can be a good competent due to its improved anticancer, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. A detailed real time characterization of drug (curcumin)-cell interaction is carried out in human nasopharyngeal cancer cells using atomic force microscopy. Nanocurcumin shows an enhanced uptake over micron sized drugs attributed to the receptor mediated route. Cell membrane stiffness plays a critical role in the drug endocytosis in nasopharyngeal cancer cells.

  5. Retro-pharyngeal lymphadenopathy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A computed tomography-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, D.; Sham, J.; Kwong, D.; Au, G.; Choy, D. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and the prognostic value of retro-pharyngeal lymphadenopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). In conclusion, using CT imaging, the presence of retro-pharyngeal lymphadenopathy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma does not appear to affect the prognosis. In patients with clinical NO disease, the identification of retro-pharyngeal lymphadenopathy based only on CT imaging is not sufficient evidence for an N1 classification. (N.C.)

  6. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Signaling Pathway: An Update on Molecular Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Tulalamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is an uncommon cancer, which has a distinctive ethnic and geographic distribution. Etiology of NPC is considered to be related with a complex interaction of environmental and genetic factors as well as Epstein-Barr virus infection. Since NPC is located in the silent painless area, the disease is usually therefore diagnosed at the advanced stages; hence early detection of NPC is difficult. Furthermore, understanding in molecular pathogenesis is still lacking, pondering the identification of effective prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Dysregulation of signaling molecules in intracellular signal transduction, which regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and adhesion, underlines the basis of NPC pathogenesis. In this paper, the molecular signaling pathways in the NPC are discussed for the holistic view of NPC development and progression. The important insights toward NPC pathogenesis may offer strategies for identification of novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.

  7. Mortality after nasopharyngeal radium irradiation for eustachian tube dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verduijn, P.G.; Hayes, R.B.; Looman, C.; Habbema, J.D.; van der Maas, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    Cause-specific mortality of 2,510 persons treated before 1965 by nasopharyngeal radium irradiation (average exposure, 1,200 mg/min), followed to 1985, was compared to that of 2,199 nonexposed comparison subjects. No excess was found for the exposed group in overall mortality, cancer mortality, or in mortality of cancer of specific sites. A marginal excess (p = .07) of malignancies of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system was noted in exposed males only. Only one brain cancer (0.2 per 10(4) person-years) was identified in the exposed group, and two (10.3 per 10(4) person-years) in the nonexposed group

  8. Nasopharyngeal Mass Diagnosed as Transsphenoidal Encephalocele in an Adult Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Burak; Aksoy, Elif Ayanoglu; Unal, Omer Faruk

    2015-11-01

    Transsphenoidal encephalocele, a rare congenital malformation, is generally diagnosed during childhood when investigating the reason for complaints such as nasal obstruction and recurring cerebrospinal fluid fistula. In this adult patient, the authors identified an asymptomatic transsphenoidal encephalocele after requested monitoring of a pedunculated mass detected in the nasopharynx during nasal endoscopy. After evaluation, the authors decided to follow the patient. Few cases of transsphenoidal encephalocele have been reported, and even fewer have been reported in older patients, with no other anomaly or symptoms. The success of surgical treatment for these masses is debatable. The authors did not consider surgery for this asymptomatic case. With this case presentation, the authors wish to emphasize that without making radiologic assessments of any masses identified in a nasopharyngeal examination, it would be inappropriate to perform a biopsy or any intervention.

  9. Photoradiation therapy of animal tumors and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, S.P.; Tao, Z.D.; Xiao, J.Y.; Peng, Y.Y.; Yang, Y.H.; Zeng, Q.S.; Liu, Z.W. (First Affiliated Hospital, Changsha (China))

    1990-06-01

    Both animal tumors and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma were submitted to a photoradiation therapy (PRT) trial in order to determine the efficacy and side effects of PRT, as well as to elucidate its mechanism of cytotoxicity. In animal tumors, the inhibition rate was 70%, and of 20 patients, eight achieved complete remission, and ten, significant remission, with an overall response rate of 90%. The blood picture and the values of serum IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 all remained stable post-PRT. Only three patients developed mild generalized skin photosensitive reactions, and these did not affect subsequent treatment. There was no immunosuppressive effect as evidenced by a tritium-labeled thymidine-incorporated lymphocytoblast transformation assay performed both before and after PRT. Ultrastructural studies at different time intervals after PRT highly suggested that the mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum were among the first organelles to be damaged.

  10. Mortality after nasopharyngeal radium irradiation for eustachian tube dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verduijn, P.G.; Hayes, R.B.; Looman, C.; Habbema, J.D.; van der Maas, P.J. (Hospital of Sittard (Netherlands))

    1989-11-01

    Cause-specific mortality of 2,510 persons treated before 1965 by nasopharyngeal radium irradiation (average exposure, 1,200 mg/min), followed to 1985, was compared to that of 2,199 nonexposed comparison subjects. No excess was found for the exposed group in overall mortality, cancer mortality, or in mortality of cancer of specific sites. A marginal excess (p = .07) of malignancies of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system was noted in exposed males only. Only one brain cancer (0.2 per 10(4) person-years) was identified in the exposed group, and two (10.3 per 10(4) person-years) in the nonexposed group.

  11. Photoradiation therapy of animal tumors and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, S.P.; Tao, Z.D.; Xiao, J.Y.; Peng, Y.Y.; Yang, Y.H.; Zeng, Q.S.; Liu, Z.W.

    1990-01-01

    Both animal tumors and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma were submitted to a photoradiation therapy (PRT) trial in order to determine the efficacy and side effects of PRT, as well as to elucidate its mechanism of cytotoxicity. In animal tumors, the inhibition rate was 70%, and of 20 patients, eight achieved complete remission, and ten, significant remission, with an overall response rate of 90%. The blood picture and the values of serum IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 all remained stable post-PRT. Only three patients developed mild generalized skin photosensitive reactions, and these did not affect subsequent treatment. There was no immunosuppressive effect as evidenced by a tritium-labeled thymidine-incorporated lymphocytoblast transformation assay performed both before and after PRT. Ultrastructural studies at different time intervals after PRT highly suggested that the mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum were among the first organelles to be damaged

  12. Multiple intracranial aneurysms following radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Gulati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old male presented to the neurosurgical emergency with sudden onset severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. A computed tomography scan showed subarachnoid hemorrhage and a subsequent four vessel angiogram showed six cerebral aneurysms (predominantly fusiform involving both the anterior and posterior circulations, all on the left side. The patient had received 60 Gy external beam radiotherapy for left nasopharyngeal carcinoma 8 years back. The middle cerebral artery aneurysm was clipped, while the internal carotid artery and the two posterior cerebral artery aneurysms were wrapped. The patient was discharged uneventfully and is asymptomatic at follow-up 6 months later. The effects of radiation on cerebral vasculature are well-documented. Radiation-induced vasculopathy generally presents as occlusion/stenosis of cerebral vessels and aneurysms are rare. Only 46 cases of radiation-induced aneurysms have been reported previously. Just seven of these had multiple aneurysms and only one case had as many as six aneurysms.

  13. GLUTENIN LOCI VARIABILITY OF CROATIAN WHEAT GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rukavina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutenins loci were used for variability estimation in 50 varieties of hexaploid winter wheat originated from Croatian breeding centres. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS was used for determination of high molecular weight glutenins (HMW-GS. Number of allels per loci ranged from 3 at Glu-A1 to 5 at Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, the average number of allels was 4.33. The highest genetic diversity was found at loci Glu-B1 (He=0.687. The most frequent subunit at loci Glu-A1 was 2* (56%. At loci Glu-B1 the most common combination of subunits was 7+8 with 40%, and at loci Glu-D1 5+10 with 68%. The study also defines high quality varieties with largest number of Glu-scores. The results attained from this study allow further development of specific breeding programs for winter wheat quality improvement and improvers creation.

  14. Conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, J.S.; Turek, M.; Mackie, T.R.; Miller, P.; Mehta, M.P.; Forrest, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy provides a unique means of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using a novel treatment unit, which merges features of a linear accelerator with a helical CT scanner. Thanks to the CT imaging capacity, targeted regions can be visualized prior to, during, or immediately after each treatment. Such image-guidance through megavoltage CT will allow the realization and refinement of the concept of adaptive radiotherapy - the reconstruction of the actually delivered daily dose (as opposed to planned dose) accompanied by prescription adjustments when appropriate. In addition to this unique feature, helical tomotherapy promises further improvements in the specific avoidance of critical normal structures, i.e. conformal avoidance, the counterpart of conformal therapy. The first definitive treatment protocol using helical tomotherapy is presently underway for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors. In general, such tumors can be treated with conventional external beam radiation therapy but at the cost of severe ocular toxicity due to the anatomy of the canine head. These are readily measurable toxicities and are almost universal in incidence; therefore, the canine nasopharyngeal tumor presents an ideal model to assess the ability to conformally avoid critical structures. It is hoped that conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy will improve tumor control via dose-escalation while reducing ocular toxicity in these veterinary patients. A total of 10 fractions are scheduled for these patients; the first 3 dogs have all received at least 7 fractions delivered via helical tomotherapy. Although preliminary, the first 3 dogs treated have not shown any evidence of ocular toxicity in this ongoing study

  15. Prognostic Value of Tumor Volume in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Tumor bulk has been recognized as an important prognostic factor in the treatment of malignancy. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the prognostic value of tumor volume in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Sixty patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included in this study. Tumor contour was outlined on each of the computed tomography (CT) images using an image analyzer. The primary tumor volume (PTV) and nodal tumor volume (NTV) were calculated by a summation-of-areas technique, and the maximal perimeter of primary tumor (MPP) was measured. The loco-regional control rates and disease-specific survival rates were analyzed according to several variables. The patients had a 5-year local control rate of 75.5%, 5-year nodal control rate of 74.6%, and 5-year disease-specific survival rate of 60.2%. Large PTV (> 30 cm3) was associated with a significantly lower local control (p=0.005). Large NTV (> 5 cm3) was associated with a significantly lower nodal control (p=0.019) and lower disease-specific survival (p=0.046). Large MPP (> 18 cm) was associated with a significantly lower local control (p=0.017). In multivariate analysis, the PTV and NTV were found to be independent factors in predicting the local (p=0.015) and nodal (p=0.039) control, respectively. The NTV (p=0.012) and cranial nerve involvement (p=0.009) were factors that predicted disease-specific survival. Our results suggest that the estimation of tumor volume may identify a subgroup of patients with a greater risk of loco-regional failure and can be used to refine the current staging system. PMID:15861494

  16. Long non-coding RNA urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 as a tumor biomarker for the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zichun; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Zhang, Daming; Yu, Yongchun; Cai, Licheng; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 as a urine biomarker in urinary bladder cancer patients by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was conducted by the databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, and Web of Science. The quality of eligible studies was scored with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. The bivariate meta-analysis model was used to pool the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic models were employed to check the overall test performance in this meta-analysis. Seven publications involving 678 patients and 563 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.88), specificity was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.94), positive likelihood ratio was 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 3.10-13.62), negative likelihood ratio was 0.18 (95% confidence interval: 0.13-0.25), and diagnostic odds ratio was 36 (95% confidence interval: 13-99). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.91). Our results indicated that urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 was a potential diagnostic biomarker with good specificity and sensitivity in urinary bladder cancer. Further prospective studies with larger cohorts are necessary to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 for urinary bladder cancer.

  17. Nasopharyngeal Dimensions From Computed Tomography of Pugs and French Bulldogs With Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Dorothee; Gradner, Gabriele; Kneissl, Sibylle; Dupré, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    To describe the nasopharyngeal airway dimensions of two brachycephalic breeds and to localize the area of smallest airway dimensions. Prospective, descriptive, computed tomographic imaging study. Thirty pugs and 30 French bulldogs with brachycephalic upper airway syndrome. The thickness and length of the soft palate, cross-sectional area of the airway passage dorsal to the soft and hard palates, and cross-sectional area of the frontal sinus were measured and normalized to each dog's skull index and body weight before statistical comparison between breeds. Nasopharyngeal turbinates and surrounding airway space, and a possible relationship between the canine tooth angulation and the severity of airway obstruction were assessed. Pugs had significantly smaller cross-sectional areas of the airway dorsal to the soft and hard palates than French bulldogs. In both breeds, the smallest nasopharyngeal cross-sectional areas were located dorsal to the caudal end of the soft palate. The soft palate of pugs was significantly shorter than that of French bulldogs and also significantly thinner when normalized to each dog's skull index. Pugs more commonly exhibited nasopharyngeal turbinates. Pugs had significantly smaller air-filled cavities at the location of the frontal sinus. No correlation between the nasopharyngeal dimensions and canine tooth angulation was observed. Computed tomographic assessment of the upper airway morphology showed the smallest nasopharyngeal cross-sectional areas were located dorsal to the caudal end of the soft palate in both breeds. Pugs had a smaller nasopharyngeal cross-sectional area despite smaller soft palate dimensions than French bulldogs. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage in rural and urban northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nguyen, Kinh; Zhang, Tianying; Thi Vu, Bich Ngoc; Dao, Trinh Tuyet; Tran, Toan Khanh; Thi Nguyen, Diep Ngoc; Thi Tran, Huong Kieu; Thi Nguyen, Chuc Kim; Fox, Annette; Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen that can colonise the respiratory tract and cause infection. Here we investigate the risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) in Vietnam. Between February and June 2012, nasal and pharyngeal swabs for S. aureus culture, and demographic and socioeconomic data were taken from 1016 participants in urban and rural northern Vietnam, who were randomly selected from pre-specified age strata. Overall S. aureus prevalence was 303/1016 (29.8%; adjusted for age: 33.8%). Carriage in the main cohort was found to be associated with younger age (≤5 years [OR 3.13, CI 1.62-6.03]; 6-12 [OR 6.87, CI 3.95-11.94]; 13-19 [OR 6.47, CI 3.56-11.74]; 20-29 [OR 4.73, CI 2.40-9.31]; 30-59 [OR 1.74, CI 1.04-2.92); with ≥60 as reference), living in an urban area (OR 1.36, CI 1.01-1.83) and antibiotics use (OR 0.69, CI 0.49-0.96). MRSA was detected in 80/1016 (7.9%). Being aged ≤5 years (OR 4.84, CI 1.47-15.97); 6-12 (OR 10.21, CI 3.54-29.50); 20-29 (OR 4.01, CI 1.09-14.77) and wealth (>3/5 wealth index, OR 1.63 CI 1.01-2.62) were significant risk factors for MRSA carriage. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus is present in one-third of the Vietnamese population, and is more prevalent among children. Pharyngeal carriage is more common than nasal carriage. Risk factors for S. aureus (including MRSA) carriage are identified in the community. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. [Association study of chromosome 4 STRs polymorphisms with nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiu-Chan; O'Brien, Stephen J; Winkler, Cheryl; Scott, Kevin; Hutcheson, Holli; David, Victor; Kessing, Bailey; Zheng, Yu-Ming; Liao, Jian; Lui, Yan; Guy, de The; Zeng, Yi

    2006-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a complex disease caused by an interaction of EBV chronic infection, environment and host genes, in a multi-step process of carcinogenesis. However, which genetic factors play an important role in the development of chronic EBV infection and NPC remain elusive. The objective of this study is to identify genetic variations associated with two key clinical stages of NPC development: persistent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of nasopharyngeal epithelia and progression to NPC. We inspected a NPC-associated region on the short arm of chromosome 4 previously implicated by a genome-wide linkage analysis of familial NPC. We determined genotypes for 319 alleles in 34 microsatellite markers spanning an 18 Mb region in 350 NPC cases, 288 individuals with IgA antibodies to EBV capsid antigen (IgA/VCA+) and 346 controls seronegative for IgA antibodies to EBV capsid antigen (IgA/VCA-). The cases and controls were Han Chinese from Wuzhou city and Cangwu County, Guangxi province where the incidence of NPC is as high as 25-50 per 100,000 individuals. Comparing NPC cases to IgA/VCA+ subjects, we found 9 alleles marginally associated with developing NPC from IgA+ status, 5 for risk (OR=1.51-5.36, P=0.01-0.03) and 4 for restrictive (OR=0.3-0.71, P=0.02-0.045). Comparing IgA/VCA+ subjects and IgA/VCA- controls, and comparing all IgA seropositives with and without NPC to IgA seronegatives revealed 12 significant and 3 highly significant (P<0.01) alleles associated with IgA+ serostatus in the two comparing groups. Alleles D4S3241-136 (P=0.004, OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.2-3.0) and D4S3347-213 (P=0.001, OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.2-2.1) were for risk. Allele D4S174-202 (P=0.001, OR=0.5, 95%CI=0.3-0.7) was restrictive. However, statistical significance was lost for all when corrected for multiple comparisons test. Our study could not affirm the genetic association within this region with NPC as did another pedigree study, but provide an opportunity for further gene

  20. CXCL12 genetic variants as prognostic markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen RW

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruiwan Chen,1,* Yafei Xu,2,* Xiaojing Du,2,* Na Liu,2 Yingqin Li,2 Qingmei He,2 Linglong Tang,2 Yanping Mao,2 Ying Sun,2 Lei Chen,2,* Jun Ma2,* 1Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The chemokine receptor 4/chemokine ligand 12 (CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and recurrence of tumors. Its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with patient survival in several types of cancer. However, the prognostic value of SNPs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC has not been fully investigated. This retrospective study assessed the relationships between CXCR4 rs2228014 and CXCL12 rs1801157 polymorphisms and patient outcome in 222 patients newly diagnosed with NPC. The analysis found no significant correlation between the presence of both SNPs and clinicopathological factors. However, univariate analysis showed that N classification, clinical stage, and the CXCL12 rs1801157 polymorphism were significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival (P=0.018, 0.028, and 0.013, respectively and progression-free survival (P=0.007, 0.046, and 0.021, respectively. After adjusting clinicopathological factors, multivariate analysis identified CXCL12 rs1801157 as an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free survival and progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 3.332; 95% confidence interval: 1.597–6.949; P=0.001 and hazard ratio: 2.665 95% confidence interval: 1.387–5.119; P=0.003, respectively. Our results suggest that CXCL12 rs1801157 AA genotype might serve as a potential prognostic factor in patients with NPC. Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, CXCR4, CXCL12, polymorphism

  1. Micro-Raman spectroscopy study of cancerous and normal nasopharyngeal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongzeng; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Guannan; Li, Chao; Lin, Shaojun; Shao, Yonghong; Feng, Shangyuan; Huang, Zufang; Xie, Shusen; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-02-01

    The capabilities of micro-Raman spectroscopy for differentiating normal and malignant nasopharyngeal tissues were evaluated. Raman scattering signals were acquired from 22 normal and 52 malignant nasopharyngeal tissue samples. Distinctive spectral differences in Raman spectra between normal and malignant nasopharyngeal tissues were found, particularly in the spectral ranges of 853, 937, 1094, 1209, 1268, 1290 to 1340, 1579, and 1660 cm-1, which primarily contain signals related to proteins, DNA, and lipids. Compared to normal tissues, the band intensity located at 853, and 937 cm-1 were significantly lower for cancerous tissues (p0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) were employed to generate diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra of the two nasopharyngeal tissue types. The PCA-LDA algorithms together with leave-one-out, cross-validation technique yielded diagnostic sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 82%. This work demonstrated that the Raman spectroscopy technique associated with PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms has potential for improving the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancers.

  2. Radiation-induced neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Wang Rensheng; Gan Langge; Liu Wenqi; Zhang Yong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the post-irradiation neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its related factors. Methods: A total of 267 patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy with D T 50-72 Gy on the neck a half year to 10 years ago were observed for the changes of cervical shape and functions. Results: Different degrees of post-irradiation neck fibrosis were seen in all patients. The rate of heavy degree of neck radiation fibrosis was 24.34 %, and it was 2.74% when received preventive dose on the neck. There was a very significant difference between patients who received late course of tangential irradiation on the neck and those who didn't receive (P=0.0001). The incidence of post-irradiation neck fibrosis didn't increase when patients received radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy (P=0.2678). The function of cervical muscles turned weak in patients received radiotherapy delivered by 6 MV accelerator in late course of tangential irradiation, whereas skin damage was severer in patients treated with 60 Co γ-rays. Conclusions: The incidence of heavy degree of post-irradiation neck fibrosis is high ,and is related closely to late course of tangential irradiation. The authors should avoid adopting this sort of irradiation on the neck. (authors)

  3. Nasopharyngeal Protein Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Virus Infection

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    Thomas W. Burke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of respiratory mucosa with viral pathogens triggers complex immunologic events in the affected host. We sought to characterize this response through proteomic analysis of nasopharyngeal lavage in human subjects experimentally challenged with influenza A/H3N2 or human rhinovirus, and to develop targeted assays measuring peptides involved in this host response allowing classification of acute respiratory virus infection. Unbiased proteomic discovery analysis identified 3285 peptides corresponding to 438 unique proteins, and revealed that infection with H3N2 induces significant alterations in protein expression. These include proteins involved in acute inflammatory response, innate immune response, and the complement cascade. These data provide insights into the nature of the biological response to viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and the proteins that are dysregulated by viral infection form the basis of signature that accurately classifies the infected state. Verification of this signature using targeted mass spectrometry in independent cohorts of subjects challenged with influenza or rhinovirus demonstrates that it performs with high accuracy (0.8623 AUROC, 75% TPR, 97.46% TNR. With further development as a clinical diagnostic, this signature may have utility in rapid screening for emerging infections, avoidance of inappropriate antibacterial therapy, and more rapid implementation of appropriate therapeutic and public health strategies.

  4. The influence of human papillomavirus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Makoto; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-06-01

    Although Japan is a non-endemic area with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the proportion of WHO type I NPC in Japan are different from that in non-endemic areas such as North America and Europe. Recently, it is said that not only Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but also human papillomavirus (HPV) has an influence on NPC in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of HPV on NPC in Japan. Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were available for 59 patients with NPC diagnosed between 1996 and 2015. We detected the virus status by p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV PCR, and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival by viral status. Among the 59 patients, 49 (83%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 2 (3%) were EBV-positive/HPV-positive, and 8 (16%) were EBV-negative/HPV-negative. All HPV-positive NPCs were co-infected with EBV. There were no significant differences between the overall survival in the three groups (p=0.111). In Japan, HPV was detected in a few patients with NPC, and we suggest that HPV has no influence on NPC carcinogenesis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic Daily Headache in a Patient With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Jy Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH among nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients is a multidisciplinary challenge. Although imaging studies are recommended to identify skull-base invasion, intracranial metastasis or skull-base osteoradionecrosis, a headache diary is also a practical approach. A 42-year-old woman had been bothered with CDH since she was diagnosed with T3N1M0 stage III NPC 2 years earlier. Although the imaging studies did not show any abnormality, the attending doctor informed her that there remained the possibility of an intracranial or skull-base lesion. She was regularly taking painkillers. Eventually, when her headache diary was examined, the diagnosis of chronic migraine superimposed on medication overuse headache was made according to the ICHD-IIR. The CDH abated after 1 week of outpatient detoxification. The following half year was uneventful. In reporting this case, we suggest that it would be of interest to a number of disciplines including otorhinolaryngologists, oncologists and radio-oncologists. By avoiding medication overuse in similar patients, we hope to improve the quality of life of these individuals.

  6. Classification of progression free survival with nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhidzadeh, Hamidreza; Kim, Joo Y.; Scott, Jacob G.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Harrison, Louis B.

    2016-03-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an abnormal growth of tissue which arises from the back of the nose. At the time of diagnosis, detection of tumor features with prognostic significance, including patient demographics, imaging characteristics and molecular characteristics, can enable the treating clinician to select a treatment that is optimized for the individual patient. At present, the analysis of tumor imaging features is limited to size criteria and macroscopic textural semantic descriptors, but computerized quantification of intratumoral heterogeneity and their temporal evolution may provide another metric for predicting prognosis. We propose medical imaging feature analysis methods and radiomics machine learning methods to predict failure of treatment. NPC tumors on contrast-enhanced T1 (T1Gd) sequences of 25 NPC patients' diagnostic magnetic resonance images (MRI) were manually contoured. Otsu segmentation was applied to segment the tumor into highly enhancing vs. weakly enhancing signal intensity subregions. Within these subregions, texture features were extracted to numerically quantify the intraregional heterogeneity. Patients were divided into two prognostic groups; a progression-freesurvival group (those without locoregional recurrence or distant metastases), and the disease progression group (those with locoregional recurrence or distant metastases). We used Support Vector Machines (SVM) to perform classification (prediction of prognosis). The features from the highly enhancing subregion classify prognosis with 80% predictive accuracy with AUC=0.60, while the captured features from the weakly enhancing subregion classify prognosis with 76% accuracy with AUC= 0.76.

  7. Hearing disability before and after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, W.K.; Fong, K.W. [Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)

    1996-02-01

    This paper evaluates post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a disability orientated approach, which takes into account binaural hearing. Newly diagnosed patients with NPC were studied before radiotherapy, and at four months (mean 9.2 months) after radiotherapy, provided they remained disease-free. Each patient was examined clinically and with pure tone audiograms. Tympanometry was used to confirm middle ear effusion. Averaged hearing thresholds over 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were evaluated. If abnormal (> 30 dB), the resultant hearing disability was illustrated by a modified Glasgow Plot. Twenty-three males and 10 females completed the study. Middle ear effusions resulted in 39.3 per cent (binaural in two patients) and 33.3 per cent (binaural in five patients) of patients having hearing disability pre- and post-irradiation respectively. No patient had hearing disability as a result of a sensoineural loss. It is recommended that future reporting of post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with NPC, as in middle ear surgery, be considered from a disability-orientated approach. (author).

  8. Nasopharyngeal metagenomic deep sequencing data, Lancaster, UK, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Kate V; Bishop, Lisa A; Rhodes, Glenn; Salez, Nicolas; McEwan, Neil R; Hegarty, Matthew J; Robey, Julie; Harding, Nicola; Wetherell, Simon; Lauder, Robert M; Pickup, Roger W; Wilkinson, Mark; Gatherer, Derek

    2017-10-24

    Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from volunteers attending a general medical practice and a general hospital in Lancaster, UK, and at Lancaster University, in the winter of 2014-2015. 51 swabs were selected based on high RNA yield and allocated to deep sequencing pools as follows: patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; asthmatics; adults with no respiratory symptoms; adults with feverish respiratory symptoms; adults with respiratory symptoms and presence of antibodies against influenza C; paediatric patients with respiratory symptoms (2 pools); adults with influenza C infection (2 pools), giving a total of 9 pools. Illumina sequencing was performed, with data yields per pool in the range of 345.6 megabases to 14 gigabases after removal of reads aligning to the human genome. The data were deposited in the Sequence Read Archive at NCBI, and constitute a resource for study of the viral, bacterial and fungal metagenome of the human nasopharynx in healthy and diseased states and comparison with other metagenomic studies on the human respiratory tract.

  9. Hearing disability before and after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, W.K.; Fong, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper evaluates post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a disability orientated approach, which takes into account binaural hearing. Newly diagnosed patients with NPC were studied before radiotherapy, and at four months (mean 9.2 months) after radiotherapy, provided they remained disease-free. Each patient was examined clinically and with pure tone audiograms. Tympanometry was used to confirm middle ear effusion. Averaged hearing thresholds over 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were evaluated. If abnormal (> 30 dB), the resultant hearing disability was illustrated by a modified Glasgow Plot. Twenty-three males and 10 females completed the study. Middle ear effusions resulted in 39.3 per cent (binaural in two patients) and 33.3 per cent (binaural in five patients) of patients having hearing disability pre- and post-irradiation respectively. No patient had hearing disability as a result of a sensoineural loss. It is recommended that future reporting of post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with NPC, as in middle ear surgery, be considered from a disability-orientated approach. (author)

  10. Shoulder Dysfunction after Selective Neck Dissection in Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jimmy Yu Wai; Wong, Stanley Thian Sze; Chan, Richie Chiu Lung; Wei, William Ignace

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the incidence of occult nodal metastasis and severity of shoulder dysfunction after selective neck dissection (SND) for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with N0 status. Prospective, single-group, pre/post test design. Academic medical center. Between 1998 and 2012, 46 patients who had recurrent NPC and N0 status were recruited. They subsequently received salvage nasopharyngectomy and SND, removing ipsilateral level I to III and V lymphatics. The incidence of occult nodal metastasis was noted. All patients underwent standardized physiotherapy after surgery. Postoperative shoulder function was measured using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. The incidence of microscopic nodal metastasis was 15.2%. For first year posttreatment, the mean DASH score was 44.2. With time, there was no improvement in shoulder function despite targeted physiotherapy (P = .09), and the second postoperative year mean DASH score was 46.3. The degree of daily activity affected was rated as moderate to very limited, and 30% of the patients had at least moderate shoulder pain at rest. Shoulder dysfunction after SND for recurrent NPC is significant and persistent. Given the low incidence of microscopic nodal metastasis in such circumstances, routine SND is not recommended. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  11. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: understanding its molecular biology at a fine scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Prosenjit; Deka, Himangshu; Malakar, Arup K; Halder, Binata; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-01-01

    Among all cancers, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is quite high in the endemic regions. NPC is a head and neck cancer with poor survival rate, and is rare throughout most of the world but common in certain geographic areas, like southern Asia and some regions of North East India (Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram). A clear understanding of its etiology is still lacking, but NPC is widely suspected to be the result of both genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental factors or Epstein-Barr virus infection. Diagnosis in the early stages needs a high index of clinical acumen, and, although most cross-sectional imaging investigations show the tumor with precision, confirmation is dependent on histology. This article reviews all related research reports on NPC histopathological classifications worldwide that have been published within the past 20 years. Genome-wide association studies suggested that there might be common disease mechanisms between that disease and NPC. Personalized management rules, quality assessment of life in patients, and an understanding of the essential mechanisms of recurrence could be directed toward research into recurrent NPC. Hence, this literature would offer otolaryngologists a deeper insight into the etiological and management aspects of NPC.

  12. Distant Metastases of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Definite Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Lee, Hyung Sik; Moon, Sun Rock; Kim, Gwi Eon; Loh, John Juhn-Kyu

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and thirty five patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx were treated by radiation therapy in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University between August 1977 and July 1987. Of the 30 patients omitted: 8 had distant metastases at initial diagnosis or during radiotherapy; 18 patients refused or did not received a full course of radiation therapy, and four had not been confirmed histologically. The remaining 105 patients were analyzed to determine the incidence and patter of distant metastases. Diagnosis of distant metastases was made based on clinical signs and radiography, even though histologic confirmation was not made. Twenty-six patients developed distant metastases after definite irradiation of nasopharynx and neck, an incidence rate of 24.8%. The common sites of distant metastases were, in descending order, bone, lung, liver, and brain. There was a strong correlation between Ho's N stage and distant metastases rate. But sex, age, histologic subtype (squamous cell and undifferentiated cell), AJC T and N stage, treatment modalities (radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy) were not significant. Of those patients who developed distant metastases, 80.8% were discovered within 2 years of their radical radiotherapy. The prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients developing distant metastases was poor: median survival was nine months and 80% of those patients died within two years of the initial diagnosis of distant metastasis

  13. Sensorineural hearing loss after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petsuksiri, Janjira; Sermsree, Achariyaporn; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Keskool, Phawin; Thongyai, Kanthong; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Pattaranutaporn, Pittayapoom

    2011-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is one of the major long term side effects from radiation therapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. This study aims to review the incidences of SNHL when treating with different radiation techniques. The additional objective is to determine the relationship of the SNHL with the radiation doses delivered to the inner ear. A retrospective cohort study of 134 individual ears from 68 NPC patients, treated with conventional RT and IMRT in combination with chemotherapy from 2004-2008 was performed. Dosimetric data of the cochlea were analyzed. Significant SNHL was defined as > 15 dB increase in bone conduction threshold at 4 kHz and PTA (pure tone average of 0.5, 1, 2 kHz). Relative risk (RR) was used to determine the associated factors with the hearing threshold changes at 4 kHz and PTA. Median audiological follow up time was 14 months. The incidence of high frequency (4 kHz) SNHL was 44% for the whole group (48.75% in the conventional RT, 37% with IMRT). Internal auditory canal mean dose of > 50 Gy had shown a trend to increase the risk of high frequency SNHL (RR 2.02 with 95% CI 1.01-4.03, p = 0.047). IMRT and radiation dose limitation to the inner ear appeared to decrease SNHL

  14. [MRI findings delay the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H

    2011-09-01

    This report concerns a 55-year-old female patient who presented with headache, dry right eye and dry nose on the right side. After 5 months magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out but no pathological findings were diagnosed. Right-sided facial pain appeared 6 months later and a second MRI was carried out but only fluid retention in the right mastoid was diagnosed. After a further 8 months paresis of the right abducent nerve occurred and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the petrous bone showed extensive destruction of the apex of the petrous pyramid. Subsequently a third MRI revealed a tumor of about 5 cm in diameter in the right pterygopalatine fossa which was also retrospectively visible in the first MRI with a size of approximately 3 cm and in the second MRI with 4 cm in diameter. The histological examination after biopsy resulted in the diagnosis of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma and radiochemotherapy was initiated. The patient died 9 months later. The relatives of the patient applied to the arbitration board for medical liability which requested expert opinions in neuroradiology and otorhinolaryngology. The board came to the conclusion that the claims for damages against the radiologist who had made the three MRIs were well-founded and recommended an extrajudicial settlement.

  15. Tl-201 SPECT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma for monitoring treatment response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togawa, Takashi; Yui, Nobuharu; Hatano, Kazuo; Sekiya, Yuichi; Shimada, Fumiyuki; Omura, Ken; Takeuchi, Yosuke [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Katahashi, Tatsuaki

    1996-03-01

    A total of 43 Tl-201 SPECT studies were performed on 11 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) histologically proven before and after treatment to evaluate whether or not Tl-201 SPECT was a useful diagnostic tool for assessing tumor viability. Data acquisition was started 5 min after the intravenous injection of 111 MBq of Tl-201 chloride using 3-head rotating gamma camera SPECT systems (GCA-9300A). Three patients received radiotherapy alone and the other 8 received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Treatment response was classified as complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and no change (NC) based on the findings of MRI. Intense Tl-201 uptake by the tumor was seen in all patients before treatment. After treatment, MRI showed 1 CR and 10 PR patients, whereas Tl-201 uptake was decreased in 4 and disappeared in 7 patients. Follow-up MRI and Tl-201 SPECT studies of 4 PR patients revealed that tumor gradually decreased after the desappearance of Tl-201 uptake. Tl-201 SPECT was a very useful tool for monitoring radiotherapeutic effects. (author).

  16. CT evaluation of nasolacrimal relapse of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, A.S.C. E-mail: chingsc@ha.org.hk; Chong, V.F.H.; Khoo, J.B.K

    2003-08-01

    AIM: The aim of the current study was to elucidate the anatomy of the nasolacrimal apparatus using computed tomography (CT), and to investigate the CT findings suggestive of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) involving the nasolacrimal apparatus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT images of five patients with clinical or radiological findings suggestive of recurrent NPC who presented with nasolacrimal involvement were reviewed. Involvement of the lacrimal fossa, nasolacrimal canal (NLC), and adjacent anatomic structures including orbit and sinonasal cavities were noted. RESULTS: CT in all patients demonstrated findings of NLC invasion and ostiomeatal complex obliteration. Four of the five patients showed medial canthal mass or pre-septal thickening, ethmoid bulla opacification and inferior nasal meatal involvement. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the anatomy of the nasolacrimal apparatus using CT is critical for evaluating images for tumour recurrence at this site. NLC invasion, a medial canthal mass and pre-septal thickening are important primary indicators for potential involvement of the nasolacrimal apparatus by recurrent NPC. Secondary signs suggesting this distinct form of relapse are obliteration of ostiomeatal channel, ethmoid bulla opacification and inferior nasal meatus involvement.

  17. Improved survival of patients with nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, S.; Kondo, M.; Inuyama, Y.; Hashimoto, S.

    1986-03-01

    One hundred and one patients with nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (NPC) were treated with irradiation. The UICC TNM staging system (1978) was used: 6 patients were T1N0, 10 T2N0, 5 T3N0, 13 T4N0, 11 T1N+, 18 T2N+, 19 T3N+ and 19 T4N+. Since 1978, 34 patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) at first presentation. Fourteen (41%) of the 34 tumors were upstaged based on the CT findings alone. The technique of radiation therapy was markedly changed around 1978. The fields to the primary site and neck were enlarged. Two-year relapse-free survival was significantly better for the post-CT era than pre-CT era. This was mainly because of improved local-recurrence-free survival, and cervical-relapse-free survival. Improved local-recurrence-free survival, however, was appreciated in only T3 + T4 patients; there was no difference in T1 + T2 patients. It is suggested that merely enlarging radiation fields or increasing radiation doses could not be curative for some subpopulations. In order to increase local control rates further, we have started to use intracavitary irradiation with an after-loading technique as a boost. Preliminary results are encouraging.

  18. Tension Pneumocephalus Related to Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Jimenez-Jimenez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tension pneumocephalus (TP is a very rare complication related to radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Case Presentation. A 46-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with an altered mental status and aqueous rhinorrhea for several hours of evolution. The computed tomography (CT scan showed TP, a defect in the skull base and nasocranial fistula. The patient was receiving a second course of radiotherapy for local relapse. With medical treatment the patient recovered neurological status but died two days later. Discussion. In our knowledge, only 4 cases with similar characteristics have been reported in the literature. This is the first case report of TP during radiotherapy. TP was an abrupt and rapid process with neurological impairment for hours of evolution without suspicious osteoradionecrosis (OR in previous scan images. The defect in the skull base could be due to a rapid disappearance of the tumor. The appearance of aqueous rhinorrhea and neurological symptoms must be viewed as signs of alarm.

  19. Clinical evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togawa, Takashi; Yui, Nobuharu; Shimada, Fumiyuki; Omura, Ken; Katahashi, Tatsuaki; Hatano, Kazuo [Chiba Cancer Center (Japan). Hospital

    1995-03-01

    Tl-201 SPECT was performed on 19 patients, 13 males and 6 females aged 28 to 73 yrs (mean 51), with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) histologically proven to evaluate whether or not Tl-201 SPECT was useful and reliable for assessing the tumor viability of NPC. Thirty eight Tl-201 SPECT studies were performed for the follow-up study after radiation therapy in 9 of 19 patients and for the assessment of tumor extent before treatment in the other 10 patients. Data acquisition was started 5 min after the intravenous injection of 111 MBq of Tl-201 chloride using a three-head rotating gamma camera (Toshiba GCA 9300A) equipped with fan-beam collimators. Tl-201 clearly accumulated to the tumor in 10 patients before radiation treatment and increased Tl-201 uptake by the lesion disappeared after the treatment. Three of 9 patients who were followed up after radiotherapy developed apparent local recurrence and Tl-201 SPECT could definitely visualize these recurrent lesions. Tl-201 SPECT was very useful for detecting local recurrent tumor. High resolution SPECT system with the use of Tl-201 chloride is a new reliable and accurate diagnostic tool for assessing the tumor viability of NPC. (author).

  20. Surgical Management of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Without Angiographic Embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA is a rare benign neoplasm that occurs almost exclusively in the nasopharynx of adolescent males. Surgery remains the primary treatment of choice. JNA has always presented a management challenge to surgeons because of its vascular nature, site of occurrence, and local tissue destruction. The surgical approaches are either standard open method which include external or intraoral incisions, or the recent advanced approach, i.e. via using the endonasal endoscope. It is widely accepted that the use of preoperative angiographic embolization reduces the occurrence of intraoperative bleeding and facilitates tumour removal. However, angiographic embolization is not available at all centres. The purpose of this article is to present our experience with five patients diagnosed with JNA who were resected without embolization, using various surgical approaches. Two tumours were removed via endonasal endoscopic surgery. None of the tumours were embolized prior to surgery. We highlight the preoperative evaluation of tumour extent, using both computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance angiography, and the importance of temporary clamping of the external carotid artery intraoperatively. Our results suggest that the latter procedure is a safe and effective means of facilitating surgery and reducing intraoperative bleeding.

  1. Detection of quantitative trait loci in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaam, van J.T.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the development and application of methods for the detection of genes with a substantial influence on quantitative traits, so called quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in broilers. For the purpose of detection of QTLs, an experiment was initiated. A three generation

  2. 52 Genetic Loci Influencing Myocardial Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Harst, Pim; van Setten, Jessica; Verweij, Niek; Vogler, Georg; Franke, Lude; Maurano, Matthew T.; Wang, Xinchen; Leach, Irene Mateo; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Hayward, Caroline; Sorice, Rossella; Meirelles, Osorio; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Polašek, Ozren; Tanaka, Toshiko; Arking, Dan E.; Ulivi, Sheila; Trompet, Stella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Smith, Albert V.; Dörr, Marcus; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Magnani, Jared W.; Fabiola Del Greco, M.; Zhang, Weihua; Nolte, Ilja M.; Silva, Claudia T.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tragante, Vinicius; Esko, Tõnu; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Adriaens, Michiel E.; Andersen, Karl; Barnett, Phil; Bis, Joshua C.; Bodmer, Rolf; Buckley, Brendan M.; Campbell, Harry; Cannon, Megan V.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chen, Lin Y.; Delitala, Alessandro; Devereux, Richard B.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B.; Haugen, Eric; Heinig, Matthias; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hillege, Hans L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hubner, Norbert; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Iorio, Annamaria; Kähönen, Mika; Kellis, Manolis; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kors, Jan A.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Lage, Kasper; Launer, Lenore J.; Levy, Daniel; Lundby, Alicia; Macfarlane, Peter W.; May, Dalit; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Nappo, Stefania; Naitza, Silvia; Neph, Shane; Nord, Alex S.; Nutile, Teresa; Okin, Peter M.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Oostra, Ben A.; Penninger, Josef M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pers, Tune H.; Perz, Siegfried; Peters, Annette; Pinto, Yigal M.; Pfeufer, Arne; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prins, Bram P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rice, Ken M.; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schafer, Sebastian; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Sehmi, Jobanpreet; Silljé, Herman H.W.; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Sinner, Moritz F.; Slowikowski, Kamil; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Spector, Timothy D.; Spiering, Wilko; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Trinh, Bosco; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van den Boogaard, Malou; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Visscher, Peter M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völker, Uwe; Waldenberger, Melanie; Weichenberger, Christian X.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Yang, Jian; Bezzina, Connie R.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Snieder, Harold; Wright, Alan F.; Rudan, Igor; Boyer, Laurie A.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ciullo, Marina; Sanna, Serena; Lehtimäki, Terho; Wilson, James F.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Alonso, Alvaro; Gasparini, Paolo; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kääb, Stefan; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Felix, Stephan B.; Heckbert, Susan R.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Hicks, Andrew A.; Chambers, John C.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Visel, Axel; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Samani, Nilesh J.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Myocardial mass is a key determinant of cardiac muscle function and hypertrophy. Myocardial depolarization leading to cardiac muscle contraction is reflected by the amplitude and duration of the QRS complex on the electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormal QRS amplitude or duration reflect changes in myocardial mass and conduction, and are associated with increased risk of heart failure and death. OBJECTIVES This meta-analysis sought to gain insights into the genetic determinants of myocardial mass. METHODS We carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 4 QRS traits in up to 73,518 individuals of European ancestry, followed by extensive biological and functional assessment. RESULTS We identified 52 genomic loci, of which 32 are novel, that are reliably associated with 1 or more QRS phenotypes at p < 1 × 10−8. These loci are enriched in regions of open chromatin, histone modifications, and transcription factor binding, suggesting that they represent regions of the genome that are actively transcribed in the human heart. Pathway analyses provided evidence that these loci play a role in cardiac hypertrophy. We further highlighted 67 candidate genes at the identified loci that are preferentially expressed in cardiac tissue and associated with cardiac abnormalities in Drosophila melanogaster and Mus musculus. We validated the regulatory function of a novel variant in the SCN5A/SCN10A locus in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, our findings provide new insights into genes and biological pathways controlling myocardial mass and may help identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27659466

  3. The biology and function of extracellular vesicles in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Bao, Lili; Chen, Jing; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zhenxin; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Si; You, Yiwen

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of membrane-enclosed vesicles, which play an important role in intercellular communication. Increasing number of studies have shown that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles might be involved in the transfer of oncogenic cargo (proteins, lipids, messenger RNA, microRNA, non-coding RNAs and DNA) through which cancer cells could shape the tumor microenvironment and influence tumor progression. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived extracellular vesicles have also reported to facilitate tumor proliferation, metastasis and immune escape. Moreover, nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived extracellular vesicles might serve as biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapeutic targets. The present review provides information on the biological and clinical significance of extracellular vesicles in tumors, especially in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Correlation with otitis media with effusion (OME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Y.; Tamaki, S.; Kurata, K.; Honjo, I.; Nishimura, K.; Nakano, Y.

    1987-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasopharynx, the eustachian tube and the middle ear was performed in nine patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI revealed the extent of the tumor more clearly than CT (computed tomography) when the tumor was situated in the parapharyngeal space. But when the tumor extended superficially in the nasopharyngeal mucosa, its margin could not be identified clearly by either MRI or CT because of hypervascularity and long T1 and T2 of the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Seven of the nine patients had unilateral otitis media with effusion. Their eustachian tube ventilation function was evaluated by an inflation-deflation technique. Failure of active equalization of negative pressure applied to the middle ear was found to be a characteristic disorder of their eustachian tube ventilation function. This dysfunction seemed to be correlated with the lateral dislocation of the eustachian tube cartilage caused by the tumor.

  5. Identification of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from photoluminescence spectra of 3C-SiC nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Fen; Guo, Jun-Hong; Huang, Zhi-Chun; Gu, Jian-Sen; Feng, Li-Ren; Liu, Li-Zhe

    2017-09-01

    The identification of intracellular pH (pHi) during carcinogenesis progression plays a crucial role in the studies of biochemistry, cytology, and clinical medicine. In this work, 3C-SiC nanocrystals (NCs), which can effectively monitor the pH environment by using the linear relation between photoluminescence intensity and surface OH- and H+ concentration, are adapted as fluorescent probes for monitoring carcinogenesis progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Our results demonstrated that 3C-SiC NCs are compatible with living cells and have low cytotoxicity. The pHi measurements in different carcinogenesis environments indicate the validity and sensitivity of this technology in identifying nasopharyngeal carcinoma in application.

