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Sample records for nasal airflow patterns

  1. Numerical simulation of airway dimension effects on airflow patterns and odorant deposition patterns in the rat nasal cavity.

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    Zehong Wei

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is largely dependent on the airflow and odorant transport in the nasal cavity, which in turn depends on the anatomical structure of the nose. In order to evaluate the effect of airway dimension on rat nasal airflow patterns and odorant deposition patterns, we constructed two 3-dimensional, anatomically accurate models of the left nasal cavity of a Sprague-Dawley rat: one was based on high-resolution MRI images with relatively narrow airways and the other was based on artificially-widening airways of the MRI images by referencing the section images with relatively wide airways. Airflow and odorant transport, in the two models, were determined using the method of computational fluid dynamics with finite volume method. The results demonstrated that an increase of 34 µm in nasal airway dimension significantly decreased the average velocity in the whole nasal cavity by about 10% and in the olfactory region by about 12% and increased the volumetric flow into the olfactory region by about 3%. Odorant deposition was affected to a larger extent, especially in the olfactory region, where the maximum odorant deposition difference reached one order of magnitude. The results suggest that a more accurate nasal cavity model is necessary in order to more precisely study the olfactory function of the nose when using the rat.

  2. Effects of differences in nasal anatomy on airflow distribution: a comparison of four individuals at rest.

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    Segal, Rebecca A; Kepler, Grace M; Kimbell, Julia S

    2008-11-01

    Differences in nasal anatomy among human subjects may cause significant differences in respiratory airflow patterns and subsequent dosimetry of inhaled gases and particles in the respiratory tract. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study inter-individual differences in nasal airflow among four healthy individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were digitized and nasal-surface-area-to-volume ratios (SAVR) were calculated for 15 adults. Two males and two females, representative of the range of SAVR values, were selected for flow analysis. Nasal CFD models were constructed for each subject by a semi-automated process that provided input to a commercial mesh generator to generate structured hexahedral meshes (Gambit, Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA). Steady-state inspiratory laminar airflow at 15 L/min was calculated using commercial CFD software (FIDAP, Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA). Streamline patterns, velocities, and helicity values were compared. In all subjects, the majority of flow passed through the middle and ventral regions of the nasal passages; however, the amount and location of swirling flow differed among individuals. Cross-sectional flow allocation analysis also indicated inter-individual differences. Laboratory water-dye experiments confirmed streamlines and velocity magnitudes predicted by the computational model. These results suggest that significant inter-individual differences exist in bulk airflow patterns in the nose.

  3. A model of airflow in the nasal cavities: Implications for nasal air conditioning and epistaxis.

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    Bailie, Neil; Hanna, Brendan; Watterson, John; Gallagher, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    A friction force is generated when moving air contacts the nasal walls, referred to as wall shear stress. This interaction facilitates heat and mass transfer between the mucosa and air, i.e., air-conditioning. The objective of this research was to study the distribution of wall shear stress within the nasal cavity to identify areas that contribute significantly to air-conditioning within the nasal cavity. Three-dimensional computational models of the nasal airways of five healthy subjects (three male and two female subjects) were constructed from nasal CT scans. Numerical simulations of nasal airflow were conducted using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code Fluent 6 (Ansys, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). Wall shear stress was derived from the numerical simulation. Air-conditioning was simulated to confirm the relationship with wall shear stress. Nasal airflow simulations predicted high wall shear stress along the anterior aspect of the inferior turbinate, the anteroinferior aspect of the middle turbinate, and within Little's area. The airflow simulations indicate that the inferior and middle turbinates and Little's area on the anterior nasal septum contribute significantly to nasal air-conditioning. The concentration of wall shear stress within Little's area indicates a desiccating and potentially traumatic effect of inhaled air that may explain the predilection for spontaneous epistaxis at this site.

  4. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

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    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  5. Airflow Pattern Genereated by Three Air Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; de Adana, Manuel Ruiz

    The correct description of air diffusers plays a crucial role in the CFD predictions of the airflow pattern into a room. The numerical simulation of air distribution in an indoor space is challenging because of the complicated airflow pattern generated. An experimental study has been carried out ...

  6. Airflow Pattern Generated by Three Air Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The correct description of air diffusers plays a crucial role in the CFD predictions of the airflow pattern into a room. The numerical simulation of air distribution in an indoor space is challenging because of the complicated airflow pattern generated. Many authors have developed simplified geom...

  7. Airflow Pattern Generated by Three Air Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The correct description of air diffusers plays a crucial role in the CFD predictions of the airflow pattern into a room. The numerical simulation of air distribution in an indoor space is challenging because of the complicated airflow pattern generated. Many authors have developed simplified geom...

  8. Activity patterns elicited by airflow in the olfactory bulb and their possible functions.

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    Wu, Ruiqi; Liu, Yue; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Xu, Fuqiang

    2017-10-02

    Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) can sense both odorants and airflows. In the olfactory bulb (OB), the coding of odor information is well studied, but the coding of mechanical stimulation is rarely investigated. Unlike odor sensing, the functions of airflow sensing of OSNs are also largely unknown. Here, the activity patterns elicited by mechanical airflow in male rat OBs were mapped using fMRI and correlated with local field potential recordings. In an attempt to reveal possible functions of airflow sensing, the relationship between airflow patterns and physiological parameters was also examined. We found that: a) the activity pattern in the OB evoked by airflow in the nasal cavity was more broadly distributed, compared with those evoked by odors; b) the pattern intensity increases with total airflow, while the pattern topography is rather similar; and c) the heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate, and EEG power in β-band were reduced under regular mechanical airflow, compared with no airflow through the nasal cavity. The mapping results provide evidence that the signals elicited by mechanical airflow in OSNs are transmitted to the OB, and that the OB has the potential to code and process mechanical information. Our functional data indicate that airflow rhythm in the olfactory system is able to regulate the physiological and brain states, providing an explanation for the effects of breath controlling in meditation, yoga, and Taoism practices.Significant statementThe studies about presentation of odor information in the olfactory bulb is comprehensive, while that of breathing features is rare. Here we investigated the global activity patterns in the rat olfactory bulb elicited by airflow in the nasal cavity using BOLD-fMRI for the first time and found that the activity pattern elicited by airflow is broadly distributed, with increasing pattern intensity and similar topography under increasing total airflow. Further, heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate in

  9. A Comparative Study of Airflow and Odorant Deposition in the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

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    Richter, Joseph; Rumple, Christopher; Ranslow, Allison; Quigley, Andrew; Pang, Benison; Neuberger, Thomas; Krane, Michael; van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The complex structure of the mammalian nasal cavity provides a tortuous airflow path and a large surface area for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of inspired contaminants, and olfaction. Due to the small and contorted structure of the nasal turbinals, nasal anatomy and function remains poorly understood in most mammals. Here, we utilize high-resolution MRI scans to reconstruct anatomically-accurate models of the mammalian nasal cavity. These data are used to compare the form and function of the mammalian nose. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of nasal airflow and odorant deposition are presented and used to compare olfactory function across species (primate, rodent, canine, feline, ungulate).

  10. Effects of vowel height and vocal intensity on anticipatory nasal airflow in individuals with normal speech.

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    Young, L H; Zajac, D J; Mayo, R; Hooper, C R

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of vowel height and vocal intensity on the magnitude of anticipatory nasal airflow in normal speakers when producing vowel-nasal-vowel (VNV) sequences. Measurements of nasal and oral airflow were obtained from 15 men and 12 women with normal speech during production of the VNV sequences /ini/ and /ana/ at low, medium, and high intensity levels. Ratios of nasal to oral-plus-nasal airflow were calculated for the initial vowel of both utterances at each of the intensity levels. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures indicated a significant main effect of intensity level and a significant vowel-by-sex interaction effect (p vowel type. Female speakers exhibited greater airflow ratios during production of /ini/ than during productions of /ana/. Their airflow ratios were also greater during production of /ini/ than were those of male speakers. The results suggest that vocal intensity may affect velopharyngeal (VP) function in an assimilative nasal phonetic context. The results further suggest that anticipatory nasal airflow may be determined by the configuration of the oral cavity to a greater extent in women than in men. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species.

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    Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2014-11-01

    The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread

  12. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects.

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    Haribalan Kumar

    Full Text Available Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics.

