WorldWideScience

Sample records for nasal cavity volume

  1. A study of nasal cavity volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, Yasuyoshi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1992-04-01

    The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).

  2. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kenichi

    1996-01-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  3. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kenichi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  4. Retro-Nasal Aroma Release Is Correlated with Variations in the In-Mouth Air Cavity Volume after Empty Deglutition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labouré, Hélène; Bourdiol, Pierre; Lachaze, Pauline; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feron, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL ±0.62) that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL ±2.37 to 22.82 mL ±3.04) that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H) and low (L). The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition. PMID:22815986

  5. Retro-nasal aroma release is correlated with variations in the in-mouth air cavity volume after empty deglutition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mishellany-Dutour

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL ±0.62 that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL ±2.37 to 22.82 mL ±3.04 that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H and low (L. The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition.

  6. Esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollen, Tyler R; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica M; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Vaysberg, Mikhail; Mendenhall, William M

    2015-06-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the nasal cavity. We describe the outcomes for 26 patients treated with curative intent with photon radiotherapy (RT) at the University of Florida. Between May 1972 and June 2007, 26 patients received RT for previously untreated esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity. Sixteen patients were males and 10 were females with a median age of 55 years (range, 3 to 82 y). The modified Kadish stage distribution was: B, 7 patients; C, 17 patients; and D, 2 patients. Treatment modalities included the following: definitive RT, 5 patients; preoperative RT, 2 patients; and postoperative RT after resection, 19 patients. Elective neck irradiation (ENI) was performed in 17 (71%) of 24 N0 patients. Rates of local control, cause-specific survival, and absolute overall survival at 5 years were 79%, 72%, and 69%, respectively. Overall survival among patients treated with definitive RT was 20% at 5 years, compared with 81% among those who underwent surgery and adjuvant RT (P=0.01). One (6%) of 17 patients who received ENI developed a recurrence in the neck and was successfully salvaged. Ultimate neck control was 100% at 5 years for patients who received ENI versus 69% among those not receiving ENI (P=0.0173). Resection combined with adjuvant RT is more effective than surgery or RT alone in the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma. ENI reduces the risk of regional relapse in patients with Kadish stage B and C cancers.

  7. CT findings of malignant nasal cavity tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Young Mi; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Kyu Ho; Yu, Won Jong; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of malignant nasal cavity tumors. Retrospective analysis was performed on 20 patients with pathologically-proven malignant nasal cavity tumors. Using CT, we analysed their location, extent of bone destruction and of involvement of adjacent structures, and enhancing pattern. A total of 20 cases included nine squamous cell carcinomas, three olfactory neuroblastomas, three lymphomas, two polymorphic reticulosis, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, one undifferentiated carcinoma and one metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. All cases except one adenoid cystic carcinoma and one squamous cell carcinoma revealed bone destruction or erosion. Aggressive bone destruction and irregular enhancement were seen in eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma, seven cases of which showed involvement of the adjacent paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, and orbit. Olfactory neuroblastomas were centered in the superior nasal cavity and the adjacent ethmoid sinus, and erosion or destruction of the cribriform plate had occurred. Lymphomas showed bilateral involvement, with uniform contrast enhancement. Polymorphic reticuloses showed perforation or erosion of the nasal septum, with bilateral involvement of the nasal cavity. The location, presence of bone destruction, involvement of adjacent structures, and enhancement pattern of tumor on CT can be helpful for the differential diagnosis of malignant nasal cavity tumors

  8. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bassis, Christine M; Tang, Alice L; Young, Vincent B; Pynnonen, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and dep...

  9. Haemangiopericytoma of the nasal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Berg-Dammer, E.; Kuehne, D. [Alfred Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Metz, K.A. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Universitaetsklinikum der Universitaets-Gesamthochschule Essen (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPC) are rare vascular tumours originating from a pericytes, a term coined by Zimmermann to refer to the main location of this cell line in the pericapillary connective tissue. HPC may arise in any part of the body. We report a 29-year-old man with a histologically proven nasal haemangiopericytoma-like tumour. The lesion was embolised through the ophthalmic artery before it was removed surgically. The main symptoms of nasal HPC are epistaxis and obstruction of the nose. Malignant and benign clinical courses have been described. Local recurrence and metastases may be observed years after initial diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. A Rare Tumor of Nasal Cavity: Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Verim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomangiopericytoma is a rare vascular neoplasm characterized by a pattern of prominent perivascular growth. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic complaining of nasal obstruction, frequent epistaxis, and facial pain. A reddish tumor filling the left nasal cavity was observed on endoscopy and treated with endoscopic excision. Microscopically, closely packed cells interspersed with numerous thin-walled, branching staghorn vessels were seen. Glomangiopericytoma is categorized as a borderline low malignancy tumor by WHO classification. Long-term follow-up with systemic examination is necessary due to high risk of recurrence.

  11. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nasal cavity of the farmed african catfish Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nasal cavity microanatomy of farmed fingerlings of African catfish, Clarias gariepunus was investigated to fill existing knowledge gap on its histology from available literatures. This becomes very important as no gustatory cell was reported from previous researches on the fingerling digestive tract. A slice of nasal cavity of ...

  13. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, TT; Kirkeby Nielsen, LP; Poulsen, Knud

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine...... the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively...... reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal...

  14. Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Roy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Benign lesions of the nasal cavity represent a diverse group of pathologies. Furthermore, each of these disorders may present differently in any given patient as pain and discomfort, epistaxis, headaches, vision changes, or nasal obstruction. Although these nasal masses are benign, many of them have a significant capacity for local tissue destruction and symptomatology secondary to this destruction. Advances in office-based endoscopic nasendoscopy have equipped the otolaryngologist with a safe, inexpensive, and rapid means of directly visualizing lesions within the nasal cavity and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Methods: The purpose of this study is to review the diagnosis, management, and controversies of many of the most common benign lesions of the nasal cavity encountered by the primary care physician or otolaryngologist. Results: This includes discussion of inverted papilloma (IP), juvenile angiofibroma, squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, schwannoma, benign fibro-osseous lesions, and other benign lesions of the nasal cavity, with particular emphasis on IP and juvenile angiofibroma. Conclusion: A diverse array of benign lesions occur within the nasal cavity and paranasal cavities. Despite their inability to metastasize, many of these lesions have significant capability for local tissue destruction and recurrence. PMID:22487294

  15. Capillary hemangioma of adult nasal cavity: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Wan Seop; Cho, Sung Bum; Choi, Yun Sun; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Seog Joon; Yoon, Sook Ja; Yoon, Yong Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Capillary hemangioma of the adult nasal cavity is rare. We report a case which occurred in the right nasal cavity of a 25-year-old woman, together with the multiphase enhanced CT findings. The patients who had a history of recurrent nasal bleeding, had experienced nasal obstruction and swelling during the two-month period prior to presentation, and one month before presentation, spontaneous vaginal delivery occurred. Physical examination revealed the presence of a well-defined round mass, with redness in the right nasal vertibule. The mass showed rim enhancement at early arterial-phase CT scanning, increased enhancement at the late arterial phase, and moderately homogeneous enhancement at the delayed phase

  16. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's scrcoma in the nasal cavity: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bo Young; Park, Seok Won; Km, Eo Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Lee, Eun Ja

    2013-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma presents a rare tumor of the head and neck, and even rarer in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses. We report the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity, as presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The CT and MRI examination reveals a mass in the left nasal cavity with extension to contralateral side, ethmoidal sinus, and nasopharynx. We provide an overview of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity and discuss radiologic findings of this unusual case.

  17. Preoperative CT evaluation on nasal cavity for transsphenoidal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Naokatsu; Yamaura, Akira; Hoshi, Seiichiro; Sunada, Souichi; Sunami, Kenro

    1997-01-01

    Preoperative bone CT scans sliced parallel to the surgical plane were evaluated in 32 cases of transsphenoidal surgery. This method predicted patients with narrow nasal cavity, and helped to determine the rhinological maneuvers for providing a wider operative field. In addition, it helps to plan the need and extent of sella floor removal in re-operated cases. There was relatively little difference in the width and length of the nasal cavity between acromegalic and non-acromegalic patients. Hence, bone CT scans are useful in the preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. (author)

  18. inverted papilloma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-05-08

    May 8, 1971 ... Although the inverted papilloma of the nasal cavity has been studied for over 100 years, the clinical approach to this lesion remains ill-defined and wide recognition of the problems involved is still not evident. This may be attributed to the infrequency of the condition, the ease with which it may be mistaken ...

  19. Radiology of a rare foreign body in the nasal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoendorf, J.; Jungehuelsing, M. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Koeln (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    We report a 76-year-old man referred because of incessant epistaxis. During presurgical investigation a radiodense mass was detected in the left nasal cavity, which turned out to be an iodoform-soaked gauze pack put in by a general practitioner some weeks previously and simply forgotten. (orig.)

  20. Radiology of a rare foreign body in the nasal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoendorf, J.; Jungehuelsing, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report a 76-year-old man referred because of incessant epistaxis. During presurgical investigation a radiodense mass was detected in the left nasal cavity, which turned out to be an iodoform-soaked gauze pack put in by a general practitioner some weeks previously and simply forgotten. (orig.)

  1. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of Nasal Cavity- A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Abhishek; Nagpal, Tapan

    2016-01-01

    Spindle Cell Carcinoma (SpCC), also known as Sarcomatoid Carcinoma, is a rare and peculiar biphasic malignant neoplasm that occurs mainly in the upper aero-digestive tract, mostly in larynx. SCC accounts for 3% of all squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the head and neck region. It is a rare variant of SCC which shows spindled or pleomorphic tumour cells simulating a true sarcoma. We present a case report of SpCC nasal cavity in a 50-year-old female patient, presented with intermittent epistaxis from left nasal cavity. On physical examination, the patient had an ulcero-exophytic type of mass in the left nasal cavity and a smooth bulge on the left side of anterior hard palate. Patient underwent excision of nasal mass along with partial palatectomy by facial degloving approach and reconstruction of palate with naso-labial flap. The postoperative histopathological report showed SCC. Surgery forms the mainstay of treatment. Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy is warranted in order to improve treatment results. As only few cases have been reported, we report a case of this rare entity to contribute for better understanding and awareness of this rare malignancy. PMID:27190843

  2. Unsteady Particle Deposition in a Human Nasal Cavity during Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camby M.K. Se

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the deposition efficiency during the unsteady inhalation cycle by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The unsteady inhalation profile was applied at the outlet of nasopharynx, which had a maximum flow rate of 40.3L/min which corresponds to an equivalent steady inhalation tidal volume flow rate of 24.6L/min. Aerodynamic particle sizes of 5μm and 20μm were studied in order to reflect contrasting Stokes numbered particle behaviour. Two particle deposition efficiencies in the nasal cavity versus time are presented. In general, the deposition of 5μm particles was much less than 20μm particles. The first 0.2 second of the inhalation cycle was found to be significant to the particle transport, since the majority of particles were deposited during this period (i.e. its residence time. Comparisons were also made with its equivalent steady inhalation flow rate which found that the unsteady inhalation produced lower deposition efficiency for both particle sizes.

  3. The nasopharynx, the paranasal sinuses, and nasal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    In considering malignancies of the head and neck region, a number of sites mutually lend themselves to the presentation of diagnostic imaging and treatment. Some of these sites are the nasopharynx, the paranasal sinuses, and the nasal cavity, which are primarily concerned with the intake of air and are, in essence, the beginning of the respiratory tract. Because of its function, the tract is exposed to many environmental antigens and pollutants. For example, carcinoma of the nasopharynx is especially common among southern Chinese and seems to be related to environmental rather than genetic factors. However, the Epstein-Barr virus is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinomas in all races. The incidence of carcinomas of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses has been found to be increased in furniture workers and appears to be related to wood dust inhalation

  4. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's scrcoma in the nasal cavity: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Bo Young; Park, Seok Won; Km, Eo Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Lee, Eun Ja [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Ewing's sarcoma presents a rare tumor of the head and neck, and even rarer in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses. We report the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity, as presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The CT and MRI examination reveals a mass in the left nasal cavity with extension to contralateral side, ethmoidal sinus, and nasopharynx. We provide an overview of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity and discuss radiologic findings of this unusual case.

  5. A rapid alpha dosimeter for measuring nasal cavity wipe matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo, Xianguo; Mu, Keliang; Zhong, Hongmei; Yang, Guoshan; Yuan, Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is necessary for people who work in the special condition to know whether the alpha radiation is inhaled through detecting quickly nasal cavity wipe matter. This measure method requires that the dosimeter must be portable and easy to operate, and be able to overcome some disadvantages, such as high environment background, few sample quantity, short measure time, and so on. Based on the above requests, a new intelligent portable system is developed for measuring alpha radiated degree, which is suitable for solid wiping matter detected of which diameter is smaller than 20 mm. This system is mainly made up of the detector, self- circumrotating sample shelf, I/A converter, signal gathering and processing system, power supply etc. The system chooses PIPS (Planar Implanted Passivated Silicon) detector which is a designed logical signal gathering hardware. The detector is with small volume, high efficiency and good resolution. PIPS detector doesn't need working gas and is easy to use compared with gas ionization chamber detector. The self-circumrotating sample shelf carries on measuring samples cubically and this improves the accuracy. The system uses compensating adjustment technology to remove background, automatically identify and compensate for radon, thoron and progeny interference, and is able to obtain the reliable measurement result. And the power for this system is supplied simultaneously by 220 V AV power and rechargeable Li-battery supply; it also has a mobile storage for more environments. The dosimeter is used to measure the samples of which diameters are 10∼20 mm , the result of tests shows that: detection efficiency ≥ 30%, background count ≤ 0.2 cpm, stability ≤ 0.3% / h, working temperature -10∼40 C degrees. The parameters of the system basically meet the rapid measurement in a special environment, so it has valuable application prospect in the field of environment, laboratories, and nuclear facilities etc. (author)

  6. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the nasal cavity mimicking juvenile angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hyo; Kim, Beom Joon; Jang, Tae Young

    2012-10-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the nasal cavity (LEC NC) all could be found as a hyper-vascular mass in the nasopharynx area. Performing biopsy for histopathologic confirmation is necessary in the case of NPC or LEC NC but could be fatal in the case of angiofibroma. In our case, a 21-year-old male who was suffering from unilateral nasal stuffiness and frequent epistaxis had a mass with an easily bleeding tendency in his right nasal cavity. Juvenile angiofibroma was suspected by clinical and radiologic examinations. We performed preoperative angiography and the feeding vessel from the right internal maxillary artery was obliterated with polyvinyl alcohol nanoparticle. The mass was completely removed endoscopically, and there was profound hemorrhage in spite of the preoperative embolization. The mass turned out to be LEC NC by postoperative histopathologic examination. To avoid this misdiagnosis, the authors suggest that we should perform biopsy under rigid endoscopy 24h after angiographic embolization. If the result of frozen biopsy is juvenile angiofibroma, we could perform surgery another 24h later. If the result is nasopharyngeal carcinoma or LEC NC, we could avoid unnecessary surgical removal and perform radiotherapy. In terms of treatment strategies, we suggest endoscopic removal of gross tumor and postoperative combination of chemoradiotherapy as the more curative regimen with less complications related with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical simulation of airway dimension effects on airflow patterns and odorant deposition patterns in the rat nasal cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehong Wei

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is largely dependent on the airflow and odorant transport in the nasal cavity, which in turn depends on the anatomical structure of the nose. In order to evaluate the effect of airway dimension on rat nasal airflow patterns and odorant deposition patterns, we constructed two 3-dimensional, anatomically accurate models of the left nasal cavity of a Sprague-Dawley rat: one was based on high-resolution MRI images with relatively narrow airways and the other was based on artificially-widening airways of the MRI images by referencing the section images with relatively wide airways. Airflow and odorant transport, in the two models, were determined using the method of computational fluid dynamics with finite volume method. The results demonstrated that an increase of 34 µm in nasal airway dimension significantly decreased the average velocity in the whole nasal cavity by about 10% and in the olfactory region by about 12% and increased the volumetric flow into the olfactory region by about 3%. Odorant deposition was affected to a larger extent, especially in the olfactory region, where the maximum odorant deposition difference reached one order of magnitude. The results suggest that a more accurate nasal cavity model is necessary in order to more precisely study the olfactory function of the nose when using the rat.

  8. Flow through the nasal cavity of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm-Davis, L. L.; Fish, F. E.

    2015-12-01

    The nasal cavity of spiny dogfish is a blind capsule with no internal connection to the oral cavity. Water is envisioned to flow through the cavity in a smooth, continuous flow pattern; however, this assumption is based on previous descriptions of the morphology of the olfactory cavity. No experimentation on the flow through the internal nasal cavity has been reported. Morphology of the head of the spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias) does not suggest a close external connection between the oral and nasal systems. However, dye visualization showed that there was flow through the nasal apparatus and from the excurrent nostril to the mouth when respiratory flows were simulated. The hydrodynamic flow through the nasal cavity was observed from flow tank experiments. The dorsum of the nasal cavity of shark heads from dead animals was exposed by dissection and a glass plate was glued over of the exposed cavity. When the head was placed in a flow, dye was observed to be drawn passively into the cavity showing a complex, three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow. Dye entered the incurrent nostril, flowed through the nasal lamellae, crossed over and under the nasal valve, and circulated around the nasal valve before exiting the excurrent nostril. When the nasal valve was removed, the dye became stagnant and back flowed out through the incurrent nostril. The single nasal valve has a hydrodynamic function that organizes a coherent flow of water through the cavity without disruption. The results suggest that the morphology of the nasal apparatus in concert with respiratory flow and ambient flows from active swimming can be used to draw water through the olfactory cavity of the shark.

  9. Is the human nasal cavity at risk from inhaled radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Snipes, M.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    In a series of three life-span studies in which beagle dogs inhaled relatively soluble forms of beta-emitting radionuclides, a number of cancers of the nasal cavity have arisen at long times after the inhalation exposure. No such cancers were observed in the control dogs. Data obtained in other studies involving serial sacrifice of dogs that received these radionuclides in similar forms have shown that high local concentrations of the radionuclides can persist in nasal turbinates for long periods of time, depending on the physical half-life of the radionuclide inhaled. Several nasal carcinomas have also been observed in dogs injected with 137 CsCl in which the relative concentrations of beta activity in the turbinate region were not as pronounced as in the above studies. Similar risks of sinonasal cancer were calculated for dogs in each of these studies regardless of differences in radionuclide, dosimetry, and route of administration. Since sinonasal cancers have occurred in people exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides, it is reasonable to assume this could occur with beta emitters as well. Radiation protection guidelines should account for the sinonasal region being at risk. 23 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  10. Combined endovascular and surgical treatment of melanoma of the nasal cavity: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Delgado, F.; Ramos, M.; Bravo, F.

    2000-01-01

    Melanoma of the nasal cavity is a rare tumor with a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma. It usually presents as nasal obstruction and/or epistaxis. The observation of a pigmented mass in the nasal cavity is highly suggestive of this lesion. Computed tomography shows a mass with nonspecific features. In magnetic resonance studies, it has a characteristics signal consisting of hyperintensity of T1-weighted images and hypointensity on T2-weighted images, depending on the amount of melanin. The treatment of choice is surgical resection. We present a case of melanoma of the nasal cavity in which endovascular embolization of the tumor was performed prior to surgical treatment. (Author) 11 refs

  11. Computed tomography of the normal feline nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, J.M.; Abbott, L.C.; Kuriashkin, I.V.

    1997-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images of the feline nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses were acquired from normal adult cats, Good resolution and anatomic detail were obtained from the CT images using soft tissue formatting. A description of normal feline nasal cavity and paranasal sinus anatomy using CT is presented

  12. Power Link Optimization for a Neurostimulator in Nasal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines system optimization for wirelessly powering a small implant embedded in tissue. For a given small receiver in a multilayer tissue model, the transmitter is abstracted as a sheet of tangential current density for which the optimal distribution is analytically found. This proposes a new design methodology for wireless power transfer systems. That is, from the optimal current distribution, the maximum achievable efficiency is derived first. Next, various design parameters are determined to achieve the target efficiency. Based on this design methodology, a centimeter-sized neurostimulator inside the nasal cavity is demonstrated. For this centimeter-sized implant, the optimal distribution resembles that of a coil source and the optimal frequency is around 15 MHz. While the existing solution showed an efficiency of about 0.3 percent, the proposed system could enhance the efficiency fivefold.

  13. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Nasal Cavity:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mathew

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs of the nose and paranasal sinuses are extremely rare.These were originally described as neoplasms of the pleura originating from spindle cells. It is further sub-classified as a benign type of mesothelial tumour. Its occurrence in many extra pleural sites have been reported earlier, mainly in the liver, parapharyngeal space, sublingual glands, tongue, parotid gland, thyroid, periorbital region, and very occasionally in the nose and  paranasal sinus area.   Case Report: A 28-year-old man with a 6 month history of persistent progressive left nasal obstruction and watering of the left eye is reported. Further imaging by CT and MRI revealed a large, left-sided, highly vascular, nasal cavity mass (Fig 1,2,3,4 pushing laterally on the medial wall of the maxilla. The patient underwent a lateral rhinotomy, which proceeded with the excision of the mass. Histopathological analysis of the specimen was consistent with SFT.   Conclusion:  This case is reported to develop insights regarding diagnosis and management of such rare tumours.

  14. Effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on porcine nasal cavity dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yumeng; Hu, Weiwei; Wei, Yanna; Feng, Zhixin; Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is the primary etiological agent responsible for swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that cause tremendous economic losses all over the swine industry. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most effective antigen-presenting cells, are widely distributed beneath respiratory epithelium. DCs uptake and present antigens to T cells, to initiate protective immune responses or generate immune-mediated pathology in different infections. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different DCs subpopulations, T cells and SIgA positive cells counts in porcine nasal cavity after long time Mhp infection. We further evaluated the role of porcine DCs in Mhp exposure. Our results showed that the number of SLA-II-DR + SWC3a + DCs, SLA-II-DR + CD11b + DCs, T cells, SIgA positive cells in nasal cavity were decreased after Mhp 28 days infection in vivo experiment. The antigen presenting ability of DCs were inhibited by Mhp exposure. DCs couldn't activate T-cell proliferation by down-regulating the antigen presenting molecule CD1a expression and promoting high level of IL-10 production. Further more, the expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ in DCs were decreased, suggesting that DCs favour for Th2 immune response development after Mhp exposure in vitro. Taken together, Mhp infection impairs the immune function which allows the persistence of Mhp and cause predispose pigs to secondary infections. The decline of DCs presentation ability is the reason why dysfunction and persistence in Mhp infection. These findings are benefit for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms of Mhp in pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An unusual co-presentation of rhinolithiasis and squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Süleyman; Görgülü, Orhan; Akbaş, Yücel; Selçuk, Tahsin; Sayar, Hamide; Tarkan, Özgür

    2012-07-01

    Rhinoliths are nasal stones that result from mineralisation of salts around an endogenous or exogenous nidus within the nasal cavity. They are uncommon nasal masses and usually unilateral and single, situated in the floor of the nose. The patient typically presents with nasal obstruction, facial pain and foul-smelling nasal secretion. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma with rhinolithiasis has not been previously reported in the English-language literature. In this article, we present a 63-year-old man, who had unilateral rhinolithiasis with squamous cell carcinoma within the nasal cavity. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Craniofacial resection in nasal cavity and paranasal sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garzon, Williams Rene; Cohn, Fabrizio; Toscano Mancheno, Roberto; Chonlong Saltos, Maria Jose

    2006-01-01

    The nasal cavity and paranasal sinus carcinoma include 1% of all malignant tumors and 3% in head and neck region. The majority of tumors of this region are squamous cell carcinomas, which rises in the maxillary sinus and generates symptoms when it reaches a great size. Treatment is very difficult. The Cat scan and magnetic resonance are helpful to evaluate the tumor extent, asses erode bone boundary and evaluate growth in soft tissues of intra skull like the dura overlying the frontal lobe and brain. The growth of the tumor in the anterior skull base is not a contraindication for surgical treatment. A combined intracranial facial approach to the paranasal sinuses carcinoma enables complete tumor resection and edges without neoplasm. The 5 year survival for patients who undergo anterior craniofacial resection is approximately 50 to 60%, and local tumor control is obtained in 65%. We present a patient with squamous carcinoma of superior maxillary antrum and skull base encroachment invasion resolved with craniofacial resection. (The author)

  18. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed moist nasal mucosa without inflammation and bilateral prominent blood vessels on the anterior nasal septum. Nasal endoscopy showed turbinate like protuberances in bilateral middle meatus. CT images documented accessory middle turbinate in the bilateral nasal cavity. Conclusion: Otolaryngologists should be cognizant of anatomical variations of middle turbinate to achieve correct diagnosis and avoid potential complications during surgical management.

  19. Combined endovascular and surgical treatment of melanoma of the nasal cavity: a case report; Melanoma de fosas nasales. Tratamiento combinado endovascular y quirurgico. A proposito de un caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, A.; Delgado, F.; Ramos, M.; Bravo, F. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Melanoma of the nasal cavity is a rare tumor with a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma. It usually presents as nasal obstruction and/or epistaxis. The observation of a pigmented mass in the nasal cavity is highly suggestive of this lesion. Computed tomography shows a mass with nonspecific features. In magnetic resonance studies, it has a characteristics signal consisting of hyperintensity of T1-weighted images and hypointensity on T2-weighted images, depending on the amount of melanin. The treatment of choice is surgical resection. We present a case of melanoma of the nasal cavity in which endovascular embolization of the tumor was performed prior to surgical treatment. (Author) 11 refs.

  20. Velocity Measurements in Nasal Cavities by Means of Stereoscopic Piv - Preliminary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Fabio; Felisati, Giovanni; Quadrio, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in human nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics of the nasal anatomy and health problems, and ultimately led to improved surgery. The complex flow structure and the intricate geometry of the nasal cavities make achieving such goals a challenge for CFD specialists. The need for experimental data to validate and improve the numerical simulations is particularly crucial. To this aim an experimental set-up based on Stereo PIV and a silicon phantom of nasal cavities have been designed and realized at Politecnico di Milano. This work describes the main features and challenges of the set-up along with some preliminary results.

  1. CT virtual endoscopy: a study of the capability to display the structures and abnormalities in nasal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ping; Brambs, H.J.; Sokiranski, R.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate display ability of virtual endoscopy and its clinical application in comparison with fiberoptic nasal endoscopy. Methods: 11 patients (22 nasal cavities) were examined by virtual endoscopy after axial spiral CT scanning was performed. Virtual endoscopy was performed by Explorer software package in a computer workstation. 9 patients (18 nasal cavities) underwent fiberoptic endoscopy. Results: Virtual endoscopy could clearly demonstrate the anatomical structures in nasal cavity, septal deviation, nasal meatus narrowing and obstruction, turbinate hyperplasia, and pathological masses larger than 3 mm in diameter. However, 'false adhesions' may appear in virtual endoscopy. The main limitation of virtual endoscopy was inability to evaluate mucosa and lack of histological diagnosis. Conclusions: Virtual endoscopy is a new, non-invasive method for demonstrating anatomical structures and diseases in nasal cavity. Its display ability is comparable with fiberoptic nasal endoscopy and is a supplement to fiberoptic nasal endoscopy

  2. Anatomy of the nasal cavity of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus stands out for its adaptability in different environments, a fact that requires the species, an olfactory capacity developed with a keen sense and related organs potentially evolved. Five specimens of nine banded armadillo were submitted to anatomic dissection with occipital disconnection and isolation of part of the skull in order to obtain a hemi-skull to view the arrangement of internal structures of the nasal cavity. The obtained specimens were identified and photographed with the assist of digital camera. The nine-banded armadillo nose is incorporated into the face of the skeleton located in nasal plan with the triangular shape and facing forward. The nostrils are separated by the nasal septum. Paranasal sinuses, two (frontal and parietal, resemble diverticula of the nasal cavity. The nine-banded armadillo nasal shells are presented divided into three: the ethmoid shell, the dorsal nasal shell and the ventral nasal shell. The shells are delimited dorsal and ventral nasal meatus by. The respiratory system of nine-banded armadillo presented features anatomical that justify their behavior in the nature, as their olfactory ability for hunting. Thus, the development of the nasal shell, especially, ethmoid shells check the animal facility in the searching for subterranean food.

  3. Anatomy of the nasal cavity of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus stands out for its adaptability in different environments, a fact that requires the species, an olfactory capacity developed with a keen sense and related organs potentially evolved. Five specimens of nine banded armadillo were submitted to anatomic dissection with occipital disconnection and isolation of part of the skull in order to obtain a hemi-skull to view the arrangement of internal structures of the nasal cavity. The obtained specimens were identified and photographed with the assist of digital camera. The nine-banded armadillo nose is incorporated into the face of the skeleton located in nasal plan with the triangular shape and facing forward. The nostrils are separated by the nasal septum. Paranasal sinuses, two (frontal and parietal, resemble diverticula of the nasal cavity. The nine-banded armadillo nasal shells are presented divided into three: the ethmoid shell, the dorsal nasal shell and the ventral nasal shell. The shells are delimited dorsal and ventral nasal meatus by. The respiratory system of nine-banded armadillo presented features anatomical that justify their behavior in the nature, as their olfactory ability for hunting. Thus, the development of the nasal shell, especially, ethmoid shells check the animal facility in the searching for subterranean food

  4. Angiofibroma of the nasal cavity in 13 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, K E; Green, E M; Wood, R D; Dubielzig, R R

    2011-12-01

    This case series describes a rare entity, nasal angiofibroma, in 13 dogs that were presented to the University of Wisconsin, School of Veterinary Medicine from 1988 to 2000. All dogs in this case series presented with clinical signs and radiographic changes that were strongly suggestive of a locally invasive neoplasm. However, histopathology completed on transnostral core biopsy samples revealed benign appearing vascular proliferation with secondary lymphosuppurative inflammation was established despite cytologic criteria of malignancy present in five dogs. On the basis of the outcomes in this case series, nasal angiofibroma should be considered a differential for dogs presenting with clinical signs consistent with a malignant nasal tumour. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Doenças da cavidade nasal em ruminantes no Brasil Diseases of the nasal cavity of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane de A Portela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve as doenças das fossas nasais diagnosticadas em ruminantes no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, em Patos, Paraíba, nos anos de 2003-2009. No período foram registrados três diagnósticos de doenças das fossas nasais de bovinos, três em caprinos e nove em ovinos (de um total de 404 diagnósticos em bovinos, 330 em caprinos e 338 em ovinos. Descrevem-se um caso de rinite atópica em bovinos, sete surtos de conidiobolomicose e dois de pitiose rinofacial em ovinos, dois casos de prototecose e um de aspergilose nasal em caprinos e um mixoma e um fibrossarcoma em bovinos. Adicionalmente, é realizada uma revisão de outras doenças das fossas nasais de ruminantes descritas em outras regiões do Brasil, incluindo oestrose, rinosporidiose, carcinoma epidermóide e tumor etmoidal enzoótico.This paper reports diseases of the nasal cavity diagnosed in ruminants in the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos, state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil, from 2003 to 2009. During that period three cases or outbreaks of diseases of the nasal cavity were reported in cattle, three in goats and nine in sheep (out of 404 diseases diagnosed in cattle, 330 in goats, and 338 in sheep. At all are reported one case of atopic rhinitis in cattle, seven outbreaks of conidiobolomycosis and two outbreaks of rhinofacial pythiosis in sheep, two cases of protothecosis and one of nasal aspergillosis in goats, and a myxoma and a fibrosarcoma in cattle. Additionally, other diseases of the nasal cavity reported in Brazil are reviewed, including oestrosis, rhinosporidiosis, squamous cell carcinoma, and enzootic ethmoidal tumor.

  6. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more

  7. Fluid mechanics based classification of the respiratory efficiency of several nasal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintermann, Andreas; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    The flow in the human nasal cavity is of great importance to understand rhinologic pathologies like impaired respiration or heating capabilities, a diminished sense of taste and smell, and the presence of dry mucous membranes. To numerically analyze this flow problem a highly efficient and scalable Thermal Lattice-BGK (TLBGK) solver is used, which is very well suited for flows in intricate geometries. The generation of the computational mesh is completely automatic and highly parallelized such that it can be executed efficiently on High Performance Computers (HPCs). An evaluation of the functionality of nasal cavities is based on an analysis of pressure drop, secondary flow structures, wall-shear stress distributions, and temperature variations from the nostrils to the pharynx. The results of the flow fields of three completely different nasal cavities allow their classification into ability groups and support the a priori decision process on surgical interventions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the effect of Haas and Hyrax rapid palatal expanders on nasal cavity dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini F.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: In treatment of posterior crossbite awareness of the effects of Haas and Hyrax rapid maxillary expanders (RME on nasal cavity will help the clinician to select the better appliance. This study was carried out to compare the effects of Haas and Hyrax expanders on the nasal cavity of patients treated for posterior crossbite. "nMaterials and Methods: A clinical trial study was designed on posteroanterior (PA cephalograms of 30 subjects to evaluate the nasal cavity width of 14 subjects (8 female & 6 male with mean chronological age of 12± 2years who received RME with Hyrax type and 16 subjects (9 female & 7 male with mean chronological age of 11±1.6 years who received Haas type palatal expander. Paired t-test was used to analyze the outcomes of expansion in each group. Student t-test was used to compare Haas and Hyrax groups. "nResults: The mean value of screw expansion was 9±2 mm in both groups. In Hyrax group nasal cavity width"n(Nc-cN increased from 29.2 ±1.94 mm to 31.7 ±1.93mm (p= 0.001 and In Haas group it was increased from 27.75± 2.21 mm to 29.35 ± 2.26 mm(p= 0.043. When two groups were compared to each other, statistically this increase was more significant in Hyrax than in the Haas group (p=0.038. "nConclusion: In this study RME affected geometry of the nasal cavity by increasing the nasal cavity width. However In our sample, Hyrax appliance demonstrated better performance over the Haas appliance in all variables.

  9. Effects of intranasal medicines on microcirculatory blood flow of nasal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svistunov A.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the new method of assessment of microcirculatory blood perfusion and introduction of this method into the study of intranasal drugs effects on mucosal blood flow in the nasal cavity. The research work presents some different groups of drugs — decongestants, physical solutions for irrigation therapy and local corticosteroids. It has been revealed that intranasal decongestants have a significant effect on the intranasal blood flow, but their intake affects the mucosal membrane of the nasal cavity. Other drugs have not shown such negative effects and have not caused tachyphylaxis. Therefore these medicines may be recommended for more common use in ENT-practice.

  10. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Nasal Cavity in an Adolescent Male- A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshi Dhingra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC is uncommonly found outside the major or minor salivary glands and is especially rare when located in nasal cavity. A case report of 13 year old boy who presented with mass in nasal cavity and epistaxis is presented here. Endoscopic removal of mass was done and histopathology revealed ACC. ACCs are slow growing tumours with a propensity for frequent local recurrence and early perineural and haematogenous spread. Early diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion for this rare pathology.

  11. The relationship of cranial, orbital and nasal cavity size with the morphology of the supraorbital region in modern Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta; Łapicka, Urszula; Cieślik, Agata; Biecek, Przemysław

    2017-09-01

    Morphological variation of the supraorbital region (SR) in human crania has been investigated and its potential sources suggested, along with the importance of the size of the facial skeleton, neurocranium, and orbit for the formation of this region. However, previous studies have not indicated whether facial size exhibits a stronger association with SR robusticity than neurocranial size or sex; moreover, the association between orbital volume and SR robusticity has been analysed only in non-human primate skulls. In this study we investigate whether the size of the facial skeleton, neurocranium, two measures of relative orbital size (orbital volume and estimated orbital aperture area), the relative size of the nasal cavity, and the relative estimated area of the anterior nasal cavity opening are related to SR robusticity; we also examine which of these analysed relationships is strongest, as well as independent of the influence of the other traits, in a geographically diverse modern human cranial sample. The results of Spearman's rank and partial rank correlations (encompassing models including or excluding sex and geographic origin) show a relationship between most of the above-mentioned variables and SR robusticity, with the exception of the estimated relative area of the orbital opening (in the case of the results of Spearman's rank correlations) and the traits of the nasal cavity. Of all the analysed traits, sex appears to be the most important for the formation of SR robusticity and, of two measures of cranial size, neurocranial size was the most significant. The strong relationship between SR robusticity and relative orbital volume was observed in models without the geographic origin factor. The results concerning analysed models suggest the influence of this factor on this relationship; however, to explain this influence, further studies are needed.

  12. [Clinical symptoms and immunology inspection characteristics of nasal cavity local allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z X; Zhu, Y; Zhai, X; Zhang, J L; Liu, G

    2017-08-05

    Objective: To investigate the clinical symptoms and immunology inspection characteristics of nasal cavity local allergy. Method: Selected 60 patients as observation group, who had only nasal local allergy symptoms, allergen skin prick test and serum allergen specific IgE (SIgE) test were negative, 40 allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and 40 healthy volunteers as control groups. To detect Symptom scores and VAS scores, and eosinophilia counts in venous blood, allergen skin prick test (SPT), serum allergen SIgE test, nasal secretions allergen SIgE test, nasal mucous membrane excitation test in both observation group and AR group, eosinophilia counts in nasal secretion, taked the data for statistical analysis. Result: There was no difference ( P > 0.05) in the symptom scores and VAS scores of observation group and the AR group. The eosinophilia counts in venous blood in the AR group were higher than in the observation group ( P 0.05) in the eosinophilia percentages in nasal secretion in the observation group and the AR group. There was significant difference ( P < 0.05) in the eosinophilia percentages in nasal secretion in the observation group and the healthy volunteers group. There were 6 patients in observation group whose nasal secretions allergen SIgE test and nasal mucous membrane excitation test were both negative, could be diagnosised as non-allergic rhinitis (NAR). According to eosinophilia counts in venous blood and nasal secretions, 4 patients were diagnosised as vasomotor rhinitis and 2 patients were diagnosised as NAR with eosinophilia syndrome. There were 54 patients in observation group whose nasal secretions allergen SIgE test and (or) nasal mucous membrane excitation test were positive, could be diagnosised as local allergic rhinitis. After three years, all of the observation group patients were detected with SPT and serum allergen SIgE test. Five patients diagnosed as local allergic rhinitis before three years were positive. Six patients diagnosed as

  13. Nasal cavity dimensions in guinea pig and rat measured by acoustic rhinometry and fluid-displacement method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure nasal passageway dimensions in guinea pigs and rats by use of acoustic rhinometry (AR) and by a previously described fluid-displacement method (FDM) (Straszek SP, Taagehoej F, Graff S, and Pedersen OF. J Appl Physiol 95: 635-642, 2003) to investigate...... the potential of AR in pharmacological research with these animals. We measured the area-distance relationships by AR of nasal cavities postmortem in five guinea pigs (Duncan Hartley, 400 g) and five rats (Wistar, 250 g) by using custom-made equipment scaled for the purpose. Nosepieces were made from plastic...... pipette tips and either inserted into or glued onto the nostrils. We used liquid perfluorocarbon in the fluid-displacement study, and it was carried out subsequent to the acoustic measurements. We found for guinea pigs that AR measured a mean volume of 98 mm(3) (95-100 mm(3)) (mean and 95% confidence...

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the canine nasal cavity and frontal sinus: eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.S.; Walker, M.A.; Helman, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the canine nasal cavity and frontal sinus was diagnosed in eight cases between May 1988 and April 1994. The most common presenting complaints were nasal discharge, including epistaxis; sneezing; and facial deformity or exophthalmos. Metastasis was not identified in any case, but bone lysis and invasion into tissues outside the nasal cavity were noted in five cases. Computed tomograms were performed in five cases and were more useful than radiographs in determining the extent of neoplastic involvement. Euthanasia was performed within one week of diagnosis in three cases at the owner's request; one case died at home within one month; and the remaining four cases were euthanized within eight months due to progressive clinical signs. The mean survival time in these eight cases was three months, with a range of zero weeks to eight months

  15. Epidemiological analysis of structural alterations of the nasal cavity associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhitarian Neto, Levon; Fava, Antonio Sérgio; Lopes, Hugo Canhete; Stamm, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that structural alterations of the nasal cavity, e.g. septal deviation and conchal hypertrophy have high incidence in patients with sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome and must be addressed with associated specific procedures of the syndrome. Clinical retrospective. A retrospective study of 200 patients was performed, with 196 male and 4 female, attended at the otorhinolaryngology ambulatory of Hospital Prof. Edmundo Vasconcelos and Unidade Paulista de Otorrinolaringologia, all of them subjected to polysomnography, otorhinolaryngological physical exam, endoscopy exam, and surgical treatment with nasal and pharyngeal procedures. All of them were subjected to pharyngeal procedure: uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or uvulopalatoplasty and nose procedure: 176 septoplasty with partial turbinectomy (88%) and 24 isolated turbinectomy, with satisfactory results. We can see that structural alterations of the nasal cavity have high incidence in patients with OSA.

  16. Case Report: Dislocation of the Zygomatic Bone into the Nasal Cavity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 25-year-old patient sustained a traumatic dislocation of the right zygomatic bone into the nasal cavity. After ten days, the bone was taken out of the nose and fixed in its presumed original place. After the operation, the facial contour was desirable and orbital functions were also normal. KEYWORDS: Dislocation, zygomatic ...

  17. Evaluation of the effect of localized skin cooling on nasal airway volume by acoustic rhinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, M; Hilberg, O; Pedersen, O F; Lundqvist, G R

    1990-04-01

    Ten healthy subjects (four men and six women) were subjected to localized skin cooling by submersion for 5 min of both feet and, in another experiment, one hand and forearm into ice-cold water. Repeated measurements of nasal cavity volumes by a new method, acoustic rhinometry, showed characteristic patterns ranging from marked increases in volumes lasting the entire exposure period to transient monophasic or biphasic responses to no change at all. The pattern in individual subjects was reproducible with the two methods of cooling, and it could be characterized by five types when related to baseline measurements during the preexposure period. Because of large minute-to-minute variations, probably determined by local differences and fluctuations in blood flow in tissues through the nose, evaluation of induced changes in the nasal cavity volume cannot be based on single measurements as has frequently been done in the past by using rhinomanometry as the experimental method. The mechanisms behind the characteristic patterns in immediate human nasal response to local skin cooling challenge remains to be explored.

  18. Proton Beam Therapy for Unresectable Malignancies of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenda, Sadamoto, E-mail: szenda@east.ncc.go.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Kohno, Ryosuke; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Arahira, Satoko; Nishio, Teiji [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Tahara, Makoto [Division of Gastrointestinal Oncology and Endoscopy, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Hayashi, Ryuichi [Division of Head and Neck Surgery, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Kishimoto, Seiji [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ogino, Takashi [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The cure rate for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is low. Because irradiation with proton beams, which are characterized by their rapid fall-off at the distal end of the Bragg peak and sharp lateral penumbra, depending on energy, depth, and delivery, provide better dose distribution than X-ray irradiation, proton beam therapy (PBT) might improve treatment outcomes for conditions located in proximity to risk organs. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 39 patients in our database fulfilling the following criteria: unresectable malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses or skull base; N0M0 disease; and treatment with PBT (>60 GyE) from January 1999 to December 2006. Results: Median patient age was 57 years (range, 22-84 years); 22 of the patients were men and 17 were women. The most frequent primary site was the nasal cavity (n = 26, 67%). The local control rates at 6 months and 1 year were 84.6% and 77.0%, respectively. With a median active follow-up of 45.4 months, 3-year progression-free and overall survival were 49.1% and 59.3%, respectively. The most common acute toxicities were mild dermatitis (Grade 2, 33.3%), but no severe toxicity was observed (Grade 3 or greater, 0%). Five patients (12.8%) experienced Grade 3 to 5 late toxicities, and one treatment-related death was reported, caused by cerebrospinal fluid leakage Grade 5 (2.6%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses make it is a promising treatment option.

  19. Proton Beam Therapy for Unresectable Malignancies of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenda, Sadamoto; Kohno, Ryosuke; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Arahira, Satoko; Nishio, Teiji; Tahara, Makoto; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Kishimoto, Seiji; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The cure rate for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is low. Because irradiation with proton beams, which are characterized by their rapid fall-off at the distal end of the Bragg peak and sharp lateral penumbra, depending on energy, depth, and delivery, provide better dose distribution than X-ray irradiation, proton beam therapy (PBT) might improve treatment outcomes for conditions located in proximity to risk organs. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 39 patients in our database fulfilling the following criteria: unresectable malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses or skull base; N0M0 disease; and treatment with PBT (>60 GyE) from January 1999 to December 2006. Results: Median patient age was 57 years (range, 22–84 years); 22 of the patients were men and 17 were women. The most frequent primary site was the nasal cavity (n = 26, 67%). The local control rates at 6 months and 1 year were 84.6% and 77.0%, respectively. With a median active follow-up of 45.4 months, 3-year progression-free and overall survival were 49.1% and 59.3%, respectively. The most common acute toxicities were mild dermatitis (Grade 2, 33.3%), but no severe toxicity was observed (Grade 3 or greater, 0%). Five patients (12.8%) experienced Grade 3 to 5 late toxicities, and one treatment-related death was reported, caused by cerebrospinal fluid leakage Grade 5 (2.6%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses make it is a promising treatment option.

  20. Geographic variation in nasal cavity form among three human groups from the Japanese Archipelago: Ecogeographic and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukase, Hitoshi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    Geographic variation in human nasal form has often been interpreted as a climatic adaptation, owing to the nasal air-conditioning function. The aim of this study was to further address morphofunctional issues of the nasal cavity, using three human groups from subarctic, temperate, and subtropical regions of the Japanese Archipelago: prehistoric Okhotsk, early-modern Honshu and Okinawa groups. Using three-dimensional coordinates of craniometric landmarks surrounding the nasal cavity, we compared linear measurements regarding nasal cavity form among the three groups and also conducted 3D geometric morphometrics. Both linear measurements and morphometric analyses corroborate the previously reported covariation pattern of nasal cavity shape with climate, where humans from a cold/dry climate tend to possess a relatively tall, narrow, and deep nasal cavity compared with those from a warm/humid environment. The northern Okhotsk group had overall larger cranial airways, which may be attributable to their large facial skeleton. However, the ratio of nasal/bimaxillary breadth was significantly lower in the Okhotsk group, indicating that maxillary size does not necessarily constrain the nasal breadth. In addition, despite the presence of obvious geographic clines in anterior nasal shape, posterior choanal shape lacked the north-south geographic cline. This suggests a certain level of morphofunctional independence between the anterior and posterior nasal openings. The observed geographic variations must, however, be partly considered as a reflection of different ancestral traits and population histories of the three groups. Nevertheless, the results indicate that intergroup variations in nasal cavity morphology can be largely explained by climatic conditions. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:343-351, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Paes Junior, Ademar Jose de Oliveira; Gonzalez, Fabio Mota; Cordeiro, Flamarion de Barros; Yamashiro, Ilka; Lenh, Carlos Neutzling; Rapoport, Abrao

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the characterization of deep tissue extension of malignant tumors of the nasal cavity. Twelve patients diagnosed with malignant tumors of the nasal cavity were retrospectively evaluated at the Departments of Diagnostic Imaging and Head and Neck Surgery of the 'Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis', Sao Paulo, Brazil, between 1990 and 2000. All cases were confirmed by histopathologic examination. The results were: extension to the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses was identified in six patients, extension to contralateral nasal cavity, orbit and lamina cribosa in five patients, extension to nasal pharynx and masticator space in two patients, extension to cavernous sinus, anterior/middle cranial fossa, pterygomaxillary fossa, inferior/superior orbital fissure, frontal sinus, contralateral ethmoid sinus, contralateral lamina cribosa, hard palate and pterygopalatine fossa in one patient. Conclusion: It is important to precisely assess the local extension and spread of tumor by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in order to plan the approach to treatment, which will influence the prognosis. (author)

  2. Lobular Capillary Hemangioma of the Nasal Cavity: A Retrospective Study of 15 Cases in Taiwan

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    Tzu-Hang Chi Chi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity is an uncommon benign vascular tumor of unknown etiology. There have been only very few case reports in Taiwan. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the clinical features, radiological findings, treatment modalities, and outcome of lobular capillary hemangioma treated at a teaching hospital in Taiwan during a period of 10 years. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: Retrospective chart reviews were performed on patients who were diagnosed with lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity at Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, from January 2003 to December 2012. Data retrieved included age, gender, clinical symptoms, computed tomography (CT findings, treatment modalities, and outcome for further analysis. Results: Of the 15 patients identified, there were five males and ten females ranging from 17 to 86 years of age, with a mean age of 43.8±20.2. Epistaxis was the most common presenting symptom. All patients presented a unilateral nasal lobular capillary hemangioma. The most commonly affected site was the anterior nasal septum, followed by the inferior turbinate, vestibule, middle turbinate, and posterior nasal septum. All lesions presented as soft tissue density without bony erosions under CT examination. Endoscopic excisional surgery (n=12 or classical local excision (n=3 was performed for complete removal of the hemangioma. No evidence of recurrence was observed with 6 to 75 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity was usually found to occur in anterior septum with epistaxis. Complete excision with endoscopic surgery or classical local excision was recommended and recurrence can be prevented.