  6. Airway space changes after nasopharyngeal adenoidectomy in conjunction with Le Fort I osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, Larry M; Perez, Daniel; Stevao, Eber; Perez, Enrique

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the nasopharyngeal airway changes after transnasal adenoidectomy and to determine whether a specific facial morphologic type is associated with hypertrophied nasopharyngeal adenoids. The nasopharyngeal adenoid tissues are present during childhood but usually spontaneously atrophy by 12 to 14 years of age. However, some patients have hypertrophied nasopharyngeal adenoid tissues that can remain after 14 years of age and can cause dysfunction of the eustachian tubes, cause nasal airway obstruction, affect speech, and adversely alter facial growth. In these cases, nasopharyngeal adenoidectomy could be indicated. In patients requiring orthognathic surgery, the adenoidectomy can be performed using a transnasal approach in conjunction with maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy, eliminating the need for a separate surgical procedure. The records of 40 patients, 27 females and 13 males, with an average age of 16.77 years (range, 13 to 20) who had undergone transnasal adenoidectomy in conjunction with orthognathic surgery that included Le Fort I osteotomy were analyzed. The pre- and postoperative lateral cephalograms were analyzed for airway changes after surgery, with an average interval between surgery and the postoperative radiographs of 7.36 months. The measurements of the airway changes were taken from the junction of the atlas and the base of the skull to the most anterior area of the adenoid tissue before surgery and to the posterior pharyngeal wall postoperatively, parallel to the Frankfort horizontal plane. The maxillary depth, mandibular depth, and occlusal plane angulation measurements were recorded preoperatively to assess the most common skeletal type presenting with hyperplastic nasopharyngeal adenoid tissues. All patients showed an increased airway space after adenoidectomy, with an average improvement of 8.71 mm (range, 3 to 18). Of the 40 patients, 21 were skeletal Class II (ANB >4°), 6 skeletal Class III (ANB 12

  7. Genetic variation of twenty autosomal STR loci and evaluate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... the second objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of these loci for forensic genetic purposes. ... of discrimination values for all tested loci was from 75 to 96%; therefore, those loci can be safely used to establish a ..... lists the frequency distribution of individual alleles within a given genetic ...

  8. Clinical study of diffusion weighted imaging in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunbin; Mao Yu; Pan Jianji; Hu Chunmiao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) and metastatic lymph nodes, and to establish the diagnostic threshold of apparent diffusion coefficients(ADCs). Methods: Conventional MR scans and DWI scans were continuously performed in 56 patients with newly diagnosed NPC and 55 healthy volunteers. All patients received primary tumor biopsy and MR image-guided cervical lymph node fine-needle biopsy. ADC and eADC values of both primary lesions and lymph nodes were calculated and compared. Results: According to the pathological diagnosis, all the 56 patients had non-keratinizing carcinoma and 51 had lymph node metastasis. In the control group, 75 cervical lymph nodes were found. ADC values of both primary NPC and metastatic lymph nodes were significantly lower, while eADC values were higher than those of normal controls. Setting the ADC value threshold at 0.809 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, the sensitivity and specificity for primary NPC detection were 80.4% and 74.5%, respectively. The negative and positive predictive values were 79.2% and 77.6%, respectively. The accuracy was 78.4%. Setting the ADC value threshold at 0.708 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, the sensitivity and specificity in the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes were 43.1% and 93.3%, respectively. The negative and positive predictive values were 70.7% and 81.5%, respectively. The accuracy was 73.0%. Conclusions: DWI might be a new diagnostic approach in the detection of primary NPC as well as metastatic lymph nodes. (authors)

  9. Head and neck: treatment of primary and relapsed nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is not a common malignancy of the head and neck in the United States and presents a great challenge to the radiation oncologists in this country. Its management is radiotherapeutic and technically demanding and calls for careful treatment techniques to include the primary and the lymphatic drainage areas to high doses while sparing the neighboring organs such as the spinal cord, eyes, temporal lobes and midrain. This refresher course will review the clinical course, pattern of spread with manifestations of various neurologic syndromes of the disease. The radiotherapeutic management of primary lesion will be discussed in detail including the treatment techniques, placement of the irradiation portals, dose levels, etc. Treatment results as reported in the literature as well as those achieved at the MGH will be presented. Special emphasis will be placed on the routine use of intracavitary implant to boost the primary site and its technical aspects. Relapsed NPC after previous radiation therapy presents a difficult problem in management, but can be re-irradiated with occasional success by observing careful technique and fractionated intracavitary brachytherapy and the local control rates will be briefly covered. Recurrent disease in the neck will be managed by neck dissection. Xerostomia is undesirable and common sequelae following radical radiation therapy for NPC. Efforts are being made to decrease its magnitude by using higher energies of photons, i.e. 10 MV to spare a portion of the parotid glands with some promising results. Because of the unique location of the primary lesion, currently a modified BID program (MBID) is used and its techniques and treatment concept are discussed

  10. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruener, A.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Roedel, C.; Sauer, R.; Weidenbecher, M.; Iro, H.; Martus, P.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Between 1979 and 1997, a total of 92 patients with primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated at the Hospitals of the University of Erlangen. Until 1988, radiotherapy alone was the treatment of choice and simultaneous radiochemotherapy was consistently applied thereafter. This retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of concurrent radiochemotherapy on survival and to identify possible prognostic factors on cause-specific survival-, locoregional tumor control- and distant-metastases-free survival rates. Patients and Methods: Fifty-three patients (58%) received treatment by radiotherapy alone and 39 (42%) underwent primary radiochemotherapy with 2 courses of 5-FU and cisplatin. Median total dose to the bilateral neck region was 60 Gy (range, 50 to 62 Gy), and 74 Gy (range, 56 to 88 Gy) to the primary tumor. Median follow-up of the surviving patients was 8 years. Results: Following radiochemotherapy and radiotherapy alone, the 5-year-survival rates were 67% and 48%, respectively (p=0.06). Female patients had a survival advantage as compared to male patients (5-year-survival rate 77% vs 44%, p=0.01). Patients with and without cranial nerve palsy at presentation had survival rates of 0% and 61%, respectively, at 5 years (p=0.01). Distant-metastases-free survival was influenced by the following factors: Lymph-node involvement (N0: 82% vs N1 to N3: 68%, p=0.04), gender (female: 88% vs male: 64%, p=0.01), type of treatment (radiochemotherapy: 86% vs radiotherapy: 63%,p=0.02) and cranial nerve involvement (76% without and 42% with involvement, p=0.04). (orig.) [de

  11. Treatment results and prognostic analysis of 1093 primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoqing; Luo Wei; Liu Mengzhong; Ye Ling; Sun Ying; Xia Yunfei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the treatment results of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) treated by four different external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) techniques in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center in the beginning of the 21st century. Methods: The data of 1093 hospitalized primary NPC patients treated in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between December 2001 and June 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. The stage distribution (by AJCC/UICC, 2002) was 63, 439, 358 and 233 patients in Stage I, II, III and IVa + IVb. Definitive radiotherapy was given to all patients and the median total dose was 70 Gy. Four different EBRT techniques were used: 812 patients with fluoroscopy simulation conventional radiotherapy(CR), 155 patients with CT simulation conventional radiotherapy(CT-sim CR), 69 patients with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy(3DCRT) and 57 patients with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Results: The 5-year local failure-free rate (LFFR), nodal failure-free rate (NFFR), and distant metastasis-free rate(DMFR) were 86.8%, 95.3% and 83.2%, respectively. The 5-year progression- free survival(PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 66.9% and 77.9%, respectively. Different EBRT techniques influenced the OS and the LFFR of patients, the 5-year OS and LFFR of group CR, CT-sim CR, 3DCRT and IMRT were 75.9%, 83.5%, 87.2%, 86.6% and 84.5%, 96.4%, 91.0%, 91.7%, respectively (P=0.014 and 0.006). The morbidity and severity of xerostomia and trismus were significantly lower in group 3DCRT and IMRT than in group CR and CT-sim CR(P=0.000 and =0.023). Conclusion: The CT simulation technique, 3DCRT and IMRT can improve the OS, LFFR and life quality of patients with primary NPC. (authors)

  12. Recurrent FGFR3-TACC3 fusion gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Zhi-Rui; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhong, Qian; Zeng, Mu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common head and neck malignancies and exhibits regional differences in incidence. Because many fusion genes have been discovered in different types of tumors over the past few years, we aimed to investigate the existence of a fusion gene in primary NPC patients using RNA-seq. In this study, for the first time, we found that fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (FGFR3-TACC3) fusion transcripts are recurrently detected in NPC. The presence of this fusion gene was also detected in head and neck cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and lung cancer. Furthermore, we found certain new isoforms of the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts, such as a gene fusion between exon 18 of FGFR3 and exon 6 or exon 14 of TACC3 and agene fusion between exon 19 of FGFR3 and exon 11 of TACC3. In addition, we showed that the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion gene promotes cell proliferation, colony formation, and transforming ability in vitro, whereas the FGFR3-TACC3 K508M mutant or treatment with the FGFR inhibitor PD173074 abrogates these effects, suggesting that FGFR3-TACC3 most likely exerts its effects through activation of FGFR kinase activity. This activation likely leads to the development of NPC. Additionally, FGFR3-TACC3 could trigger activation of the ERK and Akt signaling pathways, whereas FGFR3-TACC3 K508M mutant could not, suggesting that these 2 signaling pathways might be involved in the function of FGFR3-TACC3. Taken together, our data demonstrated the oncogenic role of FGFR3-TACC3 in vitro, indicating that FGFR3-TACC3 may be useful as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in cancers.

  13. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35–54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16–2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55–64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56–1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  14. Late toxicities after conventional radiation therapy alone for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan, Jeffrey Kit Loong; Ha, Tam Cam; Ong, Whee Sze; Siow, Tian Rui; Tham, Ivan Weng Keong; Yap, Swee Peng; Tan, Terence Wee Kiat; Chua, Eu Tiong; Fong, Kam Weng; Wee, Joseph Tien Seng

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: We sought to evaluate the nature and frequency of late toxicities in a cohort of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients treated with conventional radiotherapy alone. Methods and materials: Seven-hundred and ninety-six consecutive NPC patients treated using conventional radiotherapy at a single center from 1992 to 1995 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with histology proven, completely staged, Stage I–IVB World Health Organization Type I–III NPC and completed radical radiotherapy were included. Patients with incomplete staging investigations, distant metastases at diagnosis, previous treatment, and incomplete radiotherapy were excluded. Radiotherapy-related complications were categorized using the RTOG Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. Results: Median follow-up was 7.2 years. The 5-year overall survival and disease free survival were 69% and 56%, respectively, and the corresponding 10-year rates were 52% and 44%. Among 771 patients with at least 3 months of follow-up post treatment, 565 (73%) developed RT-related complications. Diagnosed neurological complications were cranial nerve palsies (n = 70; 9%), temporal lobe necrosis (n = 37; 5%), Lhermitte’s syndrome (n = 7; 1%), and brachial plexopathy (n = 2; 0.3%). Non-neurological complications included xerostomia (n = 353; 46%), neck fibrosis (n = 169; 22%), hypo-pituitarism (n = 48; 6%), hearing loss (n = 120; 16%), dysphagia (n = 116; 15%), otorrhea (n = 101; 13%), tinnitus (n = 94; 12%), permanent tube feeding (n = 61; 8%), trismus (n = 45; 6%), second malignancies within treatment field (n = 17; 2%), and osteo-radionecrosis (n = 13; 2%). Conclusions: While radiotherapy is curative in NPC, many patients suffer significant late treatment morbidities with conventional radiotherapy techniques.

  15. Staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma investigated by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jincheng; Wei Baoqing; Chen Wenzhan; Qian Pudong; Zhang Yiqin; Wei Qing; Cha Wenwu; Li Feng; Ni Ming

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) sixth edition staging system of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty-nine non-disseminated biopsy-proven NPC patients were studied with MRI before treatment. Retrieval of MRI information enabled us to restage all patients accurately according to the sixth edition of the AJCC staging system. Splitting the respective T and N stages by the significant defining factors identified, the cancer death hazard ratios were modeled by the Cox model in SPSS 10.0 for windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Results: Single site of skull base abnormality (HR=3.91, 95% CI: 0.74-20.56) has a superior result to others involved in T3 (HR=5.83, 95% CI: 1.24-27.29). Involvement of either anterior or posterior cranial nerves solely (HR=6.02, 95% CI: 1.55-35.60) was not found to be as a poor prognostic indicator as others involved in T4 (HR=7.81, 95% CI: 1.81-33.63). Less than or equal to 3 cm of N1 (HR=4.01, 95% CI: 0.48-33.83) and N2 (HR=4.72, 95% CI: 0.62-35.78) have a better result than >3 cm of N1 (HR=8.09, 95% CI: 0.95-68.97) and N2 (HR=10.58, 95% CI: 1.32-84.62), respectively. Conclusions: Perhaps, it is better to down-stage single site of skull base abnormality from T3 to T2, and involvement of either anterior or posterior cranial nerves solely from T4 to T3, meanwhile, ≤3 cm of N2 down-stage to N1, >3 cm of N1 up-stage to N2

  16. A new plan quality index for nasopharyngeal cancer SIB IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Zhou, Y; Yan, H; Han, C; Xie, C

    2014-02-01

    A new plan quality index integrating dosimetric and radiobiological indices was proposed to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. Ten NPC patients treated by SIB-IMRT were enrolled in the study. Custom software was developed to read dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves from the treatment planning system (TPS). A plan filtering matrix was introduced to filter plans that fail to satisfy treatment protocol. Target plan quality indices and organ at risk (OAR) plan quality indices were calculated for qualified plans. A unique composite plan quality index (CPQI) was proposed based on the relative weight of these indices to evaluate and compare competing plans. Plan ranking results were compared with detailed statistical analysis, radiation oncology quality system (ROQS) scoring results and physician's evaluation results to verify the accuracy of this new plan quality index. The average CPQI values for plans with OAR priority of low, normal, high, and PTV only were 0.22 ± 0.08, 0.49 ± 0.077, 0.71 ± 0.062, and -0.21 ± 0.16, respectively. There were significant differences among these plan quality indices (One-way ANOVA test, p ranking results in which 90% OAR high plans were selected. Plan filtering matrix was able to speed up the plan evaluation process. The new matrix plan quality index CPQI showed good consistence with physician ranking results. It is a promising index for NPC SIB-IMRT plan evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gualberto Lescaille Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo, en un paciente del consultorio médico No. 9, que pertenece al Policlínico Integral Docente "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" de Marianao. Se reconoce la importancia de realizar una historia clínica detallada, así como un minucioso examen físico, por el médico de familia y el otorrinolaringólogo del área de salud, que incluyó la rinoscopia posterior, para poder llegar al diagnóstico de esa patología, y realizar la extirpación precoz del angiofibroma, mediante el proceder quirúrgico. Se concluyó que el diagnóstico clínico se correspondió con el histopatológico, y que la conducta quirúrgica temprana es resolutiva en la afección.It is presented a case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a patient with this pathology, from the clicial practice No. 9, in Comprehensive Teaching Polyclinic "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" in Marianao. It recognizes the importance of a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination by the family physician and the otolaryngologist in this health area, including a posterior rhinoscopy, to diagnose this disease and to achieve early removal of the angiofibroma, by a surgical procedure. It was concluded that the clinical diagnosis corresponded to the histopathological diagnosis, and that early surgical treatment is resolute in this condition.

  18. Radiation-induced mutation at minisatellite loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrova, Y.E.; Nesterov, V.N.; Krouchinsky, N.G.

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the radiation-induced increase of mutation rate in minisatellite loci in mice and humans. Minisatellite mutations were scored by multilocus DNA fingerprint analysis in the progeny of γ-irradiated and non-irradiated mice. The frequency of mutation in offspring of irradiated males was 1.7 higher that in the control group. Germline mutation at human minisatellite loci was studied among children born in heavily polluted areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and in a control population. The frequency of mutation assayed both by DNA fingerprinting and by eight single locus probes was found to be two times higher in the exposed families than in the control group. Furthermore, mutation rate was correlated with the parental radiation dose for chronic exposure 137 Cs, consistent with radiation-induction of germline mutation. The potential use of minisatellites in monitoring germline mutation in humans will be discussed

  19. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal ...

  20. Two genetic loci associated with ankle injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Stuart K.; Kleimeyer, John P.; Ahmed, Marwa A.; Avins, Andrew L.; Fredericson, Michael; Dragoo, Jason L.; Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ankle injuries, including sprains, strains and other joint derangements and instability, are common, especially for athletes involved in indoor court or jumping sports. Identifying genetic loci associated with these ankle injuries could shed light on their etiologies. A genome-wide association screen was performed using publicly available data from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH) including 1,694 cases of ankle injury and 97,646 controls. An indel (chr21:47156779:...

  1. Demographic profile of healthy children with nasopharyngeal colonisation ofStreptococcus pneumoniae: A research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Radhika; Sankar, Janani; Putlibai, Sulochana; Raghavan, Vaidehi

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx of healthy children can cause invasive diseases and the serotype distribution of colonisation isolates should be an indicator of invasive disease, antibiotic resistance profiles, and potential vaccine coverage. Identifying factors influencing nasopharyngeal colonisation, the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern can improve rational preventive strategies. Identify risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonisation of S.pneumoniae in healthy children between 6 months to 5 years of age. Determine the serotype and antibiotic sensitivity of S. pneumoniae isolated from nasopharynx of healthy children. This prospective observational included 500 healthy children, 6months to 5 years of age. Demographic features of the study population, the serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of S.Pneumoniae isolated from cultures of nasopharyngeal swabs were subjected to statistical analysis. S. pneumoniae was isolated in 9% of 450 children. Increased nasopharyngeal carriage rate was associated with overcrowding 48.8% and poor ventilation 35.5%. 6B (n=16) was the most common serotype isolated. 69% were serogroups known to cause invasive disease All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Antimicrobial susceptibility of PCV 7 serotypes were greater than non PCV 7 serotypes for almost all antimicrobials tested. Penicillin resistance was 11 % and MDR 51.

  2. Demographic profile of healthy children with nasopharyngeal colonisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae: A research paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Raman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx of healthy children can cause invasive diseases and the serotype distribution of colonisation isolates should be an indicator of invasive disease, antibiotic resistance profiles, and potential vaccine coverage. Identifying factors influencing nasopharyngeal colonisation, the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern can improve rational preventive strategies. Objectives: Identify risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonisation of S.pneumoniae in healthy children between 6 months to 5 years of age. Determine the serotype and antibiotic sensitivity of S. pneumoniae isolated from nasopharynx of healthy children. Methods: This prospective observational included 500 healthy children, 6months to 5 years of age. Demographic features of the study population, the serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of S.Pneumoniae isolated from cultures of nasopharyngeal swabs were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: S. pneumoniae was isolated in 9% of 450 children. Increased nasopharyngeal carriage rate was associated with overcrowding 48.8% and poor ventilation 35.5%. 6B (n=16 was the most common serotype isolated. 69% were serogroups known to cause invasive disease All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Antimicrobial susceptibility of PCV 7 serotypes were greater than non PCV 7 serotypes for almost all antimicrobials tested. Penicillin resistance was 11 % and MDR 51%

  3. Cancer mortality after nasopharyngeal radium irradiation in the Netherlands: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, C. M.; Land, C. E.; Verduijn, P. G.; Hayes, R. B.; Stovall, M.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2001-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation (NRI) was used widely from 1940 through 1970 to treat otitis serosa in children and barotrauma in airmen and submariners. We assessed whether NRI-exposed individuals were at higher risk for cancer-related deaths than were nonexposed individuals. We conducted a

  4. Elevated expression of CD93 promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Lili [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); Tang, Mingming [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 226361, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Qicheng; You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Shi, Si; Li, Li [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, Songqun, E-mail: hsq@ntu.edu.cn [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); You, Yiwen, E-mail: youyiwen_nantong@163.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-08-05

    CD93, also known as the complement component C1q receptor (C1qRp), has been reported to promote the progression of some cancer types. However, the expression and physiological significance of CD93 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain largely elusive. In this study, we first examined the expression of CD93 in NPC and experimentally manipulated its expression. We observed that vascular CD93 expression is elevated in NPC and is correlated with T classification, N classification, distant metastasis, clinical stage and poor prognosis (all P < 0.05). In addition, overexpression of CD93 promoted angiogenesis in vitro. What’s more, we found that CD93 was highly expressed in NPC tissues and cells, and the regulation of CD93 on cell proliferation was determined by cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay and cell cycle analyses. Our findings provide unique insight into the pathogenesis of NPC and underscore the need to explore novel therapeutic targets such as CD93 to improve NPC treatment. -- Highlights: •This is the first research about the relationship between CD93 and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. •We explored the prognostic significance of vascular CD93 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. •We researched on angiogenesis and cell proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and how CD93 affected them.

  5. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in yogyakarta, indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, Sharon D.; Wildeman, Maarten A.; Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R.; Herdini, Camelia; Wildeman, Pieter L.; van Diessen, Judi N. A.; Tjokronagoro, Maesadji; Tan, I. Bing

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy (DTI) and the

  6. Clinical value of the assistant interventional embolization in treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guobin; Zhou Shi; Liu Junfang; Hu Jinxiang; Long Qingyun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of the assistant digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with selective intra-arterial embolization in comprehensive treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Methods: Among 17 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma confirmed by surgery and biopsy from February 2000 to June 2005, 13 cases underwent DSA examination and selective intra-arterial embolization on 1-4 days before surgical operation, and 4 cases with uncontrollable epistaxis through conventional therapy were carried out urgent DSA and embolization as well as surgical operation on a scheduled day. Angiographic manifestations and hemostatic effects and impacts in surgical operation were observed. Results: The extent and blood supply of lesions and the features of feeding artery were clearly demonstrated by DSA. Supplying vessel was mainly maxillary artery originating from external caroted artery in 16 cases, and double supplying vessels from ramus of internal and external carotid arteries in 1 case. In general, the higher the nasopharyngeal angiofibroma grade was the more supplying branches would exist. As for epistaxis patients, the number of the presence of irregular distal vessels and the punctiform extravasation of contrast media were displayed in positive proportion. No severe complications occurred and active bleeding was stopped after embolization and furthermore with less blood loss during surgical operation statistically about 280-1600 ml (460±255.5). Conclusions: DSA examination and selective arterial embolization can not only present more accurate important clinical imaging features but also in favour of stop bleeding and enhance surgical outcomes for patients with nasopharyngeal angiogibroma. (authors)

  7. Expression of GLUT-1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J-C; Zhang, J-J; Zhang, W; Ke, Z-Y; Ma, L-G; Liu, M

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between the expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Sixty-three patients with NPC (the NPC group) and 24 patients with chronic nasopharyngitis (the control group) who were treated between December 2014 and February 2016 were selected for this study. Pathological nasopharyngeal tissues were collected from patients. The expression of GLUT-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of GLUT-1 was correlated with clinicopathological features and survival time. The positive GLUT-1 expression rate in the NPC group was 58.73% (37/63), which was significantly higher than in the control group (29.17%, 7/24) (pGLUT-1 expression rate was significantly correlated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection (pGLUT-1-positive NPC patients was 75.00% and was significantly lower than that of GLUT-1-negative NPC patients (88.89%) (pGLUT-1 was highly expressed in the nasopharyngeal tissues of patients with NPC, and its expression was associated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and EB virus infection.

  8. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines; impact on nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage and optimizing vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to first assess nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage to evaluate population effects after introduction of PCV7 in the NIP in 2006 and to assess the potential impact of PCV10 as introduced in 2011 on carriage of NTHi in a randomized trial (Part One) and second, to assess

  9. Clinical usefulness of {sup 201}Tl SPECT in diagnosing nasopharyngeal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togawa, Takashi; Yui, Nobuharu; Hatano, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Yousuke; Hayasaki, Katsutake [Chiba Cancer Center (Japan); Omura, Ken [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Graduate School

    2003-03-01

    {sup 201}Tl SPECT was performed on 54 patients suspected of nasopharyngeal tumor using a three-head rotating gamma camera and its clinical usefulness was evaluated. {sup 201}Tl accumulations were shown in 53 of the 54 patients (50 nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 1 malignant melanoma and 2 lymphoid hyperplasia) before treatment. In 48 of 50 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the effectiveness for treatment response could be assessed after treatment. {sup 201}Tl SPECT was concordant with MRI and CT in 26 patients (15 complete response (CR), 11 partial response (PR)), whereas it was discordant in 22 patients who showed CR in {sup 201}Tl SPECT but PR in MRI and CT. Follow-up MRI and {sup 201}Tl SPECT studies of 16 of these 22 patients from 6 to 33 months (mean 13 months) after treatment revealed that the tumor gradually decreased and finally vanished. Recurrent and metastatic lesions occurred in 8 patients from 9 to 69 months (mean 24 months) after treatment, and {sup 201}Tl SPECT could detect all 10 lesions in 8 patients. From the results obtained, it was concluded that {sup 201}Tl SPECT is very useful in the initial evaluation, in the assessment of treatment response and in detecting recurrent and metastatic lesions of nasopharyngeal tumor. (author)

  10. Reduced-dose schedules with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: impact on nasopharyngeal carriage and herd immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The success of the 4-dose schedule with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is based on direct protection against vaccine serotype pneumococcal disease in vaccinees but also on the observed large herd effect in unvaccinated age groups. However, the nasopharyngeal vacant niche is filled by

  11. Relationships between Malocclusion, Body Posture, and Nasopharyngeal Pathology in Pre-Orthodontic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šidlauskienė, Monika; Smailienė, Dalia; Lopatienė, Kristina; Čekanauskas, Emilis; Pribuišienė, Rūta; Šidlauskas, Mantas

    2015-06-18

    Malocclusion, body posture, and breathing pattern may be correlated, but this issue is still controversial. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the type of malocclusion, body posture, and nasopharyngeal obstruction in children aged 7-14 years. The study group comprised 94 patients aged 7-14 years (mean±SD: 11.9±2.1 years); 44 (46.8%) males and 50 (53.2%) females. All patients passed an examination performed by the same orthodontist (study model and cephalometric radiograph analysis), orthopedic surgeon (body posture examined from the front, side, and back), and otorhinolaryngologist (anterior and posterior rhinoscopy and pharyngoscopy) in a blind manner. Postural disorders were observed in 72 (76.6%) patients. Hypertrophy of the adenoids was diagnosed in 54 (57.4%) patients, hypertrophy of the tonsils in 85 (90.3%), nasal septum deviation in 51 (54.3%), and allergic rhinitis in 19 (20.2%) patients. There was a statistically significant correlation between presence of kyphotic posture and a reduction in the SNB angle, representing sagittal position of the mandible. Also, there was a statistically significant association between kyphotic posture and nasopharyngeal obstruction (54.1% of patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction were kyphotic, compared with 25% of patients with no nasopharyngeal obstruction; p=0.02). Kyphotic posture and reduced SNB angle were more common among males. We concluded that: 1) there was a significant association between the sagittal position of the mandible (SNB angle) and a kyphotic posture; 2) kyphotic posture was significantly more common among patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction.

  12. Injectable antimicrobials in commercial feedlot cattle and their effect on the nasopharyngeal microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Timsit, Edouard; Booker, Calvin W; Alexander, Trevor W

    2018-02-01

    Beef cattle in North America that are deemed to be at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are frequently administered a metaphylactic antibiotic injection to control the disease. Cattle may also receive in-feed antimicrobials to prevent specific diseases and ionophores to improve growth and feed efficiency. Presently, attempts to evaluate the effects that these medications have on antibiotic resistance in the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota have been focused on culturable bacteria that are associated with BRD. Therefore, we assessed the effects of injectable antibiotics on the nasopharyngeal microbiota of commercial feedlot cattle in Alberta, Canada, through the first 60 d on feed. Although all cattle in the study were also receiving in-feed chlortetracycline and monensin, the administration of a single injection of either oxytetracycline or tulathromycin at feedlot placement altered the nasopharyngeal microbiota in comparison with the cattle receiving only in-feed antibiotics. Oxytetracycline significantly (P Mycoplasma spp. at feedlot exit compared with the in-feed antibiotic only group. The proportion of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(H) was significantly increased following oxytetracycline injection (P < 0.05). Oxytetracycline also reduced both the number of OTUs and the Shannon diversity index in the nasopharyngeal microbiota (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that in feedlot cattle receiving subtherapeutic in-feed antimicrobials, the administration of a single injection of either oxytetracycline or tulathromycin resulted in measurable changes to the nasopharyngeal microbiota during the first 60 d following feedlot placement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Fu, Jinjian; Liang, Zhuoxin; Chen, Jichang

    2017-12-13

    To explore the overall prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae(S. pneumoniae) among healthy children. A search for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage studies including children published up to July 31th, 2016 was conducted to describe carriage in China. The review also describes antibiotic resistance in and serotypes of S. pneumoniae and assesses the impact of vaccination on carriage in this region. Summary measures for overall prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and serotype distributions extracted from the analyzed data were determined with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I 2 test statistics. Thirty-seven studies were included in this review, and the majority of studies (64.9%) were located in the pre-introduction period of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in China. The pooled prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 21.4% (95% CI: 18.3-24.4%). Carriage was highest in children attending kindergartens [24.5%, (19.7-29.3%)] and decreased with increasing age. Before the introduction of PCV7 into China, the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 25.8% (20.7-30.9%), the pooled carriage of S. pneumoniae sharply dropped into the 14.1% (11.3-16.9%) by PCV7 vaccination period (P China, the penicillin resistance rate in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children was 31.9% (21.2-42.6%); however, this rate sharply decreased after the introduction of PCV7 in China [21.6%, (7.4-35.9%)], and the difference between the rates during these two time periods was statistically significant (P value China. PCV7 immunization was found to be associated with reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization of S. pneumoniae. Conjugate vaccination coverage was slightly affected by the introduction of PCV7 into China because of low vaccination rate. The government should implement timely adjusted conjugate vaccination strategies based on

  14. Use of nasopharyngeal culture to determine appropriateness of antibiotic therapy in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stella; Woodbury, Kristin; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2013-04-01

    Rhinosinusitis is one of the top 5 diagnoses for which an antibiotic is prescribed, often without a clear bacterial etiology. This study evaluated whether nasopharyngeal culture and gram stain could serve as a surrogate for endoscopically obtained middle meatal cultures in directing appropriate therapy for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS). This study also investigated the utility of a rapid sinus test screen in differentiating bacterial from nonbacterial rhinosinusitis. Thirty-one adult patients met inclusion criteria for ABRS. Samples were obtained from both the middle meatus and nasopharynx for Gram stain and culture. Nasal mucous samples were tested with a rapid sinus test strip measuring pH, levels of protein, nitrites, and leukocyte esterase. Sixty-one percent (61%) of nasopharyngeal and 48% of middle meatal samples grew pathogenic bacteria. The concordance rate was 84% between the 2 sites (p = 0.0006). The following pathogenic organisms were detected: Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. For nasopharyngeal samples, reliance on Gram stain alone exhibited a sensitivity of 31% and specificity of 100% and, similarly, for middle meatus samples, 47% and 93%, respectively. The rapid sinus test revealed a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 7%. Nasopharyngeal and middle meatal cultures exhibited high concordance for pathogenic bacteria. Gram stain exhibited moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity. Nasopharyngeal cultures could provide a viable method, especially in a primary care setting, for determining the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy. The rapid sinus test's lack of specificity precluded its utility in the differentiation between bacterial and nonbacterial rhinosinusitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  15. A revised nomenclature for transcribed human endogenous retroviral loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and ERV-like sequences comprise 8% of the human genome. A hitherto unknown proportion of ERV loci are transcribed and thus contribute to the human transcriptome. A small proportion of these loci encode functional proteins. As the role of ERVs in normal and diseased biological processes is not yet established, transcribed ERV loci are of particular interest. As more transcribed ERV loci are likely to be identified in the near future, the development of a systematic nomenclature is important to ensure that all information on each locus can be easily retrieved. Results Here we present a revised nomenclature of transcribed human endogenous retroviral loci that sorts loci into groups based on Repbase classifications. Each symbol is of the format ERV + group symbol + unique number. Group symbols are based on a mixture of Repbase designations and well-supported symbols used in the literature. The presented guidelines will allow newly identified loci to be easily incorporated into the scheme. Conclusions The naming system will be employed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee for naming transcribed human ERV loci. We hope that the system will contribute to clarifying a certain aspect of a sometimes confusing nomenclature for human endogenous retroviruses. The presented system may also be employed for naming transcribed loci of human non-ERV repeat loci. PMID:21542922

  16. Preoperative embolization of nasopharyngeal angiofibromas: The role of direct percutaneous injection of cyanoacrylate glue in conjunction with particulate endovascular approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel Hakim Osman Kasem

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The embolization of nasopharyngeal angiofibromas before surgery using percutaneous cyanoacrylate glue with endovascular particulate material proved to efficiently devascularize these tumours with lower blood loss during surgery and no major procedural complications.

  17. A meta-analysis of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiation in the treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun He

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation can decrease the risk of recurrence and metastasis but not improve the 5 years overall survival and 5 years disease free survival compared to radiotherapy alone in the patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  18. Change in volumes and radiation doses of parotid and submandibular glands during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, PPY; Kwong, DLW; Au, GKH; Leung, TW; Lee, V; Ng, SCY

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the changes in volumes and radiation doses to parotid and submandibular glands during IMRT for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in an attempt to justify re-planning in the mid-course of IMRT to minimize radiation-induced xerostomia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 consecutive patients with stage III to stage IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma (AJCC Staging Manual 6th Edition) who received concurrent chemoradiation were included in this study. Computed tomography (CT) scans were perform...

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of narrow-band imaging nasoendoscopy compared to histopathology results in patients with suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, M.; Musa, Z.; Lisnawati; Suryati, I.

    2017-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease which is prevalent in developing countries like Indonesia. There were 164 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) oncology outpatient clinic of the Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital in 2014, and 142 cases in 2015. Unfortunately, almost all of these cases presented at an advanced stage. The success of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment is largely determined by the stage when patients are diagnosed; it is critical to diagnose NPC as early as possible. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an endoscopic instrument with a light system that can improve the visualization of blood vessels of mucosal epithelial malignant tumors. NBI is expected to help clinicians to assess whether a lesion is malignant or not; to do so, it is important to know the value of sensitivity and specificity. This study is a cross-sectional form of a diagnostic test which was performed in the outpatient clinic of the ENT Head and Neck Surgery Department for the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, from January to June 2016, and involved 56 subjects. Patients with a nasopharyngeal mass discovered by physical examination or imaging, and a suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included as a subject. An NBI examination and biopsy was performed locally. Based on this research, NBI could be used as a screening tool for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with high sensitivity (100%), but with a low specificity result (6.7%).

  20. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) overexpression in clinical staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat; Asnir, R. A.; Yudhistira, A.; Daulay, E. R.; Muzakkir, M. M.; Yulius, S.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular biological research on nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been widely practiced, such as VEGF, EGFR, COX-2 expression and so on. MAPK plays a role in cell growth such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, primarily contributing to gene expression, where p38 MAPK pathway mostly associate with anti-apoptosis and cause cell transformation. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of p38 MAPK in clinical stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma so that the result can be helpful in prognosis and adjunctive therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The research design is descriptive. It was done in THT- KL Department of FK USU/RSUP Haji Adam Malik, Medan and Pathology Anatomical Department of FK USU. The study was conducted from December 2011 to May 2012. The Samples are all patients who diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in oncology division of Otorhinolaryngology Department. p38 MAPK overexpression was found in 21 samples (70%) from 30 nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples. The elevated of p38 MAPK expression most found on T4 by eight samples (38.1%), N3 lymph node group by nine samples (42.9%), stage IV of clinical staging is as many as 15 samples (71.4%). p38 MAPK most expressed in stage IV clinical staging of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  1. Impact of intracranial extension on survival in stage IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma: identification of a subset of patients with better prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Chang; Chang, Ching-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Hsun; Ger, Luo-Ping; Liu, Wen-Shan; Lin, Li-Ching; Leung, Chung-Man; Chang, Kuo-Chen

    2011-01-01

    T-stage is an imperfect prognostic indicator for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We evaluated the effect of extent of intracranial involvement on survival after conventional radiotherapy in patients with Stage T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the results of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and treatment outcomes in 84 consecutive patients with Stage T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma during the period September 1993 to December 2002 in Taiwan. The patients were subcategorized into those who had limited intracranial involvement (primary nasopharyngeal tumors with involvement of the unilateral cavernous sinus or the parasellar region only) or extensive involvement (extension of the tumors to the bilateral cavernous sinus or the parasellar region, into the orbit and the ethmoid sinus anteriorly, or to the prepontine region and the posterior cranial fossa). Extensive intracranial involvement was found in 51.2% of the patients. Among these patients, the 5-year rate of overall survival after conventional radiotherapy was only 3.4%. In contrast, the 5-year survival among patients with limited intracranial involvement was 42.9%. This difference was significant (P nasopharyngeal carcinoma, better treatment outcomes were associated with limited intracranial involvement. We conclude that a subdivision of Stage T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma disease based on the extent of intracranial involvement would provide better prognostic information.

  2. Prognostic value of cystatin C in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective study of 1063 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma experience highly variable outcomes despite receiving similar therapeutic regimens. Identifying biomarkers that predict survival and guide individualized therapy is urgently needed. Cystatin C has been explored as a valuable prognostic marker in several malignancies. We retrospectively assessed the relationship between serum cystatin C levels and nasopharyngeal carcinoma prognosis in a large cohort of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving long-term follow-up. METHODS: A total of 1063 consecutive patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma from June 2006 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The serum levels of cystatin C at the time of diagnosis were collected. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analyses using a Cox regression model were performed to assess the correlation of cystatin C levels with overall survival, progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival and loco-regional recurrence-free survival. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 68.3 months. The optimal cut-off value of cystatin C levels for predicting death was 0.945 mg/L. Compared with the low cystatin C group, the high cystatin C group experienced significantly shorter overall survival (hazard ratio=1.47, p=0.050, progression-free survival (hazard ratio=1.65, p=0.004, distant metastasis-free survival (hazard ratio=2.37, p<0.001 and loco-regional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio=2.40, p=0.002. Based on multivariate analysis, a high cystatin C level was identified as a significant and independent negative predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio=1.47, p=0.050, progression-free survival (hazard ratio=1.65, p=0.004, distant metastasis-free survival (hazard ratio=2.37, p<0.001, and loco-regional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio=2.40, p=0.002. CONCLUSION: Cystatin C levels are associated with the prognosis of nasopharyngeal

  3. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion: A Rare Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ahluwalia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The recently recognized renal cell carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations are rare tumors predominantly reported in children. Chromosome Xp11.2 translocation results in gene fusion related to transcription factor E3 (TFE3 that plays an important role in proliferation and survival. Case Report. Herein, we present two cases of a TFE3 translocation-associated RCC in young female adults, one detected incidentally and the other one presenting with gross hematuria. Tumor is characterized by immunohistochemistry and a literature review with optimal treatment regimen is presented. Discussion. Xp11.2 translocation RCCs in adult patients are associated with advanced stages, large tumors, and extracapsular disease and usually have an aggressive clinical course. Conclusion. In TFE3 RCC, the genetic background may not only contribute to tumorigenesis, but also determine the response to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Therefore it is necessary to diagnose this tumor entity accurately. Because of the small number of TFE3 gene fusion-related renal tumors described in the literature, the exact biologic behavior and impact of current treatment modalities remain to be uncertain.

  4. Obesity Enhances the Conversion of Adipose-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells into Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblast Leading to Cancer Cell Proliferation and Progression to an Invasive Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Dorothy T.; Hurst, Christian G.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Burow, Matthew E.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with enhanced tumor growth and progression. Within the adipose tissue are adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) that have been shown to convert into carcinoma-associated fibroblast (CAFs) in the presence of tumor-derived factors. However, the impact of obesity on the ASCs and on the conversion of ASCs into CAFs has not been demonstrated. In the current study, ASCs isolated from lean donors (BMI  30, obASCs). The contribution of tumor-derived factors on the conversion of ASCs to CAFs was investigated. Following exposure to cancer cells, obASCs expressed higher levels of CAF markers, including NG2, alpha-SMA, VEGF, FAP, and FSP, compared to lnASCs. To investigate the crosstalk between ASCs and breast cancer cells, MCF7 cells were serially cocultured with lnASCs or obASCs. After coculture with lnASCs and obASCs, MCF7 cells demonstrated enhanced proliferation and expressed an invasive phenotype morphologically, with more pronounced effects following exposure to obASCs. Long-term exposure to obASCs also enhanced the expression of protumorgenic factors. Together, these results suggest that obesity alters ASCs to favor their rapid conversion into CAFs, which in turn enhances the proliferative rate, the phenotype, and gene expression profile of breast cancer cells. PMID:29527228

  5. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion: A Rare Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Puneet; Nair, Balagopal; Kumar, Ginil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The recently recognized renal cell carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations are rare tumors predominantly reported in children. Chromosome Xp11.2 translocation results in gene fusion related to transcription factor E3 (TFE3) that plays an important role in proliferation and survival. Case Report. Herein, we present two cases of a TFE3 translocation-associated RCC in young female adults, one detected incidentally and the other one presenting with gross hematuria. Tumor is characterized by immunohistochemistry and a literature review with optimal treatment regimen is presented. Discussion. Xp11.2 translocation RCCs in adult patients are associated with advanced stages, large tumors, and extracapsular disease and usually have an aggressive clinical course. Conclusion. In TFE3 RCC, the genetic background may not only contribute to tumorigenesis, but also determine the response to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Therefore it is necessary to diagnose this tumor entity accurately. Because of the small number of TFE3 gene fusion-related renal tumors described in the literature, the exact biologic behavior and impact of current treatment modalities remain to be uncertain. PMID:24455396

  6. Discerning primary tumors from metastases in synchronous nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    AO, RUI; FU, RONG; DONG, DANDAN; ZHU, XUEQIANG; LIU, HAO; XIE, KE

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is one of the most common types of malignant tumor in Southern China and Southeast Asia, and its etiology is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Non-keratinizing carcinoma accounts for >95% of all nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. In addition, metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma from other locations in the body is extremely rare. This study reports the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with a lesion on the left nasal alar skin that had s...

  7. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-18

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r g =-0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.

  8. Microsatellite loci isolated from the scleractinian coral, Acropora nobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Naoko; Hidaka, Michio

    2008-05-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of eight microsatellite loci from the scleractinian coral, Acropora nobilis. The microsatellite loci were obtained using compound SSR primers or an enrichment protocol. All the loci were polymorphic with four to eight alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.22 to 0.76. Some of the primers developed for the two congeners, Acropora palmata and Acropora millepora were applicable to A. nobilis. These loci are useful for studying the connectivity among A. nobilis populations in Okinawa, southern Japan. © 2007 The Authors.

  9. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on resistance to flower bud thrips ( Megalurothrips sjostedti ) identified in recombinant inbred lines of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

  10. Andrographolide Suppresses Proliferation of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells via Attenuating NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (Andro has been reported to have anticancer activity in multiple types of cancer due to its capacity to inactivate NF-κB pathway. Previous studies showed the therapeutic potential of targeting NF-κB pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. However, the anticancer activity of Andro in NPC has not been reported. In this study, we defined the anticancer effects of Andro in NPC and elucidated its potential mechanisms of action. Our results showed that Andro significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of NPC cells (P<0.05, resp.. These anticancer activities were associated with cell apoptosis, cell death and induction of cell cycle arrest, and the downregulation of NF-κB target genes. This work provides evidence that NF-κB pathway is a potential therapeutic target and may also be indispensable in the Andro-mediated anticancer activities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  11. Early changes of auditory brain stem evoked response after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S.K.; Wei, W.I.; Sham, J.S.T.; Choy, D.T.K.; Hui, Y. (Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1992-10-01

    A prospective study of the effect of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma on hearing was carried out on 49 patients who had pure tone, impedance audiometry and auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) recordings before, immediately, three, six and 12 months after radiotherapy. Fourteen patients complained of intermittent tinnitus after radiotherapy. We found that 11 initially normal ears of nine patients developed a middle ear effusion, three to six months after radiotherapy. There was mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment after radiotherapy. Persistent impairment of ABR was detected immediately after completion of radiotherapy. The waves I-III and I-V interpeak latency intervals were significantly prolonged one year after radiotherapy. The study shows that radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma impairs hearing by acting on the middle ear, the cochlea and the brain stem auditory pathway. (Author).

  12. Early changes of auditory brain stem evoked response after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma - a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.K.; Wei, W.I.; Sham, J.S.T.; Choy, D.T.K.; Hui, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A prospective study of the effect of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma on hearing was carried out on 49 patients who had pure tone, impedance audiometry and auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) recordings before, immediately, three, six and 12 months after radiotherapy. Fourteen patients complained of intermittent tinnitus after radiotherapy. We found that 11 initially normal ears of nine patients developed a middle ear effusion, three to six months after radiotherapy. There was mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment after radiotherapy. Persistent impairment of ABR was detected immediately after completion of radiotherapy. The waves I-III and I-V interpeak latency intervals were significantly prolonged one year after radiotherapy. The study shows that radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma impairs hearing by acting on the middle ear, the cochlea and the brain stem auditory pathway. (Author)

  13. Andrographolide suppresses proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via attenuating NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Hu, Min; Wu, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Cen; Chen, Zhe; Huang, Shuo; Zhou, Xu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide (Andro) has been reported to have anticancer activity in multiple types of cancer due to its capacity to inactivate NF-κB pathway. Previous studies showed the therapeutic potential of targeting NF-κB pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the anticancer activity of Andro in NPC has not been reported. In this study, we defined the anticancer effects of Andro in NPC and elucidated its potential mechanisms of action. Our results showed that Andro significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of NPC cells (P apoptosis, cell death and induction of cell cycle arrest, and the downregulation of NF-κB target genes. This work provides evidence that NF-κB pathway is a potential therapeutic target and may also be indispensable in the Andro-mediated anticancer activities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  14. [Cervical esophagostomy improves the life quality of patients with dysphagia induced by radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weixiong; Wang, Kai; Tang, Jun; Zhang, Jianli; Tang, Sucheng; He, Fayao; Zhu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Yuejian

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of cervical esophagostomy for the treatment of patients with dysphagia induced by radiotherapy, in order to improve the therapeutic effects. A retrospective study was performed on 53 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with dysphagia, who received cervical esophagostomy. The nutritional status of these patients was measured at five given time before and after operation. The occurrence of pneumonia and reflux esophagitis before and after operation was recorded, and the quality of life based on SF-36 quality of life (QOL) scale was studied. After operation, the nutritional status of these patients improved substantially, including the weight, levels of hemoglobin, total protein, albumin and transferring (Plife quality of patients with dysphagia induced by radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  15. The otological status of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after megavoltage radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, N.L.S.; Choy, A.T.K.; John, D.G.; Hassalt, C.A. van (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong). Prince of Wales Hospital)

    1992-12-01

    A middle ear effusion is a common complication of nasopharyngeal carcinoma both before and after radiotherapy. An effusion was found in 38 per cent of patients before radiotherapy and 9 per cent developed an effusion after the start of radiotherapy. Surgical treatment by myringotomy with or without grommet insertion was associated with a high incidence of otorrhoea (26 per cent) which was often refractory to treatment. In view of the frequency of this complication and the fact that a middle ear effusion may not be of concern to an adult patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a wait and see policy may be appropriate in the management of a middle ear effusion in these patients. (Author).

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of cleft palate patients after a palatoplasty to evaluate the nasopharyngeal results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroto [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Kadomatsu, Koichi; Hori, Shigeru; Miyata, Masayuki; Kozono, Kikuo; Onizuka, Takuya

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 16 cleft palate patients was undertaken after a palatoplasty to evaluate the postoperative status of the nasopharyngeal soft tissue, the soft palate, and a pharyngeal flap. As MRI revealed no abnormal findings in the nasopharyngeal muscle of all 16 patients, we concluded that the palatoplasty had normalized the positioning and volume of the levator veli muscle and the muscle sling of the palate. Further, although most of the pharyngeal flaps had an adequate inner muscle volume, some flaps had shrunk and 1 flap was found to have more mucous tissue than muscle. These pharyngeal flap deficits may have been due to rough flap handling during the surgical intervention. Therefore, gentle manipulation of such flaps during the course of surgery is emphasized. (author).