  13. Altered nasal airflow : an unusual complication following implant surgery in the anterior maxilla

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    Wolff, J.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Bretschneider, J.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Dental implants have been in routine clinical use for over three decades and are a predictable treatment modality. However, as with all other aspects of dentistry, complications occur. A 50-year-old female patient with complaints of a long ongoing unpleasant altered nasal airflow presented herself a

  14. The relationship between nasal resistance to airflow and the airspace minimal cross-sectional area.

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    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Hariri, Benjamin M; Patel, Ruchin G; Rhee, John S

    2016-06-14

    The relationship between nasal resistance (R) and airspace minimal cross-sectional area (mCSA) remains unclear. After the introduction of acoustic rhinometry, many otolaryngologists believed that mCSA measurements would correlate with subjective perception of nasal airway obstruction (NAO), and thus could provide an objective measure of nasal patency to guide therapy. However, multiple studies reported a low correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency, and between mCSA and R. This apparent lack of correlation between nasal form and function has been a long-standing enigma in the field of rhinology. Here we propose that nasal resistance is described by the Bernoulli Obstruction Theory. This theory predicts two flow regimes. For mCSA>Acrit, the constriction is not too severe and there is not a tight coupling between R and mCSA. In contrast, when mCSAfluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were run in 3-dimensional models based on computed tomography scans of 15 NAO patients pre- and post-surgery (i.e., 60 unilateral nasal cavities). Airspace cross-sectional areas were quantified perpendicular to airflow streamlines. Our computational results are consistent with the theory. Given that in most people mCSA>Acrit (estimated to be 0.37cm(2)), this theory suggests that airway constrictions are rarely an exclusive contributor to nasal resistance, which may explain the weak correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency.

  15. Creation of an idealized nasopharynx geometry for accurate computational fluid dynamics simulations of nasal airflow in patient-specific models lacking the nasopharynx anatomy.

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    A T Borojeni, Azadeh; Frank-Ito, Dennis O; Kimbell, Julia S; Rhee, John S; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2017-05-01

    Virtual surgery planning based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations has the potential to improve surgical outcomes for nasal airway obstruction patients, but the benefits of virtual surgery planning must outweigh the risks of radiation exposure. Cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans represent an attractive imaging modality for virtual surgery planning due to lower costs and lower radiation exposures compared with conventional CT scans. However, to minimize the radiation exposure, the cone beam CT sinusitis protocol sometimes images only the nasal cavity, excluding the nasopharynx. The goal of this study was to develop an idealized nasopharynx geometry for accurate representation of outlet boundary conditions when the nasopharynx geometry is unavailable. Anatomically accurate models of the nasopharynx created from 30 CT scans were intersected with planes rotated at different angles to obtain an average geometry. Cross sections of the idealized nasopharynx were approximated as ellipses with cross-sectional areas and aspect ratios equal to the average in the actual patient-specific models. CFD simulations were performed to investigate whether nasal airflow patterns were affected when the CT-based nasopharynx was replaced by the idealized nasopharynx in 10 nasal airway obstruction patients. Despite the simple form of the idealized geometry, all biophysical variables (nasal resistance, airflow rate, and heat fluxes) were very similar in the idealized vs patient-specific models. The results confirmed the expectation that the nasopharynx geometry has a minimal effect in the nasal airflow patterns during inspiration. The idealized nasopharynx geometry will be useful in future CFD studies of nasal airflow based on medical images that exclude the nasopharynx. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

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    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory.

  17. Endoscopy findings affect subjective smell rehabilitation in post-laryngectomy patients using the nasal airflow-inducing manoeuvre.

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    Saedi, B; Razmpa, E; Nikjo, A; Ghalandarabadi, M; Ghadimi, H; Saidabadi, G

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of post-laryngectomy patients, including nasal endoscopy findings, that affect subjective smell improvement in the post-surgical period. Thirty patients who had undergone total laryngectomy participated in at least three sessions of a smell rehabilitation programme involving the nasal airflow-inducing manoeuvre, under the supervision of a speech-language pathologist. Patient characteristics and nasal endoscopy findings were evaluated. Participants experienced a mean improvement in sense of smell of 61 per cent (p effective method for improving smell perception and appetite in laryngectomy patients. There was no relationship between nasal endoscopy findings and outcome of the nasal airflow-inducing manoeuvre rehabilitation programme in our case series.

  18. Evaluation of airflow patterns following procedures established by NUREG-1400.

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    Fritz, Brad G; Khan, Fenton; Mendoza, Donaldo P

    2006-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's guide, NUREG-1400, addresses many aspects of air sampling in the work place. Here, we present detailed examples of the methodology used to conduct two qualitative airflow studies at different sites. In one test, smoke was used to evaluate the airflow patterns within a high-bay building for the purpose of determining appropriate locations for air monitoring equipment. The study revealed a stagnant layer of the air within the transfer area that made predicting movement of contamination within the transfer area difficult. Without conducting an airflow study, the stagnant layer may not have been identified and could have resulted in placement of samplers at inappropriate locations. In a second test, smoke was used to verify the effectiveness of an air space barrier curtain. The results showed that the curtain adequately separated the two air spaces. The methodology employed in each test provided sound, easy to interpret information that satisfied the requirements of each test. The methods described in this article can be applied at most facilities where determination of airflow patterns or the verification of suspected airflow patterns is required.

  19. Optimal Determination of Respiratory Airflow Patterns Using a Nonlinear Multicompartment Model for a Lung Mechanics System

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    Hancao Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential energy and rapid airflow rate changes for the expiratory phase. Finally, we numerically integrate the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problems to determine the optimal airflow patterns over the inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles.

  20. Optimal determination of respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system.

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    Li, Hancao; Haddad, Wassim M

    2012-01-01

    We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential energy and rapid airflow rate changes for the expiratory phase. Finally, we numerically integrate the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problems to determine the optimal airflow patterns over the inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Influence of Airflow Patterns on Carbon Dioxide Distribution in a Scaled Livestock Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Tong, Guohong

    2008-01-01

    Airflow patterns and airflow rate have an important influence on contaminant distribution in livestock buildings. The objective of this paper is to model and evaluate the effect of airflow rates and airflow patterns effect on CO2 concentration distribution and emission rates in a scaled livestock...... building with slatted floor. Contaminant sources are assumed to be modelled as a constant concentration on the manure surface. Three different ventilation rates and two different deflector degrees are studied, in which the deflector is applied to change the airflow patterns. A CFD commercial software code...

  2. Airflow patterns in the vicinity of an air-driven free reed

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    Jensen, Jesse T.; Cottingham, James P.

    2003-10-01

    Free reed instruments are characterized by high-volume airflow rates through the oscillating reeds. Measurements have been made of the average volume flow rate through a single American organ reed as a function of blowing pressure. In addition, measurements of average air velocity have been made at a grid of points close to the vibrating air-driven reed, mounted on the surface of a laboratory wind chest. These measurements supplement earlier investigations, which explored relations among the reed motion, airflow, and acoustic pressure associated with the vibration of free reeds. [M. Busha and J. P. Cottingham, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2376 (2002)]. An attempt has been made to determine whether the left-right asymmetry due to the asymmetric shape (twist) of the reed is reflected in the airflow pattern. A graphing program has been developed so that the airflow pattern can be visualized in two or three dimensions.

  3. Nasal airflow measurement using a compensated thermistor anemometer. Part 2. Computer signal processing and quantitative analysis.

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    Besar, S S; Kelly, S W; Manley, M C

    1990-03-01

    A nasal anemometer is a useful tool for speech therapists in their assessment of treatment effectiveness. This work is the second part of a research scheme which describes how the system is compatible with the use of an IBM PC-AT microcomputer using a suitable analogue-to-digital convertor. This enables the system to perform signal processing and to display, draw, and calculate a numerical 'figure of merit' using Kendall's tau nonparametric correlation.

  4. Three-dimensional airflow and sediment transport patterns over barchan dunes

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    Smith, Alexander B.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, J. Andrew G.

    2017-02-01

    Airflow dynamics and potential sediment transport were measured and modelled across various barchan dune topographies and incident wind conditions. Modification of near surface flow was recorded simultaneously in three dimensions (3D) using dense arrays of high-resolution 3D ultrasonic anemometers. In situ measurements provided rigorous validation and calibration for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. Measured and modelled results show good agreement between flow velocity, directionality, and turbulence intensity. Modelling of characteristic airflow conditions and surface shear stress beyond the instrument locations, elucidated airflow dynamics across the entire landform surface at an unprecedented level of detail. Emergent turbulent airflow patterns were identified in the form of two counter-rotating vortices that converge at the dune centreline downwind of the dune crest. Integrating a sediment transport function with CFD surface airflow allows for the spatial mapping of flux patterns across the entirety of the dune and interdune surface. On the stoss slope and laterally along the outer barchan arms, there is strong potential sediment flux in response to increased streamwise stress. In lee-side locations, sediment transport remains at 'above threshold' conditions and is redirected in response to complex turbulent vortices identified in the overlying wake zone. The precision of the models allows for the identification of complex flow perturbations and associated surface stresses that prove difficult to measure in the field. CFD in combination with a sediment transport function is demonstrated to be a useful tool in investigating morphodynamics of mobile dune systems.

  5. Investigation of airflow patterns in a microclimate by particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2008-01-01

    moisture production. The lack of air circulation decreases the surface temperature, which can cause problems. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) investigation was performed of the airflow patterns in such a microclimate. This paper describes the experimental set-up and the results. The results indicate...