  3. Primary Atypical Meningioma of the Nasal Cavity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Yogesh; Pradhan, Bibhu

    2018-01-01

    Background Meningioma is a central nervous system tumor that typically arises in proximity to meninges. Extracranial primary atypical meningioma of sinonasal tract is a rare one. Methods We discuss the clinical, radiological, and histological presentation of an elderly female with primary atypical meningioma of the nasal cavity, which was excised via endoscopic endonasal approach. Results There was no recurrence even up to 20 months of follow-up after endoscopic excision. Conclusion Extracranial primary atypical meningioma should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses of nasal mass. Histopathological diagnosis along with immunohistochemistry should be used for definitive diagnosis. PMID:29682381

  4. Primary Atypical Meningioma of the Nasal Cavity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leison Maharjan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Meningioma is a central nervous system tumor that typically arises in proximity to meninges. Extracranial primary atypical meningioma of sinonasal tract is a rare one. Methods. We discuss the clinical, radiological, and histological presentation of an elderly female with primary atypical meningioma of the nasal cavity, which was excised via endoscopic endonasal approach. Results. There was no recurrence even up to 20 months of follow-up after endoscopic excision. Conclusion. Extracranial primary atypical meningioma should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses of nasal mass. Histopathological diagnosis along with immunohistochemistry should be used for definitive diagnosis.

  5. Current aspects in reconstructive surgery for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtin, V. I.; Novikov, V. A.; Gjunter, V. E.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Ryabova, A. I.; Sirkashev, V. A.; Surkova, P. V.; Vasilev, R. V.; Menkova, E. N.

    2017-09-01

    Tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses present a challenge to treat them. A combination of surgery and radiation therapy can improve treatment outcomes in 49-56% [1, 2] of the patients with locally advanced nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer. The midface reconstruction poses a formidable challenge to the reconstructive surgeon due to the region's complex skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy. The rehabilitation program including the reconstruction of the resected orbital walls using the porous and mesh implants from titanium nickelid (TiNi) was developed at the Cancer Research institute jointly with the Research Institute of Medical Materials. The technique was proven effective, allowing the natural position of the eye and visual function to be preserved in 90% [1-3] of the patients. A long period of reparative processes and risk of developing inflammation in the implant area, as well as the need to decrease length of surgery, contributed to the development of a novel approach to repairing the midface bone structures using the implant based on the microporous wire and TiNi mesh. Eighteen patients with nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer were treated using the combined thin implants. The novel technique allowed the time of the implant installation to be reduced to 5-10 min. The structure of the implant contributed to prevention of inflammatory processes in 97% [1, 2] of cases. Thus, the natural position of the eyeball and visual function were preserved in 100% [1, 3, 4] of patients. The use of the TiNi implants in reconstructive surgery for patients with nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer led to reduced time of surgery and rehabilitation, increased level of social adaptation of patients and improved cosmetic and functional results.

  6. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Andrew; Ulualp, Seckin O; Koral, Korgun; Veling, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscop...

  7. Implantation of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum for elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal cavity in volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Kiryukhina, Nataliya

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a well-documented risk factor of infection and inflammation of the skin, soft tissues and bacteremia. It is also known that most often etiology of these disorders is associated with autoinfection. The present-day methods of opportunistic pathogens eradication from the nasal cavity are based principally on the use of antiseptic and antibacterial agents. For instance, a local antibiotic mupirocin in the form of nasal ointment is considered to be the gold standard for the treatment of S. aureus carriage. The literature describes investigations showing how mupirocin can strengthen antibiotic resistance in S. aureus strains, including those with methicillin resistance (MRSA). It is also common knowledge that recolonization of the nasal mucous membrane takes place within several months after mupirocin treatment. This circumstance dictates the necessity to look for alternative ways of preventing the S. aureus carriage and methods of elimination. One of the methods of nasal S. aureus elimination is implantation of nonpathogenic microorganisms which will extrude opportunistic pathogens without impinging the symbiotic microbiota. Effectiveness of saline suspension of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum containing spray was assessed in a several chamber experiments with simulation of some spaceflight factors (dry immersion, isolation). Various schemes of application of preparations were applied. In all cases of corynebacteria application the strong inhibiting effect against S. aureus was detected. This fact opens a prospect of using nonpathogenic corynebacteria as a nasal probiotic. Administration of the nasal corynebacteria spray possibly prevented cross-infection by MRSA and appearance of staphylococcal infection. Further pre-clinical and clinical study of this bacterial therapy method is under development.

  8. In Vitro Assessment of Spray Deposition Patterns in a Pediatric (12 Year-Old) Nasal Cavity Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Namita; Donovan, Maureen D

    2018-03-26

    Nasal sprays available for the treatment of cold and allergy symptoms currently use identical formulations and devices for adults as well as for children. Due to the obvious differences between the nasal airway dimensions of a child and those of an adult, the performance of nasal sprays in children was evaluated. Deposition patterns of nasal sprays administered to children were tested using a nasal cast based on MRI images obtained from a 12 year old child's nasal cavity. Test formulations emitting a range of spray patterns were investigated by actuating the device into the pediatric nasal cast under controlled conditions. The results showed that the nasal sprays impacted in the anterior region of the 12 year old child's nasal cavity, and only limited spray entered the turbinate region - the effect site for most topical drugs and the primary absorptive region for systemically absorbed drugs. Differences in deposition patterns following the administration of nasal sprays to adults and children may lead to differences in efficacy between these populations. Greater anterior deposition in children may result in decreased effectiveness, greater anterior dosage form loss, and the increased potential for patient non-compliance.

  9. Efeito do exercício físico sobre o volume nasal Effects of physical exercise in nasal volume

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    Marconi Teixeira Fonseca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A variação da permeabilidade nasal tem sido demonstrada usando-se várias técnicas de exame. As estruturas nasais geram uma resistência que representa cerca de 50% da resistência respiratória total. O exercício físico é um dos fatores que pode causar um efeito vasoconstritor sobre a mucosa nasal. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o grau de mudança do volume nasal após exercício físico e o tempo de retorno aos níveis basais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dezenove indivíduos foram submetidos à realização de teste físico em bicicleta ergométrica. O volume nasal foi obtido através da rinometria acústica, realizada em repouso, após o fim do exercício físico, e nos minutos décimo e vigésimo de seu final. RESULTADOS: Os resultados rinométricos mostram um aumento estatisticamente significativo do volume nasal (p The nasal permeability has been demonstrated using several exams. Nasal structures produces a resistance to the nasal air flux that represents over 50% of the total respiratory resistance. Physical exercises is a factor that brings a vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa. AINS: Evaluate the improvement degree of nasal volume after aerobic physical exercises and time to return to previous levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nineteen heathly subjects were submitted to aerobic exercise in ergometric bike. The nasal volume was obtained by Acoustic Rhinometry perfomed in rest, after aerobic exercise, 10o and 20o minutes after the aerobic exercise. RESULTS: Rhynometrics results shows a statically and significant increase of nasal volume (p<0,001. The nasal volume, in twenty minutes, returns nearby the rest levels. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercises, generally, increases the nasal volume. However, the increase of nasal volume was transitory, and occurs a major reduction of increase in the first ten minutes after the exercises ends, and perform a greater vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa, Twenty minutes after the physical

  10. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

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    Hansen Anne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory or the Vth (trigeminal cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons.

  11. Characterisation of Bergeyella spp. isolated from the nasal cavities of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo de Arriba, M; Lopez-Serrano, S; Galofre-Mila, N; Aragon, V

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise bacteria in the genus Bergeyella isolated from the nasal passages of healthy piglets. Nasal swabs from 3 to 4 week-old piglets from eight commercial domestic pig farms and one wild boar farm were cultured under aerobic conditions. Twenty-nine Bergeyella spp. isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 11 genotypes were discriminated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Bergeyella zoohelcum and Bergeyella porcorum were identified within the 11 genotypes. Bergeyella spp. isolates exhibited resistance to serum complement and phagocytosis, poor capacity to form biofilms and were able to adhere to epithelial cells. Maneval staining was consistent with the presence of a capsule. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was present in 9/11 genotypes, including one genotype isolated from wild boar with no history of antimicrobial use. In conclusion, Bergeyella spp. isolates from the nasal cavities of piglets showed some in vitro features indicative of a potential for virulence. Further studies are necessary to identify the role of Bergeyella spp. in disease and within the nasal microbiota of pigs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Locally Advanced Oncocytic Carcinoma of the Nasal Cavity Treated With Surgery and Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy

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    Yu-Wen Hu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Oncocytic carcinomas of the nasal cavity are extremely rare. We report 1 patient whose primary tumor and neck lymphadenopathies were under control nearly 2 years after combined surgery and radiotherapy. An 80-year-old man with a history of nasal oncocytoma had received excision twice previously. Computed tomography demonstrated locally advanced recurrent tumor invading the paranasal sinuses and orbit with lymphadenopathies in the right neck. Skull base surgery was performed. Pathological examination revealed oncocytic carcinoma. Positron emission tomography showed hypermetabolic lesions in the surgical bed and right neck. The patient subsequently received intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the primary site and the whole neck. Follow-up computed tomography 4 months later showed marked shrinkage of the neck lymphadenopathies. There was no progression after nearly 2 years. Although these tumors have historically been regarded as radioresistant, the combined treatment of surgery followed by radiotherapy may offer the best chance for control of locally advanced disease.

  14. Metastasis in nasal cavity as first symptom of a renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestard Hartman, Isel de la Caridad; Fe Soca, Andres Manuel de la; Ramirez Salinas, Yanilia de las Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The renal carcinoma of clear cells is the most frequent histological type. Metastasis is present in approximately 25-30 % of the patients in the diagnosis. The peculiar tendency of this carcinoma to make metastasis in not very usual areas, makes of this oncological process a primary tumour to keep in mind in the differential diagnosis of metastases as the first neoplasia manifestation. A not very frequent case is presented, with tumour in the left nasal cavity and recurrent epistaxis, secondary to metastasis of renal carcinoma as first symptom

  15. Effect of nasal continuous and biphasic positive airway pressure on lung volume in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Martijn; van der Burg, Pauline S.; Beuger, Sabine; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2013-01-01

    To monitor regional changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), tidal volumes, and their ventilation distribution during different levels of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and nasal biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in stable preterm infants. By using electrical

  16. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  17. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN DIAGNOSIS OF EXTRANASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA ORIGINATING FROM NASAL CAVITY: CASE PRESENTATION AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

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    Aleksandar Perić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiofibromas are rare vascular tumors which originate predominantly in the nasopharynx and occur typically in male adolescents. Extranasopharyngeal sites such as nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are less frequent. This review article was undertaken to evaluate the incidence, clinical features and management of extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas originating exclusivelly from nasal cavity structures. Our focus of interest was to evaluate the significance of immunohistochemical analysis in diagnosis of such extremely rare neoplasms. In the PubMed and Google Search, we found only 39 cases of nasal angifibroma, 27 males and 12 females from 1980 to 2012. The most prevalent site of origin was nasal septum, followed by inferior and middle turbinate. The commonest symptoms were nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Nasal angiofibromas are clinically distinct from nasopharyneal angiofibromas and can therefore be misdiagnosed. The differential diagnosis includes other vascular lesions, such as lobular capillary hemangioma and sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma. Although immunohistochemistry is not necessary for differentiation between angiofibroma and capillary hemangioma, that diagnostic procedure may be helpful in distinction from sinonasal hemangiopericytoma. As an ilustration for immunohistochemical analysis, we presented a case of an elderly woman with tumor arising from the middle turbinate, diagnosed as angiofibroma. The staining was positive for CD34, CD31, factor VIII, vimentin and smooth muscle α-actin, and negative for desmin.

  18. Immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma originating from nasal cavity: case presentation and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Aleksandar; Sotirović, Jelena; Cerović, Snezana; Zivić, Ljubica

    2013-01-01

    Angiofibromas are rare vascular tumors which originate predominantly in the nasopharynx and occur typically in male adolescents. Extranasopharyngeal sites such as nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are less frequent. This review article was undertaken to evaluate the incidence, clinical features and management of extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas originating exclusivelly from nasal cavity structures. Our focus of interest was to evaluate the significance of immunohistochemical analysis in diagnosis of such extremely rare neoplasms. In the PubMed and Google Search, we found only 39 cases of nasal angifibroma, 27 males and 12 females from 1980 to 2012. The most prevalent site of origin was nasal septum, followed by inferior and middle turbinate. The commonest symptoms were nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Nasal angiofibromas are clinically distinct from nasopharyneal angiofibromas and can therefore be misdiagnosed. The differential diagnosis includes other vascular lesions, such as lobular capillary hemangioma and sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma. Although immunohistochemistry is not necessary for differentiation between angiofibroma and capillary hemangioma, that diagnostic procedure may be helpful in distinction from sinonasal hemangiopericytoma. As an ilustration for immunohistochemical analysis, we presented a case of an elderly woman with tumor arising from the middle turbinate, diagnosed as angiofibroma. The staining was positive for CD34, CD31, factor VIII, vimentin and smooth muscle alpha-actin, and negative for desmin.

  19. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of nasal cavity hemangiomas according to histological type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Sun Won; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Yeo Ju; Lee, Ha Young [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Tae Young [Dept. of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Hye [Dept. of Radiology, nha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To compare computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings between two histological types of nasal hemangiomas (cavernous hemangioma and capillary or lobular capillary hemangioma). CT (n = 20; six pre-contrast; 20 post-enhancement) and MRI (n = 7) images from 23 patients (16 men and seven women; mean age, 43 years; range, 13-73 years) with a pathologically diagnosed nasal cavity hemangioma (17 capillary and lobular capillary hemangiomas and six cavernous hemangiomas) were reviewed, focusing on lesion location, size, origin, contour, enhancement pattern, attenuation or signal intensity (SI), and bony changes. The 17 capillary and lobular hemangiomas averaged 13 mm (range, 4-37 mm) in size, and most (n = 13) were round. Fourteen capillary hemangiomas had marked or moderate early phase enhancement on CT, which dissipated during the delayed phase. Four capillary hemangiomas on MRI showed marked enhancement. Bony changes were usually not seen on CT or MRI (seen on five cases, 29.4%). Half of the lesions (2/4) had low SI on T1-weighted MRI images and heterogeneously high SI with signal voids on T2-weighted images. The six cavernous hemangiomas were larger than the capillary type (mean, 20.5 mm; range, 10-39 mm) and most had lobulating contours (n = 4), with characteristic enhancement patterns (three centripetal and three multifocal nodular), bony remodeling (n = 4, 66.7%), and mild to moderate heterogeneous enhancement during the early and delayed phases. CT and MRI findings are different between the two histological types of nasal hemangiomas, particularly in the enhancement pattern and size, which can assist in preoperative diagnosis and planning of surgical tumor excision.

  20. A novel polyomavirus from the nasal cavity of a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dunwu; Shan, Tongling; Liu, Zhijian; Deng, Xutao; Zhang, Zhihe; Bi, Wenlei; Owens, Jacob Robert; Feng, Feifei; Zheng, Lisong; Huang, Feng; Delwart, Eric; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Wen

    2017-10-27

    Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. Viral metagenomics and general PCR methods were used to detected viral nucleic acid in the samples from a diseased and healthy giant pandas. A novel polyomavirus, the giant panda polyomavirus 1 (GPPyV1) from the nasal cavity of a dead giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was characterized. The GPPyV1 genome is 5144 bp in size and reveals five putative open-reading frames coding for the classic small and large T antigens in the early region, and the VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins in the late region. Phylogenetic analyses of the large T antigen of the GPPyV1 indicated GPPyV1 belonged to a putative new species within genus Deltapolyomavirus, clustering with four human polyomavirus species. The GPPyV1 VP1 and VP2 clustered with genus Alphapolyomavirus. Our epidemiologic study indicated that this novel polyomavirus was also detected in nasal swabs and fecal samples collected from captive healthy giant pandas. A novel polyomavirus was detected in giant pandas and its complete genome was characterized, which may cause latency infection in giant pandas.

  1. CT findings of the angiomatous polyp in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Young Sim; Youm, Dong Ho; Lee, Myeong Sub; Kang, In Goo; Lee, Jun Ha; Sung, Ki Joon; Cho, Mee Yon; Yang, Suk Woo [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    To assess the characteristic CT findings of the angiomatous polyp. Five cases of pathologically-proven angiomatous polyp were retrospectively evaluated. All underwent CT scanning, but in only four cases were postcontrast CT scans obtained. In analysing CT findings we focused on adjacent bony change, and the extent and enhancement pattern of the mass. All but one case involved the maxillary sinus, showing thickening of the posterolateral wall and erosion or destruction of the medial wall. As for involvement of the anterior wall of this sinus, bony destruction was seen in one case, and thickening in three. In four cases the tumor involved the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity, and two cases showed nasopharyngeal extension. No case involved the pterygopalatine fossa, however. On contrast enhanced CT scans(n=4), all cases showed enhancement as strong as blood vessels, and a multiple focal punctate or tubular pattern. Angiomatous polyp tends to show bone thickening rather than bone destruction, not to involve the pterygopalatine fossa, and to reveal a strong punctate or tubular enhancement pattern. These findings may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of angiomatous polyp from other tumors such as maxillary cancer, angiofibroma and nasal polyp.

  2. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Prognosis and outcome of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, M.H.; Larsen, S.K.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study of 121 patients, 77 men and 44 women, with sino-nasal cancer, admitted to the National University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, during the period 1983-1993, is presented. The median follow-up time was 21 months, (range 3-124). Forty-six percent of the tumors originated from the nasal cavity, 29% from the maxillary sinuses and 5% from the ethmoid sinuses. In 18% of the cases, the site of origin was not clear due to advanced local growth. Sixty-five patients received primary radiation therapy with curative intention of whom 5 underwent secondary surgery. Forty-nine patients underwent primary surgery, 38 of them received postoperative radiation therapy. The overall 5-year survival rate in this material was 35% and the disease-specific 5-year survival was 45%. Patients with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas had a significantly higher 5-year survival rate than patients with poorly differentiated carcinomas and patients with regional metastases had a significantly poorer 5-year survival than patients without. The 5-year local control was 48% (41/121). Six of 9 patients with regional metastases at admission were controlled locally, whereas 16 patients developed regional metastases after primary treatment. (orig.)

  3. Computational Modelling of Gas-Particle Flows with Different Particle Morphology in the Human Nasal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiao Inthavong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current studies related to numerical gas-particle flows in the human nasal cavity. Of interest are the numerical modelling requirements to consider the effects of particle morphology for a variety of particle shapes and sizes such as very small particles sizes (nanoparticles, elongated shapes (asbestos fibres, rough shapes (pollen, and porous light density particles (drug particles are considered. It was shown that important physical phenomena needed to be addressed for different particle characteristics. This included the Brownian diffusion for submicron particles. Computational results for the nasal capture efficiency for nano-particles and various breathing rates in the laminar regime were found to correlate well with the ratio of particle diffusivity to the breathing rate. For micron particles, particle inertia is the most significant property and the need to use sufficient drag laws is important. Drag correlations for fibrous and rough surfaced particles were investigated to enable particle tracking. Based on the simulated results, semi-empirical correlations for particle deposition were fitted in terms of Peclet number and inertial parameter for nanoparticles and micron particles respectively.

  4. Carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in dogs: descriptive epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, H M; Wilson, G P; Fraumeni, H F

    1982-04-01

    A retrospective study of medical records from 15 veterinary university teaching hospitals and clinics yielded 504 dogs with microscopically confirmed primary carcinoma of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. When compared to the hospital population at risk, males showed a 1.3 fold excess risk (p less than or equal to 0.05), adjusted for age and gonadal status, compared to females. The male excess persisted from 1 through 14 years of age. Dolichocephalic dogs (specifically the Collie and Sheltie) had a higher risk than other dogs and brachycephalic dogs had a lower risk, but these variations may not be a simple function of skull type. Seven breeds of dogs were identified with a significantly high risk and two with low risk. Among breeds with mesaticephalic type skulls, risk was not associated with adult body weight, used as a measure of body size and tidal air requirement. Mongrel dogs, often spared from other types of cancer, displayed the same risk as all breeds combined, suggesting the influence of environmental factors.

  5. Accessory Meningeal Arterial Supply to the Posterior Nasal Cavity: Another Reason for Failed Endovascular Treatment of Epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.C.; Santos, C. Dos

    2003-01-01

    A patient with intractable posterior epistaxis was treated with embolization of the ipsilateral sphenopalatine and facial arteries and contralateral sphenopalatine artery. She continued to bleed despite a seemingly adequate embolization procedure. A second angiogram revealed a significant collateral blood supply to the posterior nasal cavity from the accessory meningeal artery not identified during the first procedure. This was then embolized with no further epistaxis encountered. This case demonstrates yet another collateral arterial pathway that might account for a failed embolization

  6. Resting-state fMRI study of acute migraine treatment with kinetic oscillation stimulation in nasal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Qiang Li

    2016-01-01

    The result of this study confirms the efficacy of KOS treatment for relieving acute migraine symptoms and reducing attack frequency. Resting-state fMRI measurements demonstrate that migraine is associated with aberrant intrinsic functional activity in the limbic and primary sensory systems. KOS in the nasal cavity gives rise to the adjustment of the intrinsic functional activity in the limbic and primary sensory networks and restores the physiological homeostasis in the autonomic nervous system.

  7. Results of radiotherapy for cancer of head and neck region, 2. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Noriharu; Shinzato, Jintetsu; Watanabe, Keikichi; Habu, Kenjiro; Hirayama, Haruyuki

    1988-04-01

    From 1967 through 1985, 86 patients with cancer of the paranasal sinuses and 6 patients with cancer of the nasal cavity (excluding sarcoma) were treated by irradiation at the Department of Radiology, Kumamoto National Hospital. The mean age was 60.7. The rate of men to women was 1.2 : 1. The results were as follows ; 1) Fifty-nine patients (51 cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma, 4 of ethmoid sinus carcinoma, and 4 of cancer of the nasal cavity) were treated with antrostomy followed by radiotherapy and regional arterial infusion of 5-fluorouracil alone or a combination of 5-fluorouracil and bleomycin. In 11 cases of these, salvage with total maxillectomy was performed and 10 % of which were controlled for more than five years. In 9 cases of these, no case was salvaged with radiotherapy. An overall five-year survival rate was 32 %. 2) The survival rate of the postoperative irradiation (11 cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma, 1 of cancer of the nasal cavity) was 42 % at 2 and 4 years after the operations. 3) Twelve patients with cancer of the paranasal sinuses (11 cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma, 1 of ethmoid sinus carcinoma) survived more than five years. All of them were irradiated curatively with doses more than 40 Gy. In our series, there was no difference in long-term survival between 5-fluorouracil alone and a combination of 5-fluorouracil and bleomycin.

  8. Malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity: a case report with examination of KIT and platelet derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although several clinicopathological studies of malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity have been reported, there are no studies of the expression and gene mutation of KIT and platelet derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA in melanoma of the nasal cavity. A 92-year-old Japanese woman consulted to our hospital because of right nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Physical examination and imaging modalities showed a tumor of the right nasal cavity. A biopsy was taken, and it showed malignant epithelioid cells with melanin deposition. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for S100 protein, HMB45, p53, Ki-67 (labeling=20%, KIT and PDGFRA. The tumor was negative for cytokeratins (AE1/3 and CAM5.2. A genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing revealed no mutation of KIT gene (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 or the PDGFRA gene (exons 12 and 18. The pathological diagnosis was primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity. The tumor was reduced in size by local resection and chemotherapy (Darthmose regimen: dacarbazine, carmustine, cisplatine, and tamoxifen, and the patient is now alive and free from metastasis 9 months after the first manifestation. In conclusion, the author reported a case of melanoma of the nasal cavity expressing KIT and PDGFRA without gene mutations of KIT and PDGFRA.

  9. Anatomical robust optimization to account for nasal cavity filling variation during intensity-modulated proton therapy: a comparison with conventional and adaptive planning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Steven; Albertini, Francesca; Weber, Damien C.; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Lomax, Antony J.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an anatomical robust optimization method for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that accounts for interfraction variations in nasal cavity filling, and to compare it with conventional single-field uniform dose (SFUD) optimization and online plan adaptation. We included CT data of five patients with tumors in the sinonasal region. Using the planning CT, we generated for each patient 25 ‘synthetic’ CTs with varying nasal cavity filling. The robust optimization method available in our treatment planning system ‘Erasmus-iCycle’ was extended to also account for anatomical uncertainties by including (synthetic) CTs with varying patient anatomy as error scenarios in the inverse optimization. For each patient, we generated treatment plans using anatomical robust optimization and, for benchmarking, using SFUD optimization and online plan adaptation. Clinical target volume (CTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) doses were assessed by recalculating the treatment plans on the synthetic CTs, evaluating dose distributions individually and accumulated over an entire fractionated 50 GyRBE treatment, assuming each synthetic CT to correspond to a 2 GyRBE fraction. Treatment plans were also evaluated using actual repeat CTs. Anatomical robust optimization resulted in adequate CTV doses (V95%  ⩾  98% and V107%  ⩽  2%) if at least three synthetic CTs were included in addition to the planning CT. These CTV requirements were also fulfilled for online plan adaptation, but not for the SFUD approach, even when applying a margin of 5 mm. Compared with anatomical robust optimization, OAR dose parameters for the accumulated dose distributions were on average 5.9 GyRBE (20%) higher when using SFUD optimization and on average 3.6 GyRBE (18%) lower for online plan adaptation. In conclusion, anatomical robust optimization effectively accounted for changes in nasal cavity filling during IMPT, providing substantially improved CTV and

  10. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance for the advanced imaging of the normal nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercier, Marjorie; Alexander, Kate; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) for the cross-sectional imaging of the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), to provide reference figures for gross anatomy with corresponding CT and MR images and to compare the features of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the normal koala with that reported in other domestic species. Advanced imaging can be used to aid in diagnosis, to plan surgical intervention, and to monitor therapeutic responses to diseases of the nasal passages in koalas. One clinically normal koala was anesthetized twice for the separate acquisition of dorsal CT scan images and transverse, dorsal, and sagittal MR images of its nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Sagittal and transverse CT planes were reformatted. Three fresh koala skulls were also transected in one of each transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes and photographed. The CT and MR images obtained were matched with corresponding gross anatomic images and the normal bone, tissues and airway passages were identified. All anatomic structures were readily identifiable on CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and gross images. CT and MRI are both valuable diagnostic tools for imaging the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses of koalas. Images obtained from this project can be used as baseline references for future comparison with diseased koalas to help with diagnosis, surgical intervention, and response to therapy.

  11. Solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal cavity serve as sentinels of respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Thomas E; Böttger, Bärbel; Hansen, Anne; Anderson, Karl T; Alimohammadi, Hessamedin; Silver, Wayne L

    2003-07-22

    Inhalation of irritating substances leads to activation of the trigeminal nerve, triggering protective reflexes that include apnea or sneezing. Receptors for trigeminal irritants are generally assumed to be located exclusively on free nerve endings within the nasal epithelium, requiring that trigeminal irritants diffuse through the junctional barrier at the epithelial surface to activate receptors. We find, in both rats and mice, an extensive population of chemosensory cells that reach the surface of the nasal epithelium and form synaptic contacts with trigeminal afferent nerve fibers. These chemosensory cells express T2R "bitter-taste" receptors and alpha-gustducin, a G protein involved in chemosensory transduction. Functional studies indicate that bitter substances applied to the nasal epithelium activate the trigeminal nerve and evoke changes in respiratory rate. By extending to the surface of the nasal epithelium, these chemosensory cells serve to expand the repertoire of compounds that can activate trigeminal protective reflexes. The trigeminal chemoreceptor cells are likely to be remnants of the phylogenetically ancient population of solitary chemoreceptor cells found in the epithelium of all anamniote aquatic vertebrates.

  12. Solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal cavity serve as sentinels of respiration

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Thomas E.; Böttger, Bärbel; Hansen, Anne; Anderson, Karl T.; Alimohammadi, Hessamedin; Silver, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Inhalation of irritating substances leads to activation of the trigeminal nerve, triggering protective reflexes that include apnea or sneezing. Receptors for trigeminal irritants are generally assumed to be located exclusively on free nerve endings within the nasal epithelium, requiring that trigeminal irritants diffuse through the junctional barrier at the epithelial surface to activate receptors. We find, in both rats and mice, an extensive population of chemosensory...

  13. [Clinical analyses of patients with intractable epistaxis originated from deep-seated nasal cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tong; Li, Na; Jiang, Yan; Yu, Hailing; Yu, Longgang; Jiang, Ye

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the clinical features and management of intractable deep-seated epistaxis. Clinical data were analyzed retrospectively in 195 patients with intractable deep-seated epistaxis treated in Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao College between June 2008 and June 2014. The analyses included common risk factors, bleeding sites, treatments and therapeutic effects. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. There were 162 males and 33 females, aged from 15 to 88 years old (mean 52 ± 16 years). One hundred and eighty-seven cases (95.9%) were unilateral and 8 cases (4.1%) were bilateral. One hundred and twenty-six cases (64.6%) had the history of hypertension or blood pressure higher than normal on admission. Eight patients were cured by nasal packing and appropriate drugs, and 187 patients were treated by endoscopy and electrocoagulation. The numbers of treatment needed to stop bleeding were 1 time in 184 cases (98.4%), 2 times in 3 cases (1.6%). Thirteen cases did not have certain bleeding point, while the other 174 had certain one or more bleeding sites. The rewarded bleeding sites were 222, which were found in the following different sites: posterior inferior nasal meatus (33.3%, 74 /222), olfactory cleft of nasal septum (26.6%, 59/222), the root of the middle turbinate (14.0%, 31/222), and so on. Hypertension and diabetes were risk factors (OR value was 3.411, 7.142, both P epistaxis are mainly found in males and are almost unilatera1. Hypertension and diabetes are the common risk factor. The most effective and safe treatment for intractable deep-seated epistaxis is electrocoagulation under nasal endoscopy.

  14. Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor in nasal obstruction in patients with nasal allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Yamashita

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF enhances vascular permeability and that mast cells produce VEGF, suggesting the involvement of VEGF in allergic diseases. In the present study we quantitatively analyzed VEGF in the nasal lavage fluid of patients with nasal allergy. We performed nasal antigen challenge with Japanese cedar pollen antigen in 10 healthy adult volunteers and in 10 cedar pollen IgE-positive patients with nasal allergy. In all patients with nasal allergy, VEGF and histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid reached a peak 30 min after antigen challenge, then returned to prechallenge values 2 h after antigen challenge. In these patients, the histamine level increased three-fold, while the VEGF level increased 10-fold. However, in all healthy adult volunteers, VEGF and histamine levels did not increase. A stronger correlation was noted between the ratio of decreased nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased VEGF levels (R = 0.823; P < 0.001 than between the ratio of nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased histamine levels (R = 0.660; P < 0.01. These results suggest that VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal obstruction in the early phase of nasal allergy as a new factor involved in increasing vascular permeability.

  15. Late toxicity of proton beam therapy for patients with the nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses, or involving the skull base malignancy: importance of long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenda, Sadamoto; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Arahira, Satoko; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishio, Teiji; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Tahara, Makoto; Hayashi, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Although several reports have shown that proton beam therapy (PBT) offers promise for patients with skull base cancer, little is known about the frequency of late toxicity in clinical practice when PBT is used for these patients. Here, we conducted a retrospective analysis to clarify the late toxicity profile of PBT in patients with malignancies of the nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses, or involving the skull base. Entry to this retrospective study was restricted to patients with (1) malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses, or involving the skull base; (2) definitive or postoperative PBT (>50 GyE) from January 1999 through December 2008; and (3) more than 1 year of follow-up. Late toxicities were graded according to the common terminology criteria for adverse events v4.0 (CTCAE v4.0). From January 1999 through December 2008, 90 patients satisfied all criteria. Median observation period was 57.5 months (range, 12.4-162.7 months), median time to onset of grade 2 or greater late toxicity except cataract was 39.2 months (range, 2.7-99.8 months), and 3 patients had toxicities that occurred more than 5 years after PBT. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 17 patients (19%), with 19 events, and grade 4 late toxicities in 6 patients (7%), with 6 events (encephalomyelitis infection 2, optic nerve disorder 4). In conclusion, the late toxicity profile of PBT in patients with malignancy involving the nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses, or skull base malignancy was partly clarified. Because late toxicity can still occur at 5 years after treatment, long-term follow-up is necessary. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from the Nasal Cavity of Camels in Samburu, Nakuru, and Isiolo Counties of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Mutua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy camels. A total of 255 nasal samples (swabs were collected in Isiolo, Samburu, and Nakuru counties, Kenya, from which 404 bacterial isolates belonging to various genera and species were recovered. The bacterial isolates included Bacillus (39.60%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29.95%, Streptococcus species other than Streptococcus agalactiae (25.74%, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (3.96%, and Streptococcus agalactiae (0.74%. Isolates were most susceptible to Gentamicin (95.8%, followed by Tetracycline (90.5%, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol (each at 85.3%, Sulphamethoxazole (84.2%, Co-trimoxazole (82.1%, Ampicillin (78.9%, and finally Streptomycin (76.8%. This translated to low resistance levels. Multidrug resistance was also reported in 30.5% of the isolates tested. Even though the antibiotic resistance demonstrated in this study is low, the observation is significant, since the few resistant normal flora could be harboring resistance genes which can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria within the animal, to other animals’ bacteria and, most seriously, to human pathogens.

  17. Preliminary comp arison of helical tomotherapy and mixed beams of unmodulated electrons and intensity modulated radiation therapy for treating superficial cancers of the parotid gland and nasal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, Olivier; Fontenot, Jonas D; Fields, Robert S; Gibbons, John P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    To investigate combining unmodulated electron beams with intensity-modulated radiation therapy to improve dose distributions for superficial head and neck cancers, and to compare mixed beam plans with helical tomotherapy. Mixed beam and helical tomotherapy dose plans were developed for two patients with parotid gland tumors and two patients with nasal cavity tumors. Mixed beam plans consisted of various weightings of a enface electron beam and IMRT, which was optimized after calculation of the electron dose to compensate for heterogeneity in the electron dose distribution within the target volume. Helical tomotherapy plans showed dose conformity and homogeneity in the target volume that was equal to or better than the mixed beam plans. Electron-only plans tended to show the lowest doses to normal tissues, but with markedly worse dose conformity and homogeneity than in the other plans. However, adding a 20% IMRT dose fraction (i.e., IMRT:electron weighting = 1:4) to the electron plan restored target conformity and homogeneity to values comparable to helical tomotherapy plans, while maintaining lower normal tissue dose. Mixed beam treatments offer some dosimetric advantages over IMRT or helical tomotherapy for target depths that do not exceed the useful range of the electron beam. Adding a small IMRT component (e.g., IMRT:electron weighting = 1:4) to electron beam plans markedly improved target dose homogeneity and conformity for the cases examined in this study

  18. Neurologic abnormalities as the predominant signs of neoplasia of the nasal cavity in dogs and cats: seven cases (1973-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.O.; Turrel, J.M.; Bailey, C.S.; Cain, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Neurologic abnormalities were the predominant historic and physical findings in 5 dogs and 2 cats with primary nasal cavity tumors that had invaded the cranial vault. Seizures, behavior changes, and obtundation were the most common signs. Other neurologic signs included paresis, ataxia, circling, visual deficit, and proprioceptive deficit. Although 1 dog and 2 cats had historic findings of mild respiratory disease, no physical abnormalities related to the respiratory tract were found in any of the 7 animals. Nasal cavity neoplasia was suggested by radiographic and computed tomographic studies and was confirmed histopathologically in each case. The nasal tumor types in the 5 dogs were epidermoid carcinoma (n = 1), adenocarcinoma (n = 2), solid carcinoma (n = 1), and anaplastic chondrosarcoma (n = 1). An esthesioneuroblastoma was found in each cat. Radiation therapy was effective for 3 months in palliating the clinical signs in the 2 dogs in which it was used. Neoplasia of the nasal cavity should be considered in the differential diagnosis for animals with neurologic signs suggestive of cerebral disorders

  19. Lectin histochemical study on the olfactory organ of the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, revealed heterogeneous mucous environments in a single nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shouichiro; Matsui, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Naoto; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Mominoki, Katsumi; Matsuda, Seiji; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2003-04-01

    Expression patterns of glycoconjugates were examined by lectin histochemistry in the nasal cavity of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Its nasal cavity consisted of two components, a flattened chamber, which was the main nasal chamber (MNC), and a lateral diverticulum called the lateral nasal sinus (LNS), which communicated medially with the MNC. The MNC was lined with the olfactory epithelium (OE), while the diverticulum constituting the LNS was lined with the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE). Nasal glands were observed beneath the OE but not beneath the VNE. In addition, a secretory epithelium was revealed on the dorsal boundary between the MNC and the LNS, which we refer to as the boundary secretory epithelium (BSE) in this study. The BSE seemed to play an important role in the construction of the mucous composition of the VNE. Among 21 lectins used in this study, DBA, SBA and Jacalin showed different staining patterns between the OE and the VNE. DBA staining showed remarkable differences between the OE and the VNE; there was intense staining in the free border and the supporting cells of the VNE, whereas there was no staining or weak staining in the cells of the OE. SBA and Jacalin showed different stainings in the receptor neurons for the OE and the VNE. Furthermore, UEA-I and Con A showed different stainings for the nasal glands. UEA-I showed intense staining in the BSE and in the nasal glands located in the ventral wall of the MNC (VNG), whereas Con A showed intense staining in the BSE and in the nasal glands located in the dorsal and medial wall of the MNC (DMNG). The DMNG were observed to send their excretory ducts into the OE, whereas no excretory ducts were observed from the VNG to the OE or the VNE. These results suggested that the secretion by the supporting cells as well as the BSE and the DMNG establishes that there are heterogeneous mucous environments in the OE and the VNE, although both epithelia are situated in the same nasal cavity.

  20. Cavity enhanced eigenmode multiplexing for volume holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bo E.; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated enhanced recording speeds by using a resonant optical cavity to semi-passively increase the reference beam power while recording image bearing holograms. In addition to enhancing the reference beam power the cavity supports the orthogonal reference beam families of its eigenmodes, which can be used as a degree of freedom to multiplex data pages and increase storage densities for volume Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). While keeping the increased recording speed of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles for expedited recording of four multiplexed holograms. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modifications to current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  1. Low-dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized four-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Rustan, Ø G; Tesli, N; Poppy, C L; Smevik, H; Tesli, M; Røine, M; Mahmoud, R A; Smerud, K T; Djupesland, P G; Andreassen, O A

    2015-07-14

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel 'Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we evaluated dose-dependent effects on social cognition, compared response with intravenous (IV) administration of OT, and assessed nasal cavity dimensions using acoustic rhinometry. We adopted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover design, with 16 healthy male adults completing four single-dose treatments (intranasal 8 IU (international units) or 24 IU OT, 1 IU OT IV and placebo). The primary outcome was social cognition measured by emotional ratings of facial images. Secondary outcomes included the pharmacokinetics of OT, vasopressin and cortisol in blood and the association between nasal cavity dimensions and emotional ratings. Despite the fact that all the treatments produced similar plasma OT increases compared with placebo, there was a main effect of treatment on anger ratings of emotionally ambiguous faces. Pairwise comparisons revealed decreased ratings after 8 IU OT in comparison to both placebo and 24 IU OT. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between nasal valve dimensions and anger ratings of ambiguous faces after 8-IU OT treatment. These findings provide support for a direct nose-to-brain effect, independent of blood absorption, of low-dose OT delivered from a Breath Powered device.

  2. Evaluation of radiotherapy and combined therapy in cancer of the mucous membrane of the nasal auxillary sinuses and cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisevich, N.V.; Bajmakanova, S.Sh.; Rakhmetova, A.U.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical data of 180 patients with cancer of the mucous membrane of the nasal auxillary sinuses and cavity were considered to give a comparative evaluations of the effect of treatment on delayed results and life span of the dead patients. No considerable influence of the treatment methods on delayed results and life span has been found (the difference is statistically insignificant). However good correlation has been found with the degree of tumor dissemination. The 5-year survival period in Stage 2 is 72-80%, in Stages 3, 4 17-25%. The effect of the fractionated dose technique has been studied in 113 patients, Stages 3 and 4, who were given radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. The correlation of the 5-year survival with the tumor stage, has also been established: in Stage 3, 14-20%, in Stage 4 6-10%. In the analysis of life span of the dead patients similar dependence on the treatment methods and dose fractionated technique has been obtained [ru

  3. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-similar photonic crystal cavity with ultrasmall mode volume for single-photon nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    We propose a photonic crystal cavity design with self-similar structure to achieve ultrasmall mode volume. We describe the concept with a silicon-air nanobeam cavity at λ ∼ 1550nm, reaching a mode volume of ∼ 7.01 × 10∼5λ3.......We propose a photonic crystal cavity design with self-similar structure to achieve ultrasmall mode volume. We describe the concept with a silicon-air nanobeam cavity at λ ∼ 1550nm, reaching a mode volume of ∼ 7.01 × 10∼5λ3....

  5. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  6. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses: Clinical Outcomes and Patterns of Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegner, Ellen A.; Daly, Megan E.; Murphy, James D.; Abelson, Jonathan; Chapman, Chris H.; Chung, Melody; Yu, Yao; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy; Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for tumors of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity (PNS/NC). Methods/Materials: Between June 2000 and December 2009, 52 patients with tumors of the PNS/NC underwent postoperative or definitive radiation with IMRT. Twenty-eight (54%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Twenty-nine patients (56%) received chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 26.6 months (range, 2.9-118.4) for all patients and 30.9 months for living patients. Results: Eighteen patients (35%) developed local-regional failure (LRF) at median time of 7.2 months. Thirteen local failures (25%) were observed, 12 in-field and 1 marginal. Six regional failures were observed, two in-field and four out-of-field. No patients treated with elective nodal radiation had nodal regional failure. Two-year local-regional control (LRC), in-field LRC, freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and overall survival (OS) were 64%, 74%, 71%, and 66% among all patients, respectively, and 43%, 61%, 61%, and 53% among patients with SCC, respectively. On multivariate analysis, SCC and >1 subsite involved had worse LRC (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.046, respectively) and OS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.046, respectively). Cribriform plate invasion (p = 0.005) and residual disease (p = 0.047) also had worse LRC. Acute toxicities included Grade {>=}3 mucositis in 19 patients (37%), and Grade 3 dermatitis in 8 patients (15%). Six patients had Grade {>=}3 late toxicity including one optic toxicity. Conclusions: IMRT for patients with PNS/NC tumors has good outcomes compared with historical series and is well tolerated. Patients with SCC have worse LRC and OS. LRF is the predominant pattern of failure.

  8. Treatment of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer with modern radiotherapy techniques in the postoperative setting-the MSKCC experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Stegman, Lauren D.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Patel, Snehal G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective analysis of patients with paranasal sinus (PNS) cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Between January 1987 and July 2005, 85 patients with PNS and nasal cavity cancer underwent postoperative RT. Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma (49%; n = 42), T4 tumors (52%; n = 36), and the maxillary sinus (53%; n = 45) as the primary disease site. The median radiation dose was 63 Gy. Of the 85 patients, 76 underwent CT simulation and 53 were treated with either three-dimensional conformal RT (27%; n = 23) or intensity-modulated RT (35%; n = 30). Acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Results: With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 60 months, the 5-year estimates of local progression-free, regional progression-free, distant metastasis-free, disease-free, and overall survival rates were 62%, 87%, 82%, 55%, and 67%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, squamous cell histology and cribriform plate involvement predicted for an increased likelihood of local recurrence, and squamous cell histologic features predicted for worse overall survival. None of the patients who underwent CT simulation and were treated with modern techniques developed a Grade 3-4 late complication of the eye. Conclusion: Complete surgical resection followed by adjuvant RT is an effective and safe approach in the treatment of PNS cancer. Emerging tools, such as three-dimensional conformal treatment and, in particular, intensity-modulated RT for PNS tumors, may minimize the occurrence of late complications associated with conventional RT techniques. Local recurrence remains a significant problem

  9. CT of Anatomic Variants of the Paranasal Sinuses and Nasal Cavity: Poor Correlation With Radiologically Significant Rhinosinusitis but Importance in Surgical Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilberg, Katya A; Daniel, Simon C; Doshi, Amish H; Lawson, William; Som, Peter M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of sinonasal anatomic variants and to assess their relation to sinonasal mucosal disease. A retrospective evaluation of 192 sinus CT examinations of patients with a clinical history of rhinosinusitis was conducted. The CT scans were evaluated for the presence of several anatomic variants of the sinonasal cavities, and the prevalence of each variant was calculated. Prevalences of all sinonasal anatomic variants were compared between patients who had minimal to no apparent imaging evidence of rhinosinusitis and those who had radiologic evidence of clinically significant rhinosinusitis. The most common normal variants were nasal septal deviation, Agger nasi cells, and extension of the sphenoid sinuses into the posterior nasal septum. We found no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of any of the studied anatomic variants between patients with minimal and those with clinically significant paranasal sinus or nasal cavity disease. Analysis of every routine CT scan of the paranasal sinuses obtained for sinusitis or rhinitis for the presence of different anatomic variants is of questionable value unless surgery is planned.

  10. Occurrence, species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and clonality of methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of domestic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagcigil, Funda A.; Moodley, Arshnee; Baptiste, Keith E.

    2007-01-01

    beta-Lactams and macrolides are important antibiotics for treatment of staphylococcal infections in both humans and animals. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, species distribution and clonality of methicillin and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of dogs......, horses, pigs, and cattle in Denmark. Nasal swabs were collected from a total of 400 animals, including 100 individuals of each species. Methicillin and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci were isolated on selective media, identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, and typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis...... (PFGE). Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) harbouring mecA were isolated from horses (50%) and dogs (13%), but not from food animals. The species identified were S. haemolyticus (n = 21), S. vitulinus (n = 19), S. sciuri (n = 13), S. epidermidis (n = 8), and S. warneri (n...

  11. In vivo microvascular imaging of human oral and nasal cavities using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a single forward/side viewing probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.3 μm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm x 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions.

  12. Modes and Mode Volumes for Leaky Optical Cavities and Plasmonic Nanoresonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Stephen; Kristensen, Philip Trøst

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic cavity modes in photonic and plasmonic resonators offer rich and attractive regimes for tailoring the properties of light–matter interactions, yet there is a disturbing lack of a precise definition for what constitutes a cavity mode, and as a result their mathematical properties r...... methods for quasinormal modes of both photonic and plasmonic resonators and the concept of a generalized effective mode volume, and we illustrate the theory with several representative cavity structures from the fields of photonic crystals and nanoplasmonics....

  13. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma.

  14. Genotypes and enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands and nasal cavities of flight-catering employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M; Björkroth, K J; Asplund, K; Mäki-Petäys, N; Korkeala, H J

    2000-11-01

    Hand and nasal samples of flight-catering staff were collected from 1995 to 1997 to find employees carrying Staphylococcus aureus. Altogether 153 hand samples and 136 nose samples were taken. Nasal sampling showed a higher prevalence of S. aureus among food handlers (29%) than hand sampling (9%). A high proportion of the strains (46%) were enterotoxigenic, and a considerable amount of food handlers carried enterotoxigenic S. aureus, 6% and 12% according to hand and nasal sampling, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction profiles revealed a total of 32 different types associated with the 35 employees carrying S. aureus. In most cases, the same type colonized both the hand and nose of a person. Despite the wide variety of types found, one strain colonized five persons and the second most common strain was associated with four food handlers. The predominant toxin produced was B, which was produced by the most common strain. The results showed that nasal sampling is a good way to detect S. aureus carriers, whereas hand sampling may fail to reveal carriers. The high proportion of enterotoxigenic strains show that a food handler harboring S. aureus must be considered a potential source of enterotoxigenic strains for airline meals.