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of cleft palate patients after a palatoplasty to evaluate the nasopharyngeal results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroto; Kadomatsu, Koichi; Hori, Shigeru; Miyata, Masayuki; Kozono, Kikuo; Onizuka, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 16 cleft palate patients was undertaken after a palatoplasty to evaluate the postoperative status of the nasopharyngeal soft tissue, the soft palate, and a pharyngeal flap. As MRI revealed no abnormal findings in the nasopharyngeal muscle of all 16 patients, we concluded that the palatoplasty had normalized the positioning and volume of the levator veli muscle and the muscle sling of the palate. Further, although most of the pharyngeal flaps had an adequate inner muscle volume, some flaps had shrunk and 1 flap was found to have more mucous tissue than muscle. These pharyngeal flap deficits may have been due to rough flap handling during the surgical intervention. Therefore, gentle manipulation of such flaps during the course of surgery is emphasized. (author)

  18. Intrathoracic Endotracheal Metastasis from Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma:A First Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Lu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic endotracheal metastasis from a very distant site is extremely rare. We report the first case of such a disease in a 68-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who presented with a cough and hemoptysis 34 months after finishing radiotherapy. Prior to tracheal metastasis, he developed a solitary metastasis in the lung and underwent chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Computed tomography showed the presence of an enlarged lymph node in the para-aortic arch. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed an endotracheal tumor 1 cm above the carina. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed its nasopharyngeal origin. He was treated with conventional radiotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; complete tumor remission was achieved. He died of nonmalignant disease with no signs of tumor recurrence 2 years after treatment completion. Radiotherapy may be an appropriate management approach to achieve long-term tumor control for this disease.

  19. Imaging appearances for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma and post-salvage nasopharyngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, P T H; Tan, N C; Khoo, J B K

    2013-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck neoplasm that occurs in endemic numbers among people of southern Chinese descent. External beam radiation to the nasopharyngeal bed and primary draining lymph node echelons is the mainstay of treatment with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy for more advanced disease. Detection of residual and/or recurrent NPC has important clinical implications, as salvage protocols are available. The review aims to increase awareness of the imaging features of NPC recurrences at local and distant sites using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron-emission tomography (PET). Important changes in imaging seen in patients after nasopharyngectomy are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rupture of an internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm after irradiation for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yukiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Sasai, Hisanori; Kamakura, Aya; Sakata, Yoshiharu; Miyahara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The primary treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been external radiotherapy. Rupture of an internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of irradiation therapy for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A 78 years old man had a history of NPC treated with radiotherapy in 1993. He was admitted to the hospital because of epistaxis. Angiography showed an ICA pseudoaneurysm pointing medially to the nasopharynx. Coil embolization of the ICA was performed, but cerebral infarction occurred. Internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms are an uncommon but potentially lethal condition. Angiography is the mainstay of diagnosis of the aneurysm and planning the embolization of the ICA. We should be more aware of this complication in NPC patients. (author)

  1. lociNGS: a lightweight alternative for assessing suitability of next-generation loci for evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Hird

    Full Text Available Genomic enrichment methods and next-generation sequencing produce uneven coverage for the portions of the genome (the loci they target; this information is essential for ascertaining the suitability of each locus for further analysis. lociNGS is a user-friendly accessory program that takes multi-FASTA formatted loci, next-generation sequence alignments and demographic data as input and collates, displays and outputs information about the data. Summary information includes the parameters coverage per locus, coverage per individual and number of polymorphic sites, among others. The program can output the raw sequences used to call loci from next-generation sequencing data. lociNGS also reformats subsets of loci in three commonly used formats for multi-locus phylogeographic and population genetics analyses - NEXUS, IMa2 and Migrate. lociNGS is available at https://github.com/SHird/lociNGS and is dependent on installation of MongoDB (freely available at http://www.mongodb.org/downloads. lociNGS is written in Python and is supported on MacOSX and Unix; it is distributed under a GNU General Public License.

  2. Late side reactions of long-term survivors after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Lin; Zhang Youwang; Wu Yongru; Guo Xiaomao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the late side reactions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who survived long after radiotherapy. Methods: 336 patients were evaluated. The median follow-up time was 14 years (range, 5-38 years). The nasopharyngeal region was given radiotherapy with a median of 70 Gy (range, 55-86 Gy) in one course. Eighteen patients had re-irradiation for local recurrence. One patient treated by radiotherapy in three courses. The neck with lymph node metastasis was given radical radiotherapy with a median of 64 Gy(range, 46-72 Gy). Node-negative neck was given prophylactic radiotherapy with a median of 55 Gy(range, 21-67 Gy). Forty-eight patients were given chemotherapy. Results: According to 1995 SOMA criterion to evaluate the late side reactions for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, 109 patients had neurological injuries,4 patients had brain injuries, and 1 patient had spinal cord injury. Among 107 patients with cranial nerve injuries: the 5- and 10-year cumulative occurrence rate was 11% and 23% respectively; the 5-year, > 5-10 years, > 10-15 years and >15-years accounted for 11%, 12 %, 14% and 10% , respectively. 260 patients had grade 3 and 4 other injuries, including 55 skin, 79 muscles/soft tissue, 36 mucosa, 79 xerostomia and 11 trismus. Among 320 patients who ]suffered from caries of teeth, it involved all teeth in 192 patients. Two patients had mandible necrosis. 225 patients had decline of hearing. Among 672 ears in 336 patients, 194 ears had severe deafness. The overall side reaction occurrence rate was 84.5 %. Conclusions: Different late side reactions do exist in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients(84.5%) with long-term survival after radiotherapy, and some patients suffer side reactions so serious as to affect their quality of life. Cranial nerve injuries are not rare, and it may occur anytime after radiation, but it dose not stop as the patients survive along. (authors)

  3. Long-term survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and late complications of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Mitsuru; Komori, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hideyo; Takimoto, Toru; Umeda, Ryozo

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation remains the mainstay of treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the primary site and the neck. We studied the long-term effects of irradiation in five patients who have survived ten or more years after treatment without recurrence of disease, and we were impressed by the rarity of disabling complications of the treatment. Minor complications were common, and especially troublesome were xerostomia, dental caries, postnasal crusting and neck weakness. (author)

  4. Prevalence of Methicillin?Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, A.G.; Rankin, S.C.; Duffee, L.A.; Morris, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Methicillin?resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. Hypothesis/Objective MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horse...

  5. Comparison of SPECT and CT in detecting skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Jinchuan; Pu Nuo; Song Wenzhong; Chen Mingxi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the detecting ability of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT in skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Sixty-three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were examined by whole body and skull base SPECT and CT of nasopharynx and skull base before radiotherapy. The results were double-blind compared and evaluated. Results: The overall positive rates of skull base invasion detected by SPECT and CT were 63.5% and 25.4%. In patients with headache, cranial nerve palsy and both, they were 87.9%, 93.3%, 92.3% and 42.4%, 46.7%, 46.2%. In patients with T 1 + T 2 and T 3 + T 4 lesions, they were 37.5%, 90.3% and 0.0%, 51.6%. In patients with N 0 + N 1 and N 2 + N 3 lesions, they were 63.9%, 63.0% and 19.4%, 33.3%. The positive rates of SPECT were higher than those of CT (McNemar Test, P < 0.05). The conformation rate between SPECT and CT was 61.9% and the dissimilitude rate was 38.1%. Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that headache and T stages were risk factors of positive SPECT rate (ORheadache = 3.864, ORTstage= 6.422) while Tstage and Nstage were the risk factors for positive CT rate (ORTstage = 48.932, ORNstage = 2.860). Conclusions: The detection sensitivity of SPECT in skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is superior to that of CT. But its specificity is inferior to that of CT. The detecting results in SPECT are better related to symptoms, signs and stage. Combining headache and cranial nerve palsy with T and N stage, the authors may much improve the results of SPECT and CT in the detection of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Further study is warranted

  6. Extreme fenestration of the basilar artery associated with cleft palate, nasopharyngeal mature teratoma, and hypophyseal duplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, A.; Sawada, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S.; Fujita, I.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present the case of a newborn girl with extreme fenestration of the basilar artery. This anomaly was found incidentally during MR imaging study for cleft palate and nasopharyngeal teratoma. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a totally duplicated basilar artery with connections at the proximal and distal ends of the artery, suggesting an extreme fenestration. Duplicated pituitary gland was also found on MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. Extreme fenestration of the basilar artery associated with cleft palate, nasopharyngeal mature teratoma, and hypophyseal duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Sawada, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S. [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Fujita, I. [Department of Pediatrics, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    The authors present the case of a newborn girl with extreme fenestration of the basilar artery. This anomaly was found incidentally during MR imaging study for cleft palate and nasopharyngeal teratoma. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a totally duplicated basilar artery with connections at the proximal and distal ends of the artery, suggesting an extreme fenestration. Duplicated pituitary gland was also found on MR imaging. (orig.)

  8. Expression and significance of KAI1/CD82 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-fu ZHOU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the expression levels of KAI1/CD82 gene in the cell lines of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NC with different metastatic potency,and to determine the expression of KAI1/CD82 proteins in both nontumorous nasopharyngeal tissue and NC.Methods Immunohistochemical technique and Western blot were used to detect the location and expression of KAI1/CD82 protein in 5 cell lines of NC.The expression levels of KAI1/CD82 protein were assessed in 70 NC cases and 30 cases of nontumorous nasopharyngeal tissues by immunohistochemistry.Results Western blotting indicated that the expression level of KAI1/CD82 protein decreased gradually(P 0.05.The positive expression rate of KAI1/CD82 protein in NC stage of N0,N1,N2 and N3 was 68.4%,43.8%,33.3% and 25%,respectively,and it gradually declined with the progression of N stage.The expression rates were significantly higher(P 0.05 was found in the expression rate of KAI1/CD82 protein among the 3 groups with lymph node metastasis(N1,N2,N3.Conclusions KAI1/CD82 gene may play an important role in inhibiting the tumor metastasis.The expression rate of KAI1/CD82 gene is lower in NC tissue than in normal nasopharyngeal tissue,implying that the gene may have played an important role on the development of NC.For NC cases,the expression of KAI1/CD82 protein may be inhibited and the expressive level declines along with NC metastasis and the progression of the N stage,implying that the expression of KAI1/CD82 protein may closely related with metastasis of NC.

  9. Nasopharyngeal colonization and penicillin resistance among pneumococcal strains: a Worldwide 2004 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déa M. Cardozo

    Full Text Available Surveillance of nasopharyngeal pneumococcus has proven to be a valuable tool for the monitoring of antibiotic resistance. We reviewed the latest information on colonization rate and penicillin resistance by making a MEDLINE search, using the terms "nasopharyngeal carriage" and "Streptococcus pneumoniae". Out of 225 articles found, data from 109 recent publications (89% from 1996-2003 were analyzed. Data were reported from 41 countries of six continents. Individuals under the age of five (64.3% or 10 years (85.7% were enrolled, including children attending day-care centers (32.1% or orphanages (3.6%, and healthy individuals (78.6% or sick patients (43.6%; biological samples were collected mainly by nasopharyngeal swabs (89.3%. The highest colonization rates were reported from Africa (85-87.2%, where several authors did not find high rates of penicillin resistance. On the other hand, studies conducted in North and Central America reported high-level penicillin resistance at rates of approximately 20-30%. Great variation in the rates of pneumococcal colonization and penicillin resistance were observed within regions or continents. There were also considerable differences in similar populations located in different areas of the same country. Data regarding pneumococcal colonization and penicillin resistance are not available from most countries. We also examined the use of antibiotics to treat pneumococcal infections.

  10. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Helmia; Severin, Juliëtte A; Gasem, M Hussein; Keuter, Monique; Wahyono, Hendro; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W M; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal diseases. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae in Semarang, Indonesia. A population-based survey was performed in Semarang, Indonesia. Nasopharyngeal swabs and questionnaires were taken from 496 healthy young (6-60 month-old) children and 45-70 year-old adults. Forty-three percent of children aged 6-60 months and 11% of adults aged 45-75 years carried S. pneumoniae. Determinants of carriage were being a child (OR 7.7; 95% CI = 4.5-13.0), passive smoking (OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4), and contact with toddler(s) at home (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.9-4.7). The most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B and 15B/C. The current commercially available vaccines cover <50% serotypes found in children. Twenty-four percent of S. pneumoniae strains were penicillin non-susceptible, and 45% were resistant to cotrimoxazol. The limited coverage of commercially available vaccines against the serotypes found in this population, and the high proportion of non-susceptibility to penicillin and cotrimoxazol suggest the need for region-specific information and strategies to control S. pneumoniae.

  11. Actual Dose Variation of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Chunhui; Chen Yijen; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: For intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer, accurate dose delivery is crucial to the success of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of daily image-guided patient setup corrections and to quantify the parotid gland volume and dose variations for nasopharyngeal cancer patients using helical tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Five nasopharyngeal cancer patients who underwent helical tomotherapy were selected retrospectively. Each patient had received 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Daily megavoltage CT scans were registered with the planning CT images to correct the patient setup errors. Contours of the spinal cord and parotid glands were drawn on the megavoltage CT images at fixed treatment intervals. The actual doses delivered to the critical structures were calculated using the helical tomotherapy Planned Adaptive application. Results: The maximal dose to the spinal cord showed a significant increase and greater variation without daily setup corrections. The significant decrease in the parotid gland volume led to a greater median dose in the later phase of treatment. The average parotid gland volume had decreased from 20.5 to 13.2 cm 3 by the end of treatment. On average, the median dose to the parotid glands was 83 cGy and 145 cGy for the first and the last treatment fractions, respectively. Conclusions: Daily image-guided setup corrections can eliminate significant dose variations to critical structures. Constant monitoring of patient anatomic changes and selective replanning should be used during radiotherapy to avoid critical structure complications

  12. Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis: CT and MRI findings in thirty-six patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Pei-qiang, E-mail: caipeiqiangg@msn.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Li, Yi-zhuo, E-mail: Liyizhuo68@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Zeng, Rui-fang, E-mail: zengruifang2008@163.com [Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Xu, Jie-hua, E-mail: xujhgz3@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Xie, Chuan-miao, E-mail: chuanmiaoxue@163.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Wu, Yao-pan, E-mail: yaopanwu@163.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Wu, Pei-hong, E-mail: peihongww@163.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou 510060 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Tuberculosis is uncommon in the nasopharynx. The purpose of this study was to investigate the CT and MRI features of 36 cases of tuberculosis in this area. Materials and methods: CT (n = 15) and MRI (n = 21) scans from 36 patients with histologically proved tuberculosis of the nasopharynx were reviewed by two experienced radiologists, paying particular attention to the lesions’ distribution, location, extent, size, internal architecture, pattern, and degree of enhancement, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Results: Twenty-nine patients exhibited a polypoid mass pattern and seven had diffuse mucosal thickening. The roof of the nasopharynx was involved in all cases. The mean size of the lesions was 11.4 mm. Striped pattern was detected in 19 cases. Adjacent muscle invasion or bone destruction was not detected. Heterogeneous enhancement was detected in all patients, and necrosis in the nasopharyngeal lesions was detected in 16 cases. Poor, moderate, and marked enhancement was detected in one, 27, and eight cases, respectively. Thirty-four patients had involvement of the cervical lymph nodes. Twenty-two and 28 cases were associated with bilateral lymphadenopathy or necrosis, respectively. The retropharyngeal lymph node was the most commonly involved site (94.1%). Conclusion: The presence of necrosis and striped pattern in nasopharyngeal lesions, site predilection, no invasion of regional structures, and central necrosis with peripheral rim enhancement of cervical lymphadenopathy may suggest the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal tuberculosis.

  13. Radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin in management of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, M.; Erkal, H.S.; Cakmak, A.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy in the management of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas is evaluated in an attempt to improve locoregional response, reduce locoregional failure and reduce systemic failure. The current study was designed to investigate radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin in this context. From 1992 through 1997, 70 patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas were treated with radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin. External beam radiation dose was 60 Gy for T1, T2 and T3 tumors, 70 Gy for T4 tumors and 70 Gy for metastatic cervical lymph nodes. An intracavitary brachytherapy boost (10 Gy) was applied for T1, T2 and T3 tumors. Cisplatin (30 mg/m 2 ) was administered weekly during external beam radiation therapy. Locoregional complete response was achieved in 63 patients, locoregional failure was observed in 4 patients and systemic failure was observed in 15. N-stage predicted systemic failure. Overall survival, locoregional failure-free survival and systemic failure-free survival were 63%, 79% and 75%, respectively, at three years. Grade 3 acute skin toxicity was observed in 2 patients, Grade 3 acute mucous membrane toxicity was observed in 6 and Grad 3 acute hematological toxicity was observed in 2 patients. Despite improved locoregional response, reduced locoregional failure and improved survival with radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin, systemic failure remains prevalent for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas. (orig.)

  14. Nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes requires superantigen-responsive Vβ-specific T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Joseph J.; Kasper, Katherine J.; Mohorovic, Ivor; Mazzuca, Delfina M.

    2017-01-01

    The globally prominent pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes secretes potent immunomodulatory proteins known as superantigens (SAgs), which engage lateral surfaces of major histocompatibility class II molecules and T-cell receptor (TCR) β-chain variable domains (Vβs). These interactions result in the activation of numerous Vβ-specific T cells, which is the defining activity of a SAg. Although streptococcal SAgs are known virulence factors in scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome, mechanisms by how SAgs contribute to the life cycle of S. pyogenes remain poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrate that passive immunization against the Vβ8-targeting SAg streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA), or active immunization with either wild-type or a nonfunctional SpeA mutant, protects mice from nasopharyngeal infection; however, only passive immunization, or vaccination with inactive SpeA, resulted in high-titer SpeA-specific antibodies in vivo. Mice vaccinated with wild-type SpeA rendered Vβ8+ T cells poorly responsive, which prevented infection. This phenotype was reproduced with staphylococcal enterotoxin B, a heterologous SAg that also targets Vβ8+ T cells, and rendered mice resistant to infection. Furthermore, antibody-mediated depletion of T cells prevented nasopharyngeal infection by S. pyogenes, but not by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterium that does not produce SAgs. Remarkably, these observations suggest that S. pyogenes uses SAgs to manipulate Vβ-specific T cells to establish nasopharyngeal infection. PMID:28794279

  15. Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate and Serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis in Turkish recruits upon entry to the military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Basustaoglu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine nasopharyngeal carriage rate and serogroup of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from Turkish recruits upon entry to the military. Material and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from 1995 soldiers and were inoculated immediately on BBL-modified Thayer-Martin medium plates. The plates were examined for the presence of colonies showing the typical morphology of N. meningitidis. Suspect colonies were screened for oxidase reactivity, and positive colonies were Gram stained. If Gram-negative diplococci were present, a biochemical profile by the API NH system was used for confirmation. Serogrouping of the meningococcal isolates was performed by a slide agglutination technique. Findings: The nasopharyngeal carriage rate of N. meningitidis was found to be 4.2% (n=83. Of these meningococci, 15.6% (n=13 were serogroup Y, 10.8% (n=9 were serogroup W-135, 9.6% (n=8 were serogroup C, 6.1% (n=5 were serogroup B, 2.4% (n=2 were serogroup A. The 46 isolates (55.4% were detected as nonserogroupable. Conclusion: Since serogroup Y and W-135 are predominant in this study population, it was suggest that Turkish recruits should be vaccinated by quadrivalent vaccine (A,C,Y, and W-135 upon the military instead of A+C polysaccharide vaccine and now quadrivalent vaccine has been carried out. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 447-450

  16. Urgent embolization for the treatment of serious epistaxis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Ni Caifang; Liu Yizhi; Jing Yonghai; Zhu Xiaoli; Zou Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical effect and safety of urgent embolization with arterial catheterization in the treatment of serious epistaxis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. Methods: Fifteen patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma occurred serious epistaxis after radiotherapy. Because of failure to respond to the treatment of nasal packing and medication, embolization of the bleeding arteries with gelfoam or steel coils was carried out within 1-4 hours after the bleeding. The target arteries were judged by the internal and external carotid angiographic findings. Results: The embolization procedure was successfully completed, in all of 15 patients within 1.5 hours with the technical successful rate of 100%. The bleeding ceased in all 15 patients with the effective rate of 100%. Mild facial palsy occurred in 2 cases, and facial pain of the affected side in one case. All above symptoms were relived and disappeared in about one week after the procedure, leaving no serious complications. Conclusion: Urgent arterial embolization is an effective, safe and simple method for controlling the serious epistaxis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. (authors)

  17. Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis: CT and MRI findings in thirty-six patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pei-Qiang; Li, Yi-Zhuo; Zeng, Rui-Fang; Xu, Jie-Hua; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Wu, Yao-Pan; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis is uncommon in the nasopharynx. The purpose of this study was to investigate the CT and MRI features of 36 cases of tuberculosis in this area. CT (n=15) and MRI (n=21) scans from 36 patients with histologically proved tuberculosis of the nasopharynx were reviewed by two experienced radiologists, paying particular attention to the lesions' distribution, location, extent, size, internal architecture, pattern, and degree of enhancement, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Twenty-nine patients exhibited a polypoid mass pattern and seven had diffuse mucosal thickening. The roof of the nasopharynx was involved in all cases. The mean size of the lesions was 11.4mm. Striped pattern was detected in 19 cases. Adjacent muscle invasion or bone destruction was not detected. Heterogeneous enhancement was detected in all patients, and necrosis in the nasopharyngeal lesions was detected in 16 cases. Poor, moderate, and marked enhancement was detected in one, 27, and eight cases, respectively. Thirty-four patients had involvement of the cervical lymph nodes. Twenty-two and 28 cases were associated with bilateral lymphadenopathy or necrosis, respectively. The retropharyngeal lymph node was the most commonly involved site (94.1%). The presence of necrosis and striped pattern in nasopharyngeal lesions, site predilection, no invasion of regional structures, and central necrosis with peripheral rim enhancement of cervical lymphadenopathy may suggest the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal tuberculosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Diagnostic Value of Computed Tomography in Head and Neck Cancer Part I : Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yul; Suh, Chang Hae; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    The CT findings of 46 cases of nasopharyngeal cancer were analyzed and compared with clinical tumor staging. They are composed of 28 cases (61%) of squamous cell carcinoma, 13 cases (28%) of undifferentiated carcinoma, 4 cases (9%) of lymphoma and 1 case (2%) of adenoid cystic carcinoma. The results were as follows: 1. The most common CT finding of nasopharyngeal cancers are air-way asymmetry including obliteration of Rosenmuller fossa, orifice of Eustachian tube and asymmetric obliteration of parapharyngeal fat. 2. Other involved anatomic sites are carotid sheath area, oropharynx, paranasal sinuses especially sphenoid sinus, cervical lymph nodes, nasal cavity and skull base or middle cranial fossa. 3. CT dose significantly influence on the tumor staging of the nasopharynx cancers, but has a definite value in evaluating deep tissue invasion of the cancers especially to parapharyngeal space or carotid sheath area. 4. CT seems to be essential for staging work-up, estimating the prognosis, and assessing the effect of radiotherapy of the nasopharyngeal cancer because it clearly shows the whole extent of the tumors including deep tissue invasion.

  19. Assessment of skull base involvement of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by bone SPECT using three detectors system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Nobuharu; Togawa, Takashi; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Shimada, Fumiyuki; Akiyama, Yoshihisa (Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    SPECT of the skull was performed on twelve patients with histologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma using newly developed three detectors SPECT system (Toshiba GCA 9300A) mounted with fan-beam collimators, for the purpose of early detection of skull base involvement of the disease. This SPECT system has extremely improved resolution with FWHM of 8 mm in the center, and it provides clear tomographic images of the skull which has anatomically complex structure. SPECT image was taken 3 hours after injection of 740 MBq (20 mCi) of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP following whole body skeletal survey. In twelve patients with confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 8 patients showed positive findings on SPECT. Three of SPECT positive patients also showed destructive findings on CT. Other five positive patients did not show destructive findings on CT at their initial examinations, but in three of them CT findings turned to positive later. SPECT was superior to CT in early detection of skull base involvement. We believe that SPECT of the skull is a diagnostic tool for early detection of skull base involvement of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (author).

  20. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma volume measurements determined with computed tomography: study of intraobserver and interobserver variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Chuan; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Liu, Mu-Tai

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the intraobserver and interobserver variability of computed tomography-based volume measurements of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Prospective study. Tertiary care centre. The primary tumour volume of 13 nasopharyngeal carcinomas was repeatedly measured by two trained observers independently in two different sessions, using the summation of area technique. Mean tumour volume and its standard deviation were calculated for each tumour. Statistical analysis was done with multivariate analysis, linear regression, and a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) random effects model. The coefficient of variation was less than 20% in 11 volume measurements, but a large discrepancy between observers was noted in two tumours with involvement of the paranasal sinuses. A good linear correlation was found between mean tumour volume and its standard deviation: standard deviation = 0.26 volume - 2.48 (r = .80). When the two tumours with a large coefficient of variation were excluded, the two-way ANOVA random effects model revealed that both the interobserver (p = .83) and the intraobserver (p = .90) effect are not statistically significant; interobserver variability was the major component of total variability (71.0%). Total variability in the computed tomography-based measurement of nasopharyngeal carcinoma volume is small by having the measurements done by a trained observer, except in tumours with involvement of the paranasal sinuses.

  1. Nonparametric functional mapping of quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Rongling; Casella, George

    2009-03-01

    Functional mapping is a useful tool for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control dynamic traits. It incorporates mathematical aspects of biological processes into the mixture model-based likelihood setting for QTL mapping, thus increasing the power of QTL detection and the precision of parameter estimation. However, in many situations there is no obvious functional form and, in such cases, this strategy will not be optimal. Here we propose to use nonparametric function estimation, typically implemented with B-splines, to estimate the underlying functional form of phenotypic trajectories, and then construct a nonparametric test to find evidence of existing QTL. Using the representation of a nonparametric regression as a mixed model, the final test statistic is a likelihood ratio test. We consider two types of genetic maps: dense maps and general maps, and the power of nonparametric functional mapping is investigated through simulation studies and demonstrated by examples.

  2. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Analysis of the Nasopharyngeal Airway in Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fahdawi, Mahmood Abd; Farid, Mary Medhat; El-Fotouh, Mona Abou; El-Kassaby, Marwa Abdelwahab

    2017-03-01

      To assess the nasopharyngeal airway volume, cross-sectional area, and depth in previously repaired nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate versus bilateral cleft lip and palate patients compared with noncleft controls using cone-beam computed tomography with the ultimate goal of finding whether cleft lip and palate patients are more liable to nasopharyngeal airway obstruction.   A retrospective analysis comparing bilateral cleft lip and palate, unilateral cleft lip and palate, and control subjects. Significance at P ≤ .05.   Cleft Care Center and the outpatient clinic that are both affiliated with our faculty.   Cone-beam computed tomography data were selected of 58 individuals aged 9 to 12 years: 14 with bilateral cleft lip and palate and 20 with unilateral cleft lip and palate as well as 24 age- and gender-matched noncleft controls.   Volume, depth, and cross-sectional area of nasopharyngeal airway were measured.   Patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate showed significantly larger nasopharyngeal airway volume than controls and patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (P cleft lip and palate showed significantly larger cross-sectional area than those with unilateral cleft lip and palate (P .05). Patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate showed significantly larger depth than controls and those with unilateral cleft lip and palate (P cleft lip and palate showed insignificant nasopharyngeal airway volume, cross-sectional area, and depth compared with controls (P > .05).   Unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate patients did not show significantly less volume, cross-sectional area, or depth of nasopharyngeal airway than controls. From the results of this study we conclude that unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the studied age and stage of repaired clefts are not more prone to nasopharyngeal airway obstruction than controls.

  3. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stancáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2013-01-01

    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577

  4. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jennifer Lamb

    Microsatellite loci for Chaerephon pumilus sensu lato from south eastern Africa were cross-amplified using primers developed for the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis. Two dinucleotide and four tetranucleotide loci were recovered and genotyped for 74 bats, yielding 9 to 15 alleles per locus. The observed and ...

  5. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taryn

    Primers developed for the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, were successfully used to cross-amplify microsatellite loci in two Afro-tropical Otomops species. Seventy one (71) bats from two species were genotyped for two dinucleotide and four tetranucleotide loci, yielding 1 to 15 alleles per locus. For the ...

  6. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willer, C. J.; Schmidt, E. M.; Sengupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    , we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value...

  7. Detection and utilisation of quantitative trait loci in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelman, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of the thesis is on the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy cattle and their utilisation in breeding programmes. Analysis of one bovine chromosome for quantitative trait loci for milk production traits is described and a QTL for protein percent was identified that

  8. Genetic variation of twenty autosomal STR loci and evaluate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was of twofold. One was to determine the genetic structure of Iraq population and the second objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of these loci for forensic genetic purposes. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Twenty (20) STR loci and Amelogenin), ...

  9. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium among pairs of loci, or of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These six loci were informative in studies of population genetic structure of C. pumilus sensu lato. Keywords: Bats, Chaerephon pumilus, Chiroptera, microsatellites, Molossidae, cross-genus amplification

  10. Unraveling possible association between quantitative trait loci (QTL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unraveling possible association between quantitative trait loci (QTL) for partial resistance and nonhost resistance in food barley ( Hordeum vulgaris L.) ... Abstract. Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in different barley populations were discovered for resistance to Puccinia hordei and heterologous rust species. Partial ...

  11. Choanal stenosis: a rare complication of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Stenose choanale post-radique: une complication rare de la radiotherapie des carcinomes nasopharynges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfils, P.; Preobrajenski, N. de [Universite Rene-Descartes, Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service d' ORL et de Chirurgie Cervicofaciale, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Descartes, 75 - Paris (France); Florent, A. [Cabinet d' ORL, 75 - Paris (France); Bensimon, J.L. [Cabinet de radiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-05-15

    Choanal stenosis is usually a congenital anomaly in children. Acquired choanal stenosis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a very rare pathology; only two publications report seven cases in the literature. We describe the clinical history, preoperative evaluation, surgical treatment and outcome of a case of acquired choanal stenosis after radiotherapy. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, presented with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (T2- NO-MO) one year before that had been successful treated with radiotherapy (68 Gy). At the end of radiotherapy, she complained of complete nasal obstruction, anosmia and hearing loss due to a bilateral serous otitis media. Bilateral complete choanal stenosis was confirmed by endoscopy and CT scan. Functional endoscopic surgery was performed, and nasal stents were left in place for 3 weeks. One year after, the patient have good airflow, and a patent nasopharynx without choanal stenosis. In conclusion, choanal stenosis is an unusual complication of radiotherapy that can be successfully treated with trans-nasal endoscopic resection. (authors)

  12. Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 is a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-targeted long noncoding RNA that enhances hypoxic bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Li, Xu; Li, Zhengkun; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) has been identified as an oncogenic long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is involved in bladder cancer progression and acts as a diagnostic biomarker for bladder carcinoma. Here, we studied the expression and function of lncRNA-UCA1 in the hypoxic microenvironment of bladder cancer. The expression and transcriptional activity of lncRNA-UCA1 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and luciferase assays. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assays and flow cytometry. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing, migration, and invasion assays. The binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to hypoxia response elements (HREs) in the lncRNA-UCA1 promoter was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. HRE mutations were generated by using a site-directed mutagenesis kit, and HIF-1α knockdown was mediated by small interfering RNA. The effect of HIF-1α inhibition by YC-1 on lncRNA-UCA1 expression was also examined. LncRNA-UCA1 was upregulated by hypoxia in bladder cancer cells. Under hypoxic conditions, lncRNA-UCA1 upregulation increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and inhibited apoptosis. The underlying mechanism of hypoxia-upregulated lncRNA-UCA1 expression was that HIF-1α specifically bound to HREs in the lncRNA-UCA1 promoter. Furthermore, HIF-1α knockdown or inhibition could prevent lncRNA-UCA1 upregulation under hypoxia. These findings revealed the mechanism of lncRNA-UCA1 upregulation in hypoxic bladder cancer cells and suggested that effective blocking of lncRNA-UCA1 expression in the hypoxic microenvironment of bladder cancer could be a novel therapeutic strategy.

  13. The crosstalk between breast carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and cancer cells promotes RhoA-dependent invasionviaIGF-1 and PAI-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubriac, Julien; Han, Shiwei; Grahovac, Jelena; Smith, Eve; Hosein, Abdel; Buchanan, Marguerite; Basik, Mark; Boucher, Yves

    2018-02-13

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) can remodel the extracellular matrix to promote cancer cell invasion, but the paracrine signaling between CAFs and cancer cells that regulates tumor cell migration remains to be identified. To determine how the interaction between CAFs and cancer cells modulates the invasiveness of cancer cells, we developed a 3-dimensional co-culture model composed of breast cancer (BC) MDA-MB-231 cell spheroids embedded in a collagen gel with and without CAFs. We found that the crosstalk between CAFs and cancer cells promotes invasion by stimulating the scattering of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was dependent on RhoA/ROCK/phospho MLC signaling in cancer cells but independent of RhoA in CAFs. The activation of RhoA/ROCK in cancer cells activates MLC and increases migration, while the genetic-down-regulation of RhoA and pharmacological inhibition of ROCK reduced cell scattering and invasion. Two distinct mechanisms induced the activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells, the secretion of IGF-1 by CAFs and the upregulation of PAI-1 in cancer cells. In an orthotopic model of BC, IGF-1R inhibition decreased the incidence of lung metastasis, while Y27632-inhibition of ROCK enhanced the lung metastasis burden, which was associated with an increased recruitment of CAFs and expression of PAI-1. Thus the crosstalk between CAFs and BC cells increases the secretion of IGF-1 in CAFs and PAI-1 activity in cancer cells. Both IGF1 and PAI-1 activate RhoA/ROCK signaling in cancer cells, which increases cell scattering and invasion.

  14. Rare metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changjing; Shen, Hong; Liu, Wenqiang; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Ling; Li, Jindong; Shen, Liangfang; Zeng, Shan

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. Metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes hasn't been reported before. We want to share our experience about the treatment choice. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal nonkeratinizing carcinoma in August 2004. In March 2013 he underwent a thyroid carcinoma radical operation, and histological examination revealed metastasis to the thyroid gland from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. An 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan and biopsy showed metastatic abdominal lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in April 2015. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes. The patient was treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and metastasis to the thyroid gland. The metastases to the abdominal lymph nodes received chemotherapy. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil for metastasis to the abdominal lymph nodes, the patient is currently asymptomatic with stable disease and improved quality of life. The treatment choice for metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma depends on the clinical disease extent, and surgery and/or chemo-radiation therapy must be drafted to the individual patient in order to improve the prognosis and quality of life.

  15. Genetic loci for retinal arteriolar microcirculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Sim

    Full Text Available Narrow arterioles in the retina have been shown to predict hypertension as well as other vascular diseases, likely through an increase in the peripheral resistance of the microcirculatory flow. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study in 18,722 unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium and the Blue Mountain Eye Study, to identify genetic determinants associated with variations in retinal arteriolar caliber. Retinal vascular calibers were measured on digitized retinal photographs using a standardized protocol. One variant (rs2194025 on chromosome 5q14 near the myocyte enhancer factor 2C MEF2C gene was associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in the meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts at genome-wide significance of P-value <5×10(-8. This variant was replicated in an additional 3,939 individuals of European ancestry from the Australian Twins Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (rs2194025, P-value = 2.11×10(-12 in combined meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts. In independent studies of modest sample sizes, no significant association was found between this variant and clinical outcomes including coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction or hypertension. In conclusion, we found one novel loci which underlie genetic variation in microvasculature which may be relevant to vascular disease. The relevance of these findings to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.

  16. Two genetic loci associated with ankle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stuart K; Kleimeyer, John P; Ahmed, Marwa A; Avins, Andrew L; Fredericson, Michael; Dragoo, Jason L; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-01-01

    Ankle injuries, including sprains, strains and other joint derangements and instability, are common, especially for athletes involved in indoor court or jumping sports. Identifying genetic loci associated with these ankle injuries could shed light on their etiologies. A genome-wide association screen was performed using publicly available data from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH) including 1,694 cases of ankle injury and 97,646 controls. An indel (chr21:47156779:D) that lies close to a collagen gene, COL18A1, showed an association with ankle injury at genome-wide significance (p = 3.8x10-8; OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.75-2.23). A second DNA variant (rs13286037 on chromosome 9) that lies within an intron of the transcription factor gene NFIB showed an association that was nearly genome-wide significant (p = 5.1x10-8; OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.46-1.80). The ACTN3 R577X mutation was previously reported to show an association with acute ankle sprains, but did not show an association in this cohort. This study is the first genome-wide screen for ankle injury that yields insights regarding the genetic etiology of ankle injuries and provides DNA markers with the potential to inform athletes about their genetic risk for ankle injury.

  17. Two genetic loci associated with ankle injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K Kim

    Full Text Available Ankle injuries, including sprains, strains and other joint derangements and instability, are common, especially for athletes involved in indoor court or jumping sports. Identifying genetic loci associated with these ankle injuries could shed light on their etiologies. A genome-wide association screen was performed using publicly available data from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH including 1,694 cases of ankle injury and 97,646 controls. An indel (chr21:47156779:D that lies close to a collagen gene, COL18A1, showed an association with ankle injury at genome-wide significance (p = 3.8x10-8; OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.75-2.23. A second DNA variant (rs13286037 on chromosome 9 that lies within an intron of the transcription factor gene NFIB showed an association that was nearly genome-wide significant (p = 5.1x10-8; OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.46-1.80. The ACTN3 R577X mutation was previously reported to show an association with acute ankle sprains, but did not show an association in this cohort. This study is the first genome-wide screen for ankle injury that yields insights regarding the genetic etiology of ankle injuries and provides DNA markers with the potential to inform athletes about their genetic risk for ankle injury.

  18. Three new loci for determining x chromosome inactivation patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Tümer, Zeynep; Ravn, Kirstine

    2011-01-01

    on two differentially methylated restriction enzyme sites (HpaII) and a polymorphic repeat located within this locus. Although highly informative, this locus is not always sufficient to evaluate the X-inactivation status in X-linked disorders. We have identified three new loci that can be used...... to determine XCI patterns in a methylation-sensitive PCR-based assay. All three loci contain polymorphic repeats and a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme (HpaII) site, methylation of which was shown to correlate with XCI. DNA from 60 females was used to estimate the heterozygosity of these new loci...

  19. Correlation between expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and cervical lymph node metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Chen, Mao-Huai; Wu, Ming-Yao; Wu, Xian-Ying

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and studied their relationship with cervical lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of EMMPRIN and MMP-2 in specimens from patients with chronic nasopharyngitis (CN), nonmetastastic NPC (NM-NPC), and lymph node-metastatic NPC (LNM-NPC). The rates of positive EMMPRIN expression in CN, NM-NPC, and LNM-NPC were 13.3%, 30.0%, and 66.7%, respectively. Significant differences were found between the rates in CN and LNM-NPC (p correlated (rs = 0.466; p <0.01). Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells may attain enhanced metastastic capability through the expression of MMP-2 induced by EMMPRIN.

  20. Tumour extent and T stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, P.Y. [deceased, Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tsang, V.H. [Vancouver Cancer Centre and British Columbia Cancer Agency, Div of Radiation Oncology, BC (Canada); Munk, P.L. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Radiology and Surgery, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, Dept. of Radiology, BC (Canada)

    2000-10-01

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in defining the T stage and full tumour extent of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty-eight patients with pathologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma underwent MRI and CT examinations within 2 weeks of each other. Contrast medium was used in both examinations. The T stage and full tumour extent according to MRI and CT were compared. In 32 patients MRI and CT findings agreed completely. MRI findings resulted in assignment of a higher stage than CT findings in another 8 patients. In the remaining 8 patients MRI showed wider tumour spread than CT, although there was no discordance in the T stage assigned. When compared with CT in defining the full tumour extent and assigning the T stage in 48 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, MRI showed more extensive disease in 16 patients, including 8 in whom the T stage was revised upward. Therapy was altered as a result of the MRI findings. (author)

  1. Habitual consumption of soy products and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-ting Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many studies have shown a negative association between the consumption of soy products and the risk of some cancers, but little is known about the effect of soy consumption on nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We assessed the association between the consumption of soy products on nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in Chinese individuals. METHODS: This case-control study included 600 (448 males and 152 females incident cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and an equal number of controls, matched according to gender, age (± 3 y and household type to the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. All subjects were recruited from hospitals in Guangzhou, China. A face-to-face interview was conducted with each study individual to collect general information and habitual dietary intake using a 78-item quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The median intakes of soy foods (in protein were 0.5/0.5, 1.4/1.7, 2.7/3.3 and 6.1/7.7 (male/female g/d in the quartiles 1 to 4. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed no significant association between the consumption of soy proteins or soy isoflavones and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals between extreme quartiles were 0.97 (0.66-1.45 for soy proteins and 0.97 (0.66-1.42 for total isoflavones. Null associations were also observed between intake of the individual isoflavones daidzein, genistein and glycitein and NPC risk, with adjusted odds ratios for the extreme quartiles ranging between 0.73 and 1.23. CONCLUSION: Habitual consumption of soy products had no significant effect on the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults with a relatively low intake.

  2. lytA Quantitative PCR on Sputum and Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples for Detection of Pneumococcal Pneumonia among the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Saukkoriipi, Annika; Palmu, Arto A.; Pascal, Thierry; Verlant, Vincent; Hausdorff, William P.; Jokinen, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay of sputum or nasopharyngeal specimens has shown promising results in the detection of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (PncCAP). We applied qPCR for the autolysin gene (lytA) and compared sputum and nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) pneumococcal loads in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and specifically in patients with PncCAP, to those in patient groups with other respiratory diseases. We studied patients aged ≥65 yea...

  3. Three-dimensional small-volume irradiation for residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Takeshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Kagei, Kenji; Fukuda, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Seiko; Ohmori, Keiichi

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize side effects and to achieve a high local control rate, three-dimensional (3D) small-volume irradiation was used for locally residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between July 1992 and March 1998, 18 tumors (12 residual and 6 local recurrent cases) were treated with 3D planned small-volume irradiation. The total dose (i.e., the dose of conventional radiotherapy plus that of the 3D irradiation) was 78.4 Gy (74.8-91.0 Gy) in its mean value for residual disease and 105.0 Gy (94.8-125 Gy) for recurrence. The mean value of the 90% isodose volume was 40.3 cc (8.0-94.0 cc). The mean follow-up period from the start of the boost or re-irradiation was 39 months. Results: The 3-year local control rate of the 12 residual tumors was 70%. Of 9 T4 residual tumors, 7 were controlled at a follow-up period between 17 and 70 months (median of 42 months). Of 6 recurrent tumors treated with re-irradiation, 3 were controlled at a follow-up period between 7 and 28 months. In the case of booster therapy, trismus occurred in 1 patient with a total dose of 91 Gy. Among the patients receiving re-irradiation, a temporary ulceration of the nasopharyngeal mucosa developed in 1 patient with a total dose of 111 Gy. Conclusion: 3D small-volume irradiation was effective and safe in treating residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  4. Is Elective Irradiation to the Lower Neck Necessary for N0 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yunsheng; Zhu Guopei; Lu Jiade; Ying Hongmei; Kong Ling; Wu Yongru; Hu Chaosu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize our experience and treatment results in lymph node-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated in a single institution. Methods and Materials: From January 2000 to December 2003, 410 patients with lymph node-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. The T-stage distribution was 18.8% in T1, 54.6% in T2 (T2a, 41 patients; T2b, 183 patients), 13.2% in T3, and 13.4% in T4. All patients received radiotherapy to the nasopharynx, skull base, and upper neck drainage areas, including levels II, III, and VA. The dose was 64-74 Gy, 1. 8-2.0 Gy per fraction over 6.5-7.5 weeks to the primary tumor with 60 Co or 6-MV X-rays, and 50-56 Gy to levels II, III, and VA. Residual disease was boosted with either 192 Ir afterloading brachytherapy or small external beam fields. Results: The median follow-up time was 54 months (range, 3-90 months). Four patients developed neck recurrence, and only 1 patient (0.2%) experienced relapse outside the irradiation fields. The 5-year overall survival rate was 84.2%. The 5-year relapse-free survival rate, distant metastasis-free survival rate, and disease-free survival rate were 88.6%, 90.6% and 80.1%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that T classification was the only significant prognostic factor for predicting overall survival. The observed serious late toxicities were radiation-induced brain damage (7 cases), cranial nerve palsy (16 cases), and severe trismus (13 cases; the distance between the incisors was ≤1 cm). Conclusion: Elective levels II, III, and VA irradiation is suitable for nasopharyngeal carcinoma without neck lymph node metastasis.

  5. Nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage and antimicrobial resistance in underfive children with community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cissy B. Kartasasmita

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung puncture is the best way to determine the etiology of pneumonia since it yields the highest rate of positive cultures. However, this procedure is difficult, especially for a study in the community. According to WHO, isolates to be tested for antimicrobial resistance in the community should be obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP swabs. Previous studies support the use of NP isolates to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates from children with pneumonia. The aim of our study was to know the bacterial patterns of the nasopharynx in underfive children with community acquired pneumonia and their antimicrobial resistance. The study was carried out in 4 Primary Health Clinics in Majalaya sub-district, Bandung, Indonesia. All underfives with cough or difficult breathing and classified as having non-severe pneumonia (WHO guidelines, were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs (CDC/WHO Manual were obtained by the doctor, the swabs were placed in Amies transport medium and stored in a sterile jar before taken to the laboratory in the same day. All children were treated with co-trimoxazole. During the nine month study, 698 children with clinical signs of non-severe pneumonia were enrolled. About 25% of the nasopharyngeal specimens yielded bacterial isolates; the two most frequently found were S. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis. The antimicrobial resistance test to co-trimoxazole showed 48.2% S. pneumoniae strain had full resistance and 32.7% showed intermediate resistance to co-trimoxazole. This result is almost similar to other studies from Asian countries. It seems that H. influenzae is not a problem in the study area; however, further studies are needed.