  6. Effect of air-flow on the evaluation of refractive surgery ablation patterns.

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    Dorronsoro, Carlos; Schumacher, Silvia; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Siegel, Jan; Mrochen, Michael; Marcos, Susana

    2011-02-28

    An Allegretto Eye-Q laser platform (Wavelight GmbH, Erlangen, Germany) was used to study the effect of air-flow speed on the ablation of artificial polymer corneas used for testing refractive surgery patterns. Flat samples of two materials (PMMA and Filofocon A) were ablated at four different air flow conditions. The shape and profile of the ablated surfaces were measured with a precise non-contact optical surface profilometer. Significant asymmetries in the measured profiles were found when the ablation was performed with the clinical air aspiration system, and also without air flow. Increasing air-flow produced deeper ablations, improved symmetry, and increased the repeatability of the ablation pattern. Shielding of the laser pulse by the plume of smoke during the ablation of plastic samples reduced the central ablation depth by more than 40% with no-air flow, 30% with clinical air aspiration, and 5% with 1.15 m/s air flow. A simple model based on non-inertial dragging of the particles by air flow predicts no central shielding with 2.3 m/s air flow, and accurately predicts (within 2 μm) the decrease of central ablation depth by shielding. The shielding effects for PMMA and Filofocon A were similar despite the differences in the ablation properties of the materials and the different full-shielding transmission coefficient, which is related to the number of particles ejected and their associated optical behavior. Air flow is a key factor in the evaluation of ablation patterns in refractive surgery using plastic models, as significant shielding effects are found with typical air-flow levels used under clinical conditions. Shielding effects can be avoided by tuning the air flow to the laser repetition rate.

  7. Comparison of realistic and idealized breathing patterns in computational models of airflow and vapor dosimetry in the rodent upper respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-03-17

    Abstract Context: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflows coupled with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of respiratory tissue doses of airborne materials have traditionally used either steady-state inhalation or a sinusoidal approximation of the breathing cycle for airflow simulations despite their differences from normal breathing patterns. Objective: Evaluate the impact of realistic breathing patterns, including sniffing, on predicted nasal tissue concentrations of a reactive vapor that targets the nose in rats as a case study. Materials and methods: Whole-body plethysmography measurements from a free-breathing rat were used to produce profiles of normal breathing, sniffing and combinations of both as flow inputs to CFD/PBPK simulations of acetaldehyde exposure. Results: For the normal measured ventilation profile, modest reductions in time- and tissue depth-dependent areas under the curve (AUC) acetaldehyde concentrations were predicted in the wet squamous, respiratory and transitional epithelium along the main airflow path, while corresponding increases were predicted in the olfactory epithelium, especially the most distal regions of the ethmoid turbinates, versus the idealized profile. The higher amplitude/frequency sniffing profile produced greater AUC increases over the idealized profile in the olfactory epithelium, especially in the posterior region. Conclusions: The differences in tissue AUCs at known lesion-forming regions for acetaldehyde between normal and idealized profiles were minimal, suggesting that sinusoidal profiles may be used for this chemical and exposure concentration. However, depending upon the chemical, exposure system and concentration and the time spent sniffing, the use of realistic breathing profiles, including sniffing, could become an important modulator for local tissue dose predictions.

  8. Comparison of realistic and idealized breathing patterns in computational models of airflow and vapor dosimetry in the rodent upper respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sean M; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E; Kuprat, Andrew P; Einstein, Daniel R; Corley, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflows coupled with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of respiratory tissue doses of airborne materials have traditionally used either steady-state inhalation or a sinusoidal approximation of the breathing cycle for airflow simulations despite their differences from normal breathing patterns. Evaluate the impact of realistic breathing patterns, including sniffing, on predicted nasal tissue concentrations of a reactive vapor that targets the nose in rats as a case study. Whole-body plethysmography measurements from a free-breathing rat were used to produce profiles of normal breathing, sniffing and combinations of both as flow inputs to CFD/PBPK simulations of acetaldehyde exposure. For the normal measured ventilation profile, modest reductions in time- and tissue depth-dependent areas under the curve (AUC) acetaldehyde concentrations were predicted in the wet squamous, respiratory and transitional epithelium along the main airflow path, while corresponding increases were predicted in the olfactory epithelium, especially the most distal regions of the ethmoid turbinates, versus the idealized profile. The higher amplitude/frequency sniffing profile produced greater AUC increases over the idealized profile in the olfactory epithelium, especially in the posterior region. The differences in tissue AUCs at known lesion-forming regions for acetaldehyde between normal and idealized profiles were minimal, suggesting that sinusoidal profiles may be used for this chemical and exposure concentration. However, depending upon the chemical, exposure system and concentration and the time spent sniffing, the use of realistic breathing profiles, including sniffing, could become an important modulator for local tissue dose predictions.

  9. Numerical simulation of pharyngeal airflow applied to obstructive sleep apnea: effect of the nasal cavity in anatomically accurate airway models.

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    Cisonni, Julien; Lucey, Anthony D; King, Andrew J C; Islam, Syed Mohammed Shamsul; Lewis, Richard; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2015-11-01

    Repetitive brief episodes of soft-tissue collapse within the upper airway during sleep characterize obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), an extremely common and disabling disorder. Failure to maintain the patency of the upper airway is caused by the combination of sleep-related loss of compensatory dilator muscle activity and aerodynamic forces promoting closure. The prediction of soft-tissue movement in patient-specific airway 3D mechanical models is emerging as a useful contribution to clinical understanding and decision making. Such modeling requires reliable estimations of the pharyngeal wall pressure forces. While nasal obstruction has been recognized as a risk factor for OSA, the need to include the nasal cavity in upper-airway models for OSA studies requires consideration, as it is most often omitted because of its complex shape. A quantitative analysis of the flow conditions generated by the nasal cavity and the sinuses during inspiration upstream of the pharynx is presented. Results show that adequate velocity boundary conditions and simple artificial extensions of the flow domain can reproduce the essential effects of the nasal cavity on the pharyngeal flow field. Therefore, the overall complexity and computational cost of accurate flow predictions can be reduced.

  10. Stereoscopic PIV measurements of flow in the nasal cavity with high flow therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C. J. T.; Buchmann, N. A.; Jermy, M. C.; Moore, S. M.

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the airflow characteristics within the nasal cavity with nasal high flow (NHF) therapy and during unassisted breathing is essential to understand the treatment's efficacy. The distribution and velocity of the airflow in the nasal cavity with and without NHF cannula flow has been investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry at steady peak expiration and inspiration. In vivo breathing flows were measured and dimensionally scaled to reproduce physiological conditions in vitro. A scaled model of the complete nasal cavity was constructed in transparent silicone and airflow simulated with an aqueous glycerine solution. NHF modifies nasal cavity flow patterns significantly, altering the proportion of inspiration and expiration through each passageway and producing jets with in vivo velocities up to 17.0 ms-1 for 30 l/min cannula flow. Velocity magnitudes differed appreciably between the left and right sides of the nasal cavity. The importance of using a three-component measurement technique when investigating nasal flows has been highlighted.

  11. The classical Starling resistor model often does not predict inspiratory airflow patterns in the human upper airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Robert L; Edwards, Bradley A; Sands, Scott A; Butler, James P; Eckert, Danny J; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew

    2014-04-15

    The upper airway is often modeled as a classical Starling resistor, featuring a constant inspiratory airflow, or plateau, over a range of downstream pressures. However, airflow tracings from clinical sleep studies often show an initial peak before the plateau. To conform to the Starling model, the initial peak must be of small magnitude or dismissed as a transient. We developed a method to simulate fast or slow inspirations through the human upper airway, to test the hypothesis that this initial peak is a transient. Eight subjects [4 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 4 controls] slept in an "iron lung" and wore a nasal mask connected to a continuous/bilevel positive airway pressure machine. Downstream pressure was measured using an epiglottic catheter. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, subjects were hyperventilated to produce a central apnea, then extrathoracic pressure was decreased slowly (∼2-4 s) or abruptly (<0.5 s) to lower downstream pressure and create inspiratory airflow. Pressure-flow curves were constructed for flow-limited breaths, and slow vs. fast reductions in downstream pressure were compared. All subjects exhibited an initial peak and then a decrease in flow with more negative pressures, demonstrating negative effort dependence (NED). The rate of change in downstream pressure did not affect the peak to plateau airflow ratio: %NED 22 ± 13% (slow) vs. 20 ± 5% (fast), P = not significant. We conclude that the initial peak in inspiratory airflow is not a transient but rather a distinct mechanical property of the upper airway. In contrast to the classical Starling resistor model, the upper airway exhibits marked NED in some subjects.

  12. Histological analysis of the distribution pattern of glandular tissue in normal inferior nasal turbinates

    OpenAIRE

    Millas, Ieda; Liquidato, Bianca Maria; Dolci,José Eduardo Lutaif; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Macéa,José Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Nasal turbinates play an important role in nasal physiology. These functions include the important function of particle filtration by the mucocilliary system. Many nasal mucosal diseases, such as rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, are directly related with structural alterations of the mucosal lining of the turbinates. AIM: To study the distribution pattern of the glandular epithelium of the lamina propria in the normal lower nasal turbinate mucosa of the anterior, medium and posterior portions. MA...