  15. Platelet Count and Mean Platelet Volume in Patients with Nasal Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Tanrivermis Sayit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nasal polyps (NPs are the most common reason for nasal obstruction, with a prevalence of 1-4%. Although the etiology is not clearly known, chronic infections and mechanical, immunological, and biochemical factors can play a role in the etiology. Recently, mean platelet volume (MPV was recognized as a simple inflammatory marker in the inflammatory disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate platelet (PLT and MPV in patients with NPs. Material and Method: This study included 80 histopathologically proven patients with NPs and 80 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. The Lund-Mackay staging system was used to evalute paranasal sinus CT scans, in patients with NPs, and paranasal sinus CT scores were recorded. Values of MPV, platelet (PLT, platelet crit (PCT and platelet distribution width (PDW were assessed in NP and control groups. Results: MPV and PLT values were found to be low in patients with NPs, at 8.57±1.62 fL and 259.99±62.03 x103/µL, respectively, compared with the control groups, at 8.79±1.49fL and 270.29±61.82 x103/µL. These findings were not statistically significant. PDW values were found to be slightly high in patients with NPs, at 17.1±1.36 fL, compared with the control group, at 16.78±1.04 fL (p=0.075. But PCT values were found to be low in patients with NPs, at 0.21±0.065, compared with the control group, at 0.23±0.069 (p=0.044. This finding was statistically significant. Discussion: In our study, the MPV and PLT values were lower in patients with NPs, but the difference was not statistically significant. According to our findings, the use of MPV as an inflammation marker in patients with NPs does not seem to be reliable.

  16. Feasibility and safety of cavity-directed stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases at a high-volume medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rava, MD PhD

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Excellent local control is achievable with cavity-directed SRS in well-selected patients, particularly for lesions with diameter <3 cm and resection cavity volumes <14 mL. Long-term survival is possible for select patients.

  17. Nasal reaction to changes in whole body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, G R; Pedersen, O F; Hilberg, O; Nielsen, B

    1993-11-01

    The changes in nasal patency following a 1.5 degrees C decrease or increase in whole body temperature were measured in 8 healthy young males, during and after 30 min of immersion in a 15 degrees C cold or a 40 degrees C warm bath, breathing air at the same temperature, in a cross-over experimental design. The nasal reactions were traced by consecutive measurements of changes in nasal cavity volumes by acoustic rhinometry. Swelling of the mucosa during cooling and an almost maximal shrinkage of the mucosa during heating were indicated by respectively a decrease and an increase in nasal cavity volumes. The reactions were determined predominantly by the whole body thermal balance, but were also influenced by the temperature of the inhaled air, either enhanced, reduced or temporarily reversed. The greatest change occurred in the nasal cavity, left or right, which differed most from the final state at the beginning of exposure due to the actual state of nasal cycle.

  18. Localized nasal cavity, sinus, and massive bilateral orbital involvement by human T cell leukemia virus 1 adult T cell lymphoma, with epidermal hypertrophy due to mite infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Laveaux

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available HTLV1 adult T cell lymphoma occurs tends to be widely disseminated and aggressive, with only brief responses to chemotherapy. Aside from cervical adenopathy, involvement of head and neck structures is uncommon and orbital involvement rare. We report a case of nasal cavity HTLV lymphoma with massive bilateral orbital involvement and proptosis, resulting in complete left and partial right eye amaurosis. No other sites of disease were found. Response to chemotherapy was rapid and complete, with almost complete restoration of vision and oculo-motor function; the patient has remained in remission for one year. An associated problem was striking bilateral hypertrophic, hyperkeratotic eyelid and breast lesions due to mite infestation. 

  19. Rhinoplasty via the midface degloving approach for nasal deformity due to nasal polyps: A case report of Woakes’ syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misato Ueda, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nasal polyps are inflammatory proliferative tumors arising from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Although many cases concerning nasal polyps have been reported, those involving external nasal deformities are rare. We report a case of nasal polyposis filling the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, leading to external nasal and facial deformities. The condition above is known as Woakes’ syndrome, which is characterized by severe recurrent nasal polyps with deformity of the nasal pyramid, leading to broadening of the nose. We performed nasal osteotomy and facial bone-shaving via the midface degloving approach, which improved the patient’s facial appearance.

  20. Outcome of T4 (International Union Against Cancer Staging System, 7th edition) or Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma Treated With Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi, E-mail: fukumitsun@yahoo.co.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashii, Haruko; Ohkawa, Ayako; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Tabuchi, Keiji; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira [Department of Otolaryngology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and toxicity of treatment for unresectable carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NCPS) treated with proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (13 men, 4 women) with unresectable carcinomas of the NCPS who underwent PBT at University of Tsukuba between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 62 years (range, 30-83 years). The tumors were located in the nasal cavity in 3 patients, the frontal sinus in 1, the ethmoid sinus in 9, and the maxillary sinus in 4. The clinical stage was Stage IVA in 5 cases, IVB in 10, and recurrent in 2. The tumors were deemed unresectable for medical reasons in 16 patients and because of refusal at a previous hospital 4 months earlier in 1 patient. All the patients received PBT irradiation dose of 22-82.5 GyE and a total of 72.4-89.6 GyE over 30-64 fractions (median 78 GyE over 36 fractions) with X-ray, with attention not exceeding the delivery of 50 GyE to the optic chiasm and brainstem. Results: The overall survival rate was 47.1% at 2 years and 15.7% at 5 years, and the local control rate was 35.0% at 2 years and 17.5% at 5 years. Invasion of the frontal or sphenoid sinus was a prognostic factor for overall survival or local control. Late toxicity of more than Grade 3 was found in 2 patients (brain necrosis in 1 and ipsilateral blindness in 1); however, no mortal adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy enabled a reduced irradiation dose to the optic chiasm and brainstem, enabling the safe treatment of unresectable carcinomas in the NCPS. Superior or posterior extension of the tumor influenced patient outcome.

  1. Outcome of T4 (International Union Against Cancer Staging System, 7th edition) or Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma Treated With Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashii, Haruko; Ohkawa, Ayako; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Tabuchi, Keiji; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and toxicity of treatment for unresectable carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NCPS) treated with proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (13 men, 4 women) with unresectable carcinomas of the NCPS who underwent PBT at University of Tsukuba between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 62 years (range, 30–83 years). The tumors were located in the nasal cavity in 3 patients, the frontal sinus in 1, the ethmoid sinus in 9, and the maxillary sinus in 4. The clinical stage was Stage IVA in 5 cases, IVB in 10, and recurrent in 2. The tumors were deemed unresectable for medical reasons in 16 patients and because of refusal at a previous hospital 4 months earlier in 1 patient. All the patients received PBT irradiation dose of 22–82.5 GyE and a total of 72.4–89.6 GyE over 30–64 fractions (median 78 GyE over 36 fractions) with X-ray, with attention not exceeding the delivery of 50 GyE to the optic chiasm and brainstem. Results: The overall survival rate was 47.1% at 2 years and 15.7% at 5 years, and the local control rate was 35.0% at 2 years and 17.5% at 5 years. Invasion of the frontal or sphenoid sinus was a prognostic factor for overall survival or local control. Late toxicity of more than Grade 3 was found in 2 patients (brain necrosis in 1 and ipsilateral blindness in 1); however, no mortal adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy enabled a reduced irradiation dose to the optic chiasm and brainstem, enabling the safe treatment of unresectable carcinomas in the NCPS. Superior or posterior extension of the tumor influenced patient outcome.

  2. Carcinomas of the Paranasal Sinuses and Nasal Cavity Treated With Radiotherapy at a Single Institution Over Five Decades: Are We Making Improvement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Daly, Megan E.; Bucci, M. Kara; Xia Ping; Akazawa, Clayton C.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Weinberg, Vivian; Garcia, Joaquin; Lee, Nancy Y.; Kaplan, Michael J.; El-Sayed, Ivan; Eisele, David W.; Fu, Karen K.; Phillips, Theodore L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare clinical outcomes of patients with carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity according to decade of radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2005, 127 patients with sinonasal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy with planning and delivery techniques available at the time of treatment. Fifty-nine patients were treated by conventional radiotherapy; 45 patients by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; and 23 patients by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Eighty-two patients (65%) were treated with radiotherapy after gross total tumor resection. Nineteen patients (15%) received chemotherapy. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (83 patients). Results: The 5-year estimates of overall survival, local control, and disease-free survival for the entire patient population were 52%, 62%, and 54%, respectively. There were no significant differences in any of these endpoints with respect to decade of treatment or radiotherapy technique (p > 0.05, for all). The 5-year overall survival rate for patients treated in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s was 46%, 56%, 51%, 53%, and 49%, respectively (p = 0.23). The observed incidence of severe (Grade 3 or 4) late toxicity was 53%, 45%, 39%, 28%, and 16% among patients treated in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, respectively (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Although we did not detect improvements in disease control or overall survival for patients treated over time, the incidence of complications has significantly declined, thereby resulting in an improved therapeutic ratio for patients with carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity

  3. Generalized effective mode volume for leaky optical cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Van Vlack, C.; Hughes, S.

    2012-01-01

    We show explicitly how the commonly adopted prescription for calculating effective mode volumes is wrong and leads to uncontrolled errors. Instead, we introduce a generalized mode volume that can be easily evaluated based on the mode calculation methods typically applied in the literature, and wh......, and which allows one to compute the Purcell effect and other interesting optical phenomena in a rigorous and unambiguous way....

  4. Change in volume of lumpectomy cavity during external-beam irradiation of the intact breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Geraldine; Betts, Vicki; Smith, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Definition of the lumpectomy cavity is an important component of irradiation of the breast. We use computed tomography (CT)-based planning and contour the lumpectomy volume on the planning CT. We obtained a second CT in the 4th or 5th week of treatment for boost planning and compared the volume change with the first planning-CT scan. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study reviewed the planning-CT data for 20 patients. In the first CT, images were obtained from the mandible to 2 cm below the breast in 3-mm slices. In the second CT, for the boost, images were obtained from the top to the bottom of the clinically defined breast, in 3-mm slices. Lumpectomy cavities were contoured on both CT scans and volumes compared. Results: Sixteen of the 20 patients (80%) had more than a 20% decrease from the first to the second volume, with a corresponding 95% confidence interval. The mean decrease was 16.13 cc, with a standard deviation of 14.05. The Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.18 did not show a significant correlation between the initial volume and the percent change. Conclusions: During external breast irradiation, many patients will have significant volume reduction in the lumpectomy cavity. Because CT-based definition of the lumpectomy cavity can influence the planning of a boost technique, further study appears warranted

  5. Nasal Glioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital tumors that are thought to be result of abnormality in embryonic development. Three types of clinical presentations have been recognized; extranasal, intranasal and combined. Clinically, these masses are non-pulsatile, gray or purple lesions that obstruct the nasal cavity and cause deformity extranasaly. Histologically, they are made up of astrocytic cells, fibrous and vascular connective tissue that is covered with nasal respiratory mucosa. Treatment of the nasal glioma requires a multidisciplinary approach including an radiologist, neurosurgeon and otorhinolaryngologist. Radiological investigation should be performed to describe intracranial extension. In this case, a 2 years old boy with nasal mass that was diagnosed as nasal glioma is reported. . [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1.000: 34-36

  6. Nasal Glioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital tumors that are thought to be result of abnormality in embryonic development. Three types of clinical presentations have been recognized; extranasal, intranasal and combined. Clinically, these masses are non-pulsatile, gray or purple lesions that obstruct the nasal cavity and cause deformity extranasaly. Histologically, they are made up of astrocytic cells, fibrous and vascular connective tissue that is covered with nasal respiratory mucosa. Treatment of the nasal glioma requires a multidisciplinary approach including an radiologist, neurosurgeon and otorhinolaryngologist. Radiological investigation should be performed to describe intracranial extension. In this case, a 2 years old boy with nasal mass that was diagnosed as nasal glioma is reported. . [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1: 34-36

  7. Degloving médio-facial como via de acesso a tumores nasossinusais Midfacial degloving - acess to nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Maria de Brito Macedo Ferreira

    2006-04-01

    treated at the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza SESA/SUS from December 1999 through November 2003. Based on the results, we may conclude that midfacial degloving is effective to treat extensive nasal cavity lesions and paranasal sinuses with reduced post operative morbidity.

  8. Patterns of Primary Tumor Invasion and Regional Lymph Node Spread Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early-Stage Nasal NK/T-cell Lymphoma: Implications for Clinical Target Volume Definition and Prognostic Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Run-Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Kang [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Song, Yong-Wen; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Yong; Chen, Bo; Qi, Shu-Nan; Lu, Ning-Ning; Tang, Yu; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong12@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the pathways of primary tumor invasion (PTI) and regional lymph node (LN) spread based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early-stage nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), to improve clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and evaluate the prognostic value of locoregional extension patterns. Methods and Materials: A total of 105 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage nasal NKTCL who underwent pretreatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Results: The incidences of PTI and regional LN involvement were 64.7% and 25.7%, respectively. Based on the incidence of PTI, involved sites surrounding the nasal cavity were classified into 3 risk subgroups: high-risk (>20%), intermediate-risk (5%-20%), and low-risk (<5%). The most frequently involved site was the nasopharynx (35.2%), followed by the maxillary (21.9%) and ethmoid (21.9%) sinuses. Local disease and regional LN spread followed an orderly pattern without LN skipping. The retropharyngeal nodes (RPNs) were most frequently involved (19.0%), followed by level II (11.4%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates for all patients were 72.8%, 65.2%, and 90.0%, respectively. The presence of PTI and regional LN involvement based on MRI significantly and negatively affected PFS and OS. Conclusions: Early-stage nasal NKTCL presents with a high incidence of PTI but a relatively low incidence of regional LN spread. Locoregional spread followed an orderly pattern, and PTI and regional LN spread are powerful prognostic factors for poorer survival outcomes. CTV reduction may be feasible for selected patients.

  9. Can objective measurements of the nasal form and function represent the clinical picture in unilateral cleft lip and palate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroz, Roshan; Holmström, Mats; Mani, Maria

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the potential correlations between objective measurements of nasal function and self-assessed nasal symptoms or clinical findings at nasal examination among adults treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), respectively. All UCLP patients born between 1960 and 1987 (n = 109) treated at a tertiary referring center were invited. Participation rate was 76% (n = 83) at a mean of 37 years after the initial surgery. All participants completed the same study protocol including acoustic rhinometry (AR), rhinomanometry (RM), anterior rhinoscopy, and questionnaires regarding self-experienced nasal symptoms. A reduced volume of the anterior nasal cavity on the operated side (measured by AR) correlated to an expressed wish by the patient to change the function of the nose. A similar correlation was seen for the minimal cross-sectional area of anterior nasal cavity on the operated side. Furthermore, correlations were found between smaller volume and area of nasal cavity and a greater frequency of nasal obstruction. No further correlations were found. Objective measurements partly correlate to the clinical picture among adults treated for UCLP. However, these need to be combined with findings at clinical examination and patient self-assessment to represent the complete clinical picture. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michitsugu Kawada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient who had rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity. A 72-year-old woman had undergone surgery for frontal sinusitis via external incision at another hospital 13 years previously. Left-sided hemiparesis appeared in the patient and gradually worsened. Five days later, she exhibited disorientation, abnormal behavior, poor articulation, and difficulty in standing. Therefore, she was taken to the neurosurgery department by ambulance. An extensive frontal sinus pyocele was suspected, and a cerebral abscess and edema of the frontal lobe were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. After antibiotics, steroid and glycerol were administered for a few weeks; disorientation and left hemiparesis improved. Next, craniotomy for complete removal of the brain abscess by neurosurgeons and endoscopic endonasal surgery by otolaryngologists were carried out at the same surgery. From the analysis of the pathological mucosa sample taken from the right ethomoidal sinus during surgery, an inverted papilloma was diagnosed. The patient completely recovered and is currently receiving follow-up examination. Regarding rhinogenic intracranial complications, ascertaining clinical condition in order to determine the need for either immediate radical surgery, or for curative surgery after waiting for improvement of the overall body condition by conservative management, is still needed.

  11. Rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Michitsugu; Yokoi, Hidenori; Maruyama, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Yuma; Yamanaka, Hidetaka; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Saito, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who had rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity. A 72-year-old woman had undergone surgery for frontal sinusitis via external incision at another hospital 13 years previously. Left-sided hemiparesis appeared in the patient and gradually worsened. Five days later, she exhibited disorientation, abnormal behavior, poor articulation, and difficulty in standing. Therefore, she was taken to the neurosurgery department by ambulance. An extensive frontal sinus pyocele was suspected, and a cerebral abscess and edema of the frontal lobe were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. After antibiotics, steroid and glycerol were administered for a few weeks; disorientation and left hemiparesis improved. Next, craniotomy for complete removal of the brain abscess by neurosurgeons and endoscopic endonasal surgery by otolaryngologists were carried out at the same surgery. From the analysis of the pathological mucosa sample taken from the right ethomoidal sinus during surgery, an inverted papilloma was diagnosed. The patient completely recovered and is currently receiving follow-up examination. Regarding rhinogenic intracranial complications, ascertaining clinical condition in order to determine the need for either immediate radical surgery, or for curative surgery after waiting for improvement of the overall body condition by conservative management, is still needed. PMID:27489711

  12. An integrative taxonomic study of Pavanelliella spp. (Monogenoidea, Dactylogyridae) with the description of a new species from the nasal cavities of an Amazon pimelodid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Julio C; Maia, Antônio A M; Silva, Marcia R M; Ceccarelli, Paulo S; Domingues, Marcus V; Adriano, Edson A

    2017-12-01

    The present study is an integrative taxonomic analysis of Pavanelliella spp. (Monogenoidea, Dactylogyridae), and describes a new species from the nasal cavities of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Siluriformes Pimelodidae) from the Tapajós River (Amazon Basin, Pará state, Brazil). Pavanelliella jarii sp. n. is characterized by the presence of 3-4 rings in the male copulatory organ, the absence of rings around the vaginal atrium and by its sinuous vaginal canal, which sometimes forms 0.5-1 rings in the distal portion. The sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) of three species of Pavanelliella, Vancleaveus cicinnus, and an undetermined dactylogyrid allowed the phylogenetic reconstruction of these dactylogyrids. The analysis indicated that P. jarii sp. n. is closely related to Pavanelliella takemotoi and Pavanelliella pavanellii, which formed a sister clade to ancylodiscoidines parasites of siluriform fish from the Oriental and Afrotropical regions. The analysis also corroborated the non-monophyly of Ancyrocephalinae, revealing that ancylodiscoidines arose between ancyrocephalines lineages, in a sister relationship to pseudodactylogyrines+marine ancyrocephalines+ancyrocephalines parasites of afrotropical perciforms+dactylogyrines. Cladistical analysis indicates that the haptoral anchor/bar complex has been lost several times in the evolutionary history of Dactylogyridae. The analysis also indicated that Dactylogyrus is polyphyletic, as Acolpenteron ureteroecetes and Dactylogyroides longicirrus arose between the three lineages formed by Dactylogyrus spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and nasal absorption capacity in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry.

  14. Correlation between metabolic tumor volume and pathologic tumor volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, James D.; Chisholm, Karen M.; Daly, Megan E.; Wiegner, Ellen A.; Truong, Daniel; Iagaru, Andrei; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Graves, Edward E.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Kong, Christina; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between pathologic tumor volume and volume estimated from different tumor segmentation techniques on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oral cavity cancer. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue had PET–CT scans before definitive surgery. Pathologic tumor volume was estimated from surgical specimens. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was defined from PET–CT scans as the volume of tumor above a given SUV threshold. Multiple SUV thresholds were explored including absolute SUV thresholds, relative SUV thresholds, and gradient-based techniques. Results: Multiple MTV’s were associated with pathologic tumor volume; however the correlation was poor (R 2 range 0.29–0.58). The ideal SUV threshold, defined as the SUV that generates an MTV equal to pathologic tumor volume, was independently associated with maximum SUV (p = 0.0005) and tumor grade (p = 0.024). MTV defined as a function of maximum SUV and tumor grade improved the prediction of pathologic tumor volume (R 2 = 0.63). Conclusions: Common SUV thresholds fail to predict pathologic tumor volume in head and neck cancer. The optimal technique that allows for integration of PET–CT with radiation treatment planning remains to be defined. Future investigation should incorporate biomarkers such as tumor grade into definitions of MTV.

  15. Repeat Computed Tomography Simulation to Assess Lumpectomy Cavity Volume During Whole-Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, Todd W.; Nichols, Elizabeth M.; Cheston, Sally B.; Marter, Kimberley J.; Naqvi, Shahid A.; Markham, Kristen M.; Ali, Imran; Mohiuddin, Majid M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the lumpectomy cavity (LPC) decreases in volume during whole-breast radiotherapy (RT) and what factors influence the decrease. Patients and Methods: Forty-three women with 44 breast lesions were prospectively enrolled. Eligible patients underwent lumpectomy followed by a CT simulation (CT1) within 60 days of surgery. Patients were treated to the entire breast to a dose of 45-50.4 Gy. After 21-23 treatments, a second planning CT simulation (CT2) was done. The LPC was contoured on CT2, and the volumes (LCV) were compared between CT1 and CT2. Results: The median LCV on CT1 and CT2 was 38.2 cm 3 and 21.7 cm 3 , respectively. The median percent change and volume decrease between CT1 and CT2 was -32.0% and 11.2 cm 3 , respectively (n = 44). The LCV decreased in 38 of 44 patients (86%). There was a significant correlation between initial LCV and decrease in volume (p = 0.001) and initial LCV and percent decrease in volume (p < 0.001). There was no correlation between time from surgery to CT1, to start of RT, or to CT2 and change in volume. Conclusions: Patients who undergo lumpectomy almost always have a decrease in their LCV during whole-breast RT. There was a correlation between the initial LCV and decrease in volume on repeat CT simulation. Evaluating patients for this change can potentially lead to decreased doses of radiation to the remaining breast and other critical structures when delivering a small-field boost. Repeat CT simulation should be considered in patients with larger cavities or cavities near critical structures.

  16. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma: Cytological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious retroviral disease of sheep and goats, characterized by neoplastic growth of the ethmoidal mucosa in the nasal cavity is described in a West African Dwarf goat (WAD). A two-year old WAD goat, weighing approximately 20kg was observed in the Teaching and Research ...

  17. Low dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized 4-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, Daniel; Westlye, Lars Tjelta; Rustan, Øyvind; Tesli, Natalia; Poppy, Claire; Smevik, Hanne; Tesli, Martin Steen; Røine, Marianne; Mahmoud, Ramy; Smerud, Knut Terje; Djupesland, Per G.; Andreassen, Ole Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel ?Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we ...

  18. Nasal deposition of ciclesonide nasal aerosol and mometasone aqueous nasal spray in allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ivor A; Blaiss, Michael S; Meltzer, Eli O; Evans, Philip; Connor, Alyson

    2014-01-01

    Sensory attributes of intranasal corticosteroids, such as rundown to the back of the throat, may influence patient treatment preferences. This study compares the nasal deposition and nasal retention of a radiolabeled solution of ciclesonide nasal aerosol (CIC-hydrofluoroalkane [HFA]) with a radiolabeled suspension of mometasone furoate monohydrate aqueous nasal spray (MFNS) in subjects with either perennial allergic rhinitis (AR) or seasonal AR. In this open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover scintigraphy study, 14 subjects with symptomatic AR received a single dose of radiolabeled 74-μg CIC-HFA (37 μg/spray, 1 spray/each nostril) via a nasal metered-dose inhaler or a single dose of radiolabeled 200-μg MFNS (50 μg/spray, 2 sprays/each nostril), with a minimum 5-day washout period between treatments. Initial deposition (2 minutes postdose) of radiolabeled CIC-HFA and MFNS in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and on nasal wipes, and retention of radioactivity in the nasal cavity and nasal run-out on nasal wipes at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes postdose were quantified with scintigraphy. At 2 and 10 minutes postdose, deposition of radiolabeled CIC-HFA was significantly higher in the nasal cavity versus radiolabeled MFNS (99.42% versus 86.50% at 2 minutes, p = 0.0046; and 81.10% versus 54.31% at 10 minutes, p Deposition of radioactivity on nasal wipes was significantly higher with MFNS versus CIC-HFA at all five time points, and posterior losses of radiolabeled formulation were significantly higher with MFNS at 6, 8, and 10 minutes postdose. In this scintigraphic study, significantly higher nasal deposition and retention of radiolabeled aerosol CIC-HFA were observed versus radiolabeled aqueous MFNS in subjects with AR.

  19. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samir A; Berger, Robert L; McDermott, John; Gupta, Pranav; Monteith, David; Connor, Alyson; Lin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  20. High-Q Fabry–Pérot Micro-Cavities for High-Sensitivity Volume Refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Gaber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a novel structure for a Fabry–Pérot micro cavity that combines the highest reported quality factor for an on-chip Fabry–Pérot resonator that exceeds 9800, and a very high sensitivity for an on-chip volume refractometer based on a Fabry–Pérot cavity that is about 1000 nm/refractive index unit (RIU. The structure consists of two cylindrical Bragg micromirrors that achieve confinement of the Gaussian beam in the plan parallel to the chip substrate, while for the perpendicular plan, external fiber rod lenses (FRLs are placed in the optical path of the input and the output of the cavity. This novel structure overcomes number of the drawbacks presented in previous designs. The analyte is passed between the mirrors, enabling its detection from the resonance peak wavelengths of the transmission spectra. Mixtures of ethanol and deionized (DI-water with different ratios are used as analytes with different refractive indices to exploit the device as a micro-opto-fluidic refractometer. The design criteria are detailed and the modeling is based on Gaussian-optics equations, which depicts a scenario closer to reality than the usually used ray-optics modeling.

  1. Studies on SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/: effect on ciliary activity in rabbit trachea of single in vitro exposure and resorption in rabbit nasal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalhamm, T; Sjoeholm, J

    1963-01-01

    Absorption in nasal cavity was tested by drawing gas through tracheal cannula at 1 liter/min for 45 min (...simple and is not intended to give accurate quantitative results.). Both SO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/ were strongly absorbed, even at high concentrations, whereas NO/sub 2/ was not. Required concentration to arrest ciliary activity after 5 min was 500 to 1000 mg/liter for NH/sub 3/, 150 to 200 for NO/sub 2/, and 20 to 30 for SO/sub 2/. Some evidence of dose-time-effect for this action was observed.

  2. A low-volume cavity ring-down spectrometer for sample-limited applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, C.; Farinas, A. D.; Ware, J.; Wistisen, D. W.; Rella, C.; Wahl, E.; Crosson, E.; Blunier, T.

    2014-08-01

    In atmospheric and environmental sciences, optical spectrometers are used for the measurements of greenhouse gas mole fractions and the isotopic composition of water vapor or greenhouse gases. The large sample cell volumes (tens of milliliters to several liters) in commercially available spectrometers constrain the usefulness of such instruments for applications that are limited in sample size and/or need to track fast variations in the sample stream. In an effort to make spectrometers more suitable for sample-limited applications, we developed a low-volume analyzer capable of measuring mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide based on a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer. The instrument has a small sample cell (9.6 ml) and can selectively be operated at a sample cell pressure of 140, 45, or 20 Torr (effective internal volume of 1.8, 0.57, and 0.25 ml). We present the new sample cell design and the flow path configuration, which are optimized for small sample sizes. To quantify the spectrometer's usefulness for sample-limited applications, we determine the renewal rate of sample molecules within the low-volume spectrometer. Furthermore, we show that the performance of the low-volume spectrometer matches the performance of the standard commercial analyzers by investigating linearity, precision, and instrumental drift.

  3. Nasal septum extramedullary plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasmacytomas are malignant tumors characterized by abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. They originate in either bone - solitary osseous plasmacytoma, or in soft tissue - extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP. EMP represents less than 1% of all head and neck malignancies. Case report. We presented a case of EMP of the nasal septum in a 44-year-old male who had progressive difficulty in breathing through the nose and frequent heavy epistaxis on the right side. Nasal endoscopy showed dark red, soft, polypoid tumor in the last third of the right nasal cavity arising from the nasal septum. The biopsy showed that it was plasmacytoma. Bence Jones protein in the urine, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow biopsy, skeletal survey and other screening tests failed to detect multiple myeloma. This confirmed the diagnosis of EMP. The mass was completely removed via an endoscopic approach, and then, 4 week later, radiotherapy was conducted with a radiation dose of 50 Gray. No recurrence was noted in a 3-year follow- up period. Conclusion. EMP of the nasal cavity, being rare and having long natural history, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for any ear, nose and throat surgeon. Depending on the resectability of the lesion, a combined therapy is the accepted treatment.

  4. Nasal Delivery of High Molecular Weight Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Cevher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery may be used for either local or systemic effects. Low molecular weight drugs with are rapidly absorbed through nasal mucosa. The main reasons for this are the high permeability, fairly wide absorption area, porous and thin endothelial basement membrane of the nasal epithelium. Despite the many advantages of the nasal route, limitations such as the high molecular weight (HMW of drugs may impede drug absorption through the nasal mucosa. Recent studies have focused particularly on the nasal application of HMW therapeutic agents such as peptide-protein drugs and vaccines intended for systemic effects. Due to their hydrophilic structure, the nasal bioavailability of peptide and protein drugs is normally less than 1%. Besides their weak mucosal membrane permeability and enzymatic degradation in nasal mucosa, these drugs are rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity after administration because of mucociliary clearance. There are many approaches for increasing the residence time of drug formulations in the nasal cavity resulting in enhanced drug absorption. In this review article, nasal route and transport mechanisms across the nasal mucosa will be briefly presented. In the second part, current studies regarding the nasal application of macromolecular drugs and vaccines with nanoand micro-particulate carrier systems will be summarised.

  5. Control of nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, M A; Phipps, R J; Wang, J C; Widdicombe, J G

    1984-01-01

    Nasal vascular and airflow resistances have been measured in dogs, simultaneously on both sides separately. Vascular resistance was measured either by constant flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the maxillary artery (which supplies, via the sphenopalatine artery, the nasal septum, most of the turbinates and the nasal sinuses) or by measuring blood flow through this artery, maintained by the dog's own blood pressure. Airflow resistance was assessed by inserting balloon-tipped endotracheal catheters into the back of each nasal cavity via the nasopharynx, and measuring transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Preliminary experiments indicated that there was 5-10% collateral anastomosis between the two sides. Close-arterial injection of drugs showed different patterns of response. Adrenaline, phenylephrine, chlorpheniramine and low doses of prostaglandin F2 alpha increased vascular resistance and lowered airway resistance. Salbutamol, methacholine and histamine lowered vascular resistance and increased airway resistance. Dobutamine decreased airway resistance with a small increase in vascular resistance. Prostaglandins E1, E2 and F2 alpha (high dose) decreased both vascular and airway resistances. Substance P, eledoisin-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide lowered vascular resistance with little change in airway resistance. The results are interpreted in terms of possible drug actions on precapillary resistance vessels, sinusoids and venules, and arteriovenous anastomoses. It is concluded that nasal airway resistance cannot be correlated with vascular resistance or blood flow, since the latter has a complex and ill-defined relationship with nasal vascular blood volume. PMID:6204040

  6. Retrospective study of computed tomography of nasal cavity in small animal at FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu, and correlation of changes with cytological and/or histopathological exams; Estudo retrospectivo de tomografia computadorizada da cavidade nasal em pequenos animais na FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu, e correlacao das alteracoes com os exames citologico e/ou histopatologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Inamassu, Leticia Rocha; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: a_fbelotta@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Zardo, Karen Maciel

    2012-07-01

    It was conducted a retrospective study of computed tomography (CT) scans of nasal cavity in small animal at this institution during the period of April 2007 through June 2012. In total, 47 CT scans were performed during the period and, of these, only 25 underwent additional exams (cytological and/or histopathological). 20 exams suggested a diagnosis, 4 were inconclusive and one had no change. A correlation was made between tomographic findings and cytological/histopathological diagnosis providing an accurate assessment of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic disease. (author)

  7. Climatic effects on the nasal complex: a CT imaging, comparative anatomical, and morphometric investigation of Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Samuel; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies exploring the effects of climate on the nasal region have largely focused on external craniofacial linear parameters, using dry crania of modern human populations. This investigation augments traditional craniofacial morphometrics with internal linear and volumetric measures of the anatomic units comprising the nasal complex (i.e., internal nasal cavity depth, maxillary sinus volumes). The study focuses on macaques (i.e., Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) living at high and low altitudes, rather than on humans, since the short residency of migratory human populations may preclude using them as reliable models to test the long-term relationship of climate to nasal morphology. It is hypothesized that there will be significant differences in nasal complex morphology among macaques inhabiting different climates. This study integrated three different approaches: CT imaging, comparative anatomy, and morphometrics-in an effort to better understand the morphological structure and adaptive nature of the nasal complex. Results showed statistically significant differences when subsets of splanchnocranial and neurocranial variables were regressed against total maxillary sinus volume for particular taxa. For example, basion-hormion was significant for M. fascicularis, whereas choanal dimensions were significant only for M. mulatta. Both taxa revealed strong correlation between sinus volume and prosthion to staphylion distance, which essentially represents the length of the nasal cavity floor-and is by extension an indicator of the air conditioning capacity of the nasal region. These results clearly show that climatic effects play a major role in shaping the anatomy of the nasal complex in closely related species. The major influence upon these differing structures appears to be related to respiratory-related adaptations subserving differing climatic factors. In addition, the interdependence of the paranasal sinuses with other parts of the complex strongly

  8. Effect of heater geometry and cavity volume on the sensitivity of a thermal convection-based tilt sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Maeum; Keon Kim, Jae; Kong, Seong Ho; Kang, Shin-Won; Jung, Daewoong

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports a micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS)-based tilt sensor using air medium. Since the working mechanism of the sensor is the thermal convection in a sealed chamber, structural parameters that can affect thermal convection must be considered to optimize the performance of the sensor. This paper presents the experimental results that were conducted by optimizing several parameters such as the heater geometry, input power and cavity volume. We observed that an increase in the heating power and cavity volume can improve the sensitivity, and heater geometry plays important role in performance of the sensor.

  9. The role of computed tomography in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yamashita, Shoji; Inuyama, Yukio; Shiga, Hayao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1986-01-01

    We studied the value of computed tomography (CT) in diagnosis and treatment of primary malignant tumors of the sinonasal cavities and nasopharynx, and reached the following conclusions. 1) In maxillary carcinomas, bone destruction is always seen on CT. When bone destruction is not apparent despite invasion to the adjacent site, malignant lymphoma or plasmacytoma is suggested. 2) In defining the tumor extent of maxillary SCC, CT is more reliable than maxillotomy, and is equal to maxillectomy. However, clouding of the sinus without bone destruction remains a problem, since this finding can be caused by either tumor invasion or obstructive sinusitis. 3) In maxillary and nasopharyngeal SCC, CT frequently reveals tumors to be more extensive than previously suspected following physical and conventional x-ray examinations. Therefore, the T-stages of these tumors are often upstaged to more advanced ones. 4) CT is of great help in identifying candidates for surgery in maxillary SCC, and in planning radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal and sinonasal tumors. Dose distribution curves displayed directly on the CT slices are becoming essential tools for radiation oncologists. After the introduction of CT, treatment results in cases of nasopharyngeal SCC have improved, probably due to better definition of the tumor volumes. 5) CT is also used for observing tumor response after therapy and for follow-up. In summary, CT is now indispensable in the management of malignant tumors of these sites. (author)

  10. Volume Bragg grating external cavities for the passive phase locking of high-brightness diode laser arrays: theoretical and experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paboeuf, David; Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2011-01-01

    We describe the theoretical modeling of the external-cavity operation of a phase-locked array of diode lasers in two configurations, the self-imaging cavity based on the Talbot effect and the angular-filtering cavity. Complex filtering functions, such as the transmission or reflection of a volume...

  11. Solution of the square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic using the finite volume method

    OpenAIRE

    Syrakos, Alexandros; Georgiou, Georgios C.; Alexandrou, Andreas N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the performance of the finite volume method in solving viscoplastic flows. The creeping square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic is chosen as the test case and the constitutive equation is regularised as proposed by Papanastasiou [J. Rheol. 31 (1987) 385-404]. It is shown that the convergence rate of the standard SIMPLE pressure-correction algorithm, which is used to solve the algebraic equation system that is produced by the finite volume discretisation, severely det...

  12. Malignant neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a series of 256 patients in Mexico City and Monterrey. Is air pollution the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Delgado, R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A; Meneses, A; Ruiz, L M; De La Garza, J; Acuna, H; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Raab-Traub, N; Devlin, R

    2000-04-01

    Air pollution is a serious health problem in major cities in Mexico. The concentrations of monitored criteria pollutants have been above the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards for the last decade. To determine whether the number of primary malignant nasal and paranasal neoplasms has increased, we surveyed 256 such cases admitted to a major adult oncology hospital located in metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) for the period from 1976-1997 and to a tertiary hospital in Monterrey, an industrial city, for the period from 1993-1998. The clinical histories and histopathologic material were reviewed, and a brief clinical summary was written for each case. In the MMC hospital the number of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms per year for the period from 1976-1986 averaged 5.1, whereas for the next 11 years it increased to 12.5. The maximal increase was observed in 1995-1997, with an average of 20.3 new cases per year (P = 0.0006). The predominant neoplasms in these series were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, adenocarcinoma, Schneiderian carcinoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In the Monterrey hospital a 2-fold increase in the numbers of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms was recorded between 1993 and 1998. The predominant MMC neoplasm in this series, namely nasal T-cell/natural killer cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is potentially Epstein-Barr virus related. Nasal and paranasal malignant neoplasms are generally rare. Environmental causative factors include exposure in industries such as nickel refining, leather, and wood furniture manufacturing. Although epidemiologic studies have not addressed the relationship between outdoor air pollution and sinonasal malignant neoplasms, there is strong evidence for the nasal and paranasal carcinogenic effect of occupational aerosol complex chemical mixtures. General practitioners and ear, nose, and throat physicians working in highly polluted cities should be aware of the clinical

  13. NASAL INVERTED PAPILLOMA OF UNUSUAL ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    kasim s. kasim; Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman; BALWANT SINGH GENDEH

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of Schneiderian papilloma of the nasal septum are presented. The condition is rare, as indicated by a review of previously published cases. The clinical course of the lesion suggests that it behaves like Schneiderian papillomas elsewhere in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The need for aggressive surgical management and careful follow-up is emphasized.

  14. Experimental investigation of nasal airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D; Taylor, D J; Franke, P; Schroter, R C

    2008-05-01

    The airway geometry of the nasal cavity is manifestly complex, and the manner in which it controls the airflow to accomplish its various physiological functions is not fully understood. Since the complex morphology and inaccessibility of the nasal passageways precludes detailed in-vivo measurements, either computational simulation or in-vitro experiments are needed to determine how anatomical form and function are related. The fabrication of a replica model of the nasal cavity, of a high optical clarity and derived from in-vivo scan data is described here, together with characteristics of the flow field investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization. Flow visualization is shown to be a capable and convenient technique for identifying key phenomena. Specifically the emergence of the jet from the internal nasal valve into the main cavity, how it impacts on the middle turbinate, and the large enhancement of dispersion that accompanies the initial appearance of flow instability are revealed as particularly significant features. The findings from the visualization experiments are complemented by PIV imaging, which provides quantitative detail on the variations in velocity in different regions of the nasal cavity. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the cavity geometry in partitioning the flow into high shear zones, which facilitate rapid heat transfer and humidification from the nasal mucosa, and slower zones affording greater residence times to facilitate olfactory sensing. The experimental results not only provide a basis for comparison with other computational modelling but also demonstrate an alternative and flexible means to investigate complex flows, relevant to studies in different parts of the respiratory or cardiovascular systems.

  15. Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yapici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.

  16. Feasibility of efficient room-temperature solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons using ultrasmall mode volume cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Stephen; Lauk, Nikolai; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Simon, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    Highly efficient sources of indistinguishable single photons that can operate at room temperature would be very beneficial for many applications in quantum technology. We show that the implementation of such sources is a realistic goal using solid-state emitters and ultrasmall mode volume cavities. We derive and analyze an expression for photon indistinguishability that accounts for relevant detrimental effects, such as plasmon-induced quenching and pure dephasing. We then provide the general cavity and emitter conditions required to achieve efficient indistinguishable photon emission and also discuss constraints due to phonon sideband emission. Using these conditions, we propose that a nanodiamond negatively charged silicon-vacancy center combined with a plasmonic-Fabry-Pérot hybrid cavity is an excellent candidate system.

  17. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...

  19. Nasal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shrink polyps, and can reduce swelling and nasal congestion. The effect lasts a few months in most ... this procedure, your doctor uses a thin, lighted tube with instruments at the end. The tube is ...

  20. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine nasal passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burk, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A normal German shepherd dog underwent CT imaging with contiguous 10 mm thick images made of the nasal cavity from the caudal limit of the frontal sinuses to the rostral aspect of the nose. Normal structures were identified. This normal anatomic information will be of use in assessing CT images of dogs suspected of having nasal cavity disease

  1. [Systematic screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the nasal cavities of patients hospitalized in the dermatology departments of the Saint-Louis Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, G; Dupuy, A; Rouveau, M; Claisse, J-P; Casin, I; Dubertret, L; Morel, P; Simon, F; Viguier, M

    2008-12-01

    In a bid to combat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) more efficiently in our department, we performed a study to 1) clarify the MRSA carriage rate in patients hospitalized in the department; 2) evaluate the rate of MRSA acquisition during hospitalization; 3) describe the MRSA carrier profile; 4) study the morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA. We conducted a three-month prospective study in all patients hospitalized for more than 24hours in the dermatology department of the Saint-Louis Hospital. Nasal swab cultures were performed on the day of admission, once a week thereafter and on the day of discharge. Clinical and epidemiological data were individually reviewed by means of a standardized questionnaire. In 310 patients, the prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage at admission was 6.5%. During hospitalization, 1.9% of our patients became colonized with MRSA. MRSA carriers were significantly older than non-carriers and had been hospitalized more frequently over the previous 12 months, principally in intensive care or in intermediate or long-term care facilities, and erosive and/or ulcerated dermatitis was more common in this population. Of the 27 patients colonized with MRSA, only three had MRSA infections, and these were successfully treated with antibiotics. The observed rate of MRSA carriage was close to that seen in intensive care units (7%). While systematic screening for MRSA in patients with erosive and/or ulcerated dermatitis would allow detection of twice as many cases of MRSA than the usual screening recommendations, this would be associated with little tangible benefit and high costs, and we therefore decided not to change the usual MRSA screening politic in our dermatology department.

  2. [Microcirculation of the nasal mucosa during use of balloon tamponade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, M; Siegert, R

    1997-03-01

    Nasal packings are commonly accepted in the treatment of severe epistaxis. Cuffed catheters are known to cause damage to the nasal mucosa most likely by interfering with tissue perfusion. In this study the effect of different pressure levels on local perfusion of septal mucosa is investigated. In 15 healthy subjects the blood flow in septal mucosa was measured by laser doppler flowmetry by positioning a cuffed epistaxis catheter into the nasal cavity with a laser probe attached to it. Increasing pressure was administered by injecting saline solution while continuously recording intraluminal pressure, perfusion, and filling volume. The local pressure affecting the septal mucosa at the moment of stalling perfusion was determined by subtracting the extranasal cuff pressure from the current intranasal cuff pressure at same inflation volumes. Microcirculation of the septal mucosa stopped when the local pressure exceeded a value of Pmean = 42 mmHg. Individual variations (n = 15) were small (s = 9 mmHg). The intraluminal cuff pressure was measured to be about ten times higher due to the retraction force of the cuff. Spontaneous oscillations of the blood flow were reduced with increasing pressure to the blood vessels. Filling volumes up to 3.2 ml were sufficient to stop perfusion. Cuffed nasal packings stop the blood flow in nasal mucosa even at low local pressures. Depending on the material characteristics of different cuffs the pressure to dilate the cuff may, however, be several times higher than the actual local pressure. This effect may cause problems in the proper use of cuffed catheters. Laser doppler flowmetry proved to be helpful in determining reproducible perfusion values.

  3. Daily Tracking of Glioblastoma Resection Cavity, Cerebral Edema, and Tumor Volume with MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shahil; Gajjar, Shefali R; Padgett, Kyle R; Asher, David; Stoyanova, Radka; Ford, John C; Mellon, Eric A

    2018-03-19

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays a critical role in the treatment of glioblastoma. Studies of brain imaging during RT for glioblastoma have demonstrated changes in the brain during RT. However, frequent or daily utilization of standalone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans during RT have limited feasibility. The recent release of the tri-cobalt-60 MRI-guided RT (MR-IGRT) device (ViewRay MRIdian, Cleveland, OH) allows for daily brain MRI for the RT setup. Daily MRI of three postoperative patients undergoing RT and temozolomide for glioblastoma over a six-week course allowed for the identification of changes to the cavity, edema, and visible tumor on a daily basis. The volumes and dimensions of the resection cavities, edema, and T2-hyperintense tumor were measured. A general trend of daily decreases in cavity measurements was observed in all patients. For the one patient with edema, a trend of daily increases followed by a trend of daily decreases were observed. These results suggest that daily MRI could be used for onboard resimulation and adaptive RT for future fluctuations in the sizes of brain tumors, cavities, or cystic components. This could improve tumor targeting and reduce RT of healthy brain tissue.

  4. Primary nasal tuberculosis following blunt trauma nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nasal tuberculosis is a rare disease with nearly 40 cases reported. Our patient was a young male presented with left sided nasal obstruction, anosmia and occasional epistaxis for last 7 weeks after 6 months of blunt trauma nose. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the para nasal sinuses showed increased soft-tissue density with contrast enhancement in the left maxillary antrum with extension through left osteomeatal foramen to the left nasal cavity along with further extension through choana to nasopharynx resulting in partial obliteration of the nasopharyngeal airway. Nasal endoscopy revealed a sessile polypoidal pinkish mass arising from the left osteomeatal foramen. Histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of that area showed caseating granuloma. Our patient diagnosed as primary nasal tuberculosis following trauma and treated with anti-tubercular chemotherapy.