  6. Factors influencing the parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with parotid-sparing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenshan; Lee Jongkang; Su Maochang; Lee, S.P.; Chen Ginden; Lee Hongshen; Lee Huei

    2006-01-01

    The background of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing post-irradiation parotid gland function in nasopharyngeal cancer treated with parotid-sparing radiotherapy. This study consisted of 45 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy including 3D conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The mean follow-up time was 37.5 months (range: 15-50 months). Objective parotid gland function was assessed by series sialoscintigraphy pre-irradiation and post-irradiation at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. Subjective salivary function was recorded by the LENT/SOMA system. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the secretion ratio (SR) of parotid gland before and after treatment. Mann-Whitney rank-sum test was used to determine the factors influencing the post-irradiated SR. Chi-square test was used to compare the correlation between subjective grading of xerostomia and objective grading of parotid glands. There was a significant difference between the pre-irradiation and post-irradiation parotid gland's SR at 1 (0.30 versus 0.01, P 0.05) and 18 months (0.30 versus 0.18, P>0.05). There was significant correlation between subjective and objective salivary function (P=0.024) at 12 months after radiotherapy. The factor that impacted the preservation of parotid function was mean dose to the parotid gland >38.0 Gy (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that parotid function could recover 1 year after treatment with parotid-sparing radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. The most important factor that influenced parotid function was the mean dose to the parotid gland. (author)

  7. Comparing the Efficacy of Face Mask CPAP with Nasopharyngeal CPAP for Neonatal Transport after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Mostafa-Gharehbaghi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm infants have respiratory failure and complications because surfactant in alveolus is low. CPAP (Continuous positive airway pressure is a method for respiratory support in pre-term neonates and is provided by different equipment and methods. This study aims to compare two different routes of CPAP delivery in preterm newborn infants and to determine the need for surfactant replacement therapy in two groups. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Eighty four preterm infants delivered in Al-Zahra Hospital with gestational age 28-32 weeks were enrolled in this study from January 2012 to September 2012. They were randomly allocated in two groups. After initial stabilization in delivery room, forty two infants transferred to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU with face mask CPAP and 42 infant with nasopharyngeal CPAP and continued nasal CPAP in the NICU in both groups. All infants were followed for developing respiratory distress and need for surfactant replacement therapy and oxygen dependency till discharge.Results: The neonates that treated with two methods of CPAP delivery were similar with respect to gestation age, birth weight and other demographic characteristics. Twenty three neonates (65.5% in face mask group and 15 neonates (39.5% in nasopharyngeal CPAP group need surfactant replacement therapy (p=0.08.Conclusion: Mask CPAP or nasopharyngeal CPAP can used in preterm infants after delivery for neonatal transfer to NICU. This study showed no method of CPAP delivery is preferable to other in decreasing the need for surfactant therapy.

  8. [Molecular mechanisms of tumorgenesis and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell sublines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-bing; Yan, Jian; Jian, Shao-wen; Zhang, Ling; Li, Man-zhi; Li, Duan; Wang, Hui-min

    2002-02-01

    The authors have selected three different biological character sublines, including 5-8F (the highest tumorigenic and metastatic ability), 6-10B(the lowest tumorigenicity and lack of metastatic ability), and 13-9B(lack of tumorigenic ability), from colony lines of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line(SUNE-1). The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms of different biological character of SUNE-1 and its three sublines from two aspects of genetic and virology. 1. Amplifying Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) BamHI W fragment by PCR. 2. Determining the expression of latent membrane protein1(LMP1) of EBV in the sublines using in situ hybrization. 3. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the cell line and sublines by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). 1. There was EBV BamHI W fragment in SUNE-1 and its three sublines. 2. Expression of LMP1 was observed in the SUNE-1 and its three sublines, and their expression intensity was identical. 3. There were DNA copy number gains on chromosomes 1, 2p, 3, 4, 5p, 6, 7, 9, 10q, 11, 12q, 13q, and 18q as well as loss on 22q in the SUNE-1 cell line; DNA copy number gains on chromosomes 3p, 7q, 8q, 9q, and 10q were observed in 5-8F subline; DNA copy number loss on few chromosomes, but no DNA copy number gain was observed in the 6-10B and 13-9B sublines. There were expression of EBV and different genetic changes in the SUNE-1 and its three sublines. It is suggesting that the different biological character tumorgenesis and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell sublines may be due to genetic changes; and EBV infection may play an important role in keeping the malignant phenotypic of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  9. Detection of Mucosal Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas After Radiotherapy With Narrow-Band Imaging Endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-Hung [Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yen-Chun, E-mail: sarah_travel@hotmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Cheng [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kam-Fai [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: This study evaluated the feasibility of screening mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma with narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and six patients were enrolled. All patients underwent conventional white-light (WL) endoscopic examination of the nasopharynx followed by NBI endoscopy. Biopsies were performed if recurrence was suspected. Results: We identified 32 suspected lesions by endoscopy in WL and/or NBI mode. Scattered brown spots (BS) were identified in 22 patients, and 4 of the 22 who had negative MRI findings were histopathologically confirmed to be neoplasias that were successfully removed via endoscopy. A comparison of the visualization in NBI closer view corresponded to histopathological findings in 22 BS, and the prevalence rates of neoplasias in tail signs, round signs, and irregularities signs were 0% (0/6), 0% (0/7), and 44.4% (4/9), respectively (p = 0.048). The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic capability were 37.5%, 92.9% and 0.652 for WL, 87.5%, 74.5% and 0.810 for NBI, and 87.5%, 87.8%, and 0.876 for NBI closer view, respectively. NBI closer view was effective in increasing specificity compared with NBI alone (87.8% vs. 74.5%, p < 0.05), and in increasing sensitivity and diagnostic capability compared to WL alone (87.5% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.05; 0.876 vs. 0.652, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Although NBI in endoscopy can improve sensitivity of mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal neoplasias, false-positive (nonneoplasia BS) results may be obtained in areas with nonspecific inflammatory changes due to postradiation effects. NBI closer view not only can offer a timely, convenient, and highly reliable assessment of mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, it can also make endoscopic removal possible.

  10. Correlation between adenoidal nasopharyngeal ratio and symptoms of enlarged adenoids in children with adenoidal hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Olugbemiga Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenoid hypertrophy is one of the most common health problems affecting the paediatric population. This study aims to correlate adenoidal nasopharyngeal ratio (ANR with symptoms of enlarged adenoids in children with enlarged adenoids. Materials and Methods: It was a year, cross-sectional, hospital-based study conducted at Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. ANR was determined by dividing adenoidal depth with nasopharyngeal depth on the plain lateral radiographs. Results: A total of 90 consecutive children consisting of 61 males and 29 females were included in the study with M:F ratio of 2.1:1. Their ages ranged from 8 months to 11 years. All the patients presented with nasal obstruction, mouth breathing and noisy breathing. Majority (64.5% had severe obstructions with preponderance among children of 3-5 years (39.9%. Linear regression analysis showed significant association between age and ANR (t = 10.447, P < 0.001. There was high significant association (P < 0.05 between presenting symptoms and degree of nasopharyngeal airway obstruction; for snoring (r = 0.251, P = 0.000, sleep apnoea (r = 0.594, P = 0.000, nasal discharge (r = 0.314, P = 0.001, excessive daytime sleepiness (r = 0.219, P = 0.019 and failure to thrive (r = 0.240, P = 0.011. Conclusion: Lateral X-ray of the nasopharynx is an effective tool to evaluate children with suspected adenoid hypertrophy. It correlates well with patients′ symptoms and provides objective measures of adenoid hypertrophy.

  11. Local failure patterns for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia-xin; Huang, Shao-min; Jiang, Xin-hua; Ouyang, Bin; Han, Fei; Liu, Shuai; Wen, Bi-xiu; Lu, Tai-xiang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical feature and the local failure patterns after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Between March 2007 and July 2009, 710 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The magnetic resonance imagings obtained at recurrence were registered with the original planning computed tomography for dosimetry analysis. With a median follow-up of 38 months, 34 patients have developed local recurrence (32 cases valid). The incidence of invasion to nasopharynx, parapharyngeal space and the retropharyngeal space by the primary tumors was 100%, 75.0% and 62.5%, respectively, but 78.1%, 34.4% and 21.9% at recurrence, respectively. The rate of invasion to ethmoid sinus was 3.1% by the primary tumors but 28.1% at recurrence (p = 0.005). The topographic analysis of the local failure patterns showed 'central' in 16 patients; 'marginal' in 9; and 'outside' in 7. The median volumes of primary gross tumor were 45.84 cm 3 in the central failure group, 29.44 cm 3 in the marginal failure group, and 21.52 cm 3 in the outside failure group, respectively (p = 0.012), and the median volumes of primary clinical target1 were 87.28 cm 3 , 61.90 cm 3 and 58.74 cm 3 in the three groups, respectively (p = 0.033). In patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the recurrent tumors had their unique characteristic and regularity of invasion to adjacent structures. 'Central' failure was the major local failure pattern. The volumes of primary gross tumor and clinical target1 were significantly correlated with recurrent patterns. Employ more aggressive approaches to tumor cells which will be insensitive to radiotherapy may be an effective way to reduce the central failure

  12. Development of 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Ficus tikoua (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-Shui; Tan, Lu; Hu, Dai-Mei; Chen, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed to facilitate studies on the fine-scale population genetic structure of Ficus tikoua (Moraceae), a prostrate shrub known to have highly restricted gene flow. Microsatellite primers were developed using the biotin-streptavidin capture method and scanned for polymorphism within 76 individuals sampled from three natural F. tikoua populations. Fourteen loci were shown to be polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from three to 16. The observed and expected heterozygosity in the three populations ranged from 0 to 1 and from 0 to 0.87, respectively. Substantial divergence was found among the populations at some loci. All loci can be successfully amplified in at least eight other Ficus species, indicating good transferability within the genus. The 14 microsatellite loci will be a helpful tool for assessing the fine-scale genetic structure of F. tikoua.

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci for salinity tolerance in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. B. BIZIMANA

    2017-08-16

    indica), and a salt tolerant, Hasawi (aus), were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to salinity tolerance. One hundred and ninety four polymorphic SNP markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map ...

  14. Adenovirus-p53 gene therapy in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lax, Stuart A.; Chia, Marie C.; Busson, Pierre; Klamut, Henry J.; Liu Feifei

    2001-01-01

    Background: One major challenge to human cancer gene therapy, is efficient delivery of the gene-vector complex. Methods and results: Using two distinct human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) models, we demonstrate that intra-tumoural (IT) administration of adenoviral-mediated wild-type p53 gene therapy (Ad-p53) caused no greater inhibition of tumour growth as compared to ionizing radiation (XRT) alone. Detailed histologic examination of tumour sections demonstrated that <15% of tumour cells were transduced by IT adv-β-gal. Conclusions: This report underscores the importance of developing gene transfer vectors, which can provide therapeutic levels of transgene expression efficiently in solid tumours

  15. Examining the Role of Nasopharyngeal-associated Lymphoreticular Tissue (NALT) in Mouse Responses to Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Cisney, Emily D.; Fernandez, Stefan; Hall, Shannan I.; Krietz, Gale A.; Ulrich, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissues (NALT) found in humans, rodents, and other mammals, contribute to immunity in the nasal sinuses1-3. The NALT are two parallel bell-shaped structures located in the nasal passages above the hard palate, and are usually considered to be secondary components of the mucosal-associated lymphoid system4-6. Located within the NALT are discrete compartments of B and T lymphocytes interspersed with antigen-presenting dendritic cells4,7,8. These cel...

  16. Relationships between malocclusion, body posture, and nasopharyngeal pathology in pre-orthodontic children

    OpenAIRE

    Šidlauskienė, Monika; Smailienė, Dalia; Lopatienė, Kristina; Čekanauskas, Emilis; Pribuišienė, Rūta; Šidlauskas, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Malocclusion, body posture, and breathing pattern may be correlated, but this issue is still controversial. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the type of malocclusion, body posture, and nasopharyngeal obstruction in children aged 7-14 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study group comprised 94 patients aged 7-14 years (mean±SD: 11.9±2.1 years); 44 (46.8%) males and 50 (53.2%) females. All patients passed an examination performed by the same orthodontist (stu...

  17. Risk factors for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in persons with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Søgaard, Ole S; Harboe, Zitta B

    HIV-infected individuals have excess rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. We investigated risk factors for nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization at baseline and after 9 months in 96 HIV patients immunized twice with 7- valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine ±1mg CPG 7909. In total, 22 patients...... (23%) were colonized, 11 at baseline only, four at both baseline and 9 months, and seven at 9 months only. Compared to non-colonized patients, more colonized patients were smokers, had lower CD4+ nadir and had an AIDS-diagnosis. Immunization, antiretroviral treatment and the CPG adjuvant had no impact...... on colonization. These results suggest preventive strategies in addition to pneumococcal immunization....

  18. Nasopharyngeal Infection of Mice with Streptococcus pyogenes and In Vivo Detection of Superantigen Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Joseph J; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T; Kasper, Katherine J; Xu, Stacey X; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; McCormick, John K

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific pathogen that is responsible for an enormous burden of infectious disease. Despite intensive experimental efforts to understand the molecular correlates that contribute to invasive infections, there has been less focus on S. pyogenes carriage and local infection of the nasopharynx. This chapter describes an acute nasopharyngeal infection model in mice that is utilized in our laboratory to study the role of superantigen toxins in the biology of S. pyogenes. We also describe a method to detect superantigen-specific T cell activation in vivo.

  19. Dose escalated radiotherapy for T1 and T2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Lee, K. M.; Loh, K. S.; Tan, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is most prevalent in the Guangzhou province in southern China, in Hong Kong and in Singapore. It also occurs in Europe and North America, partly due to its epidemiological association with the woodworking and shoe manufacturing industry. Because of its anatomical location, i.e. so close to vital organs at risk, such as the brain stem and eyes, the technique of radiotherapy and dose/fractionation prescription is of extreme importance. This communication describes our experience with dose escalation radiotherapy for stages T1 and T2 of NPC. (author)

  20. The paranasal sinuses before and after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, M.J.; Leung, S.F.; Ambrose, R.; Cheung, H.S.; Hasselt, C.A. van [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong). Prince of Wales Hospital

    1996-01-01

    A study comparing the pre- and post-radiotherapy computed tomographic scans of patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma revealed that the incidence of major mucosal abnormality was significantly increased and approximately doubled after radiotherapy. The most significant factor predicting major mucosal abnormality after radiotherapy was the presence of tumour in the sinus before treatment. In the maxillary sinus there was significant association of major mucosal abnormality before and after radiotherapy although this was not so for the other sinuses. The mucosal changes observed were evident as early as six months after radiotherapy. (author).

  1. CT and MRI Findings of a Transitional Cell Carcinoma Case Located at Sino-nasopharyngeal Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Gokce

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonkeratinizing carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 1 to 20% of carcinomas of the sinonasal tract. Most of transitional cell carcinomas develop de novo, but a few may arise from preexisting inverted papillomas. Although histopathological findings of transitional cell carcinomas are well documented in the literature, detailed information on imaging findings is scarce. In the present study, CT and MRI findings of a de novo developed transitional cell carcinoma located at sino-nasopharyngeal junction are presented. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 199-202

  2. Genius loci jako estetický problém

    OpenAIRE

    Křížová, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    (in English): Diploma thesis Genius loci as an aesthetic problem is addressed by defining the concept of genius loci and exploring its aesthetic implications and parallels. After clarification of the ontological nature of this phenomenon its commonalities will be monitored with selected concepts of environmental philosophy and aesthetics, especially the aesthetic dimension of the environmental experience. Publications of Christian Norberg-Schulz and David E. Cooper are used as a starting mate...

  3. Detection of the introgression loci in Triticum aestivum transferred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant changes of the distribution frequency for the same introgression loci between BC1F2 and BC1F2-F7 populations were observed, and seven selective advantage loci from A. tauschii (Xgdm128-3D, Xgdm8-3D, Xgdm72-3D, Xgwm341-3D, Xgdm63-5D, Xgdm132-6D and Xgdm36-6D) were found, which ...

  4. Characterization of EST-based SSR loci in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.M.T. Brunet; D. Doucet; B.R. Sturtevant; F.A.H. Sperling

    2013-01-01

    After identifying 114 microsatellite loci from Choristoneura fumiferana expressed sequence tags, 87 loci were assayed in a panel of 11 wild-caught individuals, giving 29 polymorphic loci. Further analysis of 20 of these loci on 31 individuals collected from a single population in northern Minnesota identified 14 in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  5. Expression of the Pokemon proto-oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Liu, Fei; Tang, Feng-Zhu; Lan, Jiao; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Chen, Xing-Zhou; Ye, Hui-Lan; Cai, Yong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    To study the differentiated expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and tissues, mRNA and protein expression levels of CNE1, CNE2, CNE3 and C666-1 were detected separately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and Western-blotting. The immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69 was used as a control. The Pokemon protein expression level in biopsy specimens from chronic rhinitis patients and undifferentiated non keratinizing NPC patients was determined by Western-blotting and arranged from high to low: C666-1>CNE1>CNE2> CNE3>NP69. The Pokemon mRNA expression level was also arranged from high to low: CNE1>CNE2>NP69>C666-1>CNE3. Pokemon expression of NP69 and C666-1 obviously varied from mRNA to protein. The Pokemon protein level of NPC biopsy specimens was obviously higher than in chronic rhinitis. The data suggest that high Pokemon protein expression is closely associated with undifferentiated non-keratinizing NPC and may provide useful information for NPC molecular target therapy.

  6. F-127-PEI co-delivering docetaxel and TFPI-2 plasmid for nasopharyngeal cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao, E-mail: taoliu18@126.com [Department of Otolaryngology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Zhang, Xinyu [Department of Otolaryngology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Ke, Bo [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Hematological Oncology and Cell Biology, Jiangxi Provincial People' s Hospital, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Yigang [School of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Xidong [Department of Pharmacology, Jiangxi Institute of Materia Medica,Nanchang 330029 (China); Jiang, Gang [Department of Otolaryngology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Wu, Ting [Department of Light Chemical Engineering, Guangdong Polytechnic, Foshan 528041 (China); Nie, Guohui, E-mail: nghui@21cn.com [Department of Otolaryngological, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518036 (China)

    2016-04-01

    The co-delivery of drug and gene has become the primary strategy in cancer therapy. However, to construct one safe co-delivering system with higher drug loading and gene transfection efficiency for cancer therapy is still challenging. Herein, a novel degradable nanocarriers were synthesized and characterized in this study, which was composed of polyethylenimine (PEI)-linked PEO–PPO–PEO (Pluronic F127), called F127-PEI. Then the nanocarrier was used for hydrophobic docetaxel (DOC) and functional gene (TFPI-2 plasmid) co-delivery to treat nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). The results indicated that F127-PEI nanocarriers had higher DOC loading amount and possessed good gene delivery effect in vitro. For co-delivery analysis, the obtained F127-PEI/DOC/TFPI-2 complexes could induce a more significant apoptosis than DOC or TFPI-2 alone, and decreased invasive capacity of NPC HNE-1 cells more obviously. Moreover, the F127-PEI copolymer exhibited better blood compatibility and lower cytotoxicity compared to PEI-25k by the hemolysis and MTT assays, which suggests a promising potential for NPC therapy. - Highlights: • F127-PEI was synthesized and used for drug and gene co-delivery. • F127-PEI showed good delivery ability to docetaxel and TFPI-2 plasmid. • The co-loaded complexes showed synergistic effect to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. • F127-PEI showed better blood safety and lower cytotoxicity compared to PEI-25k.

  7. Serum resistance and phase variation of a nasopharyngeal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Durakovic, Sanel; Glaser, Philippe; Tutz, Sarah; Schild, Stefan; Reidl, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Haemophilus influenzae harbours a complex array of factors to resist human complement attack. As non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains do not possess a capsule, their serum resistance mainly depends on other mechanisms including LOS decoration. In this report, we describe the identification of a highly serum resistant, nasopharyngeal isolate (NTHi23) by screening a collection of 77 clinical isolates. For NTHi23, we defined the MLST sequence type 1133, which matches the profile of a previously published invasive NTHi isolate. A detailed genetic analysis revealed that NTHi23 shares several complement evading mechanisms with invasive disease isolates. These mechanisms include the functional expression of a retrograde phospholipid trafficking system and the presumable decoration of the LOS structure with sialic acid. By screening the NTHi23 population for spontaneous decreased serum resistance, we identified a clone, which was about 10 3 -fold more sensitive to complement-mediated killing. Genome-wide analysis of this isolate revealed a phase variation in the N'-terminal region of lpsA, leading to a truncated version of the glycosyltransferase (LpsA). We further showed that a NTHi23 lpsA mutant exhibits a decreased invasion rate into human alveolar basal epithelial cells. Since only a small proportion of the NTHi23 population expressed the serum sensitive phenotype, resulting from lpsA phase-off, we conclude that the nasopharyngeal environment selected for a population expressing the intact and functional glycosyltransferase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  9. [Rare earth elements contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Lan, Xiaolin; Zhang, Lingzhen; Xiao, Fufu; Zhong, Zhaoming; Ye, Guilin; Li, Zong; Li, Shaojin

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the rare earth elements(REEs) contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma( NPC) tissue in Gannan region. Thirty patients of NPC in Gannan region were included in this study. The REEs contents were measured by tandem mass spectrometer inductively coupled plasma(ICP-MS/MS) in 30 patients, and the REEs contents and distribution were analyzed. The average standard deviation value of REEs in lung cancer and normal lung tissues was the minimum mostly. Light REEs content was higher than the medium REEs, and medium REEs content was higher than the heavy REEs content. REEs contents changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma were variable obviously, the absolute value of Nd, Ce, Pr, Gd and other light rare earth elements were variable widely. The degree of changes on Yb, Tb, Ho and other heavy rare earth elements were variable widely, and there was presence of Eu, Ce negative anomaly(δEu=0. 385 5, δCe= 0. 523 4). The distribution characteristic of REEs contents in NPC patients is consistent with the parity distribution. With increasing atomic sequence, the content is decline wavy. Their distribution patterns were a lack of heavy REEs and enrichment of light REEs, and there was Eu , Ce negative anomaly.

  10. The study of parotid function with radionuclide imaging after radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanbin; Zhang Qi; Wang Ling; Wu Shixiu; Xie Congying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the uptake and excretion function of parotid by radionuclide imaging after simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) in nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods: Forty-eight nasopharyngeal cancer cases, 38 of them were treated by SMART with 2.5 Gy/fraction at tumor and enlarged lymph node to a total dose of 70 Gy, and 2.0 Gy/fraction at subclinical foci and prophy laxtic area volume to a total dose of 56 Gy in 38 d. The other 10 cases were treated by traditional radiation therapy (RT). After treatment, all patients performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. Clinical manifestation such as grade of mouth dryness was also analyzed. Results: Average UI and EI in SMART group decreased 21.9% and 37.3% respectively, with 12 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness, whereas in traditional RT group, mean UI and El decreased 56.1% and 96.1% respectively, with 9 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness. There was significant difference between them (P<0.05). Conclusion: Parotid imaging is sensitive for monitoring parotid function, and it is also reliable to evaluate the safety of SMART to parotid.. (authors)

  11. Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Carriage in the Conjugate Vaccine Era with a Focus on Pneumococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Devine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was included in the UK national immunisation program in 2006, and this was replaced by thirteen-valent PCV in 2010. During this time, the carriage of vaccine-type Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased but pneumococcal carriage remained stable due to increases in non-vaccine-type S. pneumoniae. Carriage studies have been undertaken in various countries to monitor vaccine-type replacement and to help predict the serotypes, which may cause invasive disease. There has been less focus on how conjugate vaccines indirectly affect colonization of other nasopharyngeal bacteria. If the nasopharynx is treated as a niche, then bacterial dynamics are accepted to occur. Alterations in these dynamics have been shown due to seasonal changes, antibiotic use, and sibling/day care interaction. It has been shown that, following PCV7 introduction, an eradication of pneumococcal vaccine types has resulted in increases in the abundance of other respiratory pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. These changes are difficult to attribute to PCV7 introduction alone and these studies do not account for further changes due to PCV13 implementation. This review aims to describe nasopharyngeal cocarriage of respiratory pathogens in the PCV era.

  12. Are HLA-E*0103 alleles predictive markers for nasopharyngeal cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douik, Hayet; Romdhane, Neila Attia; Guemira, Fethi

    2016-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a particular entity of head neck cancer, tightly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection and thus to HLA genes. In this study, we aimed to analyze HLA-E polymorphism in NPC advent and prognosis. 130 unrelated patients with CNP and 180 unrelated and healthy controls were included in our study. HLA-E genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP method; SPSS (13.0) was used for statistical analysis, and survival curbs were established with the "Kaplan-Meier" method (Log RankHLA-E*103 variants between patients and controls: E*1031 and E*1032 were associated with CNP (OR=1.613, p=0.013 and OR=1.0809, p=0.055), and E*1033 with controls (OR=0.254, pHLA-E polymorphism is associated with nasopharyngeal cancer. HLA-E expression studies could be used to understand the implication of E*103 variants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. [Concordance of nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal swabs in the detection of respiratory viruses by direct immunofluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Paulina; Abarca, Katia; Concha, Ida; Cerda, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    The most used test for the diagnosis of viral respiratory infection is the detection of viral antigens by direct immunofluorescence (DFA), in samples taken by nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) or aspirate (NPA). It would be desirable to have a less uncomfortable technique to obtain a sample from the patient, but of equal performance. To evaluate the diagnostic agreement between nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) in the detection of respiratory viruses by DFA and compare the degree of discomfort of both techniques in pediatric patients. Cross-sectional study in children who consulted to a pediatric emergency service with respiratory symptoms. Two samples (NPS and NS) per child were collected. The concordance between the two was determined by Kappa (K) coefficient and the degree of discomfort by a visual pain scale. We obtained 112 samples from 56 children, one by each technique. 82.1% were concordant, K = 0.61 (CI 95%, 0.39-0.83) for the detection of any virus, and K = 0.69 (CI 95%, 0.46-0.92) and K = 0.76 (CI 95%, 0.51-1) for syncytial respiratory virus and influenza A detection, respectively. The degree of discomfort was significantly lower for the NS. There is considerable agreement in the detection of respiratory viruses by DFA between samples obtained by NS and NPS, but not enough to recommend a change in the sampling method in this population.

  14. Dinitrosopiperazine-Mediated Phosphorylated-Proteins Are Involved in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjun Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP with organ specificity for nasopharyngeal epithelium, is involved in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC metastasis, though its mechanism is unclear. To reveal the pathogenesis of DNP-induced metastasis, immunoprecipitation was used to identify DNP-mediated phosphoproteins. DNP-mediated NPC cell line (6-10B motility and invasion was confirmed. Twenty-six phosphoproteins were increased at least 1.5-fold following DNP exposure. Changes in the expression levels of selected phosphoproteins were verified by Western-blotting analysis. DNP treatment altered the phosphorylation of ezrin (threonine 567, vimentin (serine 55, stathmin (serine 25 and STAT3 (serine 727. Furthermore, it was shown that DNP-dependent metastasis is mediated in part through ezrin at threonine 567, as DNP-mediated metastasis was decreased when threonine 567 of ezrin was mutated. Strikingly, NPC metastatic tumors exhibited a higher expression of phosphorylated-ezrin at threonine 567 than the primary tumors. These findings provide novel insight into DNP-induced NPC metastasis and may contribute to a better understanding of the metastatic mechanisms of NPC tumors.

  15. Nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory pathogens in Warao Amerindians: significant relationship with stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermsen, Meyke; Rivera-Olivero, Ismar A; Sisco, María Carolina; de Jonge, Marien I; Hermans, Peter W M; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2017-04-01

    To assess risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens in geographically isolated Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. In this point prevalence survey, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1064 Warao Amerindians: 504 children aged 0-4 years, 227 children aged 5-10 years and 333 caregivers. Written questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographics and environmental risk factors. Anthropometric measurements were performed in children aged 0-4 years. Carriage rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were 51%, 7%, 1% and 13%, respectively. Crowding index, method of cooking and tobacco exposure were not associated with increased carriage. In multivariable analysis, an increase in height-for-age Z score (i.e. improved chronic nutritional status) was associated with decreased odds of S. pneumoniae colonisation (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.83) in children aged 0-4 years. Better knowledge of demographic and environmental risk factors facilitates better understanding of the dynamics of colonisation with respiratory bacteria in an Amerindian population. Poor chronic nutritional status was associated with increased pathogen carriage in children <5 years of age. The high rates of stunting generally observed in indigenous children may fuel the acquisition of respiratory bacteria that can lead to respiratory and invasive disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by radical radiotherapy alone: Ten-year experience of a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Junlin; Gao Li; Huang Xiaodong; Li Suyan; Luo Jinwei; Cai Weiming; Xiao Jianping; Xu Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on our experience in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by radical radiotherapy alone in our institution during the last decade. Methods and Materials: From January 1990 to May 1999, 905 NPC patients were treated and were studied retrospectively. Radical radiotherapy was given to this cohort by conventional technique in a routine dose of 70-72 Gy to the primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes. In case of residual primary lesion, a boost dose of 8-24 Gy was delivered by either 192 Ir afterloading brachytherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, conformal radiotherapy, or small external-beam fields. Results: The 5-year and 10-year local-regional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival rates were 81.7% and 76.7%, 76.1% and 66.5%, 58.4% and 52.1%, respectively. In case of residual primary lesions after a dose of 70-72 Gy of conventional external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), an additional boost was able to achieve a local control of 80.8%, similar to that obtained with primary lesions that completely disappeared at 70-72 Gy (82.6%, p = 0.892). Conclusions: The treatment results of radical EBRT followed by a boost dose to the residual primary tumor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in our institution are promising

  17. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma: Case report with review on role of imaging in diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm, composed of vasogenic and myofibroblastic elements, accounts for 0.05-0.5% of all the head and neck neoplasms. There are very few case reports of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving the oral cavity; we report a case involving both the maxilla and mandible in a 17-year-old patient who reported with a large firm swelling on right side of face with recurrent epistaxis and headache. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed a large lobulated enhancing soft tissue mass, which was hypointense on T1-weighted image and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image causing expansion of pterygopalatine fossa and sphenopalatine foramen with extension into the sphenoid sinus, ethmoid air cells, right nasal cavity, right infratemporal fossa and right maxillary sinus with remodeling of right zygomatic arch and part of body and ramus of mandible. It was supplied by the right external carotid artery. Patient was referred to the department of neurosurgery for further management. The diagnosis at an early stage is important because it is associated with high risk of morbidity, but advances in imaging, and surgical methods of treatment have changed the sites associated with high risk of morbidity.

  18. Overexpression of AIB1 in nasopharyngeal carcinomas correlates closely with advanced tumor stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Zhong; Xie, Dan; Mai, Shi-Juan; Tong, Zhu-Ting; Shao, Jian-Yong; Fu, Yong-Shui; Xia, Wen-Jie; Kung, Hsian-Fu; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2008-05-01

    AIB1, a candidate oncogene in breast cancer, is commonly amplified and overexpressed in several types of human cancers. In this study, expression and amplification of AIB1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were studied by immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization using tissue microarrays, including 80 specimens of NPC and 20 specimens of nonneoplastic nasopharyngeal mucosa. In this NPC cohort, overexpression and amplification of AIB1 was detected in 36 (51%) of 71 and 3 (7%) of 46 NPCs, respectively. Overexpression of AIB1 was observed more frequently in NPCs in late T stages (T3/T4, 24/35 [69%]) than in earlier stages (T1/T2, 12/36 [33%]; P < .05). In addition, 18 (72%) of 25 NPCs with lymph node metastasis (N1-3) showed overexpression of AIB1; the frequency was significantly higher than that in NPCs without node metastasis (N0, 18/49 [39%]; P < .05). These findings suggest that overexpression of AIB1 in NPCs may be important in the acquisition of an invasive and/or metastatic phenotype.

  19. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: occupational exposures to particles, formaldehyde and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    2000-12-01

    During 1990-1992, 282 Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia with histologically confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were interviewed about occupational history, diet, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use, as were an equal number of Malaysian Chinese population controls, pair-matched to cases by age and sex. Exposures to 20 kinds of workplace substances, solar and industrial heat, and cigarette smoke, were analysed by univariate and multivariate methods. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma was associated with occupational exposures to construction, metal and wood dusts; motor fuel and oil; paints and varnishes; certain other chemicals; industrial heat; solar heat from outdoor occupations; certain smokes; cigarette smoking; and childhood exposure to parental smoking. After adjustment for risk from diet and cigarette smoke, only wood dust (OR = 2.36; 95% CI : 1.33- 4.19), and industrial heat (OR = 2.21; 95% CI : 1.12-4.33) remained clearly associated. Wood dust remained statistically significant after further adjustment for social class. No significant crude or adjusted association was found between NPC and formaldehyde (adjusted OR = 0.71; 95% CI : 0.34-1.43). This study supports previous findings that some occupational inhalants are risk factors for NPC. The statistical effect of wood dust remained substantial after adjustment for diet, cigarette smoke, and social class. Intense industrial heat emerged as a previously unreported risk factor, statistically significant even after adjustment for diet and cigarette smoke. No association was found between NPC and formaldehyde.

  20. Identification of a Novel Methylated Gene in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: TTC40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdi Ayadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To further explore the epigenetic changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed PCR was performed on NPC biopsies and nontumor nasopharyngeal samples. We have shown mainly two DNA fragments that appeared to be differentially methylated in NPCs versus nontumors. The first, defined as hypermethylated, corresponds to a CpG island at the 5′-end of the tetratricopeptide repeat domain 40 (TTC40 gene, whereas the second, defined as hypo-methylated, is located on repetitive sequences at chromosomes 16p11.1 and 13.1. Thereafter, the epigenetic alteration on the 5′-TTC40 gene was confirmed by methylation-specific PCR, showing a significant aberrant methylation in NPCs, compared to nontumors. In addition, the bisulfite sequencing analysis has shown a very high density of methylated cytosines in C15, C17, and X666 NPC xenografts. To assess whether TTC40 gene is silenced by aberrant methylation, we examined the gene expression by reverse transcription-PCR. Our analysis showed that the mRNA expression was significantly lower in tumors than in nontumors, which is associated with 5′-TTC40 gene hypermethylation. In conclusion, we found that the 5′-TTC40 gene is frequently methylated and is associated with the loss of mRNA expression in NPCs. Hypermethylation of 5′-TTC40 gene might play a role in NPC development; nevertheless, other studies are needed.

  1. TFPI-2 is a putative tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shumin; Ma, Ning; Murata, Mariko; Huang, Guangwu; Zhang, Zhe; Xiao, Xue; Zhou, Xiaoying; Huang, Tingting; Du, Chunping; Yu, Nana; Mo, Yingxi; Lin, Longde; Zhang, Jinyan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes play important roles in NPC tumorgenesis. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), is a protease inhibitor. Recently, TFPI-2 was suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis in some cancers. In this study, we investigated whether TFPI-2 was inactivated epigenetically in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Transcriptional expression levels of TFPI-2 was evaluated by RT-PCR. Methylation status were investigated by methylation specific PCR and bisulfate genomic sequencing. The role of TFPI-2 as a tumor suppressor gene in NPC was addressed by re-introducing TFPI-2 expression into the NPC cell line CNE2. TFPI-2 mRNA transcription was inactivated in NPC cell lines. TFPI-2 was aberrantly methylated in 66.7% (4/6) NPC cell lines and 88.6% (62/70) of NPC primary tumors, but not in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia. TFPI-2 expression could be restored in NPC cells after demethylation treatment. Ectopic expression of TFPI-2 in NPC cells induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and cell migration. Epigenetic inactivation of TFPI-2 by promoter hypermethylation is a frequent and tumor specific event in NPC. TFPI-2 might be considering as a putative tumor suppressor gene in NPC

  2. Imaging diagnosis of nasopharyngeal tumors; Diagnostico por imagem dos tumores da nasofaringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashiro, Ilka; Souza, Ricardo Pires de [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia. Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ilkay@terra.com.br

    2007-01-15

    The nasopharynx is located in the upper aero digestive tract. Its roof is formed by the basisphenoid, basiocciput and the anterior aspect of the first two cervical vertebrae, in front of the clivus. The lateral walls are formed by the margins of the superior constrictor muscle and the pharyngobasilar fascia, pharyngeal recess, torus tubarius and pharyngeal opening of auditory tube. The inferior margin of the nasopharynx is a horizontal plane passing through the hard palate and palatopharyngeal muscle. Anteriorly, it is in direct continuity with the nasal cavity through the posterior choanae. It is approximately 2.0 cm in anteroposterior diameter and about 4.0 cm in craniocaudal extent. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 70% to 98% of nasopharyngeal malignant lesions found in adults. This tumor presents a high incidence in Asians, most frequently in men, and is the third most frequent cancer in women. The clinical presentation of this disease depends on the size and site of the lesion, with small-sized lesions being asymptomatic. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play essential and complementary roles in the staging and treatment of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. (author)

  3. Identify the radiotherapy-induced abnormal changes in the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy (RT is the standard treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which often causes inevitable brain injury in the process of treatment. The majority of patients has no abnormal signal or density change of the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT examination in the long-term follow-up after radiation therapy. However, when there is a visible CT and conventional MR imaging changes, the damage often has been severe and lack of effective treatments, seriously influencing the prognosis of patients. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the abnormal changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients after RT. In the present study, we exploited the machine learning framework which contained two parts: feature extraction and classification to automatically detect the brain injury. Our results showed that the method could effectively identify the abnormal regions reduced by radiotherapy. The highest classification accuracy was 82.5 % in the abnormal brain regions. The parahippocampal gyrus was the highest accuracy region, which suggested that the parahippocampal gyrus could be most sensitive to radiotherapy and involved in the pathogenesis of radiotherapy-induced brain injury in NPC patients.

  4. Identification of local recurrence and radiofibrosis by computed tomography perfusion on nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Danke; Jin, Guanqiao; Xie, Dong; Liu, Younan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of perfusion computed tomography (CT) for identification of local recurrence (LR) and radiofibrosis (RF) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. Forty-eight prospective patients were recruited for this study. NPC diagnosis was confirmed by pathologic biopsy examination. Immunohistochemistry staining was used on biopsy specimens, and microvessel density was calculated by microscopy. Perfusion CT was performed on both the LR group (n = 31) and the RF group (n = 17) after intravenous injection of contrast medium. Time-density curve, blood flow, blood volume, and mean transit time, as well as permeability surface area product, were analyzed as perfusion CT parameters. The microvessel density was compared between both the LR and RF groups. There is a significant difference between the LR and RF groups in microvessel density, the time density curve, blood flow blood volume, mean transit time, and the permeability surface area product (P nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of new AJCC staging system with old AJCC staging system in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Se Mie; Wu, Hong Gyun; Park, Charn II [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the reliability of the new version of the AJCC staging system (1997) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in comparison with the AJCC staging system of 1992. Between 1983 and 1996, 185 patients with histologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with radiation therapy at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology Seoul National University Hospital. For these patients, AJCC staging system of 1992 was compared with the 1997 version, by reviewing hospital records, computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 5-year overall survival rates according to the 1992 and 1997 AJCC staging systems were 100%, and 100% at stage I; 100%, and 68.8% at stage ll;61.4%, and 63.8% at stage III; 61.1%, and 63.2% at stage IV. 5-year overall survival rates of each classification showed significant differences between stages (p=0.0049 for the old version, p=0.01 for the new), but no significant difference was found between the staging systems except at stage II. The new AJCC staging system allows staging as reliably as the 1992 version, but the adequacy of the newly modified staging classification should be confirmed by further clinical examination.

  6. A proposed modification of the Ho stage-classification for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, P.M.L. (Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Clinical Oncology Department); Tsao, S.Y.; Ho, J.H.C.; Yu, Peter (Baptist Hospital, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Radiotherapy and Oncology Department)

    1991-05-01

    Based on the clinical data of a retrospective study of 659 patients with routine computed tomography of the nasopharyngeal region, a refine-ment of Ho's stage-classification for NPC is proposed with reduction in the number of overall stages without sacrificing the accuracy in pre-dicting prognosis in short term. Classifying the cervical lymph nodal metastasis into supra-clavicular (Ho's N{sub 3}) and above supra-clavicular (Ho's N{sub 1}+N{sub 2}) and the nasopharyngeal primary into early (Ho's N{sub 1}+N{sub 2n} +T{sub 2o}) and advanced (HO's T{sub 2p}+T{sub 3}+T{sub 3p}) forms the conceptual back-bone of the present proposed modification of the original Ho stage-classification. Power in predicting the occurrence of distant metastases and the local failures has been enhanced by the proposed T-stage and N-stage re-grouping. Retrospective comparison between Ho's and the UICC stage-classifications showed a more even patients number distribution among the overall stages and a greater power in predicting NPC prognosis for the former. Prospective studies to compare the value of the different stage-classifications are required for recommendation of a single classification for general acceptance to facilitate comparison of treatment results between centres. (author). 24 refs.; 9 figs.; 3 tabs.

  7. The Role of Pretreatment FDG-PET in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wen-Shan [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Radiation Oncology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Fang [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Division of Medical Oncology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hsien-Chun [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Radiation Oncology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jung-Tung [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Surgery, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Weng, Jui-Hung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Li, Yueh-Chun [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Radiation Oncology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jong-Kang, E-mail: jongkanglee@hotmail.com [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Pretreatment with 2- [{sup 18}F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) was evaluated as a predictor of local failure-free survival (LFFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with nonkeratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) alone or concurrently with chemotherapy (CCRT). Patients and Methods: Seventy-five M0 NPC patients who received FDG-PET before treatment were analyzed. The primary tumor FDG uptake was measured as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). The LFFS, DFS, and OS were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences were evaluated on log-rank test. The prognostic significance was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Eighteen patients received IMRT alone and 57 received CCRT. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in 12 patients with locoregional or distant failure than in those without failure (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, the SUVmax was the only significant variable for 5-year LFFS (p = 0.017) and DFS (p = 0.000) but not for OS (p = 0.065). Conclusion: SUVmax is a potential independent prognostic predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with IMRT alone or with CCRT. A high {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (SUVmax >5) indicates poor outcome in patients with NPC.

  8. [Meta-analysis of PET/CT for diagnosis of residual/recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guohua; Zhou, Lvyi; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Qiao; Deng, Houfu

    2015-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in detecting residual/recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The literatures published between January 1990 and September 2013 were searched in PubMed, EM-BASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang databases. Two researchers independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies according to the QUADAS tool. Summary sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), and receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curves were obtained using Meta-Disc software. Subgroup analysis was also conducted. Twenty-six studies were included in this meta-analysis, involving 1203 patients. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and DOR were 0. 92 (95% CI:0.89-0.94), 0. 87 (95% CI:0.84-0.90) and 51. 10 (95% CI:34.29-76.15), respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) and Q index estimate for PET/CT were 0. 9494 and 0. 8897, respectively. The results of subgroup analysis showed no significant differences between subgroups(P>0.05). In a word, 18F-FDG PET/CT performed well for diagnosis of residual/recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with relatively high sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized nasopharyngeal amyloidosis. Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Ming; Peng, Gang; Shi, Liangliang; Li, Zhenyu; Fei, Shijiang; Ding, Qian; Cheng, Jing; Ming, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Primary localized amyloidosis is characterized by the deposition of amyloid proteins restricted to one organ, without systemic involvement. Primary nasopharyngeal amyloidosis is an exceedingly rare condition, for which the standard treatment remains unknown. Because of its challenging anatomical position, surgery alone hardly results in complete resection of the localized amyloidosis. Therefore, an interdisciplinary planning board to design optimal treatment is of particular importance. A 39-year-old man presented with a several-week history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of a retro-odontoid nonenhancing soft tissue mass. The endoscopic biopsy demonstrated that the mass was amyloid in nature. An extensive systemic workup revealed an absence of inflammatory process, systemic amyloidosis, or plasma cell dyscrasia. The patient was treated with a combination of surgery and radiotherapy, showing no evidence of recurrence or progression at his 1-year follow-up. Primary solitary amyloidosis is a rare form of amyloidosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nasopharyngeal amyloidosis case treated with excision and radiation leading to complete remission. Because of the difficulty for surgeons to achieve radical resection with such lesions, radiotherapy proved to be an excellent adjuvant treatment in this case. (orig.) [de

  10. Conformal Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Advanced Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma With Intracranial Extension: An Institutional Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Santam; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Patil, Vijay Maruti; Oinam, Arun Singh; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of conformal radiotherapy in advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a tertiary care institution. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart review was conducted for 8 patients treated with conformal radiotherapy between 2006 and 2009. The median follow-up was 17 months. All patients had Stage IIIB disease with intracranial extension. Radiotherapy was considered as treatment because patients were deemed inoperable owing to extensive intracranial/intraorbital extension or proximity to optic nerve. All but 1 patient were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy using seven coplanar fields. Median (range) dose prescribed was 39.6 (30-46) Gy. Actuarial analysis of local control and descriptive analysis of toxicity profile was conducted. Results: Despite the large and complex target volume (median planning target volume, 292 cm 3 ), intensity-modulated radiotherapy achieved conformal dose distributions (median van't Reit index, 0.66). Significant sparing of the surrounding organs at risk was obtained. No significant Grade 3/4 toxicities were experienced during or after treatment. Actual local control at 2 years was 87.5%. One patient died 1 month after radiotherapy secondary to massive epistaxis. The remaining 7 patients had progressive resolution of disease and were symptom-free at last follow-up. Persistent rhinitis was the only significant toxicity, seen in 1 patient. Conclusions: Conformal radiotherapy results in good local control with minimal acute and late side effects in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, even in the presence of advanced disease.

  11. Pituitary dysfunction in adult patients after cranial irradiation for head and nasopharyngeal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M.; Malgo, Frank; Neelis, Karen J.; Coremans, Ida; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pituitary insufficiency after radiotherapy in the hypothalamic pituitary region is a well-known complication. However, endocrine assessments are not incorporated in the follow-up after cranial irradiation for head and neck tumours. Aim of the study: To evaluate pituitary function in patients cranially irradiated for non-pituitary tumours. Patients and methods: Evaluation of pituitary function in all available patients treated at our centre with cranial radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. Results: We included 80 patients. Forty patients were treated for cerebral tumours, 15 for nasopharyngeal tumours, and 25 for different tumours like meningioma or cerebral metastasis. Mean age was 47.5 (18.6–89.7) years. Mean radiation dose delivered at the pituitary region was 56.27 Gy (40.0–70.0). Pituitary insufficiency was present in 16 patients within 2 years after irradiation 23/49 patients (47%) after 5 years and 27/45 (60%) after 10 years and 31/35 patients (89%) after 15 years. Conclusion: Pituitary insufficiency is highly prevalent in adult patients treated with cranial radiotherapy for head and nasopharyngeal tumours. These prevalence rates are comparable to those observed after radiotherapy for pituitary tumours. Because hormone replacement of endocrine deficits improves quality of life and prevents potential severe complications, such as Addisonian crises, periodical evaluation of pituitary function is advocated

  12. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  13. Remarkable response to photodynamic therapy in residual T4N0M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indrasari, S. R.; Timmermans, A. J.; Wildeman, M. A.; Karakullukcu, M. B.; Herdini, C.; Hariwiyanto, B.; Tan, I. B.