  13. Prediction of Indoor Airflow Patterns in Livestock Buildings Ventilated through a Diffuse Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Morsing, S.

    2004-01-01

    The airflow conditions in an experimental pig housing unit are examined both experimentally and numerically (simulation) with particular focus on the airflow conditions in the occupational zone of the animals. Two heating setups are used, and the temperature is measured in a horizontal profile at...

  14. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to examine airflow characteristics in Empty Nose Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Tim; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Thamboo, Andrew; Velasquez, Nathalia; Nayak, Jayakar V.; Sellier, Mathieu; Moin, Parviz

    2016-11-01

    The enigmatic disorder, empty nose syndrome (ENS), presents with a complex subjective symptom profile despite objectively patent nasal airways, and recent reports suggest that surgical augmentation of the nasal airway can improve quality of life and ENS-related complaints. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed both prior to, and following, inferior turbinate augmentation to model the resultant changes in airflow patterns and better understand the pathophysiology of ENS. An ENS patient with marked reduction in ENS symptoms following turbinate augmentation was identified, and pre- and post-operative CT imaging was collected. A Finite element framework with the variational multiscale method (Esmaily-Moghadam, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 2015) was used to compute the airflow, temperature, and moisture transport through the nasal cavity. Comparison of the CFD results following corrective surgery showed higher levels of airflow turbulence. Augmentation produced 50%, 25%, and 25% increases in root mean square pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux respectively. These results provide insight into the changes in nasal airflow characteristics attainable through surgical augmentation, and by extension, how nasal airflow patterns may be distorted in the 'overly patent' airway of ENS patients. Supported by Stanford University CTR and Fulbright New Zealand.

  15. 烟雾示踪剂在显示鼻腔呼气相气流变化中的研究%Variation of nasal cavity airflow on the expiratory phase by a smoke tracer agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹏; 张淑君; 李朝晖; 宋善芳; 陈雪松; 逯霞; 邓元新; 王洪田

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究鼻腔呼气相气流曲线及不同解剖部位气流的变化.方法 对10例鼻内镜检查鼻腔黏膜及结构正常的吸烟志愿者,采用吸烟的方式将电子烟的烟雾吸入,储存于口咽及以下气道内,以1、1.5、2 s一个呼气周期均匀呼气,观察鼻腔气流变化.结果 咽部气流在鼻咽顶部气流由垂直直线上升变为曲线前移,大部分以层流方式进入总鼻道,少量气体由下鼻甲后端进入下鼻道以湍流方式运动,极少量气体以层流的方式进入嗅裂及中鼻道,鼻阈以湍流为主.结论 鼻咽顶与鼻腔交界的坎阻挡气流导致呼出气流改变运动方向,使气流压低主要经总鼻道底部流出,极少经上鼻道流出,下鼻道气流以湍流为主.呼出气流对中鼻道及嗅裂影响较小.%Objective To study the variation of airflow curves in the nasal cavity and airflow in different anatomical regions. Methods Ten volunteers with normal nasal mucosa were selected by a nasal endoscope examination. Electronic smog was breathed by volunteers through smoking, and kept in the oral pharynx and lower air passage. The normal airflow variation was observed when respirations were conducted for 1 second ,1.5 seconds and 2 seconds. Results Upward and laminar airflow passed through the roof of the nasopharynx, most of which curved to the common meatus, and a small amount rushed at the middle turbinate and flowed in the middle meatus and the olfactory sulcus, but only a tiny minority rushed into the inferior meatus from the back and moved in a turbulent flow. The majority of the airflow was turbulent when passing limen nasi. Conclusion Direction is changed when airflow passes a bank between the roof of nasopharynx and posterior nans, most of which runs in the common meatus base, with very little in the superior meatus. The majority airflow in the inferior meatus is turbulent. Expiratory airflow has little effect on the mucous membrane of the middle meatus and olfactory

  16. Nasal air conditioning in relation to acoustic rhinometry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Joerg; Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Wiesmiller, Kerstin M

    2009-01-01

    Changes of nasal dimensions can influence the air-conditioning capacity of the nose because of alterations of airflow patterns. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intranasal temperature and humidity values and nasal dimensions, assessed by means of acoustic rhinometry. Eighty healthy volunteers (40 men and 40 women; median age, 51 years; range, 20-84 years) were enrolled in the study. In total, 160 nasal cavities were examined. All volunteers underwent a standardized acoustic rhinometry. Additionally, intranasal air temperature and humidity measurements at defined intranasal detection sites within the anterior nasal segment were performed. There was no statistically significant difference between the right and left side of the nose regarding air temperature, absolute humidity, and acoustic rhinometric values. A negative correlation was established between the rhinometric nasal volumes/minimal cross-sectional areas and air temperature and absolute humidity values at the three intranasal detection sites. According to our results, nasal volumes and cross- sectional areas relevantly influence nasal air conditioning. A healthy nasal cavity with smaller volumes and cross-sectional areas seems to present a more effective air-conditioning function than a too "wide" open nose because of changes in airflow patterns. This observation should be considered as a limitation for overly extensive nasal surgery especially of the turbinates.

  17. Influence of deposition and spray pattern of nasal powders on insulin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringels, E; Callens, C; Vervaet, C; Dumont, F; Slegers, G; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

    2006-03-01

    The influence of the deposition pattern and spray characteristics of nasal powder formulations on the insulin bioavailability was investigated in rabbits. The formulations were prepared by freeze drying a dispersion containing a physical mixture of drum dried waxy maize starch (DDWM)/Carbopol 974P (90/10, w/w) or a spray-dried mixture of Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P (25/75, w/w). The deposition in the nasal cavity of rabbits and in a silicone human nose model after actuation of three nasal delivery devices (Monopowder, Pfeiffer and experimental system) was compared and related to the insulin bioavailability. Posterior deposition of the powder formulation in the nasal cavity lowered the insulin bioavailability. To study the spray pattern, the shape and cross-section of the emitted powder cloud were analysed. It was concluded that the powder bulk density of the formulation influenced the spray pattern. Consequently, powders of different bulk density were prepared by changing the solid fraction of the freeze dried dispersion and by changing the freezing rate during freeze drying. After nasal delivery of these powder formulations no influence of the powder bulk density and of the spray pattern on the insulin bioavailability was observed.

  18. A simple nasal anemometer for clinical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutters, B; Brøndsted, K

    1992-01-01

    There is a need for clinical methods which give more direct information about the behaviour of the velopharyngeal mechanism in natural speech than do the examination methods normally applied to patients suffering from velopharyngeal insufficiency. One possibility is the recording of nasal airflow in order to detect nasal emission of air. The purpose of the present study is to examine the qualities and the characteristics of a simple and cheap nasal anemometer. As this type of flowmeter is considered less reliable than most other flowmeters, its limitations must be clearly understood and accounted for in drawing conclusions. Therefore, nasal airflow in speech obtained with this flowmeter is discussed in relation to nasal airflow obtained by the more reliable pneumotachograph and in relation to nasal airflow data found in the literature. The tests made here suggest that, at least for the type of speech material and measurements used in the present study, reliable nasal airflow data can be obtained by the anemometer.

  19. Use of heliox delivered via high-flow nasal cannula to treat an infant with coronavirus-related respiratory infection and severe acute air-flow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sherwin E; Vukin, Kirissa; Mosakowski, Steve; Solano, Patti; Stanton, Lolita; Lester, Lucille; Lavani, Romeen; Hall, Jesse B; Tung, Avery

    2014-11-01

    Heliox, a helium-oxygen gas mixture, has been used for many decades to treat obstructive pulmonary disease. The lower density and higher viscosity of heliox relative to nitrogen-oxygen mixtures can significantly reduce airway resistance when an anatomic upper air-flow obstruction is present and gas flow is turbulent. Clinically, heliox can decrease airway resistance in acute asthma in adults and children and in COPD. Heliox may also enhance the bronchodilating effects of β-agonist administration for acute asthma. Respiratory syndromes caused by coronavirus infections in humans range in severity from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with human coronavirus OC43 and other viral strains. In infants, coronavirus infection can cause bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia in variable combinations and can produce enough air-flow obstruction to cause respiratory failure. We describe a case of coronavirus OC43 infection in an infant with severe acute respiratory distress treated with heliox inhalation to avoid intubation.

  20. Correlation between airflow patterns and performance of a laboratory fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Chang, C-P

    2006-12-01

    To understand the physical mechanisms of the contaminant dispersion and containment leakage during the ventilation process through a laboratory fume hood, the complicated three-dimensional flow patterns and the real-time tracer gas (SF6) leakage were studied via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the standard/special gas sampling technique, respectively. Through flow visualization, the large-scale vortex structures and boundary layer separations were found around the side poles and doorsill of the hood. In the near-wake region of the manikin, large recirculation zones and wavy flow structures were also identified. When tracer gas concentration measurements were conducted point-by-point across the sash opening, the areas near the doorsill, the lower parts of the side poles, and the sides of the manikin showed significant contaminant leaks. These areas with high contaminant leaks exactly corresponded to where the flow recirculated or separated. However, when the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 protocol was used to measure the concentration of SF6 at the breathing zone of the manikin, no appreciable leakage was detected. It is suggested that a method based on the aerodynamic features and multipoint leakage detections would reflect a more realistic evaluation of overall performance of laboratory fume hood than a single-point sampling method at the manikin's breathing zone.