  5. Failure patterns following cobalt irradiation in dogs with nasal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, D.E.; Heidner, G.L.; Novotney, C.A.; McEntee, M.C.; Page, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The pattern of tumor recurrence was assessed in 24 dogs receiving cobalt radiation therapy for nasal carcinoma. Dogs were evaluated using nasal cavity computed tomography prior to treatment, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment, and at 6-month intervals thereafter if still alive. Dogs were treated with various combinations of total dose, and fraction size. Total doses were normalized to equivalent doses given in 3.0 Gy fractions. The extent of tumor regression or duration of tumor control were not dependent on absolute total dose, normalized total dose, or tumor type. The median duration of local control in all dogs was 312 days. Marked tumor regression was observed in 11 of the 24 dogs. Median duration of local control was significantly longer in dogs with marked tumor regression in comparison to dogs without tumor regression; 389 vs. 161 days respectively. When tumor recurrence was documented in dogs having tumor regression, the location of the recurrence was in the nasal cavity. No tumor recurred in a sinus or periorbital region, and only one geographic miss was detected. Tumor recurrence in the irradiated volume, including dogs with and without marked regression, was documented in 13 of the 24 dogs. The high local failure rate, coupled with the recurrence pattern in these dogs, suggests there may be an opportunity for improvement in local control through use of shrinking field techniques

  6. Nasal encephaloceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Eelco W.

    2000-01-01

    Nasal encephaloceles can be divided into frontoethmoidal and basal encephaloceles. Both conditions are very rare, but frontoethmoidal encephaloceles show a relatively high incidence (1:5,000) in Southeast Asia. The pathogenesis of encephaloceles may be explained by a disturbance in separation of

  7. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-01-01

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  8. Analyses and treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, You; Xue, Fei; Wang, Tian-You; Ji, Jun-Feng; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhi-Yi; Xu, Li; Hang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Xin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we analyze and discuss the treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms (PNs). We performed 129 endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs and analyzed and treated cases with nasal complications. After endonasal transsphenoidal resection of PNs, there were 26 cases of postoperative nasal complications (20.1%), including nasal hemorrhage (4.8%), cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (6.9%), sphenoid sinusitis (2.3%), atrophic rhinitis (1.6%), olfactory disorder (1.6%), perforation of nasal septum (0.8%), and nasal adhesion (2.3%). All patients clinically recovered after therapy, which included treatment of the cavity through nasal endoscopy, intranasal corticosteroids, and nasal irrigation. We propose that regular nasal endoscopic review, specific nasal medications, and regular nasal irrigation can effectively clear nasal mucosal hyperemia-induced edema and nasal/nasoantral secretions, as well as promote regeneration of nasal mucosa, prevent nasal adhesion, maintain the sinus cavity drainage, and accelerate the recovery of the physiological function of the paranasal sinus. Timely treatment of patients with nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs could greatly relieve the clinical symptoms. Nasal cleaning is very beneficial to patients after surgery recovery. PMID:28403108

  9. Adenoma pleomórfico de septo nasal: relato de caso Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren P. Rocha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias nasais são bastante raras. Os tumores mais observados na cavidade nasal são papilomas epiteliais, angiomas, carcinoma de células transicionais, carcinoma pavimentoso e adenocarcinoma. O adenoma pleomórfico pertence ao grupo de tumores que aparecem com menor freqüência na fossa nasal, e é o tumor benigno glandular mais comum originado na cabeça e pescoço. A apresentação clínica típica dos pacientes com adenoma pleomórfico do septo nasal é de obstrução nasal unilateral, epistaxe e massa indolor na cavidade nasal. Em vista da raridade da apresentação clínica do adenoma pleomórfico nesta localização, os autores descrevem um caso de adenoma pleomórfico nasal em um paciente do sexo masculino, com 69 anos de idade, onde relatam os achados clínicos, critérios diagnósticos, tratamento, prognóstico e revisão da literatura.Nasal tumours are very rare. The neoplasms most frequently seen in the nasal cavity are epithelial papillomas, angiomas, transitional cells carcinoma, pavement carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The pleomorphic adenoma belongs to the group of tumours less commonly observed in the nasal cavity, and is the most common head and neck benign glandular tumour. The typical clinical presentation of the nasal pleomorphic adenoma is of unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis and a painless mass in the nasal cavity. The authors reported an adenoma pleomorphic case that highlights itself by its unusual nasal presentation in the nasal septum of a 45-year-old male patient who was submitted to surgical treatment, and discuss the clinical findings, diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and literature review.

  10. Nasal Wash Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Alternative Therapies Nasal Wash Treatment Nasal Wash Treatment Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for preparing water used in a nasal wash are listed below. Many ...

  11. Nasal obstruction and sleep-disordered breathing: the effect of supine body position on nasal measurements in snorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkula, Paula; Maasilta, Paula; Hytönen, Maija; Salmi, Tapani; Malmberg, Henrik

    2003-06-01

    Nasal obstruction is considered to be a potential etiological factor in sleep-disordered breathing. However, a significant correlation between nasal measurements and obstructive sleep apnea has not been demonstrated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between nasal resistance, nasal volumes and selected sleep parameters using nasal measurements performed in both seated and supine positions. We also investigated whether snoring patients in our clinical sample showed increased positional or decongestive nasal mucosal changes. Forty-one snoring men on a waiting list for correction of nasal obstruction underwent polysomnography, anterior rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry. Nineteen non-snoring control subjects were also recruited. Nasal measurements were performed in a seated position, after lying down in a supine position and, after decongestion of nasal mucosa, in a seated position again. In the overall patient group, nasal volume at a distance 2-4 cm from the nares in the supine position correlated inversely with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = -0.32, p patients, total nasal resistance measured in a supine position correlated with AHI (r = 0.50, p position and sleep parameters. Postural or decongestive changes in nasal measurements were not increased in snoring patients compared with control subjects. The relationship found between nasal measurements and sleep parameters suggests that nasal obstruction does augment airway collapse.

  12. Reductions in dead space ventilation with nasal high flow depend on physiological dead space volume: metabolic hood measurements during sleep in patients with COPD and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biselli, Paolo; Fricke, Kathrin; Grote, Ludger; Braun, Andrew T; Kirkness, Jason; Smith, Philip; Schwartz, Alan; Schneider, Hartmut

    2018-05-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) reduces minute ventilation and ventilatory loads during sleep but the mechanisms are not clear. We hypothesised NHF reduces ventilation in proportion to physiological but not anatomical dead space.11 subjects (five controls and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients) underwent polysomnography with transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) monitoring under a metabolic hood. During stable non-rapid eye movement stage 2 sleep, subjects received NHF (20 L·min -1 ) intermittently for periods of 5-10 min. We measured CO 2 production and calculated dead space ventilation.Controls and COPD patients responded similarly to NHF. NHF reduced minute ventilation (from 5.6±0.4 to 4.8±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation (from 2.5±0.4 to 1.6±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation correlated with baseline physiological dead space fraction (r 2 =0.36; pspace volume.During sleep, NHF decreases minute ventilation due to an overall reduction in dead space ventilation in proportion to the extent of baseline physiological dead space fraction. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  13. The effect of nasalization on /a/ vowel formants before and after nasal consonant in 4-9-year old normal Persian speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowsar Baghban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Nasalization of a vowel refers to the addition of nasal resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Also, vowel nasalization occurs because of coarticulation. Coupling of the nasal resonating space to the oropharyngeal cavity alters the vocal tract formants in complex ways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nasalization on /a/ vowel formants in before and after nasal consonant.Methods: In current cross-sectional study, voice samples of 60 normal children ranging the age of four-nine years were investigated. Participants were asked to repeat / ʔ ama/ three times and vowel /a/ after presentation of an auditory model. Then, obtained samples were analyzed using Praat 5.3.13 . Average of F0, F1, F2 and F3 were calculated for /a/ comes before and after /m/ in production of / ʔ ama/ over three trials.Results: There were statistically significant differences of F1, F2 and F3 between / a/ which proceeds nasal consonant and /a/ follows nasal consonant , the before nasal consonant /a/ versus single /a/ and the after nasal consonant /a/ versus single /a/ (p=0.001 for all.Conclusion : F1, F2 and F3 in /a/ before nasal consonant affected by anticipatory nasal coarticulation and in /a/ after nasal consonant affected by carry-over nasal coarticulation . This study showed nasal coarticulation and nasalization result in decreasing F1, F2 and F3 in /a/ vowel.

  14. Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  15. A Computational Study of Nasal Spray Deposition Pattern in Four Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Jarrod A; Patki, Aniruddha; Woodard, Charles R; Frank-Ito, Dennis O

    2016-04-01

    Very little is known about the role of nasal morphology due to ethnic variation on particle deposition pattern in the sinonasal cavity. This preliminary study utilizes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate sinonasal airway morphology and deposition patterns of intranasal sprayed particles in the nose and sinuses of individuals from four different ethnic groups: African American (Black); Asian; Caucasian; and Latin American. Sixteen subjects (four from each ethnic group) with "normal" sinus protocol computed tomography (CT) were selected for CFD analysis. Three-dimensional reconstruction of each subject's sinonasal cavity was created from their personal CT images. CFD simulations were carried out in ANSYS Fluent(™) in two phases: airflow phase was done by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations for steady state laminar inhalation; and particle dispersed phase was solved by tracking injected (sprayed) particles through the calculated airflow field. A total of 10,000 particle streams were released from each nostril, 1000 particles per diameter ranging from 5 μm to 50 μm, with size increments of 5 μm. As reported in the literature, Caucasians (5.31 ± 0.42 cm(-1)) and Latin Americans (5.16 ± 0.40cm(-1)) had the highest surface area to volume ratio, while African Americans had highest nasal index (95.91 ± 2.22). Nasal resistance (NR) was highest among Caucasians (0.046 ± 0.008 Pa.s/mL) and Asians (0.042 ± 0.016Pa.s/mL). Asians and African Americans had the most regions with particle deposition for small (5 μm-15 μm) and large (20 μm-50 μm) particle sizes, respectively. Asians and Latin Americans individuals had the most consistent regional particle deposition pattern in the main nasal cavities within their respective ethnic groups. Preliminary results from these ethnic groups investigated showed that Caucasians and Latin Americans had the least patent nasal cavity. Furthermore, Caucasians

  16. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  17. Assessment of human sinus cavity air volume using tunable diode laser spectroscopy, with application to sinusitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Tianqi; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Sinusitis is a very common disease and improved diagnostic tools are desirable also in view of reducing over-prescription of antibiotics. A non-intrusive optical technique called GASMAS (GAs in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy), which has a true potential of being developed into an important complement to other means of detection, was utilized in this work. Water vapor in the frontal sinuses, related to the free gas volume, was studied at around 937 nm in healthy volunteers. The results show a good stability of the GASMAS signals over extended times for the frontal sinuses for all volunteers, showing promising applicability to detect anomalies due to sinusitis. Measurements were also performed following the application of a decongestion spray. No noticeable signal change was observed, which is consistent with the fact that the water vapor concentration is given by the temperature only, and is not influenced by changes in cavity ventilation. Evaluated GASMAS data recorded on 6 consecutive days show signal stability for the left and right frontal sinus in one of the test volunteers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma with no nasal symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzomefuna, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) in an 8-year-old boy with a 4-month history of frontal headache and no symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea or postnasal drip. An ENT examination as well as ophthalmology assessment presented normal results. CT scan showed a lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The patient had an endoscopic resection of the lesion that was confirmed histologically to be a NCMH. Though NCMH is known to present usually in infants with obstructing nasal mass, an unusual presentation of a patient with throbbing headache without any nasal symptoms is reported here.

  19. A decrease in nasal CO2 stimulates breathing in the tegu lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, E L; Furilla, R A; Ballam, G O; Bartlett, D

    1991-10-01

    Tegu lizards decrease ventilatory frequency (f) when constant CO2, as low as 0.4%, is delivered to the nasal cavities. In contrast, CO2, as high as 6%, pulsed into the nasal cavities during the expiratory phase of the breathing cycle does not alter f. The purpose of the present study was to investigate further the effect of nasal CO2 pattern on f in tegu lizards. Specifically, we tested: (1) whether f was affected by CO2 delivered to the nasal cavities during the inspiratory phase of the breathing cycle, and (2) whether pulsed decreases in nasal CO2 from 4% to 2% and from 4% to 0% would remove the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2. Ventilation was measured using a pneumotachograph and pressure transducer in-line with an endotracheal T-tube inserted through the glottis. CO2 was delivered to the nasal cavities through small tubes inserted into the external nares. Ventilatory frequency was not significantly altered when 4% CO2 was pulsed into the nasal cavities during inspiration. Dropping the CO2 in the nasal cavities from 4% to 0% at either 15 cycles/min (0.25 Hz) or for one cycle stimulated breathing. There was no significant difference between the f response to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 0% and that to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 2%. The failure to link the phasic CO2 ventilatory response to a phase in the respiratory cycle indicates that the nasal CO2 receptors do not participate in the breath-by-breath regulation of breathing in these lizards. The observation that small decreases in nasal CO2 abolished the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2 provides further evidence for the ability of the nasal CO2 receptors to distinguish between pulsed and constant CO2.

  20. Nasal septal hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001292.htm Nasal septal hematoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood within the septum ...

  1. Nasal bacterial colonization in cases of idiopathic epistaxis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Payal; Saxena, Sonal; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the role of nasal bacterial colonization in cases of idiopathic epistaxis in children. A descriptive, hospital based, observational study in our hospital was conducted on total 112 pediatric patients in the age group 4-16 years. Group A (control): 56 patients with no epistaxis; Group B (epistaxis): 56 patients with idiopathic epistaxis. A swab for microbiological evaluation was taken from the anterior nasal cavity of each child. A highly significant association between nasal colonization with pathological Staphylococcus aureus and idiopathic epistaxis was found. The presence of pathological S. aureus colonization in the anterior nasal cavity was also associated with statistically significant number of crusting and presence of dilated blood vessels on the anterior nasal septum of children in epistaxis group. Nasal bacterial colonization with S. aureus leads to a sequence of pathological events i.e. low grade inflammation, crusting and new vessel formation. This leads to irritation in nasal cavity resulting in digital trauma and subsequently epistaxis and thus it plays an important role in causing idiopathic epistaxis in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of single-sided inferior turbinectomy on nasal function and airflow characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yang; Chung, Kang Soo; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Sung Kyun

    2012-03-15

    Knowledge of airflow characteristics in the nasal cavity is essential to understanding the physiologic and pathologic aspects of nasal breathing. Airflows inside post-surgery models were investigated both experimentally and numerically to simulate the inferior turbinectomy. The left cavities of all three models are normal and right cavity is modified by (1) excision of the head of the inferior turbinate, (2) resection of the lower fifth of the inferior turbinate, and (3) resection of almost the entire inferior turbinate. Thin-slice CT (computed tomography) data (0.6mm deep) and meticulous refinement of the model surface by over a decade-long collaboration between engineers and an experienced ENT doctor resulted in the creation of sophisticated nasal cavity models. After numerical experiments and validation by comparison with the PIV results, the CFD code using the Reynolds stress turbulent model and variable temperature boundary condition on the mucosal wall was chosen as the proper numerical framework. Both global quantities (pressure drop, flow rate ratio, total wall heat transfer) and local changes (velocity, temperature, humidity, pressure gradient, and wall shear stress) were numerically investigated. The turbinectomy obviously altered the main stream direction. The flow rate in the upper airway near the olfactory slit decreased in models (1) and (3). This may weaken the olfactory function of the nose. Fluid and thermal properties that are believed to be related with physiology and prognosis are dependent on turbinate resection volume, position, and manner. Widening of the inferior airway does not always result in decreased flow resistance or wall heat transfer. The gains and losses of inferior turbinectomy were considered by analysis of the post-surgery model results. Nasal resistance was increased in model (1) due to sudden airway expansion. Nasal resistance increased and the wall heat transfer decreased in model (3) due to sudden airway expansion and

  3. Nasal and oral masses in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Esther; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Psychogios, Vassilios; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2006-03-01

    A 5-year-old, intact male, stray dog was presented in poor body condition, with pallor, muzzle deformity, multiple oozing fistulas with grass awns, bilateral sanguinopurulent nasal discharge and a fleshy friable mass occupying part of the hard palate. A friable mass occupying both nasal cavities was found on rhinoscopy. The dog had moderate nonregenerative normochromic-microcytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Cytologic preparations of the nasal and oral masses contained a neoplastic population of round cells with intracytoplasmic and extracellular vacuoles. Leishmania amastigotes also were observed, in the cytoplasm of macrophages and, occasionally, within neoplastic cells. A diagnosis of transmissible venereal tumor and concurrent leishmaniosis was made. Treatment with vincristine and allopurinol resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs and disappearance of the masses. The presence of amastigotes in neoplastic TVT cells may suggest an alternative mode of transmission of canine leishmaniosis where these diseases co-exist.

  4. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wook Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemic infectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome. However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasal bone fracture.MethodsThis was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasal carriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken from both the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.ResultsPathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding 10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second most identified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher than that in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effect on the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.ConclusionsThe prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rate of CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according to specific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on the potential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.

  5. A Case of Nasal Glial Heterotopia in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Hagiwara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of nasal glial heterotopia in an adult. After the surgery, frontal lobe cerebral hemorrhage developed. A 58-year-old man had unilateral nasal obstruction that progressed for one year. He had been treated for hypertension, chronic heart failure, and cerebral infarction with aspirin and warfarin. A computed tomography scan showed that the tumor occupied the right nasal cavity and the sinuses with small defect in the cribriform plate. The tumor was removed totally with endoscopy. After the operation, the patient developed convulsions and frontal lobe cerebral hemorrhage. The hemorrhage site was located near a defect in the cribriform plate. Nasal glial heterotopia is a rare developmental abnormality, particularly rare in adult. Only few cases were reported. We could not find any report of adult nasal glial heterotopias that developed cerebral hemorrhage as a complication of the surgery.

  6. Humidification of inspired oxygen is increased with pre-nasal cannula, compared to intranasal cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellweg, Dominic; Wenze, Markus; Hoehn, Ekkehard; Bourgund, Olaf; Haidl, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Oxygen therapy is usually combined with a humidification device, to prevent mucosal dryness. Depending on the cannula design, oxygen can be administered pre- or intra-nasally (administration of oxygen in front of the nasal ostia vs cannula system inside the nasal vestibulum). The impact of cannula design on intra-nasal humidity, however, has not been investigated to date. First, to develop a system, that samples air from the nasal cavity and analyzes the humidity of these samples. Second, to investigate nasal humidity during pre-nasal and intra-nasal oxygen application, with and without humidification. We first developed and validated a sampling and analysis system to measure humidity from air samples. By means of this system we measured inspiratory air samples from 12 subjects who received nasal oxygen with an intra-nasal and pre-nasal cannula at different flows, with and without humidification. The sampling and analysis system showed good correlation to a standard hygrometer within the tested humidity range (r = 0.99, P humidification (P = .001, P humidification. With the addition of humidification we observed no significant change in humidity at any flow, and independent of pre- or intranasal oxygen administration. Pre-nasal administration of dry oxygen achieves levels of intranasal humidity similar to those achieved by intranasal administration in combination with a bubble through humidifier. Pre-nasal oxygen simplifies application and may reduce therapy cost.

  7. Cyanocobalamin Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to supply extra vitamin B12 to people who need unusually large amounts of this vitamin because they are pregnant or have certain diseases. ... Cyanocobalamin nasal gel will supply you with enough vitamin B12 only as ... it regularly. You may need to use cyanocobalamin nasal gel every week for ...

  8. Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P

    1994-08-01

    Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

  9. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, VJ; Arts, JHE; Kuper, CF; Slootweg, PJ; Woutersen, RA

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and

  10. Nasal valve evaluation in the Mexican-Hispanic (mestizo) nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Ramírez, Elizabeth; Sánchez Y Béjar, Fernando; Arcaute Aizpuru, Fernando; Maulen Radován, Irene E; de la Garza Hesles, Héctor

    2018-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the angle of the internal nasal valve in Mexican patients with the "mestizo nose" feature and without nasal obstructive symptoms. The work was prospective, comparative, and observational in nature and included patients >14 years of age who were seen in the Otolaryngology Department at the Los Angeles Lomas Hospital between April and May 2016. The angle of the internal nasal valve was measured in 30 patients without obstructive symptoms. Endoscopic examination was performed with a 0° endoscope framed with tape at a 13-mm distance from the endoscope's tip, and digital photographs of the internal nasal valve were taken. The measurement of the angle of the internal nasal valve was made in sexagesimal degrees using Golden Ratio v3.1 (2012) software. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel v15.13.3. The angles of the internal nasal valve of the patients were (mean ± standard deviation) 24.07 ± 4.8° for the right nasal cavity and 25.07 ± 5.0° for the left nasal cavity, wider than the angle reported in the normal Caucasian nose established in the literature. According to our results, the Mexican-Hispanic mestizo nose has a wider angle in the internal nasal valve than that considered normal in the literature (10°-15°). We believe it is necessary to undertake a second study and add an airflow resistance measurement with a rhinomanometry procedure so we can compare the results with those in the Caucasian population. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An, S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittleman, Talia; Downing, Kerri; Stepp, Cara, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method: Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and…

  12. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  13. Nasal mucosal blood flow after intranasal allergen challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, K.; Bake, B.; Pipkorn, U.

    1988-01-01

    The nasal mucosal blood flow in patients with allergic rhinitis was determined at nasal allergen challenges with the 133 Xenon washout method. Determinations were made in 12 subjects before and 15 minutes after challenge with diluent and increasing doses of allergen. The time course was followed in eight subjects by means of repeated measurements during 1 hour after a single allergen dose. Finally, the blood flow was measured after unilateral allergen challenge in the contralateral nasal cavity. A dose-dependent decrease in blood flow was found after nasal challenge with increasing doses of allergens, whereas challenge with diluent alone did not induce any changes. The highest allergen dose, which also induced pronounced nasal symptoms, resulted in a decrease in blood flow of 25% (p less than 0.001). The time-course study demonstrated a maximum decrease in blood flow 10 to 20 minutes after challenge and then a gradual return to baseline. Unilateral allergen challenge resulted in a decrease in blood flow in the contralateral, unchallenged nasal cavity, suggesting that part of the allergen-induced changes in blood flow were reflex mediated

  14. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  15. Nasal capillariasis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Greiner, E.C.; Ackerman, N.; Woodard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    A five-year-old dog was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge. Nasal infection caused by Capillaria aerophila was diagnosed by identification of adult nematodes and eggs in the nasal flush sediment and by nasal biopsy samples and eggs in faecal flotations. Reinfection occurred following treatment with fenbendazole and ivermectin, probably because of a contaminated housing area

  16. The importance of side difference in nasal obstruction and rhinomanometry: a retrospective correlation of symptoms and rhinomanometry in 1000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, H L; Cervin, A; Jessen, M

    2012-02-01

    The correlation between subjective and objective outcomes of nasal obstruction is still a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal level of side difference in nasal airway resistance (NAR measured by Broms'v(2)) between the two nasal cavities, which could be discerned subjectively by the patient on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Nasal airway resistance was calculated from rhinomanometric measurements of nasal airflow and transnasal pressure after decongestion of the nasal mucosa. A retrospective study. ENT department, Vaxjo Central Hospital, Sweden. We studied 1000 active anterior rhinomanometries from patients with nasal obstructions. We compared the side difference of nasal airway resistance with the side difference of VAS estimated immediately prior to the rhinomanometry. Each measurement was performed after nasal decongestion. When the difference in nasal airway resistance between the two nasal cavities was larger than 20° (Broms'v(2)) or R(2) > 0.36 Pa/cm(3) /s, we found a significant correlation between side differences of the objective measurement and the subjective assessment (VAS). With a nasal airway resistance side difference over 20°, an additional 20° difference corresponded to a 0.9 centimetre average VAS change. The more obstructed side of the nose could be determined by VAS in 823 (82.3%) of 1000 patients. Yet, 177 (17.7%) patients had a paradoxical sensation of nasal obstruction with the low resistance side of the nose experienced as the most congested side. A significant correlation between the side differences of nasal airway resistance and VAS can serve as a supplement to rhinoscopy in decisions about nasal surgery. This study also showed that in 17.7% of patients, there was a negative correlation between subjective and objective evaluations of nasal airway resistance. But in this group, the nasal airway resistance side difference was mostly under 20°. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  18. Measurement with nasal scintigraphy of nasal mucociliary clearance in normal man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Sumiko

    1989-01-01

    Nasal mucociliary function was evaluated by nasal scintigraphy in normal subjects. A microdrop of HSA or saline labelled with 99m Tc was dripped into the middle part of each middle meatus in the nasal cavity and its clearance was observed by scinticamera. The accumulated concentration of RI was determined every 30 seconds for 10 minutes. The changes of accumulated concentration were studied, and a curve of decreasing RI-counts was obtained, with the 'clearance rate' defined as 100% for the count at the initial 30 seconds and 'half time' as the time when radioactivity was reduced to one half the initial count. Nasal resistance was measured by rhinomanometry with the oscillation method. In nonsmokers, 10μl of saline was cleared (78.0±10.4%) significantly faster than 10μl of HSA (59.9±24.6%), and there was no significant difference in the clearance between 10μl and 5μl of HSA (55.9±27.7%). In smakers, the mucociliary clearance of 10μl of HSA and saline was significantly lower than in nonsmokers. The clearance of 10μl of HSA reflects a pathological state much better than that of 5μl. In nonsmokers, there is a significant negative correlation between nasal resistance and clearance rate, suggesting that the more patent the nose, the faster the mucociliary clearance. When both nostrils were closed, the clearance rate was significantly depressed. When one nostril was closed, there was no significant effect on clearance. Nasal resistance was decreased by exercise with a bicycle ergometer. Nasal mucociliary clearance was slightly decreased after exercise but not significantly so. (J.P.N.)

  19. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wook Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Pathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemicinfectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome.However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasalbone fracture.Methods This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasalcarriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken fromboth the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.Results Pathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci(CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci(MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second mostidentified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher thanthat in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effecton the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.Conclusions The prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture inKorea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rateof CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according tospecific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on thepotential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.

  20. TEM observations of crack tip: cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.A.; Ohr, S.M.; Jesser, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Crack tip-cavity interactions have been studied by performing room temperature deformation experiments in a transmission electron microscope on ion-irradiated type 316 stainless steel with small helium containing cavities. Slip dislocations emitted from a crack tip cut, sheared, and thereby elongated cavities without a volume enlargement. As the crack tip approached, a cavity volume enlargement occurred. Instead of the cavities continuing to enlarge until they touch, the walls between the cavities fractured. Fracture surface dimples do not correlate in size or density with these enlarged cavities

  1. Carcinome hybride de la fosse nasale | Ben Mhamed | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, accounting for less than 0.1% of all registered tumors in salivary glands. Up to now, only one case of hybrid carcinoma of the nasal cavity has been described. In this report, we describe a case of hybrid carcinoma composed of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with an adenoid cystic ...

  2. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  3. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  4. [Nasal type natural killer/T cell lymphoma: case series and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzlü, Mehmet; Ant, Ayça; Tutar, Hakan; Karamert, Recep; Şahin, Melih; Sayar, Erolcan; Cesur, Nesibe

    2016-01-01

    Nasal type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma is a rare type of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma which originates from nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Exact diagnosis of nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, which is a rapidly progressive clinical condition, may be established by immunohistochemical analysis on biopsy material after clinical suspicion. In this article, we report four cases of nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma who were followed-up in our clinic and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in light of the literature data.

  5. Endoscopic diagnosis and management of an unusual nasal foreign body in a mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turke M. Shawaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of intra-nasal foreign bodies is uncommon in horses. This report describes -for the first time- a case of a 4-year-old Arabian-cross mare with unilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, epistaxis and exercise intolerance due to intra-nasal foreign body. Clinical signs, radiography and endoscopic examination confirmed the presence of a tooth fragment (foreign body embedded in the ventral valve of the left nasal cavity. The foreign body was successfully removed using alligator forceps under endoscopic guidance.

  6. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  7. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous.......01; n = 94) and the arousal index (Spearman correlation, r = 0.21; p CPAP treatment, the AHI was significantly reduced from 27 ± 3 events · h(-1) to 4 ± 2 events · h(-1) (each n = 29; p

  8. Nasal congestion in relation to low air exchange rate in schools. Evaluation by acoustic rhinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, R; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G; Smedje, G; Erwall, C

    1997-09-01

    Upper airway symptoms are common, but there is little information available on clinical findings in relation to indoor air pollution. This pilot study was conducted to test whether increased levels of indoor air pollutants in schools may correlate to a swelling of the nasal mucosa. The assumption was made that the degree of swelling could be related to the degree of decongestive effect of xylometazoline, and measured by acoustic rhinometry. The study was performed among 15 subjects in a school with low air exchange rate (0.6 air changes/h) and 12 subjects in a school with high air exchange rate (5.2 air changes/h). Hygienic measurements were performed in both schools. Acoustic rhinometry was performed for each individual under standardized forms. Cross-sectional areas and volumes of the nasal cavity were measured before and after decongestion with xylometazoline hydrochloride. Absolute values of the minimal cross-sectional area were lower in the school with poor ventilation. The decongestive effect of xylometazoline was significantly higher in the school with low air exchange, when correction for the influence of age was made. A diminished decongestive effect was seen with increasing age. The exposure measurements showed that indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds, bacteria and moulds were higher in the school with low ventilation. In conclusion, raised levels of indoor air pollutants due to inadequate ventilation in schools may affect the upper airways and cause a swelling of the nasal mucosa, and acoustic rhinometry could be a useful objective method to measure human nasal reactions to the indoor environment.

  9. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001055.htm Dental cavities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the ...

  10. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasal septum: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj P Belaldavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male patient came to ENT OPD with complaints of left nasal obstruction from the last 5 years and moderate quantity of epistaxis from the last 4 months. It was associated with foul smelling mucopurulent rhinorrhea. On clinical examination, a fleshy mass was seen occupying the posterior part of left nasal cavity and displacing the septum on the right side. The mass was relatively painful, soft, and bleeding on touch. The provisional diagnosis of "vascular-tumor-like" angiofibroma was suspected. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy and CT scan PNS were done which revealed a mass occupying the left nasal cavity arising from the posterior part of septum along the choanae till the anterior part of sphenoid sinus. Biopsy of the same revealed an adenoid cystic carcinoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is uncommon and that too of the nasal cavity. The cases of the adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the nasal cavity usually involves the lateral wall and the involvement of the posterior part of nasal septum is extremely rare. Thus the presentation of this uncommon disease is discussed here.

  11. Change in the nose areas in children with mouth breathing after nasal cleansing and massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira Camargo; Cunha, Daniele Andrade da; Lima, Sandro Júnior Henrique; Lima, Wigna Rayssa Pereira; Cunha, Renata Andrade da; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the changes occurred in the nasal cavity geometry, before and after nasal cleansing, through nasal aeration and acoustic rhinometry in children with oral breathing. Twenty children aged four to 12 years were included in the study. The gathering of participants was conducted at the Multifunctional Laboratory of the Speech Pathology Department of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. The following procedures were conducted: Identification Index of Signs and Symptoms of Oral Breathing; marking of nasal expiratory airflow using the graded mirror of Altmann, and examination of the Nasal Geometry by Acoustic Rhinometry. The same procedures were performed after nasal massage and cleansing with saline solution. Significant change was observed in the areas with respect to the nasal airflow on both sides after nasal cleansing and massage. As for nasal geometry, measured by acoustic rhinometry, comparison between the nostrils showed that the effect of cleansing and massage was discrete. Nasal aeration measures showed sensitivity to the cleansing and massage technique and measures of nasal geometry confirmed its effect on respiratory physiology.

  12. Novel nano-cellulose excipient for generating non-Newtonian droplets for targeted nasal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela; Ong, Hui Xin; Granieri, Angelo; Zhu, Bing; Scalia, Santo; Song, Jie; Spicer, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Thickening polymers have been used as excipients in nasal formulations to avoid nasal run-off (nasal drip) post-administration. However, increasing the viscosity of the formulation can have a negative impact on the quality of the aerosols generated. Therefore, the study aims to investigate the use of a novel smart nano-cellulose excipient to generate suitable droplets for nasal drug delivery that simultaneously has only marginally increased viscosity while still reducing nasal drips. Nasal sprays containing nano-cellulose at different concentrations were investigated for the additive's potential as an excipient. The formulations were characterized for their rheological and aerosol properties. This was then compared to conventional nasal spray formulation containing the single-component hydroxyl-propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) viscosity enhancing excipient. The HPMC-containing nasal formulations behave in a Newtonian manner while the nano-cellulose formulations have a yield stress and shear-thinning properties. At higher excipient concentrations and shear rates, the nano-cellulose solutions have significantly lower viscosities compared to the HPMC solution, resulting in improved droplet formation when actuated through conventional nasal spray. Nano-cellulose materials could potentially be used as a suitable excipient for nasal drug delivery, producing consistent aerosol droplet size, and enhanced residence time within the nasal cavity with reduced run-offs compared to conventional polymer thickeners.

  13. New CFD tools to evaluate nasal airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Del Pino, C; Sevilla-García, M A; Esteban-Ortega, F

    2017-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND ® only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow. In addition, the user-friendly environment NOSELAND ® helps the medical assessment significantly in the post-processing phase with dynamic reports using a 3D endoscopic view. Specialists in Rhinology have been asked for a more intuitive, simple, powerful CFD software to offer more quality and precision in their work to evaluate the nasal airflow. We present MECOMLAND ® and NOSELAND ® which have all the expected characteristics to fulfil this demand and offer a proper assessment with the maximum of quality plus safety for the patient. These programs represent a non-invasive, low-cost (as the CT scan is already performed in every patient) alternative for the functional study of the difficult rhinologic case. To validate the software, we studied two groups of patients from the Ear Nose Throat clinic, a first group with normal noses and a second group presenting septal deviations. Wall shear stresses are lower in the cases of normal noses in comparison with those for septal deviation. Besides, velocity field distributions, pressure drop between nasopharynx and the ambient, and flow rates in each nostril were different among the nasal cavities in the two groups. These software modules open up a promising future to simulate the nasal airflow behaviour in virtual surgery intervention scenarios under different pressure or

  14. Biological safety of nasal thallium-201 administration. A preclinical study for olfacto-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washiyama, Kohshin; Shiga, Hideaki; Hirota, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Nasal administration of thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) has previously been shown to be useful for the assessment of olfactory nerve connectivity in vivo. We assessed the biological effects of nasal 201 Tl administration in mice to determine its safety before conducting clinical trials on humans. 201 Tl uptake was evaluated in normal mice (n=5) in vivo by using a high-resolution gamma camera and radiography 15 min, 1, 2 and 9 d after administration of 201 TlCl to the right side of the nasal cavity (10 μl 201 TlCl per nostril, 74 MBq/ml). Murine olfactory epithelial thickness (n=5) was measured 9 d following nasal administration of 201 TlCl. We assessed the odor detection ability of normal mice (n=8) following nasal administration of 201 TlCl to both sides of the nasal cavity, by observing cycloheximide solution avoidance behavior. We subsequently administrated 201 TlCl (n=4) or saline (n=4) to both nostrils to assess the odor detection ability of mice following bilateral olfactory nerve transection. 201 Tl uptake by the nasal cavity decreased immediately following nasal administration of 201 Tl in normal mice. Nasal administration of 201 Tl did not affect the olfactory epithelial thickness or the odor detection ability of normal mice. Recovery of odor detection ability following olfactory nerve transection was not significantly different between mice nasally administered with 201 Tl, and mice administered with saline. Thus, nasal administration of 201 Tl for the diagnosis of traumatic olfactory impairment did not produce harmful biological effects in vivo. (author)

  15. The effect of the nasopharyngeal air cavity on x-ray interface doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, W.K. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Hong Kong Baptist Hospital, 222 Waterloo Road, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wu, P.M.; Leung, H.T.; Lo, T.C.; Chung, C.W.; Kwong, D.L.W.; Sham, S.T. [Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy (Hong Kong)

    1998-03-01

    We investigated the impact of air cavities in head and neck cancer patients treated by photon beams based on clinical set-ups. The phantom for investigation was constructed with a cubic air cavity of 4x4x4cm{sup 3} located at the centre of a 30x30x16cm{sup 3} solid water slab. The cavity cube was used to resemble an extreme case for the nasal cavity. Apart from measuring the dose profiles and central axis percentage depth dose distribution, the dose values in 0.25x0.25x0.25cm{sup 3} voxels at regions around the air cavity were obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. A mean dose value was taken over the voxels of interest at each depth for evaluation. Single-field results were added to study parallel opposed field effects. For 10x10cm{sup 2} parallel opposed fields at 4, 6 and 8 MV, the mean dose at regions near the lateral interfaces of the cavity cube were decreased by 1 to 2% due to the lack of lateral scatter, while the mean dose near the proximal and distal interfaces was increased by 2 to 4% due to the greater transmission through air. Secondary build-up effects at points immediately beyond the air cavity cube are negligible using field sizes greater than 4x4cm{sup 2}. For most head and neck treatment, the field sizes are usually 6x6cm{sup 2} or greater, and most cavity volumes are smaller than our chosen dimensions. Therefore, the influence of closed air cavities on photon interface doses is not significant in clinical treatment set-ups. (author)

  16. The effect of the nasopharyngeal air cavity on x-ray interface doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, W.K.; Wu, P.M.; Leung, H.T.; Lo, T.C.; Chung, C.W.; Kwong, D.L.W.; Sham, S.T.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the impact of air cavities in head and neck cancer patients treated by photon beams based on clinical set-ups. The phantom for investigation was constructed with a cubic air cavity of 4x4x4cm 3 located at the centre of a 30x30x16cm 3 solid water slab. The cavity cube was used to resemble an extreme case for the nasal cavity. Apart from measuring the dose profiles and central axis percentage depth dose distribution, the dose values in 0.25x0.25x0.25cm 3 voxels at regions around the air cavity were obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. A mean dose value was taken over the voxels of interest at each depth for evaluation. Single-field results were added to study parallel opposed field effects. For 10x10cm 2 parallel opposed fields at 4, 6 and 8 MV, the mean dose at regions near the lateral interfaces of the cavity cube were decreased by 1 to 2% due to the lack of lateral scatter, while the mean dose near the proximal and distal interfaces was increased by 2 to 4% due to the greater transmission through air. Secondary build-up effects at points immediately beyond the air cavity cube are negligible using field sizes greater than 4x4cm 2 . For most head and neck treatment, the field sizes are usually 6x6cm 2 or greater, and most cavity volumes are smaller than our chosen dimensions. Therefore, the influence of closed air cavities on photon interface doses is not significant in clinical treatment set-ups. (author)

  17. [Nasal septal abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barril, María F; Ferolla, Fausto M; José, Pablo; Echave, Cecilia; Tomezzoli, Silvana; Fiorini, Sandra; López, Eduardo Luis

    2008-12-01

    A nasal septal abscess (NA) is defined as a collection of pus between the cartilage or bony septum and its normally applied mucoperichondrium or mucoperiostium. It is an uncommon disease which should be suspected in a patient with acute onset of nasal obstruction and recent history of nasal trauma, periodontal infection or an inflammatory process of the rhinosinusal region. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with bilateral NA caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MR-CO) in order to emphasize the importance of prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment to prevent the potentially dangerous spread of infection and the development of severe functional and cosmetic sequelae.

  18. Internal nasal floor configuration in Homo with special reference to the evolution of Neandertal facial form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscus, Robert G

    2003-06-01

    The presence of a steeply sloping or depressed nasal floor within the nasal cavity of Neandertals is frequently mentioned as a likely specialization or autapomorphy. The depressed nasal floor has also been seen as contributing to a relatively more capacious nasal cavity in Neandertals, which is tied to cold-climate respiratory adaptation and energetics. These observations have been limited largely to a relatively few intact crania, and the character states associated with this trait have not been as precisely codified or analyzed as those published for Plio-Pleistocene hominins (McCollum et al., 1993, J. Hum. Evol. 24, 87; McCollum, 2000, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 112, 275). This study examines the internal nasal floor topography in complete crania and isolated maxillae in European, west Asian, and African fossil Homo (n=158) including 25 Neandertals, and a wide range of recent humans from Europe, the Near East, and Africa (n=522). The configuration of the internal nasal floor relative to the nasal cavity entrance is codified as: 1) level, forming a smooth continuous plane; 2) sloped or mildly stepped; or 3) bilevel with a pronounced vertical depression. The frequency of these nasal floor configurations, and their relationship to both nasal margin cresting patterning and a comprehensive set of nasofacial metrics is examined. Neandertals show a high frequency of the bilevel (depressed) configuration in both adults and subadults (80%), but this configuration is also present in lower frequencies in Middle Pleistocene African, Late Pleistocene non-Neandertal (Skhul, Qafzeh), and European Later Upper Paleolithic samples (15%-50%). The bilevel configuration is also present in lower frequencies (ca. 10%) in all recent human samples, but attains nearly 20% in some sub-Saharan African samples. Across extinct and extant Homo (excluding Neandertals), internal nasal floor configuration is not associated with piriform aperture nasal margin patterning, but the two are strongly

  19. Topical nasal steroid treatment does not improve CPAP compliance in unselected patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Werner; Schlageter, Manuel; Andersson, Morgan; Miedinger, David; Chhajed, Prashant N; Tamm, Michael; Leuppi, Jörg D

    2011-02-01

    Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can produce troublesome nasal symptoms (i.e. congestion, rhinorrhea) that may reduce the compliance of CPAP. Topical nasal steroids are often prescribed to reduce these side effects, although scientific data are scarce supporting any benefits of this treatment for CPAP-induced nasal side effects. To study whether a topical nasal steroid can reduce CPAP-induced nasal symptoms and improve CPAP adherence during the initial phase of OSA treatment. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with fluticasone propionate 100 μg/nasal cavity twice daily Treatment was started 10 days prior to and continued throughout the first 4 weeks of CPAP. 63 patients who were selected for CPAP treatment participated. Nasal symptoms were recorded, nasal patency was assessed and lung function was measured with a peak flow meter. The patients' adherence to CPAP was recorded by the CPAP device. Total nasal symptoms increased from baseline to 4 wks after CPAP use for both nasal treatments (p < 0.05). No differences in total nasal symptoms between treatments were seen (p = 1), and no differences in nasal peak flow values after treatment were seen (p = 0.11). Moreover, there were no differences in CPAP use between the treatments. Fluticasone propionate as a nasal topical steroid does not reduce CPAP-induced unwanted nasal side effects, and has no beneficial effect on CPAP compliance during the first four weeks of treatment in unselected patients with OSAS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  1. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  2. Deformation of nasal septal cartilage during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dayeh, Ayman A; Rafferty, Katherine L; Egbert, Mark; Herring, Susan W

    2009-10-01

    The cartilaginous nasal septum plays a major role in structural integrity and growth of the face, but its internal location has made physiologic study difficult. By surgically implanting transducers in 10 miniature pigs (Sus scrofa), we recorded in vivo strains generated in the nasal septum during mastication and masseter stimulation. The goals were (1) to determine whether the cartilage should be considered as a vertical strut supporting the nasal cavity and preventing its collapse, or as a damper of stresses generated during mastication and (2) to shed light on the overall pattern of snout deformation during mastication. Strains were recorded simultaneously at the septo-ethmoid junction and nasofrontal suture during mastication. A third location in the anterior part of the cartilage was added during masseter stimulation and manipulation. Contraction of jaw closing muscles during mastication was accompanied by anteroposterior compressive strains (around -1,000 muepsilon) in the septo-ethmoid junction. Both the orientation and the magnitude of the strain suggest that the septum does not act as a vertical strut but may act in absorbing loads generated during mastication. The results from masseter stimulation and manipulation further suggest that the masticatory strain pattern arises from a combination of dorsal bending and/or shearing and anteroposterior compression of the snout. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Nasal Foreign Bodies: A Sweet Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopard, D C; Williams, R G

    2015-10-01

    It is generally accepted that paediatric intranasal foreign bodies should be removed in the emergency setting. In the case of a difficult to access dissolvable foreign body in an uncooperative child, the question must be raised regarding whether or not a watch and wait strategy is more appropriate. We ask: How long does it take for popular sweets (candy) to dissolve in the human nose? Five popular UK sweets were placed in the right nasal cavity of a 29-year-old male (the author) with no sino-nasal disease. Time taken to dissolve was recorded. All five sweets were completely dissolved in under one hour. A watch and wait strategy in favour of examination under anaesthetic may be a viable option in some cases. Limitations of the study include the age of the participant and size of the sweets. It is also important in practice that the clinician is able to elicit an accurate history regarding the exact nature of the foreign body. It remains prudent to perform an examination under anaesthetic of an uncooperative child with a solid or unknown nasal foreign body. However, if the clinician can be certain the foreign body is a small sugar or chocolate based sweet only, a watch and wait strategy may be a reasonable choice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Thermal conditions within tree cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests: potential implications for cavity users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Kerri T.; Lorenz, Teresa J.; Cunningham, Patrick; Potterf, Kelsi

    2017-11-01

    Tree cavities provide critical roosting and breeding sites for multiple species, and thermal environments in these cavities are important to understand. Our objectives were to (1) describe thermal characteristics in cavities between June 3 and August 9, 2014, and (2) investigate the environmental factors that influence cavity temperatures. We placed iButtons in 84 different cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in central Washington, and took hourly measurements for at least 8 days in each cavity. Temperatures above 40 °C are generally lethal to developing avian embryos, and 18% of the cavities had internal temperatures of ≥ 40 °C for at least 1 h of each day. We modeled daily maximum cavity temperature, the amplitude of daily cavity temperatures, and the difference between the mean internal cavity and mean ambient temperatures as a function of several environmental variables. These variables included canopy cover, tree diameter at cavity height, cavity volume, entrance area, the hardness of the cavity body, the hardness of the cavity sill (which is the wood below the cavity entrance which forms the barrier between the cavity and the external environment), and sill width. Ambient temperature had the largest effect size for maximum cavity temperature and amplitude. Larger trees with harder sills may provide more thermally stable cavity environments, and decayed sills were positively associated with maximum cavity temperatures. Summer temperatures are projected to increase in this region, and additional research is needed to determine how the thermal environments of cavities will influence species occupancy, breeding, and survival.

  5. A case of nasal septal abscess caused by medication related osteonecrosis in breast cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Mayuka; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Kurioka, Takaomi; Kurita, Akihiro; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Antiresorptive drugs have been widely used to treat patients with hypercalcemia caused by malignancy, bone metastasis, multiple myeloma, and osteoporosis. However, it is well known that antiresorptive drugs can cause osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Herein, we report a rare case of nasal septal abscess caused by medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in a breast cancer patient. A 69-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for evaluation of nasal obstruction. Physical examination revealed a cherry-like swelling of the nasal mucosa emanating from the septum that obstructed both nasal cavities and a fistulous tract showing pus discharge after extraction of the bilateral maxillary central incisors (MCI) and the right maxillary lateral incisor (MLI). Computed tomography and panoramic radiography revealed extensive osteonecrosis of the maxilla and swelling of the nasal mucosa. The clinical diagnosis was nasal septal abscess caused by osteonecrosis of the maxilla. Surgical procedure was undertaken for this case. An indwelling drain was placed in the oral cavity, and sequestrectomy was performed with incision and drainage of the anterior portion of left nasal septum. The patient was doing well at the 7-month follow-up. The patient had a medical history of breast cancer with bone, lung, liver metastases, and had received intravenous bisphosphonate, which is one of the antiresorptive medicines, over the past 4 years. We suspect that this history played an important role in MRONJ induced nasal septal abscess. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage could be a risk for development of clinical infections in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selva Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although nasal carriage has been described as a risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infections in humans, there is a scarcity of studies about S. aureus nasal carriers in animals. In rabbits, S. aureus is one of the most important pathogens responsible for a number of different types of infections. This study was designed to determine the extent of staphylococcal nasal carriage and to establish whether a relationship exists between nasal carriage and development of lesions. One hundred and sixteen rabbits with and without chronic signs of staphylococcosis from 6 industrial rabbitries were monitored. Nasal swabs for microbiological assessments were obtained from all animals. Microbiological results showed that 56% of the animals carried S. aureus in their nasal cavities with significantly higher incidence in animals with staphylococcal-related lesions (84.2% compared to apparently healthy animals (28.8%. Additionally, the S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal cavity and lesions were clonally related in 91.7% of animals. This suggests that nasal carriage of S. aureus in rabbits could be a risk for development of clinical infections.

  7. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  8. Surgical management of nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Jason A; Palmer, Orville

    2012-05-01

    The proper evaluation of the patient with nasal obstruction relies on a comprehensive history and physical examination. Once the site of obstruction is accurately identified, the patient may benefit from a trial of medical management. At times however, the definitive treatment of nasal obstruction relies on surgical management. Recognizing the nasal septum, nasal valve, and turbinates as possible sites of obstruction and addressing them accordingly can dramatically improve a patient's nasal breathing. Conservative resection of septal cartilage, submucous reduction of the inferior turbinate, and structural grafting of the nasal valve when appropriate will provide the optimal improvement in nasal airflow and allow for the most stable results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Simultaneous frequency stabilization and high-power dense wavelength division multiplexing (HP-DWDM) using an external cavity based on volume Bragg gratings (VBGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengesbach, Stefan; Klein, Sarah; Holly, Carlo; Witte, Ulrich; Traub, Martin; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Multiplexing technologies enable the development of high-brightness diode lasers for direct industrial applications. We present a High-Power Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer (HP-DWDM) with an average channel spacing of 1.7 (1.5) nm and a subsequent external cavity mirror to provide feedback for frequency stabilization and multiplexing in one step. The "self-optimizing" multiplexing unit consists of four reflective Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) with 99% diffraction efficiency and seven dielectric mirrors to overlay the radiation of five input channels with an adjustable channel spacing of 1-2 nm. In detail, we focus on the analysis of the overall optical efficiency, the change of the beam parameter product and the spectral width. The performance is demonstrated using five 90 μm multimode 9xx single emitters with M2angular intensity distribution changes strongly and the beam parameter product decreases by a factor of 1.2 to 1.9. Thereby the angular intensity distribution is more affected than the width of the beam waist. The spectral width per emitter decreases to 3-200 pm (FWHM) depending on the injection current and the reflectance of the feedback mirror (0.75%, 1.5%, 4%, 6% or 8%). The overall optical multiplexing efficiency ranges between 77% and 86%. With some modifications (e.g. enhanced AR-coatings) we expect 90-95%.