    2012-01-01

    Local treatment of residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a challenge. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality for incurable head and neck carcinoma. Several studies reported induction of an immune response after PDT. We present a patient with residual T4N0M0

  14. Catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-19 is essential for tumor suppressor and anti-angiogenic activities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chan, K.C.; Ko, J.M.; Lung, H.L.; Sedláček, Radislav; Zhang, Z.F.; Luo, D.Z.; Feng, Z.B.; Chen, S.; Chen, H.; Chan, K.W.; Tsao, S.W.; Chua, D.T.; Zabarovsky, E.R.; Stanbridge, E.J.; Lung, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 8 (2011), s. 1826-1837 ISSN 0020-7136 Grant - others:Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region(CN) HKU661708M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : MMP19 * nasopharyngeal carcinoma * tumor suppressor gene * angiogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.444, year: 2011

  15. [Dynamic observation on the short-term change of xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjie; Zhao, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    To dynamically analyze the change of xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy by DW MRI. Twenty-three nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients confirmed by pathology were enrolled. Male/Female: 19/4. The age was from 37 to 69 years. The patients were divided into two groups: G1, Dmeanxerostomia was assessed. SPSS 13.0 and SAS 8.2 software were used to analyze the data. At the end of IMRT, the change tendency of ADC in parotid and submandibular glands value was different in patients with different degree of xerostomia (F = 11.52, P xerostomia could be found in patients within different irradiation dose groups (Z = -3.622, P xerostomia for patients at the end of IMRT (Z value was -0.791, -0.949, 2.488, all P > 0.05). A significant difference of xerostomia degree in patients was found at the various follow-up time after IMRT (χ(2) = 19.59, P xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. The degrees of salivary gland function and dry mouth in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma damage evaluate with illuminated dose increases. The function of salivary gland gradually restored and the degree of dry mouth gradually reduce with the extension of time after radiotherapy.

  16. Preoperative Embolization to Improve the Surgical Management and Outcome of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA) in a Single Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, J; Holtmannspötter, M; Flatz, W

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign neoplasm that occurs almost exclusively in the nasopharynx of adolescent male individuals. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of preoperative embolization and the surgical outcome in...

  17. Clinical value of 18F-FDG coincidence imaging for diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Yanli; Lou Cen; Huang Zhongke; Shi Guohua; Chen Dongfang; Mu Da

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging for diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: A total of 45 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (33 males and 12 females, average age (55.56 ± 13.50) years), who underwent 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging before treatment, were studied retrospectively. The images of 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging (GE Millennium VG SPECT) and MRI were analyzed. The radioactivity ratio of the accumulated regions to cerebellum (T/NT)was calculated by ROI technique. The volume of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was recorded by MRI. The positive rates of 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging and EB virus-related antibody measurements were compared by paired χ 2 test. The correlation between T/NT ratios and tumor volumes were tested by Pearson correlation, and then ROC curves were established. The T/NT ratios and tumor volumes of different groups (different first symptoms, clinical stages, T stages, pathological classification and outcomes, with or without lymph node enlargement) were compared by t-test and rank sum test. Results: The positive rate of 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging was 97.78% (44/45), and the positive rate of EB virus-related antibody measurement was 95.56% (43/45, χ 2 =1.33, P>0.05). The T/NT ratio (2.439 ±1.119) and tumor volume ((7.311 ± 8.280) cm 3 ) of primary lesions had a positive correlation (r=0.463, P<0.05). The cut-off values of T/NT ratio and the tumor volume were 2.396 and 7.348 cm 3 , respectively, by ROC curves. T/NT ratios in groups with or without first symptom of epistaxis (2.847 ± 1.254 vs 2.082 ± 0.863, t=-2.409) and groups with or without facial numbness (2.855 ± 1.261 vs 2.134 ± 0.913, t=-2.225) were both significantly different (both P<0.05). T/NT ratios of differentiated and undifferentiated cancer were 2.266 ± 0.997 and 2.971 ± 1.351, respectively (t=-2.018, P<0.05). There was a significant difference of tumor volumes between groups with or without facial numbness (t=-2.684, P<0

  18. Rapid fibrosis and significant histologic recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplant is associated with higher tumor recurrence rates in hepatocellular carcinomas associated with hepatitis C virus-related liver disease: a single center retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Bhavin B; Chan, Chao Long

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus recurrence after transplant is universal. Histologic recurrence is observed in > 50% hepatitis C virus-infected grafts within the first year. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate factors responsible for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and mortality including histologic markers. All patients who had undergone transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus from 2002 to 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. There were 109 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus that underwent living-donor liver transplant from July 2002 to June 2012. On univariate analysis, preoperative Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score (P = .026), α-fetoprotein level (P = .020), rapid fibrosis (P = .008), and Hepatitis Activity Index ≥ 6 (P = .008) were associated with recurrence. On multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (P Hepatitis C virus recurrence on biopsy is a poor prognostic indicator and is associated with a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplant. Rapid fibrosis after liver transplant independently predicts hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.

  19. Genetic polymorphism of milk protein loci in Argentinian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonvillani Adriana Gloria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some alleles of milk protein loci are associated with superior cheese production characteristics. The genetic polymorphism of the milk protein loci alphas1-casein, beta-casein, k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin was examined in Argentinian Holstein cattle. Samples from 12 herds of four regions of Córdoba were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis. The chi² test was used to assess whether the populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotypic diversity was analyzed by the Shannon-Weaver index. The observed genotypic frequencies were analyzed by Hedrick's genetic identity and the genetic distance of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were similar to those of other Holstein populations. The genotypic frequencies of the alphas1-casein and beta-casein loci were in equilibrium, whereas in some populations the k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci were not. According to the Shannon-Weaver index the total genetic diversity within each herd was greater than 96%. The high values of identity agreed with the low genetic distances among populations. We conclude that there is extensive genetic homogeneity in Holstein cattle in Córdoba Province and that it would be feasible to select for B alleles at the k-casein and b-lactoglobulin loci in order to improve the quality of milk available for cheese manufacturing.

  20. High-density genotyping of immune loci in Koreans and Europeans identifies eight new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jun, Jae-Bum; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Kang, Young Mo; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Suh, Chang-Hee; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Jisoo; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Nath, Swapan K; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kremer, Joel M; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Okada, Yukinori; Diogo, Dorothée; Liao, Katherine P; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Plenge, Robert M; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    A highly polygenic aetiology and high degree of allele-sharing between ancestries have been well elucidated in genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, the high-density genotyping array Immunochip for immune disease loci identified 14 new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci among individuals of European ancestry. Here, we aimed to identify new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci using Korean-specific Immunochip data. We analysed Korean rheumatoid arthritis case-control samples using the Immunochip and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) array to search for new risk alleles of rheumatoid arthritis with anticitrullinated peptide antibodies. To increase power, we performed a meta-analysis of Korean data with previously published European Immunochip and GWAS data for a total sample size of 9299 Korean and 45,790 European case-control samples. We identified eight new rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci (TNFSF4, LBH, EOMES, ETS1-FLI1, COG6, RAD51B, UBASH3A and SYNGR1) that passed a genome-wide significance threshold (p<5×10(-8)), with evidence for three independent risk alleles at 1q25/TNFSF4. The risk alleles from the seven new loci except for the TNFSF4 locus (monomorphic in Koreans), together with risk alleles from previously established RA risk loci, exhibited a high correlation of effect sizes between ancestries. Further, we refined the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent potentially causal variants through a trans-ethnic comparison of densely genotyped SNPs. This study demonstrates the advantage of dense-mapping and trans-ancestral analysis for identification of potentially causal SNPs. In addition, our findings support the importance of T cells in the pathogenesis and the fact of frequent overlap of risk loci among diverse autoimmune diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. New Microsatellite Loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia F. Bessega

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection.

  2. New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessega, Cecilia F; Pometti, Carolina L; Miller, Joe T; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C

    2013-05-01

    As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection.

  3. Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Neumann, R; Gobert, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated short tandem repeat arrays from the human genome, using a rapid method involving filter hybridization to enrich for tri- or tetranucleotide tandem repeats. About 30% of clones from the enriched library cross-hybridize with probes containing trimeric or tetrameric tandem arrays, facilitating the rapid isolation of large numbers of clones. In an initial analysis of 54 clones, 46 different tandem arrays were identified. Analysis of these tandem repeat loci by PCR showed that 24 were polymorphic in length; substantially higher levels of polymorphism were displayed by the tetrameric repeat loci isolated than by the trimeric repeats. Primary mapping of these loci by linkage analysis showed that they derive from 17 chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We anticipate the use of this strategy for the efficient isolation of tandem repeats from other sources of genomic DNA, including DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes, and from other species.

  4. Confirmation of novel type 1 diabetes risk loci in families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, J D; Howson, J M M; Smyth, D

    2012-01-01

    Over 50 regions of the genome have been associated with type 1 diabetes risk, mainly using large case/control collections. In a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study, 18 novel susceptibility loci were identified and replicated, including replication evidence from 2,319 families. Here, we, th......, the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC), aimed to exclude the possibility that any of the 18 loci were false-positives due to population stratification by significantly increasing the statistical power of our family study.......Over 50 regions of the genome have been associated with type 1 diabetes risk, mainly using large case/control collections. In a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study, 18 novel susceptibility loci were identified and replicated, including replication evidence from 2,319 families. Here, we...

  5. Nasopharyngeal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: incidence and outcomes in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupesh I; Kaufman, Howard K

    2011-06-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), especially community-acquired MRSA, have increased substantially during the past decade. The optimal protocols for screening patients, particularly during pregnancy, have not been determined. To determine the incidence of nasopharyngeal carriage of MRSA in pregnancy as well as whether there was a correlation between positive maternal screening test results and an increased risk of adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes, including neonatal carriage of MRSA. The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records from Rockford Memorial Hospital in Illinois between December 14, 2007, and July 14, 2008. All patients, who were pregnant women admitted to the hospital, and their newborns had nasopharyngeal swabs collected for MRSA detection. Numbers of neonatal intensive care unit admissions and results of neonatal sepsis evaluations were noted. Maternal postoperative infections and anesthesia-related complications were noted and compared to those of control patients. Apgar scores at birth were compared with those of a control group. Of 1,045 patients who were tested, 31 patients (2.9%) had positive results for MRSA. By comparison, the hospital-wide MRSA prevalence for this period was 7.9% (569 positive results of 7,206 patients tested). This prevalence was substantially higher than that noted for the study population. Twenty-three of the 31 patients (74%) delivered at our institution and thus comprised the study group. A control group comprised 46 patients with negative results of MRSA screening. No positive results of neonatal MRSA screening tests were noted in either group, and no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups existed in 5-minute Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, or neonatal sepsis evaluations. Positive MRSA-screening test results were associated with a statistically significant decrease in the provision of regional anesthesia to the pregnant

  6. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children and adolescents - a single institution experience of 158 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weixin; Tang, Yuan; Gao, Li; Huang, Xiaodong; Luo, Jingwei; Zhang, Shiping; Wang, Kai; Qu, Yuan; Xiao, Jianping; Xu, Guozhen; Yi, Junlin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical features, treatment results, prognostic factors and late toxicities of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children and adolescents. Between January 1990 and January 2011, 158 NPC patients younger than 20 years old were treated in our institution, and the patient’s clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, outcomes and prognostic factors were retrospectively analyzed. There were 9 (5.7%) patients in stage II, 60 (38.0%) in stage III and 89 (56.3%) in stage IV according to the UICC2002 staging system. Neck mass (32.3%), headache (21.5%) and nasal obstruction (15.2%) were the most common chief complaints. With a median follow-up time of 62.5 months (range 2.0-225.0 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate, local-regional control (LRC) rate and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rate were 82.6%, 94.9% and 76.4%, respectively. There were 43 (27.2%) patients failed during the follow up, with seven local-regional recurrences and 38 distant metastases. In univariate analysis, the 5-year OS of T4 and T1-3 were 75% and 87.9%, p = 0.01, stage IV and stage II-III were 77.1% and 90%, p = 0.04, respectively. In multivariate analysis, T4 (p = 0.02) and stage IV (p = 0.04) were the independent adverse prognostic factors for OS. Significant reduction in trismus (27.3% v 3.6%, p = 0.03) and G2 xerostomia (37.9% v 10.3%, p = 0.02) was observed in patients treated by IMRT. Most childhood and adolescence nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were locally advanced diseases at first diagnosed. The treatment results of radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, are excellent in our institution. Reducing distant metastasis with new strategies and late toxicities with intensity-modulated radiotherapy are the future directions for the treatment of adolescent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  7. Nasopharyngeal carcinomas: analysis of patient, tumor and treatment characteristics determining outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkal, Haldun S.; Serin, Meltem; Cakmak, Ahmet

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The present study reviews the experience in treatment of 447 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas, analyzing patient, tumor and treatment characteristics determining outcome. Materials and methods: There were 322 males and 125 females, their ages ranging from 7 to 85 years (median, 45 years). Two-hundred and seventy-two patients had World Health Organization (WHO) type 3 carcinomas, 123 patients had T4 tumors and 320 patients had metastatic cervical lymph nodes. Three-hundred and eight patients were treated with radiation therapy alone and 139 patients with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy. Cumulative radiation dose to primary tumor ranged from 50 to 76 Gy (median, 70 Gy) and radiation dose to metastatic cervical lymph nodes ranged from 46 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Results: Follow-up ranged from 0.1 to 19.5 years (mean, 7.6 years). Local complete response was achieved in 357 patients. In multivariate analysis, T-classification, cumulative radiation dose to primary tumor and treatment with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy predicted local response. Nodal complete response was achieved in 272 patients. In multivariate analysis, N-classification and radiation dose to metastatic cervical lymph nodes predicted nodal response. Local failure was observed in 70 patients, nodal failure in 35 patients and systemic failure in 114 patients. Overall survival, disease-free survival and disease-specific survival were 33, 32 and 37%, respectively, at 10 years. In multivariate analysis, age, T-classification, N-classification, radiation dose and treatment with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy predicted overall survival whereas T-classification, N-classification, radiation dose and treatment with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy predicted both disease-free survival and disease-specific survival. Conclusions: Radiation therapy alone appears to be an adequate and viable treatment for patients with early

  8. Radiation-Guided Peptide Delivery in a Mouse Model of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-cheng Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of the HVGGSSV peptide, exploring radiation-guided delivery in a mouse model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods. Mice with CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma were assigned to two different groups treated with Cy7-NHS and Cy7-HVGGSSV, respectively. Meanwhile, each mouse received a single dose of 3 Gy radiation. Biological distribution of the recombinant peptide was assessed on an in vivo small animal imaging system. Results. The experimental group showed maximum fluorescence intensity in irradiated tumors treated with Cy7-labeled HVGGSSV, while untreated (0 Gy control tumors showed lower intensity levels. Fluorescence intensities of tumors in the right hind limbs of experimental animals were 7.84×107±1.13×107, 1.35×108±2.66×107, 4.05×108±1.75×107, 5.57×108±3.47×107, and 9.26×107±1.73×107 photons/s/cm2 higher compared with left hind limb values at 1, 2, 15, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Fluorescence intensities of tumor in the right hind limbs of the experimental group were 1.66×108±1.71×107, 1.51×108±3.23×107, 5.38×108±1.96×107, 5.89×108±3.57×107, and 1.62×108±1.69×107 photons/s/cm2 higher compared with control group values at 1, 2, 15, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Fluorescence was not specifically distributed in the control group. Compared with low fluorescence intensity in the heart, lungs, and tumors, high fluorescence distribution was found in the liver and kidney at 48 h. Conclusions. HVGGSSV was selectively bound to irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, acting as a targeting transport carrier for radiation-guided drugs that are mainly metabolized in the kidney and liver.

  9. A prospective randomized study of chemotherapy adjunctive to definitive radiotherapy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Anthony T. C.; Teo, Peter M. L.; Leung, Thomas W. T.; Sing, F. Leung; Wai, Y. Lee; Yeo, Winnie; Choi, Peter H. K.; Johnson, Philip J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective randomized trial was conducted to compare chemoradiotherapy against radiotherapy alone in the treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Eighty-two patients with histologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had either Ho's N3 staging or any N stage with a nodal diameter of ≥ 4 cm were entered. Seventy-seven patients were evaluable for tumor response and survival. The patients were randomized to receive two cycles of cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 Day 1, 5-fluorouracil 1000 mg/m 2 24-h infusion Days 2, 3, and 4 before radical radiotherapy, and four cycles of postradiotherapy chemotherapy (37 patients) or radiotherapy alone (40 patients). All patients received radical radiotherapy to the nasopharynx and neck. The nasopharynx and upper neck were treated to 66 Gy by conventional fractionation and the lower neck to 58 Gy. Booster radiotherapy (7.5 Gy/two fractions/week) was given to any residual nodes after standard radiotherapy. Results: The patient characteristics, including staging, were similar in both arms. The overall response rate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 81% (19% complete response, 62% partial response). The rates of radiotherapy for boosting parapharyngeal disease or residual lymph nodes were not significantly different in the two arms. The overall complete response rate to chemoradiotherapy was 100%, and to radiotherapy alone, 95%. Toxicities in the chemoradiotherapy arm were mainly myelosuppression, nephrotoxicity, and nausea and vomiting. The degree of mucositis was not significantly different in the two arms. There was no treatment-related death. The median follow up was 28.5 months. The 2-year overall survival was 80% in the chemoradiotherapy arm and 80.5% in the radiotherapy arm. The 2-year disease-free survival was 68% in the chemoradiotherapy arm and 72% in the radiotherapy arm, without significant difference between the two arms. The locoregional relapse rate, distant metastatic

  10. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Children: Comparison of Conventional and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskar, Siddhartha; Bahl, Gaurav; Muckaden, MaryAnn; Pai, Suresh K.; Gupta, Tejpal; Banavali, Shripad; Arora, Brijesh; Sharma, Dayanand; Kurkure, Purna A.; Ramadwar, Mukta; Viswanathan, Seethalaxhmi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh; Qureshi, Sajid; Deshpande, Deepak D.; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Dinshaw, Ketayun A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in reducing the acute toxicities associated with conventional RT (CRT) in children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients and Methods: A total of 36 children with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, treated at the Tata Memorial Hospital between June 2003 and December 2006, were included in this study. Of the 36 patients, 28 were boys and 8 were girls, with a median age of 14 years; 4 (11%) had Stage II and 10 (28%) Stage III disease at presentation. All patients had undifferentiated carcinoma and were treated with a combination of chemotherapy and RT. Of the 36 patients, 19 underwent IMRT and 17 underwent CRT. Results: After a median follow-up of 27 months, the 2-year locoregional control, disease-free, and overall survival rate was 76.5%, 60.6%, and 71.3%, respectively. A significant reduction in acute Grade 3 toxicities of the skin (p = 0.006), mucous membrane (p = 0.033), and pharynx (p = 0.035) was noted with the use of IMRT. The median time to the development of Grade 2 toxicity was delayed with IMRT (skin, 35 vs. 25 days, p = 0.016; mucous-membrane, 39 vs. 27 days, p = 0.002; and larynx, 50 vs. 28 days, p = 0.009). The duration of RT significantly influenced disease-free survival on multivariate analysis (RT duration >52 days, hazard ratio = 5.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.14-26.45, p = 0.034). The average mean dose to the first and second planning target volume was 71.8 Gy and 62.5 Gy with IMRT compared with 66.3 Gy (p = 0.001) and 64.4 Gy (p = 0.046) with CRT, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that IMRT significantly reduces and delays the onset of acute toxicity, resulting in improved tolerance and treatment compliance for children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Also, IMRT provided superior target coverage and normal tissue sparing compared with CRT

  11. [Clinical efficacy of alternating chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xi; Yang, Yucheng

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effective of alternating Chemo-radiotherapy for locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Retrospective analysis 106 cases of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma between November 2005 and March 2007. All patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy but 15 patients received radiotherapy(RT) alone. Inducing chemotherapy (IC) + RT + adju-vant chemotherapy (AC) regimen in 36 patients, IC+RT regimen was delivered in 25 patients and AC + RT regimen in 30 patients. 61 patients received 1 to 2 cycles of inducing chemotherapy and 66 patients received 3 to 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy after radiotherapy. Chemotherapy started on the first day after the end of the induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy begun after radiotherapy for a week. All patients were treated by radiotherapy using 60 Co r-ray, the nasophyarynx primary site was given a total does of 68 -74 Gy. The lymph nodes of the neck was given 60 to 70 Gy. The prophylactic irradiation does of the neck was 48-50 Gy. RESCULT: The median follow up time was 51 months. A total of 58 patients died, the overall survival rate was 45% in whole groups. The 5-year overall survival rates were 33%, 63%, 60% and 50% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT+AC group, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 13%, 56%, 48% and 40% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT + AC group, respectively. The 5-year relapse-free survival rates were 13%, 53%, 48% and 50% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT + AC group, respectively. The 5-year metastasis-free survival rates were 6%, 50%, 44% and 47% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC+ RT and RT + AC group, respectively. There was significant difference in all groups (P 0.05). IC + RT + AC group had heavier acute toxicity effects than other groups, but it did not affect the treatment process, all patients could be tolerated. This retrospective study has demonstrated that alternating Chemo-radiotherapy and early

  12. Transcriptional patterns, biomarkers and pathways characterizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuguo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a complicated process involving genetic predisposition, Epstein-Bar Virus infection, and genetic alterations. Although some oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been previously reported in NPC, a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of NPC in the context of global gene expression, transcriptional pathways and biomarker assessment remains to be elucidated. Methods Total RNA from 32 pathologically-confirmed cases of poorly-differentiated NPC was divided into pools inclusive of four consecutive specimens and each pool (T1 to T8 was co-hybridized with pooled RNA from 24 normal non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues (NP to a human 8K cDNA array platform. The reliability of microarray data was validated for selected genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Stringent statistical filtering parameters identified 435 genes to be up-regulated and 257 genes to be down-regulated in NPC compared to NP. Seven up-regulated genes including CYC1, MIF, LAMB3, TUBB2, UBE2C and TRAP1 had been previously proposed as candidate common cancer biomarkers based on a previous extensive comparison among various cancers and normal tissues which did not, however, include NPC or NP. In addition, nine known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, MIF, BIRC5, PTTG1, ATM, FOXO1A, TGFBR2, PRKAR1A, KLF5 and PDCD4 were identified through the microarray literature-based annotation search engine MILANO, suggesting these genes may be specifically involved in the promotion of the malignant conversion of nasopharyngeal epithelium. Finally, we found that these differentially expressed genes were involved in apoptosis, MAPK, VEGF and B cell receptor signaling pathways and other functions associated with cell growth, signal transduction and immune system activation. Conclusion This study identified potential candidate biomarkers, oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes involved in several

  13. BZLF1 Expression of EBV is correlated with PARP1 Regulation on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Tissues

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    Wahyu nur laili fajri, Ahmad Rofi'i, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC is a cancer that arises in the epithelial tissue that covers the inside of the nasopharyngeal mucosa and nasopharynx. Infected Epstein Barr Virus (EBV cell in a latent infection associated with the expression of nine latent proteins. Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 is one of latent proteins, and mayor EBV oncoprotein, with functions including virus growth, and to activate BamHI-Z Leftward Reading Frame 1 (BZLF1-EBV, which can inhibit p53 to induce apoptotic resistance, metastasis, and immune modulation. The body will respond to the expansion of EBV infection with activation of Poly(ADP-ribosePolymerase-1 (PARP1. The objective of study is to observe the expression of BZLF1 and determine PARP1 regulation in nasopharyngeal tissues. NPC-T2, NPC-T3 and polyp tissues slides are from Ulin Hospital, Banjarmasin. To characterize the necrotic cells such as pyknosis, karyorrhexsis, and karyolysis, histological slides were stained by HE that the necrotic cells measured by using a BX-53 microscope (Olympus with CellSens Standard software. Tissues slides were stained by using immunofluorohistochemistry with EBV-BZLF1 antibody-Mouse anti-EBV monoclonal antibody against Goat anti-mouse IgG-FITC and anti-PARP1 antibody (MC-10 against Goat anti-mouse IgG labeled Rhodamin. The expression intensities were measured by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (Olympus. The percentage number of necrotic cells and BZLF1 and PARP1 expression intensity were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 by one-way ANOVA test with α = 0.05, beside that we use correlate and regression analyze. The research showed that the amount of karryorhexis higher than pyknosis and karyolysis in both tissues. BZLF1 expression 1.79 INT/sel (in polyp, 2.76 INT/sel (NPC Type 2 and 4.36 INT/sel (NPC Type 3, PARP1 expression 2.25 INT/sel (in polyp, 3.31 INT/sel (NPC Type 2, dan 5.93 INT/sel (NPC Type 3.The high of intensity of expression BZLF1 induced the increasing of PARP1 expression

  14. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of bacterial culture of nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Examine the culture results, gamithromycin susceptibility, predictive values, and agreement of pooled bilateral nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) for identification of Mannheimia haemolytica genotypes, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni in calves treat...

  15. Population data for 15 autosomal STR loci from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemeljanova, V; Gobrusjonoka, O; Bergere, O; Latisheva, K; Podovšovnik Axelsson, E; Zupanič Pajnič, I

    2015-07-01

    Population data of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined from 500 unrelated Latvian individuals. The samples were amplified using the AmpFlSTR® NGM™ PCR Amplification Kit and the PowerPlex® ESX 16 System. No significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected, except for locus D3S1358. Calculated forensically relevant population statistics show that the investigated loci are very discriminating in the Latvian population, with a combined discrimination power of 0.9999999999999999998. A comparison with previously published allele frequency data from other populations is presented.

  16. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for Cornus sanguinea (Cornaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadl, Phillip A; Hatmaker, E Anne; Fussi, Barbara; Scheffler, Brian E; Trigiano, Robert N

    2013-09-01

    To facilitate genetic and conservation research of Cornus sanguinea, microsatellite loci were isolated and 29 individuals from 11 German populations were genotyped. • Sixteen microsatellite loci were characterized from an enriched small insert genomic library. The number of alleles detected ranged from five to 11 per locus, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.65 to 0.90, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.59 to 0.88. • The markers described in the study will allow further investigation of population dynamics and the degree of clonal reproduction within populations of C. sanguinea.

  17. Strategie di spazializzazione dei contenuti nel GeniusLoci Digitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Gasperi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available GeniusLoci Digitale is a software architecture of virtual tour that integrates various multimedia technologies (3D computer graphics, panoramas, dynamic maps, movies, pictures to represent the identity of places. The designer is interested in reproducing virtually complex aspects that define a context, which means the effect of meaning that distinguishes one place. GeniusLoci Digitale is in fact an architecture that evolves in search of a reproductive and communicative function which is recognizable to extend its development to the Open Source community.

  18. Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demenais, Florence; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2018-01-01

    We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known...... asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks...... at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms....

  19. Clinical application of tumor volume in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma to predict outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lee, Moon-Sing; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Current staging systems have limited ability to adjust optimal therapy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to delineate the correlation between tumor volume, treatment outcome and chemotherapy cycles in advanced NPC. A retrospective review of 110 patients with stage III-IV NPC was performed. All patients were treated first with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, then concurrent chemoradiation, and followed by adjuvant chemotherapy as being the definitive therapy. Gross tumor volume of primary tumor plus retropharyngeal nodes (GTVprn) was calculated to be an index of treatment outcome. GTVprn had a close relationship with survival and recurrence in advanced NPC. Large GTVprn (≧13 ml) was associated with a significantly poorer local control, lower distant metastasis-free rate, and poorer survival. In patients with GTVprn ≧ 13 ml, overall survival was better after ≧4 cycles of chemotherapy than after less than 4 cycles. The incorporation of GTVprn can provide more information to adjust treatment strategy

  20. Primary nasopharyngeal interdigitating dendritic cell tumor presentation and response to radiation therapy

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    Paul W. Read

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a primary nasopharyngeal interdigitating dendritic cell tumor (IDDCT. A 25-year old male presented with bilateral decreased hearing, double vision, and ataxia. Flexible nasopharyngoscopy reviewed a large mass obstructing and filling the entire nasopharynx. MRI and PET-CT confirmed the presence of the primary tumor and demonstrated bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the nasopharynx revealed a hematolymphoid neoplasm with dendritic cell differentiation, most consistent with an IDDCT. The lesion was unresectable. The patient was treated with definitive radiotherapy to 66 Gy to the primary tumor and 50 Gy to the bilateral cervical lymphatics using an IMRT technique. A complete response was achieved and the patient remains disease free at the primary site 23 months after completion of radiotherapy.

  1. Spontaneous ICA rupture: a severe late complication after giant nasopharyngeal angiofibroma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, G; Gisolo, M; Crosetti, E; Bergui, M; Danesi, G

    2013-04-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a benign vascular tumor occurring in young males. Surgery for giant JNA is a complex procedure, with a high risk of major complications. We report a rare case of massive epistaxis in a 15-year-old boy resulting from spontaneous rupture of the intracavernous tract of the internal carotid artery 20 days after resection of a giant JNA by midface degloving. The event was managed by an emergency arteriography with coils selectively deployed to occlude the vessel and to stop hemorrhage. This treatment has been shown to be effective in producing immediate hemostasis and stable long-term occlusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Progression of understanding for the role of Epstein-Barr virus and management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yosuke; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Endo, Kazuhira; Sugimoto, Hisashi; Hatano, Miyako; Ueno, Takayoshi; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is very common in southern China and Southeast Asia. In regions where NPC is endemic, undifferentiated subtypes constitute most cases and are invariably associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, whereas the differentiated subtype is more common in other parts of the world. Undifferentiated NPC is a unique malignancy with regard to its epidemiology, etiology, and clinical presentation. Clinically, NPC is highly invasive and metastatic, but sensitive to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). Overall prognosis has dramatically improved over the past three decades because of advances in management, including the improvement of RT technology, the broader application of chemotherapy, and more accurate disease staging. Despite the excellent local control with modern RT, distant failure remains a challenging problem. Advances in molecular technology have helped to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of NPC. This article reviews the contribution of EBV gene products to NPC pathogenesis and the current management of NPC.

  3. The Criteria to Confirm the Role of Epstein-Barr Virus in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Initiation

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    Ai-Di Gu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, but it remains obscure whether EBV is a viral cause of, or only an accompaniment of, NPC. We will discuss the accumulated evidence pointing to the relationship between EBV infection and NPC initiation from epidemiologic, pathogenic, molecular oncogenic, and experimental animal studies. We believe that convincing evidence from these perspectives must be provided before we can ascertain the causal role of EBV infection in NPC. Specifically, (1 epidemiological studies should reveal EBV infection as a risk factor; (2 the introduction of EBV into an animal model should produce NPC; (3 in the animal model NPC, the main molecular event(s or the involved signaling pathway(s should be identical to that in human NPC; and (4 finally and most importantly, prevention of EBV infection or clearance of EBV from infected individuals must be able to reduce the incidence rate of NPC.

  4. PACS-based teleconsultation system in support of the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Hu, Dake; Zhou, Shengmin; Hu, Jun; Yang, Yang

    1997-05-01

    It is shown in the paper that nasopharyngeal carcinoma is commonly encountered in southeastern China and we, considering the urgent need to diagnose the tumor as early as possible and the lack of enough expert radiologists throughout the province, have launched a project to develop a teleconsultation systems with the expert radiologist center at the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital serving rural hospitals in Zhejiang Province. Our client/server teleconsultation system consists of three subsystems: a mini PACS-based Teleconsultation Expert Center, the remote referring physician's workstation and networking subsystem connecting not only LAN but also remote workstation. The software facilities include Preparation Manager, Archiving Manager, Consultation Manager, Report Wizard and Query Manager, all of which simulates a step of the traditional travel-based consultation. In this paper, we also discuss briefly the systems performance and future improvement consideration.

  5. Light-activated hypericin induces cellular destruction of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C. S.; Leung, A. W. N.

    2010-01-01

    Hypericin from Hypericum perforatum plants shows an important promise in the photodynamic therapy on malignant tumor. The present study investigated that light-activated hypericin induced the cellular destruction of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. The result showed that hypericin resulted in a drug- and light-dose dependent cytotoxicity in the CNE-2 cells, meaning the photocytotoxicity of hypericin depends on both of the drug concentration (0 - 2.5 μM) and light-doses (1 - 8 J/cm2). We further investigated the apoptosis of the CNE-2 cells 8 hours after photosensitization of hypericin using fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. Flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC and PI staining was used to analyze early and late apoptosis. These data demonstrated that light-activated hypericin could significantly lead to the cellular destruction of the CNE-2 cells and induce early apoptosis as a prominent mode of cell death.

  6. Clinical study on external carotid artery infusion (trans-femoral) treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zejian; Li Chong; Luo Pengfei; Shao Peijian; Zhang Liangming; Li Weike; Li Yong; Xu Rongde; Zhuang Wenxing; Zhang Hua

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect and safety of external carotid artery infusion treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 20 cases of recurrent NPC (13 male and 7 female, age 36-65 years, mean 50 years) diagnosed by clinical examination (including nasopharyngoscope), serology (VCA-IgA) and imaging (CT, MR) and treated by external carotid artery infusion (trans-femoral) with adriamycin (or epi-adriamycin), cisplatin (or carboplatin), Pingyangmycin and 5-Fluorouracil. Results: Of all the patients, 8 cases (40%) had a complete response (CR), 7 cases (35%) had a partial response (PR). The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 75%. Cumulative survival rates at 1, 3 years were 90% (18/20), 50%(10/20) respectively. No severe side-effects and complications found. Conclusion: External carotid artery infusion (trans-femoral) should be effective and safe in the treatment of recurrent NPC

  7. Conversion of T-stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by computed tomography

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    Yamashita, S.; Kondo, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    1985-05-01

    Thirty-six patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were examined with computed tomography (CT) before definitive radiation therapy. CT clearly delineated the extent of the primary tumors. CT frequently showed subtle destruction of the paranasal sinuses and pterygoid plate, which was not usually detected by conventional X ray examinations. T-staging was made according to the UICC TNM classification system (1978) or another system, depending on clinical findings and the conventional X ray examinations (non-Ct T-stage). Then, the non-CT T-stage of each patient was compared with T-stage diagnosed with CT findings alone (CT T-stage). The authors conclude that CT is the single, most reliable imaging method for primary tumors of NPCV patients. Since CT detects subtle bone destruction, however, a large number of patients will be classified as having advanced tumors. Further modification of the TNM system may be needed for NPC patients in this era of CT.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography features of nasopharyngeal carcinomas with maxillary sinus involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.F.; Toh, K.H.; Khoo, J.B.H.; Lim, T.A. [Singapore General Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-02-01

    Anterior spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may infiltrate the maxillary sinus. In a prospective study of 114 patients comparing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in the staging of NPC, 10 (9%) patients were noted to have tumour infiltration of the maxillary sinuses. All of the patients except one had associated infiltration of the sphenoidal sinuses indicating advanced local spread. Computed tomography was excellent in outlining the extent of bony erosion and associated soft tissue mass within the antra. T1-weighted images could not demonstrate bony erosions directly although soft tissue extension into the sinuses could be clearly visualized. Both CT and MRI showed good demarcation between tumour and mucosal thickening within the maxillary sinus. Although MRI demonstrated soft tissue involvement more elegantly than CT, it did not appear to offer significantly more information that may affect clinical management. 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. CT and MR findings of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with skull base invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi; Kido, Goro; Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Kida, Akinori; Tsubokawa, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Six patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with skull base invasion were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution computed tomography (CT). The most common site of tumor spread was the temporal base region, especially the cavernous sinus portion, and the second most common, the posterolateral region, especially foramen lacerum. MRI was superior to CT for the demonstration of tumor extensions into the skull base or the parapharyngeal spaces, and for evaluating tumor encasement in the carotid artery and invasion of the cavernous sinus. On the other hand, bone target CT images were better for searching for subtle bone changes and especially, three-dimensional CT (3-D CT) images did provide valuable information for bone destruction of the skull base. (author).

  10. A Rare Case of Zosteriform Cutaneous Metastases from a Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Andrés González García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From a clinical point of view, the most common presentations of cutaneous metastatic disease are papules and nodules. However, a wide morphological spectrum of lesions has been described, including erythematous patches or plaques, inflammatory erysipelas-like lesions, diffuse sclerodermiform lesions with induration of the skin, telangiectatic papulovesicles, purpuric plaques mimicking vasculitis, and alopecia areata like scalp lesions. The so-called zosteriform pattern has been described to be in few cases and to the best of our knowledge has never been described associated with a metastasis of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This case highlights the relevance of including cutaneous metastases in the differential diagnosis of patients with nonhealing herpes zoster-like lesions, especially in those with underlying neoplasm recently diagnosed.

  11. Symptomatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients following radiation therapy: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.S.; Ho, J.H.; Lee, A.W.; Tse, V.K.; Chan, P.K.; Wang, C.; Ma, J.T.; Yeung, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Endocrine assessment was performed in 32 relapse-free southern Chinese patients 5-17 years following radiation therapy (RT) alone for early nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Initial screening was done using questionnaires emphasizing impaired sexual function and menstrual disturbance plus measurement of serum levels of thyroxine, free thyroxine index, thyrotropic hormone, prolactin, and additionally testosterone for males only. Those showing abnormalities were subjected to detailed pituitary function tests. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction was found in 7 female patients and only 1 male patient. A delayed TSH response to thyrotropin releasing hormone suggesting a hypothalamic disorder was seen in 6 of the affected female patients, and hyperprolactinaemia in also 6. None of the patients had evidence of diabetes insipidus. Hypopituitarism became symptomatic 2-5 years after RT with a mean latent interval of 3.8 years. A practical protocol for regular endocrine assessment for NPC patients after RT has been proposed. Multiple linear regression analysis of the radiotherapeutic data from the 11 female patients indicates that the likelihood of late occurrence of symptomatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction following RT is dependent on the TDF of the target dose to the nasopharyngeal region and the height of the upper margin of the opposed lateral facial fields above the diaphragma sellae (coefficient of multiple correlation = 0.9025). Except when the sphenoid sinus or the middle cranial fossa is involved, it is advisable to set the height of the upper margin of the lateral facial field at a level no higher than the diaphragma sellae. The hypothalamus and possibly the pituitary stalk as well may sustain permanent damage by doses of radiation within the conventional radiotherapeutic range for carcinomas

  12. Comparison of two commercial DNA extraction kits for the analysis of nasopharyngeal bacterial communities

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    Keith A. Crandall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of microbial communities via next-generation sequencing (NGS requires an extraction ofmicrobial DNA. Methodological differences in DNA extraction protocols may bias results and complicate inter-study comparisons. Here we compare the effect of two commonly used commercial kits (Norgen and Qiagenfor the extraction of total DNA on estimatingnasopharyngeal microbiome diversity. The nasopharynxis a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses and a key player in understandingairway microbial dynamics. Total DNA from nasal washes corresponding to 30 asthmatic children was extracted using theQiagenQIAamp DNA and NorgenRNA/DNA Purification kits and analyzed via IlluminaMiSeq16S rRNA V4 ampliconsequencing. The Norgen samples included more sequence reads and OTUs per sample than the Qiagen samples, but OTU counts per sample varied proportionallybetween groups (r = 0.732.Microbial profiles varied slightly between sample pairs, but alpha- and beta-diversity indices (PCoAand clustering showed highsimilarity between Norgen and Qiagenmicrobiomes. Moreover, no significant differences in community structure (PERMANOVA and adonis tests and taxa proportions (Kruskal-Wallis test were observed betweenkits. Finally, aProcrustes analysis also showed low dissimilarity (M2 = 0.173; P< 0.001 between the PCoAs of the two DNA extraction kits. Contrary to what has been observed in previous studies comparing DNA extraction methods, our 16S NGS analysis of nasopharyngeal washes did not reveal significant differences in community composition or structure between kits. Our findingssuggest congruence between column-based chromatography kits and supportthe comparison of microbiomeprofilesacross nasopharyngeal metataxonomic studies.

  13. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in North Tunisia: negative trends in adults but not adolescents, 1994-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wided, Ben Ayoub Hizem; Hamouda, Boussen; Hamadi, Hsairi; Mansour, Ben Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the second most common neoplasm of head and neck in Tunisia. The distribution is bimodal with a first period occurrence between 15 and 20 years old and a second peak at around 50 years of age. Undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharynx type III (UCNT) is the predominant histological type (93.4%). Data of cancer registry of North Tunisia confirmed that it is an intermediate risk area for NPC with overall ASRs of 3.6 and 1.6/100,000 respectively in males and females. This study aimed to present the evolution of incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma over a period of 12 years (1994-2006). Data of cancer registry of North Tunisia (NTCR), covering half of the Tunisian population, were used to determine evolution of NPC incidence, calculated by 5 year periods. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was used as an estimate of the trend. To best summarize the behavior or the data trend across years, we used a join-point regression program. Between 1994 and 2006, we observed negative annual average change of standardized incidence in men and women (-3.3% and -2.7%) also for the standardized incidences which showed a rather important decline (26.4% in males and 22.3% in females). The truncated age standardized incidence rate of NPC in adults aged of 30 years old and more (N=1209) decreased by -0.4% per year from 1994 to 2006 over time in north Tunisia dropping from 6.09 to 4.14 person-years. However, the rate was relatively stable during this period among youths aged 0-29 years (N=233) in both sexes. NPC demonstrated a favorable evolution from 1994-2006 probably due to a improvement in socioeconomic conditions.

  14. Foxj2 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis, progression, and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Shan Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Shan,1,* Tao Chang,2,* Si Shi,1 Mingming Tang,3 Lili Bao,1 Li Li,1 Bo You,1 Yiwen You1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The First People’s Hospital of Wujiang, Wujiang, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Foxj2, a novel member of Forkhead box family, has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis, progression, and metastasis of certain cancers. However, the expression status and effects of Foxj2 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC progression and metastasis remain debated. In this study, we first examined the expression of Foxj2 in NPC by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis. We confirmed significantly elevated expression of Foxj2 in NPC tissues and cell lines. Next, the relationships between Foxj2 expression levels and the clinicopathological factors were investigated. Its expression level correlated with T-classification (P=0.026, distant metastasis (P=0.004, and clinical stage (P=0.029. In addition, high expression of Foxj2 was associated with poor prognosis in NPC patients. The effects of Foxj2 on cell proliferation and migration were explored by RNA interference (RNAi with CCK-8 assay, cell cycle analyses, wound healing, and transwell assay. In conclusion, our data indicate that Foxj2 upregulation promotes the progression and migration of NPC. It makes Foxj2 serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NPC. Keywords: Foxj2, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, prognosis, progression, migration 

  15. Upregulation of KLHDC4 Predicts a Poor Prognosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

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    Yi-Fan Lian

    Full Text Available Kelch proteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a rare malignancy in most countries, but prevalent in southern China and certain areas of Southeast Asia. In this study, we identified Kelch Domain Containing 4 (KLHDC4, an orphan member of the kelch repeat superfamily, as a prognosis marker for NPC. We examined the expression of KLHDC4 in 168 NPC cases by immunohistochemical staining and found a substantially higher level of KLHDC4 in NPC biopsies compared to adjacent normal nasopharyngeal mucosa. KLHDC4 expression was significantly related to the T classification (P <0.05, N classification (P <0.05 and total staging (P <0.01 in NPC, and patients with higher KLHDC4 expression had poorer overall (P <0.01 and metastasis-free survival (P <0.05 rates. Knockout (KO of KLHDC4 via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in NPC cell line dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar and tumor formation in nude mice. In addition, cell migration and invasion were also impaired by KLHDC4 depletion as revealed by wound healing and Transwell assay. Mechanically, loss of KLHDC4 markedly induced spontaneous apoptosis in NPC cells, as evidenced by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. Consistently, KLHDC4 knockout cell-derived xenografts also showed elevated cleaved caspase-3 and PARP but reduced Ki-67 staining. In conclusion, our results suggest that KLHDC4 promotes NPC oncogenesis by suppressing cellular apoptosis. Thus, KLHDC4 may serve as a prognosis biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for NPC.