  1. Sonic anemometry measurements to determine airflow patterns in multi-tunnel greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Valera, D. L.; Molina-aiz, F. D.; Pena, A.

    2012-11-01

    The present work describes a methodology for studying natural ventilation in Mediterranean greenhouses using sonic anemometry. The experimental work took place in the three-span greenhouse located at the agricultural research farm belonging to the University of Almeria. This methodology has allowed us to obtain patterns of natural ventilation of the experimental greenhouse under the most common wind regimes for this region. It has also enabled us to describe how the wind and thermal effects interact in the natural ventilation of the greenhouse, as well as to detect deficiencies in the ventilation of the greenhouse, caused by the barrier effect of the adjacent greenhouse (imply a mean reduction in air velocity close to the greenhouse when facing windward of 98% for u, 63% for u, and more importantly 88% for ux, the component of air velocity that is perpendicular to the side vent). Their knowledge allows us to improve the current control algorithms that manage the movement of the vents. In this work we make a series of proposals that could substantially improve the natural ventilation of the experimental greenhouse. For instance, install vents equipped with ailerons which guide the air inside, or with vents in which the screen is not placed directly over the side surface of the greenhouse. A different proposal is to prolong the opening of the side vents down to the soil, thus fomenting the entrance of air at crop level. (Author) 34 refs.

  2. 3D Airflow patterns over coastal foredunes: implications for aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, Andrew G.; Baas, Andreas C. W.; Lynch, Kevin; Beyers, Meiring

    2010-05-01

    across a high resolution LIDAR surface of the dunes and beach we have isolated key areas of wind direction and velocity patterns which are important in aeolian transport budgets. Results are particularly important in post-storm recovery of foredunes damaged under wave action as offshore winds can initiate significant onshore transport, re-supplying the backbeach and foredune zones.

  3. The impact of the combined chimney outlet size and extended solar wall-roof chimney on airflow patterns using numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AboulNaga, M.M.; Alteraifi, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper investigates airflow patterns and behavior of combined roof and extended solar wall-roof chimney incorporated into a typical room with an inlet and outlet. Numerical simulations using the Fluid Dynamics software Package, FIDAP, are exploited to describe and analyze the airflow patterns inside the room, and in the extended solar wall-roof chimneys. FIDAP simulation analyses and results of the airflow streamline, velocity vectors, and temperature distributions are presented. Maximum velocity vector, temperatures, and smooth streamlines were found for better performance at separation of 0.25m. At 0.25m separation, in both wall and roof solar chimneys, the maximum chimney outlet flow rate and smooth streamline were found when the wall chimney is 2.00m high, which corresponds to a wall chimney inlet of 1.60m. Results show that the maximum relative speed in the combined chimneys is higher than the solar roof chimney alone. These findings suggest that the exploitation of an extended solar roof-wall chimney could enhance nighttime natural ventilation and the cooling of buildings. The system is limited to cool low-rise buildings in hot-arid regions such as Al-Ain City, UAE, where energy use is enormous.

  4. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF MASSES IN THE NASAL CAVITY, PARANASAL SINUSES AND NASOPHARYNX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Masses in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx are common and can be classified into non-neoplastic or neoplastic lesions. OBJECTIVES To study the histopathological patterns of masses in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx in Manipur, India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN This prospective study from the period of April 2013 to September 2015 was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur. MATERIAL AND METHODS All cases of specimens of masses in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx from the period of April 2013 to September 2015 were included in the study. RESULTS A total of 102 cases were studied during the study period. Age ranged from 6 years to 80 years with slight male preponderance. Non-neoplastic lesions comprised of 59 cases (57.84% and neoplastic lesions was 43 cases (42.16%. Inflammatory polyp comprised 46 cases (45% and was the predominant lesion in the non-neoplastic group. Among the neoplastic lesions, malignant lesions (65.12% predominated over benign lesions (34.88%. Undifferentiated carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour and sinonasal papilloma was the commonest benign tumour. CONCLUSION Inflammatory polyps are the most common histological pattern with males affected more than females.

  5. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  6. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  7. Impact of furnishing on room airflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lone Hedegaard, Mortensen; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2008-01-01

    temperatures in the winter season may lead to condensation or high relative humidity on the internal side of the building envelope. Therefore it was important to investigate the influence of furniture on the airflow patterns in rooms and on the local airflow behind the furniture. The current paper presents...

  8. Cephalometric Pattern and Nasal Patency in Children with Primary Snoring: The Evidence of a Direct Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Anna Maria; Duse, Marzia; Occasi, Francesca; Luzzi, Valeria; Ortolani, Emanuela; Bardanzellu, Flaminia; Bertin, Serena; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) might affect craniofacial growth and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome present an increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face and a more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone when compared to nasal breathers. Objective To investigate the correlation between rhinomanometric and cephalometric parameters in children with primary snoring (PS), without apnea or gas exchange abnormalities. Materials and Methods Thirty children with habitual snoring (16 females and 14 males) aged 4–8 years (mean age 6.85±1.51 years) were selected by a SDB validate questionnaire. All subjects underwent lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographies. Results In our sample 10 children (33%) had snoring 3 nights/week, 11 (37%) 4–6 nights/week and 9 (30%) every night/week. Overall 7 patients (23.3%) were affected by adenoid hypertrophy (AH), 4 (13.3%) by tonsillar hypertrophy (TH) and 13 (43.3%) by AH and TH. We found a more vertical position of the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H⊥VT) in patients with a higher frequency (7.3±2.7 vs 7.6±3.7 vs 10.9±2.5 in children snoring 3 nights/week, 4–6 nights/week and every night/week respectively; p = 0.032). Concerning nasal patency significant correlations were found with ANB (maxillary and jaw position with respect to the cranial base), NS∧Ar (growth predictor), sumangle, FMA (total divergence), SnaSnp∧GoMe (inferior divergence), BaN∧PtGn (facial growth pattern), Phw1_PsP (posterosuperior airway space), AHC3H (the horizontal distance between the most anterosuperior point of the hyoid bone and the third cervical vertebra). Conclusion The present study supports the relationship between nasal obstruction and specific craniofacial characteristics in children with primary snoring and lead us to hypothesize that nasal obstruction might explain the indirect link between snoring and cephalometric alterations. PMID:25360610

  9. Cephalometric pattern and nasal patency in children with primary snoring: the evidence of a direct correlation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Zicari

    Full Text Available Sleep disordered breathing (SDB might affect craniofacial growth and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome present an increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face and a more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone when compared to nasal breathers.To investigate the correlation between rhinomanometric and cephalometric parameters in children with primary snoring (PS, without apnea or gas exchange abnormalities.Thirty children with habitual snoring (16 females and 14 males aged 4-8 years (mean age 6.85±1.51 years were selected by a SDB validate questionnaire. All subjects underwent lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographies.In our sample 10 children (33% had snoring 3 nights/week, 11 (37% 4-6 nights/week and 9 (30% every night/week. Overall 7 patients (23.3% were affected by adenoid hypertrophy (AH, 4 (13.3% by tonsillar hypertrophy (TH and 13 (43.3% by AH and TH. We found a more vertical position of the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H⊥VT in patients with a higher frequency (7.3±2.7 vs 7.6±3.7 vs 10.9±2.5 in children snoring 3 nights/week, 4-6 nights/week and every night/week respectively; p = 0.032. Concerning nasal patency significant correlations were found with ANB (maxillary and jaw position with respect to the cranial base, NS∧Ar (growth predictor, sumangle, FMA (total divergence, SnaSnp∧GoMe (inferior divergence, BaN∧PtGn (facial growth pattern, Phw1_PsP (posterosuperior airway space, AHC3H (the horizontal distance between the most anterosuperior point of the hyoid bone and the third cervical vertebra.The present study supports the relationship between nasal obstruction and specific craniofacial characteristics in children with primary snoring and lead us to hypothesize that nasal obstruction might explain the indirect link between snoring and cephalometric alterations.

  10. Airflow Simulation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The paper describes the development in airflow simulations in rooms . The research is, as other areas of flow research, influenced by the decreasing cost of computation which seems to indicate an increased use of airflow simulation in the coming years....