  10. Nasal packing with ventilated nasal packs; a comparison with traditional vaseline nasal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, J.; Siddiqui, M.W.; Abbas, A.; Sami, M.; Ayub, Z.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the benefits of ventilated nasal packing with traditional vaseline guaze nasal packing. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Multan, from Jun 2014 to Dec 2014. Material and Methods: In this study, sample size of 80 patients was calculated using WHO calculator. Patients were divided in two groups using lottery method endotracheal tube and piece of surgical glove filled with ribbon guaze was utilized for fabricated ventilated nasal pack and compared with traditional nasal packs. Nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance were studied at eight hours and twenty-four hours following surgery using visual analog scale. Results: Mean nasal obstruction with ventilated nasal pack was 45.62 +- 6.17 and with Vaseline nasal pack was 77.67 +- 4.85 which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Mean sleep disturbance in both the groups was 46.32 +- 5.23 and 68.75 +- 2.70 respectively which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Conclusion: Patients with ventilated nasal packs were found to have better tolerance to nasal packs due to less nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance

  11. [Clinical study of treatment of epistaxis of little's area by microwave, anterior nasal packing and trichloroacetic acid cautery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, T; Liu, Y; Liu, F

    1999-11-01

    To study the difference and quality of three different kind of treatment methods for epistaxis of Little's area, such as: microwave, anterior packing of nasal cavity and trichloroacetic acid cautery. The cases were divided into three group. The state of bleeding, reaction of after-treatment and recurrence were recorded and analysed. Comparing with the anterior nasal packing and trichloroacetic acid cautery, the microwave is characteristic by thorough stop-bleeding, light reaction, less recurrence. Microwave is an ideal way to treat epistaxis of Little's area. The patient's reaction is mild and less the clinical effects is obviously better than the anterior packing of nasal cavity and trichloroacetic acid cautery.

  12. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  13. The effect of mouth leak and humidification during nasal non-invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggey, Justin M; Delmastro, Monica; Elliott, Mark W

    2007-09-01

    Poor mask fit and mouth leak are associated with nasal symptoms and poor sleep quality in patients receiving domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) through a nasal mask. Normal subjects receiving continuous positive airways pressure demonstrate increased nasal resistance following periods of mouth leak. This study explores the effect of mouth leak during pressure-targeted nasal NIV, and whether this results in increased nasal resistance and consequently a reduction in effective ventilatory support. A randomised crossover study of 16 normal subjects was performed on separate days. Comparison was made of the effect of 5 min of mouth leak during daytime nasal NIV with and without heated humidification. Expired tidal volume (V(T)), nasal resistance (R(N)), and patient comfort were measured. Mean change (Delta) in V(T) and R(N) were significantly less following mouth leak with heated humidification compared to the without (DeltaV(T) -36+/-65 ml vs. -88+/-50 ml, phumidification (5.3+/-0.4 vs. 6.2+/-0.4, phumidification. In normal subjects, heated humidification during nasal NIV attenuates the adverse effects of mouth leak on effective tidal volume, nasal resistance and improves overall comfort. Heated humidification should be considered as part of an approach to patients who are troubled with nasal symptoms, once leak has been minimised.

  14. Carboxylesterase-dependent cytotoxicity of dibasic esters (DBE) in rat nasal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, B A; Bogdanffy, M S

    1991-02-01

    Dibasic esters (DBE) are a solvent mixture of dimethyl adipate (DMA), dimethyl glutarate (DMG), and dimethyl succinate (DMS) used in the paint and coating industry. Subchronic inhalation toxicity studies have demonstrated that DBE induce a mild degeneration of the olfactory, but not the respiratory, epithelium of the rat nasal cavity. Carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis of the individual dibasic esters is more efficient in olfactory than in respiratory mucosal homogenates. In the present study, an in vitro system of cultured rat nasal explants was utilized to determine if DBE toxicity is dependent on a metabolic activation by nonspecific carboxylesterase. Explants from both the olfactory and the respiratory regions of the female rat nasal cavity were incubated for 2 hr in Williams' medium E containing 10-100 mM DMA, DMG, or DMS. DBE caused a dose-related increase in nasal explant acid phosphatase release, a biochemical index of cytotoxicity. HPLC analysis demonstrated parallel increases in the carboxylesterase-mediated formation of monomethyl ester metabolites. Diacid metabolite production in the nasal explant system was not entirely concentration-dependent. Metabolite concentrations and acid phosphatase release were generally greater in olfactory than respiratory tissues. DBE-induced cytotoxicity and acid metabolite production were markedly attenuated in nasal tissue excised from rats which were pretreated with bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate, a carboxylesterase inhibitor. This study presents a viable in vitro method for assessing organic ester cytotoxicity in the rat nasal cavity. It was shown that DBE are weak nasal toxicants under the conditions of this system. It was further demonstrated that DBE toxicity is dependent on a carboxylesterase-mediated activation. A similar mechanism was proposed for the nasal toxicity induced by other organic esters following inhalation exposure.

  15. radiofrequency cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  16. First case report of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in "Ouled Djellal" ewe in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Sid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report clinical and pathological features of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA in one sheep in Algeria. A one-year-old Ouled Djellal sheep from a large herd (~1240 animals, located in Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria, was clinically diagnosed by the presence of persistent seromucous nasal discharge, head shaking, muzzle licking, dyspnoea, exophthalmia and frontal protrusion. The sheep was euthanized, and the necropsy was performed. Gross examination showed soft touch, pinkish-white tumour masses in the nasal cavities with distortion of the turbinates and of the medium septum. According to clinical and pathological findings, the tumour has been defined as a low grade mixed nasal adenocarcinoma, with the presence of tubular and papillary structures. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of ENA in Algeria known to be associated with enzootic nasal tumour virus (ENTV infection. However, such association requires confirmation by direct and/or indirect viral investigation.

  17. Oral cavity eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alborghetti Nai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a pathological process in which eumycotic (fungal or actinomycotic causative agents from exogenous source produce grains. It is a localized chronic and deforming infectious disease of subcutaneous tissue, skin and bones. We report the first case of eumycetoma of the oral cavity in world literature. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old male patient, complaining of swelling and fistula in the hard palate. On examination, swelling of the anterior and middle hard palate, with fistula draining a dark liquid was observed. The panoramic radiograph showed extensive radiolucent area involving the region of teeth 21-26 and the computerized tomography showed communication with the nasal cavity, suggesting the diagnosis of periapical cyst. Surgery was performed to remove the lesion. Histopathological examination revealed purulent material with characteristic grain. Gram staining for bacteria was negative and Grocott-Gomori staining for the detection of fungi was positive, concluding the diagnosis of eumycetoma. The patient was treated with ketoconazole for nine months, and was considered cured at the end of treatment. CONCLUSION: Histopathological examination, using histochemical staining, and direct microscopic grains examination can provide the distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma accurately.

  18. Treating mediastinoesophageal fistula with covered stent through nasal esophagus drainage tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Wu Gang; Li Yongdong; Ma Nan; Wang Yanli; Gao Xuemei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of treating mediastinoesophageal fistula with covered stent through nasal esophagus drainage tube. Methods: Ten patients with mediastinoesophageal fistula were treated by 5F catheter inserting into the abscess cavities through nasal esophageal fistula, with stent placement in the esophagus. The abscess cavities were washed and angiograghied through drainage tube and the sites of the drainage tube were adjusted in time until withdrawal of the tube. Results: The drainage tubes were pulled out within 10-25 days with disappearance of the abscess cavities and normal diet intake without difficulty. Conclusions: Treating mediastinoesophageal fistula with covered stent through nasal esophagus drainage tube is safe, microinvasive economic and acceptable, worth to be recommended. (authors)

  19. The effects of physical exercise and smoking habits on the expression of SPLUNC1 in nasal lavage fluids from allergic rhinitis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irander, K; Borres, M P; Ghafouri, B

    2014-04-01

    Palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) is a family of proteins, which are proposed to participate in the innate immune defense against infections in the upper aero-digestive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SPLUNC1 in allergic rhinitis subjects with considerations taken to the mucosal function and smoking habits. The participants, recruited from a cohort followed from infancy, were re-examined at the age of 18 years regarding allergy development. Based on medical histories and skin prick tests the participants were classified into groups with persistent allergic rhinitis (n=18), intermittent allergic rhinitis (n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 13). Seven subjects (3, 2 and 2 in each group, respectively) reported smoking habits. The SPLUNC1 levels in nasal lavage fluids were analyzed by Western blot. Changes in the volume of the proper nasal cavity before and after physical exercise (Vol2(increase)) were analyzed by acoustic rhinometry. Compared to the control group the SPLUNC1 level was significantly lower in the persistent allergy group (3.8 ± 3.4 OD vs. 1.3 ± 1.5 OD; p = 0.02), but not in the intermittent allergy group without current exposure to allergens (3.6 ± 4.7 OD). No differences were found in Vol2(increase) between any of the allergy groups and controls. In smokers Vol2(increase) was significantly reduced (p exercise was not affected by allergy in contrast to smoking habits. The correlation between SPLUNC1 levels and Vol2(increase) in non-smokers may indicate involvement of SPLUNC1in the regulation of the normal function of the nasal mucosa. Complementary studies are needed to confirm the smoke-related reduction of SPLUNC1 expression and to analyze the possible participation of SPLUNC1 in the nasal mucosa regulation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Nasal myiasis: report of a case and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Romero, Karen Eliana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the infection of animal or human tissues or organs by larvae of Diptera. It may affect individuals of any age, but is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Nasal myiasis, an infection of the nasal and paranasal cavities by such larvae, is a common disease in tropical and developing countries. Reported cases of nasal myiasis have been caused by several different species, such as Lucilia sericata in Korea and Iran, Estro ovis in Algeria and France, Lucilia cuprina and Phaenicia sericata in Malaysia, Cochliomyia hominivorax in French Guiana, Drosophila melanogaster in Turkey, Eristalis tenax in Iran and Oestrus ovis in Israel. Signs and symptoms are related to the presence and movement of the larvae, and include foreign body sensation, bloody or muco-purulent nasal discharge. Prevention may be done with insect repellent. Treatment is based on antiparasitic drugs and techniques for removal of larvae, but may include the use of prophylactic topical or systemic antibiotics for possible secondary infections. We report a case of nasal and left maxillary sinus myiasis in an elderly woman, who responded favorably to treatment.

  1. Effect of solubility enhancement on nasal absorption of meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Tamás; Ambrus, Rita; Völgyi, Gergely; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Márki, Árpád; Sipos, Péter; Bartos, Csilla; Seres, Adrienn B; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Csányi, Erzsébet; Gáspár, Róbert; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2016-12-01

    Besides the opioids the standard management of the World Health Organization suggests NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) alone or in combination to enhance analgesia in malignant and non-malignant pain therapy. The applicability of NSAIDs in a nasal formulation is a new approach in pharmaceutical technology. In order to enhance the nasal absorption of meloxicam (MX) as an NSAID, its salt form, meloxicam potassium monohydrate (MXP), registered by Egis Plc., was investigated in comparison with MX. The physico-chemical properties of the drugs (structural analysis, solubility and dissolution rate) and the mucoadhesivity of nasal formulations were controlled. In vitro and in vivo studies were carried out to determine the nasal applicability of MXP as a drug candidate in pain therapy. It can be concluded that MX and MXP demonstrated the same equilibrium solubility at the pH5.60 of the nasal mucosa (0.017mg/ml); nonetheless, MXP indicated faster dissolution and a higher permeability through the synthetic membrane. The animal studies justified the short T max value (15min) and the high AUC of MXP, which is important in acute pain therapy. It can be assumed that the low mucoadhesivity of MXP spray did not increase the residence time in the nasal cavity, and the elimination from the nasal mucosa was therefore faster than in the case of MX. Further experiments are necessary to prove the therapeutic relevance of this MXP-containing innovative intranasal formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Visualization of nasal airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G J M [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, NC (United States); Mitchell, G [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Bailie, N [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Thornhill, D [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Watterson, J [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Kimbell, J S [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, NC (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The relationship between airflow patterns in the nasal cavity and nasal function is poorly understood. This paper reports an experimental study of the interplay between symptoms and airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis. This pathology is characterized by mucosal dryness, fetor, progressive atrophy of anatomical structures, a spacious nasal cavity, and a paradoxical sensation of nasal congestion. A physical replica of the patient's nasal geometry was made and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and measure the flow field. The nasal replica was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of the patient and was built in three steps: three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT scans; rapid prototyping of a cast; and sacrificial use of the cast to form a model of the nasal passage in clear silicone. Flow patterns were measured by running a water-glycerol mixture through the replica and evaluating the displacement of particles dispersed in the liquid using PIV. The water-glycerol flow rate used corresponded to an air flow rate representative of a human breathing at rest. The trajectory of the flow observed in the left passage of the nose (more affected by atrophic rhinitis) differed markedly from what is considered normal, and was consistent with patterns of epithelial damage observed in cases of the condition. The data are also useful for validation of computational fluid dynamics predictions.

  3. Endoscopic outcomes of resorbable nasal packing after functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a multicenter prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlucchi, Marco; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Vincenzi, Andrea; Morra, Bruno; Pasquini, Ernesto

    2009-06-01

    Nasal packings can aid in control of postoperative bleeding and healing following functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), but traditional non-resorbable stents have several inherent drawbacks. We performed a randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial to assess efficacy of resorbable nasal packing in patients undergoing FESS for chronic rhinosinusitis. A total of 66 patients for 88 nasal cavities were randomized to receive either hyaluronan resorbable packing (MeroGel) or standard non-resorbable nasal dressing after FESS. All underwent preoperative rhinoscopy, CT of sinuses, and, after surgery, were reassessed by rhinoscopy at 2, 4, and 12 weeks in blinded fashion. A total of 44 nasal cavities (MeroGel-group) received resorbable packing, whereas the remaining 44 were packed with non-resorbable nasal dressing. At follow-up endoscopic visit, the presence of nasal synechia was evaluated as primary outcome. Moreover, the tolerability and surgical handling properties of MeroGel and its comfort were assessed by surgeons and patients. Preoperative severity of rhinosinusitis was similar in both groups. No significant adverse events were observed in all patients. Follow-up endoscopy showed a lower proportion of nasal adhesions in MeroGel-group at both 4 (P = 0.041) and 12 weeks (P appearance of nasal mucosa of nasal cavities after FESS was observed in the MeroGel-group. Tolerability and surgical handling properties of MeroGel were positively rated by clinicians and the overall patient judged comfort of MeroGel was favorable. In conclusion, MeroGel can be considered a valid alternative to standard non-resorbable nasal dressings. It is safe, well-accepted, well-tolerated, and has significant advantage of being resorbable. Moreover, it may favor improved healing in patients undergoing FESS and reduce formation of adhesions.

  4. On the relation of nasal cycling with nasal airway dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R A; Wolff, R K

    1988-12-01

    The size and configuration of the nasal airways of humans change with time as a result of the normal process of congestion/decongestion of the erectile tissue of the nasal mucosa. To determine the extent to which airway areas change in vivo, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitate both the cross-sectional area and perimeter of coronal sections of the entire nasal airway of a human subject. Changes in airway size or patency were indexed to measured changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance determined by posterior rhino manometry. The results of this study in which two MRI scans were performed for presumed left-side patency and two for right-side patency, showed that changes in nasal airway resistance were difficult to ascribe to systematic changes In the sizes of the airways. (author)

  5. On the relation of nasal cycling with nasal airway dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The size and configuration of the nasal airways of humans change with time as a result of the normal process of congestion/decongestion of the erectile tissue of the nasal mucosa. To determine the extent to which airway areas change in vivo, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitate both the cross-sectional area and perimeter of coronal sections of the entire nasal airway of a human subject. Changes in airway size or patency were indexed to measured changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance determined by posterior rhino manometry. The results of this study in which two MRI scans were performed for presumed left-side patency and two for right-side patency, showed that changes in nasal airway resistance were difficult to ascribe to systematic changes In the sizes of the airways. (author)

  6. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a distributed feedback laser diode with an external cavity using a volume Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yujin; Sekine, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Kato, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a broad-area distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with a single external-cavity configuration. This high-power DFB laser has a narrow bandwidth (current and temperature ranges.

  7. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, V; Jørgensen, K E; Hansen, O

    1998-01-01

    %; the disease-specific survival throughout the period was 48%. Primary irradiation followed by maxillectomy was widely used in the first half of the period. Treatment in the last part was changed to primary lateral rhinotomy with post-operative irradiation whenever possible. Twelve maxillectomies were performed...

  8. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Moran; Binenbaum, Yoav; Sharma, Kanika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify independent predictors of outcome in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the paranasal sinuses and skull base. Design Meta-analysis of the literature and data from the International ACC Study Group. Setting University-affiliated medical center. Participants The ...

  9. Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma of the Nasal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baneckova, Martina; Agaimy, Abbas; Andreasen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma, originally described as mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), is a low-grade salivary gland tumor characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Most MASCs are localized to the parotid gland and intraoral minor salivary glands...

  10. A speech production model including the nasal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten

    In order to obtain articulatory analysis of speech production the model is improved. the standard model, as used in LPC analysis, to a large extent only models the acoustic properties of speech signal as opposed to articulatory modelling of the speech production. In spite of this the LPC model...... is by far the most widely used model in speech technology....

  11. General Information about Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as those found in the following jobs: Furniture-making. Sawmill work. Woodworking (carpentry). Shoemaking. Metal-plating. ... cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells ...

  12. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, J.T.; Million, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are diverse. Successful treatment depends on accurate delineation of tumor extent via careful physical examination and roentgenographic workup. Treatment selection is based on these findings as well as on the general condition and age of the patient and tumor histology. Surgery, irradiation, and combined therapy all have a role and are selected to produce the best cure rate with an acceptable functional and cosmetic result. These tumors occur in proximity to a number of vital structures, and a variety of severe complications can occur secondary to treatment. While these complications cannot be entirely avoided, they are best kept to a minimum by careful treatment planning and cooperation among the otolaryngologist, radiation therapist, and ophthalmologist

  13. Effect of formulation- and administration-related variables on deposition pattern of nasal spray pumps evaluated using a nasal cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2011-08-01

    To systematically evaluate the effect of formulation- and administration-related variables on nasal spray deposition using a nasal cast. Deposition pattern was assessed by uniformly coating a transparent nose model with Sar-Gel®, which changes from white to purple on contact with water. Sprays were subsequently discharged into the cast, which was then digitally photographed. Images were quantified using Adobe® Photoshop. The effects of formulation viscosity (which influences droplet size), simulated administration techniques (head orientation, spray administration angle, spray nozzle insertion depth), spray pump design and metering volume on nasal deposition pattern were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the deposition area associated with sprays of increasing viscosity. This appeared to be mediated by an increase in droplet size and a narrowing of the spray plume. Administration techniques and nasal spray pump design also had a significant effect on the deposition pattern. This simple color-based method provides quantitative estimates of the effects that different formulation and administration variables may have on the nasal deposition area, and provides a rational basis on which manufacturers of nasal sprays can base their patient instructions or post approval changes when it is impractical to optimize these using a clinical study.

  14. Nasal variation in relation to high-altitude adaptations among Tibetans and Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaric, Lauren N; Klocke, Ross P

    2018-05-01

    High-altitude (>2500 m) populations face several pressures, including hypoxia and cold-dry air, resulting in greater respiratory demand to obtain more oxygen and condition inspired air. While cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptations to high-altitude hypoxia have been extensively studied, adaptations of upper-respiratory structures, e.g., nasal cavity, remain untested. This study investigates whether nasal morphology presents adaptations to hypoxic (larger noses) and/or cold-dry (tall/narrow noses) conditions among high-altitude samples. CT scans of two high- and four low-altitude samples from diverse climates were collected (n = 130): high-altitude Tibetans and Peruvians; low-altitude Peruvians, Southern Chinese (temperate), Mongolian-Buriats (cold-dry), and Southeast Asians (hot-wet). Facial and nasal distances were calculated from 3D landmarks placed on digitally-modeled crania. Temperature, precipitation, and barometric pressure data were also obtained. Principal components analysis and analyses of variance primarily indicate size-related differences among the cold-dry (Mongolian-Buriats) and hot-wet (Southeast Asians) adapted groups. Two-block partial least squares (PLS) analysis show weak relationships between size-standardized nasal dimensions and environmental variables. However, among PLS1 (85.90% of covariance), Tibetans display relatively larger nasal cavities related to lower temperatures and barometric pressure; regression analyses also indicate high-altitude Tibetans possess relatively larger internal nasal breadths and heights for their facial size. Overall, nasal differences relate to climate among the cold-dry and hot-wet groups. Specific nasal adaptations were not identified among either Peruvian group, perhaps due to their relatively recent migration history and population structure. However, high-altitude Tibetans seem to exhibit a compromise in nasal morphology, serving in increased oxygen uptake, and air-conditioning processes. © 2018

  15. Nasal airway and septal variation in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Friel, Michael T; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Flores, Roberto L; Tholpady, Sunil; Kula, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) affects the dentoalveolar and nasolabial facial regions. Internal and external nasal dysmorphology may persist in individuals born with CLP despite surgical interventions. 7-18 year old individuals born with unilateral and bilateral CLP (n = 50) were retrospectively assessed using cone beam computed tomography. Anterior, middle, and posterior nasal airway volumes were measured on each facial side. Septal deviation was measured at the anterior and posterior nasal spine, and the midpoint between these two locations. Data were evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and post-hoc ANOVA tests. PCA results show partial separation in high dimensional space along PC1 (48.5% variance) based on age groups and partial separation along PC2 (29.8% variance) based on CLP type and septal deviation patterns. MANOVA results indicate that age (P = 0.007) and CLP type (P ≤ 0.001) significantly affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation. ANOVA results indicate that anterior nasal volume is significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.001), whereas septal deviation patterns are significantly affected by CLP type (P ≤ 0.001). Age and CLP type affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation patterns. Nasal airway volumes tend to be reduced on the clefted sides of the face relative to non-clefted sides of the face. Nasal airway volumes tend to strongly increase with age, whereas septal deviation values tend to increase only slightly with age. These results suggest that functional nasal breathing may be impaired in individuals born with the unilateral and bilateral CLP deformity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    This investigation studied the displacement of rock that formerly occupied cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions. There are three possible explanations for this displacement: the volume could be displaced to the free surface; it could occupy previously air-filled pores removed from the surrounding rock through compaction; or it could be accounted for by persisting compressive stresses induced by the outgoing shock wave. The analysis shows it unlikely that stored residual elastic stresses account for large fractions of cavity volumes. There is limited experimental evidence that free surface displacement accounts for a significant portion of this volume. Whenever the explosion mediums contain air-filled pores, the compaction of these pores most likely accounts for all the volume. Calculations show that 4 percent air-filled porosity can account for all the cavity volume within about 4 cavity radii and that even 1 percent can account for a significant fraction of the volume

  17. The Rhinolith—A Possible Differential Diagnosis of a Unilateral Nasal Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Brehmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoliths are mineralised foreign bodies in the nasal cavity that are a chance finding at anterior rhinoscopy. Undiscovered, they grow appreciably in size and can cause a foul-smelling nasal discharge and breathing problems. Giant nasal stones are now a very rare occurrence, since improved diagnostic techniques, such as endoscopic/microscopic rhinoscopy, now make it possible to identify foreign bodies at an early stage of development. We report the case of a 37-year-old patient who, at the age of 5-6 years, introduced a foreign body, probably a stone, into his right nasal cavity. On presentation, he complained of difficulty in breathing through the right nostril that had persisted for the last 10 years. For the past four years a strong fetid smell from the nose had been apparent to those in his vicinity. Under general anaesthesia, the stone was removed in toto from the right nasal cavity. The possible genesis of the rhinolith is discussed, our case compared with those described in the literature, and possible differential diagnoses are considered.

  18. Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Motoori, Ken; Ueda, Takuya; Osaka, Iwao; Takano, Hideyuki; Nagata, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    The nasal septum is a particularly rare site of origin of chondrosarcoma. Cranial base invasion may be at hand, with such lesions making complete tumor removal difficult. MRI techniques allow precise definition of tumor extent. In the described case, CT and Dynamic MR imaging were performed in a case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum. Imaging clearly illustrated size and extent of the mass with central regions of internal calcification. Dynamic MRI was additionally performed, which helped to define the presumed origin of the lesion from the nasal septum. (orig.)

  19. Nasal Glial Heterotopia with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Sudhir; Mehta, Milind A; Kulkarni, Abhishek Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  20. Nasal glial heterotopia with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  1. Blindness associated with nasal/paranasal lymphoma in a stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Okamoto, Minoru; Ootsuka, Youhei; Matsuda, Kazuya; Yusa, Shigeki; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-23

    A 29-year-old stallion presented with bilateral blindness following the chronic purulent nasal drainage. The mass occupied the right caudal nasal cavity and right paranasal sinuses including maxillary, palatine and sphenoidal sinuses, and the right-side turbinal and paranasal septal bones, and cribriform plate of ethmoid bone were destructively replaced by the mass growth. The right optic nerve was invaded and involved by the mass, and the left optic nerve and optic chiasm were compressed by the mass which was extended and invaded the skull base. Histologically, the optic nerves and optic chiasm were degenerated, and the mass was diagnosed as lymphoma which was morphologically and immunohistochemically classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Based on these findings, the cause of the blindness in the stallion was concluded to be due to the degeneration of the optic nerves and chiasm associated with lymphoma occurring in the nasal and paranasal cavities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the equine blindness with optic nerve degeneration accompanied by lymphoma.

  2. Does nasal echolocation influence the modularity of the mammal skull?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, S E; Lofgren, S E

    2013-11-01

    In vertebrates, changes in cranial modularity can evolve rapidly in response to selection. However, mammals have apparently maintained their pattern of cranial integration throughout their evolutionary history and across tremendous morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we use phylogenetic, geometric morphometric and comparative analyses to test the hypothesis that the modularity of the mammalian skull has been remodelled in rhinolophid bats due to the novel and critical function of the nasal cavity in echolocation. We predicted that nasal echolocation has resulted in the evolution of a third cranial module, the 'nasal dome', in addition to the braincase and rostrum modules, which are conserved across mammals. We also test for similarities in the evolution of skull shape in relation to habitat across rhinolophids. We find that, despite broad variation in the shape of the nasal dome, the integration of the rhinolophid skull is highly consistent with conserved patterns of modularity found in other mammals. Across their broad geographical distribution, cranial shape in rhinolophids follows two major divisions that could reflect adaptations to dietary and environmental differences in African versus South Asian distributions. Our results highlight the potential of a relatively simple modular template to generate broad morphological and functional variation in mammals. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Computed tomography and sectional anatomy of the head cavities in donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, S A A; Alsafy, M A M; El Sharaby, A A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal donkey head cavities to be used as a basis for interpretation of CT images of donkey. Six adult donkeys' heads of undetermined sex were used in this study. The donkey heads were divided into three regions-nasal, orbital, and cranial-to show the morphology of the following cavities: nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, orbital cavity, oral cavity, pharyngeal cavity, especially the guttural pouch, cranial cavity and temporomandibular joint. The donkey head had six pairs of sinuses: three paranasal (the frontal, maxillary and sphenopalatine sinuses) and three nasal (dorsal, middle and ventral conchal) sinuses. The maxillary sinus was subdivided into rostral and caudal compartments by a thin incomplete bony septum that was identified and labeled according to cheek teeth landmarks. The topographic description and relationship between the nasal, oral, orbital, cranial, temporomandibular joint, pharyngeal cavities and paranasal sinuses were demonstrated. The articular disc, articular surface and joint capsule of the temporomandibular joint were indicated easily in our CT and cross sectional images.

  4. Nasal Cancer in the Northamptonshire Boot and Shoe Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E. D.; Cowdell, R. H.; Jolles, B.

    1970-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in Northamptonshire during the period 1953 to 1967 is reported. Of the 46 patients with nasal cancer ascertained during the 15-year period 21 (19 males and 2 females) had been employed at some time in the boot and shoe industry. Five other cases diagnosed either before 1953 or after 1967 in persons who had worked in the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire were ascertained from various sources. The incidence of nasal cancer (all histological types considered together) was significantly higher in male boot and shoe operatives in Northamptonshire than in males of all occupational classes in the Cancer Register areas selected for comparison and in males working in other occupations in Northamptonshire. The excess incidence has recently given rise to the occurrence of between 1 and 2 new cases per annum in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry. The cases within the Northamptonshire industry occurred almost entirely in the relatively small number of workers who are exposed to the dust of the materials used in the manufacture of footwear. Possibly there are two carcinogenic factors in the industry—one related to the production of nasal adenocarcinoma, and the other to squamous and possibly other types of carcinoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. This requires further study. Our best estimate of the latent period for the adenocarcinoma cases was 54·6 years, which is substantially longer than for the patients with squamous, transitional, and anaplastic tumours (41·7 years). We have no evidence to answer the question whether the facts are still present in the industrial environment, though undoubtedly the standards of hygiene in the industry has improved substantially since these men were first exposed. There is probably an increased risk of nasal adenocarcinoma in the footwear repairing industry, but this requires further study. Our evidence suggests that snuff taking should be considered as a possible contributory

  5. Comparison of acute ozone-induced nasal and pulmonary inflammatory responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Sun, J D; Henderson, R F

    1988-12-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of acute ozone exposure in the nose and lungs of rats. Rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.12, 0.80, or 1.5 ppm O{sub 3} for 6 h and were sacrificed immediately, 3,18, 42, or 66 h after exposure. Cellular inflammatory responses were assessed by quantitating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) recovered by nasal lavage (NL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and morphometric quantitation of PMN within the nasal mucosa and pulmonary centriacinar region. Rats exposed to 0.12 ppm O{sub 3} had a transient nasal PMN response 18 h after exposure but no increase in pulmonary PMN. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm O{sub 3} had a marked increase in nasal PMN immediately after exposure but the number of PMN within the nasal cavity decreased as the number of pulmonary PMN increased with time after exposure. Rats exposed to 1.5 ppm O{sub 3} had an increase in pulmonary PMN beginning 3 h post-exposure, but no increase in nasal PMN at any time. Our results suggest that at high O{sub 3} concentrations, the acute nasal inflammatory response is attenuated by a simultaneous, competing, inflammatory response within the lung. (author)

  6. Comparison of acute ozone-induced nasal and pulmonary inflammatory responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Sun, J.D.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of acute ozone exposure in the nose and lungs of rats. Rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.12, 0.80, or 1.5 ppm O 3 for 6 h and were sacrificed immediately, 3,18, 42, or 66 h after exposure. Cellular inflammatory responses were assessed by quantitating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) recovered by nasal lavage (NL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and morphometric quantitation of PMN within the nasal mucosa and pulmonary centriacinar region. Rats exposed to 0.12 ppm O 3 had a transient nasal PMN response 18 h after exposure but no increase in pulmonary PMN. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm O 3 had a marked increase in nasal PMN immediately after exposure but the number of PMN within the nasal cavity decreased as the number of pulmonary PMN increased with time after exposure. Rats exposed to 1.5 ppm O 3 had an increase in pulmonary PMN beginning 3 h post-exposure, but no increase in nasal PMN at any time. Our results suggest that at high O 3 concentrations, the acute nasal inflammatory response is attenuated by a simultaneous, competing, inflammatory response within the lung. (author)

  7. Reassessment of a combination of cerebrospinal fluid scintigraphy and nasal pledget counts in patients with suspected rhinorrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Arai, Shinji; Hohshito, Yoshio; Tokumitsu, Hideyuki; Kusano, Shoichi; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Shima, Katsuji [National Defence Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    A combination study of cerebrospinal fluid scintigraphy and nasal pledget counts was performed using 37 MBq of {sup 111}In-DTPA in 12 patients with suspected rhinorrhea. A pledget was inserted and dwelled in each nasal cavity for 6 hours, with the patient prone during at least 30 minutes. A total of 18 studies was implemented and nasal pledget counting method successfully diagnosed all of CSF rhinorrhea. Diagnosis was possible when pledget counts were greater than 1 kcpm. In patients with persistent, intermittent and occult/no nasal discharge, rhinorrhea was found in 100% (5/5), 60% (3/5), 25% (2/8), respectively. Two cases only exhibited positive scintigraphy. MRI or CT cisternography should be first performed in patients with persistent discharge, but in patients with intermittent/occult discharge pledget counting method might take priority of other diagnostic modalities. In conclusion, nasal pledget counting method is a simple and useful tool for detecting rhinorrhea. (author)

  8. Image diagnosis of nasal bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshiharu; Shimizu, Yayoi; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Conventional X-Ray films for nasal bones were analyzed and compared with HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone. Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla. Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional echocardiography: assessment of inter- and intra-operator variability and accuracy in the measurement of left ventricular cavity volume and myocardial mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.K.; Drangova, M.; Boughner, D.R.; Fenster, A.; Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1

    2000-01-01

    Accurate left ventricular (LV) volume and mass estimation is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We propose that our technique of 3D echocardiography provides an accurate quantification of LV volume and mass by the reconstruction of 2D images into 3D volumes, thus avoiding the need for geometric assumptions. We compared the accuracy and variability in LV volume and mass measurement using 3D echocardiography with 2D echocardiography, using in vitro studies. Six operators measured the LV volume and mass of seven porcine hearts, using both 3D and 2D techniques. Regression analysis was used to test the accuracy of results and an ANOVA test was used to compute variability in measurement. LV volume measurement accuracy was 9.8% (3D) and 18.4% (2D); LV mass measurement accuracy was 5% (3D) and 9.2% (2D). Variability in LV volume quantification with 3D echocardiography was %SEM inter = 13.5%, %SEM intra = 11.4%, and for 2D echocardiography was %SEM inter = 21.5%, %SEM intra = 19.1%. We derived an equation to predict uncertainty in measurement of LV volume and mass using 3D echocardiography, the results of which agreed with our experimental results to within 13%. 3D echocardiography provided twice the accuracy for LV volume and mass measurement and half the variability for LV volume measurement as compared with 2D echocardiography. (author)

  10. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  11. Is there a correlation between nasal septum deviation and maxillary transversal deficiency? A retrospective study on prepubertal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballanti, Fabiana; Baldini, Alberto; Ranieri, Salvatore; Nota, Alessandro; Cozza, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Deviated nasal septum may cause a reduction of the nasal airflow, thus, during the craniofacial development, a reduced nasal airflow could originate a chronic mouth-breathing pattern, related with moderate to severe maxillary constriction. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the correlation between maxillary transverse deficiency and nasal septum deviation. Frontal cephalograms were performed on 66 posterior-anterior radiographs of subjects (34M, 32F; mean age 9.95±2.50 years) with maxillary transverse deficiency and on a control group of 31 posterior-anterior radiographs of subjects (13M, 18F; 9.29±2.08 years). Angular parameters of the nasal cavities were recorded and compared between the two groups using a Student's t-test. Generally all the parameters are very similar between the two groups except for the ASY angle that differs for about the 27%; anyway the Student's t-test showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups (mostly p>0.20). This study failed to show an association between transverse maxillary deficiencies and nasal septum deviations. Moreover, no significant differences were found between the mean nasal cavities dimensions in subjects with transverse maxillary deficiency and the control group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal specimens were collected longitudinally from five healthy adults and a cross-section of hospitalized patients (26 S. aureus carriers and 16 non-carriers. Culture-independent analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the nasal microbiota of healthy subjects consists primarily of members of the phylum Actinobacteria (e.g., Propionibacterium spp. and Corynebacterium spp., with proportionally less representation of other phyla, including Firmicutes (e.g., Staphylococcus spp. and Proteobacteria (e.g. Enterobacter spp. In contrast, inpatient nasal microbiotas were enriched in S. aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and diminished in several actinobacterial groups, most notably Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument. Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

  13. Radiation injuries of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galantseva, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The review is given of factors which cause the beginning of radiation injuries of oral cavity in oncologic patients following radiotherapy: dose rate absorbed with tumor and surrounding healthy tissues; irradiation procedures; size of irradiated volume. Pathogenesis and clinical picture are considered as well as prophylaxis and tactics of treatments of patients with radiation injuries of oral cavity

  14. Fungal Agents as a Cause of Nasal Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nejadkazem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinonasal polyposis is the most common tumor of nasal cavity and sinuses. Its complications are but not limited to sinusitis, breathing difficulties, hyposmia, anosmia and bone erosion. Methods and materials: A total of 98 patients with sinonasal polyposis were examined for suspicious causative fungal agent. Results: Direct microscopy and culture confirmed fungal agent in 8 patients (8.1% from which 3 cases had Alternaria spp, 1 patient Aspergillus spp, 1 patient Bipolaris spp, and 3 patients yeast. Conclusion: Fungi may be considered as a potential cause of sinonasal polyposis.   Keywords: Sinonasal Polyposis, Rhinosinusitis, Fungi

  15. Nasal metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene and dihydrosafrole in Beagle dogs and nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.P.; Whaley, S.L.; Dahl, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of nasal metabolism of 3 H-dihydrosafrole and 14 C-benzo[a]pyrene ( 14 C-BaP) by Beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys in two regions of the nasal cavity, the ethmoid (olfactory), and maxillary (respiratory) turbinates. Clearance of these two compounds from the nose was studied by collection of nasopharyngeal mucus, blood, urine, and feces during nasal instillation and up to 48 h afterwards. Analysis of the nasopharyngeal mucus showed that either turbinate region in both species metabolized 14 C-Bap to dihydrodiols, quinones, phenols, and tetrols. 3 H-Dihydrosafrole instilled in either turbinate region was extensively metabolized to 2-methyoxy-4-propylphenol. Other major metabolites were 2-methoxy-4-[2-propenyl]-phenol, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-1-(1-hydroxypropyl)benzene. The present study demonstrated a relatively noninvasive technique for studying regional nasal metabolic capabilities in xenobiotic in vivo. The results show that nasal cavities of dogs and monkeys are capable of metabolizing BaP into biologically significant compounds after instillation at both ethmoid and maxillary turbinates. 6 references, 4 tables

  16. Influence of deposition and spray pattern of nasal powders on insulin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringels, E; Callens, C; Vervaet, C; Dumont, F; Slegers, G; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

    2006-03-09

    The influence of the deposition pattern and spray characteristics of nasal powder formulations on the insulin bioavailability was investigated in rabbits. The formulations were prepared by freeze drying a dispersion containing a physical mixture of drum dried waxy maize starch (DDWM)/Carbopol 974P (90/10, w/w) or a spray-dried mixture of Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P (25/75, w/w). The deposition in the nasal cavity of rabbits and in a silicone human nose model after actuation of three nasal delivery devices (Monopowder, Pfeiffer and experimental system) was compared and related to the insulin bioavailability. Posterior deposition of the powder formulation in the nasal cavity lowered the insulin bioavailability. To study the spray pattern, the shape and cross-section of the emitted powder cloud were analysed. It was concluded that the powder bulk density of the formulation influenced the spray pattern. Consequently, powders of different bulk density were prepared by changing the solid fraction of the freeze dried dispersion and by changing the freezing rate during freeze drying. After nasal delivery of these powder formulations no influence of the powder bulk density and of the spray pattern on the insulin bioavailability was observed.

  17. Cosmetic reconstruction of a nasal plane and rostral nasal skin defect using a modified nasal rotation flap in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar, G.; Buiks, S.C.; Kirpensteijn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To report reconstruction of a defect of the nasal plane and the rostral dorsum of the nose in a dog using a nasal rotation flap with Burow's triangles. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical report. ANIMALS: Mixed-breed dog (1.5 years, 8.6 kg). METHODS: A nasal defect caused by chronic

  18. Fluid Density and Impact Cavity Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Chun Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the impact cavity formed when a steel ball is dropped into aqueous solutions of densities ranging from 0.98 g·cm-3 to 1.63 g·cm-3 were investigated. A high-speed camera was used to record the formation and collapse of the cavity. The results showed cavity diameter, volume, and pinch-off time are independent of fluid density, on average. There was an unexplained reduction in cavity formation for densities of 1.34 g·cm-3 and 1.45 g·cm-3.

  19. Nasal Inserts for Drug Delivery: An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, the benefits, limitations and absorption mechanisms of the nasal route, as well ... molecules including peptide and proteins for ... (Mw) drugs, rapid and fast onset of action due to ... while the former act by disrupting the nasal.

  20. ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF NASAL INDEX OF EGYPTIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nasal index determination is one of the most commonly used anthropometric parameters in classifying human races. There are few reports in medical literature concerning nasal index that specifically address particular Egyptian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the normal parameters of external nose (width, height and nasal index) in Egyptians. Methods: The study was conducted randomly on healthy Egyptian subjects of both sexes. Nasal height and width ...

  1. Expression of CD56 and Epstein-Barr virus in nasal/nasopharyngeal lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sook; Cho, Kyung Ja

    1997-12-01

    We examined malignant lymphomas and polymorphic reticulosis of nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and palate, diagnosed at Korea Cancer Center Hospital from 1987 to 1996. With immunophenotypic study, we reclassified nasal/nasopharyngeal lymphomas into three categories: CD56-positive T/NK lymphoma, CD56-negative lymphoma and B-cell lymphoma. Malignant lymphomas of nasal cavity, nasopharynx and palate were 95 patient, that comprised 11% of the total lymphoma cases, and it was the most common extranodal lymphoma. Twenty-five percent were B-cell lymphomas and 75 % were T/NK lymphomas. According to site, nasal cavity was the most frequent and 91 % of nasal cavity lymphomas were T/NK type. CD56-positive T/NK comprised 82 % of total T/NK lymphomas and CD56-negative cases were 18 %. In 89 % of total T/NK lymphomas, many tumor cells expressed EBER-1 in their nuclei (CD56+ T/NK lymphoma: 97 % of EBV expression, CD56-T-cell lymphoma; 60%). Only one case (5%) of B-cell lymphoma showed EBER-1 positivity in a few cells. CD56+ T/NK lymphomas showed significantly more angiocentricity and severe necrosis than CD56- cases. Although it has no statistical significance, T/NK lymphomas has a tendency to lower survival rates than B-cell lymphomas at 1 year and 2 year. CD56+ T/NK lymphomas has a tendency to lower survival than CD56- T/NK lymphomas (p > 0.05). Our results of this project will serve important basic materials in diagnosing and studying lymphoma. (author). 25 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Acoustic rhinometry (AR): An Alternative Method to Image Nasal Airway Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.

      ACOUSTIC RHINOMETRY (AR): AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO IMAGE NASAL AIRWAY GEOMETRY.  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND:  In human studies the acoustic reflection technique was first applied to describe the area-distance relationship of the lower airways, but later the acoustic reflection technique appeared...... to be of more use in the description of nasal cavity geometry. Applied to human subjects AR has been applied to monitor the effect of corrective surgery and mucosal effects of pharmacological interventions. In recent years, however, AR has found use also in pharmacological studies in animals ranging in size...

  3. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  4. Methods for Diagnosing Some Malignant Neoplasms of the Canine Nasal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Florica Balint

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is to highlight the easiest method of investigation (nasal lavage or rhinoscopy depending on the animal condition. 18 dogs were investigated, which presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, with respiratory distress due to obstruction of the nasal cavities. The sampling for cytological diagnosis was done using the two techniques, the nasal lavage and rhinoscopy. It is most useful to try the lavage first, because it is less invasive, and only then, if case of poor cellularity after centrifugation, or in case of a inflammatory process with unfavourable post-treatment evolution, endoscopy will be used. Cytomorphological diagnosis using, after rhinoscopy or nasal lavage, have evidentiated the following forms of nasal cancer: 10 cases out of 18 were epithelial neoplasms of the olfactory mucosa; 6 cases out of 18 were nerve tumors (malignant melanoma, estesiocarcinoma; 2 cases out of 18 were mesenchymal tumors (osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma. The nasal lavage is a good sampling method but has the disadvantage of sometimes encountering an acute or chronic inflammatory process that can shield the tumor process.

  5. Nasal and skull base anatomy of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery with multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuzo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Murai, Hisayuki; Horiguchi, Kentaro; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Okamoto, Miyoshi; Yanagawa, Noriyuki

    2008-01-01

    The endoscope is a new and highly useful instrument for transphenoidal surgery (TSS), and is generally used because of its minimally invasiveness. In addition, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgey (eTSS) has a potential for more radical tumor removal at the pituitary and the parasellar regions by wider visualization and more powerful illumination. To operate these regions safely, we need to know nasal and skull base anatomy under the endoscope which looks different from images under a microscope. In this paper, we demonstrated nasal and skull base anatomy with multi-detector computed tomography, which was performed in 23 recent patients with pituitary and parasellar legions. In the nasal legion, deviation of nasal septum and deviation of sphenoid ostium are important for endonasal approach of eTSS, and often determine the difficulty of surgery in the nasal cavity. Our study showed that deviation of nasal septum was seen in 26% of patients. Deviation of sphenoid ostium was 5.5±1.5 mm from the midline. The anatomy of sphenoid sinus plays a key role in our determination of the safety of a bony opening of the sella. In addition to sellar, presellar, and concha types, carotid prominence and optic prominence are important to determine the midline orientation. Development of carotid prominence was significantly related to the extent of lateral pneumatization of sphenoid sinus (P=0.0016). Reconstructed 3D-image of sphenoid sinus was very useful in visual understanding skull base anatomy. (author)

  6. The role of trigeminal function in the sensation of nasal obstruction in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Joe; Fnais, Naif; Tomaszewski, Marcel; Carriere, Junie S; Frenkiel, Saul; Frasnelli, Johannes; Tewfik, Marc A

    2016-05-01

    Trigeminal sensation (TS) within the nasal cavity is important for the perception of nasal airflow. The objective of this study is to examine whether impaired TS contributes to the sensation of nasal obstruction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Prospective case-control study conducted in a tertiary referral rhinology clinic. Cases consisted of CRS patients with subjective nasal obstruction, not previously treated with oral corticoids. Controls consisted of patients without CRS. Neither group demonstrated obvious anatomical obstructions. Both groups underwent peak nasal inspiratory flows (PNIF), olfactory testing (quick eight-item odor identification test), and trigeminal testing (lateralization task using eucalyptol and odorless solvent). A total of 28 subjects (14 CRS patients and 14 controls) were recruited. Analyses revealed no statistical differences in age (P = .93), gender (P = .47), or PNIF (P = .82) between the two groups, but they differed in Lund-Mackay scores (P sensation of nasal obstruction in CRS. 3b. Laryngoscope, 126:E174-E178, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Nasal rhinosporidiosis: differential diagnosis of fungal sinusitis and inverted papilloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin Borges

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical case report of rhinosporidiosis, a rare and chronic granulomatous disease, caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Objective: To include this disease in the differential diagnoses of polypoid lesions of the nasal mass. Report: A male patient from the North of Brazil evolved a three-year papilomatous polypoid lesion of the left nasal cavity. He was submitted to sinusectomy with resection of the entire lesion, located in ethmoid bulla and uncinated process. Inverted papilloma or fungal sinusitis were differential diagnoses. The histopathological examination revealed a strong infestation by numerous fungal structures with sporangia shape full of sporangiospores. The microorganisms were positive for colorations of Grocott, PAS and Mayer's Mucicarmin; opposite from Coccidioides immitis, which presents no contrast by the mucicarmin. We didn't choose complimentary treatment and after one year of follow-up he presents with no sign of recurrence. Final Comments: Rhinosporidiosis must be considered to be a nasal polypoid lesion differential diagnosis. In the intranasal lesions diagnosis we should keep in mind the patient's origin. The anatomopathological study is mandatory to set the diagnosis. In the rhinosporidiosis, the surgical exeresis can be a curative treatment.

  8. The incompressibility assumption in computational simulations of nasal airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Ismael R; Cercos-Pita, Jose Luis; Duque, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package. At low flow rates and warm climatological conditions, similar results were obtained from both approaches, showing that density variations need not be taken into account to obtain a good prediction of all flow features, at least for usual breathing conditions. This agrees with most of the simulations previously reported, at least as far as the incompressibility assumption is concerned. However, parameters like nasal resistance and wall shear stress distribution differ for air temperatures below [Formula: see text]C approximately. Therefore, density variations should be considered for simulations at such low temperatures.

  9. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.