  16. Argonaute 2 and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a genetic association study and functional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peiyao; Meng, Jinfeng; Zhai, Yun; Zhang, Hongxing; Yu, Lixia; Wang, Zhifu; Zhang, Xiaoai; Cao, Pengbo; Chen, Xi; Han, Yuqing; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Huipeng; Ling, Yan; Li, Yuxia; Cui, Ying; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; He, Fuchu; Zhou, Gangqiao

    2015-01-01

    Argonaute 2 (AGO2), a central component of RNA-induced silencing complex, plays critical roles in cancer. We examined whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of AGO2 were related to the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Twenty-five tag SNPs within AGO2 were genotyped in Guangxi population consisting of 855 NPC patients and 1036 controls. The SNPs significantly associated with NPC were further replicated in Guangdong population consisting of 996 NPC patients and 972 controls. Functional experiments were conducted to examine the biologic roles of AGO2 in NPC. A significantly increased risk of advanced lymph node metastasis of NPC was identified for the AGO2 rs3928672 GA + AA genotype compared with GG genotype in both the Guangxi and Guangdong populations (combined odd ratio = 2.08, 95 % confidence interval = 1.44-3.01, P = 8.60 × 10 −5 ). Moreover, the AGO2 protein expression levels of rs3928672 GA + AA genotype carriers were higher than the GG genotype carriers in the NPC tissues (P = 0.041), and AGO2 was significantly over-expressed in NPC tissues compared with non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues (P = 0.011). In addition, AGO2 knockdown reduced cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and inhibited migration of NPC cells. Furthermore, gene expression microarray showed that genes altered following AGO2 knockdown were clustered in tumorigenesis and metastasis relevant pathways. Our findings suggest that the genetic polymorphism in AGO2 may be a risk factor for the advanced lymph node metastasis of NPC in Chinese populations, and AGO2 acts as an oncogene in the development of NPC. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1895-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  17. Pregnancy associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A retrospective case-control analysis of maternal survival outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yi-Kan; Zhang, Fan; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Kang, Tie-Bang; Jia, Wei-Hua; Shao, Jian-Yong; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Guo, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (PANPC) has been associated with poor survival. Recent advances in radiation technology and imaging techniques, and the introduction of chemotherapy have improved survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, it is not clear whether these changes have improved survival in PANPC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare five-year maternal survival in patients with PANPC and non-pregnant patients with NPC. Methods: After adjusting for age, stage and chemotherapy mode, we conducted a retrospective case-control study among 36 non-metastatic PANPC patients and 36 non-pregnant NPC patients (control group) who were treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Results: The median age of both groups was 30 years (range, 23–35 years); median follow-up for all patients was 70 months. Locoregionally-advanced disease accounted for 83.3% of all patients with PANPC and 92.9% of patients who developed NPC during pregnancy. In both the PANPC and control groups, 31 patients (86.1%) received chemotherapy and all patients received definitive radiotherapy. The five-year rates for overall survival (70% vs. 78%, p = 0.72), distant metastasis-free survival (79% vs. 76%, p = 0.77), loco-regional relapse-free survival (97% vs. 91%, p = 0.69) and disease-free survival (69% vs. 74%, p = 0.98) were not significantly different between the PANPC and control groups. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model revealed that only N-classification was significantly associated with five-year OS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, in the modern treatment era, pregnancy itself may not negatively influence survival outcomes in patients with NPC; however, pregnancy may delay the diagnosis of NPC

  18. The impact of smoking on the clinical outcome of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Huang, Pei-Yu; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Huai; Tang, Lin-Quan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-Ting; Cao, Ka-Jia; Guo, Ling; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Guo, Xiang; Hong, Ming-Huang; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a common risk factor for developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the relationship between smoking and clinical outcomes remains uncertain. The patients who participated in this study were drawn from a randomized clinical trial, for which the purpose was to compare the efficacy of induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy with that of induction chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The patients who ever smoked were divided into the following categories of cumulative smoking exposure based on the duration of smoking and the quantity of cigarettes smoked: light, short-term smokers; light, long-term smokers; heavy, short-term smokers; and heavy, long-term smokers. A log-rank test and Cox models were used to assess the association between smoking and the clinical outcomes of overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), locoregional recurrence failure-free survival (LRFFS) and distant failure-free survival (DFFS). We found that ever-smokers experienced significantly shorter LRFFS times than never-smokers (5-year LRFFS rates: 85.8% vs. 88.5%, P = 0.022). The amount of smoking was significantly associated with FFS (P = 0.046) and LRFFS (P = 0.001) in the different ever-smoker groups. The amount of smoking was associated with LRFFS [P = 0.002, HR = 2.069 (95% confident interval (CI), 1.298-3.299)] even after a multivariable adjustment. Smoking increases the risk of locoregional recurrence. Furthermore, the amount of smoking influences the prognosis of smokers, and these effects are dose-dependent

  19. Therapeutic outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cranial nerve palsy: a single institution experience of 104 patients

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    Huang CC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Chieh Huang,1,2 Fu-Min Fang,1 Hui-Chun Chen,1 Hsuan-Chih Hsu,1 Tai-Lin Huang,3 Yu-Li Su,3 Ya-Chun Chang4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 2Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Department of Hematology and Oncology, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China Purpose: Cranial nerve (CN palsy is the main symptom in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of NPC with CN palsy and to analyze the prognostic factors.Patients and methods: A total of 104 NPC patients with CN palsy curatively treated by conventional (n=44 or conformal (n=60 radiotherapy (RT were enrolled. Upper CN palsy was present in 81 patients, lower CN palsy in four patients, and both upper and lower CN palsy in 19 patients. Forty-one patients had CN palsy for >2 months before diagnosis.Results: Complete recovery of CN palsy was observed in 74 patients. The actuarial 5-year locoregional control (LRC, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, and overall survival (OS rates were 58.2%, 62.2%, and 38.4%, respectively. No significant difference was observed in CN recovery, LRC, DMFS, or OS for patients treated by conventional versus conformal technique. However, significant reduction of grade 3 or greater toxicities was found in those treated by the conformal technique (odds ratio =0.28.Conclusion: Patients with CN palsy presenting >2 months before diagnosis were hard to recover from palsy. The LRC, OS, and recovery from CN palsy did not significantly change with the treatment evolution. Patients with complete recovery from CN palsy had longer OS. Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, cranial nerve palsy, radiotherapy

  20. Long term chemoradiotherapy-related dental and skeletal complications in a young female with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou1, Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki2, Nikolaos Eleftheriadis3, Christos Papaloukas41Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 3Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: We describe the long-term complications six years after chemoradiotherapy in a 20-year old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We wanted to know whether the radiation dose was constant throughout the oral cavity, and thus uniformly affecting the corresponding dental and skeletal structures. Clinical and radiologic findings are described six years after chemoradiotherapy based on a two-dimensional computerized treatment planning system. This revealed radiation caries limited only to posterior teeth, proximal caries in the anterior teeth, limited but continuous salivary flow, mild periodontal infection, mild xerostomia, and a regenerative capacity of bones and the developmental process. The quantitative assessment of radiation delivered to the mandible revealed a high radiation dose in the posterior area and a minimal dose in the anterior area. This explains the differences in caries manifestation between the anterior and posterior teeth. According to the present study, individualized radiation fields, using a two-dimensional treatment planning system, result in restriction of severe damage of the dental and skeletal structures, which usually follows chemoradiotherapy. Orthodontic treatment could be initiated according to individual patient needs.Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, adolescence, radiotherapy, dental and skeletal complications

  1. Reduced hypothalamic blood flow after radiation treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer: SPECT studies in 34 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieng, P.U.; Huang, T.S.; Chang, C.C.; Chong, P.N.; Tien, R.D.; Su, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effect of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic blood flow, the authors performed 44 regional cerebral blood flow studies with 99mTc hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) on four normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologically proved nasopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-three men and 15 women, 30-65 years old, were divided into four study groups: group 1 served as a control and consisted of four normal volunteers and six patients studied prior to cranial irradiation; group 2 patients had cranial irradiation half a year before the SPECT study (n = 12, one from group 1); group 3 patients were irradiated 1 year before the study (n = 13, three from group 1 and two from group 2); and group 4 patients were irradiated at least 5 years before SPECT imaging (n = 9). Six patients were studied twice. Quantification of the 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies was done separately by three radiologists to obtain the hypothalamus/occipital (H/O) and hypothalamus/parasagittal (H/P) ratios. Endocrinologic studies were performed in all cases and the hypothalamus-thyrotroph-thyroid, hypothalamus-gonadotroph-testis (ovary), hypothalamus-lactotroph, hypothalamus-somatotroph, and hypothalamus-corticotroph-adrenal axes were evaluated separately. They determined that regional hypothalamic blood flow was reduced after cranial irradiation in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. The H/O ratio of groups 3 and 4 did not differ from that of group 2 (one-half year after cranial irradiation). The H/O ratio was significantly reduced 6 months and 1 year after cranial irradiation; mean ± SD = 0.5801 ± 0.0829 (p less than .025), 0.5725 ± 0.0791 (p less than .01) versus 0.6477 ± 0.0458 before cranial irradiation, respectively

  2. In vivo adaptation and persistence of Neisseria meningitidis within the nasopharyngeal mucosa.

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    Kay O Johswich

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis (Nme asymptomatically colonizes the human nasopharynx, yet can initiate rapidly-progressing sepsis and meningitis in rare instances. Understanding the meningococcal lifestyle within the nasopharyngeal mucosa, a phase of infection that is prerequisite for disease, has been hampered by the lack of animal models. Herein, we compare mice expressing the four different human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs that can bind the neisserial Opa protein adhesins, and find that expression of human CEACAM1 is necessary and sufficient to establish intranasal colonization. During infection, in vivo selection for phase variants expressing CEACAM1-specific Opa proteins occurs, allowing mucosal attachment and entry into the subepithelial space. Consistent with an essential role for Opa proteins in this process, Opa-deficient meningococci were unable to colonize the CEACAM1-humanized mice. While simple Opa-mediated attachment triggered an innate response regardless of meningococcal viability within the inoculum, persistence of viable Opa-expressing bacteria within the CEACAM1-humanized mice was required for a protective memory response to be achieved. Parenteral immunization with a capsule-based conjugate vaccine led to the accumulation of protective levels of Nme-specific IgG within the nasal mucus, yet the sterilizing immunity afforded by natural colonization was instead conferred by Nme-specific IgA without detectable IgG. Considered together, this study establishes that the availability of CEACAM1 helps define the exquisite host specificity of this human-restricted pathogen, displays a striking example of in vivo selection for the expression of desirable Opa variants, and provides a novel model in which to consider meningococcal infection and immunity within the nasopharyngeal mucosa.

  3. Causes of interruption of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu P.; Tsang, Ngan M.; Tseng, Chen K.; Lin, Shinn Y.

    2000-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is now curable with early diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment. In the past several decades, few studies have investigated why some patients fail to complete the recommended full course of radiotherapy. A total of 3273 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated at the Radiation Oncology Department of Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in a span of 18 years from 1979 to 1996. Among these patients, 276 did not complete the full course of treatment of radiation therapy. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to determine the factors contributing to treatment interruption. Of the 276 patients whose treatment was interrupted, 120 (43.5%) were unable to endure the acute side effects of radiation therapy and were afraid of the possible complications resulting from the treatment; 57 (20.7%) had doubts about the diagnosis or had the subjective perception that the treatment offered would be ineffective in view of the severity of their disease; 50 (18.1%) resorted to folk prescriptions; 17 (6.2%) were faced with socioeconomic problems; 15 (5.4%) sought treatment at another hospital owing to transport considerations; 10 (3.6%) stopped radiation therapy and switched to chemotherapy for palliative management; seven (2.5%) resorted to praying, god worshipping and taking incense powder and magic elixirs because their families were against any established therapy. The acute side effects and complications caused by radiation therapy were the major factors influencing patients' decisions to discontinue treatment. This finding suggests that more attention should be paid to providing care with regard to the acute side effects of radiotherapy and to reinforcing pretreatment education. (author)

  4. Multiplex PCR-based assay for detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Michaels, R H; Libert, T; Kingsley, L A; Ehrlich, G D

    1996-11-01

    A multiplex PCR-based assay was developed for the detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The assay simultaneously amplified two separate DNA targets (153 and 203 bp) within a B. pertussis repetitive element and a 438-bp target within the beta-actin gene of human DNA (PCR amplification control). PCR products were detected by a sensitive and specific liquid hybridization gel retardation assay. A total of 496 paired nasopharyngeal swab specimens were tested by both the PCR-based assay and culture. Although 30 (6%) of the specimens inhibited the amplification of the beta-actin target, in all 29 specimens studied, the inhibition disappeared on repeat testing or was easily overcome with a 1:8 dilution or less of specimen digest. Of the 495 specimen pairs yielding a final evaluable result by the PCR-based assay, 19.0% were positive by the PCR-based assay, whereas 13.9% were positive by culture (P < 0.0001). After resolving the PCR-positive, culture-negative results by testing an additional aliquot from these specimens by the multiplex PCR-based assay, the PCR-based assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.9 and 99.7%, respectively, compared with values of 73.4 and 100%, respectively, for culture. In comparison with patients with culture-confirmed pertussis, those with PCR-positive, culture-negative results were older and more likely to have had prolonged cough, immunization with pertussis vaccine, or treatment with erythromycin. This multiplex PCR-based assay is substantially more sensitive than culture and identifies specimens that contain inhibitors of PCR.

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae from Palestinian nasopharyngeal carriers: serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedelmajeed Nasereddin

    Full Text Available Infections of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children can be prevented by vaccination; left untreated, they cause high morbidity and fatalities. This study aimed at determining the nasopharyngeal carrier rates, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae in healthy Palestinian children under age two prior to the full introduction of the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7, which was originally introduced into Palestine in a pilot trial in September, 2010. In a cross sectional study, nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 397 healthy children from different Palestinian districts between the beginning of November 2012 to the end of January 2013. Samples were inoculated into blood agar and suspected colonies were examined by amplifying the pneumococcal-specific autolysin gene using a real-time PCR. Serotypes were identified by a PCR that incorporated different sets of specific primers. Antimicrobial susceptibility was measured by disk diffusion and MIC methods. The resulting carrier rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 55.7% (221/397. The main serotypes were PCV7 serotypes 19F (12.2%, 23F (9.0%, 6B (8.6% and 14 (4% and PCV13 serotypes 6A (13.6% and 19A (4.1%. Notably, serotype 6A, not included in the pilot trial (PCV7 vaccine, was the most prevalent. Resistance to more than two drugs was observed for bacteria from 34.1% of the children (72/211 while 22.3% (47/211 carried bacteria were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. All the isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime and vancomycin. Any or all of these might impinge on the type and efficacy of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and antibiotics to be used for prevention and treatment of pneumococcal disease in the country.

  6. Proteomic analysis of exosomes from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell identifies intercellular transfer of angiogenic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Yuk-kit

    2015-04-01

    Exosomes, a group of secreted extracellular nanovesicles containing genetic materials and signaling molecules, play a critical role in intercellular communication. During tumorigenesis, exosomes have been demonstrated to promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis while their biological functions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of NPC-derived exosomes on angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from the NPC C666-1 cells and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69 and NP460) were isolated using ultracentrifugation. The molecular profile and biophysical characteristics of exosomes were verified by Western blotting, sucrose density gradient, and electron microscopy. We showed that the C666-1 exosomes (10 and 20 μg/ml) could significantly increase the tubulogenesis, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in C666-1 exosomes. Among the 640 identified proteins, 51 and 89 proteins were considered as up- and down-regulated (≥ 1.5-fold variations) in C666-1 exosomes compared to the normal counterparts, respectively. As expected, pro-angiogenic proteins including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44 variant isoform 5 (CD44v5) are among the up-regulated proteins, whereas angio-suppressive protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) was down-regulated in C666-1 exosomes. Further confocal microscopic study and Western blotting clearly demonstrated that the alteration of ICAM-1, and TSP-1 expressions in recipient HUVECs are due to internalization of exosomes. Taken together, these data strongly indicated the critical roles of identified angiogenic proteins in the involvement of exosomes-induced angiogenesis, which could potentially be developed as therapeutic targets in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of computed tomography imaging in predicting response of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to definitive radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuejun; Lu, Jiade Jay; Loh, Kwok Seng; Shakespeare, Thomas P; Thiagarajan, Anu; Goh, Boon Cher; Tan, Kim Siang Luke

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of posttreatment computed tomography (CT) scans in assessing response of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to definitive radiotherapy. Between March 1999 and October 2003, a total of 132 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC were studied. Sixty-one patients with AJCC stage I or II NPC were treated with radiation only; 71 patients with stage III or IV disease but no evidence of distant metastasis were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. All patients received CT scans of the head and neck, nasopharyngoscopy, and biopsies of primary sites at 4 to 6 months after completion of radiotherapy. Clinical response of the primary tumor as determined by comparison of pre- and posttreatment CT scans was correlated to pathology results. The median follow-up time for all patients was 25 months (range, 9-40 months). Radiologic progression was seen in five patients, stable disease in 18 patients, and radiographic partial (rPR) and complete responses (rCR) were seen in 67 and 42 patients, respectively, at 4 to 6 months of follow up. Biopsies of the nasopharynx were positive in six patients. For patients with rCR, two patients (4.8%) had positive biopsies. Four patients with residual disease (rPR, stable, or progressive disease) after treatment had positive biopsies. The positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity, and specificity of CT scans in evaluating the NPC response to radiotherapy were 0.04, 0.95, 0.67, and 0.32, respectively. Pathologic CR for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is usually evident at 4 to 6 months after definitive radiotherapy; however, there is no correlation between pathologic and radiographic response. Although longer follow up is required to define the relationship between radiographic and pathologic responses with respect to disease control, we find CT scan at 4 to 6 months after radiotherapy to be neither sensitive nor specific in predicting the response of primary NPC to radiotherapy.

  8. Clinical study of the time of repeated computed tomography and replanning for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Xiujuan; Wei, Yumei; Tao, Hengmin; Zhu, Jian; Li, Baosheng

    2017-04-18

    To study the necessity of repeat computed tomography (CT) scan and replanning and know a more accurate time using weekly kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) scans for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) during radiotherapy. Thirteen NPC patients treated with IMRT were enrolled into this prospective study. Weekly pretreatment kV-CBCT scans were performed on the 1st, 6th, 11st, 16th, 21st and 26th radiation time, respectively. Target delineations were contoured on all fractionated CBCT images, including the gross tumor volume of the primary nasopharyngeal tumor (GTVnx) and parotid glands. The volumes of GTVnx and parotid glands were calculated automatically using the Pinnacle3 8.0 system. Compared to the original GTVnx, the percentage of shrinking volume (ΔP) ≥ 50% was considered significantly. As the radiation proceeding, the GTVnx had a trend of shrinkage. Of all 13 patients, 11 cases (84.6%) had the volume shrinking ≥ 50% before the 21st radiation and 12 cases (92.3%) before the 26th radiation. And the parotid volume decreased significantly in the first four-week radiation, 6.45 ± 3.16cm3 (range, 3.06-13.9cm3) for the left parotid gland and 5.78 ± 2.39cm3 (range, 2.70-11.2cm3) for the right. Furthermore, only a little displacement occurred to bilateral parotid glands. The replanning for NPC patients with IMRT is necessary, and the time between the 21st to 25th radiations is appropriate.

  9. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we have identified and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance to O. foetida in faba bean (Vicia faba) and studied their stability in two different environments. One hundred and forty four Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from the cross between a susceptible and a resistant parent were ...

  10. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product size (bp). Linkage group.

  11. Hidden landscapes : The metropolitan garden and the genius loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De wit, S.I.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims at the landscape architecture of the enclosed garden as an expression of the genius loci: definition, analysis, typology and transformation. The process of metropolisation tends to eliminate, or at least hide, the underlying landscape. The research addresses the question of how the

  12. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soybean isoflavones play diverse roles in human health, including cancers, osteoporosis, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and pabulums. The objective of this study was to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the isoflavones daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) and total isoflavone ...

  13. Dinucleotide microsatellite DNA loci from the ant Myrmica scabrinodis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeisset, Inga; Ebsen, Jon R.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2005-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of five dinucleotide microsatellite loci in the ant Myrmica scabrinodis, which were obtained using a magnetic bead hybridization selection protocol. The PCR primers were tested on nine to 11 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to 13...

  14. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...

  15. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han ...

  16. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the tomato leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    during invasion. Materials and methods. Total genomic DNA of T. absoluta was extracted using the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol described by Doyle and Doyle (1987). Microsatellite loci were isolated following the method of (Glenn and Sch- able 2005). Genomic DNA was digested with the restriction.

  17. Molecular and genetic analyses of potato cyst nematode resistance loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genomic localisation and organisation of loci that harbour resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis . Resistance to the potato cyst nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis is an important aspect in potato breeding. To gain

  18. Description of electrophoretic loci and tissue specific gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein electrophoresis was used to study the distributions and tissue specificity of gene expression of enzymes encoded by 42 loci in Rhinolophus clivosus and R. landeri, the genetically most divergent of the ten species of southern African horseshoe bats. No differences in gene expression were found between R.

  19. Description of electrophoretic loci and tissue specific gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-02-09

    Feb 9, 1994 ... cificity of gene expression of enzymes encoded by 42 loci in Rhinolophus clivosus and R. landeri, the genetically most divergent of the ten species of southern African horseshoe bats. No differences in gene expression were found between R. clivosus and R. landeri and isozyme patterns may be compared ...

  20. Development of twenty-nine polymorphic microsatellite loci from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avenue, Wuhan 430079, People's Republic of China. [Xiong M. ... populations. In this study 29 novel microsatellites including. 27 polynucleotide repeats were isolated from C. guichenoti. These loci could be useful for the studies of genetic diversity, population genetic structure, estimating relatedness between individuals in ...

  1. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jennifer Lamb

    Unknown. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Three of the nine loci initially tested were discarded, as it was either not possible to amplify them across all sam- ples, or because the banding pattern was too ambiguous to score. The data were checked for errors in scoring due to stuttering, large allele dropout or null alleles using.

  2. Ancient conservation of trinucleotide microsatellite loci in polistine wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwa, V O; Peters, J M; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Microsatellites have proven to be very useful genetic markers for studies of kinship, parentage, and gene mapping. If microsatellites are conserved among species, then those developed for one species can be used on related species, which would save the time and effort of developing new loci. We e...

  3. Testing independence of fragment lengths within VNTR loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisser, S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Johnson, W. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Methods that were devised to test independence of the bivariate fragment lengths obtained from VNTR loci are applied to several population databases. It is shown that for many of the probes independence (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium) cannot be sustained. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Description of electrophoretic loci and tissue specific gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of electrophoretic loci and tissue specific gene expression in the horseshoe bat genus Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae). Sarita Maree* and W.S. Grant. Department of Genetics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050 Repubfic of South Africa. Received 9 February 1994; accepted 19 Ouober 1995.

  5. Isolation and characterization of 37 polymorphic microsatellite loci of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wen Song

    morphic microsatellite DNA loci in the blue shark, Prionace glauca, isolated by next generation sequencing approach. Con- serv. Genet. Resour. 5, 117–119. Tan X. C., Li X. H., Lin J. Z., Zhou D. H., Gao X. and Li. J. M. 2009 Ecological differentiation between two breeding populations of Megalobrama hoffmanni in the Pearl ...

  6. Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci for wild Citrus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    subsequent studies. Materials and methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from silica-gel-dried leaf tissue of one C. japonica individual (former F. hindsii) using a modified CTAB method (Doyle 1991). Microsatellite loci were isolated using the fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) protocol from an.

  7. Subanalytic Bundles and Tubular Neighbourhoods of Zero-Loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle (with a finite dimensional vector space of sections) on a subanalytic subset of a real analytic manifold , and prove that when is compact, there is a Baire subset of sections in whose zero-loci in have tubular neighbourhoods, ...

  8. Polymorphic microsatellite loci in Chinese piebald odorous frog ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for Endangered Wildlife, Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310058,. People's Republic of China. [Wang Y. and Ding P. 2011 Polymorphic microsatellite loci in Chinese piebald odorous frog (Odorrana schmackeri). J. Genet. 90, e44–e46. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/90/e44.pdf]. Introduction.

  9. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). MIN WANG1, CHENGQI LI2 and QINGLIAN WANG2∗. 1Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Research and Development, Beijing Technology and Business University,. Beijing 100048 ...

  10. Determination of allele frequencies in nine short tandem repeat loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... out the human genome. These loci are a rich source of highly polymorphic markers that may be detected using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is a mimic of the normal cellular process of replication of DNA molecules. Each STR is distinguished by the number of times a sequence is repeated, ...

  11. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for inflorescence length traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A molecular linkage map was constructed using a F2 population derived from the cross (Meidou2012 × Nanhui 23). The map covers 1302.4 cm with 131 loci (122 RAPD and nine morphological markers) and consist 14 linkage groups. In the F2 population and derived F3 families, a total of 46 QTLs explained from 8.1 to ...

  12. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product.

  13. Chromosomal localization of microsatellite loci in Drosophila mediopunctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cavasini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila mediopunctata has been used as a model organism for genetics and evolutionary studies in the last three decades. A linkage map with 48 microsatellite loci recently published for this species showed five syntenic groups, which had their homology determined to Drosophila melanogaster chromosomes. Then, by inference, each of the groups was associated with one of the five major chromosomes of D. mediopunctata. Our objective was to carry out a genetic (chromosomal analysis to increase the number of available loci with known chromosomal location. We made a simultaneous analysis of visible mutant phenotypes and microsatellite genotypes in a backcross of a standard strain and a mutant strain, which had each major autosome marked. Hence, we could establish the chromosomal location of seventeen loci; including one from each of the five major linkage groups previously published, and twelve new loci. Our results were congruent with the previous location and they open new possibilities to future work integrating microsatellites, chromosomal inversions, and genetic determinants of physiological and morphological variation.

  14. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the tomato leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Higher Institute of Animation for Youth and Culture, University of Tunis, 2055 Bir El Bey, Tunisia. [Bettaibi A., Mezghani-Khemakhem M., Soltani Z., Makni H. and Makni M. 2013 Development of polymorphic microsatel- lite loci for the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J. Genet. 92, e110–e112.

  15. Isolation and characterization of fourteen novel microsatellite loci ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    premierbiosoft.com/primerdesign/index.html) was used to design primers. The polymorphism of microsatellite loci .... 31302189), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Uni- versity (grant no. NQ2013027), and the Postdoctoral Fund of. Shaanxi province (grant no. K3332021320). References. Froufe E., Sefc K. M., ...

  16. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract. Soybean isoflavones play diverse roles in human health, including cancers, osteoporosis, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and pabulums. The objective of this study was to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the isoflavones daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) ...

  17. Blood Pressure Loci Identified with a Gene-Centric Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Toby; Gaunt, Tom R.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; O'Brien, Eoin T.; Poulter, Neil R.; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C.; Thom, Simon; Wannamethee, Sasiwarang G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Dobson, Richard J.; Howard, Philip J.; Mein, Charles A.; Onipinla, Abiodun; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Zhang, Yun; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Goodall, Alison H.; Fowkes, F. Gerald; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Elliott, Paul; Gateva, Vesela; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Tobin, Martin D.; van der Harst, Pim; Glorioso, Nicola; Neuvrith, Hani; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A.; Stucchi, Andrea; Devos, Nabila; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-Francois; Tichet, Jean; Juhanson, Peeter; Org, Elin; Putku, Margus; Sober, Siim; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Levinsson, Anna; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Hastie, Claire E.; Hedner, Thomas; Lee, Wai K.; Melander, Olle; Wahlstrand, Bjoern; Hardy, Rebecca; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Wells, George A.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wolfs, Marcel G. M.; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Lathrop, Mark; Peden, John F.; Seedorf, Udo; Watkins, Hugh; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stephens, Jonathan; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Drenos, Fotios; Holmes, Michael V.; Kivimaki, Mika; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Talmud, Philippa J.; Whittaker, John; Wallace, Chris; Delles, Christian; Laan, Mans; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Cusi, Daniele; Roberts, Robert; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Franke, Lude; Stanton, Alice V.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a

  18. Homothetic Transformations and Geometric Loci: Properties of Triangles and Quadrilaterals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammana, Maria Flavia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we use geometric transformations to find some interesting properties related with geometric loci. In particular, given a triangle or a cyclic quadrilateral, the locus generated by the centroid or by the orthocentre (for triangles) or by the anticentre (for cyclic quadrilaterals) when one vertex moves on the circumcircle of the…

  19. Does the evolutionary conservation of microsatellite loci imply function?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriver, M.D.; Deka, R.; Ferrell, R.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Microsatellites are highly polymorphic tandem arrays of short (1-6 bp) sequence motifs which have been found widely distributed in the genomes of all eukaryotes. We have analyzed allele frequency data on 16 microsatellite loci typed in the great apes (human, chimp, orangutan, and gorilla). The majority of these loci (13) were isolated from human genomic libraries; three were cloned from chimpanzee genomic DNA. Most of these loci are not only present in all apes species, but are polymorphic with comparable levels of heterozygosity and have alleles which overlap in size. The extent of divergence of allele frequencies among these four species were studies using the stepwise-weighted genetic distance (Dsw), which was previously shown to conform to linearity with evolutionary time since divergence for loci where mutations exist in a stepwise fashion. The phylogenetic tree of the great apes constructed from this distance matrix was consistent with the expected topology, with a high bootstrap confidence (82%) for the human/chimp clade. However, the allele frequency distributions of these species are 10 times more similar to each other than expected when they were calibrated with a conservative estimate of the time since separation of humans and the apes. These results are in agreement with sequence-based surveys of microsatellites which have demonstrated that they are highly (90%) conserved over short periods of evolutionary time (< 10 million years) and moderately (30%) conserved over long periods of evolutionary time (> 60-80 million years). This evolutionary conservation has prompted some authors to speculate that there are functional constraints on microsatellite loci. In contrast, the presence of directional bias of mutations with constraints and/or selection against aberrant sized alleles can explain these results.

  20. "Byrummets ånd. Genius Loci/The Spirit of Urban Spaces"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    byrum, Genius loci, Christian Norberg-Schulz, Sønder Boulevard, Berlin, nykultur, fortove, barndomserindringer......byrum, Genius loci, Christian Norberg-Schulz, Sønder Boulevard, Berlin, nykultur, fortove, barndomserindringer...

  1. Linkage Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci in the Presence of Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Dalgaard, Peter

    2003-01-01

    EM-algorithm; Gaussian mixture; Heterogeneity; Linkage; Population admixture; Quantitative trait loci (QTL); Variance components......EM-algorithm; Gaussian mixture; Heterogeneity; Linkage; Population admixture; Quantitative trait loci (QTL); Variance components...

  2. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtype...

  3. Significance of incidental nasopharyngeal uptake on {sup 1}''8F-FDG PET/CT: Patterns of benign/physiologic uptake and differentiation from malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na Rae; Yoo, Le Ryung; Yoon, Hyuk Jin; Lee, Yeong Joo; Oh, Jin Kyoung [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of incidental nasopharyngeal uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT and to identify image patterns useful in the differentiation between benign or physiologic activity and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with nasopharyngeal uptakes on 18F-FDG PET/CT scans taken between January 2010 and July 2011. Patients with head and neck cancer, other metastatic head and neck lesions, or lymphoma were excluded. Total 177 patients were enrolled (Group A). PET images were reviewed for patterns of nasopharyngeal FDG uptake, presence/absence of cervical lymph node uptake and pattern of cervical node uptake. Diagnostic confirmation was made by pathology or clinical and radiological follow-up for 1 year or longer. Furthermore, initial PET/CT images of 48 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Group B) were reviewed for comparison with PET/CT images of Group A patients. All nasopharyngeal uptakes in Group A were confirmed to be benign. Group B showed significantly more intense FDG uptake (SUV{sub max} of Group A 3.9 ± 1.4 vs. Group B 10.4 ± 4.6, p<0.001). and asymmetric nasopharyngeal uptake (asymmetric uptake of Group A 67.8% vs. Group B 89.6%). When SUV{sub max} of 6.0 was used as cut off for detection of malignant nasopharyngeal uptake, the area under the ROC curve was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98), with a sensitivity of 88.1% and a specificity of 91.7%. Metastatic nodes in Group B showed higher SUV{sub max} (Group A 2.3 ± 0.6 vs. Group B 7.1 ± 4.0, p<0.001) and larger size (short axis of Group A 5.3 ± 2.0 mm vs. Group B 13.1 ± 4.7 mm, p<0.001) than benign nodes of Group A. The majority of Group B cases demonstrated retropharyngeal lymph node uptake (70.8%), compared to only 2 cases in Group A. In patients without a history of underlying malignancy involving head and neck, incidental nasopharyngeal uptake on PET/CT does not indicate malignancy. However, if the

  4. Effects of holistic nursing on protection and control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient' oral mucosa damage during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fenghua; Li Dongpo; Guo Ping; Liu Qiang; Fan Feiyue

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore if the overall care can effectively control nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients' oral mucosa damage during radiotherapy. Method: Forty-seven nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were randomly divided into test group (24 cases) and control group (23 cases). Patients in test group received mental nursing,oral care and health guidance plus the routine nursing, and patients in control group just given routine nursing. Result: The damaged degree of oral mucosal was lighter in test group than that in control group, and the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 =5.181 and 4.449, both P<0.05). Conclusion: The damage of oral mucosa can controlled effectively by holistic nursing during radiotherapy. (authors)

  5. Effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage by respiratory pathogens among Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Johan Emdal; Koch, Anders; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2010, Greenland introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar 13®- PCV-13) in the childhood immunisation program. The authors aimed to evaluate the impact of PCV-13 on nasopharyngeal carriage of bacteria frequently associated with respiratory infections in children....... Overall carriage rate of S. pneumoniae remained unchanged from 2011 to 2013 (51% and 56%, p=0.13), but significant serotype shifts were observed among both vaccinated and unvaccinated children with marked reductions in carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci, counterbalanced by increasing carriage of non-vaccine...... types. Carriage rate of S. aureus decreased significantly among vaccinated children whereas that of M. catarrhalis increased. CONCLUSION: PCV-13 introduction in Greenland is associated with significant changes in nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage. Continued surveillance is warranted to clarify whether...

  6. Safety and feasibility of nasopharyngeal evaporative cooling in the emergency department setting in survivors of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, H-J; Eichwede, F; Födisch, M; Taccone, F S; Wöbker, G; Schwab, T; Hopf, H-B; Tonner, P; Hachimi-Idrissi, S; Martens, P; Fritz, H; Bode, Ch; Vincent, J-L; Inderbitzen, B; Barbut, D; Sterz, F; Janata, A

    2010-08-01

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia improves survival and neurologic recovery in primary comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Cooling effectivity, safety and feasibility of nasopharyngeal cooling with the RhinoChill device (BeneChill Inc., San Diego, USA) were determined for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. Eleven emergency departments and intensive care units participated in this multi-centre, single-arm descriptive study. Eighty-four patients after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest were cooled with nasopharyngeal delivery of an evaporative coolant for 1h. Subsequently, temperature was controlled with systemic cooling at 33 degrees C. Cooling rates, adverse events and neurologic outcome at hospital discharge using cerebral performance categories (CPC; CPC 1=normal to CPC 5=dead) were documented. Temperatures are presented as median and the range from the first to the third quartile. Nasopharyngeal cooling for 1h reduced tympanic temperature by median 2.3 (1.6; 3.0) degrees C, core temperature by 1.1 (0.7; 1.5) degrees C. Nasal discoloration occurred during the procedure in 10 (12%) patients, resolved in 9, and was persistent in 1 (1%). Epistaxis was observed in 2 (2%) patients. Periorbital gas emphysema occurred in 1 (1%) patient and resolved spontaneously. Thirty-four of 84 patients (40%) patients survived, 26/34 with favorable neurological outcome (CPC of 1-2) at discharge. Nasopharyngeal evaporative cooling used for 1h in primary cardiac arrest survivors is feasible and safe at flow rates of 40-50L/min in a hospital setting. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell proliferation and synergism of cisplatin with silvestrol and episilvestrol isolated from Aglaia stellatopilosa

    OpenAIRE

    DAKER, MAELINDA; YEO, JIUN-TZEN; BAKAR, NORHASIMAH; ABDUL RAHMAN, ASMA' SAIYIDATINA AISHAH ABDUL; AHMAD, MUNIRAH; YEO, TIONG-CHIA; KHOO, ALAN SOO-BENG

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a type of tumour that arises from the epithelial cells that line the surface of the nasopharynx. NPC is treated with radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. However, current strategies are often associated with potential toxicities. This has prompted efforts to identify alternative methods of treatment. The present study aimed to investigate silvestrol and episilvestrol-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation ...

  8. Role of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling pathway in clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Ling; Li, Yu-Fen; Li, Hua-Feng; Lv, Huai-Qing; Sun, De-Zhong

    2017-08-31

    The present study aims to explore the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)/stromal cell-derived factor receptor-4 (CXCR4) signaling pathway to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). From January 2009 to December 2010, 102 patients with NPC and 80 patients with chronic nasopharyngitis were enrolled for the study. Immunohistochemical staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting were employed to determine the expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins in NPC tissues and chronic nasopharyngitis tissues. Chi-square test was conducted to analyze the associations of the expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins with the clinicopathological features of NPC patients. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the SDF-1α protein expression and CXCR4 protein expression. The mRNA and protein expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 in NPC tissues were significantly higher than those in chronic nasopharyngitis tissues. The expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins showed associations with T staging, N staging, tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging, skull base invasion, and cervical lymph node metastasis of NPC patients. Compared with NPC patients showing negative expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins, those with positive expressions of SDF-1α and CXCR4 proteins had a significantly shorter survival time. SDF-1α protein, CXCR4 protein, EBV-IgG status, T staging, N staging, TNM staging, skull base invasion, and cervical lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for the prognosis of NPC. The findings indicated that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling pathway might be associated with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with NPC. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Australasian sea snake, Aipysurus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Waycott, Michelle; Dunshea, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    We developed 13 microsatellite loci for the olive sea snake, Aipysurus laevis, using both enriched and unenriched genomic DNA libraries. Eleven codominant loci, that reliably amplified, were used to screen 32 individuals across the geographic range of A. laevis. Four loci had four or more alleles...... (maximum 12), whereas the other seven had either two or three. All but one locus was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci will provide useful markers to investigate population genetic structure for the olive sea snake....

  10. Infant anemia is associated with reduced TLR-stimulated cytokine responses and increased nasopharyngeal colonization with Moxarella catarrhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sui-Ling; Hsu, Shih-Yun; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Hua, Man-Chin; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Chen, Li-Chen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Huang, Jing-Long

    2018-03-20

    Anemia is a major public health problem in young children. Reports on the role of anemia on infectious diseases remained controversial. We aim to investigate the effect of anemia on innate immunity, nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization, and subsequent infectious outcome. Blood tests were examined at the age of 12 months. TLR-induced cytokine production was assessed by ELISA. Bacteria from nasopharyngeal specimens were identified with traditional culture. Clinical infectious diseases were followed yearly until 3 years of age. Result showed that of the 423 infants, 72 had hemoglobin level ≤ 11 g/dL, among which 55% had normal iron level. There was significant association between hemoglobin level and TLR1-2, and 4 induced IL-6 (p = 0.04, 0.02) and that of TLR4 stimulated TNF-α response (p = 0.04). Children with anemia had higher nasopharyngeal colonization with Moxarella catarrhalis. Clinical analysis did not show anemia to be associated with infectious morbidity. However, children who developed LRTIs had mean lower ferritin levels. We speculated that iron might be the key factor related to infectious morbidity. Thus, to investigate the role of anemia in infectious diseases, it is important to first consider the prevalence of iron deficit, since the incidence of iron deficiency-induced anemia may vary among different regions.

  11. Le Fort I osteotomy and low-dose rate Ir192 brachytherapy for treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Charles E.J.; Harris, Robert; A'Hern, Roger; Archer, Daniel J.; Rhys-Evans, Peter; Henk, J. Michael; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a difficult clinical problem. External beam re-irradiation is associated with a long-term cure in a proportion of cases but this may be associated with severe radiation injury. Methods: Eighteen patients with post-nasal space tumours were treated between 1986 and 2001 with surgical excision and nasopharyngeal brachytherapy via a Le Fort I osteotomy approach. Low-dose rate (LDR) and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy was used. Data was prospectively collected. Local control and overall survival were measured. Acute and late complications were assessed using the RTOG system. Results: The overall survival was 67% at 2 years and 33.5% at 5 years. The corresponding local control rates were 42 and 31.5%, respectively. The T stage at relapse was a significant prognostic factor for local control (P=0.004) but not overall survival. Acute toxicity was mild. RTOG grade ≥3 late complications occurred in 40% of patients treated with the HDR, and 0% treated with LDR. Conclusions: The results of the Le Fort osteotomy, tumour debulking and post-operative brachytherapy gives local control rates similar to those achieved with wide-field re-irradiation. Complication rates are acceptable and are lower than that reported with other methods of radiation therapy. The surgical technique was well tolerated. HDR brachytherapy with this technique had a high complication rate. This approach is a viable option in the treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal tumours

  12. Can Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Preserve Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pow, Edmond H.N.; Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Lee, Victor H.F.; Ng, Sherry C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in salivary function and oral health-related quality of life for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 57 patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma received IMRT. The parotid and whole saliva flow was measured, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire 35-item head-and-neck module, and Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires were completed at baseline and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after IMRT. Results: Parotid saliva flow recovered fully after 1 year and maintained. Whole saliva flow recovered partially to 40% of baseline. A general trend of deterioration in most quality of life scales was observed after IMRT, followed by gradual recovery. Persistent oral-related symptoms were found 2 years after treatment. Conclusion: IMRT for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma could only partially preserve the whole salivary function and oral health-related quality of life.

  13. Dosimetric comparison of RapidArc with fixed gantry dynamic IMRT for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hao; Han Shukui; Sun Yan; Jiang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dosimetric difference of RapidArc and fixed gantry angle dynamic IMRT (dIMRT) for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Ten previously treated patients with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were replanned with RapidArc and dIMRT, respectively. The prescription dose was GTV 70 Gy/33 f and PTV 60 Gy/33 f. All plans met the requirement: 95% of PTV was covered by 60 Gy. Dose-volume histogram data, isodose distribution, monitor units, and treatment time were compared. Results: Dose distribution has no significant difference between the two techniques. RapidArc reduced the dose of the brainstem, mandible, and other normal tissues compared with dIMRT. Mean monitor units were 589.5 and 1381.0 for RapidArc and dIMRT (reduced by 57% relatively). Mean treatment time was 2.33 min and 7.82 min for RapidArc and dIMRT (reduced by 70% relatively). Conclusions: Compared with dIMRT, RapidArc achieves equal target coverage and OAR sparing while using fewer monitor units and less time during radiotherapy for patient with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (authors)

  14. The clinical relationship between the slug-mediated Puma/p53 signaling pathway and radiotherapy resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Yuan, Y; Xiao, D-J

    2017-03-01

    To explore the clinical relationship between the Slug-mediated Puma/p53 signaling pathway and radiotherapy resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty surgical specimens were collected from nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated at our hospital between February 2010 and February 2015. Twenty patients with poorly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma with and without radiotherapy resistance were included in the experimental and control groups, respectively. Slug, Puma, and p53 expression were quantified in all tissues using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Slug and p53 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p control group (p Slug protein expression was significantly higher in the experimental group (6.07 ± 0.203 μg/L) than in the control group (1.24 ± 0.171 μg/L) (p control group (0.63 ± 0.101 μg/L) (p control group (3.37 ± 0.112 μg/L) (v Slug, Puma, and p53-positive cells in the experimental group and the control group were quantified; these values confirmed the ELISA and Western blot findings. Slug downregulated the Puma protein expression signaling pathway and promoted radiotherapy resistance in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma tissue, in a p53-independent manner.

  15. The use of radiotherapy as a therapeutic option in the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: An update of results in 11 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Perez Penna, Lourdes; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Garcia Socarras, Debora; Perez Trejo, Migdalia

    2009-01-01

    The juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and abundant vascular spaces lined with endothelium, almost exclusively male and adolescence. The recommended treatment of choice is surgical excision of the tumor after embolization, however, in patients with bulky tumors, in which no surgical treatment is possible or it is refused, or where excision was incomplete, or the case of recurrence, radiation therapy (RT) is a therapeutic option. Results are presented in a series of 11 patients suffering from juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, all male, between 9 and 16 years of age, treated at INOR from 1990 to 2005. Nine patients were used as initial therapy irradiated and 2 relapse treated. The radiation treatment was applied in the irradiation of the entire tumor volume with a margin of safety, dose between 40 and 60 Gy, 1.8 Gy per session, associated with RT, was used postirradiation interferon from 3 to 6 months in 10 poly chemotherapy patients and in 1 patient. They keep 10 of the 11 patients with sustained complete remission (90.9%) without recurrence. In one patient only partial remission was achieved, using then surgical treatment. Early complications were all patients, and late in some. In the management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, RT is a treatment that maintains its usefulness, with their specific indications. (Author)

  16. Residual cervical lymphadenopathy after definitive treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: fine needle aspiration cytology, computed tomography and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, S-T; Yuen, H-W; Lim, K-H; Goh, Y-H; Goh, H-K C

    2011-01-01

    Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma may have residual cervical lymphadenopathy after definitive treatment of the primary tumour and regional cervical nodal disease. Whether such lymphadenopathy truly represents persistent disease is unclear. There are few published studies addressing this clinical problem. We retrospectively and systematically reviewed the clinical records of 12 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had presented to a tertiary academic hospital, over an 11-year period, with suspected persistent cervical nodal disease after definitive radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Findings on fine needle aspiration cytology and computed tomography scanning were correlated with final histopathological results. The incidence of negative neck dissection was 41.7 per cent. The positive and negative predictive values of fine needle aspiration cytology in identifying disease were 100 and 42.9 per cent, respectively. Computed tomography scanning had a positive predictive value of 58.3 per cent in identifying disease. In patients treated definitively for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, residual cervical lymphadenopathy may not represent persistent disease. Head and neck surgeons involved in the management of these patients should bear in mind the current limitations of fine needle aspiration cytology and computed tomography in confirming the diagnosis pre-operatively. Salvage neck dissection may over-treat some of these patients.

  17. Identification of four novel susceptibility loci for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couch, Fergus J; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2016-01-01

    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci...

  18. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite Loci for Cornus sanguniea (Cornaceae) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Cornus sanguinea and will permit genetic and conservation studies of the species. Methods and Results: A microsatellite-enriched library was used to develop 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for C. sanguinea. The loci amplified 5-11 allel...

  19. Identification of four novel susceptibility loci for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couch, Fergus J; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mendoza-Fandino, Gustavo A; Nord, Silje; Lilyquist, Janna; Olswold, Curtis; Hallberg, Emily; Agata, Simona; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Ambrosone, Christine; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K; Arver, Brita; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Lars; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blank, Stephanie V; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Burwinkel, Barbara; Buys, Saundra S; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Canzian, Federico; Carpenter, Jane; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Cunningham, Julie M; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Darabi, Hatef; de la Hoya, Miguel; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan C; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Dunning, Alison M; Eccles, Diana M; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ekici, Arif B; Eliassen, Heather; Ellis, Steve; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Försti, Asta; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friebel, Tara; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gabrielson, Marike; Gammon, Marilie D; Ganz, Patricia A; Gapstur, Susan M; Garber, Judy; Gaudet, Mia M; Gayther, Simon A; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldberg, Mark S; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Guénel, Pascal; Gunter, Marc; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Hart, Steven; Healey, Sue; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Henderson, Brian E; Herzog, Josef; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J; Hoover, Robert N; Hopper, John L; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kar, Siddhartha; Karlan, Beth Y; Khan, Sofia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Knight, Julia A; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Lazaro, Conxi; Lee, Eunjung; Le Marchand, Loic; Lester, Jenny; Lindblom, Annika; Lindor, Noralane; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Long, Jirong; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Martens, John W M; McGuffog, Lesley; Meindl, Alfons; Miller, Austin; Milne, Roger L; Miron, Penelope; Montagna, Marco; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Mulligan, Anna M; Muranen, Taru A; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nussbaum, Robert L; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olson, Janet E; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue K; Peeters, Petra H; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phelan, Catherine M; Pilarski, Robert; Poppe, Bruce; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Romieu, Isabelle; Rudolph, Anja; Rutgers, Emiel J; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Santella, Regina M; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Daniel F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schumacher, Fredrick; Scott, Rodney; Senter, Leigha; Sharma, Priyanka; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Swerdlow, Anthony; Szabo, Csilla I; Tamimi, Rulla; Tapper, William; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary B; Thomassen, Mads; Thompson, Deborah; Tihomirova, Laima; Toland, Amanda E; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Truong, Thérèse; Tsimiklis, Helen; Teulé, Alex; Tumino, Rosario; Tung, Nadine; Turnbull, Clare; Ursin, Giski; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wang, Zhaoming; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Whittemore, Alice; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Yang, Xiaohong R; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yao, Song; Zamora, M Pilar; Zheng, Wei; Hall, Per; Kraft, Peter; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D P; Monteiro, Alvaro A N; García-Closas, Montserrat; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-01-01

    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci,

  20. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 impairs G2 checkpoint in human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells through defective Chk1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Deng

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common cancer in Southeast Asia, particularly in southern regions of China. EBV infection is closely associated with NPC and has long been postulated to play an etiological role in the development of NPC. However, the role of EBV in malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells remains enigmatic. The current hypothesis of NPC development is that premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells harboring genetic alterations support EBV infection and expression of EBV genes induces further genomic instability to facilitate the development of NPC. The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 is a well-documented EBV-encoded oncogene. The involvement of LMP1 in human epithelial malignancies has been implicated, but the mechanisms of oncogenic actions of LMP1, particularly in nasopharyngeal cells, are unclear. Here we observed that LMP1 expression in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells impaired G2 checkpoint, leading to formation of unrepaired chromatid breaks in metaphases after γ-ray irradiation. We further found that defective Chk1 activation was involved in the induction of G2 checkpoint defect in LMP1-expressing nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Impairment of G2 checkpoint could result in loss of the acentrically broken chromatids and propagation of broken centric chromatids in daughter cells exiting mitosis, which facilitates chromosome instability. Our findings suggest that LMP1 expression facilitates genomic instability in cells under genotoxic stress. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in LMP1-induced genomic instability in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells will shed lights on the understanding of role of EBV infection in NPC development.