  11. Effect of baffles and a louvered bypass on the airflow and the convective patterns of contaminant inside a fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P; Ingham, D B; Wen, X

    1998-05-01

    Various numerical predictions are given for the containment testing of fume hoods with internal baffles of different size and at different locations and with a louvered bypass. The numerical predictions were compared with experimental data and a fairly good agreement for the air velocity was found, although there was only qualitative agreement for the concentration of the contaminant. It was found that the level of contaminant leakage at the working aperture depended not only on the size of the recirculating airflow behind the fume hood sash but also on the blockage caused by the baffles inside the fume hood near the exhaust duct. Finally, some new suggestions for the design of the fume hood have been proposed. However, before implementing these suggestions it is essential that either experimental testing be performed, or the cost-effective alternative of using numerical predictions for containment testing, to determine accurately the level of contaminant leakage from the working aperture.

  12. COMPARATIVE COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF AIRFLOWS AND VAPOR DOSIMETY IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACTS OF RAT, MONKEY, AND HUMAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Minard, Kevin R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Timchalk, Charles; Glenny, Robb W.; Pipavath, Sudhaker; Cox, Timothy C.; Wallis, Chris; Larson, Richard; Fanucchi, M.; Postlewait, Ed; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2012-07-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is useful for predicting site-specific dosimetry of airborne materials in the respiratory tract and elucidating the importance of species differences in anatomy, physiology, and breathing patterns. Historically, these models were limited to discrete regions of the respiratory system. CFD/PBPK models have now been developed for the rat, monkey, and human that encompass airways from the nose or mouth to the lung. A PBPK model previously developed to describe acrolein uptake in nasal tissues was adapted to the extended airway models as an example application. Model parameters for each anatomic region were obtained from the literature, measured directly, or estimated from published data. Airflow and site-specific acrolein uptake patterns were determined under steadystate inhalation conditions to provide direct comparisons with prior data and nasalonly simulations. Results confirmed that regional uptake was dependent upon airflow rates and acrolein concentrations with nasal extraction efficiencies predicted to be greatest in the rat, followed by the monkey, then the human. For human oral-breathing simulations, acrolein uptake rates in oropharyngeal and laryngeal tissues were comparable to nasal tissues following nasal breathing under the same exposure conditions. For both breathing modes, higher uptake rates were predicted for lower tracheo-bronchial tissues of humans than either the rat or monkey. These extended airway models provide a unique foundation for comparing dosimetry across a significantly more extensive range of conducting airways in the rat, monkey, and human than prior CFD models.

  13. Numeric simulation of the upper airway structure and airflow dynamic characteristics after unilateral complete maxillary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yumei; Qian, Haixin; Wu, Yadong; Jiao, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated upper airway aerodynamic characteristics of patients who underwent maxillectomy using three-dimensional reconstruction and computational fluid dynamics. The results revealed the generation of low-velocity vortices throughout the entire maxillary defect during respiration. The nasal structure on the nonsurgical side changed postsurgically, possibly due to the pressure gradient between the defective and healthy side. The bilateral disturbed airflow patterns are believed to be the cause of common symptoms. The numeric simulation technique could be used as a potential method to understand upper airway morphology changes and respiratory functions, thus guiding the fabrication of prostheses.

  14. Altered Th17/Treg Ratio in Nasal Polyps With Distinct Cytokine Profile: Association With Patterns of Inflammation and Mucosal Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dawei; Wang, Jianting; Zhang, Min

    2016-03-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified as eosinophilic or noneosinophilic. Nasal polyps can exhibit different types of mucosal inflammation and responses to treatment. Imbalanced ratios of T-helper 17(Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal polyps.This study assessed the frequency of Th17 and Treg cells and related cytokines in patients with nasal polyps and tested for associations with mucosal remodeling.Surgical samples from 12 controls and 33 CRSwNP patients were analyzed histopathologically. The frequency of Th17 and Treg cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tissues were determined using flow cytometry. Th17 and Treg cells-related cytokines in plasma were measured by Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) multiplex assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).Eosinophilic CRSwNP (ECRSwNP) patients exhibited robust eosinophilia, whereas non-ECRSwNP patients were characterized by neutrophilia. Compared with non-ECRSwNP, an increased Th17/Treg ratio in ECRSwNP was associated with a less increased frequency of Th17 cells and a more striking reduction of Treg cells. An altered Th17/Treg cell ratio was positively correlated with eosinophilic and neutrophilic infiltration, submucosal basement membrane thickness, and the degree of subepithelial collagen deposition. Compared with non-ECRSwNP, ECRSwNP had higher levels of IL-17A and IL-4, and lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1, whereas non-ECRSwNP showed higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-6.Th17/Treg cell imbalance in nasal polyps (both in tissues and PBMCs) with distinct cytokine profile may contribute to different inflammatory patterns (eosinophilic versus neutrophilic inflammation) and corresponding features of mucosal remodeling. Effective strategies can be designed to target a Th17/Treg imbalance to restore immune homeostasis in nasal polyps.

  15. Numerical study of airflow over breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zixuan; Shen, Lian

    2016-11-01

    We present direct numerical simulation (DNS) results on airflow over breaking waves. Air and water are simulated as a coherent system. The initial condition for the simulation is a fully-developed turbulent airflow over strongly-forced steep waves. The airflow is driven by a shear stress at the top. The effects of the initial wave steepness and wave age are studied systematically. Because wave breaking is an unsteady process, we use ensemble averaging of a large number of runs to obtain turbulent statistics. Simulation results show that the airflow above does not see the wave trough during wave breaking. Vortex structures at different stages of wave breaking are analyzed based on a linear stochastic estimation method. It is found that the wave breaking alters the pattern of vortex structures.

  16. Pathophysiology of nasal congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Naclerio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert M Naclerio1, Claus Bachert2, James N Baraniuk31University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Section of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Chicago, Illinois, USA; 2University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium; 3Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Nasal congestion is a common symptom in rhinitis (both allergic and nonallergic, rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Congestion can also be caused by physical obstruction of nasal passages and/or modulation of sensory perception. Mucosal inflammation underlies many of the specific and interrelated factors that contribute to nasal congestion, as well as other symptoms of both allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. A wide range of biologically active agents (eg, histamine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, cell adhesion molecules and cell types contribute to inflammation, which can manifest as venous engorgement, increased nasal secretions and tissue swelling/edema, ultimately leading to impaired airflow and the sensation of nasal congestion. Inflammation-induced changes in the properties of sensory afferents (eg, expression of peptides and receptors that innervate the nose can also contribute to altered sensory perception, which may result in a subjective feeling of congestion. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying inflammation can facilitate improved treatment selection and the development of new therapies for congestion.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, congestion, obstruction, pathophysiology, rhinosinusitis

  17. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    In recent years, an interest in understanding the mechanisms of cross-infection between people in the same room has increased significantly. The SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak occurred in Asia in 2003 reopened the study of the airborne disease transmission as one of the most...... in the air. These tiny particles or droplet nuclei can follow the air flow pattern in the room and produce high contaminant concentration in different areas of the indoor environment. This fact can provoke a high exposure to exhaled contaminants and a risk of cross-infection to a susceptible person situated...... in the same room. Abundant evidence shows that the air flow distribution systems play a crucial role in the dispersion of these human exhaled contaminants. However, there are many parameters that influence the cross-infection risk between people situated close to each other in a ventilated room, such as...

  18. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-Infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    In recent years, an interest in understanding the mechanisms of cross-infection between people in the same room has increased significantly. The SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak occurred in Asia in 2003 reopened the study of the airborne disease transmission as one of the most...... in the air. These tiny particles or droplet nuclei can follow the air flow pattern in the room and produce high contaminant concentration in different areas of the indoor environment. This fact can provoke a high exposure to exhaled contaminants and a risk of cross-infection to a susceptible person situated...... in the same room. Abundant evidence shows that the air flow distribution systems play a crucial role in the dispersion of these human exhaled contaminants. However, there are many parameters that influence the cross-infection risk between people situated close to each other in a ventilated room, such as...

  19. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-Infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    prevalent transmission routes. Airborne cross-infection of diseases is caused by the transmission of pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria, between people and across environments. When a person is breathing, talking, sneezing or coughing, small particles, which may carry biological contaminants, are spread...... in the air. These tiny particles or droplet nuclei can follow the air flow pattern in the room and produce high contaminant concentration in different areas of the indoor environment. This fact can provoke a high exposure to exhaled contaminants and a risk of cross-infection to a susceptible person situated...... the persons. This thesis analyzes some of these parameters in the influence of cross-infection risk between two people in a room, which are simulated by two breathing thermal manikins. One of the manikins is considered the source of contaminants, which is exhaling contaminated air through the mouth...

  20. Assessing multizone airflow software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetti, D.M.

    2001-12-01

    Multizone models form the basis of most computer simulations of airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. In order to promote computational efficiency, some multizone simulation programs, such as COMIS and CONTAM, restrict the form that their flow models may take. While these tools allow scientists and engineers to explore a wide range of building airflow problems, increasingly their use has led to new questions not answerable by the current generation of programs. This paper, directed at software developers working on the next generation of building airflow models, identifies structural aspects of COMIS and related programs that prevent them from easily incorporating desirable new airflow models. The paper also suggests criteria for evaluating alternate simulation environments for future modeling efforts.