  10. Relation between epistaxis, external nasal deformity, and septal deviation following nasal trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Raghavan, U

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To find if the presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma can be used to predict post-traumatic external nasal deformity or a symptomatic deviated nasal septum. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients seen in the fractured nose clinic by the first author between 17 October 2003 and 27 February 2004. Presence of epistaxis, newly developed external nasal deformity, and the presence of a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction were noted. Results: A total of 139 patients were included in the study. Epistaxis following injury was noted in 106 (76%). Newly developed external nasal deformity was noted in 71 (51%), and 33 (24%) had a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction. Of the 106 patients with post-trauma epistaxis, 50 (67%) had newly developed external nasal deformity and of the 33 patients without post-traumatic epistaxis, 11 (33%) had nasal deformity (pepistaxis was not associated with the presence of a newly symptomatic deviated septum (25% in patients with epistaxis after injury versus 18% if there was no epistaxis). Conclusions: Presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma is associated with a statistically significant increase in external nasal deformity. However, one third of patients without epistaxis following nasal trauma also had external nasal deformity and hence all patients with a swollen nose after injury, irrespective of post-trauma epistaxis, still need to be referred to the fractured nose clinic. PMID:16244333

  11. Mask versus Nasal Tube for Stabilization of Preterm Infants at Birth: Respiratory Function Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vonderen, Jeroen J; Kamlin, C Omar; Dawson, Jennifer A; Walther, Frans J; Davis, Peter G; te Pas, Arjan B

    2015-07-01

    To compare the nasal tube with face mask as interfaces for stabilization of very preterm infants at birth by using physiological measurements of leak, obstruction, and expired tidal volumes during positive pressure ventilation (PPV). In the delivery room, 43 infants face mask. Respiratory function, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were measured. Occurrence of obstruction, amount of leak, and tidal volumes were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test or a Fisher exact test. The first 5 minutes after initiation of PPV were analyzed (1566 inflations in the nasal tube group and 1896 inflations in the face mask group). Spontaneous breathing coincided with PPV in 32% of nasal tube and 34% of face mask inflations. During inflations, higher leak was observed using nasal tube compared with face mask (98% [33%-100%] vs 14 [0%-39%]; P face mask (0.0 [0.0-3.1] vs 9.9 [5.5-12.8] mL/kg; P 0.05). Heart rate was not significantly different between groups, but oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the nasal tube group the first 2 minutes after start of respiratory support. The use of a nasal tube led to large leak, more obstruction, and inadequate tidal volumes compared with face mask. Trial registration Registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR 2061) and the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN 12610000230055). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.

  13. Correlation analysis on alpha attenuation and nasal skin temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Tacano, Munecazu

    2009-01-01

    Some serious accidents caused by declines in arousal level, such as traffic accidents and mechanical control mistakes, have become issues of social concern. The physiological index obtained by human body measurement is expected to offer a leading tool for evaluating arousal level as an objective indicator. In this study, declines in temporal arousal levels were evaluated by nasal skin temperature. As arousal level declines, sympathetic nervous activity is decreased and blood flow in peripheral vessels is increased. Since peripheral vessels exist just under the skin on the fingers and nose, the psychophysiological state can be judged from the displacement of skin temperature caused by changing blood flow volume. Declining arousal level is expected to be observable as a temperature rise in peripheral parts of the body. The objective of this experiment was to obtain assessment criteria for judging declines in arousal level by nasal skin temperature using the alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) of electroencephalography (EEG) as a reference benchmark. Furthermore, a psychophysical index of sleepiness was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Correlations between nasal skin temperature index and EEG index were analyzed. AAC and maximum displacement of nasal skin temperature displayed a clear negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of −0.55

  14. Effects of 0.12 and 0.80 ppm ozone on rat nasal and nasopharyngeal epithelial mucosubstances: Quantitative histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the quantity of mucosubstances in surface epithelia of the rat nasal cavity and nasopharynx after short-term ozone exposure. Rats were exposure. Nasal cavities were processed for morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances. Compared to controls, rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone had increased amounts of stored mucosubstances within epithelium lining the medial aspect of the nasal turbinate, but no change within the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone had increased quantities of stored mucosubstances within the transitional and respiratory epithelia lining turbinates and lateral walls of the anterior nasal airway, and significant decreases in stored mucosubstances within the epithelium of the nasal septum at the end of exposure. Seven days after the end of exposure, the amounts of intraepithelial mucosubstances returned to control levels along the septum, but remained greater than those of controls along the turbinates and nasopharynx. We conclude that exposures to ambient levels of ozone induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium in the rat, and that these changes persist for at least 7 days after cessation of exposure

  15. Unsteady flow characteristics through a human nasal airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hoon; Na, Yang; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Chung, Seung-Kyu

    2010-07-31

    Time-dependent characteristics of the flow in a human nasal airway constructed from the CT image of a healthy volunteer were investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. To capture the time-varying nature of the flow as well as pressure and temperature fields, the large eddy simulation (LES) technique instead of the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) approach was adopted. To make the present analysis more relevant to a real human breathing cycle, the flow was designed to be induced by the pressure difference and the time-varying pressure at the end of trachea was described to reproduce the flow rate data from the measurement. Comparison of the present results with those of typical steady simulations showed that the difference in flow characteristics is magnified in the expiration phase. This fact may suggest that the inertial effect associated with unsteady flow is more important during the expiration period. Also, the fact that the distribution of the flow rate in a given cross-section of the airway changes significantly with time implies the importance of unsteady data for clinical decision. The wall shear stress was found to have relatively high values at the locations near nasopharynx and larynx but the magnitude changes with time during the whole respiratory cycle. Analysis of the temperature field showed that most of the temperature change occurs in the nasal cavity when the air is incoming and thus, the nasal cavity acts as a very efficient heat exchanger during an inspiration period. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Belagola D; Basavaraj, Halevoor B; Nischal, Kuchangi C; Swaroop, Mukunda R; Umashankar, Puttagangu N; Agrawal, Dhruv P; Swamy, Suchetha S; Okram, Sarda

    2012-01-01

    Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80%) predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%). Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39%) and others included transverse nasal line (28%), strip (28%), ridge (4%) and loop (1%). Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.

  17. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... as marker molecule, since only negligible amounts were absorbed or adsorbed to the mucosa during the nasal lavage. 3. Labelling of the albumin with 99mTc ensured an accuracy of measurements only limited by the precision of the weighing. The isotope allowed for the determination of the amount of admixed...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  18. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  19. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  20. Nasal Septal Angiofibroma in a Post-Menopausal Woman: A Rare Entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayana, Farah; Fadzilah, Fazalina Mohd; Gendeh, Balwant Singh

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibromas (JAs) are well-characterised in literature, arising typically in the posterolateral wall of the nasal cavity of young males. Numerous theories have been proposed to explain the occurrence of this unique and rare tumour. Angiofibromas originating in other sites within the head and neck have been described but this is exceedingly rare, constituting less than 2% of all diagnosed cases. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare lesion, and more importantly, controversial. It is not known whether it is actually a relative of the well-known JA that is seen exclusively in adolescent males. We present the case of a post-menopausal woman with unilateral nasal obstruction who was unexpectedly diagnosed as nasal septal angiofibroma. PMID:26816925

  1. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  2. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Manjón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden.

  3. Effects of intranasal corticosteroids on radiated nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinhua; Liu Yuehui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a mechanism protected radiation-induce injure for radiated guinea pigs'nasal mucosa treated with intranasal corticosteroids(fluticasone nasal cavity spray). Methods: 50 health guinea pigs were divided into 2 groups randomly: the irradiated group (control group) with 25 guinea pigs and the administration group after irradiation (test group)with 25 guinea pigs. The nasal part of all guinea pigs were performed irradiation by the 6 MV X-ray with single 5 Gy, one time each week for three weeks. The guinea pigs of test group received intranasal corticosteroids with one time every day and one spray each side nasal cavity on the second day after three weeks irradiation. Five guinea pigs in each group were sacrificed randomly at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months and 4 months after irradiation, and the histopathologic changes were observed under optical microscope and electron microscope. At the same time, blood were drawn from the heart and the concentration of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were measured by ELISA. Results: The early nasal mucosa inflammatory reaction of the test group was less than the control group. The coverage rate of cilia of the test group was much than that of the control group (72.9% vs 50.2%) at four months after irradiation. The atrophy of submucosal glandular organ was lessened and they displayed some extent secretory function. The concentration of IL-1 in serum was increased very much in the test group compared with the control group after irradiation and kept higher level in the first two months. After two months, it began to decrease; on four months, it still kept equivalency level with the control group. The concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were reduced all the while. Conclusions: The intranasal corticosteroids with fluticasone nasal cavity spray can reduce radiation- induced injury of guinea pigs' nasal mucosa. The concentration change of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum may be one of mechanism protected

  4. Nasal morphological characteristics of the Serbian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations. The research was conducted on 496 randomly selected persons (262 males and 234 females, aged 18-65 years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements. There were significant differences in the nasal parameters between male and female subjects. The nasal breadth was 34.72 mm in females, and in the male population it was 36.7 mm. The mean values of nasal height were 52.6 mm and 54.32 mm in females and males, respectively. The nasal index in females and males was 66.01 and 67.56, respectively, and the mean value of the nasal index of all respondents was 66.78. After conducting the research it was concluded that the dominant nasal type in the population of the central part of Serbia is leptorrhine. The present study showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in nasal morphology. The data obtained in our study may be useful in anthropological and forensic research, as well as in cosmetic planning and reconstructive surgery.

  5. Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indudharan, R; Das, P K; Azman, A A; Suhaiza, S

    1998-08-01

    A case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum is presented with the result of treatment. The patient was admitted for a growth in the nose of four years' duration. Fine needle aspiration for cytological examination was suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. She was treated with lateral rhinotomy and wide excision followed by septorhinoplasty. Histological examination showed that the lesion was chondrosarcoma. The patient remained free of disease 26 months after surgery.

  6. Primary oral and nasal transmissible venereal tumor in a mix-breed dog

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Mahdieh; Azizi, Shahrzad; Shahheidaripour, Shima; Rostami, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a coitally transmitted tumor of dogs with widespread distribution. The present study describes the occurrence of the primary oral and nasal TVT in a 10-year-old, female, mix-breed dog. The case was presented with a history of anorexia, inability to swallow and dyspnea. Clinical examinations revealed the emaciation, muzzle deformity due to the presence of a friable, fleshy, cauliflower-like mass in the oral cavity and submandibular lymphadenopathy. TVT was...

  7. Nasal morphological characteristics of the Serbian population

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović J.; Jeremić D.; Jovanović B.; Vulović Maja; Sazdanović P.; Sazdanović Maja; Ognjanović Neda; Stojadinović D.; Jeremić Katarina; Marković N.; Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations. The research was conducted on 496 randomly selected persons (262 males and 234 females), aged 18-65 years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements. There were significant differences in ...

  8. [Comparison of ability to humidification of inspired air through the nose and oral cavity using dew point hygrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Daniel; Rapiejko, Piotr; Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this study was to check at the hospital the dew point hygrometer for fast measurement of air humidity in upper airways. The nose ability to humidification of inspired air and partially recover moisture from expired air was evaluated. Measurements from respiration through the nose and oral cavity were compared. The study was carried out in a group of 30 people (8 female and 22 male), age group 18 to 70 (mean age: 37 years old). In 22 of the participants there were no deviation from normal state in laryngologic examination, while in 4 participants nasal septum deviation without imaired nasal; oatency was found, in other 3--nasal vonchae hyperthrophy and in 1--nasal polips (grade I). The measurements of air humidity in upper air ways was done using specially designed and constructed measurement system. The air inspired through the nose and oral cavity is humidified. For typical external conditions (T = 22 degrees C i RH = 50%) the nose humidifies inspired air two times better then oral cavity (short time range of measurement approximately 1 min). Moisture from expired air through the nose is partially recovered (for patients with regular patency is 25% of the value of humidifying of inspired air). The oral cavity does not have ability to partially recovery moisture form expired air. The paper presented fast dew point hygrometer based on semiconductor microsystems for measurement humidity in inspired and expired air through the nose and oral cavity. Presented system can be a proper instrument for evaluation of nasal functions.

  9. Clinical and otorhinolaryngological aspects of extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Marcel Menon; Oliveira, Mariana Vendramini Castrignano de; Miyake, Michelle Menon; Garcia, Julio Oliva de Almeida; Granato, Lidio

    2014-01-01

    Extranodal NK/T-Cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTLN) is a disease that mainly affects the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. Early nasal symptoms are nonspecific, simulating sinus infection. With disease progression, necrosis of the nasal mucosa increases, hindering histological diagnosis. Thus, multiple biopsies may be necessary until definitive diagnosis. Most studies on NKTLN address the hematological and immunological aspects of the disease. To present data from a Brazilian quaternary hospital, with emphasis on the clinical aspects of the disease, and to correlate the findings with the most recent literature data. Case study of seven patient files. Patients were evaluated on their medical history, number of biopsies necessary, association with Epstein-Barr virus, treatment, and outcome. All patients had nonspecific nasal complaints and underwent at least three cycles of antibiotic therapy. The earlier a biopsy was performed, the fewer biopsies were required to diagnose the disease and start treatment. However, this fact did not translate into better prognosis. The otolaryngologist plays a fundamental role in the prognosis of NKTLN and can shorten time between symptom onset and treatment of the patient. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Variations in peak nasal inspiratory flow among healthy students after using saline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich Neto, Jaime; Olbrich, Sandra Regina Leite Rosa; Mori, Natália Leite Rosa; Oliveira, Ana Elisa de; Corrente, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Nasal hygiene with saline solutions has been shown to relieve congestion, reduce the thickening of the mucus and keep nasal cavity clean and moist. Evaluating whether saline solutions improve nasal inspiratory flow among healthy children. Students between 8 and 11 years of age underwent 6 procedures with saline solutions at different concentrations. The peak nasal inspiratory flow was measured before and 30 min after each procedure. Statistical analysis was performed by means of t test, analysis of variance, and Tukey's test, considering p<0.05. We evaluated 124 children at all stages. There were differences on the way a same concentration was used. There was no difference between 0.9% saline solution and 3% saline solution by using a syringe. The 3% saline solution had higher averages of peak nasal inspiratory flow, but it was not significantly higher than the 0.9% saline solution. It is important to offer various options to patients. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2017-08-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis.

  12. Immediate effect of benzalkonium chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, J; Leiacker, R; Wiesmiller, K; Rettinger, G; Keck, T

    2004-08-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a preservative commonly used in nasal decongestant sprays. It has been suggested that benzalkonium chloride may be harmful to the nasal mucosa. Decongestion with the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride has been shown to cause a significant reduction of the nasal mucosal temperature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the short-term influence of xylometazoline nasal spray with and without benzalkonium chloride on the nasal mucosal temperature. Healthy volunteers (30) were included in the study. Fifteen volunteers received xylometazoline nasal spray (1.0 mg/mL) containing benzalkonium chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and 15 age-matched subjects, received xylometazoline nasal spray without benzalkonium chloride. Using a miniaturized thermocouple the septal mucosal temperature was continuously measured at defined intranasal detection sites before and after application of the nasal spray. The mucosal temperature values did not significantly differ between the group receiving xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride and the group receiving xylometazoline spray without benzalkonium chloride before and after decongestion (P > 0.05). In both study groups septal mucosal temperatures significantly decreased after decongestion (P reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow following vasoconstriction. This study indicates that benzalkonium chloride itself does not seem to influence nasal blood flow and nasal mucosal temperature in topical nasal decongestants.

  13. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    variations, and clinical concerns associated with this surgical procedure; it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for improving nasal form and function after rhinoplasty. Recommendations in this guideline concerning education and counseling to the patient are also intended to include the caregiver if the patient is 24 hours after surgery. (2) Surgeons should not routinely place packing in the nasal cavity of rhinoplasty patients (with or without septoplasty) at the conclusion of surgery. The panel group made the following statement an option: (1) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, may administer perioperative systemic steroids to the rhinoplasty patient.

  14. Immunophenotypic and Clinical Differences Between the Nasal and Extranasal Subtypes of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Huang, Wen-Ting; Lu, Ning [Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhou, Li-Qiang [Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Radiology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Jin, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate, in a large cohort of patients, the immunophenotypic and clinical differences of nasal and extranasal extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT-NKTCL) and examine the relevance of the immunophenotype on the clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 231 patients with UADT-NKTCL were recruited. One hundred eighty-one patients had primary location in the nasal cavity (nasal UADT-NKTCL), and 50 patients had primary extranasal UADT-NKTCL. Results: Patients with extranasal UADT-NKTCL had more adverse clinical features, including advanced-stage disease, regional lymph node involvement, B symptoms, and poor performance status, than patients with nasal UADT-NKTCL. In addition, CD56 and granzyme B were less frequently expressed in extranasal UADT-NKTCL. The 5-year overall survival rate was 74.1% for the entire group and 76.0% for early-stage disease. The 5-year overall survival rate for extranasal UADT-NKTCL was similar or superior to that of nasal UADT-NKTCL for all disease stages (76.9% vs 73.4%, P=.465), stage I disease (75.9% vs 79.2%, P=.786), and stage II disease (83.3% vs 50.3%, P=.018). CD56 expression and a Ki-67 proliferation rate ≥50% predicted poorer survival for extranasal UADT-NKTCL but not for nasal UADT-NKTCL. Conclusions: Patients with nasal and extranasal UADT-NKTCL have significantly different clinical features, immunophenotypes, and prognosis. Extranasal UADT-NKTCL should be considered as a distinct subgroup apart from the most commonly diagnosed prototype of nasal UADT-NKTCL.

  15. Improved reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, L.R.; Demarchais, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reactor pressure vessel disposed in a cavity has coolant inlet or outlet pipes extending through passages in the cavity walls and welded to pressure nozzles. The cavity wall has means for directing fluid away from a break at a weld away from the pressure vessel, and means for inhibiting flow of fluid toward the vessel. (author)

  16. Cartilage grafting in nasal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerman, Sara; White, W Matthew; Constantinides, Minas

    2011-02-01

    Nasal reconstruction after resection for cutaneous malignancies poses a unique challenge to facial plastic surgeons. The nose, a unique 3-D structure, not only must remain functional but also be aesthetically pleasing to patients. A complete understanding of all the layers of the nose and knowledge of available cartilage grafting material is necessary. Autogenous material, namely septal, auricular, and costal cartilage, is the most favored material in a free cartilage graft or a composite cartilage graft. All types of material have advantages and disadvantages that should guide the most appropriate selection to maximize the functional and cosmetic outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distilled water nasal provocation in hyperreactive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, T; Anzic, S A; Kalogjera, L

    1999-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosol may act as a provocation agent in the upper and lower airways of hyperreactive individuals. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of nasal challenge with distilled water in patients with allergic rhinitis to those with noninfective nonallergic rhinitis (NINAR), with respect to the potential clinical use of the obtained data. A group of 68 ambulatory patients with allergic rhinitis or NINAR (39 perennial allergic, 6 seasonal, 23 NINAR) were challenged with 10 mL of distilled water aerosol after the baseline active anterior rhinomanometry. Patients with nasal polyposis at endoscopy, significant unilateral septal deviation, positive bacteriologic swab, recent nasal surgery, and uncertain anamnestic data about the medication taken 6 weeks before the provocation were excluded from the study. After 10 minutes of nasal provocation, rhinomanometry was repeated to assess the response. In 15 patients of the perennial allergic group, the same measurements were performed after a 2-week oral antihistamine and topical steroid therapy. Nasal resistance was significantly increased on the more patent side of the nose after nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol in allergic patients in comparison to the nasal resistance before provocation. In the patients with NINAR, the provocation resulted in a significant rise on the more patent side, but the total nasal airway resistance (NAR) levels were also significantly increased. The systemic antihistamine and topical steroid 2-week therapy in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis significantly reduced the response to nasal distilled water provocation. Nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol is a cheap, simple, and acceptable method that provides useful clinical data on the level of nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity and the therapy success.

  18. Accoustic Localization of Breakdown in Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Peter Gwin [IIT, Chicago

    2016-07-01

    Current designs for muon accelerators require high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to be placed in solenoidal magnetic fields. These fields help contain and efficiently reduce the phase space volume of source muons in order to create a usable muon beam for collider and neutrino experiments. In this context and in general, the use of RF cavities in strong magnetic fields has its challenges. It has been found that placing normal conducting RF cavities in strong magnetic fields reduces the threshold at which RF cavity breakdown occurs. To aid the effort to study RF cavity breakdown in magnetic fields, it would be helpful to have a diagnostic tool which can localize the source of breakdown sparks inside the cavity. These sparks generate thermal shocks to small regions of the inner cavity wall that can be detected and localized using microphones attached to the outer cavity surface. Details on RF cavity sound sources as well as the hardware, software, and algorithms used to localize the source of sound emitted from breakdown thermal shocks are presented. In addition, results from simulations and experiments on three RF cavities, namely the Aluminum Mock Cavity, the High-Pressure Cavity, and the Modular Cavity, are also given. These results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the described technique for acoustic localization of breakdown.

  19. Effect of the nasal cycle on congestive response during bilateral nasal allergen provocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gotlib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bilateral nasal allergen provocation usually produces more pronounced obstruction of one nasal passage. It was found that this could be related to the stage of the nasal cycle before the provocation. objective. To discover whether the stage of the nasal cycle is decisive for asymmetry in congestive response observed during bilateral allergen nasal provocation. methods. Two bilateral nasal allergen provocations were performed in a group of 26 pollen-sensitive volunteers. Acoustic rhinometry measurements were taken during the nasal cycle, and then after the provocation. A cross-sectional area at the level of the inferior turbinate (CSA-2 was measured. Consecutive challenges were performed in the opposite phase of the nasal cycle: the side which had been wide just before the first challenge, was narrow before the second provocation. results. Asymmetry in CSA-2 reduction between the nasal passages was observed in most cases. Significant difference was observed between mean CSA-2 reduction rate (reactivity of the side that responded with greater congestion, and the opposite side. No significant difference was found in mean CSA-2 reduction rate between the side which was narrow, and the side which was wide before provocation. conclusions. Asymmetry of congestive response during bilateral nasal allergen provocation is not dependent on the stage of the nasal cycle preceding the challenge.

  20. Nasal mucociliary transport in laryngectomees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavia, J.; Garcia, A.; Abello, R.; Herranz, R.; Franch, M.; Espana, R. de

    1986-01-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the mucociliary function of nasal mucosa in 30 patients: 16 had undergone surgery due to larynx malignancy and the remaining 14 were divided in two groups. The first group was composed of seven patients suffering from larynx cancer but not operated, and the second group of seven had pathology not related to the airways (control group). The method used a sup(99m)technetium sulphur colloid drop deposited on the nasal mucosa of one nostril. To calculate the rate of transport, a new method of quantification has been introduced, based on the formation of a parametric image. The mean velocity in laryngectomees was 3.6 mm/min (range 1.1-6.4). It was compared with the group of 14 patients without tracheostomy (mean 5.3, range 3.3-8.2). An impaired student's-t-test gave a significant difference between both groups (P<0.005). The comparison between patients with nonoperated larynx cancer and normals have a nonsignificant difference. The 16 operated patients were arbitrarily divided into two groups as per the time elapsed from laryngectomy; seven were studied within the first 3 years of operation and seven other patients after this term. The comparison between them was not significant. (orig.)

  1. [Clinical and anatomical characteristic of nasal injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surikov, E V; Ivanets, I V

    2009-01-01

    A fracture of nasal bones is becoming a very common injury due to the increasingly greater number of car accidents and aggravated criminal situation. A total of 500 cases of nasal fracture associated with external deformities were included in the present study. The following kinds of deformities were identified: unilateral retraction, lateral displacement of the entire dorsum of the nose, and depressed comminuted fracture. Rhinoscopy revealed in addition such abnormalities associated with septal fracture as submucous hemorrhage, pathological mobility of the pyramid, deflection of the nasal septum at an acute angle. All in all, four types of nasal septum fractures were distinguished depending on the shape and localization of the fracture line. Two of them resulted in marked impairment of nasal breathing while two others required surgical intervention in the acute period after the injury.

  2. Hot colors: the nature and specificity of color-induced nasal thermal sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, George A; Galich, Hélène; Relland, Solveig; Prud'hon, Sabine

    2010-03-05

    The nature of the recently discovered color-induced nasal thermal sensations was investigated in four Experiments. Subjects were required to fixate a bottle containing a red or green solution presented centrally (Exp1 and Exp4) or laterally (Exp2) and to sniff another bottle, always the same one, but which they were not allowed to see, containing 10 ml of a colorless, odorless and trigeminal-free solution. Each nostril was tested separately, and subjects were asked whether the sniffed solution induced warming or cooling sensations (plus an ambient sensation in Exp4) in the nasal cavity. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed the warming/left nostril-cooling/right nostril dissociation, suggesting the existence of different lateralized processes for thermal processing. However, Experiment 2 failed to demonstrate dominance of warming responses when subjects' eyes were directed to the left or cooling responses when they were directed to the right. Nor did gaze direction interact with the tested nostril. This suggests that the color-induced thermal sensations are specifically related to the nasal trigeminal system, rather than a general process related to general hemispheric activity. When the exposed bottles were colorless (Exp3), no lateralized patterns were observed, suggesting, in combination with the results of Experiments 1 and 2, that both color cues and nasal stimulations are necessary for lateralized patterns to arise. Rendering the temperature judgment even more difficult (Exp4), made the lateralized patterns shift towards the associated (i.e., ambient) responses. The results are discussed in a general framework which considers that, even in the absence of real thermal stimulus, preparing to process thermal stimuli in the nasal cavity may activate the underlying lateralized neural mechanisms, and that those mechanisms are reflected in the responses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  4. Effects of 0.12 and 0.80 PPM ozone on rat nasal and nasopharyngeal epithelial mucosubstances: Quantitative histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize changes in the quantity of mucosubstances in surface epithelia of rat nasal airways after short- term ozone exposure. Rats were exposed for 7 days (6 h/day) to 0.0, 0.12, or 0.8 ppm ozone, and killed immediately or 7 days after the last exposure. Nasal cavities were processed for morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances. Compared to controls, rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone had increased amounts of stored mucosubstances within epithelium lining the medial aspect of the nasal turbinate immediately after exposure, but no change within epithelia of the nasopharynx. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone had increased quantities of stored mucosubstances within transitional and respiratory epithelium lining turbinates and lateral walls of the anterior nasal airway and significant decreases in stored mucosubstances within epithelia of the nasal septum at the end of exposure. Seven days after the end of exposure, the amounts of intraepithelial mucosubstances returned to control levels along the septum, but remained greater than those of controls along the turbinates. We demonstrated that exposures to ambient levels of ozone induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium in the rat, and that these changes persist for at least 7 days post-exposure. (author)

  5. Linking Suspension Nasal Spray Drug Deposition Patterns to Pharmacokinetic Profiles: A Proof of Concept Study using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to link regional nasal spray deposition patterns of suspension formulations, predicted with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to in vivo human pharmacokinetic (PK) plasma concentration profiles. This is accomplished through the use of CFD simulations coupled with compartmental PK modeling. Results showed a rapid initial rise in plasma concentration that is due to the absorption of drug particles deposited in the nasal middle passages, followed by a slower increase in plasma concentration that is governed by the transport of drug particles from the nasal vestibule to the middle passages. Although drug deposition locations in the nasal cavity had a significant effect on the shape of the concentration profile, the absolute bioavailability remained constant provided that all of the drug remained in the nose over the course of the simulation. Loss of drug through the nostrils even after long time periods resulted in a significant decrease in bioavailability and increased variability. The results of this study quantify how differences in nasal drug deposition affect transient plasma concentrations and overall bioavailability. These findings are potentially useful for establishing bioequivalence for nasal spray devices and reducing the burden of in vitro testing, pharmacodynamics and clinical studies. PMID:27238495

  6. Nasal mucosa secretion exudation response to cold air in bronchial asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard V. Nekrasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Combined airway hyper responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli in asthma patients results in impairment of lung respiration function and poor disease control compared to patients with isolated airway hyper responsiveness to only one of the stimuli or without such responsiveness that can be connected with edema or mucus hypersecretion.Aim. The purpose of the study is the estimation of the processes of mucin secretion, plasma exudation and oxidative stress in response to cold air in asthma patients with combined airway responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli using nasal mucosa as a model.Materials and methods. 23 patients with asthma participated in the study. For the nasal lavage procedure, a nasal cavity was pre-washed at least three times in 5-min intervals with 5 ml saline solution (~36 °C. A control nasal lavage was done 5 min after the last washing with a dwelling time of 1 min in the nasal cavity. Directly after the control lavage, a cold air nasal challenge was done: a participant was asked to breathe deeply at the pace of a metronome to ensure hyperventilation inhaling cold air (–20 °C through the nose and exhaling through the mouth for 5 min. Nasal lavages were taken at 1 min, 15, and 30 min after the challenge. Mucin secretion was estimated on the basis of total protein (TP content, total carbohydrates (TC, and water-soluble forms of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B in the lavage fluids. For the estimation of plasma exudation, the concentration of α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG was measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in lavage fluid. Lung function and airway responsiveness were studied by the forced expiration spirometry method and the bronchial challenge tests with isocapnic cold air hyperventilation (CAHV and distilled water inhalation (DWI.Results. According to the bronchial challenge tests, the patients were divided into groups: 1 without airway

  7. Nasal highflow improves ventilation in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bräunlich J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jens Bräunlich,* Marcus Köhler,* Hubert WirtzDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Nasal highflow (NHF provides a warmed and humidified air stream up to 60 L/min. Recent data demonstrated a positive effect in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, especially when caused by pneumonia. Preliminary data show a decrease in hypercapnia in patients with COPD. Therefore, NHF should be evaluated as a new ventilatory support device. This study was conducted to assess the impact of different flow rates on ventilatory parameters in patients with COPD.Materials and methods: This interventional clinical study was performed with patients suffering from severe COPD. The aim was to characterize flow-dependent changes in mean airway pressure, breathing volumes, breathing frequency, and decrease in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2. Mean airway pressure was measured in the nasopharyngeal space (19 patients. To evaluate breathing volumes, we used a polysomnographic device (18 patients. All patients received 20 L/min, 30 L/min, 40 L/min, and 50 L/min and – to illustrate the effects – nasal continuous positive airway pressure and nasal bilevel positive airway pressure. Capillary blood gas analyses were performed in 54 patients with hypercapnic COPD before and two hours after the use of NHF. We compared the extent of decrease in pCO2 when using 20 L/min and 30 L/min. Additionally, comfort and dyspnea during the use of NHF were surveyed.Results: NHF resulted in a minor flow dependent increase in mean airway pressure. Tidal volume increased, and breathing rate decreased. The calculated minute volume decreased under NHF breathing. In spite of this fact, hypercapnia decreased with increasing flow (20 L/min vs 30 L/min. Additionally, an improvement in dyspnea was observed. The rapid shallow breathing index shows a decrease when using NHF.Conclusion: NHF

  8. Nasal septum resection due congenital thickness in foalsRessecção de septo nasal devido ao espessamento congênito em potros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Felipe Paulino de Figueiredo Wouk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasal obstructions caused by nasal septal diseases are uncommon in horses and the main causes are malformations, mucosal lesions, neoplasias and trauma. The aim of this case report is to describe two cases of nasal obstruction in foals. Clinical signs were progressive with reduction of air flow bilaterally, intense respiratory noise and dyspnea. Endoscopy evaluation was not performed because, in both cases, it was not possible to introduce the probe into the nasal cavity due to bilateral stenosis. Radiographic exam confirmed nasal septum thickness. Both animals were submitted to septum resection surgery. In order to promote a better respiratory condition, tracheotomy was performed in both foals prior the surgery. The surgical technique applied was modified from DOYLE technique described previously (2005. Briefly, nasal bone trephine role was initially done in order to do osteotomy of its caudal portion. For osteotomy a modified osteotomy was used. The dorsal and ventral limits of the nasal bone were removed with a obstetric wire protected by metalical guide. After surgical recovery, in both cases, the clinical exam showed that the air flow was normal and without noise, allowing the foals to breathe normally. Tracheotomy healed by second intention. After eight months both foals breathed comfortably and they were suitable for physical activity. Histopathology evaluation did not show signs of inflammation, neoplasia, and any other histological changes, suggesting the thickness was congenital.Obstruções nasais causadas por doenças do septo nasal são incomuns em cavalos e as principais causas são: malformações, lesões nas mucosas, neoplasias e trauma. O objetivo deste relato é descrever dois casos de obstrução nasal congênita em potros. Os sinais clínicos demonstravam redução progressiva do fluxo de ar bilateral, ruído respiratório e dispnéia intensa. Não foi possível realizar avaliação endoscópica pois em ambos os casos, n

  9. Comparison of Early-period Results of Nasal Splint and Merocel Nasal Packs in Septoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingöl, Fatih; Budak, Ali; Şimşek, Eda; Kılıç, Korhan; Bingöl, Buket Özel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several types of nasal packs are used postoperatively in septoplasty. In this study, we compared two commonly used nasal packing materials, the intranasal septal splint with airway and Merocel tampon, in terms of pain, bleeding, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, discomfort in sleep, and pain and bleeding during removal of packing in the early period. Methods The study group included 60 patients undergoing septoplasty. Patients were divided into two groups (n=30 in each group). An intranasal splint with airway was used for the patients in the first group after septoplasty, while Merocel nasal packing was used for the second group. Patients were investigated in terms of seven different factors - pain, bleeding while the tampon was in place, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, night sleep, pain during removal of the nasal packing, and bleeding after removal of packing. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pain 24 hours after operation (p=0.05), while visual analog scale (VAS) scores for nasal obstruction, night sleep, eating difficulties, and pain during packing removal were lower in the nasal splint group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative bleeding (p=0.23). Significantly less bleeding occurred during removal of the packing in the nasal splint group (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study indicates that the nasal splint was more comfortable and effective in terms of causing lesser bleeding and pain during removal of packing. PMID:29392071

  10. Cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following three months exposure to formaldehyde gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, T.M.; Morgan, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO), a ubiquitous chemical and rat nasal carcinogen, enhances cell proliferation in rat, monkey, and xenotransplanted human respiratory epithelium following short-term exposure. The present studies were designed to evaluate cell proliferation in relation to tumor induction in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following subchronic HCHO exposure. Male F-344 rats were whole-body exposed to either 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, or 15 ppm HCHO, for wither 4 d (6hr/d), 6 wks (5d/wk) or 3 months. Animals were labeled with tritiated thymidine prior to euthanasia. Nasal sections were processed for autoradiography and cell proliferation data was expressed as unit length labeling indices (ULLI). HCHO-induced lesions and increases in cell proliferation occurred in specific regions of the nose, primarily the wall of the lateral meatus and nasal septum of the anterior nasal cavity. Following 4 d exposure, significant elevations in cell proliferation were observed only in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups (16-, 18-, and 20-fold increase over control, respectively). Increases in ULLI were also present in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups after 6 wks of exposure (12-, 35-, and 40-fold increase over control). However, after 3 months exposure, elevations in ULLI were present only in the 10 and 15 ppm groups (9- and 14-fold increase over controls). These results demonstrate that (1) low levels of HCHO (0.7 and 2 ppm) do not increase cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium; (2) 6 ppm HCHO induces transient increases in cell proliferation; and (3) clearly carcinogenic concentrations of HCHO (10 and 15 ppm) cause sustained elevations in cell proliferation which may play an important role in HCHO-induced carcinogenesis

  11. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M

    1999-01-01

    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  12. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  13. Spectral features of nasals in Standard Latvian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Taperte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the acoustic features of nasals in Standard Latvian are investigated. The aim of the study is to examine whether some of the spectral properties of nasal murmur (namely anti-formant frequency, as well as frequency and bandwidth of the first nasal formant can be considered as efficient cues for distinguishing between nasal places of articulation.Speech recordings from 10 native speakers of Standard Latvian, five male and five female, aged 19–39, without any disorders or dialectal traces in their pronunciation, were used for the analysis. Prevocalic nasals [m; n; ɲ] were analyzed in isolated CVC syllables, where C is one of the nasals and V is one of the vowels [i(ː; e(ː; æ(ː; ɑ(ː; ɔ(ː; u(ː]. The velar [ŋ] — the allophone of the phoneme /n/ — was recorded in postvocalic position in [k]V[ŋks] structure units. 1260 items were analyzed in total.According to the results, the nasals of Standard Latvian can be distinguished by anti-formant frequencies rather efficiently, and the results generally agree with those obtained in previous research of Latvian as well as data reported for other languages. The frequencies and the bandwidths of the first nasal formant are less informative regarding nasal place of articulation and can be used only for distinguishing between [ŋ] and [m; n; ɲ]. Conducting perception tests to assess the auditory relevance of these acoustic features is necessary.

  14. Omalizumab a new prospective: a nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, C; Begvarfaj, E; Frati, F; Masieri, S

    2018-01-01

    Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody against IgE, may be effective on nasal polyps, but its use is not currently authorized to treat that disease. We report the cases of three patients who were given omalizumab for asthma after undergoing nasal surgical polypectomy. Although such procedure is frequently followed by polyp recurrence, none of the three patients developed this complication, and in one subject the regression of initial polyp return was registered after starting omalizumab. Our data support the hypothesis that omalizumab may be useful to treat nasal polyposis.

  15. Angiomatous nasal polyp: Clinical diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiomatous polyp (Angiectatic nasal polyps is rare and its incidence is 4-5% of all nasal polyps. As it occurs with variable clinical features and there is no confirmatory preoperative investigation, clinical diagnosis can be a dilemma. Clinical picture of angiofibroma, simple antrochoanal polyp and inverted papilloma may resemble with each other. As polyps invade surrounding bone, these should be distinguished from a malignant mass. We present an interesting case of an infarcted angiectatic nasal polyp with extensive surrounding bony destruction. Correct preoperative radiological diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary extensive surgery. Histopathological evaluation of polyps is mandatory since they require different treatment due to difference in the prognosis.

  16. Three-dimensional evaluation of nasal and pharyngeal airway after Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, S M; Gorgulu, S; Karacayli, U; Gokce, H S; Battal, B

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate volumetric changes in the nasal cavity (NC) and pharyngeal airway space (PAS) after Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis (MDO) using a three-dimensional (3D) simulation program, and to determine the effects of MDO on respiratory function during sleep with polysomnography (PSG). 3D computed tomography images were obtained and analyzed before surgery (T0) and at a mean 8.2 ± 1.2 months postsurgery (T1) (SimPlant-OMS software) for 11 male patients (mean age 25.3 ± 5.9 years) with severe skeletal class III anomalies related to maxillary retrognathia. The simulation of osteotomies and placement of distractors were performed on stereolithographic 3D models. NC and PAS were segmented separately on these models for comparison of changes between T0 and T1. PSG including the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), sleep efficiency, sleep stages (weakness, stages 1-4, and rapid eye movement (REM)), and mean lowest arterial O2 saturation were obtained at T0 and T1 to investigate changes in respiratory function during sleep. MDO was successful in all cases as planned on the models; the average forward movement at A point was 10.2mm. Increases in NC and PAS volume after MDO were statistically significant. These increases resulted in significant improvement in sleep quality. PSG parameters changed after MDO; AHI and sleep stages weakness, 1, and 2 decreased, whereas REM, stages 3 and 4, sleep efficiency, and mean O2 saturation increased. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  18. The Nature of Nasal Fricatives: Articulatory-Perceptual Characteristics and Etiologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, David J

    2015-07-01

    Nasal fricatives (NFs) are unusual, maladaptive articulations used by children both with and without palatal anomalies to replace oral fricatives. Nasal fricatives vary in articulatory, aerodynamic, and acoustic-perceptual characteristics with two generally distinct types recognized. One type is produced with velopharyngeal (VP) constriction that results in turbulent nasal airflow and, frequently, tissue vibration (flutter) at the VP port. Trost (1981) described these as posterior NFs that have a distinctive snorting quality. A second type of NF is produced without significant VP constriction resulting in turbulent airflow generated at the anterior liminal valve of the nose. Of importance, both types are "active" alternative articulations in that the speaker occludes the oral cavity to direct all airflow through the nose (Harding & Grunwell, 1998). It is this oral gesture that differentiates NFs from obligatory (or passive) nasal air escape that may sound similar due to incomplete VP closure. The purpose of this article is to (1) describe the articulatory, aerodynamic, and acoustic-perceptual nature of NFs, and (2) propose a theoretical framework for the acquisition of NFs by children both with and without cleft palate.

  19. The Effect of Septoplasty on Voice Performance in Patients With Severe and Mild Nasal Septal Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, Doğan; Özcan, Kürşat Murat; Gürbüz, Ayşe Betül Topak; Dere, Hüseyin

    2016-07-01

    The authors aimed to analyze the effect of septoplasty, performed in 2 groups with different grades of nasal septal deviation (NSD), on voice performance. A total of 43 patients who had septoplasty due to NSD and were included in the study. The study groups were divided into 2 groups as groups A and B. The patients in group A had severe NSD, and 1 of the nasal cavity was obstructed totally or near totally. In group B, the NSD narrowed the nasal passage, and the deviation was not severe. The voice performance was analyzed preoperatively, and 1 month after surgery with both objective and subjective methods. Objective analysis included acoustic voice analysis, and measurement of F0, jitter %, shimmer %. Preoperative and postoperative F0, jitter %, shimmer %, and Voice Handicap Index-30 (VHI-30) were compared in groups A and B. F0 showed a statistically significant improvement after surgery in group A (P performed for severe NSD obstructing nasal lumen totally or near totally results in significant improvements in the voice performance.

  20. The Heimlich Valve for Pleural Cavity Drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY | www.annalsofafricansurgery.com. The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. July 2016 Volume 13 Issue 2 45. The Heimlich Valve for Pleural Cavity Drainage. Winston Ominde Makanga1, Andrew Nyaoncha Nyangau2 , Benjamin Njoga Njihia3. 1. St Mary's Mission Hospital, Elementaita.

  1. Transcriptomic profiling of interacting nasal staphylococci species reveals global changes in gene and non-coding RNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Grith Miriam Maigaard; Sazinas, Pavelas; Kofod, Ditte

    2018-01-01

    Interspecies interactions between bacterial pathogens and the commensal microbiota can influence disease outcome. In the nasal cavities, Staphylococcus epidermidis has been shown to be a determining factor for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and biofilm formation. However, the interaction...... between S. epidermidis and S. aureus has mainly been described by phenotypic analysis, and little is known about how this interaction modulates gene expression.This study aimed to determine the interactome of nasal S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates to understand the molecular effect of interaction...... also identified putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and, interestingly, detected a putative ncRNA transcribed antisense to esp, the serine protease of S. epidermidis, that has previously been shown to inhibit nasal colonization of S. aureus. In our study, the gene encoding Esp and the antisense nc...

  2. Effect of Local Nasal Immunotherapy on Nasal Blockage in Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nabe

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Local nasal immunotherapy may be clinically useful for allergic nasal blockage associated with nasal hyperresponsiveness. The mechanisms responsible for this effectiveness might not be related to IgE production. Additionally, the effectiveness for nasal tissue was dissociated from that seen for the ocular tissue.

  3. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  4. Unilateral nasal pain with migraine features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mónica; Montojo, Teresa; de la Casa, Beatriz; Vela, Lydia; Pareja, Juan A

    2013-09-01

    Migraine attacks exclusively felt in the face are very rare, the pain involving the territories supplied by the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve. Two patients suffering from heminasal pain attacks accompanied with typical migrainous features and responsive to oral or intranasal triptans - but not to intranasal lidocaine or oxymetazoline. In one patient, the attacks could be precipitated upon slight touching on the tip of the nose, in the other attacks were preceded by the nasal sensation typically heralding sneezing. Migraine pain mostly develops within the innervation territory of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve, which includes the nose. Therefore, episodes of unilateral nasal pain with migrainous features could be considered a migraine with unusual topography (nasal migraine). Painful nasal attacks occasionally preceded by stimulation of trigeminal afferents in the nose, could be conceived of as migraine-tic syndrome.

  5. Periapical Infection Masquerading as a Nasal Pustule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Endodontic treatment, Maxillary central incisor, Nasal pustule, Periapical infection,. Root length ... back under copious irrigation. Non‑setting calcium ... of working length. Figure 4: Obturated root canal of maxillary right central incisor ...

  6. Human factor in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Nouwen (Jan); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPersistent nasal carriers and noncarriers of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated with a mixture of different S. aureus strains. The majority of noncarriers and nearly all persistent carriers returned to their original carrier state after artificial inoculation. Furthermore, the

  7. Atrophic rhinitis and other nasal lesions induced by a 1-month exposure of F344 rats to 0.25 or 0.5 ppm ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Wacnik, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone, the principal oxidant pollutant of photochemical smog, is a common inhaled toxicant for metropolitan area residents. The effects of acute and chronic ozone exposure on inflammatory cell influx, hyperplasia, and secretory cell metaplasia within the surface epithelium lining rat nasal airways have previously been reported. On the other hand, there is a paucity of data describing the effects of ozone exposure on the subepithelial tissues (i.e., lamina propria and bone) of nasal turbinates. However, recently, a significant decrease in nasal turbinate bone area in rats chronically exposed (20 mo) to 1 ppm ozone was reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 1-mo ozone exposure on subepithelial tissue compartments of maxilloturbinates in the anterior nasal cavity of rats

  8. Cavity design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous computer programs are available to help accelerator physicists and engineers model and design accelerator cavities and other microwave components. This article discusses the problems these programs solve and the principles upon which these programs are based. Some examples of how these programs are used in the design of accelerator cavities are also given

  9. Cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, Herbert; Varcoe, Benjamin T H; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Becker, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the work on cavity quantum electrodynamics of free atoms. In recent years, cavity experiments have also been conducted on a variety of solid-state systems resulting in many interesting applications, of which microlasers, photon bandgap structures and quantum dot structures in cavities are outstanding examples. Although these phenomena and systems are very interesting, discussion is limited here to free atoms and mostly single atoms because these systems exhibit clean quantum phenomena and are not disturbed by a variety of other effects. At the centre of our review is the work on the one-atom maser, but we also give a survey of the entire field, using free atoms in order to show the large variety of problems dealt with. The cavity interaction can be separated into two main regimes: the weak coupling in cavity or cavity-like structures with low quality factors Q and the strong coupling when high-Q cavities are involved. The weak coupling leads to modification of spontaneous transitions and level shifts, whereas the strong coupling enables one to observe a periodic exchange of photons between atoms and the radiation field. In this case, atoms and photons are entangled, this being the basis for a variety of phenomena observed, some of them leading to interesting applications in quantum information processing. The cavity experiments with free atoms reached a new domain with the advent of experiments in the visible spectral region. A review on recent achievements in this area is also given

  10. Alkaline phosphatase in nasal secretion of cattle: biochemical and molecular characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, M Faizal; Koh-Tan, H H Caline; McLaughlin, Mark; Montague, Paul; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Eckersall, P David

    2014-09-05

    Nasal secretion (NS) was investigated as a source of information regarding the mucosal and systemic immune status of cattle challenged by respiratory disease. A method for the collection of substantial volumes (~12 ml) of NS from cattle was developed to establish a reference range of analytes that are present in the NS of healthy cattle. Biochemical profiles of NS from a group of 38 healthy Holstein-Friesian cows revealed high alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity of up to 2392 IU/L. The character and source of the high activity of AP in bovine NS was investigated. Histochemical analysis confirmed the localization of the AP enzyme activity to epithelial cells and serous glands of the nasal respiratory mucosa. Analysis of mRNA levels from nasal mucosa by end point RT-PCR and PCR product sequencing confirmed that the AP was locally produced and is identical at the nucleotide level to the non-specific AP splice variant found in bovine liver, bone and kidney. Analysis by isoelectric focussing confirmed that AP was produced locally at a high level in nasal epithelium demonstrating that AP from nasal secretion and nasal mucosa had similar pI bands, though differing from those of the liver, kidney, bone and intestine, suggesting different post-translational modification (PTM) of AP in these tissues. A nasal isozyme of AP has been identified that is present at a high activity in NS, resulting from local production and showing distinctive PTM and may be active in NS as an anti-endotoxin mediator.