  1. Kinetics of antibodies against pneumococcal proteins and their relationship to nasopharyngeal carriage in the first two months of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awa L Mendy

    Full Text Available The currently used Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines have had a significant impact on the pneumococcal diseases caused by the serotypes they cover. Their limitations have stimulated a search for alternate vaccines that will cover all serotypes, be affordable and effective in young children. Pneumococcal protein antigens are potential vaccine candidates that may meet some of the shortfalls of the current vaccines. Thus, this study aimed to determine the relationship between antibodies against pneumococcal protein antigens and nasopharyngeal carriage in infants.One hundred and twenty mother-infant pairs were enrolled into the study. They had nasopharyngeal swabs(NPS taken at birth and every two weeks for the first eight weeks after delivery, and blood samples were obtained at birth and every four weeks for the first eight weeks after delivery. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was determined from the NPS and antibodies against the pneumococcal proteins CbpA, PspA and rPly were measured in the blood samples.The S. pneumoniae carriage rate in infants increased to that of mothers by eight weeks of age. The odds of carriage in infants was 6.2 times (95% CI: 2.0-18.9 higher when their mothers were also carriers. Bacterial density in infants was lower at birth compared to their mothers (p = 0.004, but increased with age and became higher than that of their mothers at weeks 4 (p = 0.009, 6 (p = 0.002 and 8 (p<0.0001. At birth, the infants' antibodies against CbpA, and rPly pneumococcal protein antigens were similar, but that of PspA was lower (p<0.0001, compared to their mothers. Higher antibody concentrations to CbpA [OR (95% CI: 0.49 (0.26-0.92, p = 0.03], but not PspA and rPly, were associated with protection against carriage in the infants.Naturally induced antibodies against the three pneumococcal protein antigens were transferred from mother to child. The proportion of infants with nasopharyngeal carriage and the bacterial density of S

  2. Disparity in the nasopharyngeal microbiota between healthy cattle on feed, at entry processing and with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineldin, Mohamed; Lowe, James; de Godoy, Maria; Maradiaga, Nidia; Ramirez, Chelsey; Ghanem, Mohamed; Abd El-Raof, Yassein; Aldridge, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most serious causes of health and economic problems in the beef production industry, especially in recently weaned, intensely raised and newly transported feedlot cattle. While the importance of upper airway structure and function in the susceptibility of the lower respiratory tract to colonization with potential pathogens is well established, the role of the mucosal microbiota in respirtatory health is less well defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle at entry into a commercial feedlot, during initial management processing, and to compare the dynamics of change in these microbial communities between clinically healthy calves and those that develop BRD within the first month after entry. Deep nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from randomly selected healthy calves (n=66) during initial handling and processing at the feedlot, and again at the initial diagnosis of BRD (n=22). Clinically healthy pen matched controls calves (n=10) were sampled at the same time as the BRD affected animals. Genomic DNA was extracted from each sample, and the 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable region was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Across all the samples, the predominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. While the predominant genera were Moraxella, Mycoplasma and Acinetobacter. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial taxa between healthy and BRD affected calves. Discriminant analysis revealed that the nasopharyngeal microbiota in feedlot calves at entry and in BRD affected calves were distinct from pen matched healthy calves. While the temporal dynamics of this shift were not examined in this study, it is possible that the observed changes in mucosal microbiota are linked to the increased susceptibility of calves to BRD during the first month after entry

  3. Methylation associated inactivation of RASSF1A and its synergistic effect with activated K-Ras in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes associated with promoter methylation is considered to be a hallmark of oncogenesis. RASSF1A is a candidate tumor suppressor gene which was found to be inactivated in many human cancers. Although we have had a prelimilary cognition about the function of RASSF1A, the exact mechanisms about how RASSF1A functions in human cancers were largely unknown. Moreover, the effect of mutated K-Ras gene on the function of RASSF1A is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile and methylation status of RASSF1A gene, and to explore its concrete mechanisms as a tumor suppressor gene in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Methods We examined the expression profile and methylation status of RASSF1A in two NPC cell lines, 38 primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 14 normal nasopharyngeal epithelia using RT-PCR and methylated specific PCR(MSP respectively. 5-aza-dC was then added to confirm the correlation between hypermethylation status and inactivation of RASSF1A. The NPC cell line CNE-2 was transfected with exogenous pcDNA3.1(+/RASSF1A plasmid in the presence or absence of mutated K-Ras by liposome-mediated gene transfer method. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of RASSF1A on cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Meanwhile, trypan blue dye exclusion assays was used to detect the effect of RASSF1A transfection alone and the co-transfection of RASSF1A and K-Ras on cell proliferation. Results Promoter methylation of RASSF1A could be detected in 71.05% (27/38 of NPC samples, but not in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia. RASSF1A expression in NPC primary tumors was lower than that in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (p p p p Conclusion Expression of RASSF1A is down-regulated in NPC due to the hypermethylation of promoter. Exogenous expression of RASSF1A is able to induce growth inhibition effect and apoptosis in tumor cell lines, and this effect could be enhanced by activated

  4. Seven newly identified loci for autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jason D; Simmonds, Matthew J; Walker, Neil M; Burren, Oliver; Brand, Oliver J; Guo, Hui; Wallace, Chris; Stevens, Helen; Coleman, Gillian; Franklyn, Jayne A; Todd, John A; Gough, Stephen C L

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), is one of the most common of the immune-mediated diseases. To further investigate the genetic determinants of AITD, we conducted an association study using a custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, the ImmunoChip. The SNP array contains all known and genotype-able SNPs across 186 distinct susceptibility loci associated with one or more immune-mediated diseases. After stringent quality control, we analysed 103 875 common SNPs (minor allele frequency >0.05) in 2285 GD and 462 HT patients and 9364 controls. We found evidence for seven new AITD risk loci (P test derived significance threshold), five at locations previously associated and two at locations awaiting confirmation, with other immune-mediated diseases.

  5. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe

    2017-01-01

    cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall......Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast......-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores...

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Cornus sanguinea (Cornaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A. Wadl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: To facilitate genetic and conservation research of Cornus sanguinea, microsatellite loci were isolated and 29 individuals from 11 German populations were genotyped. Methods and Results: Sixteen microsatellite loci were characterized from an enriched small insert genomic library. The number of alleles detected ranged from five to 11 per locus, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.65 to 0.90, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.59 to 0.88. Conclusions: The markers described in the study will allow further investigation of population dynamics and the degree of clonal reproduction within populations of C. sanguinea.

  7. Identification of novel loci for the generation of reporter mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Nicoletta; Rebecchi, Monica; Levandis, Giovanna; Ciana, Paolo; Maggi, Adriana

    2017-04-07

    Deciphering the etiology of complex pathologies at molecular level requires longitudinal studies encompassing multiple biochemical pathways (apoptosis, proliferation, inflammation, oxidative stress). In vivo imaging of current reporter animals enabled the spatio-temporal analysis of specific molecular events, however, the lack of a multiplicity of loci for the generalized and regulated expression of the integrated transgenes hampers the creation of systems for the simultaneous analysis of more than a biochemical pathways at the time. We here developed and tested an in vivo-based methodology for the identification of multiple insertional loci suitable for the generation of reliable reporter mice. The validity of the methodology was tested with the generation of novel mice useful to report on inflammation and oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Determination of allele frequencies in nine short tandem repeat loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of allele frequencies in nine short tandem repeat loci of five human sub-populations in Botswana. ... use in individual identification. ... Targeted regions of DNA (vWA, FGA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D18S51, D21S11 and the sex determining locus Amelogenin) were amplified using ...

  9. Characterization of 25 microsatellite loci in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebinger, Ryan M; Patton, John C; George, J Craig; Suydam, Robert; Louis, Edward E; Bickham, John W

    2008-05-01

    Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) experienced a severe demographic population bottleneck caused by commercial whaling that ceased in 1914. Aboriginal subsistence whale harvests have continued and are managed by the International Whaling Commission. In an effort to provide management advice for bowhead whales, 25 microsatellite loci were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. This panel of markers will be utilized to analyse stock structure hypotheses of current bowhead whale populations. © 2007 The Authors.

  10. Biological Insights From 108 Schizophrenia-Associated Genetic Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James TR; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    Summary Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here, we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Asso...

  11. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci in crops

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xu; Pengcheng Li; Zefeng Yang; Chenwu Xu

    2017-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic architecture of complex traits is an ongoing challenge for geneticists. Two complementary approaches for genetic mapping, linkage mapping and association mapping have led to successful dissection of complex traits in many crop species. Both of these methods detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) by identifying marker–trait associations, and the only fundamental difference between them is that between mapping populations, which directly determine mapping resolution and pow...

  12. Profile of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito F. Jayalie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is the most common head and neck malignancy in Indonesia. NPCpresents numerous challenges from non-specific signs and symptoms until lack of awareness from generalpractitioners (GP, which lead to late or missed diagnosis. Early diagnosis and prevention are proposedas the best solutions for this problem. In order to do that, we need a complete and well-managed patients’data. This study aims to reveal the demographic, clinical and histopathologic characteristics of NPC inIndonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted by collecting medical records of all NPC patients in 2010from Otorhinolaryngology Department of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital. The extracted datawere then analyzed to describe the problem of NPC in Indonesia. Out of 167 patients, 68.3% of the patientsare male and most of them are Sundanese and Javanese. Palpable lump in the neck is the most commoncomplaint in presentation (58.1%, followed by nasal congestion (49.1%. Salted fish consumption was themost prevalent risk factor (29.9%. Based on the histopathologic findings, 75.4% of the cases were classifiedas WHO-3 and around half of the patients (51% were in stage IV upon diagnosis. Studying demographic andclinical characteristics of NPC patients is the first step to overcome problems caused by NPC in Indonesia. Keywords: head and neck cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, epidemiology  Profil Karsinoma Nasofaring di RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, 2010 Abstrak Karsinoma nasofaring (KNF merupakan keganasan kepala leher yang paling sering di Indonesia.Tanda dan gejala KNF tidak spesifik dan dokter umum kurang waspada sehingga diagnosis terlambat ataugagal. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut, diperlukan upaya pencegahan dan deteksi dini yang didasari profil KNF.Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran demografi, gejala klinis dan karakteristik histopatologi pasienKNF di RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan

  13. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Different Types of Nasopharyngeal Swabs in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix S Dube

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is important to assess the impact of vaccination and the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. We compared the recovery of S. pneumoniae from nylon flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs.The recovery of S. pneumoniae from mocked specimens using flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs were compared by culture. The yield from paired nasopharyngeal (NP samples obtained from healthy children sampled with flocked and Dacron swabs was also determined using culture and lytA-targeted real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR.Using mock specimen, the percentage recovery of S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (serotype 19F strain from the flocked swabs was 100%, while it was 41% from Dacron swabs and 7% from rayon swabs. Similar results were observed for S. pneumoniae serotypes 1 and 5. S. pneumoniae was cultured from 18 of 42 (43% paired NP samples from the healthy children (median age 8 [interquartile range (IQR 5-16] months. The median number of colony-forming units (CFU recovered from flocked swabs was two-fold higher (8.8×10(4 CFU/mL [IQR, 2.0×10(2 - 4.0×10(5 CFU/mL] than Dacron swabs (3.7×10(4 CFU/mL [IQR, 4.0×10(2-3.2×10(5 CFU/mL], p = 0.17. Using lytA-targeted qPCR from paired NP samples, the median copy number of S. pneumoniae detected from flocked swabs was significantly higher than from Dacron swabs (3.0×10(5 genome copies/mL [IQR, 1.3×10(2-1.8×10(6] vs. 9.3×10(4 genome copies/mL [IQR, 7.0×10(1-1.1×10(6]; p = 0.005.Flocked swabs released more S. pneumoniae compared to both Dacron and rayon swabs from mock specimens. Similarly, higher bacterial loads were detected by qPCR from flocked swabs compared with Dacron swabs from healthy children.

  14. Long-Term Results of 2-Dimensional Radiation Therapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Yang, Dae Sik; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To analyze the treatment outcomes, complications, prognostic factors after a long-term follow-up of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Between December 1981 and December 2006, 190 eligible patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated at our department with a curative intent. Of these patients, 103 were treated with RT alone and 87 patients received CCRT. The median age was 49 years (range, 8-78 years). The distributions of clinical stage according to the AJCC 6th edition included I: 7 (3.6%), IIA: 8 (4.2%), IIB: 33 (17.4%), III: 82 (43.2%), IVA: 31 (16.3%), IVB: 29 (15.3%). The accumulated radiation doses to the primary tumor ranged from 66.6-87.0 Gy (median, 72 Gy). Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors were retrospectively analyzed. Acute and late toxicities were assessed using the RTOG criteria. A total of 96.8% (184/190) of patients completed the planned treatment. With a mean follow-up of 73 months (range, 2-278 months; median, 52 months), 93 (48.9%) patients had relapses that were local 44 (23.2%), nodal 13 (6.8%), or distant 49 (25.8%). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 55.6% and 44.5%, 54.8% and 51.3%, in addition to 65.3% and 57.4%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that CCRT, age, gender, and stage were significant prognostic factors for OS. The CCRT and gender were independent prognostic factors for both DFS and DSS. There was no grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity, but grade 3 mucositis and hematologic toxicity were present in 42 patients (22.1%) and 18 patients (9.5%), respectively. During follow-up, grade 3 hearing loss in 9 patients and trismus in 6 patients were reported. The results of our study were in accordance with findings of previous studies and we confirmed that CCRT, low stage, female gender, and young age were related to improvement in OS

  15. Long-Term Results of 2-Dimensional Radiation Therapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Yang, Dae Sik; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the treatment outcomes, complications, prognostic factors after a long-term follow-up of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Between December 1981 and December 2006, 190 eligible patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated at our department with a curative intent. Of these patients, 103 were treated with RT alone and 87 patients received CCRT. The median age was 49 years (range, 8-78 years). The distributions of clinical stage according to the AJCC 6th edition included I: 7 (3.6%), IIA: 8 (4.2%), IIB: 33 (17.4%), III: 82 (43.2%), IVA: 31 (16.3%), IVB: 29 (15.3%). The accumulated radiation doses to the primary tumor ranged from 66.6-87.0 Gy (median, 72 Gy). Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors were retrospectively analyzed. Acute and late toxicities were assessed using the RTOG criteria. A total of 96.8% (184/190) of patients completed the planned treatment. With a mean follow-up of 73 months (range, 2-278 months; median, 52 months), 93 (48.9%) patients had relapses that were local 44 (23.2%), nodal 13 (6.8%), or distant 49 (25.8%). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 55.6% and 44.5%, 54.8% and 51.3%, in addition to 65.3% and 57.4%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that CCRT, age, gender, and stage were significant prognostic factors for OS. The CCRT and gender were independent prognostic factors for both DFS and DSS. There was no grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity, but grade 3 mucositis and hematologic toxicity were present in 42 patients (22.1%) and 18 patients (9.5%), respectively. During follow-up, grade 3 hearing loss in 9 patients and trismus in 6 patients were reported. The results of our study were in accordance with findings of previous studies and we confirmed that CCRT, low stage, female gender, and young age were related to improvement in OS

  16. Long-term results of elderly nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with conventional radiotherapy alone in 95 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weiping; Wu Junxin; Chen Chuanben; Chen Lisha; Pan Jianji

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcomes and toxicities of elderly nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with conventional radiotherapy alone. Methods: From January 1995 to December 1998, 95 newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma with age ≥65 years treated in our hospital. The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Kaplan-Meier method was used for analysis of local-regional control survival and distant metastasis-free survival. The Logrank test was used for univariate prognostic analysis and Cox regression was used for multivariable prognostic analysis. Results: The follow-up rate was 98%. The 3-, 5- and 8-year local-regional control (LRC) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 89%, 87%, 84% and 85%, 79%, 79%, respectively. The most common acute toxicities were grade 1-2 leukopenia (36%), skin reaction (64%) and mucositis (66%). The most frequent late toxicities were hearing impairment (8%), trismus (10%) and radiation-induced cranial neuropathy (5%). In univariate analysis, interruption of radiotherapy (χ 2 =7.45, P =0.006) and regional neck lymph nodes response (χ 2 =4.17, P=0.041) was the prognostic factors for LRC, T stage (χ 2 =4.16, P=0.032), N stage (χ 2 =4.66, P =0.031) and interruption of radiotherapy (χ 2 =9.42, P =0.002) was the prognostic factors for DMFS. In multivariable analysis,interruption of radiotherapy and the regional neck lymph nodes response were the prognostic factors for LRC (χ 2 =6.19, P=0.013 and χ 2 =12.16, P=0.002; respectively), N stage and radiotherapy interruption were prognostic factors for DMFS. (χ 2 =15.06, P =0.000 and χ 2 =21.62, P =0.000; respectively ). Conclusions: Conventional radiotherapy alone for elder NPC can produce satisfactory results with acceptable treatment-relative toxicities. Our experience showed that the early N stage, without radiotherapy interruption and good regional lymph nodes response had a good long-term prognosis. (authors)

  17. Intensity modulated or fractionated stereotactic reirradiation in patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Zwicker, Felix; Saleh-Ebrahimi, Ladan; Timke, Carmen; Thieke, Christian; Bischof, Marc; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    To report our experience with intensity-modulated or stereotactic reirradiation in patients suffering from recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma The records of 17 patients with recurrent nasopharygeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated (n = 14) or stereotactic (n = 3) reirradiation in our institution were reviewed. Median age was 53 years and most patients (n = 14) were male. The majority of tumors showed undifferentiated histology (n = 14) and infiltration of intracranial structures (n = 12). Simultaneous systemic therapy was applied in 8 patients. Initial treatment covered the gross tumor volume with a median dose of 66 Gy (50-72 Gy) and the cervical nodal regions with a median dose of 56 Gy (50-60 Gy). Reirradiation was confined to the local relapse region with a median dose of 50.4 Gy (36-64Gy), resulting in a median cumulative dose of 112 Gy (91-134 Gy). The median time interval between initial and subsequent treatment was 52 months (6-132). The median follow up for the entire cohort was 20 months and 31 months for survivors (10-84). Five patients (29%) developed isolated local recurrences and three patients (18%) suffered from isolated nodal recurrences. The actuarial 1- and 2-year rates of local/locoregional control were 76%/59% and 69%/52%, respectively. Six patients developed distant metastasis during the follow up period. The median actuarial overall survival for the entire cohort was 23 months, transferring into 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates of 82%, 44% and 37%. Univariate subset analyses showed significantly increased overall survival and local control for patients with less advanced rT stage, retreatment doses > 50 Gy, concurrent systemic treatment and complete response. Severe late toxicity (Grad III) attributable to reirradiation occurred in five patients (29%), particularly as hearing loss, alterations of taste/smell, cranial neuropathy, trismus and xerostomia. Reirradiation with intensity-modulated or stereotactic techniques in

  18. The prognostic value of pretreatment tumor apparent diffusion coefficient values in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan-Fang; Zhang, Wen-Bao; Ke, Shan-Bao; Zhao, Feng; Yan, Sen-Xiang; Wang, Qi-Dong; Teng, Li-Song

    2017-10-11

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has increasingly contributed to the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. The objective of this paper was to explore the prognostic significance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in 93 NPC patients. This retrospective study included 93 newly diagnosed NPC patients. Pretreatment ADC values were determined and compared with patients' age, gender, alcohol intake, smoking, tumor volume, pathological type, tumor stage, and nodal stage. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, overall survival (OS), local relapse-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated and the values compared between the low and high ADC groups. Multivariate analysis of ADC values and other 9 clinical parameters was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to test the independent significance for OS, LRFS and DMFS. The mean ADC value for the initial nasopharyngeal tumors was 0.72 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s (range: 0.48-0.97 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s). There was no significant difference between pretreatment ADCs and patient' gender, age, smoking, alcohol intake, or tumor stage. A significant difference in the ADCs for different N stages (P = 0.022) and correlation with initial tumor volume (r = -0.26, P = 0.012) were observed. In comparison, the ADC value for undifferentiated carcinoma was lower than that for other 3 pathological types. With a median follow-up period of 50 months, the 3-year and 5-year OS rates were 88.2% and 83.3%, respectively, 3-year and 5-year LRFS rates were 93.5% and 93.3%, respectively, and 3-year and 5-year DMFS rates were 83.9% and 83.3%, respectively. Patients with tumor ADC values ≥0.72 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s exhibited longer OS and LRFS periods compared with tumor ADC values values 0.036 and 0.018, respectively. In addition, patients with deaths or recurrences or distant metastasis had significant lower ADC values than those without disease failures. According to a

  19. Statin treatment may lower the risk of postradiation epilepsy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiaoming; Yin, Jing; Wang, Hongxuan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Peng, Ying

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of statins on preventing the risk of postradiation epilepsy. We performed a retrospective analysis of neurological nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with a history of radiotherapy. Patients with a history of epilepsy before radiation and those who received prophylactically antiepileptic treatment were excluded. The demographic and clinical data of these patients were collected through chart review. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test) to examine the effect of statins on epilepsy-free survival. Cox regression analysis was utilized to identify independent predictive variables. Our study included 532 patients (405 males and 127 females) with a mean follow-up of 28.1 months. During follow-up, 471 (88.5%) patients developed radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN). Within a mean latency of 24.1 months, 88 (16.5%) patients experienced epilepsy, of whom 27 (27 of 88, 30.7%) patients suffered from epilepsy before the diagnosis of RN. Thirty-six (36 of 88, 40.9%) cases of epilepsy occurred after RN onset, and in 22 cases (22 of 88, 25.0%) epilepsy was the first presentation of RN. Three patients suffered from epilepsy but did not have RN. Eighty-eight patients in our cohort were treated with statins because of hyperlipidemia or prevention of cardiocerebrovascular diseases, of whom six (6.8%) developed epilepsy, whereas in those without statin, the epileptic rate was 18.5%. Log-rank test found that there was a significant difference in epilepsy-free survival between patients who used statins and those who did not (p = 0.016). After adjusting for confounding variables, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that statin use could still significantly reduce the risk of epilepsy after radiation (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.15-0.82, p = 0.015). However, for the patients who already suffered from RN, statin treatment did not lower the risk of post-RN epilepsy. Early statin use may reduce the risk of

  20. Clinic results of 121 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated by helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Lei; Ma Lin; Feng Linchun; Zhou Guixia; Qu Baolin; Ren Gang; Xu Shouping; Xie Chuanbin; Zhang Xinxin; Li Fang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by helical tomotherapy in the Chinese PLA general hospital. Methods: Between September 2007 and August 2010, 121 newly diagnosed NPC patients were treated by radiotherapy with Tomotherapy system, with (n =90) or without (n = 31) concurrent chemotherapy or molecular target therapy. The prescription dose was 70 - 74 Gy/33f to primary tumor and positive lymph node planning target volume, 60.0 - 62.7 Gy/33f to high risk planning target volume, and 52 -56 Gy/33f to low risk planning target volume. Acute side-effects were evaluated with RTOG/EORTC criteria. Results: The remission rate of primary lesion and positive lymph nodes was 95.0% and 99.0%, respectively. The follow-up rate was 100%. The number of patients with 1, 2 and 3 years followed-up were 99, 49, and 7. The 1-, 2-and 3-year local relapse-free survival rates were 97.30%, 97.3% and 97.3%, respectively. The 1-, 2-and 3-year nodal relapse-free survival rates were 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The 1-, 2-and 3-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 98.4%, 96.3% and 96.3%, respectively. The 1-, 2-and 3-year overall survival rates were 96.5%, 92.6% and 86.8%, respectively. Acute toxicities of skin, oral mucosa and xerostomia with grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 were 5.0%, 74.4%, 15.7% and 4.9%; 0.8%, 37.2%, 57.9% and 4.1%; 3.3%, 53.7%, 43.0% and 0%, respectively. Xerostomia restored with time, no grade 2 or more xerostomia was observed 1 year after radiation therapy. Concurrent chemotherapy significantly increased incidence of mucositis, esophagitis and tracheitis. Conclusion: Helical tomotherapy is efficient, secure and effective modality for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (authors)

  1. Upregulation of metastasis-associated gene 2 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu MH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Minhua Wu,1,2,* Xiaoxia Ye,2,* Xubin Deng,3,* Yanxia Wu,4 Xiaofang Li,4 Lin Zhang11Department of Histology and Embryology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Histology and Embryology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, 3Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Cancer Center of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 4Pathological Diagnosis and Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAims: Metastasis-associated gene 2 (MTA2 is reported to play an important role in tumor progression, but little is known about the role of MTA2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. The aim of the study was to explore the expression and function of MTA2 in NPC.Methods: Expression of MTA2 in NPC tissues and cell lines was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Relationship between MTA2 expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. Stable MTA2-overexpressing and MTA2-siliencing NPC cells were established by transfection with plasmids encoding MTA2 cDNA and lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA, respectively. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assay. Cell migration ability was evaluated by wound healing and transwell invasion assay. The impact of MTA2 knockdown on growth and metastasis of CNE2 cells in vivo was determined by nude mouse xenograft models. Expression of several Akt pathway proteins was detected by Western blotting.Results: MTA2 was upregulated in NPC tissues and three NPC cell lines detected (CNE1, CNE2, and HNE1. MTA2 expression was related to clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of patients with NPC. MTA2 upregulation promoted proliferation and invasion of CNE1 cells, while MTA2 depletion had opposite effects on CNE2 cells. Moreover, MTA2 depletion suppressed growth and metastasis of CNE2 cells in vivo. MTA2 overexpression

  2. Nasopharyngeal carriage, antibiogram & serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy under five children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Ravi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Information related to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children is scanty in India. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the presence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization, assess serogroups/types (SGT and drug resistance of S. pneumoniae in children below five years of age. Methods: A total of 109 male and 81 female children in the age group of three months to five years belonging to different socio-economic classes were enrolled. They were recruited across all age groups from those attending paediatric OPD of a tertiary care and research centre for immunization program. Fifty three isolates identified as pneumococci were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion and E-Test methods. Serotyping was performed by detection of the quelling reaction with specific antiserum. Result: The pneumococcal carriage rate in the study population was 27.9 per cent. The isolation rate was associated with age being higher (49.2% in smaller children (3-12 months and among male (62.2%. The most prevalent SGTs were 19 followed by 10, 14 and 7; 21 per cent of isolates belonging to serotype 10 (n=7 were 11 (n=4 were not covered in any of the conjugate vaccines currently available in Indian market. Resistance to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin was observed in 91 per cent (n=48, 36 per cent (n=19, 17 per cent (n=9 and 9 per cent (n=5 isolates, respectively. All the penicillin resistant isolates were found to be intermediately resistant by E-Test. Multidrug resistance was observed in 19 per cent (n=10 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: High level of antibiotic resistance was present in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children below age five. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the prevailing SGTs would help to reduce the pool of antibiotic resistant pneumococci. Continued surveillance of serotypes and tracking

  3. Diffusion kurtosis imaging of a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft model: Initial experience with pathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Shi, Peng; Chen, Yunbin; Huang, Rongfang; Xiao, Youping; Zheng, Xiang; Zheng, Dechun; Peng, Li

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)-related parameters and pathological measures using human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) xenografts in a nude mouse model. Twenty-six BALB/c-nu nude mice were divided into two groups that were injected with two different nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (CNE1 and CNE2). DK magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner. DWI and DKI-related parameters, including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mean diffusivity (MD) and mean kurtosis (MK) were measured. Mice were euthanatized when the maximum diameter of the primary tumor reached 1.5cm after MR scanning. Tumor tissues were then processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The pathological images were analyzed using a computer-aided pixel-wise clustering method to evaluate tumor cellular density, nuclei portion, cytoplasm portion, extracellular space portion, the ratio of nuclei to cytoplasm and the ratio of nuclei to extracellular space. The relationships between DWI and DKI-related parameters and pathological features were analyzed statistically. The ADC and MD values of the CNE1 group (1.16±0.24×10 -3 mm 2 /s, 2.28±0.29×10 -3 mm 2 /s) was higher than that of the CNE2 group (0.82±0.14×10 -3 mm 2 /s, 1.53±0.24×10 -3 mm 2 /s, P0.05). A Pearson test showed that the ADC and MD values were significantly correlated with cellular density, nuclei portion, extracellular space portion and the ratio of nuclei to extracellular space (r=-0.861; -0.909, P<0.001; r=-0.487; 0.591, P<0.05; r=0.567; 0.625, P<0.05; r=-0.645; -0.745, P<0.001, respectively). The MK values were significantly correlated with nuclei portion, cytoplasm portion and the ratio of nuclei to cytoplasm (r=-0.475, P<0.05; r=0.665, P<0.001; r=-0.494, P<0.05, respectively). The preliminary animal results suggest that DKI findings can provide valuable bio-information for NPC tissue characterization. DKI imaging

  4. Target volume and position variations during intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan W

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wenyong Tan,* Yanping Li,* Guang Han, Jiaozhen Xu, Xiaohong Wang, Ying Li, Desheng HuDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Considerable anatomical changes occur during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. This study aimed to quantify volumetric and positional variations of the target volume during IMRT.Materials and methods: Twenty patients with locally advanced NPC who received concurrent (13 patients or sequential (seven patients chemoradiotherapy were prospectively recruited and underwent planning computed tomography (CT and six repeat CTs (every five fractions. Each repeat CT was rigidly registered to the planning CT. Gross tumor volume (GTV and elective clinical target volume (CTV were manually delineated on each axial CT image. CTVs of the primary tumor and lymph nodes were expanded with 5 mm margins to corresponding GTVs, with necessary modifications. Volume loss, system and random errors, and the mean and three-dimensional vector displacements were calculated and compared statistically.Results: Volumes of the primary tumor and small (>1 cm, ≤3 cm and large (>3 cm positive neck lymph nodes decreased at a rate of 2.6%, 3.7%, and 3.9% per treatment day, respectively. CTVs of the primary tumor, lymph nodes, and elective region decreased 1.5%, 2.3%, and 0.3% per treatment day, respectively. Average displacements of the GTVs and CTVs were <1.3 mm in all directions. GTVs and CTVs of the large and small lymph nodes shifted medially by 0.8–1.3 and 0.6–1.2 mm, respectively, on average. Average three-dimensional displacements of the GTVs and CTVs were 3.4–4.3 mm and 2.5–3.7 mm, respectively. Volume loss and displacements in most directions were significantly larger in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy than in those receiving sequential therapy. Volume loss and displacements of the

  5. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized nasopharyngeal amyloidosis. Case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Ming [Hubei University of Medicine, Department of Clinical Oncology, Taihe Hospital, Shiyan, Hubei (China); Peng, Gang; Shi, Liangliang; Li, Zhenyu; Fei, Shijiang; Ding, Qian; Cheng, Jing [HuaZhong University of Science and Technology, Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Ming, Xing [Hubei University of Medicine, Department of infection control and prevention, Taihe Hospital, Shiyan, Hubei (China)

    2016-12-15

    Primary localized amyloidosis is characterized by the deposition of amyloid proteins restricted to one organ, without systemic involvement. Primary nasopharyngeal amyloidosis is an exceedingly rare condition, for which the standard treatment remains unknown. Because of its challenging anatomical position, surgery alone hardly results in complete resection of the localized amyloidosis. Therefore, an interdisciplinary planning board to design optimal treatment is of particular importance. A 39-year-old man presented with a several-week history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of a retro-odontoid nonenhancing soft tissue mass. The endoscopic biopsy demonstrated that the mass was amyloid in nature. An extensive systemic workup revealed an absence of inflammatory process, systemic amyloidosis, or plasma cell dyscrasia. The patient was treated with a combination of surgery and radiotherapy, showing no evidence of recurrence or progression at his 1-year follow-up. Primary solitary amyloidosis is a rare form of amyloidosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nasopharyngeal amyloidosis case treated with excision and radiation leading to complete remission. Because of the difficulty for surgeons to achieve radical resection with such lesions, radiotherapy proved to be an excellent adjuvant treatment in this case. (orig.) [German] Die primaere lokalisierte Amyloidose ist durch die Ablagerung von Amyloidproteinen gekennzeichnet, die sich auf ein Organ beschraenkt, also nicht systemisch ist. Eine primaere Amyloidose im Nasen-Rachen-Raum ist ausserordentlich selten, bisher gibt es keine Standardtherapie. Ihre anatomische Position bedeutet eine Herausforderung, nur selten resultiert eine chirurgische Intervention in einer vollstaendigen Resektion der lokalisierten Amyloidose. Daher ist die Beteiligung mehrerer Disziplinen fuer eine optimale Behandlung von besonderer

  6. Identification of Gene Loci That Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hellard, Stéphanie; Wang, Yunpeng; Witoelar, Aree

    2017-01-01

    . Here we investigated the shared genetic architecture between SCZ and educational attainment, which is regarded as a "proxy phenotype" for cognitive abilities, but may also reflect other traits. We applied a conditional false discovery rate (condFDR) method to GWAS of SCZ (n = 82 315), college...... identified 18 genomic loci associated with SCZ after conditioning on College and 15 loci associated with SCZ after conditioning on EduYears. Ten of these loci overlapped. Using conjunctional FDR, we identified 10 loci shared between SCZ and College, and 29 loci shared between SCZ and EduYears. The majority...

  7. Isolation and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Japanese dace (Tribolodon hakonensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Noriyuki; Quinn, Thomas W.; Park, Myeongsoo; Fike, Jennifer A.; Nishida, Kazuya; Takemura, Takeshi; Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Twenty one polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Japanese dace (Tribolodon hakonensis) were isolated and characterized. The number of observed alleles per locus in 32 individuals ranged from 3 to 30. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.125 to 0.969 and from 0.175 to 0.973, respectively. All loci conformed to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, no linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of loci and no loci showed evidence of null alleles. These microsatellite loci will be useful for investigating the intraspecific genetic variation and population structure of this species.

  8. Development and validation of I-DNA1: a 15-Loci multiplex system for identity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriozola, A; Aznar, J M; Celorrio, D; Bravo, M L; Builes, J J; Val-Bernal, J F; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a system for the multiplex amplification of 15 loci, known as I-DNA1, which combines mini and midiSTR technology, with amplicon sizes ranging from 49 to 297 bp. I-DNA1 analyses all the STR loci included in the CODIS and the Interpol Standard Set of loci, nine of the ten European core loci and seven of the eight German core loci, making it suitable for use in identifying humans. Moreover, its high sensitivity and the small size of its amplicons mean that I-DNA1 is potentially highly useful for analysing highly degraded and/or very small DNA samples.

  9. Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad

    Full Text Available Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

  10. The Red Queen lives: Epistasis between linked resistance loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, César M J A; Luijckx, Pepijn; Bento, Gilberto; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    A popular theory explaining the maintenance of genetic recombination (sex) is the Red Queen Theory. This theory revolves around the idea that time-lagged negative frequency-dependent selection by parasites favors rare host genotypes generated through recombination. Although the Red Queen has been studied for decades, one of its key assumptions has remained unsupported. The signature host-parasite specificity underlying the Red Queen, where infection depends on a match between host and parasite genotypes, relies on epistasis between linked resistance loci for which no empirical evidence exists. We performed 13 genetic crosses and tested over 7000 Daphnia magna genotypes for resistance to two strains of the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. Results reveal the presence of strong epistasis between three closely linked resistance loci. One locus masks the expression of the other two, while these two interact to produce a single resistance phenotype. Changing a single allele on one of these interacting loci can reverse resistance against the tested parasites. Such a genetic mechanism is consistent with host and parasite specificity assumed by the Red Queen Theory. These results thus provide evidence for a fundamental assumption of this theory and provide a genetic basis for understanding the Red Queen dynamics in the Daphnia-Pasteuria system. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Frequent DNA hypomethylation of human juxtacentromeric BAGE loci in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Christoph; Sanchez, Cecilia; Ehrlich, Melanie; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Hindermann, Winfried; Rodriguez, Carmen; Krieger, Sophie; Dubeau, Louis; Fiala, Emerich; De Sario, Albertina

    2005-05-01

    The BAGE (B melanoma antigens) sequence family contains 15 nearly identical sequences that are in the juxtacentromeric regions of chromosomes 9, 13, 18, and 21. BAGE loci are expressed in male germ tissue and in a high percentage of cancers and cancer cell lines. We analyzed the DNA methylation state of the sequences in or near the promoters of the BAGE loci by a quantitative bisulfite and PCR-based assay (multiplex COBRA) using MboI and HphI in 18 somatic tissue samples, 4 testis and 4 sperm samples, and 48 tumors and tumor cell lines. In 94% of the control somatic tissue samples, DNA was highly methylated in the analyzed regions. In contrast, 98% of tumor DNA samples displayed hypomethylation. Also, DNA from testes and sperm was hypomethylated in at least one of the BAGE loci. BAGE transcripts were observed in only 47% of the analyzed tumor samples. Consequently, we propose BAGE hypomethylation as a new, highly informative epigenetic biomarker for the diagnosis of cancer, whose hypomethylation in cancer may be causally related to that of juxtacentromeric satellite DNA. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ripke, Stephan

    2011-10-01

    We examined the role of common genetic variation in schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study of substantial size: a stage 1 discovery sample of 21,856 individuals of European ancestry and a stage 2 replication sample of 29,839 independent subjects. The combined stage 1 and 2 analysis yielded genome-wide significant associations with schizophrenia for seven loci, five of which are new (1p21.3, 2q32.3, 8p23.2, 8q21.3 and 10q24.32-q24.33) and two of which have been previously implicated (6p21.32-p22.1 and 18q21.2). The strongest new finding (P = 1.6 × 10(-11)) was with rs1625579 within an intron of a putative primary transcript for MIR137 (microRNA 137), a known regulator of neuronal development. Four other schizophrenia loci achieving genome-wide significance contain predicted targets of MIR137, suggesting MIR137-mediated dysregulation as a previously unknown etiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. In a joint analysis with a bipolar disorder sample (16,374 affected individuals and 14,044 controls), three loci reached genome-wide significance: CACNA1C (rs4765905, P = 7.0 × 10(-9)), ANK3 (rs10994359, P = 2.5 × 10(-8)) and the ITIH3-ITIH4 region (rs2239547, P = 7.8 × 10(-9)).

  13. Novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci implicated in epigenetic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Till F. M.; Buck, Dorothea; Antony, Gisela; Bayas, Antonios; Bechmann, Lukas; Berthele, Achim; Chan, Andrew; Gasperi, Christiane; Gold, Ralf; Graetz, Christiane; Haas, Jürgen; Hecker, Michael; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Knop, Matthias; Kümpfel, Tania; Limmroth, Volker; Linker, Ralf A.; Loleit, Verena; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G.; Mühlau, Mark; Nischwitz, Sandra; Paul, Friedemann; Pütz, Michael; Ruck, Tobias; Salmen, Anke; Stangel, Martin; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Stürner, Klarissa H.; Tackenberg, Björn; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Wiendl, Heinz; Wildemann, Brigitte; Zettl, Uwe K.; Ziemann, Ulf; Zipp, Frauke; Arloth, Janine; Weber, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Scheinhardt, Markus O.; Dankowski, Theresa; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Czamara, Darina; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Herms, Stefan; Homuth, Georg; Ising, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kacprowski, Tim; Kloiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lill, Christina M.; Lucae, Susanne; Meitinger, Thomas; Moebus, Susanne; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nöthen, Markus M.; Petersmann, Astrid; Rawal, Rajesh; Schminke, Ulf; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Porcu, Eleonora; Mulas, Antonella; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Zara, Ilenia; Cucca, Francesco; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmer, Bernhard; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis. PMID:27386562

  14. PHOTOGRAPHY AS A MEANS OF DEPICTING GENIUS LOCI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia DOROFTEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore the concept of genius loci (spirit of a place starting from Christian Norberg-Schulz’s notable work “Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture” and to reflect on the possibility of capturing the spirit of a place through photography. The problem arises in the context of a predominantly visual culture, where photography has become an accesible and omnipresent means of experiencing the world and, therefore, considered a convenient tool for gaining (a type of knowledge. A photographic method of exploring the spirirt of the place could serve in understanding local characteristics, in identifying the elements that make a place unique and recognizible. Norberg-Schulz’s position and other views on the concept of genius loci have been analysed. A photo-essay was employed in order to explore the spirit of the old town of Chefchaouen in Morocco and the ambiguity and dual nature of the concept. A critical reflection was conducted with respect to the results.

  15. Genetic maps of polymorphic DNA loci on rat chromosome 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yan-Ping; Remmers, E.F.; Longman, R.E. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Genetic linkage maps of loci defined by polymorphic DNA markers on rat chromosome 1 were constructed by genotyping F2 progeny of F344/N x LEW/N, BN/SsN x LEW/N, and DA/Bkl x F344/Hsd inbred rat strains. In total, 43 markers were mapped, of which 3 were restriction fragment length polymorphisms and the others were simple sequence length polymorphisms. Nineteen of these markers were associated with genes. Six markers for five genes, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor {beta}3 (Gabrb3), syntaxin 2 (Stx2), adrenergic receptor {beta}3 (Gabrb3), syntaxin 2 (Stx2), adrenergic receptor {beta}1 (Adrb1), carcinoembryonic antigen gene family member 1 (Cgm1), and lipogenic protein S14 (Lpgp), and 20 anonymous loci were not previously reported. Thirteen gene loci (Myl2, Aldoa, Tnt, Igf2, Prkcg, Cgm4, Calm3, Cgm3, Psbp1, Sa, Hbb, Ins1, and Tcp1) were previously mapped. Comparative mapping analysis indicated that the large portion of rat chromosome 1 is homologous to mouse chromosome 7, although the homologous to mouse chromosome 7, although the homologs of two rat genes are located on mouse chromosomes 17 and 19. Homologs of the rat chromosome 1 genes that we mapped are located on human chromosomes 6, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, and 19. 38 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Dose-response relationship of nasopharyngeal carcinoma above conventional tumoricidal level: A study by the Hong Kong nasopharyngeal carcinoma study group (HKNPCSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Peter M.L.; Leung, S.F.; Tung, Stewart Y.; Zee, Benny; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Lee, Anne W.M.; Lau, W.H.; Kwan, W.H.; Leung, T.W.; Chua, Daniel; Sze, Wai Man; Au, Joseph S.K.; Yu, K.H.; O, Sai Ki; Kwong, Dora; Yau, T.K.; Law, Stephen C.K.; Sze, Wing Kin; Au, Gordon; Chan, Anthony T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To define the dose-response relationship of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) above the conventional tumoricidal dose level of 66 Gy when the basic radiotherapy (RT) course was given by the 2D Ho's technique. Patients and methods: Data from all five regional cancer centers in Hong Kong were pooled for this retrospective study. All patients (n=2426) were treated with curative-intent RT with or without chemotherapy between 1996 and 2000 with the basic RT course using the Ho's technique. The primary endpoint was local control. The prognostic significance of dose-escalation ('boost') after 66 Gy, T-stage, N-stage, use of chemotherapy, sex and age (≤40 years vs >40 years) was studied. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: On multivariate analysis, T-stage (P< 0.01; hazard ratio [HR], 1.58) and optimal boost (P=0.01; HR, 0.34) were the only significant factors affecting local failure for the whole study population, and for the population of patients treated by radiotherapy alone, but not for patients who also received chemotherapy. The following were independent determinants of local failure for patient groups with different T-stages treated by radiotherapy alone: use of a boost in T1/T2a disease (P=0.01; HR, 0.33); use of a boost (P<0.01; HR, 0.60) and age (P=0.01; HR, 1.02) in T3/T4 tumors. Among patients with T2b tumors treated by radiotherapy alone and given a boost, the use of a 20 Gy-boost gave a lower local failure rate than a 10 Gy-boost. There was no apparent excess mortality attributed to RT complications. Conclusions: Within the context of a multi-center retrospective study, dose-escalation above 66 Gy significantly improved local control for T1/T2a and T3/4 tumors when the primary RT course was based on the 2D Ho's technique without additional chemotherapy. 'Boosting' in NPC warrants further investigation. Caution should be taken when boosting is considered because of possible increase in radiation toxicity

  17. Concurrent FDG Avid Nasopharyngeal Lesion and Generalized Lymphadenopathy on PET-CT Imaging Is Indicative of Lymphoma in Patients with HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with HIV infection often have generalized lymphadenopathy and/or other lymphoid proliferation and are at significantly increased risk for lymphoma. This study retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic value of concurrent nasopharyngeal lesion and lymphadenopathy on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET-CT imaging. The eligible cases were from patients with HIV infection and lymphadenopathy and referred for FDG PET-CT to evaluate lymphoma or other malignancies prior to pathological investigation. FDG PET-CT images and interpretation reports were correlated with clinical information and pathological diagnoses. Among 22 eligible patients, FDG avid nasopharyngeal lesions were incidentally noted in 7 on PET-CT imaging, and all had lymphomas diagnosed with subsequent biopsies (6 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 1 Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In the remaining 15 patients with adenopathy but no visible nasopharyngeal lesion or uptake on PET-CT imaging, 9 had biopsies and lymphomas were diagnosed in 4. The patients with FDG avid retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy had a greater possibility of lymphoma, compared to those with adenopathy localized only in the upper torso. Coexistent FDG avid nasopharyngeal lesion and generalized lymphadenoapthy on PET-CT imaging are indicative of a malignant lymphoma rather than benign lymphproliferative disease or nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  18. Prognostic value of primary gross tumor volume and standardized uptake value of18F-FDG in PET/CT for distant metastasis in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Nan; Yao, Ji-Jin; Wang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Wang-Jian; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Zhi-Bin; Ma, Jun; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Sun, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Distant metastasis has become the predominant model of treatment failures in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Effort should therefore be made to stratify locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients into different groups based on the risk of metastasis to improve prognosis and tailor individualized treatments. This study aims to assess the value of primary gross tumor volume and the maximum standardized uptake value for predicting distant metastasis-free survival of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A total of 294 locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who were identified from prospectively maintained database and underwent fluor-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging before treatment were included. The maximum standardized uptake value was recorded for the primary tumor (SUVmax-P) and neck lymph nodes (SUVmax-N). Computed tomography-derived primary gross tumor volume was measured using the summation-of-area technique. At 5 years, the distant metastasis-free survival rate was 83.7%. The cut-off of the SUVmax-P, SUVmax-N, and primary gross tumor volume for distant metastasis-free survival was 8.95, 5.75, and 31.3 mL, respectively, by receiver operating characteristic curve. In univariate analysis, only SUVmax-N (hazard ratio: 7.01; 95% confidence interval: 1.70-28.87; p nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Combining SUVmax-N with clinical stage gives a more precise picture in predicting distant metastasis.

  19. Characterization of new microsatellite loci for population genetic studies in the Smooth Cauliflower Coral (Stylophora sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Banguera-Hinestroza, E.

    2013-01-09

    A total of one hundred microsatellites loci were selected from the draft genome of Stylophora pistillata and evaluated in previously characterized samples of Stylophora cf pistillata from the Red Sea. 17 loci were amplified successfully and tested in 24 individuals from samples belonging to a single population from the central region of the Red Sea. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 15 alleles per locus, while observed heterozygosity ranged from 0. 292 to 0. 95. Six of these loci showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectations, and 4/136 paired loci comparisons suggested linkage disequilibrium after Bonferroni corrections. After excluding loci with significant HWE deviation and evidence of null alleles, average genetic diversity over loci in the population studied (N = 24, Nloci = 11) was 0. 701 ± 0. 380. This indicates that these loci can be used effectively to evaluate genetic diversity and undertake population genetics studies in Stylophora sp. populations. 2013 The Author(s).