  1. Airflow Simulations around OA Intake Louver with Electronic Velocity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hwataik

    2011-01-01

    It is important to control outdoor airflow rates into HVAC systems in terms of energy conservation and healthy indoor environment. Technologies are being developed to measure outdoor air (OA) flow rates through OA intake louvers on a real time basis. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the airflow characteristics through an OA intake louver numerically in order to provide suggestions for sensor installations. Airflow patterns are simulated with and without electronic air velocity sens...

  2. Perception of Better Nasal Patency Correlates with Increased Mucosal Cooling after Surgery for Nasal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guilherme; Sullivan, Corbin; Frank-Ito, Dennis; Kimbell, Julia; Rhee, John

    2014-11-01

    Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common health problem with 340,000 patients undergoing surgery annually in the United States. Traditionally, otolaryngologists have focused on airspace cross-sectional areas and nasal resistance to airflow as objective measures of nasal patency, but neither of these variables correlated consistently with patients' symptoms. Given that the sensation of nasal airflow is also associated with mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) during inspiration, we investigated the correlation between the sensation of nasal obstruction and mucosal cooling in 10 patients before and after NAO surgery. Three-dimensional models of the nasal anatomy were created based on pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify nasal resistance and mucosal cooling. Patient-reported symptoms were measured by a visual analog scale and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE), a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. Our results revealed that the subjective sensation of nasal obstruction correlated with both nasal resistance and heat loss, but the strongest correlation was between the NOSE score and the nasal surface area where heat flux exceeds 50 W /m2 . In conclusion, a significant post-operative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients' perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery.

  3. Characterization of the Airflow from a Bottom Hung Window under Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper describes the results of laboratory measurements of the airflow from a bottom hung window mounted near the ceiling of a ventilated room. In the laboratory set-up it was possible to control the temperature difference and the airflow rate through the window. The pressure drop through the...... the window was measured as well as the velocity distribution in the incoming airflow. Airflow patterns and penetration depth of a cold jet were studied with smoke visualisation....

  4. Combined Use of Frontal Sinus and Nasal Septum Patterns as an Aid in Forensics: A Digital Radiographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Kumar, Sandeep; Basavaraju, Suman; Patwardhan, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skull radiographic examination is a potentially useful procedure for the personal identification in cases where fragments of skull persist with no likelihood of identification based on dental arch. Aims: The study was to determine the uniqueness and reliability of combined frontal sinus (FS) and nasal septum (NS) patterns as observed on posterioanterior (PA) cephalograms for personal identification. Materials and Methods: The randomly selected 149 digital PA cephalograms taken on Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic and Cephalometric system were evaluated for patterns of FS and NS. Also the distribution of lobulations, area, and ratio of height/width of FS was calculated. The data obtained was statistical analyzed using Pearson's coefficient correlation. Results: FS symmetry was observed in 78.5% and asymmetry in 7.3% subjects. Bilateral aplasia was noticed in 5.3% and unilateral aplasia in 8.7% of subjects. The total lobulation of FS was noted more in males on both sides while center lobes were observed slightly more in females. The straight NS was maximally seen followed by reverse sigmoid. The mean ratio of width/height of FS was observed more in males and highly significant correlation was observed with both sexes. The mean area of FS was noted more in males. There was significant correlation found between patterns of NS and FS except in right dominated asymmetrical FS. Conclusion: The combined use of FS and NS patterns could be used as method for identification by exclusion in forensics. PMID:25789248

  5. Combined use of frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns as an aid in forensics: A digital radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhuman Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skull radiographic examination is a potentially useful procedure for the personal identification in cases where fragments of skull persist with no likelihood of identification based on dental arch. Aims: The study was to determine the uniqueness and reliability of combined frontal sinus (FS and nasal septum (NS patterns as observed on posterioanterior (PA cephalograms for personal identification. Materials and Methods: The randomly selected 149 digital PA cephalograms taken on Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic and Cephalometric system were evaluated for patterns of FS and NS. Also the distribution of lobulations, area, and ratio of height/width of FS was calculated. The data obtained was statistical analyzed using Pearson′s coefficient correlation. Results: FS symmetry was observed in 78.5% and asymmetry in 7.3% subjects. Bilateral aplasia was noticed in 5.3% and unilateral aplasia in 8.7% of subjects. The total lobulation of FS was noted more in males on both sides while center lobes were observed slightly more in females. The straight NS was maximally seen followed by reverse sigmoid. The mean ratio of width/height of FS was observed more in males and highly significant correlation was observed with both sexes. The mean area of FS was noted more in males. There was significant correlation found between patterns of NS and FS except in right dominated asymmetrical FS. Conclusion: The combined use of FS and NS patterns could be used as method for identification by exclusion in forensics.

  6. Rhino-sinusitis related to endosseous implants extending into the nasal cavity - A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; van Weissenbruch, R; Vissink, A

    2004-01-01

    Rhino-sinusitis may develop as a result of an altered airflow in the nasal cavity causing irritation of the nasal mucosa. A patient is presented who developed recurrent rhino-sinusitis complaints following placement of endosseous implants in the maxilla. Inspection of the nasal floor revealed that t

  7. Rhino-sinusitis related to endosseous implants extending into the nasal cavity - A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; van Weissenbruch, R; Vissink, A

    Rhino-sinusitis may develop as a result of an altered airflow in the nasal cavity causing irritation of the nasal mucosa. A patient is presented who developed recurrent rhino-sinusitis complaints following placement of endosseous implants in the maxilla. Inspection of the nasal floor revealed that

  8. Rhino-sinusitis related to endosseous implants extending into the nasal cavity - A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; van Weissenbruch, R; Vissink, A

    2004-01-01

    Rhino-sinusitis may develop as a result of an altered airflow in the nasal cavity causing irritation of the nasal mucosa. A patient is presented who developed recurrent rhino-sinusitis complaints following placement of endosseous implants in the maxilla. Inspection of the nasal floor revealed that t

  9. Airflow obstruction and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher B

    2009-03-01

    The primary abnormality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic airway inflammation which results in airflow limitation. Disease progression is usually depicted as an accelerated decline in FEV(1) over time. However, COPD patients also manifest progressive static hyperinflation due to the combined effects of reduced lung elastic recoil and increased airway resistance. Superimposed on static hyperinflation are further increases in operational lung volumes (dynamic hyperinflation) brought on during exercise, exacerbations or tachypnea. An important consequence of exertional dyspnea is activity limitation. COPD patients have been shown to spend only a third of the day walking or standing compared with age-matched healthy individuals who spend more than half of their time in these activities. Furthermore, the degree of activity limitation measured by an accelerometer worsens with disease progression. COPD patients have been shown to have an accelerated loss of aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) and this correlates with mortality just as is seen with hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Thus physical inactivity is an important therapeutic target in COPD. Summarizing; airflow obstruction leads to progressive hyperinflation, activity limitation, physical deconditioning and other comorbidities that characterize the COPD phenotype. Targeting the airflow obstruction with long-acting bronchodilator therapy in conjunction with a supervised exercise prescription is currently the most effective therapeutic intervention in earlier COPD. Other important manifestations of skeletal muscle dysfunction include muscle atrophy and weakness. These specific problems are best addressed with resistance training with consideration of anabolic supplementation.

  10. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  11. Objective measurements differ for perception of left and right nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Teik-Ying; Chen, Yung-Fu; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Huang, Kuang-Hua; Tai, Chih-Jaan