  11. Anatomy of nasal complex in the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis (Cetacea, Mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Mónica R; Fernández, Marta S; Fordyce, R Ewan; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2015-01-01

    The nasal region of the skull has undergone dramatic changes during the course of cetacean evolution. In particular, mysticetes (baleen whales) conserve the nasal mammalian pattern associated with the secondary function of olfaction, and lack the sound-producing specializations present in odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises). To improve our understanding of the morphology of the nasal region of mysticetes, we investigate the nasal anatomy, osteology and myology of the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis, and make comparisons with other mysticetes. In E. australis external deflection surfaces around the blowholes appear to divert water off the head, and differ in appearance from those observed in balaenopterids, eschrichtiids and cetotherids. In E. australis the blowholes are placed above hypertrophied nasal soft tissues formed by fat and nasal muscles, a pattern also observed in balaenopterids (rorqual mysticetes) and a cetotherid (pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata). Blowhole movements are due to the action of five nasofacial muscles: dilator naris superficialis, dilator naris profundus, depressor alae nasi, constrictor naris, and retractor alae nasi. The dilator naris profundus found in E. australis has not been previously reported in balaenopterids. The other nasofacial muscles have a similar arrangement in balaenopterids, with minor differences. A novel structure, not reported previously in any mysticete, is the presence of a vascular tissue (rete mirabile) covering the lower nasal passage. This vascular tissue could play a role in warming inspired air, or may engorge to accommodate loss of respiratory space volume due to gas compression from increased pressure during diving. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  12. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  13. Formation of coronal cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Suess, S.T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Steinolfson, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study of the formation of a coronal cavity and its relation to a quiescent prominence is presented. It is argued that the formation of a cavity is initiated by the condensation of plasma which is trapped by the coronal magnetic field in a closed streamer and which then flows down to the chromosphere along the field lines due to lack of stable magnetic support against gravity. The existence of a coronal cavity depends on the coronal magnetic field strength; with low strength, the plasma density is not high enough for condensation to occur. Furthermore, we suggest that prominence and cavity material is supplied from the chromospheric level. Whether a coronal cavity and a prominence coexist depends on the magnetic field configuration; a prominence requires stable magnetic support

  14. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

  15. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  16. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  17. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P. [National Inst. for Working Life, Solna (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  18. [Understanding Oral and Nasal Mucosal Absorption of Fentanyl, and Rectal Absorption of Buprenorphine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi; Kubota, Yukino; Kato, Yoko

    2015-11-01

    One of the key issues in the treatment of pain is to choose the appropriate route and dosage form of analgesics for each individual patient in pain. New drug forms of fentanyl absorbed by oral or nasal mucosa, and buprenorphine absorbed by rectal mucosa are described in this chapter. Only lipophilic opioids such as fentanyl and buprenorphine can be absorbed via the mucosa of oral or nasal cavity of the human body. The T max of rapid onset opioids (ROO) such as fentanyl buccal or sublingual tablets is the fastest among various dosage forms of opioid analgesics. However, such rapid increase in plasma concentration of fentanyl by ROO formulations may cause the risk of respiratory depression. Safe ways to use ROO analgesics are described.

  19. NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercos-Pita, J. L.; Cal, I. R.; Duque, D.; de Moreta, G. Sanjuán

    2018-02-01

    The tool NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software, is here described. As a free software, researchers and professionals are welcome to obtain, analyze, improve and redistribute it, potentially increasing the rate of development, and reducing at the same time ethical conflicts regarding medical applications which cannot be analyzed. Additionally, the tool has been optimized for the specific task of reading upper respiratory tract Computerized Tomography scans, and producing 3D geometries. The reconstruction process is divided into three stages: preprocessing (including Metal Artifact Reduction, noise removal, and feature enhancement), segmentation (where the nasal cavity is identified), and 3D geometry reconstruction. The tool has been automatized (i.e. no human intervention is required) a critical feature to avoid bias in the reconstructed geometries. The applied methodology is discussed, as well as the program robustness and precision.

  20. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N F; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Cuddihy, R G

    1988-12-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  1. Development and gamma-scintigraphy study of Hibiscus rosasinensis polysaccharide-based microspheres for nasal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitin; Tyagi, Shanu; Gupta, Satish Kumar; Kulkarni, Giriraj Thirupathirao; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the application of natural plant polysaccharide as pharmaceutical mucoadhesive excipients in delivery systems to reduce the clearance rate through nasal cavity. Novel natural polysaccharide (Hibiscus rosasinensis)-based mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by using emulsion crosslinking method for the delivery of rizatriptan benzoate (RB) through nasal route. Mucoadhesive microspheres were characterized for different parameters and nasal clearance of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-radiolabeled microspheres was determined by using gamma-scintigraphy. Their Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the drug was stable during preparation of microspheres. Aerodynamic diameter of microspheres was in the range 13.23 ± 1.83-33.57 ± 3.69 µm. Change in drug and polysaccharide ratio influenced the mucoadhesion, encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro release property. Scintigraphs taken at regular interval indicate that control solution was cleared rapidly from nasal cavity, whereas microspheres showed slower clearance (p < 0.005) with half-life of 160 min. Natural polysaccharide-based microspheres achieved extended residence by minimizing effect of mucociliary clearance with opportunity of sustained delivery for longer duration.

  2. Immunoglobulins in nasal secretions of healthy humans: structural integrity of secretory immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and occurrence of neutralizing antibodies to IgA1 proteases of nasal bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, L; Rasmussen, TT; Reinholdt, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Certain bacteria, including overt pathogens as well as commensals, produce immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases. By cleaving IgA1, including secretory IgA1, in the hinge region, these enzymes may interfere with the barrier functions of mucosal IgA antibodies, as indicated by experiments in vitro....... Previous studies have suggested that cleavage of IgA1 in nasal secretions may be associated with the development and perpetuation of atopic disease. To clarify the potential effect of IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal cavity, we have analyzed immunoglobulin isotypes in nasal secretions of 11...... healthy humans, with a focus on IgA, and at the same time have characterized and quantified IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal flora of the subjects. Samples in the form of nasal wash were collected by using a washing liquid that contained lithium as an internal reference. Dilution factors and...

  3. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  4. Superconducting TESLA cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aune

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron collider TESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with an accelerating gradient of E_{acc}≥25 MV/m at a quality factor Q_{0}≥5×10^{9}. The design goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF linac was set to the more moderate value of E_{acc}≥15 MV/m. In a first series of 27 industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q_{0}=5×10^{9} was measured to be 20.1±6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering from serious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTF cavities, additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular, an eddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusions and stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. The average gradient of these cavities at Q_{0}=5×10^{9} amounts to 25.0±3.2 MV/m with the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only a moderate improvement in production and preparation techniques will be needed to meet the ambitious TESLA goal with an adequate safety margin. In this paper we present a detailed description of the design, fabrication, and preparation of the TESLA Test Facility cavities and their associated components and report on cavity performance in test cryostats and with electron beam in the TTF linac. The ongoing research and development towards higher gradients is briefly addressed.

  5. Nasal obstruction and smell impairment in nasal polyp disease: correlation between objective and subjective parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Bobic, S.; Callebaux, I.; Jorissen, M.; Hellings, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their

  6. Nasal endotracheal intubation in a premature infant with a nasal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, C M; Kashab, M; Dagestani, H; Placzek, M

    1993-01-01

    After a difficult nasal intubation a premature infant leaked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one nostril. After developing bacterial meningitis, the baby was referred for neurosurgical management of the CSF fistula. Transaxial computed tomograms demonstrated a nasal encephalocele, but coronal scans were needed to show the defect in the cribriform plate. Images PMID:8346963

  7. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  8. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-02-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV /m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV /m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30 - 35 MV /m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV /m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc=30 - 35 MV /m . One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have been

  9. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients E_{acc} up to 35  MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP and up to 42  MV/m after electropolishing (EP. More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients E_{acc} of 30–35  MV/m were measured after BCP and E_{acc} up to 40  MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of E_{acc}=30–35  MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and

  10. Clinical aspects of patients with nasal polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo, Cassio Caldini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasal Polyposis is a non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. It causes a large impact to the patients' life quality. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of patients with polyposis in the Brazilian population. Method: 50 records of patients followed up in a tertiary hospital and submitted to surgical treatment of nasal polyposis were reviewed. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, smoking, presence of asthma, presence of AAS intolerance and also the clinical manifestations: anterior and posterior rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, hyposmia, sneezing and pruritus. The tomographic evaluation system applied was that of Lund-McKay. For statistical analysis we applied the chi-square test with p<0.05. Results: Out of 50 patients evaluated, 28 were male and 22 were female. The mean age range was of 40.8 years. The main clinical manifestation was nasal obstruction in 100% of the patients. In the tomographic evaluation, according to the Lund-McKay system, the average scoring was of 10.9. Discussion: No statistically significant difference was obtained in the patients' general symptoms compared to the patients with asthma or AAS intolerance. The difference in the Lund-McKay score was statistically significant in the populations studied. The symptoms were similar to the frequency of symptoms of other works. Conclusion: We concluded that the main complaint of the patients with nasal polyposis is nasal obstruction, the most affected age is of about 40 years old, without preference of sex. The severity of tomographic findings is higher in patients with asthma and AAS intolerance.

  11. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2014-11-01

    The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread

  12. Prognostic significance of preoperative metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, In Sun; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korean Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in human solid cancers; yet few studies have investigated their clinical and prognostic significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present retrospective study evaluated the utility of pretreatment MTV and TLG measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to predict survival and occult metastasis (OM) in OSCC. Of 162 patients with OSCC evaluated preoperatively by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, 105 who underwent definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy were eligible. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), MTV and TLG were measured. For calculation of MTV, 3-D regions of interest were drawn and a SUV threshold of 2.5 was used for defining regions. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified clinicopathological and imaging variables associated with OM, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The median (range) SUV{sub max}, MTV and TLG were 7.3 (0.7-41.9), 4.5 ml (0.7-115.1 ml) and 18.3 g (2.4-224.1 g), respectively. Of 53 patients with clinically negative lymph nodes, OM was detected in 19 (36 %). By univariate and multivariate analyses, MTV (P = 0.018) and TLG (P = 0.011) were both independent predictive factors for OM, although they were not independent of each other. The 4-year DFS and OS rates were 53.0 % and 62.0 %, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that MTV (P = 0.001) and TLG (P = 0.006), with different cut-off levels, were both independent predictive factors for DFS, although they were not independent of each other, and MTV (P = 0.001), TLG (P = 0.002) and the involved resection margin (P = 0.007) were independent predictive factors for OS. Pretreatment MTV and TLG may be useful in stratifying the likelihood of survival and predicting OM in OSCC. (orig.)

  13. Nasal mask ventilation is better than face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Mukul Chandra; Rana, Sandeep; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Vishal, Vindhya; Sikdar, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Face mask ventilation of the edentulous patient is often difficult as ineffective seating of the standard mask to the face prevents attainment of an adequate air seal. The efficacy of nasal ventilation in edentulous patients has been cited in case reports but has never been investigated. Consecutive edentulous adult patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, during a 17-month period, were prospectively evaluated. After induction of anesthesia and administration of neuromuscular blocker, lungs were ventilated with a standard anatomical face mask of appropriate size, using a volume controlled anesthesia ventilator with tidal volume set at 10 ml/kg. In case of inadequate ventilation, the mask position was adjusted to achieve best-fit. Inspired and expired tidal volumes were measured. Thereafter, the face mask was replaced by a nasal mask and after achieving best-fit, the inspired and expired tidal volumes were recorded. The difference in expired tidal volumes and airway pressures at best-fit with the use of the two masks and number of patients with inadequate ventilation with use of the masks were statistically analyzed. A total of 79 edentulous patients were recruited for the study. The difference in expiratory tidal volumes with the use of the two masks at best-fit was statistically significant (P = 0.0017). Despite the best-fit mask placement, adequacy of ventilation could not be achieved in 24.1% patients during face mask ventilation, and 12.7% patients during nasal mask ventilation and the difference was statistically significant. Nasal mask ventilation is more efficient than standard face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

  14. Effect of vehicle on the nasal absorption of epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleske, B E; Rice, T L; Warren, E W; Giacherio, D A; Gilligan, L J; Massey, K D; Chrisp, C E; Tait, A R

    1996-01-01

    We have shown in previous studies that epinephrine administered intranasally is a feasible route of administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). To promote the absorption of epinephrine we administered phentolamine prior to epinephrine and used a bile salt as a vehicle to dissolve the epinephrine. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different vehicles (bile salt vs surfactant) in promoting the absorption of nasally administered epinephrine during CPR and to determine their effects on the nasal mucosa. A randomized, blinded study. A controlled laboratory environment. Eleven mongrel dogs. Each dog underwent 3 minutes of unassisted ventricular fibrillation (VF) followed by 7 minutes of VF with CPR. Five minutes after the start of VF, 10 dogs received intranasal phentolamine 0.25 mg/kg/nostril followed 1 minute later by intranasal epinephrine 7.5 mg/kg/nostril. The epinephrine was dissolved in a randomly assigned vehicle consisting of either taurodeoxycholic acid (group A, bile salt) or polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether (group B, surfactant). One animal acted as a control and received 0.9% sodium chloride nasally. Data from eight dogs (one control) were included for analysis. Histology of the nasal cavity demonstrated severe multifocal erosion and ulceration of the respiratory epithelium for groups A and B compared with the control. The severity was similar between the two groups. In addition, no significant differences in plasma epinephrine concentrations or blood pressure responses were seen between the groups. Based on histology, polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether offered no advantage over taurodeoxycholic acid in its effect on the nasal mucosa. The data available for changes in epinephrine concentration and pressure also suggest no difference between the two vehicles in promoting the absorption of epinephrine during CPR in an animal model.

  15. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.

  16. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: ... more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at ...

  17. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased

  18. accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  19. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  20. Stereolithographic volume evaluation of healing and shaping after rhinoplasty operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlidede, Soner; Turgut, Gürsel; Gönen, Emre; Kayali, Mahmut Ulvi; Baş, Lütfü

    2009-07-01

    Nasal edema and volume changes are unavoidable processes during the healing period after rhinoplasty. Various applications were reported regarding the prevention of early edema; however, the literature shows no study focused on the course of the nasal edema and volume changes up-to-date. We aimed to study the nasal volume changes during the first year of postoperative healing period and to form a recovery and volume change diagram with the obtained data. We prepared standard frames and nasal molds of 7 rhinoplasty patients at regular time intervals (preoperative period and at the postoperative 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th, and 52nd weeks). Plaster nasal models were created by using these molds. Volumes of models were measured by computed tomographic scanning and three-dimensional image processing programs. According to our results, the nasal edema reaches its maximum level at the postoperative fourth week and then rapidly decreases until its minimum level at the eighth week. In contrast with the general opinion, the nasal volume begins to increase smoothly reaching to a level minimally below the preoperative value by the end of the first year.

  1. The Superconducting TESLA Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, B.; Bloess, D.; Bonin, B.; Bosotti, A.; Champion, M.; Crawford, C.; Deppe, G.; Dwersteg, B.; Edwards, D.A.; Edwards, H.T.; Ferrario, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Gall, P-D.; Gamp, A.; Gössel, A.; Graber, J.; Hubert, D.; Hüning, M.; Juillard, M.; Junquera, T.; Kaiser, H.; Kreps, G.; Kuchnir, M.; Lange, R.; Leenen, M.; Liepe, M.; Lilje, L.; Matheisen, A.; Möller, W-D.; Mosnier, A.; Padamsee, H.; Pagani, C.; Pekeler, M.; Peters, H-B.; Peters, O.; Proch, D.; Rehlich, K.; Reschke, D.; Safa, H.; Schilcher, T.; Schmüser, P.; Sekutowicz, J.; Simrock, S.; Singer, W.; Tigner, M.; Trines, D.; Twarowski, K.; Weichert, G.; Weisend, J.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Wolff, S.; Zapfe, K.

    2000-01-01

    The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron colliderTESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with anaccelerating gradient of Eacc >= 25 MV/m at a quality factor Q0 > 5E+9. Thedesign goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac was set tothe more moderate value of Eacc >= 15 MV/m. In a first series of 27industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q0 = 5E+9 wasmeasured to be 20.1 +- 6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering fromserious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTFcavities additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular aneddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusionsand stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. Theaverage gradient of these cavities at Q0 = 5E+9 amounts to 25.0 +- 3.2 MV/mwith the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only amoderate improvement in production and preparation technique...

  2. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  3. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Okumura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the posterior edge of the nasal septum. An 11-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for one year. Based on the clinical presentation and imaging studies, juvenile angiofibroma was suspected, but angiography suggested the possibility of another type of tumor. Transnasal endoscopic surgery found that the tumor protruded into the nasopharynx from the posterior end of the nasal septum. Histological examination identified spindle cells with immunoreaction for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, but not for desmin and cytokeratin. This is a report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This case suggests that angiography is helpful in the differential diagnosis of epipharyngeal tumor in adolescence.

  4. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  5. Nasal budesonide offers superior symptom relief in perennial allergic rhinitis in comparison to nasal azelastine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M A; Wade, A G; Ridout, S M; Cambell, L M

    1998-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis is usually treated with oral antihistamines or nasal steroids. Topically active nasal antihistamine is a new treatment modality for allergic rhinitis. The efficacy in comparison to well established topical treatment alternatives is not fully known. To compare the efficacy of intranasally administered azelastine to budesonide, at their respectively recommended dosage, on the symptoms of perennial rhinitis patients. A placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension (256 microg once daily) with azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray (280 microg twice daily (560 microg/day)) and with placebo in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. The 195 patients (with at least a 2-year history of perennial allergic rhinitis) recorded individual nasal symptom scores, the degree of symptom control achieved and any adverse events experienced over a 2-week baseline period and a 6-week treatment period. Following treatment, the reductions in mean combined and individual nasal symptom scores from baseline values were significantly greater in the budesonide group compared with the placebo group (P < .0001 for all variables except runny nose P = .01). In patients treated with budesonide, there were also significantly larger reductions from baseline values in combined nasal symptom scores (P < .01) and in scores for all individual nasal symptoms (P < or = .05) compared with those treated with azelastine. The reductions from baseline in both combined and individual nasal symptom scores did not differ between azelastine and placebo. The study medications were well tolerated, producing no unexpected or serious treatment-related adverse events. A once-daily dose of 256 microg of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension is significantly more effective at relieving the symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis compared with a twice daily dose of 280 microg of azelastine

  6. Transnasal endoscopic resection of vascular leiomyomas of the nasal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The endoscope technique offers simple, rapid access to the nasal septum, and excellent visualization; it is a safe, minimally invasive, efficient procedure for removing benign nasal septum tumors that leaves no scar on the face.

  7. Nasal Osteogenic Chondrosarcoma: A Case Report | Adeniji | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At emergency tracheostomy, examination under anaesthesia, meticulous nasal and nasopharyngeal tumour clearance was done. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed osteogenic chondrosarcoma. CONCLUSION: Though rare, osteogenic chondrosarcoma affects nasal bones. Clinically the tumour mimicks ...

  8. Esthetic rhinoplasty as an adjunctive technique in nasal oncoplastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adham Farouk

    2016-01-15

    Jan 15, 2016 ... Esthetic rhinoplasty;. Oncoplastic surgery nose;. Basal cell carcinoma;. Squamous cell carcinoma;. Nonmelanoma skin cancer;. Nasal reconstruction ... Conclusions: Esthetic rhinoplasty is a useful adjunctive technique in nasal oncoplastic surgery. .... All procedures performed in the study involving human.

  9. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-30

    Dec 30, 2014 ... substantially enhancing nasal colonization, lung disease and abscess formation and promoting mechanisms of immune evasion.[7]. Antimicrobial ... nasal carriage, investigation of risk factors, and virulence traits among ...

  10. Nasal birth trauma: a review of appropriate treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, E C

    2012-02-01

    The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.

  11. Nasal prosthesis rehabilitation: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sumeet; Maru, Kavita; Shukla, Jyotsana

    2011-01-01

    Facial defects resulting from neoplasm, congenital malformation or trauma can be restored with facial prosthesis using different materials and retention methods to achieve life-like look and function. A nasal prosthesis can re-establish esthetic form and anatomic contours for mid-facial defects...... the non-surgical rehabilitation, with polymethyl meth-acrylate resin, nasal prosthesis for a patient who received partial rhinectomy as a result of squamous cell carcinoma of the nose. The prosthesis was made to restore the esthetic appearance of the patient with a mechanical retained design using...

  12. [Nasal glial heterotopia: Clinical and morphological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, V P; Bakhtin, A A; Polyakov, D P; Yunusov, A S; Daikhes, N A

    The paper describes a case of nasal glial heterotopia in a 10-month-old girl with a mixed (intranasal and subcutaneous) localization, which is accompanied by the divergence of the nasal bones. Histological examination supplemented by immunohistochemical reactions with antibodies to vimentin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, as well as Ki-67 and smooth muscle actin confirmed the neural nature of the tumor. Fields of mature astrocytic glia including individual cells with neuronal differentiation were found among the fibrous and fibrovascular tissues. The paper provides a brief overview of the discussed pathology.

  13. Wall compliance and violin cavity modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George

    2003-03-01

    Violin corpus wall compliance, which has a substantial effect on cavity mode frequencies, was added to Shaw's two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) network model for A0 ("main air") and A1 (lowest length mode included in "main wood") cavity modes. The 2DOF model predicts a V(-0.25) volume dependence for A0 for rigid violin-shaped cavities, to which a semiempirical compliance correction term, V(-x(c)) (optimization parameter x(c)) consistent with cavity acoustical compliance and violin-based scaling was added. Optimizing x(c) over A0 and A1 frequencies measured for a Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet yielded x(c) approximately 0.08. This markedly improved A0 and A1 frequency predictions to within approximately +/- 10% of experiment over a range of about 4.5:1 in length, 10:1 in f-hole area, 3:1 in top plate thickness, and 128:1 in volume. Compliance is a plausible explanation for A1 falling close to the "main wood" resonance, not increasingly higher for the larger instruments, which were scaled successively shorter compared to the violin for ergonomic and practical reasons. Similarly incorporating compliance for A2 and A4 (lowest lower-/upper-bout modes, respectively) improves frequency predictions within +/-20% over the octet.

  14. Magnetic shielding for superconducting RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, M.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ueki, R.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic shielding is a key technology for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities. There are basically two approaches for shielding: (1) surround the cavity of interest with high permeability material and divert magnetic flux around it (passive shielding); and (2) create a magnetic field using coils that cancels the ambient magnetic field in the area of interest (active shielding). The choice of approach depends on the magnitude of the ambient magnetic field, residual magnetic field tolerance, shape of the magnetic shield, usage, cost, etc. However, passive shielding is more commonly used for superconducting RF cavities. The issue with passive shielding is that as the volume to be shielded increases, the size of the shielding material increases, thereby leading to cost increase. A recent trend is to place a magnetic shield in a cryogenic environment inside a cryostat, very close to the cavities, reducing the size and volume of the magnetic shield. In this case, the shielding effectiveness at cryogenic temperatures becomes important. We measured the permeabilities of various shielding materials at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (4 K) and studied shielding degradation at that cryogenic temperature.

  15. STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gannu Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, nasal vaccines and CNS...

  16. The NOFLO trial: low-flow nasal prongs therapy in weaning nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Sinéad M

    2013-07-01

    To determine if low-flow nasal prongs therapy with room air, compared with no treatment, facilitates weaning from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight <1500 g) infants.

  17. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology. The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  18. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nasal specimens of healthy volunteers in ...

  19. Effects of retro-nasal aroma release on satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Ru, de J.A.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.

    2008-01-01

    It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid

  20. Human nasal rhinosporidiosis: a case report from Malawi | Sefu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient presented with long standing history of nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis for three years. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and he was successfully treated by complete surgical excision. This was a very unusual cause of nasal masses in our setting. Nasal rhinosporidioss lesions ...

  1. Tissue microenvironments in the nasal epithelium of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) define two distinct CD8α+ cell populations and establish regional immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahi, Ali; Casadei, Elisa; Tacchi, Luca; Muñoz, Pilar; LaPatra, Scott E.; Salinas, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces require balancing different physiological roles and immune functions. In order to effectively achieve multifunctionality, mucosal epithelia have evolved unique microenvironments that create unique regional immune responses without impairing other normal physiological functions. Whereas examples of regional immunity are known in other mucosal epithelia, to date, no immune microenvironments have been described in the nasal mucosa, a site where the complex functions of olfaction and immunity need to be orchestrated. In this study we identified for the first time the presence of CD8α+ cells in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) nasal epithelium. Nasal CD8α+ cells display a distinct phenotype suggestive of CD8+ T cells with high integrin β2 expression. Importantly, nasal CD8α+ cells are located in clusters at the mucosal tip of each olfactory lamella but scattered in the neuroepithelial region. The grouping of CD8α+ cells may be explained by the greater expression of CCL19, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in the mucosal tip compared to the neuroepithelium. Whilst viral antigen uptake occurred via both tip and lateral routes, tip resident MHC-II+ cells are located significantly closer to the lumen of the nasal cavity than their neuroepithelial counterparts, therefore having quicker access to invading pathogens. Our studies reveal for the first time compartmentalized mucosal immune responses within the nasal mucosa of a vertebrate species, a strategy that likely optimizes local immune responses while protecting olfactory sensory functions. PMID:27798156

  2. Linking Suspension Nasal Spray Drug Deposition Patterns to Pharmacokinetic Profiles: A Proof-of-Concept Study Using Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to link regional nasal spray deposition patterns of suspension formulations, predicted with computational fluid dynamics, to in vivo human pharmacokinetic plasma concentration profiles. This is accomplished through the use of computational fluid dynamics simulations coupled with compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling. Results showed a rapid initial rise in plasma concentration that is due to the absorption of drug particles deposited in the nasal middle passages, followed by a slower increase in plasma concentration that is governed by the transport of drug particles from the nasal vestibule to the middle passages. Although drug deposition locations in the nasal cavity had a significant effect on the shape of the concentration profile, the absolute bioavailability remained constant provided that all the drug remained in the nose over the course of the simulation. Loss of drug through the nostrils even after long periods resulted in a significant decrease in bioavailability and increased variability. The results of this study quantify how differences in nasal drug deposition affect transient plasma concentrations and overall bioavailability. These findings are potentially useful for establishing bioequivalence for nasal spray devices and reducing the burden of in vitro testing, pharmacodynamics, and clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  4. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  5. Intermittent aerosol delivery to the lungs during high-flow nasal cannula therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P Worth; Azimi, Mandana; Syed, Aamer; Hindle, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Use of submicrometer particles combined with condensational growth techniques has been proposed to reduce drug losses within components of high-flow nasal cannula therapy systems and to enhance the dose reaching the lower respiratory tract. These methods have been evaluated using continuous inhalation flow rather than realistic inhalation/exhalation breathing cycles. The goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro aerosol drug delivery using condensational growth techniques during high-flow nasal cannula therapy using realistic breathing profiles and incorporating intermittent aerosol delivery techniques. A mixer-heater combined with a vibrating mesh nebulizer was used to generate a submicrometer aerosol using a formulation of 0.2% albuterol sulfate and 0.2% sodium chloride in water. Delivery efficiency of the aerosol for 1 min through a nasal cannula was considered using an intermittent delivery regime with aerosol being emitted for either the entire inhalation time (2 s) or half of the inhalation period (1 s) and compared with continuous delivery. The deposition of the aerosol was evaluated in the nasal delivery components (ventilator tubing and cannula) and an in vitro adult nose-mouth-throat (NMT) model using 3 realistic breathing profiles. Significant improvements in dose delivered to the exit of the NMT model (ex-NMT) were observed for both condensational growth methods using intermittent aerosol delivery compared with continuous delivery, and increasing the tidal volume was found useful. The combination of the largest tidal volume with the shortest intermittent delivery time resulted in the lowest respiration losses and the highest ex-NMT delivered dose. Intermittent aerosol delivery using realistic breathing profiles of submicrometer condensational growth aerosols was found to be efficient in delivering nasally administered drugs in an in vitro airway model. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Isolation and Antibiogram of Aerobic Nasal Bacterial Flora of Apparently Healthy West African Dwarf Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Emikpe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats are important in the livestock economy by their adaptability to adverse environmental conditions as they are good sources of protein and income for the rural poor. Studies conducted on the bacterial flora of the respiratory tract in goats focused on the pneumonic lungs, with fewer studies on the apparently normal nasal passage and antibiogram of isolated organisms. This study was carried out on 60 apparently healthy West African Dwarf goats. The nasal swab from each goat was analyzed using standard methods. The disc diffusion technique was used for the antibiotic sensitivity test. Three hundred and twenty-eight isolates were obtained. The most frequently isolated species was Streptococcus spp., while Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the second dominant bacteria. Other species were isolated at relatively lower rates. The isolation of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy goats in this study reflects their possible role in most common respiratory diseases encountered in small ruminants. Most of the bacteria were found to be susceptible to streptomycin, quinolones (perfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and gentamicin, while they were resistant to tetracycline, augmentin and erythromycin. This study shows the relationship between misuse or unrestricted use of antibiotics and drug resistance. Therefore, there is a need for practitioners and researchers to be informed of the appropriate antibiotics to be used in respiratory infections and during control programs.

  7. Metabolism of nasally instilled benzo(a)pyrene and dihydrosafrole in dogs and monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petridou-Fischer, J.; Whaley, S.; Dahl, A.

    1987-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases are found in the nasal cavities of a variety of species and could play an important role in the metabolism of inhaled airborne xenobiotics. The object of this study was to examine the metabolism of 14 C-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 3 H-dihydrosafrole (DHS) deposited at the ethmoid and maxillary turbinate regions in Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys. While the animals were anesthetized, either compound was instilled at 10 minute intervals for 2 hours through catheters positioned at each region. Cotton swab samples of mucus from the nasopharynx were collected at 30 minute intervals during instillation. Metabolites in mucus were identified using high pressure liquid chromatography. Results showed that both regions in both species were capable of metabolizing BaP and DHS. BaP metabolites identified in the mucus were dihydrodiols, quinones, phenols, and tetrols. DHS metabolites were 2-methoxy-4-propyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-1-(1-hydroxypropyl)benzene. Radioactivity was found in urine and feces of animals treated with either compound, and was detected in the blood of animals treated with DHS. No differences were noted for the nasal metabolism between the two species. This study indicated that not only the nasal tissues, but also the alimentary tract, may be exposed to metabolites of inhaled xenobiotics carried by the mucus

  8. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  9. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Melissa D; Shikiya, Ronald A; Bartz, Jason C; Kincaid, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC) and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC) of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  10. Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cell responses to bitter and trigeminal stimulants in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Clapp, Tod R; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2008-06-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by epithelial solitary chemoreceptor (chemosensory) cells (SCCs), but the exact role of these cells in chemoreception is unclear. Histological evidence suggests that SCCs express elements of the bitter taste transduction pathway including T2R (bitter taste) receptors, the G protein alpha-gustducin, PLCbeta2, and TRPM5, leading to speculation that SCCs are the receptor cells that mediate trigeminal nerve responses to bitter taste receptor ligands. To test this hypothesis, we used calcium imaging to determine whether SCCs respond to classic bitter-tasting or trigeminal stimulants. SCCs from the anterior nasal cavity were isolated from transgenic mice in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was driven by either TRPM5 or gustducin. Isolated cells were exposed to a variety of test stimuli to determine which substances caused an increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). GFP-positive cells respond with increased [Ca2+]i to the bitter receptor ligand denatonium and this response is blocked by the PLC inhibitor U73122. In addition, GFP+ cells respond to the neuromodulators adenosine 5'-triphosphate and acetylcholine but only very rarely to other bitter-tasting or trigeminal stimuli. Our results demonstrate that TRPM5- and gustducin-expressing nasal SCCs respond to the T2R agonist denatonium via a PLC-coupled transduction cascade typical of T2Rs in the taste system.

  11. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.

    1976-01-01

    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  12. Risk factors for nasal malignancies in German men: the South-German Nasal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiser, Eberhard M; Greiser, Karin Halina; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Hagen, Rudolf; Lazszig, Roland; Maier, Heinz; Schick, Bernhard; Zenner, Hans Peter

    2012-11-06

    There are few studies of the effects of nasal snuff and environmental factors on the risk of nasal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the impact of using nasal snuff and of other risk factors on the risk of nasal cancer in German men. A population-based case-control study was conducted in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. Tumor registries and ear, nose and throat departments provided access to patients born in 1926 or later. Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 cases (mean age 62.1 years) and 2.401 population-based controls (mean age 60.8 years). Ever-use of nasal snuff was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for nasal cancer of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-2.38) in the total study population, whereas OR in smokers was 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.02) and in never smokers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.43-2.80). The OR in ever-smokers vs. never-smokers was 1.60 (95% CI 1.24-2.07), with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07) per pack-year smoked, and the risk was significantly decreased after quitting smoking. Exposure to hardwood dust for at least 1 year resulted in an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.40-3.91) in the total population, which was further increased in never-smokers (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.92-12.49) in analyses stratified by smoking status. The OR for nasal cancer after exposure to organic solvents for at least 1 year was 1.53 (1.17-2.01). Ever-use of nasal sprays/nasal lavage for at least 1 month rendered an OR of 1.59 (1.04-2.44). The OR after use of insecticides in homes was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04-2.11). Smoking and exposure to hardwood dust were confirmed as risk factors for nasal carcinoma. There is evidence that exposure to organic solvents, and in-house use of insecticides could represent novel risk factors. Exposure to asbestos and use of nasal snuff were risk factors in smokers only.

  13. Materials for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)

  14. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.

  15. Fracture of nasal bones: an epidemiologic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common diseases in the otorhinolaryngology emergency room is the nasal bones fracture. The peak of incidence is between 15 and 25 years of age. Generally men are more affected. Objective: To analyze the age, gender and the most frequent causes of nasal fractures evaluated in the otorhinolaryngology service of a tertiary hospital. Method: Retrospective study of records of the patients with nasal fracture diagnosis treated between July 1st, 2003 and July 1st, 2007. Results: 167 patients with nasal bones fracture were included in the study, including 134 men and 33 women. Violence was the most frequent cause, with 55 cases (32.9%, followed by fall from their own height, with 33 cases (19.7%, and motorcycle accident, 14 cases (8.4%. The most common age was between 21 and 39 years (46.1%. Conclusion: Male, age between 21 and 39 years and violence are the most common characteristics found in our service. Motorcycle accidents also play an important role in this affection.

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Vestibule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E

    1999-01-01

    From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed...

  17. Tumor relapse present in oncologic nasal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez Chavez, Julio Cesar; Sanchez Wals, Lenia; Monzon Fernandez, Abel Nicolas; Morales Tirado, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    Tumor relapse is one of the more fearsome complications of the oncologic course and also to obscure the life prognosis, causing the loss of many reconstructions and of exhausting the repairing surgical possibilities. The aim of this study was to determine the relapse frequency, the repercussion on the repair and the subsequent medical course of patients operated on malign nasal tumors

  18. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1999-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1998-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Nasal symptoms following endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: assessment using the General Nasal Patient Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Yuen; Srirathan, Vinothan; Tirr, Erica; Kearney, Tara; Gnanalingham, Kanna K

    2011-04-01

    The endoscopic approach for pituitary tumors is a recent innovation and is said to reduce the nasal trauma associated with transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The authors assessed the temporal changes in the rhinological symptoms following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary lesions, using the General Nasal Patient Inventory (GNPI). The GNPI was administered to 88 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at 3 time points (presurgery, 3-6 months postsurgery, and at final follow-up). The total GNPI score and the scores for the individual GNPI questions were calculated and differences between groups were assessed once before surgery, several months after surgery, and at final follow-up. Of a maximum possible score of 135, the mean GNPI score at 3-6 months postsurgery was only 12.9 ± 12 and was not significantly different from the preoperative score (10.4 ± 13) or final follow-up score (10.3 ± 10). Patients with functioning tumors had higher GNPI scores than those with nonfunctioning tumors for each of these time points (p surgery, with partial recovery (nasal sores and bleeding) or complete recovery (nasal blockage, painful sinuses, and unpleasant nasal smell) by final follow-up (p transsphenoidal surgery is a well-tolerated minimally invasive procedure for pituitary fossa lesions. Overall patient-assessed nasal symptoms do not change, but some individual symptoms may show a mild worsening or overall improvement.

  1. Molecular identity and prevalence of Cryptococcus spp. nasal carriage in asymptomatic feral cats in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Granato, Anna; Schivo, Alice; Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal disease that infects humans and animals worldwide. Inhalation of fungal particles from an environmental source can cause primary infection of the respiratory system. As animals can be considered a sentinel for human diseases, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular identity of Cryptococcus spp. in the nasal cavity of feral cats. Cats from 162 urban and rural feral cat colonies were sampled over 3 years. Of 766 cats from which nasal swabs were obtained, Cryptococcus spp. were recovered from 95 (12.6%), including 37 C. magnus (4.8%), 16 C. albidus (2.0%), 15 C. carnescens (1.9%), 12 C. neoformans (1.6%), as well as C. oeirensis (n = 3), C. victoriae (n = 3), C. albidosimilis (n = 2), Filobasidium globisporum (n = 2), C. adeliensis (n = 1), C. flavescens (n = 1), C. dimnae (n = 1), C. saitoi (n = 1), and C. wieringae (n = 1) with prevalence feral cats may carry C. neoformans and other Cryptococcus species in their sinonasal cavity. Genotyping of the specific cryptococcal isolates provides a better understanding of the epidemiology of these yeasts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Acoustic Analysis of Nasal Vowels in Monguor Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanbin

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the spectrum characteristics and acoustic features for the nasal vowels [ɑ˜] and [ɔ˜] in Monguor language. On the base of acoustic parameter database of the Monguor speech, the study finds out that there are five main zero-pole pairs appearing for the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] and two zero-pole pairs appear for the nasal vowel [ɔ˜]. The results of regression analysis demonstrate that the duration of the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] or the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] can be predicted by its F1, F2 and F3 respectively.

  3. Delineation of the primary tumour Clinical Target Volumes (CTV-P) in laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: AIRO, CACA, DAHANCA, EORTC, GEORCC, GORTEC, HKNPCSG, HNCIG, IAG-KHT, LPRHHT, NCIC CTG, NCRI, NRG Oncology, PHNS, SBRT, SOMERA, SRO, SSHNO, TROG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grégoire, Vincent; Evans, Mererid; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Few studies have reported large inter-observer variations in target volume selection and delineation in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Consensus guidelines have been published for the neck nodes (see Grégoire et al., 2003, 2014...... anatomy. METHOD: For each anatomic location within the larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity, and for each T-stage, the DAHANCA proposal has been comprehensively reviewed and edited to include anatomic knowledge into the geometric Clinical Target Volume (CTV) delineation concept. A first...... treatment variations from clinicians to clinicians, facilitate the conduct of multi-institutional clinical trials, and contribute to improved care of patients with head and neck carcinoma....

  4. Multipactors in klystron cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kazutaka; Iyeki, Hiroshi; Kikunaga, Toshiyuki.

    1993-01-01

    A multipactor phenomenon in a klystron causes gain shortage or instability problem. Some tests using a prototype klystron input cavity revealed the microwave discharges in vacuum with magnetic field. The test results and the methods to avoid multipactors are discussed in this paper. (author)

  5. What's a Cavity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deeper over time. Cavities are also called dental caries (say: KARE-eez), and if you have a ... made up mostly of the germs that cause tooth decay. The bacteria in your mouth make acids and when plaque clings to your teeth, the acids can eat away at the outermost ...

  6. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index...

  7. Oral cavity and jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solntsev, A.M.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatome of oral cavity and jaw is described. Diseases of the teeth, jaw, large salivary glands, temporo-mandibular articulation are considered. Roentgenograms of oral cacity and jaw of healthy people are presented and analyzed as well as roentgenograms in the above-mentioned diseases

  8. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  9. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  10. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  11. Cavity Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone

    1977-01-01

    Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...

  12. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  13. Open microwave cavities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šeba, Petr; Rotter, I.; Mueller, M.; Persson, C.; Pichugin, Konstantin N.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2001), s. 484-487 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : microwave cavity * resonances Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.009, year: 2001

  14. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  15. Electro-physiological changes in the brain induced by caffeine or glucose nasal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, K; Roelands, B; Van Cutsem, J; Marusic, U; Torbeyns, T; Meeusen, R

    2017-01-01

    A direct link between the mouth cavity and the brain for glucose (GLUC) and caffeine (CAF) has been established. The aim of this study is to determine whether a direct link for both substrates also exist between the nasal cavity and the brain. Ten healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years) performed three experimental trials, separated by at least 2 days. Each trial included a 20-s nasal spray (NAS) period in which solutions placebo (PLAC), GLUC, or CAF were provided in a double-blind, randomized order. During each trial, four cognitive Stroop tasks were performed: two familiarization trials and one pre- and one post-NAS trial. Reaction times and accuracy for different stimuli (neutral, NEUTR; congruent, CON; incongruent INCON) were determined. Electroencephalography was continuously measured throughout the trials. During the Stroop tasks pre- and post-NAS, the P300 was assessed and during NAS, source localization was performed using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). NAS activated the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). CAF-NAS also increased θ and β activity in frontal cortices. Furthermore, GLUC-NAS increased the β activity within the insula. GLUC-NAS also increased the P300 amplitude with INCON (P = 0.046) and reduced P300 amplitude at F3-F4 and P300 latency at CP1-CP2-Cz with NEUTR (P = 0.001 and P = 0.016, respectively). The existence of nasal bitter and sweet taste receptors possibly induce these brain responses. Greater cognitive efficiency was observed with GLUC-NAS. CAF-NAS activated cingulate, insular, and sensorymotor cortices, whereas GLUC-NAS activated sensory, cingulate, and insular cortices. However, no effect on the Stroop task was found.

  16. Evaluation of nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne vulgaris according to treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuguz, Pınar; Callioglu, Elif E; Tulaci, Kamil G; Kacar, Seval D; Balta, Ilknur; Asik, Gulsah; Karatas, Serap; Karaca, Semsettin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne during treatments with tetracycline and isotretinoin. Swab specimens were taken from the right and left nasal cavities and oropharynx of 55 patients with acne and 20 healthy volunteers who were admitted to the dermatology department (Etlik Educational and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey) before the administration of treatment and in the third month of treatment. Study participants were divided into four groups as follows: patients with acne on topical treatment only, systemic isotretinoin, and systemic tetracycline, and the control group. Of 55 patients with acne, 18 were male and 37 were female. The mean age of the patients and the control group was 22.21 ± 4.22 and 21.95 ± 7.64, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the nasal flora of five patients, normal flora was suppressed in the oropharyngeal cultures of seven patients, and normal flora grew in the cultures of the other 20 patients who were on tetracycline treatment. On the other hand, normal flora grew in the nasal and oropharyngeal cultures of all the patients who were on isotretinoin treatment. Treatment options and follow-up procedures for acne vulgaris may lead to the development of bacterial resistance and damage to flora. In particular, systemic tetracycline treatment leads to changes in flora of the nose and throat in patients with acne with an increased carriage of S. aureus. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to the duration of tetracycline treatment in order to not increase the risk of disturbance of microbial flora. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Low lymphatic vessel density associates with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkainen, A; Seppälä, M; Renkonen, J; Renkonen, R; Hagstrő M, J; Huhtala, H; Rautiainen, M; Myller, J; Paavonen, T; Ranta, A; Torkkeli, T; Toppila-Salmi, S

    2017-06-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP) and antrochoanal polyps (ACP) are different upper airway inflammation phenotypes with different pathomechanisms. In order to understand the development of tissue edema, the present study aimed to evaluate lymphatic vessel density in CRSsNP, CRSwNP and ACP. 120 retrospective nasal and maxillary sinus specimens were stained immunohistochemically with a von Willebrand factor polyclonal antibody recognizing vascular and lymphatic endothelium, and with a podoplanin monoclonal antibody recognizing lymphatic endothelium. Vessels were studied by microscopy in a blinded fashion, and the vessel density and the relative density of lymphatic vessels were calculated. Patient characteristic factors and follow-up data of in average 9 years were collected from patient records. In the nasal cavity, the low absolute and relative density of vessels and of lymphatic vessels was associated with CRSwNP and ACP tissues compared to control inferior turbinate. This was observed also in the inflammatory hotspot area. In the maxillary sinus, lower absolute and relative density of lymphatic vessels associated with the CRSwNP phenotype. High lymphatic vessel density in polyp tissue associated with the need for revision CRS-surgery. As a conclusion, low density of lymphatic vessels distinguished patients with CRSwNP not only in the hotspot area of polyp tissue, but also in maxillary sinus mucosa. Yet, higher lymphatic vessel density seems to associate with polyp recurrence. Further studies are still needed to explore if formation of nasal polyps could be diminished by intranasal therapeutics affecting lymphangiogenesis.

  18. Implosion of the small cavity and large cavity cannonball targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results of cannonball target implosion research are briefly reviewed with theoretical predictions for GEKKO XII experiments. The cannonball targets are classified into two types according to the cavity size ; small cavity and large cavity. The compression mechanisms of the two types are discussed. (author)

  19. Electron beam weld parameter set development and cavity cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Brawley; John Mammossor; Larry Philips

    1997-01-01

    Various methods have recently been considered for use in the cost-effective manufacturing of large numbers of niobium cavities. A method commonly assumed to be too expensive is the joining of half cells by electron beam welding (EBW), as has been done with multipurpose EBW equipment for producing small numbers of cavities at accelerator laboratories. The authors have begun to investigate the advantages that would be available if a single-purpose, task-specific EBW processing tool were used to produce cavities in a high-volume commercial-industrial context. For such a tool and context they have sought to define an EBW parameter set that is cost-effective not only in terms of per-cavity production cost, but also in terms of the minimization of quench-producing weld defects. That is, they define cavity cost-effectiveness to include both production and performance costs. For such an EBW parameter set, they have developed a set of ideal characteristics, produced and tested samples and a complete cavity, studied the weld-defect question, and obtained industrial estimates of cavity high-volume production costs. The investigation in ongoing. This paper reports preliminary findings

  20. A Randomized Trial of Low-Flow Oxygen versus Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiring, Christian; Steensberg, Jesper; Bjerager, Mia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) stabilizes the residual volume and may decrease the risk of 'atelectotrauma', potentially promoting lung development in neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether replacing nCPAP by low-flow O2 by nasal cannula affects lung function...... the a/A pO2 ratio or weight gain negatively. Thus, prolonged nCPAP seems not to have a positive effect on lung function at 28 days of life and replacement by low-flow O2 could reduce the cost of equipment and increase the ease of nursing....

  1. Fabrication of plasmonic cavity arrays for SERS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Feng, Lei; Teng, Fei; Lu, Nan

    2017-05-01

    The plasmonic cavity arrays are ideal substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering analysis because they can provide hot spots with large volume for analyte molecules. The large area increases the probability to make more analyte molecules on hot spots and leads to a high reproducibility. Therefore, to develop a simple method for creating cavity arrays is important. Herein, we demonstrate how to fabricate a V and W shape cavity arrays by a simple method based on self-assembly. Briefly, the V and W shape cavity arrays are respectively fabricated by taking KOH etching on a nanohole and a nanoring array patterned silicon (Si) slides. The nanohole array is generated by taking a reactive ion etching on a Si slide assembled with monolayer of polystyrene (PS) spheres. The nanoring array is generated by taking a reactive ion etching on a Si slide covered with a monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane before self-assembling PS spheres. Both plasmonic V and W cavity arrays can provide large hot area, which increases the probability for analyte molecules to deposit on the hot spots. Taking 4-Mercaptopyridine as analyte probe, the enhancement factor can reach 2.99 × 105 and 9.97 × 105 for plasmonic V cavity and W cavity array, respectively. The relative standard deviations of the plasmonic V and W cavity arrays are 6.5% and 10.2% respectively according to the spectra collected on 20 random spots.