  20. Clinical studies of effect of Jinshi Granule on reducing the toxic radiotherapy reaction in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hong; Wu Xiangwei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of Jinshi Granule (JSG) on decreasing the toxic reaction of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients in order to search for an effective method and medicines. Methods: Altogether 90 patients with NPC treated by radical radiotherapy were divided into three groups at random. Each group consisted of 30 patients who all received radiotherapy. Patients of the 1st treatment group were treated by JSG, the 2nd treatment group by Biyan Qingdu Ji (BQJ), and the control group by placebo. Results: (1) In JSG group, the effective rate, the rate of completing radiotherapy, the enhancing and stabilization rate of quality of life were 93.33%, 96.67% and 90.00%, respectively, which were all higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). (2) The degree of the toxic reaction syndromes in the JSG group was lower than that in other two groups and the stabilization of peripheral hemogram was much better (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Conclusion: These data show that JSG has significant effects on reducing the toxic reaction of radiotherapy to NPC and combining it with radiotherapy is an effective method in treating NPC

  1. Changes in heart-rate variability of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer during Tai Chi Qigong practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Wong, Janet Y H; Chung, Louisa M Y; Yam, Timothy T T; Chung, Joanne W Y; Lee, Y M; Chow, Lina P Y; Luk, W S; Ng, Shamay S M

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To explore the changes in heart-rate variability (HRV) of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) before, during, and after a Tai Chi (TC) Qigong exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven survivors of NPC participated voluntarily in the study. The heart rate of each participant was measured continuously for 1 minute before the TC Qigong intervention, during the 5-minute TC Qigong intervention, and for 1 minute after the intervention, using a Polar heart-rate monitor. Spectral HRV was expressed in terms of normalised low frequency (LF) power, normalised high frequency (HF) power, and the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio. [Results] Both the LF-power and the HF-power components had significant time effects. However, the time effect of the LF/HF power ratio was not significant. Post hoc contrast analysis revealed a significant decrease in LF power and a concomitant increase in HF power during the 4th minute and 5th minute of the TC Qigong exercise. [Conclusion] Five minutes of TC Qigong exercise was found to improve HRV by increasing HF power and decreasing LF power, but these effects were transient. TC Qigong might be an appropriate exercise for improving the ANS function and psychological and cardiac health of survivors of NPC.

  2. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis Discovered a Dietary Pattern Inversely Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yen-Li; Pan, Wen-Harn; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chen, Jen-Yang; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC. Taking advantage of a matched NPC case-control study, data from a total of 319 incident cases and 319 matched controls were analyzed. Dietary pattern was derived employing partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) performed on energy-adjusted food frequencies derived from a 66-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with multiple conditional logistic regression models, linking pattern scores and NPC risk. A high score of the PLS-DA derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruits, milk, fresh fish, vegetables, tea, and eggs ordered by loading values. We observed that one unit increase in the scores was associated with a significantly lower risk of NPC (ORadj = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60-0.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Similar results were observed among Epstein-Barr virus seropositive subjects. An NPC protective diet is indicated with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables), milk, other protein-rich foods (in particular fresh fish and eggs), and tea. This information may be used to design potential dietary regimen for NPC prevention.

  3. Influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the result of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Beiwa; Zhang Guofen; Zhao Yutian; Wang Zhenwu; Xu Min; Hu Yulin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiotherapy result of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From January 1989 to December 1998, 304 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC received radical radiation. There were 209 males and 95 females. The ages ranged from 16 to 77 years with a median of 42. All patients were irradiated by 60 Co or 6 MV external beam with a total dose of 64 - 76 Gy for the primary tumor and 46 - 77 Gy for the cervical lymph nodes. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration for all patients was measured before, during and after radiotherapy. These patients were divided into three groups according to the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration before radiotherapy: anemia ( 160 g/L), and into two groups according to the change in the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration during radiotherapy as increased and decreased groups. Results: All patients were followed with a follow-up rate of 90.5%. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration had a significant effect on the survival of NPC patients. Its decrease or increase during radiotherapy affected the survival and local control rates of NPC patients. Conclusions: The change of peripheral hemoglobin concentration affecting the oxygen content in the blood, can influence the local control and survival rates of NPC patients. Increase results in higher survival

  4. MRI findings in patients with severe trismus following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Bhatia, Kunwar S S; King, Ann D; Paunipagar, Bhawan K; Abrigo, Jill; Vlantis, Alexander C; Leung, Sing F; Ahuja, Anil T

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to document MRI findings in masticator structures in patients with trismus developing after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MRI neck examinations were reviewed in 35 patients with marked trismus, defined as an interincisal gap of 25 mm or less, post-radiotherapy for NPC. Patients with trismus before treatment, infiltration of masticator structures at the time of trismus, or previous surgery involving the masticator structures were excluded. Sixteen patients had no significant abnormality in their masticator structures (46%). Nineteen patients (54%) had abnormalities comprising radiotherapy-induced masticator muscle fibrosis (n = 19), denervation atrophy of the masticator muscles secondary to mandibular nerve damage (n = 1), mandibular ramus signal abnormalities (n = 5), mandibular condyle sclerosis with or without capsular thickening (n = 5), perimasticator fibrosis extending into the masticator space (n = 3) and inflammation secondary to severe sinusitis extending into the masticator space (n = 2). Nine patients (26%) had more than one type of abnormality. Twenty-two patients (63%) had concomitant skull base osteoradionecrosis which extended into the pterygoid bases in 16 patients (45%). The presence of several MRI abnormalities in the masticator structures of patients with trismus after radiotherapy suggests that trismus is multifactorial. This study advances the understanding of mechanisms behind this debilitating side effect of radiotherapy.

  5. MRI findings in patients with severe trismus following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Kunwar S.S.; King, Ann D.; Paunipagar, Bhawan K.; Abrigo, Jill; Ahuja, Anil T.; Vlantis, Alexander C.; Leung, Sing F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to document MRI findings in masticator structures in patients with trismus developing after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MRI neck examinations were reviewed in 35 patients with marked trismus, defined as an interincisal gap of 25 mm or less, post-radiotherapy for NPC. Patients with trismus before treatment, infiltration of masticator structures at the time of trismus, or previous surgery involving the masticator structures were excluded. Sixteen patients had no significant abnormality in their masticator structures (46%). Nineteen patients (54%) had abnormalities comprising radiotherapy-induced masticator muscle fibrosis (n = 19), denervation atrophy of the masticator muscles secondary to mandibular nerve damage (n = 1), mandibular ramus signal abnormalities (n = 5), mandibular condyle sclerosis with or without capsular thickening (n = 5), perimasticator fibrosis extending into the masticator space (n = 3) and inflammation secondary to severe sinusitis extending into the masticator space (n = 2). Nine patients (26%) had more than one type of abnormality. Twenty-two patients (63%) had concomitant skull base osteoradionecrosis which extended into the pterygoid bases in 16 patients (45%). The presence of several MRI abnormalities in the masticator structures of patients with trismus after radiotherapy suggests that trismus is multifactorial. This study advances the understanding of mechanisms behind this debilitating side effect of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  6. Late Toxicities after Conventional Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Incidence and Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siala, W.; Mnejja, W.; Elloumi, F.; Daoud, J.; Ghorbel, A.; Mnif, J.; Frikha, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. To determine the incidence and analyze the factors affecting late toxicity for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with conventional radiotherapy. Patients and Methods. Retrospective analysis was performed on 239 NPC patients treated between 1993 and 2004 in our institution. One hundred and fifty-seven patients were treated with conventional fractionation (2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week) and eighty-two patients with hyperfractionated radiotherapy (1.6 Gy per fraction twice a day, 5 days per week). One hundred fifty nine patients underwent neoadjuvant cisplatin based chemotherapy. Late toxicity was evaluated according to the RTOG/EORTC score. Results. Xerostomia was the most common related complication (98.7%). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy did not increase late toxicities. Multivariate analyses showed that radiation dose was a significant factor for hearing impairment, younger age for trismus, initial node status for neck fibrosis, and initial dental hygiene for dental complications. Female gender was associated with significantly higher incidence of trismus and hearing impairment. Conclusion. Conventional radiotherapy was associated with a high rate of late toxicities which affect patients’ quality of life. With the development of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy, a reduced incidence of radiation related complications could be expected.

  7. Mouth open training for prevention of trismus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients being treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingwen; Gao Li; Huang Xiaodong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the role of mouth open training for prevention of trismus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated undergoing radiotherapy. Methods: From July 2002 to December 2003, 85 NPC patients treated with radical radiotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. According to the performance of their functional mouth open training, 46 patients were assigned to the training group, for whom functional training was performed with regularly and intensively under good guidance and supervision from the beginning of radiotherapy, 39 other patients were assigned to the control group, for whom the functional training was performed without such strict supervision. Results: The reduction of the distance between the incisors were (0.67 ± 0.65 cm) in the training group in contrast to the (1.62 ± 0.79 cm) in control group (P<0.01). Conclusions: It is true that good functional mouth open training is able to lower the incidence and the severity of trismus in NPC patients treated with radiotherapy. Good guidance and supervision is necessary. (authors)

  8. Long non-coding RNA ROR promotes proliferation, migration and chemoresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Gu, Miao; You, Bo; Shi, Si; Shan, Ying; Bao, Lili; You, Yiwen

    2016-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies of the head and neck. It arises from the nasopharynx epithelium and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) have been reported to regulate gene interaction and play critical roles in carcinogenesis and progression. LncRNA-ROR, a recently identified lncRNA, has been shown to be involved in initiation, progression and metastasis of several tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer and glioma. However, whether lncRNA-ROR is associated with the progression of NPC remains unknown. Resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is the primary cause of NPC patients' death. In this study, we found that lncRNA-ROR was significantly upregulated in NPC tissues compared with normal tissues. Next, our study proved that lncRNA-ROR was highly associated with the proliferation, metastasis and apoptosis of NPC. The enrichment of lncRNA-ROR played a critucal functional role in chemoresistance. The mechanism by which NPC resists chemotherapy might be that lncRNA-ROR suppress p53 signal pathway. Taken together, these data suggested that lncRNA-ROR played an important role in the progression of NPC; thereby it might become a therapeutic target and reduce chemoresistance for NPC. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  9. MRI findings of radiation encephalopathy of brain stem after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Changhong; Li Guoye; Huang Biao; Huang Meiping; Zheng Junhui; Tan Shaoheng; Zeng Qiongxin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study MRI findings and clinical manifestation of radiation encephalopathy (RE) of brain stem. Methods: MRI findings and clinical symptoms in 51 patients with RE of brain stem after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer were reviewed. Results: Clinical symptoms included number weakness or paralysis in the limbs and symptoms of damaged cranial nerves. All lesions appeared hypo- or iso-intense on spin echo(SE) T 1 -weighted images and inhomogeneous and mixed hyper- and iso-intense on Turbo spin echo (TSE) T 2 -weighted images. The lesions were located in mesencephalon, pons, medulla, basilar part of pons, basilar part of pons and medulla oblongata in 2,7,3,9 and 30 patients respectively. The enhancement patterns included irregular rings in 39 patients, spotty in 3 and no enhancement in 9 patients. Mass effect was minimal in all patients. On follow-up MRI, the lesions disappeared in 4 patients, did not change in size and shape in 8 patients and enlarged in 2 patients. Conclusion: MRI could demonstrate the characteristic findings of RE of brain stem. MRI findings sometimes are not consistent with the clinical symptoms

  10. Hearing Loss in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Chemotherapy and Radiation

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    Ling-Feng Wang

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the possible adverse effects of radiation on hearing, we conducted a study to evaluate the long-term sensorineural hearing status following radiotherapy (RT in patients suffering from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Audiologic examinations were performed at regular intervals before and after RT. We also analyzed the effects of age, chemotherapy, pre-RT hearing status, and post-RT otitis media with effusion (OME on post-RT hearing change. A total of 150 patients (261 ears were enrolled in this study and followed up for a mean of 43.8 months. After RT, 8.9-28.8% of ears had at least a 10 dB loss in bone conduction threshold at speech frequency, which was defined as an average of hearing threshold at 0.5 kHz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz, while the percentage was 18-34.2% at 4 kHz. Patient age was related to these changes at speech frequency, and the presence of post-RT OME was related to significant loss at both speech frequency and 4 kHz. Pre-RT hearing status and chemotherapy did not influence hearing change. To sum up, sensorineural hearing loss began as early as after completion of RT. Early changes may be transient, but the effect of radiation on hearing tended to be chronic and progressive.

  11. Epstein-Barr Virus as a Promising Immunotherapeutic Target for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Hooi-Yeen; Peh, Suat-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a pathogen that infects more than 90% of global human population. EBV primarily targets B-lymphocytes and epithelial cells while some of them infect monocyte/macrophage, T-lymphocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs). EBV infection does not cause death by itself but the infection has been persistently associated with certain type of cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Recent findings have shown promise on targeting EBV proteins for cancer therapy by immunotherapeutic approach. Some studies have also shown the success of adopting EBV-based therapeutic vaccines for the prevention of EBV-associated cancer particularly on NPC. In-depth investigations are in progress to refine the current therapeutic and vaccination strategies. In present review, we discuss the highly potential EBV targets for NPC immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccine development as well as addressing the underlying challenges in the process of bringing the therapy and vaccination from the bench to bedside. PMID:29464124

  12. Snail-mediated cancer stem cell-like phenotype in human CNE2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell.

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    Peng, Shan; Wu, Cheng; Sun, Wei; Liu, Dongbo; Luo, Min; Su, Beibei; Zhang, Linli; Mei, Qi; Hu, Guoqing

    2018-03-01

    Cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype, which has been proven to play a critical role in invasion and metastasis of many kinds of cancers, has also been reported to be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Snail, a potent repressor of E-cadherin expression, was found to have a function to regulate the aforementioned processes. In the current study, expression of putative CSCs biomarkers and the ratio of CSC-like CNE2 (cancer cell line) in total CNE2 were measured, and CSC-like characteristics were analyzed with tumor-sphere self-renewal and colony-forming assays. Migration and invasion properties were determined by using transwell and wound healing assays. Xenograft tumor assays in vivo were done to evaluate the function of Snail and radiation in the tumor forming ability. In human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, overexpression of Snail mediates a CSC-like phenotype, which enhances the initiation, invasion, and migration ability of cancer cells. Thus, Snail is a potential therapeutic target in NPC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Relationship between individual radiosensitivity and radiation encephalopathy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

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    Tang Yamei; Peng Ying; Xing Yigang [Dept. of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Zhang Yinyin [Dept. of Internal Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Guo Ling [Dept. of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Luo Qingliang [Beijing Inst. of Radiation Medicine, BJ (China)

    2008-10-15

    Purpose: to analyze the relationship between individual radiosensitivity and the morbidity and severity of radiation encephalopathy (RE) induced by radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Patients and methods: in this study, 26 patients with RE (experimental group) and 26 patients without RE (control group) after radiotherapy of NPC were included. The experimental group was divided into two subgroups, that is, group 1 with 1-2 grade and group 2 with 3-4 grade, according to the RTOG/EORTC Score. Individual radiosensitivity was determined by the total chromosomal aberration rate measured in in vitro irradiated lymphocytes by a metaphase detection technique. Chromosomal aberration rate was correlated to development of RE in order to investigate the relationship between radiosensitivity and RE. Results: the total chromosomal aberration rate was found to be a risk factor for the onset of RE. The total chromosomal aberration rate was positively correlated to the severity of RE. Patients with a high radiosensitivity had shorter latency than those with a low or intermediate radiosensitivity. Conclusion: in NPC patients, individual radiosensitivity as determined by the proportion of lethal chromosomal aberrations in in vitro irradiated lymphocytes might be associated with the development of RE and has the potential to predict the morbidity and severity of RE. (orig.)

  14. Efficacy of Preoperative Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma: A Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Guosheng; Ma, Zhenjiang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Long, Weiqing [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Clinical Laboratory (China); Liu, Liangshuai [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Zhang, Bing [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine (China); Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianyong; Li, Heping, E-mail: jxgdhp@163.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China)

    2017-06-15

    ObjectiveThis study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization (pTAE) for treating nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (NPAF).MethodsSeventy-four NPAF patients were hospitalized for elective surgical treatment with pTAE (pTAE group, n = 32) or surgical treatment alone (non-pTAE group, n = 42) between January 1990 and December 2013. The following outcome measures were retrospectively analyzed and compared: intraoperative bleeding volume, surgery time (ST), duration of postoperative hospital stay (PHS), and disease recurrence.ResultsAmong Radkowski stage I patients, those in pTAE group had a slightly higher but not significant bleeding volume than patients in non-pTAE group (344 ± 407 vs. 248 ± 219 mL, P = 0.899); among stage II/III patients, however, patients in pTAE group showed a significantly lower bleeding volume than patients in non-pTAE group (stage II, 829 ± 519 vs. 1339 ± 767 mL, P = 0.035; stage III, 1267 ± 592 vs. 2125  ± 479 mL, P = 0.024). The two groups presented comparable OTs, PHSs, and rates of frontal recurrence (all P>0.05).ConclusionspTAE significantly reduces intraoperative bleeding in NPAF patients with Radkowski stage II/III disease, but offers no additional benefits regarding ST, PHS, or recurrence.

  15. Alternative therapy using CDDP/5FU and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Naoto; Shikano, Masato; Toita, Takafumi; Yuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Yasuyuki

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study of an alternative chemoradiation protocol comprising cisplatin (CDDP) (50 mg/m 2 /day, 2 days), 5FU (800 mg/m 2 /day, 5 days) and radiotherapy (66 Gy in 36 fractions) for locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer (stage II-IV). We treated 67 patients (stage II-III:41 patients, IV:26) using this protocol. Fifty-seven patients (85%) received the full-course, three-cycle chemotherapy. Three-year overall survival rate of all patients was 90.5%, and 3-year disease-free survival rate was 78.3%. The recurrent sites were the primary site in four patients, neck lymph node in two and distant metastasis in eight. Severe myelosuppression (grade 3-4) was observed in half of the patients, and severe mucositis (grade 3-4) in about 30%. Chemotherapy induced severe dysfunction of liver or kidney (grade 3-4) was seen in three patients. This treatment strategy may be very useful, but careful medical management is essential. (author)

  16. Identification of CD24 as a cancer stem cell marker in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Chun-Hung Yang

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs represent a unique sub-population of tumor cells with the ability to initiate tumor growth and sustain self-renewal. Although CSC biomarkers have been described for various tumors, only a few markers have been identified for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. In this study, we show that CD24+ cells isolated from human NPC cell lines express stem cell genes (Sox2, Oct4, Nanog, Bmi-1, and Rex-1, and show activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. CD24+ cells possess typical CSC characteristics that include enhanced cell proliferation, increased colony and sphere formation, maintenance of cell differentiation potential in prolonged culture, and enhanced resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Notably, CD24+ cells produce tumors following inoculation of as few as 500 cells in immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice. CD24+ cells further show increased invasion ability in vitro, which correlates with enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9. In summary, our results suggest that CD24 represents a novel CSC biomarker in NPC.

  17. Patterns of regional lymph node metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A meta-analysis of clinical evidence

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    Ho Francis CH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The characteristics of cervical lymphatic metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC are not completely understood. As such, radiotherapy to the entire lymphatic of the neck bilaterally has been empirically practiced even in early stage disease, although not supported by clinical evidence. We studied the pattern and probability of nodal metastasis through a meta-analysis of published evidences, with an aim to establish an evidence-based guideline for selecting and delineation of clinical target volume of neck lymphatics for conformation radiation for NPC. Methods A literature search yielded an initial 411 original articles, and 13 studies with 2920 NPC cases staged via MRI were included in this analysis. The occurrence of nodal metastasis was calculated and analyzed according to the respective regional nodal levels. Results 85% of NPC cases presented with lymphadenopathy. The most commonly involved regions include retropharyngeal (69% and level II lymph nodes (70%. The overall probability of levels III, IV, and V nodal involvement are 45%, 11%, and 27%, respectively. Low-risk node groups included the supraclavicular, levels IA/IB and VI nodes, and parotid nodes with involvement rates at 3%, 0%, 3%, 0%, and 1%, respectively. Nodal metastases followed an orderly pattern and the probability of "skip" metastasis between levels varied between 0.5-7.9%. Conclusions Lymph node metastasis in NPC follows a predictable and orderly pattern. The rarity of metastasis in certain nodal groups and "skip" metastasis suggest that reduced treatment volume is feasible in conformal radiotherapy for NPC.

  18. [Positioning errors of CT common rail technique in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Xu, Zihai; Mo, Li; Zhu, Chaohua; Chen, Chaomin

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the value of CT common rail technique for application in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Twenty-seven NPC patients underwent Somatom CT scans using the Siemens CTVision system prior to the commencement of the radiotherapy sessions. The acquired CT images were registered with the planning CT images using the matching function of the system to obtain the linear set-up errors of 3 directions, namely X (left to right), Y (superior to inferior), and Z (anterior to posterior). The errors were then corrected online on the moving couch. The 27 NPC patients underwent a total of 110 CT scans and the displacement deviations of the X, Y and Z directions were -0.16∓1.68 mm, 0.25∓1.66 mm, and 0.33∓1.09 mm, respectively. CT common rail technique can accurately and rapidly measure the space error between the posture and the target area to improve the set-up precision of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for NPC.

  19. Multivariate analysis of quality of life outcome for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fu-Min; Tsai, Wen-Ling; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Liao, Kuan-Cho; Chen, Hui-Chun; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The study analyzed the prognostic factors of quality of life (QoL) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after treatment, with focusing on the therapeutic benefits of the technological advances in radiotherapy (RT). Materials and methods: A cross-sectional investigation was conducted to assess the QoL of 356 NPC patients with cancer-free survival of more than 2 years. Among them, 106 patients were treated by two-dimensional RT (2DRT), 108 by 2DRT plus three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT) boost, 58 by 3DCRT alone, and 84 by intensity-modulated RT (IMRT). The QoL was assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire and QLQ-H and N35 module. The clinical difference of QoL scores between groups was calculated using Cohen's D coefficient. Results: We found NPC survivors who had a higher education level or annual family income and who had received more advanced RT treatments had better QoL outcomes. Compared with 2DRT, the impact of 3DCRT was small on most scales and moderate (Cohen's D: 0.53-0.67) on emotional functioning, pain, and mouth opening; the impact of IMRT was moderate on nine scales and large (Cohen's D: 0.80-0.88) on swallowing, social eating, teeth, and mouth opening. Conclusions: In addition to socioeconomic levels, advances in RT technique played a significant role in improving QoL of NPC patients.

  20. Psychological distress and coping in nasopharyngeal cancer: an explorative study in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiggia, Ada; Castelli, Lorys; Riva, Giuseppe; Tesio, Valentina; Provenzano, Erica; Ravera, Mattia; Garzaro, Massimiliano; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Potenza, Ilenia; Rampino, Monica; Torta, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the head and neck cancer with the greatest impact on patients' quality of life. The aim of this explorative study is to investigate the psychological distress, coping strategies and quality of life of NPC patients in the post-treatment observation period. Twenty-one patients disease-free for at least two years were assessed with a medical and a psycho-oncological evaluation. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms (CRD) were present in 23.8% of patients and 33.3% reported clinically relevant anxiety symptoms (CRA). Patients with CRD and CRA showed a significantly higher score in the use of hopelessness/helplessness and anxious preoccupation coping strategies and a worse quality of life. Even in the post-treatment period, about a quarter of patients showed CRD and CRA. Results showed that patients with high anxiety or depressive symptoms seem to use dysfunctional coping strategies, such as hopelessness and anxious preoccupation, more than patients with lower levels of anxiety and depression. The use of these styles of coping thus seems to be associated to a higher presence of CRA or CRD symptomatology and to a worse quality of life.

  1. Recombinant human endostatin normalizes tumor vasculature and enhances radiation response in xenografted human nasopharyngeal carcinoma models.

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    Fang Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypoxic tumor cells can reduce the efficacy of radiation. Antiangiogenic therapy may transiently "normalize" the tumor vasculature to make it more efficient for oxygen delivery. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the recombinant human endostatin (endostar can create a "vascular normalization window" to alleviate hypoxia and enhance the inhibitory effects of radiation therapy in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transient changes in morphology of tumor vasculature and hypoxic tumor cell fraction in response to endostar were detected in mice bearing CNE-2 and 5-8F human NPC xenografts. Various treatment schedules were tested to assess the influence of endostar on the effect of radiation therapy. Several important factors relevant to the angiogenesis were identified through immunohistochemical staining. During endostar treatment, tumor vascularity decreased, while the basement membrane and pericyte coverage associated with endothelial cells increased, which supported the idea of vessel normalization. Hypoxic tumor cell fraction also decreased after the treatment. The transient modulation of tumor physiology caused by endostar improved the effect of radiation treatment compared with other treatment schedules. The expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-14 decreased, while the level of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF increased. CONCLUSIONS: Endostar normalized tumor vasculature, which alleviated hypoxia and significantly sensitized the function of radiation in anti-tumor in human NPC. The results provide an important experimental basis for combining endostar with radiation therapy in human NPC.

  2. Replanning Criteria and Timing Definition for Parotid Protection-Based Adaptive Radiation Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Wei-Rong Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate real-time volumetric and dosimetric changes of the parotid gland so as to determine replanning criteria and timing for parotid protection-based adaptive radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Fifty NPC patients were treated with helical tomotherapy; volumetric and dosimetric (Dmean, V1, and D50 changes of the parotid gland at the 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, 21st, 26th, 31st, and 33rd fractions were evaluated. The clinical parameters affecting these changes were studied by analyses of variance methods for repeated measures. Factors influencing the actual parotid dose were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. The cut-off values predicting parotid overdose were developed from receiver operating characteristic curves and judged by combining them with a diagnostic test consistency check. The median absolute value and percentage of parotid volume reduction were 19.51 cm3 and 35%, respectively. The interweekly parotid volume varied significantly (p<0.05. The parotid Dmean, V1, and D50 increased by 22.13%, 39.42%, and 48.45%, respectively. The actual parotid dose increased by an average of 11.38% at the end of radiation therapy. Initial parotid volume, initial parotid Dmean, and weight loss rate are valuable indicators for parotid protection-based replanning.

  3. Auto-optimisation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, V.W.C.; Kwong, D.W.L.; Sham, J.S.T.; Mui, A.W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of auto-optimisation in the treatment planning of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Twenty-nine NPC patients were planned by both forward planning and auto-optimisation methods. The forward plans, which consisted of three coplanar facial fields, were produced according to the routine planning criteria. The auto-optimised plans, which consisted of 5-15 (median 9) fields, were generated by the planning system after prescribing the dose requirements and the importance weightings of the planning target volume and organs at risk. Plans produced by the two planning methods were compared by the dose volume histogram, tumour control probability (TCP), conformity index and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: The auto-optimised plans reduced the average planner's time by over 35 min. It demonstrated better TCP and conformity index than the forward plans (P=0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Besides, the parotid gland and temporo-mandibular (TM) joint were better spared with the mean dose reduction of 31.8 and 17.7%, respectively. The slight trade off was the mild dose increase in spinal cord and brain stem with their maximum doses remaining within the tolerance limits. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the potentials of auto-optimisation for improving target dose and parotid sparing in the 3DCRT of NPC with saving of the planner's time

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of nasopharyngeal carcinoma mortality in China, 1973-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Changfa; Yu, Xue Qin; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Wang, Jinfeng; Liao, Yilan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Chen, Wanqing

    2017-08-10

    We fitted generalized linear models using data from three national retrospective surveys on cause of death in China to explore the spatial and temporal patterns of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mortality over the period 1973 to 2005. The results suggest that there was a significant decrease in NPC mortality in China over time (p China areas have an elevated risk of mortality from NPC compared to those living in North China across all three time periods, with the RR being 4.96 (95% CI: 4.31-5.70) in 1973-1975, 12.83 (95% CI: 10.73-15.34) in 1990-1992 and 15.20 (95% CI: 12.34-18.72) in 2004-2005. Although NPC mortality in most areas of China has reduced to very low levels, the widening geographical disparities in NPC mortality are still noteworthy. It may be necessary to target public health policies to address the widening geographical disparities in NPC mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay: A 3D Animal Model for Study of Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ming, Huixin; Zhang, Jinyan; Huang, Guangwu; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive and metastatic head and neck cancer. However, mechanistic study of the invasion and metastasis of NPC has been hampered by the lack of proper in vivo models. We established an in vivo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model to study NPC tumor biology. We found 100% micro-tumor formation 3 days after inoculation with NPC cell lines (4/4) or primary tumor biopsy tissue (35/35). The transplanted NPC micro-tumors grew on CAMs with extracellular matrix interaction and induced angiogenesis. In addition, the CAM model could be used to study the growth of transplanted NPC tumors and also several important steps of metastasis, including tumor invasion by detecting the extent of basement membrane penetration, tumor angiogenesis by analyzing the area of neo-vessels, and tumor metastasis by quantifying tumor cells in distant organs. We established and described a feasible, easy-to-manipulate and reliable CAM model for in vivo study of NPC tumor biology. This model closely simulates the clinical features of NPC growth, progression and metastasis and could help elucidate the biological mechanisms of the growth pattern and invasion of NPC cells and in quantitative assessment of angiogenesis and cell intravasation.

  6. Trismus, xerostomia and nutrition status in nasopharyngeal carcinoma survivors treated with radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-J; Chen, S-C; Wang, C-P; Fang, Y-Y; Lee, Y-H; Lou, P-J; Ko, J-Y; Chiang, C-C; Lai, Y-H

    2016-05-01

    The aims of the study were to: (1) examine levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status; (2) compare levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving different types of radiation modalities; and (3) identify factors related to NPC survivors' risk status for malnutrition and existing malnutrition. A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was conducted. NPC survivors were recruited from otolaryngology/oncology outpatient clinics in a medical centre in Northern Taiwan. Study measures included (1) Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire, (2) Xerostomia Questionnaire, (3) Mini Nutrition Assessment, (4) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Depression subscale, and (5) Symptom Severity Scale. A total of 110 subjects were recruited. Those receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy had less trismus and xerostomia than patients receiving two-dimensional radiation therapy. Patients with female gender, advanced stage, completion of treatments within 1 year, higher levels of depression, more severe trismus and higher symptom severity tended to have malnutrition or were at risk of malnutrition. Trismus and xerostomia are long-term problems in some NPC survivors and may contribute to malnutrition. To better manage a patient's trismus and xerostomia and to enhance nutritional status, clinicians should develop a patient-specific care programme based on careful assessment and targeted measures to improve oral function and insure adequate nutritional intake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Influence of intensity-modulated radiation therapy on parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Tiantian; Wu Shaoxiong; Han Fei; Lu Lixia; Huang Shaomin; Deng Xiaowu; Lu Taixiang; Zhao Chong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Eighty-three NPC patients received prima- ry IMRT between 2001 and 2003. Xerostomia before radiotherapy, at the end of radiotherapy, at 6-month, 1-, 2-,3-,4- and 5-year after radiotherapy were investigated, respectively. The relation between xerostomia and parotid dose distribution was analyzed. Results: Of all the patients, 4, 31, 31 and 17 had stage I, II, III and IV A disease, respectively. Sixteen patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The median followed-up time was 65 months. The 5-year local control and regional control rate were 96% and 95%, respectively. The 5- year overall survival rate was 80%. The mild xerostomia rate at the seven time points was 42%, 51%, 71%, 77%, 58%, 38% and 26%. The corresponding moderate xerostomia rate was 52%, 53%, 21%, 8%, 3%, 2% and 2%, respectively. No serious xerostomia was observed. The mean dose of the bilateral parotid glands was 34.34 Gy. Xerostomia at 6-month after radiotherapy was positively correlated with the mean dose of the parotid glands, and D 50 was the independent factor in predicting the xerostomia. Parotid function was well protected when the mean dose and D 50 were no more than 33 Gy and 29 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: IMRT can improve the local-regional control of NPC and protect the parotid glands from radiation-induced injury. (authors)

  8. MRI findings in patients with severe trismus following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Kunwar S.S.; King, Ann D.; Paunipagar, Bhawan K.; Abrigo, Jill; Ahuja, Anil T. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong, S.A.R. (China); Vlantis, Alexander C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong, S.A.R. (China); Leung, Sing F. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Clincal Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong, S.A.R. (China)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of the study was to document MRI findings in masticator structures in patients with trismus developing after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MRI neck examinations were reviewed in 35 patients with marked trismus, defined as an interincisal gap of 25 mm or less, post-radiotherapy for NPC. Patients with trismus before treatment, infiltration of masticator structures at the time of trismus, or previous surgery involving the masticator structures were excluded. Sixteen patients had no significant abnormality in their masticator structures (46%). Nineteen patients (54%) had abnormalities comprising radiotherapy-induced masticator muscle fibrosis (n = 19), denervation atrophy of the masticator muscles secondary to mandibular nerve damage (n = 1), mandibular ramus signal abnormalities (n = 5), mandibular condyle sclerosis with or without capsular thickening (n = 5), perimasticator fibrosis extending into the masticator space (n = 3) and inflammation secondary to severe sinusitis extending into the masticator space (n = 2). Nine patients (26%) had more than one type of abnormality. Twenty-two patients (63%) had concomitant skull base osteoradionecrosis which extended into the pterygoid bases in 16 patients (45%). The presence of several MRI abnormalities in the masticator structures of patients with trismus after radiotherapy suggests that trismus is multifactorial. This study advances the understanding of mechanisms behind this debilitating side effect of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  9. Upregulated Expression of SOX4 Is Associated with Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SOX4, which belongs to the sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility group (SRY box family, plays a critical role in embryonic development, cell fate decision, differentiation, and tumor development. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is one of the most common cancers in China and Southeast Asia. However, the molecular mechanisms of this disease remain unknown. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation between the expression of SOX4 with clinicopathologic variables as well as patients prognosis of NPC. We found overexpression of SOX4 was correlated with clinical stages, lymph node metastasis, and Ki-67 expression in NPC (P<0.05. Besides, patients who expressed higher levels of SOX4 had poorer survival rate (P<0.05. Then, in vitro studies, we took serum starvation-refeeding experiment and knocked down the expression of SOX4 with siRNA to demonstrate that SOX4 could promote proliferation of NPC nonkeratinizing cell line CNE2. The regulation of SOX4 on cell migration was determined by the transwell migration assay and wounding healing assay. Besides, we also found SOX4 could promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of CNE2 cells and decrease their cisplatin sensitivity. Our data suggested that SOX4 might play an important role in regulating NPC progression and would provide a potential therapeutic strategy for NPC.

  10. Alcohol drinking as an unfavorable prognostic factor for male patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Zhao, Bing-Cheng; Chen, Chen; Lei, Xin-Xing; Shen, Lu-Jun; Chen, Gang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Guan-Nan; Chen, Han; Jiang, Yi-Quan; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2016-01-18

    The relationship between alcohol drinking and the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unknown. To investigate the prognostic value of alcohol drinking on NPC, this retrospective study was conducted on 1923 male NPC patients. Patients were classified as current, former and non-drinkers according to their drinking status. Furthermore, they were categorized as heavy drinkers and mild/none drinkers based on the intensity and duration of alcohol drinking. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. We found that current drinkers had significantly lower overall survival (OS) rate (5-year OS: 70.2% vs. 76.4%, P Drinking ≥14 drinks/week, and drinking ≥20 years were both independent unfavorable prognostic factors for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.81, P = 0.022; HR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.75, P = 0.007). Stratified analyses further revealed that the negative impacts of alcohol were manifested mainly among older patients and among smokers. In conclusion, alcohol drinking is a useful predictor of prognosis in male NPC patients; drinkers, especially heavy drinkers have poorer prognosis.

  11. Streptococcus equi Detection Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, A G; Rankin, S C; Duffee, L; Boston, R C; Wheeler-Aceto, H

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Streptococcus equi in nasopharyngeal washes (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples have low sensitivity. In human diagnostics, processing of samples with flocked swabs has improved recovery rates of bacterial agents because of improved surface area and elution factors. For S. equi subsp. equi (S. equi) detection in NPW and GPL samples we hypothesized that: direct-PCR would be more reliable than flocked swab culture (FS culture); flocked swab PCR (FS-PCR) would be equivalent to direct-PCR; and FS culture would be more reliable than traditional culture. A total of 193 samples (134 NPW and 59 GPL) from 113 horses with either suspected S. equi infection, convalescing from a known S. equi infection, or asymptomatic horses screened for S. equi. Prospective study. Samples were submitted for S. equi direct-PCR. Using logistic regression, direct-PCR (gold standard) was compared to FS culture, traditional culture, and FS-PCR also performed. Direct-PCR was statistically more sensitive than FS-PCR, FS culture, and traditional culture (P equi via either PCR or bacterial culture from samples. Direct-PCR is the preferred method of detection of S. equi. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Post-irradiation otitis media, rhinosinusitis, and their interrelationship in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated by IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Chung-Han; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Lin, Huang-Pin; Chen, Tsai-Hsin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrences of post-irradiation chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and their interrelationship in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A retrospective review of medical records and magnetic resonance imaging for NPC patients across a 5-year follow-up was conducted. Rhinosinusitis was diagnosed and staged by Lund-Mackay system. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. On the 5th year following IMRT, 8 patients (7.8 %), 30 patients (29.4 %), and 17 patients (16.7 %) suffered from IMRT-induced CSOM, post-irradiation OME, and CRS, respectively. Analysis by logistic regression showed a lack of association between the occurrence of post-irradiation OME and CRS (P = 0.06). These observations indicated that the modern radiotherapy technique exhibits capability in decreasing the incidences of CSOM and CRS comparing to the data of traditional radiotherapy. But post-irradiation OME was still encountered in more than one-quarter of long-term survivors of NPC. Of note, rhinosinusitis in NPC survivors does not predispose to the development of post-irradiation OME, suggesting nasal irrigation might be unnecessary for the management of OME following radiotherapy.

  13. Nasopharyngeal carcinomas: from biology to clinic; Les carcinomes du nasopharynx: de la biologie a la clinique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, S.; Maingon, P. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 21 - Dijon (France); Keryer, C.; Busson, P. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, CNRS/UMR 8126, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2005-02-15

    Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are very different from other head and neck cancers because of their specific multi-factorial etiology and their geographic distribution. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is implicated in onco-genesis of NPC in association with genetic alterations such as inactivation of the p16/Ink4, p19/ARF, RASSFI or Blu genes. Tumoral tissues include a very abundant characteristic lymphoid infiltrate. Inflammatory cytokines are produced by both malignant and infiltrating cells. There is no efficient immune response against the tumor. On the opposite, infiltrating lymphocytes might play a role in tumor development. Serological methods and detection of circulating viral DNA are expected to become useful for early detection of relapse and on a longer term for primary screening. NPC are often diagnosed at a late stage because patients may remain asymptomatic for a long time. Computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are complementary for the initial evaluation. Positron emission tomography (PET) is efficient for the evaluation of treatment efficiency and detection of relapses. Treatment is based on radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Their optimal use needs to be evaluated by phase III trials but positive results have been obtained by concomitant association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Targeted therapies are being studied with strategies based on disruption of viral latency, use of replicative adeno-viruses or anti-tumor vaccination. (author)

  14. Fatigue during chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer and its relationship to radiation dose distribution in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Ceri; Schick, Ulrike; Morden, James P.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Miah, Aisha B.; Bhide, Shreerang; Newbold, Kate; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Chris M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Fatigue during head and neck radiotherapy may be related to radiation dose to the central nervous system (CNS). The impact of patient, tumour, and dosimetric variables on acute fatigue was assessed in nasopharyngeal cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Material and methods: Radiation dose to the following retrospectively-delineated CNS structures; brainstem, cerebellum, pituitary gland, pineal gland, hypothalamus, hippocampus and basal ganglia (BG) and clinical variables were related to incidence of ⩾ grade 2 fatigue in 40 patients. Results: Sixty per cent of patients reported fatigue during and following radiotherapy. Dmean and D2 to the BG and Dmean to the pituitary gland were significantly associated with fatigue during radiation (P < 0.01). Dmean to the cerebellum was associated with fatigue following radiotherapy and at any time (P < 0.01). After adjusting for clinical factors, an association remained between fatigue during radiotherapy and mean dose and D2 to the pituitary gland and BG (P = 0.012, 0.036, 0.009 and 0.018) and mean dose to the cerebellum following radiation and at any time (P = 0.042 and 0.029). Conclusion: Disruption of connections between BG, cerebellum, and higher cortical centres or disruption of pituitary-regulated hormonal balance may be implicated in the pathophysiology of radiation-related fatigue

  15. The Alteration of Nasopharyngeal and Oropharyngeal Microbiota in Children with MPP and Non-MPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the morbidity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP has increased significantly in China. A growing number of studies indicate that imbalanced respiratory microbiota is associated with various respiratory diseases. Methods: We enrolled 119 children, including 60 pneumonia patients and 59 healthy children. Nasopharyngeal (NP and oropharyngeal (OP sampling was performed for 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA gene analysis of all children. Sputum and OP swabs were obtained from patients for pathogen detection. Results: Both the NP and OP microbiota of patients differ significantly from that of healthy children. Diseased children harbor lower microbial diversity and a simpler co-occurrence network in NP and OP. In pneumonia patients, NP and OP microbiota showed greater similarities between each other, suggesting transmission of NP microbiota to the OP. Aside from clinically detected pathogens, NP and OP microbiota analysis has also identified possible pathogens in seven cases with unknown infections. Conclusion: NP and OP microbiota in MPP and non-MPP are definitely similar. Respiratory infection generates imbalanced NP microbiota, which has the potential to transmit to OP. Microbiota analysis also promises to compliment the present means of detecting respiratory pathogens.

  16. Therapy effects of gold nanorods on the CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jinyan Shao,1 Jianguo Tang,1 Jian Ji,2 Wenbo Zhou21Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Department of Polymer Science, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The use of nanocarriers to deliver drugs to tumor tissue is one of the most important strategies in cancer therapeutics. Recently, gold nanorods (GNRs have begun to be used in cancer therapy because of their unique properties. The purpose of this study was to show the potential that GNRs have against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cells, using near-infrared (NIR laser light. Transmission electron microscopic and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic investigations confirmed the efficient uptake of the GNRs by CNE-1 and human rhinal epithelia cells. The in vitro NIR photothermal therapy for the CNE-1 and rhinal epithelia cells was designed in three groups: (1 control, (2 laser alone, and (3 GNRs with laser. Fluorescence microscopy images indicated that, at some GNR concentrations and some intensities of NIR laser, GNRs with laser therapy could induce cell death for CNE-1 cells while keeping the rhinal epithelia cells healthy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that using GNRs with NIR laser therapy can selectively destruct CNE-1 cells while having no effect on normal (rhinal epithelia cells.Keywords: photothermal therapy, near-infrared laser, rhinal epithelia cells, cell uptake

  17. The Role of Pretreatment FDG-PET in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Shan; Wu, Ming-Fang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Liu, Jung-Tung; Weng, Jui-Hung; Li, Yueh-Chun; Lee, Jong-Kang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Pretreatment with 2- [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET) was evaluated as a predictor of local failure-free survival (LFFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with nonkeratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) alone or concurrently with chemotherapy (CCRT). Patients and Methods: Seventy-five M0 NPC patients who received FDG-PET before treatment were analyzed. The primary tumor FDG uptake was measured as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). The LFFS, DFS, and OS were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences were evaluated on log-rank test. The prognostic significance was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Eighteen patients received IMRT alone and 57 received CCRT. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in 12 patients with locoregional or distant failure than in those without failure (p 18 F-FDG uptake (SUVmax >5) indicates poor outcome in patients with NPC.

  18. Effect of time, dose and fractionation on local control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne W.M.; Chan, David K.K.; Poon, Y.F.; Foo, William; Law, Stephen C.K.; O, S.K.; Tung, Stewart Y.; Fowler, Jack F.; Chappell, Rick

    1995-01-01

    To study the effect of radiation factors on local control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 1008 patients with similarly staged T1N0-3M0 disease (Ho's classification) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated by megavoltage irradiation alone using the same technique. Four different fractionation schedules had been used sequentially during 1976-1985: with total dose ranging from 45.6 to 60 Gy and fractional dose from 2.5 to 4.2 Gy. The median overall time was 39 days (range = 38-75 days). Both for the whole series and 763 patients with nodal control, total dose was the most important radiation factor. The hazard of local failure decreased by 9% per additional Gy (p < 0.01). Biological equivalents expressed in terms of Biologically Effective Dose or Nominal Standard Dose also showed strong correlation. Fractional dose had no significant impact. The effect of overall treatment time was insignificant for the whole series, but almost reached statistical significance for those with nodal control (p = 0.06). Further study is required for elucidation, as 85% of patients completed treatment within a very narrow range (38-42 days), and the possible hazard is clinically too significant to be ignored

  19. The relationship between mucosal immunity, nasopharyngeal carriage, asymptomatic transmission and the resurgence of Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher; Rohani, Pejman; Thea, Donald M

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of whooping cough in the US has been rising slowly since the 1970s, but the pace of this has accelerated sharply since acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the earlier whole cell vaccines in the late 1990s. A similar trend occurred in many other countries, including the UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and Spain, following the switch to acellular vaccines. The key question is why. Two leading theories (short duration of protective immunologic persistence and evolutionary shifts in the pathogen to evade the vaccine) explain some but not all of these shifts, suggesting that other factors may also be important. In this synthesis, we argue that sterilizing mucosal immunity that blocks or abbreviates the duration of nasopharyngeal carriage of Bordetella pertussis and impedes person-to-person transmission (including between asymptomatically infected individuals) is a critical factor in this dynamic. Moreover, we argue that the ability to induce such mucosal immunity is fundamentally what distinguishes whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines and may be pivotal to understanding much of the resurgence of this disease in many countries that adopted acellular vaccines. Additionally, we offer the hypothesis that observed herd effects generated by acellular vaccines may reflect a modification of disease presentation leading to reduced potential for transmission by those already infected, as opposed to inducing resistance to infection among those who have been exposed. PMID:28928960

  20. LMP1-mediated glycolysis induces myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ting-Ting; Ye, Shu-Biao; Liu, Yi-Na; He, Jia; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Zhang, Chuan-Xia; Cui, Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Shi; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are expanded in tumor microenvironments, including that of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The link between MDSC expansion and EBV infection in NPC is unclear. Here, we show that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promotes MDSC expansion in the tumor microenvironment by promoting extra-mitochondrial glycolysis in malignant cells, which is a scenario for immune escape initially suggested by the frequent, concomitant detection of abundant LMP1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and CD33+ MDSCs in tumor sections. The full process has been reconstituted in vitro. LMP1 promotes the expression of multiple glycolytic genes, including GLUT1. This metabolic reprogramming results in increased expression of the Nod-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 and, consequently, increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF. Finally, these changes in the environment of malignant cells result in enhanced NPC-derived MDSC induction. One key step is the physical interaction of LMP1 with GLUT1 to stabilize the GLUT1 protein by blocking its K48-ubiquitination and p62-dependent autolysosomal degradation. This work indicates that LMP1-mediated glycolysis regulates IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF production through the NLRP3 inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 signaling pathways to enhance tumor-associated MDSC expansion, which leads to tumor immunosuppression in NPC. PMID:28732079