  2. Gamma-scintigraphy as a novel method to study the distribution and clearance rate of different muco adhesive nasal delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofaghodi, M.; Zakavi, R.; Sajadi Tabasi, A.; Jaafari, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Nasal route has a high potential for drug delivery. One important limiting factor for nasal drug delivery is the rapid clearance of drugs from the nasal cavity. Several nasal drug delivery systems including different kinds of microspheres and liposomes have been tried for encapsulation of drugs and increasing the residence time in nasal cavity. In this study clearance rate of three kinds of microspheres (Alginate, PLGA and Dextran) and four kinds of liposomes (neutral, cationic, fusogenic and cationic-fusogenic) was determined. Lactose powder was used as negative control. Technetium pertechnetate labeling and gamma scintigraphy was used for precise and quantitative measurement of clearance rate of these delivery system. 99 mTc labeled microspheres and liposomes were prepared using technetium pertechnetate in the presence of a potent reducing agent, st annus chloride. The labeling procedure was set in a manner that each 150 micro litter of liposome suspensions and each 3-5 mg of microspheres contained 2 MBq of radioactivity. Labeling efficiency was calculated by paper chromatography using acetone as mobile phase. Each delivery system containing 2 MBq of activity was sprayed into right nostril of four healthy volunteers and immediately after spraying, anterior view of nasal cavity was measured by a large field gamma camera equipped with a low-energy high resolution parallel collimator. One minute static views were repeated each half hour until 4 hours. Clearance rates were compared using two ROI; the initial site of deposition of sprays, and all of nasal cavity to nasopharynx. Clearance rate of each one of microspheres and liposomes was calculated after applying the physical decay corrections. The labeling efficiency for liposomes and microspheres calculated as 41.2% and 60.7% respectively. The cleared percent of delivery systems after 4 hours was determined as follows: neutral liposomes 18.7±3.9% cationic liposomes 43.7±2.1%; fusogenic liposomes 32.8±2

  3. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  4. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  5. Nuclear reactor cavity streaming shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, R.J.; Stephen, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The upper portion of a nuclear reactor vessel supported in a concrete reactor cavity has a structure mounted below the top of the vessel between the outer vessel wall and the reactor cavity wall which contains hydrogenous material which will attenuate radiation streaming upward between vessel and the reactor cavity wall while preventing pressure buildup during a loss of coolant accident

  6. Fundus imaging with a nasal endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahesh Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.

  7. Colloquium: cavity optomechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Monday 14 November 2011, 17:00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Université de Genève Cavity optomechanics: controlling micro mechanical oscillators with laser light Prof. Tobias Kippenberg EPFL, Lausanne Laser light can be used to cool and to control trapped ions, atoms and molecules at the quantum level. This has lead to spectacular advances such as the most precise atomic clocks. An outstanding frontier is the control with lasers of nano- and micro-mechancial systems. Recent advances in cavity optomechanics have allowed such elementary control for the first time, enabling mechanical systems to be ground state cooled leading to readout with quantum limited sensitivity and permitting to explore new device concepts resulting from radiation pressure.  

  8. Concept of multiple-cell cavity for axion dark matter search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Junu; Youn, SungWoo; Ahn, Saebyeok; Kim, Jihn E.; Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2018-02-01

    In cavity-based axion dark matter search experiments exploring high mass regions, multiple-cavity design is under consideration as a method to increase the detection volume within a given magnet bore. We introduce a new idea, referred to as a multiple-cell cavity, which provides various benefits including a larger detection volume, simpler experimental setup, and easier phase-matching mechanism. We present the characteristics of this concept and demonstrate the experimental feasibility with an example of a double-cell cavity.

  9. Augmentation Rhinoplasty in Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity: Preliminary Patients’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. C. Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction of cleft lip nasal deformity is challenging and there have been numerous methods described in the literature with little demonstrated technical superiority of one over another. The common clinical issues associated with cleft lip nasal deformity are its lack of symmetry, alar collapse on the affected side, obtuse nasal labial angle, short nasal length, loss of tip definition, and altered columella show among others. We carried out augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasties with rib graft in 16 patients over the one-year study period. Each of these patients was reviewed and given questionnaire before and after surgery to evaluate their response on the outcome to the approach. Preoperatively, nasal asymmetry is the main complaint (14/16, 87.5% among our series of patients. Postoperatively, 12 (75% patients out of the 16 reported significant improvement in their nasal symmetry with the other four marginal. All patients reported excellent nasal projection postoperatively with good nasal tip definition. Our series of patients reported overall good satisfaction outcome and will recommend this procedure to other patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. In conclusion, augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasty can be employed to achieve perceivable and satisfactory outcome in patients with cleft lip nasal deformity.

  10. Evaluation of nasal cartilage using three-dimensional soft tissue images in patients with unilateral cleft lip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yoshimichi; Saijo, Hideto; Yonehara, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Nakatuka, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    In the treatment of nasal deformities associated with cleft lip and palate, deformities of the alar cartilage and upper lateral cartilage are usually repaired. It is very useful if deformities of the nasal cartilage are evaluated preoperatively. We created three-dimensional CT images of soft tissues by the volume rendering method, the nasal cartilage. In 26 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, the alar cartilage, upper lateral cartilage, and septal cartilage were evaluated morphologically. As a result, in each case, these cartilages were deviated and deformed. However, the size of both the alar cartilage and the upper lateral cartilage on the cleft side were approximately similar to those on the healthy side. It is suggested that using this method formulated for the imaging of cartilaginous morphology, preoperative planning and follow-up can be performed easily. (author)

  11. Flora bacteriana cloacal y nasal de Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae en el pacífico norte de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la flora normal aerobia, cloacal y nasal de la tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea , entre los meses de julio y agosto del 2002,se colectaron muestras bacteriológicas de 45 quelonios aparentemente sanos,durante el desove en Playa Nancite,Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Costa Rica, a través del uso de hisopos estériles que se introdujeron en la cloaca y en uno de los conductos nasales. De las muestras recolectadas se obtuvieron e identificaron un total de 99 aislamientos, incluyendo 10 grupos de Gram-negativos y 5 de Gram-positivos. De cada tortuga se obtuvo un promedio de 0.7 bacterias de la cloaca y 1.4 de las cavidades nasales. Las bacterias más frecuente halladas fueron Aeromonas spp.(13/45 y Citrobacter freundi (6/45 en la cloaca, y Bacillus spp. (32/45,Staphylococcus aureus (6/45y Corynebacterium spp.(5/45en las cavidades nasales. En este investigación, la flora microbiana de las tortugas lora resultó constituida por microorganismos potencialmente patógenos para el ser humano y las tortugas.Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica.The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea was studied at Nancite nesting beach,in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacificduring July and August 2002.Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles.Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered.The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45 and Citrobacter freundi (6/45from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp.(32/45, Staphylococcus aureus (6/45and Corynebacterium spp.(5/45from nasal ducts.The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of

  12. Leaching materials from cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, T.D.; Jordan, T.W.J.

    1980-01-01

    A material is leached from a cavity by contacting the material with a liquid and subjecting the liquid to a number of pressure cycles, each pressure cycle involving a decrease in pressure to cause boiling of the liquid, followed by a rise in pressure to inhibit the boiling. The method may include the step of heating the liquid to a temperature near to its boiling point. The material may be nuclear fuel pellets or calcium carbonate pellets. (author)

  13. Superconducting cavities for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwersteg, B.; Ebeling, W.; Moeller, W.D.; Renken, D.; Proch, D.; Sekutowicz, J.; Susta, J.; Tong, D.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting 500 MHz cavities are developed to demonstrate the feasibility of upgrading the e-beam energy of the HERA storage ring. A prototype module with 2 x 4 cell resonators and appropriate fundamental and higher mode couplers has been designed at DESY and is being built by industrial firms. The design and results of RF and cryogenic measurements are reported in detail. 17 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  14. Plasmocitoma extramedular nasal en un perro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Giraldo M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de plasmocitoma nasal en un canino, macho entero, de raza Akita de 30 Kg de peso y veintiún meses de edad, con historia de epistaxis unilateral crónica. Se practicó examen clínico y biopsia de la neoplasia visible en la cavidad nasal izquierda. La ubicación y extensión del tumor fue determinada mediante tomografía computarizada de cabeza y cuello. Se realizaron análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico (IHQ del tejido tumoral. La tomografía computarizada evidenció una masa con densidad de tejido blando de 10 cm de longitud x 3.5 cm de diámetro y escasa captación de medio de contraste, que comprometía en su totalidad la cavidad nasal derecha y parte de la porción posterior de la coana izquierda. El análisis histopatológico reveló numerosas células redondas pleomórficas con poco citoplasma, rodeadas por trama escasa de tejido conectivo y bajo índice mitótico. En el examen IHQ la muestra fue negativa a los antígenos CD3 y CD20 para linfocitos T y B, respectivamente. Los hallazgos clínicos y de la tomografía computarizada, así como los resultados del análisis histopatológico del tejido tumoral, fueron compatibles con un plasmocitoma extramedular nasal de bajo grado de malignidad.

  15. SEPTOPLASTY WITH AND WITHOUT NASAL PACKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in rhinology to relieve nasal obstruction of patients with distortion in the midline cartilage or septum of the nose to relieve nasal obstruction of patient and findings consistent with nasal endoscopy. The anterior nasal packing routinely done following septoplasty is usually conventional and not evidence based. The purpose of nasal packing is to obtain haemostasis, enhance opposition of septal flaps, avoid septal haematoma formation, close the dead space, avoid synechiae formation, provide support to septal cartilage and prevent its displacement. OBJECTIVE This study intends to evaluate the effects of nasal packing on surgical success and related complications in septoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present clinical prospective and randomised study was carried out on patients attending Otorhinolaryngology Department of Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital between March 2012 and March 2015. Patients undergoing septoplasty were randomised either to receive anterior nasal packing or to not receive nasal packing postoperatively. RESULTS Levels of pain experienced by patients with nasal packing postoperatively during the initial 24 hours postoperatively and during the removal of the pack were significantly more. Post-operative headache, epiphora, swallowing discomfort and sleep disturbance were more in patients with nasal packing and statistically (p.05. Septal haematoma, adhesions and local infections in both groups were statistically insignificant (p>.05. CONCLUSION Septoplasty enhances the standard of living of patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction. Our study results suggest that nasal packing after septoplasty is not obligatory. Nasal packing causes considerably more pain and complications, and it should be reserved only for those who have bleeding predisposition.

  16. Nasal encephalocele: endoscopic excision with anesthetic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam; Qotb, Mohamed; El-Hamamsy, Mostafa; El-Sonbaty, Mohamed; Abdel-Badie, Hazem; Zynabdeen, Mustapha

    2010-08-01

    Nasal encephalocele may presents as a nasal mass, its treatment is surgical and it should be done early in life. When removal is indicated, there are multiple surgical approaches; including lateral rhinotomy, a transnasal approach and a coronal flap approach. However, the treatment of a basal intranasal encephalocele using transnasal endoscopic approach could obviates the possible morbidity associated with other approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic removal of intranasal encephalocele, also to document the role of anesthetist in the operative and postoperative periods. Nine cases with nasal encephalocele were included in this study; CT and/or MRI were used in their examination. The lesions were removed via transnasal endoscopic approach. Preoperative evaluation, intervention and postoperative follow-up were presented with discussion of anesthesia used for those children. The lesions of all patients were removed successfully with no recurrence through the follow-up period of at least 21 months. No cases showed morbidity or mortality intra- or post-operatively. Endoscopic excision of intranasal encephalocele is an effective method with high success rate. Anesthetist plays an important role in the operative and postoperative period, even during the endoscopic follow up; sedation of the children is usually needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nasal nitric oxide in unilateral sinus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsiang Fu

    Full Text Available Unilateral sinus disease (USD can sometimes be difficult to accurately diagnose before surgery. The application of nasal nitric oxide (nNO for USD diagnosis and its surgical outcome in USD has not been reported in the literature. We prospectively enrolled sixty-six USD patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for fungal rhinosinusitis (n = 19, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS without nasal polyps (n = 13, CRS with nasal polyps (n = 12 and sinonasal mass lesions (n = 22. nNO levels were measured preoperatively and at three and six months postoperatively. Correlations between nNO levels and potential clinical parameters, type of disease, disease severity, and disease-related quality of life (QOL were assessed. Unlike bilateral CRS, in USD, nNO levels did not correlate with disease severity or postoperative QOL improvements. Except for fungus group, there were no differences in nNO levels between lesion and non-lesion sides in all the other groups. nNO levels on both sides were significantly elevated six months postoperatively in all groups. Fungal rhinosinusitis patients had the lowest preoperative nNO levels, and a cutoff of 239.3 ppb had the best sensitivity (79.0% and specificity (87.2% for preoperative diagnosis. While preoperative nNO levels cannot serve as an alternative marker for disease severity of USD, they were lower in fungal rhinosinusitis patients than in other USD patients and may be useful for more accurate diagnosis prior to surgery.

  18. Genotyping comparison of Mycobacterium leprae isolates by VNTR analysis from nasal samples in a Brazilian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luana Nepomueceno Costa; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Suffys, Phillip Noel; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Andrade Pontes, Maria Araci de; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo

    2018-02-06

    This study analyzed the genetic diversity by MIRU-VNTR of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from nasal cavities and related to epidemiological and clinical data. The sample consisted of 48 newly diagnosed leprosy cases that tested positive for M. leprae PCR in nasal secretion (NS) attending to the National Reference Center of Dermatology Dona Libania (CDERM), Fortaleza, Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from NS of each patient and used for amplification of four M. leprae VNTR loci. Four clusters of M. leprae isolates were formed with identical genotypes. In the spatial analysis, 12 leprosy cases presented similar genotypes organized into 4 clusters. The most common genotypes in the current study was AC8b: 8, AC9: 7, AC8a: 8, GTA9: 10, which may represent a genotype of circulating strains most often in Ceará. A minimum set of four MIRU-VNTR loci was demonstrated to study the genetic diversity of M. leprae isolates from NS.

  19. Use of the frontal process of the maxillary bone for implant placement to retain a nasal prosthesis: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussaefs, Periklis

    2004-01-01

    Implant placement to provide support and retention for nasal prostheses has been described in the literature. The anatomic sites that have been utilized for implant placement are the nasal bones, the premaxillary area through the nasal fossae, and the anterior wall of the frontal sinus. In the patient described, after a presurgical computerized tomography scan to determine adequacy of bone volume, 1 conventional threaded hydroxyapatite-coated root-form implant, created for intraoral use, was placed in the frontal process of the maxillary bone and 2 additional conventional implants were placed in the premaxillary area through the nasal fossa. Six months after implant placement, second-stage surgery was completed. A single bar connecting the 3 implants was fabricated. The removable nasal prosthesis was retained on the bar with 2 clips. An examination 1 year postsurgery revealed no clinical signs of pathosis. Long-term clinical follow-up of this case should continue and a sufficient number of additional cases should be investigated before use of the frontal process of the maxillary bone for implant retention can be recommended on a routine basis.

  20. Effects of nasal positive expiratory pressure on dynamic hyperinflation and 6-minute walk test in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Thomas; Rüdiger, Stefan; Heitner, Claudia; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Blanta, Ioanna; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation is an important target in the treatment of COPD. There is increasing evidence that positive expiratory pressure (PEP) could reduce dynamic hyperinflation during exercise. PEP application through a nasal mask and a flow resistance device might have the potential to be used during daily physical activities as an auxiliary strategy of ventilatory assistance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nasal PEP on lung volumes during physical exercise in patients with COPD. Twenty subjects (mean ± SD age 69.4 ± 6.4 years) with stable mild-to-severe COPD were randomized to undergo physical exercise with nasal PEP breathing, followed by physical exercise with habitual breathing, or vice versa. Physical exercise was induced by a standard 6-min walk test (6 MWT) protocol. PEP was applied by means of a silicone nasal mask loaded with a fixed-orifice flow resistor. Body plethysmography was performed immediately pre-exercise and post-exercise. Differences in mean pre- to post-exercise changes in total lung capacity (-0.63 ± 0.80 L, P = .002), functional residual capacity (-0.48 ± 0.86 L, P = .021), residual volume (-0.56 ± 0.75 L, P = .004), S(pO2) (-1.7 ± 3.4%, P = .041), and 6 MWT distance (-30.8 ± 30.0 m, P = .001) were statistically significant between the experimental and the control interventions. The use of flow-dependent expiratory pressure, applied with a nasal mask and a PEP device, might promote significant reduction of dynamic hyperinflation during walking exercise. Further studies are warranted addressing improvements in endurance performance under regular application of nasal PEP during physical activities.

  1. Does hyrax expansion therapy affect maxillary sinus volume? A cone-beam computed tomography report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsey, Drew M.; English, Jeryl D.; Ellis, Randy K.; Akyalcin, Sercan; Kau, Chung H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the initial effects of maxillary expansion therapy with Hyrax appliance and to evaluate the related changes in maxillary sinus volume. Thirty patients (20 females, 10 males; 13.8 years) requiring maxillary expansion therapy, as part of their comprehensive orthodontic treatment, were examined. Each patient had cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before (T1) and after (T2) maxillary expansion therapy with a banded Hyrax appliance. Multiplanar slices were used to measure linear dimensions and palatal vault angle. Volumetric analysis was used to measure maxillary sinus volumes. Student t tests were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment measurements. Additionally, differences between two age groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at p=0.05. Comparison of pre-treatment to post-treatment variables revealed significant changes in the transverse dimension related to both maxillary skeletal and dental structures and palatal vault angle, resulting in a widened palatal vault (p<0.05). Hard palate showed no significant movement in the vertical and anteroposterior planes. Nasal cavity width increased on a mean value of 0.93 mm(SD=0.23, p<0.05). Maxillary sinus volume remained virtually stable. No significant age differences were observed in the sample. Hyrax expansion therapy did not have a significant impact on maxillary sinus volume.

  2. Does hyrax expansion therapy affect maxillary sinus volume? A cone-beam computed tomography report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darsey, Drew M.; English, Jeryl D.; Ellis, Randy K.; Akyalcin, Sercan [School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Kau, Chung H [School of Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the initial effects of maxillary expansion therapy with Hyrax appliance and to evaluate the related changes in maxillary sinus volume. Thirty patients (20 females, 10 males; 13.8 years) requiring maxillary expansion therapy, as part of their comprehensive orthodontic treatment, were examined. Each patient had cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before (T1) and after (T2) maxillary expansion therapy with a banded Hyrax appliance. Multiplanar slices were used to measure linear dimensions and palatal vault angle. Volumetric analysis was used to measure maxillary sinus volumes. Student t tests were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment measurements. Additionally, differences between two age groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at p=0.05. Comparison of pre-treatment to post-treatment variables revealed significant changes in the transverse dimension related to both maxillary skeletal and dental structures and palatal vault angle, resulting in a widened palatal vault (p<0.05). Hard palate showed no significant movement in the vertical and anteroposterior planes. Nasal cavity width increased on a mean value of 0.93 mm(SD=0.23, p<0.05). Maxillary sinus volume remained virtually stable. No significant age differences were observed in the sample. Hyrax expansion therapy did not have a significant impact on maxillary sinus volume.

  3. Crab cavities for linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Burt, G; Carter, R; Dexter, A; Tahir, I; Beard, C; Dykes, M; Goudket, P; Kalinin, A; Ma, L; McIntosh, P; Shulte, D; Jones, Roger M; Bellantoni, L; Chase, B; Church, M; Khabouline, T; Latina, A; Adolphsen, C; Li, Z; Seryi, Andrei; Xiao, L

    2008-01-01

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  4. Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with nasal polyps in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendø, M; Håkansson, K; Schwer, S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a common inflammatory disorder associated with lower airway disease. However, only few studies of CRSwNP from outside secondary/tertiary care centres have been published. We recently reported an asthma frequency of 44% and 65...... patients. Compared with controls, a high level of exhaled NO was significantly more prevalent in CRSwNP irrespective of asthma-status. Nasal NO was significantly lower in patients with CRSwNP compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Subclinical eosinophilic lower airway inflammation is common in CRSwNP......% in primary and secondary care patients respectively. Therefore, we hypothesise that inflammation of the lower airways could be present in all CRSwNP patients, even without asthma. Here, we assessed the degree of lower and upper airway inflammation using exhaled and nasal nitric oxide (NO) in primary care...

  5. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  6. Kartagener's syndrome presented with nasal obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Asilsoy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. Although it is rare in children, there may be also association with cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. About 50% of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients develop situs inversus and it is known as Kartagener's syndrome. The Kartagener's sydrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus. Clinically, patients present to the otolaryngologist with nasal obstruction. We as pediatricians, should consider nasal polyposis as a rare cause of nasal obstruction in children. In the presence of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections accompanying nasal polyposis, Kartagener's syndrome must be kept in mind as a rare reason. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 942-945

  7. Efeitos agudos do ultrassom terapêutico de 1-MHz na desobstrução nasal de indivíduos com rinossinusite crônica Acute effects of therapeutic 1-MHz ultrasound on nasal unblocking of subjects with chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanize Almeida Rocha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente, a terapia ultrassônica de baixa intensidade (TUSBI foi descrita como um tratamento plausível para rinossinusite crônica (RNC. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos agudos da TUSBI de 1MHz contínua sobre a obstrução nasal de indivíduos com RNC. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram de um estudo tipo placebo-controlado 26 indivíduos adultos com RNC (10 homens, 16 mulheres, alocados sequencialmente em dois grupos: controle-placebo (CP, n=12 e tratados com TUSBI (US, n=14. Para o tratamento determinou-se: ISATA= 1MHz, 1W.cm-2, contínuo, por quatro minutos nos seios maxilares e septo nasal. No grupo CP o equipamento permaneceu desligado. Para avaliação do nível de obstrução nasal, foi mesurado o volume total de secreção expelida (VSEx, avaliado pela instilação nasal de 5 mL de solução salina (NaCl-0,9% e coleta do lavado nasal. O volume de ar expirado (VAEx foi avaliado pelo teste do espelho de Glatzel. RESULTADOS: Os dados mostraram um aumento (pLow-intensity ultrasound therapy (LIUST has been described as a plausible treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS. AIMS: To evaluate the short-term effects of continuous 1MHz LIUST on nasal obstruction in subjects with CRS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cohort placebo-controlled study comprising 26 CRS adults (10 men, 16 women, sequentially allocated into two groups: control-placebo (CP, n= 12 and treated with LIUST (US, n= 14. The treatment consisted of: ISATA = continuous 1MHz, 1W.cm-2 for four minutes in the maxillary sinuses and nasal septum. The equipment was switched off in the CP group. The degree of obstruction was assessed by the total volume of secretion expelled (VSEx after nasal instillation of 5 mL saline solution (NaCl-0.9% followed by nasal lavage. The volume of expired air (VEA was assessed with a Glatzel mirror. RESULTS: The data showed an increase (p<0.01 in VSEx and VEA after ultrasound therapy, suggesting a 64% improvement of nasal obstruction compared with the CP group

  8. Disposition of nasal, intravenous, and oral methadone in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ola; Hoffer, Christine; Sheffels, Pamela; Kharasch, Evan D

    2002-11-01

    Nasal administration of many opioids demonstrates rapid uptake and fast onset of action. Nasal administration may be an alternative to intravenous and oral administration of methadone and was therefore studied in human volunteers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Washington, Seattle. Eight healthy volunteers (6 men and 2 women) aged 19 to 33 years were enrolled after informed written consent was obtained. Subjects received 10 mg methadone hydrochloride nasally, orally, or intravenously on 3 separate occasions in a crossover design. Nasal methadone (50 mg/mL in aqueous solution) was given as a 100-microL spray in each nostril (Pfeiffer BiDose sprayer). Blood samples for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of methadone and the metabolite 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolinium were drawn for up to 96 hours. The methadone effect was measured by noninvasive infrared pupilometry coincident with blood sampling. Nasal uptake of methadone was rapid, with maximum plasma concentrations occurring within 7 minutes. The maximum effects of intravenous, nasal, and oral methadone, on the basis of dark-adapted pupil diameter, were reached in about 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 2 hours, respectively. The respective durations were 24, 10, and 8 hours. Both nasal and oral bioavailabilities were 0.85. Subjects reported that nasal methadone caused a burning sensation. Nasal administration of methadone results in rapid absorption and onset of effect and high bioavailability, which was greater than that reported for other nasal opioids, with a similar duration of effect. Nasal administration may be an alternative route of methadone administration; however, improved formulations are desirable to reduce nasal irritation.

  9. Nasal granuloma gravidarum presenting with recurrent massive epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantinikorn, Weerachai; Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Assanasen, Paraya

    2003-05-01

    Nasal granuloma gravidarum is a rare condition associated with pregnancy and minor trauma. This condition presents with a nasal mass with varying degree of bleeding and obstruction. We report a patient with nasal granuloma gravidarum in the third trimester of pregnancy. Surgical excision is the definite treatment for this condition in order to stop the vicious cycle of recurrent massive bleeding. Possible etiology, clinical features and management are discussed.

  10. The imaging anatomical consideration of the resonance of the cranial cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Myoung

    2000-01-01

    Because vocal technique is the basis of singing a song beautifully, so this study was undertaken to use the scientific and correct technique in order to get much better musical expressions. Shimadzu X-ray remote control TV system was used for checking the supporting state of diaphragmatic respiration after 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 sec during phonation in the state of full inhalation between professional singer and non-professional singer. Shimadzu Magnet nex-α(SMT-50CX/H) was used for examining the scattering state from the resonance of nasal caity to that of cranial cavity on the basis of diaphragmatic respiration. The results obtained were summerized as follows: 1. The resonance of cranial cavity must be scattered by the energy of diaphragmatic respiration after gathering the foci of the fundamental 5 vowels. 2. While raising the epiglottis, the resonance of nasal cavity must be clearly in order to maintain the resonance of cranial cavity beautifully. 3. We can get musical expressions by maintaining the elasticity of diaphragmatic respiration.=20

  11. Topical application of timolol decreases the severity and frequency of epistaxis in patients who have previously undergone nasal dermoplasty for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Keiichi; Kikuchi, Hisashi; Imayoshi, Shoichiro; Dias, Mari Shimada

    2016-08-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is widely known to cause bleeding that is difficult to control because of the associated vascular wall fragility. Although nasal dermoplasty results in decreased severity and frequency of nasal bleeding in patients with HHT, it does not eradicate epistaxis because this procedure cannot cover the entire nasal cavity. Residual bleeding warrants additional effective therapy. Preliminary reports on the use of β-adrenergic blockers for treating epistaxis in patients with HHT encouraged us to examine their effects in HHT patients who had previously undergone nasal dermoplasty but still complained of epistaxis. We performed a prospective topical timolol, a nonselective beta blocker, application study involving 12 HHT patients who had undergone nasal dermoplasty. The observation period lasted for 3 months. There was one improperly enrolled case in which timolol administration was discontinued. The mean score of bleeding intensity and that of bleeding frequency were markedly reduced after treatment. Two patients who had required transfusions before treatment did not need them afterward, and patients were generally satisfied with the treatment. Topical timolol application was effective in decreasing epistaxis. Although no adverse effects were observed in the properly selected patients, there are contraindications to timolol application that should be kept in mind when applying this treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors assessment for nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and its methicillin resistant strains among pre-clinical medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shamshul; Gautam, Rajendra; Shrestha, Sony; Ansari, Safiur Rahman; Subedi, Shankar Nanda; Chhetri, Muni Raj

    2016-04-12

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a normal flora of nasal cavity, can cause minor to life threatening invasive diseases and nosocomial infections. Methicillin resistant strains of S. aureus are causing a great challenge for treatment options. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, its methicillin resistant strains and risk factors in medical students prior to clinical exposure. The bacterial growth of S. aureus from nasal swab culture was identified by using standard microbiological methods recommended by American Society for Microbiology. Modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing and methicillin resistance was confirmed using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks. D-zone test method was used to determine the inducible clindamycin resistance. Among 200 participants, nasal carriage of S. aureus was detected from 30 (15%) subjects. Upper respiratory tract infections significantly (P aureus and their methicillin resistant strains. All of the isolates were reported to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. S. aureus strains detected from 8 (4%) students were confirmed to be methicillin resistant. The result of our study demands for strict policy to screen all the students for nasal carriage of S. aureus and its MRSA strains to minimize the transmission of this organism from community to hospital settings.

  13. Impact of tumour volume on prediction of progression-free survival in sinonasal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennersdorf, Florian; Mauz, Paul-Stefan; Adam, Patrick; Welz, Stefan; Sievert, Anne; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyse potential prognostic factors, with emphasis on tumour volume, in determining progression free survival (PFS) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. Retrospective analysis of 106 patients with primary sinonasal malignancies treated and followed-up between March 2006 and October 2012. Possible predictive parameters for PFS were entered into univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis included age, sex, baseline tumour volume (based on MR imaging), histology type, TNM stage and prognostic groups according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis concerning the predictive value of tumour volume for recurrence was also conducted. The main histological subgroup consisted of epithelial tumours (77%). The majority of the patients (68%) showed advanced tumour burden (AJCC stage III–IV). Lymph node involvement was present in 18 cases. The mean tumour volume was 26.6 ± 21.2 cm 3 . The median PFS for all patients was 24.9 months (range: 2.5–84.5 months). The ROC curve analysis for the tumour volume showed 58.1% sensitivity and 75.4% specificity for predicting recurrence. Tumour volume, AJCC staging, T- and N- stage were significant predictors in the univariate analysis. Positive lymph node status and tumour volume remained significant and independent predictors in the multivariate analysis. Radiological tumour volume proofed to be a statistically reliable predictor of PFS. In the multivariate analysis, T-, N- and overall AJCC staging did not show significant prognostic value

  14. Specificity and sensitivity assessment of selected nasal provocation testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Krzych-Fałta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal provocation testing involves an allergen-specific local reaction of the nasal mucosa to the administered allergen. Aim: To determine the most objective nasal occlusion assessment technique that could be used in nasal provocation testing. Material and methods : A total of 60 subjects, including 30 patients diagnosed with allergy to common environmental allergens and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The method used in the study was a nasal provocation test with an allergen, with a standard dose of a control solution and an allergen (5,000 SBU/ml administered using a calibrated atomizer into both nostrils at room temperature. Early-phase nasal mucosa response in the early phase of the allergic reaction was assessed via acoustic rhinometry, optical rhinometry, nitric oxide in nasal air, and tryptase levels in the nasal lavage fluid. Results : In estimating the homogeneity of the average values, the Levene’s test was used and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all the methods used for assessing the nasal provocation test with an allergen. Statistically significant results were defined for p < 0.05. Of all the objective assessment techniques, the most sensitive and characteristic ones were the optical rhinometry techniques (specificity = 1, sensitivity = 1, AUC = 1, PPV = 1, NPV = 1. Conclusions : The techniques used showed significant differences between the group of patients with allergic rhinitis and the control group. Of all the objective assessment techniques, those most sensitive and characteristic were the optical rhinometry.

  15. Nasal septal angiofibroma, a subclass of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Laura; Rudman, Kelli; Cogbill, Christopher H; Loehrl, Todd; Poetker, David M

    2012-01-01

    Extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas (ENA) arising from the nasal septum or nasal septal angiofibromas are extremely rare; only 13 such cases have been reported in the international literature. Our objective is to describe the presentation, workup, and surgical management of these lesions. Case reports were done. The setting was a tertiary care referral center and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PATIENTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND RESULTS: We present 2 cases of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma occurring on the nasal septum. In this report, we discuss the occurrence, the histopathologic findings, and the treatment of nasal septal angiofibroma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient experience with mupirocin or povidone-iodine nasal decolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Nasal erosion as an uncommon sign of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culotta, Paige A; Isaac, Reena; Sarpong, Kwabena; Chandy, Binoy; Cruz, Andrea; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella

    2018-05-01

    While various forms of facial trauma, bruising, burns, and fractures are frequently seen in cases of child abuse, purposeful nasal erosion has rarely been identified as a form of abusive injury. Progressive destruction of nasal tissue in children provokes a wide differential diagnosis crossing multiple subspecialties: infectious, primary immunodeficiencies, inflammatory conditions, malignancy, and genetic disorders. Progressive nasal erosion also can be a manifestation of child abuse. The proposed mechanism is repetitive mechanical denudation of the soft tissue and cartilage resulting in chronic inflammation, bleeding, and ultimately destruction of the insulted tissue. We report 6 cases of child abuse manifesting as overt nasal destruction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and pharyngeal beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carriage in midwifery students in Kahramanmaras, Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey.

  19. ISR RF cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    In each ISR ring the radiofrequency cavities were installed in one 9 m long straight section. The RF system of the ISR had the main purpose to stack buckets of particles (most of the time protons)coming from the CPS and also to accelerate the stacked beam. The installed RF power per ring was 18 kW giving a peak accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The system had a very fine regulation feature allowing to lower the voltage down to 75 V in a smooth and well controlled fashion.

  20. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    knowledge gaps, practice variations, and clinical concerns associated with this surgical procedure; it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for improving nasal form and function after rhinoplasty. Recommendations in this guideline concerning education and counseling to the patient are intended to include the caregiver if the patient is 24 hours after surgery. (2) Surgeons should not routinely place packing in the nasal cavity of rhinoplasty patients (with or without septoplasty) at the conclusion of surgery. The panel group made the following statement an option: (1) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, may administer perioperative systemic steroids to the rhinoplasty patient.

  1. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  2. Alternaria alternata challenge at the nasal mucosa results in eosinophilic inflammation and increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M; Redes, J L; Percopo, C M; Druey, K M; Rosenberg, H F

    2018-06-01

    Eosinophils in the nasal mucosa are an elemental feature of allergic rhinitis. Our objective was to explore eosinophilic inflammation and its impact on respiratory virus infection at the nasal mucosa. Inflammation in the nasal mucosae of mice was evaluated in response to repetitive stimulation with strict intranasal volumes of a filtrate of Alternaria alternata. Mice were then challenged with influenza virus. Repetitive stimulation with A. alternata resulted in eosinophil recruitment to the nasal passages in association with elevated levels of IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin-1; eosinophil recruitment was diminished in eotaxin-1 -/- mice, and abolished in Rag1 -/- mice. A. alternata also resulted in elevated levels of nasal wash IgA in both wild-type and eosinophil-deficient ∆dblGATA mice. Interestingly, A. alternata-treated mice responded to an influenza virus infection with profound weight loss and mortality compared to mice that received diluent alone (0% vs 100% survival, ***P < .001); the lethal response was blunted when A. alternata was heat-inactivated. Minimal differences in virus titre were detected, and eosinophils present in the nasal passages at the time of virus inoculation provided no protection against the lethal sequelae. Interestingly, nasal wash fluids from mice treated with A. alternata included more neutrophils and higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to virus challenge, among these, IL-6, a biomarker for disease severity in human influenza. Repetitive administration of A. alternata resulted in inflammation of the nasal mucosae and unanticipated morbidity and mortality in response to subsequent challenge with influenza virus. Interestingly, and in contrast to findings in the lower airways, eosinophils recruited to the nasal passages provided no protection against lethal infection. As increased susceptibility to influenza virus among individuals with rhinitis has been the subject of several clinical reports, this model may be

  3. CMC blade with pressurized internal cavity for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Goike, Jerome Walter

    2016-02-02

    A ceramic matrix composite blade for use in a gas turbine engine having an airfoil with leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction side surfaces, a blade shank secured to the lower end of each airfoil, one or more interior fluid cavities within the airfoil having inlet flow passages at the lower end which are in fluid communication with the blade shank, one or more passageways in the blade shank corresponding to each one of the interior fluid cavities and a fluid pump (or compressor) that provides pressurized fluid (nominally cool, dry air) to each one of the interior fluid cavities in each airfoil. The fluid (e.g., air) is sufficient in pressure and volume to maintain a minimum fluid flow to each of the interior fluid cavities in the event of a breach due to foreign object damage.

  4. Relevance of histamine and tryptase concentrations in nasal secretions after nasal challenges with phosphate buffered saline and allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective study, a quantitative determination of histamine and tryptase in nasal secretions after nasal phosphate buffered saline (PBS and allergen challenge was performed in 18 atopic patients who were compared with ten non-allergic healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to determine the normal and pathological concentrations of these important mediators in nasal secretions. The second objective was to test the relevance of these two mast cell secreted mediators after nasal challenge. Results showed that the concentrations of tryptase in almost all samples were under the minimal detection limit (< 0.5 μU/g and only a sigrtificant increase of tryptase (median, 28 μU/g occurred immediately after nasal allergen challenge in the patient group. Histamine concentration significantly increased after every nasal PBS challenge (median, 69 ng/g after first PBS challenge and 165 ng/g after second PBS challenge in the control group, as well as in the patient group after both PBS (median, 69 ng/g and allergen (median, 214 ng/g challenge. On the other hand, a rapid onset of sneezing and increase in nasal airway resistance was experienced only in the patient group after nasal allergen challenge, but did not occur after PBS challenge even though the histamine concentrations significantly increased in both groups. This study suggests that tryptase is a more preferable marker than histamine in quantitative monitoring of mast cell activation especially during the early phase nasal allergic reaction.

  5. Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, Emily A

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal prongs compared with nasal mask reduces the rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants within 72 hours of starting therapy.

  6. Presurgical Nasal Molding With a Nasal Spring in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Nasal Deformity With Incomplete Unilateral Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanchitlertkajorn, Supakit

    2018-01-01

    Traditional nasoalveolar molding (NAM) requires steep learning curve for clinicians and significant compliance from parents. Nasal springs have been developed by the author to simplify presurgical nasal molding. This article presents the design, construction, and application of the spring. The treatment goal is to improve nasal deformity prior to primary repair in infants born with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate. The design, fabrication, and utility of the nasal spring are described. The spring has a simpler design and construction compared to a traditional NAM appliance. Two patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with and without cleft palate are presented. The spring is constructed and delivered. The active arm of the spring can be 3-dimensionally (3-D) adjusted to mold the alar cartilage of the affected nostril. The spring does not require an oral plate for adherence as a traditional NAM appliance does, hence an oral impression is not needed. The spring is easy for clinicians to adjust. It also requires less compliance by parents. Main Outcome Measures/Results: The presurgical molding achieved by the use of a nasal spring improved surgical nasolabial aesthetic outcomes. The nasal springs are effective in reducing the initial cleft nasal deformity. This facilitates primary surgical cleft lip and nose correction and improves surgical outcomes in patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

  7. Cryostat for TRISTAN superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsunobu, S.; Furuya, T.; Hara, K.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting cavities generate rather high heat load of hundreds watts in one cryostat and have high sensitivity for pressure. We adopted usual pool-boiling type cooling for its stable pressure operation. Two 5-cell Nb cavities were installed in one flange type cryostat. Tuning mechanics actuated by a pulse-motor and a Piezo-electric element are set at outside of vacuum end flange. The design and performance of the cryostat for TRISTAN superconducting cavities are described. (author)

  8. Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padamsee, Hasan S.

    2014-10-01

    Superconducting cavities have been operating routinely in a variety of accelerators with a range of demanding applications. With the success of completed projects, niobium cavities have become an enabling technology, offering upgrade paths for existing facilities and pushing frontier accelerators for nuclear physics, high-energy physics, materials science, and the life sciences. With continued progress in basic understanding of radio-frequency superconductivity, the performance of cavities has steadily improved to approach theoretical capabilities.

  9. Xanthomatose normolipidemique a localisation nasale chez une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction : Exposer un cas de xanthomatose normolipidémique. Observation : il s'agit d'une adolescente de 18 ans qui a présenté une masse des cavités nasales dont le bilan paraclinique a plaidé en faveur d'un xanthogranulome juvénile. L'évolution à court terme a été satisfaisante après l'exérèse chirurgicale par une ...

  10. CEBAF: Accelerating cavities look good

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The first assembled pairs of superconducting accelerating cavities from German supplier Interatom for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, have exceeded performance specifications.

  11. CEBAF: Accelerating cavities look good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The first assembled pairs of superconducting accelerating cavities from German supplier Interatom for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, have exceeded performance specifications

  12. Sound Radiation of Aerodynamically Excited Flat Plates into Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Osterziel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced vibrations and the sound radiation of flexible plate structures of different thickness mounted in a rigid plate are experimentally investigated. Therefore, flow properties and turbulent boundary layer parameters are determined through measurements with a hot-wire anemometer in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel. Furthermore, the excitation of the vibrating plate is examined by laser scanning vibrometry. To describe the sound radiation and the sound transmission of the flexible aluminium plates into cavities, a cuboid-shaped room with adjustable volume and 34 flush-mounted microphones is installed at the non flow-excited side of the aluminium plates. Results showed that the sound field inside the cavity is on the one hand dependent on the flow parameters and the plate thickness and on the other hand on the cavity volume which indirectly influences the level and the distribution of the sound pressure behind the flexible plate through different excited modes.

  13. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT to evaluate tumor, nodal disease, and gross tumor volume of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: comparison with MR imaging and validation with surgical specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Oliver; Chambron-Pinho, Nicole; Sader, Rober [JW Goethe University, Department of Oromaxillofacial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus [JW Goethe University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Mack, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J. [JW Goethe University, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Bisdas, Sotirios [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding combined {sup 18}F-PET/CT to MRI for T and N staging of the oral and oropharyngeal cancer and calculation of the gross tumor volume (GTV) having histopathology as reference standard. PET/CT and MRI were performed in 66 patients with suspected oral and oropharyngeal cancer (41 primary tumors/25 recurrent tumors) and nodal disease (114 nodes). Statistical analysis included the McNemar test, sensitivity, specificity for the diagnostic modalities as well as regression analysis, and Bland-Altman graphs for calculated tumor volumes. There was no statistically significant difference between the two modalities compared to pathological findings regarding detection of disease (P{>=}0.72). The sensitivity/specificity for tumor detection were 100/80% and 96.72/60% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for nodal metastases were 88.46/75% and 83.81/73.91% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. In 18% of cases, the MRI-based T staging resulted in an overestimation of the pathologic tumor stage. The corresponding rate for PET/CT was 22%. Regarding the treated necks, both modalities showed 100% sensitivity for detection of the recurrent lesions. In necks with histologically N0 staging, MRI and PET/CT gave 22% and 26% false positive findings, respectively. The mean tumor volume in the pathologic specimen was 16.6{+-}18.6 ml, the mean volume derived by the MR imaging was 17.6{+-}19.1 ml while the estimated by PET/CT volume was 18.8{+-}18.1 ml (P{<=}0.007 between the three methods). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a better agreement between PET/CT and MRI. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in the local staging of oral cancer is not superior to MRI. (orig.)

  14. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT to evaluate tumor, nodal disease, and gross tumor volume of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: comparison with MR imaging and validation with surgical specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Oliver; Chambron-Pinho, Nicole; Sader, Rober; Middendorp, Markus; Mack, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding combined 18 F-PET/CT to MRI for T and N staging of the oral and oropharyngeal cancer and calculation of the gross tumor volume (GTV) having histopathology as reference standard. PET/CT and MRI were performed in 66 patients with suspected oral and oropharyngeal cancer (41 primary tumors/25 recurrent tumors) and nodal disease (114 nodes). Statistical analysis included the McNemar test, sensitivity, specificity for the diagnostic modalities as well as regression analysis, and Bland-Altman graphs for calculated tumor volumes. There was no statistically significant difference between the two modalities compared to pathological findings regarding detection of disease (P≥0.72). The sensitivity/specificity for tumor detection were 100/80% and 96.72/60% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for nodal metastases were 88.46/75% and 83.81/73.91% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. In 18% of cases, the MRI-based T staging resulted in an overestimation of the pathologic tumor stage. The corresponding rate for PET/CT was 22%. Regarding the treated necks, both modalities showed 100% sensitivity for detection of the recurrent lesions. In necks with histologically N0 staging, MRI and PET/CT gave 22% and 26% false positive findings, respectively. The mean tumor volume in the pathologic specimen was 16.6±18.6 ml, the mean volume derived by the MR imaging was 17.6±19.1 ml while the estimated by PET/CT volume was 18.8±18.1 ml (P≤0.007 between the three methods). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a better agreement between PET/CT and MRI. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in the local staging of oral cancer is not superior to MRI. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of the vacuum decay rate of orthopositronium formed in an MgO-lined cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidley, D.W.; Zitzewitz, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    Orthopositronium decay rates are measured in MgO-lined cavities with various volumes and entrance apertures. Systematic effects of the entrance aperture, cavity geometry, and collisional pick-off are measured. The vacuum decay rate is determined to be 7.050+-0.013 μs -1 . (Auth.)

  16. Cavity QED experiments, entanglement and quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, M.

    2001-01-01

    This course is devoted to the physics of entanglement in microwave CQED (cavity quantum electrodynamics) experiments. The heart of this system is a microwave photon trap, made of superconducting mirrors, which stores a few-photon field in a small volume of space for times as long as milliseconds. This field interacts with circular Rydberg atoms injected one by one into the cavity. Section 2 is devoted to the description of the strong coupling regime in Rydberg atom CQED. The tools of the experiment are briefly presented at the beginning of this section as well as the main characteristics of the strong coupling regime. We then show in section 3 how to use the strong interaction with a single photon to perform a non-destructive detection of a single photon with a single atom as a meter. In section 4, we show that the achieved QND (quantum non-demolition) measurement process corresponds to the operation of a quantum phase gate. It allows, in principle, to prepare arbitrary atom + field entangled states. Various methods will be presented for preparing entangled states such as a two atom EPR (Einstein Podolsky Rosen) pair as well as a GHZ triplet. Entanglement involving more and more complex systems will then be investigated in section 5 where the preparation of a ''Schroedinger cat state'' of the cavity field is presented. We especially address in this last section the problem of entanglement between the system and the meter which occurs during any quantum measurement process

  17. Characterizing Cavities in Model Inclusion Fullerenes: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The fullerene-82 cavity is selected as a model system in order to test several methods for characterizing inclusion molecules. The methods are based on different technical foundations such as a square and triangular tessellation of the molecular surface, spherical tessellation of the molecular surface, numerical integration of the atomic volumes and surfaces, triangular tessellation of the molecular surface, and cubic lattice approach to the molecular volume. Accurate measures of the molecular volume and surface area have been performed with the pseudorandom Monte Carlo (MCVS and uniform Monte Carlo (UMCVS methods. These calculations serve as a reference for the rest of the methods. The SURMO2 method does not recognize the cavity and may not be convenient for intercalation compounds. The programs that detect the cavities never exceed 1% deviation relative to the reference value for molecular volume and 5% for surface area. The GEPOL algorithm, alone or combined with TOPO, shows results in good agreement with those of the UMCVS reference. The uniform random number generator provides the fastest convergence for UMCVS and a correct estimate of the standard deviations. The effect of the internal cavity on the solvent-accessible surfaces has been calculated. Fullerene-82 is compared with fullerene-60 and -70.

  18. Internally Pressurized Spherical and Cylindrical Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1978-01-01

    -linear zone and the volume reduction. Results are given for cavities in rock salt, and a comparison with measured stress concentrations is used to support the assumption of a hydrostatic stress state in undisturbed salt formations. Finally a method to estimate convergence due to creep is outlined....

  19. Subjective Evaluation of Vocal Quality in Nasal Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Saltürk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nose is a resonator organ in production of voice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nasal obstruction caused by nasal polyposis on voice quality subjectively. Methods: Thirty-six patients diagnosed with nasal polyposis were included in the study. The 30-item voice handicap index 30 was used in order to evaluate subjective status of voice. Nasal endoscopy and computed tomography imaging of the paranasal sinuses were performed for each patient. Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scores and Lund-MacKay computed tomography scores were evaluated. Control group composed of 20 healthy subjects. Results: The mean voice handicap score in the patient group was 43.16 (SD 15.53 and it was 2.15 (SD 1.92 in control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (p=0.001. The mean Lund-Kennedy and Lund-Mackay scores were 8.58 (SD 2.5 and 17 (SD 5.52, respectively. It was found that increased severity of nasal polyposis was the cause for decreased satisfaction with voice quality. Conclusion: Nasal obstruction caused by nasal polyposis affects voice quality adversely and as the severity of nasal polyposis increases, satisfaction with voice quality decreases.

  20. The effect of nasal surgery on apnea-hypopnea index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nourizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors, which is involved in obstructive sleep apnea, is anatomic or inflammatory pathologies of nasal airway obstruction. Thus, it is logical to observe improvement of polysomnographic parameters of sleep-disordered breathing after nasal surgery. The authors performed a review of the literature, up to 2013, to determine the impact of nasal surgery on obstructive sleep apnea. Most current idea in this field is based on case series studies while randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of surgery for nasal obstruction on sleep apnea are few and far between. According to these studies, surgery for nasal obstruction does not improve objective parameters of sleep apnea. Although nasal obstruction is one of the factors involved in obstructive apnea, one has to keep in mind that surgery will not result in major reduction of obstructive sleep apnea severity to relieve nasal obstruction. Detailed upper airway analysis has to be considered when surgery is an option for obstructive sleep apnea. Thus, nasal surgeries are beneficial when they are part of a multilevel approach in obstructive sleep apnea treatment.