    2013-02-01

    Nasal obstruction is one of the most common sensation complaints of nasal disease in clinical practice. It is a subjective sensation of nasal airflow. Objective assessment of nasal patency and nasal physiology includes the use of rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry. The perception of nasal obstruction changes as the alternating of nasal airway resistance and nasal airflow. However, there were limited studies reported whether the perceptions of the left and right nostrils are similar. We examined the relationship between subjective and objective parameters of the nasal airway in the left and right nostrils. A prospective study of 101 patients with a deviated nasal septum and chronic hypertrophic rhinitis was conducted for subjective and objective nasal airway evaluation. Patients were then divided into three groups based on the visual analog scale. Associations between measures were evaluated with analysis of variance, f tests and simple regression. Among three patient groups with different subjective sensations of nasal obstruction, there were significant differences among three patient groups according to the objective measurements of airflow resistance on the right side (p=0.0002 for inspiration right mean resistance; p=0.0049 for expiration right mean resistance), and for the minimal cross-sectional area (p=0.030) and nasal cavity volume (p=0.028 for 0-3.3cm left nostril; p=0.047 for 2-4cm left nostril) on the left side. This indicates that nasal flow resistance is an important determinant for right side nasal obstruction. Nasal minimal cross-sectional area and nasal cavity volume are an important determinant for left side nasal obstruction. Our study indicates the important role of rhinomanometry in objective measurement of right side nasal obstruction and acoustic rhinometry in objective measurement of left side nasal obstruction. Thus, human perception of right and left nostrils may be different and requires further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  12. Use of Frontal Sinus and Nasal Septum Pattern as an Aid in Personal Identification and Determination of Gender: A Radiographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Prashant; Singh, Mohit Pal; Mathur, Hemant; Bhuvaneshwari, S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Personal identification and gender determination of unknown person has a vital importance in forensic investigation. Human skull radiography is a useful tool in human identification in natural disaster, in any accidents such as fire accident and road traffic accident where body remains become degraded or severely destroyed. Aim Present study was performed to evaluate the measurement of frontal sinus, uniqueness of various pattern of nasal septum when combined with frontal sinus observed on posterio anterior cephalogram for sex determination as well as personal identification. Materials and Methods A total of 80 individuals, 40 males and 40 females, between the age ranges of 18-30 years were selected. The selected individuals had their Posterio Anterior (PA) cephalogram performed after taking their informed consent. Right and left areas and the maximum height and width of the frontal sinus were determined and septum patterns were evaluated and both patterns were also combined and compared. The radiographs were taken on Xtropan 2000 OPG X-ray machine with cephalography attachment and KODAK CR 7400 digital radiography system. Mean and SD values of the greatest height and width of frontal sinus in male and female patients were thus evaluated. The mean values of the frontal sinus were greater in males and the left area was larger than the right area, based on student’s t-test at the 5% level of significance. Results The combination of Frontal Sinus Patterns and Nasal Septum Patterns (FP+NSP) were assessed and found that there were nine classifiable patterns in 26 (32.5%) individuals (12 males and 14 females), each of which had common representations in more than one individual. Besides these patterns, there were unique unclassifiable patterns in 54 (67.5%) individuals. Conclusion The present study supports the use of radiographic evaluation of frontal sinus dimensions, frontal sinus patterns, nasal septum deviations and the combination FP+NSP patterns for

  13. Structure of the airflow above surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marc; Veron, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Weather, climate and upper ocean patterns are controlled by the exchanges of momentum, heat, mass, and energy across the ocean surface. These fluxes are, in turn, influenced by the small-scale physics at the wavy air-sea interface. We present laboratory measurements of the fine-scale airflow structure above waves, achieved in over 15 different wind-wave conditions, with wave ages Cp/u* ranging from 1.4 to 66.7 (where Cp is the peak phase speed of the waves, and u* the air friction velocity). The experiments were performed in the large (42-m long) wind-wave-current tank at University of Delaware's Air-Sea Interaction laboratory (USA). A combined Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Induced Fluorescence system was specifically developed for this study, and provided two-dimensional airflow velocity measurement as low as 100 um above the air-water interface. Starting at very low wind speeds (U10~2m/s), we directly observe coherent turbulent structures within the buffer and logarithmic layers of the airflow above the air-water interface, whereby low horizontal velocity air is ejected away from the surface, and higher velocity fluid is swept downward. Wave phase coherent quadrant analysis shows that such turbulent momentum flux events are wave-phase dependent. Airflow separation events are directly observed over young wind waves (Cp/u*wind waves (Cp/u*=3.7). Over slightly older wind waves (Cp/u* = 6.5), the measured wave-induced airflow perturbations are qualitatively consistent with linear critical layer theory.

  14. Neural representations of airflow in Drosophila mushroom body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Mamiya

    Full Text Available The Drosophila mushroom body (MB is a higher olfactory center where olfactory and other sensory information are thought to be associated. However, how MB neurons of Drosophila respond to sensory stimuli other than odor is not known. Here, we characterized the responses of MB neurons to a change in airflow, a stimulus associated with odor perception. In vivo calcium imaging from MB neurons revealed surprisingly strong and dynamic responses to an airflow stimulus. This response was dependent on the movement of the 3(rd antennal segment, suggesting that Johnston's organ may be detecting the airflow. The calyx, the input region of the MB, responded homogeneously to airflow on. However, in the output lobes of the MB, different types of MB neurons responded with different patterns of activity to airflow on and off. Furthermore, detailed spatial analysis of the responses revealed that even within a lobe that is composed of a single type of MB neuron, there are subdivisions that respond differently to airflow on and off. These subdivisions within a single lobe were organized in a stereotypic manner across flies. For the first time, we show that changes in airflow affect MB neurons significantly and these effects are spatially organized into divisions smaller than previously defined MB neuron types.

  15. Locating air samplers inside a room using qualitative airflow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchik, T.; Levinson, S.; German, U. [Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Haim, M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2000-05-01

    The concentration of airborne radioactive materials inside a room can vary widely from one location to another, sometimes by orders of magnitude even for locations that are reactively close. Inappropriately placed air samplers can give misleading results and, therefore, the location of air samplers is important. Proper placement of samplers is not always obvious and cannot be determined simply by observing the position of room air supply and exhaust vents. Airflow studies, such as the release of smoke aerosols, should be used. The significance of airflow pattern studies depends on the purpose of sampling-for estimating worker intakes, warning of abnormally high concentrations, defining airborne radioactive areas, testing for confinement of sealed radioactive materials, etc. Qualitative smoke tests were conducted inside rooms using a 'KUPO Inc.' smoke tube (D5050 fog machine). Smoke was released at elevation of 1-2 meters and its path was recorded on worksheet drawings of the room. The tests revealed three types of airflow patterns inside the rooms: a) flow path with a definite stable direction, b) flow path which changes direction arbitrarily as a result of airflow vortices, and c) static/stagnant air. In some cases the airflow path direction was different from the expected one. This emphasizes the significance of conducting airflow studies for location of air samplers and not only relying on intuition. An airflow patterns comparison study between the qualitative smoke tests and computer simulation using a commercial finite element CFD code, FIDAP 8.01, was also conducted. The measured and the computed paths of the airflow were mostly in good agreement. The computer simulation indicated additional details which could not be observed when performing the smoke tests because of physical and visibility limitations. (author)

  16. Nasal lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Ronaldo; Pontes, Gisela Hobson; Serpa, Narayana Pauline; Lopez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Patients with gland hyperplasia as well as thickening and redundancy of nasal skin who receive treatment that addresses only the support structures generally suffer from lack of definition of the nasal tip. We report on a case in which this problem was treated by redefinition of the nasal dorsum and tip through resection of the redundant skin. The surgical approach involved open rhinoplasty with a columella-alar incision, wide dissection of the dorsum filling, caudal traction, and resection of excess tissue. This method enabled reshaping of the nasal dorsum and tip by readjustment of the cutaneous covering of the osteocartilaginous structures.

  17. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses: Clinical Outcomes and Patterns of Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegner, Ellen A.; Daly, Megan E.; Murphy, James D.; Abelson, Jonathan; Chapman, Chris H.; Chung, Melody; Yu, Yao; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy; Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for tumors of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity (PNS/NC). Methods/Materials: Between June 2000 and December 2009, 52 patients with tumors of the PNS/NC underwent postoperative or definitive radiation with IMRT. Twenty-eight (54%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Twenty-nine patients (56%) received chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 26.6 months (range, 2.9-118.4) for all patients and 30.9 months for living patients. Results: Eighteen patients (35%) developed local-regional failure (LRF) at median time of 7.2 months. Thirteen local failures (25%) were observed, 12 in-field and 1 marginal. Six regional failures were observed, two in-field and four out-of-field. No patients treated with elective nodal radiation had nodal regional failure. Two-year local-regional control (LRC), in-field LRC, freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and overall survival (OS) were 64%, 74%, 71%, and 66% among all patients, respectively, and 43%, 61%, 61%, and 53% among patients with SCC, respectively. On multivariate analysis, SCC and >1 subsite involved had worse LRC (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.046, respectively) and OS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.046, respectively). Cribriform plate invasion (p = 0.005) and residual disease (p = 0.047) also had worse LRC. Acute toxicities included Grade {>=}3 mucositis in 19 patients (37%), and Grade 3 dermatitis in 8 patients (15%). Six patients had Grade {>=}3 late toxicity including one optic toxicity. Conclusions: IMRT for patients with PNS/NC tumors has good outcomes compared with historical series and is well tolerated. Patients with SCC have worse LRC and OS. LRF is the predominant pattern of failure.

  19. The effects of naris occlusion on mouse nasal turbinate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, David M; Craven, Brent A; Seeger, Johannes; Weiler, Elke

    2014-06-15

    Unilateral naris occlusion, a standard method for causing odor deprivation, also alters airflow on both sides of the nasal cavity. We reasoned that manipulating airflow by occlusion could affect nasal turbinate development given the ubiquitous role of environmental stimuli in ontogenesis. To test this hypothesis, newborn mice received unilateral occlusion or sham surgery and were allowed to reach adulthood. Morphological measurements were then made of paraffin sections of the whole nasal cavity. Occlusion significantly affected the size, shape and position of turbinates. In particular, the nasoturbinate, the focus of our quantitative analysis, had a more delicate appearance on the occluded side relative to the open side. Occlusion also caused an increase in the width of the dorsal meatus within the non-occluded and occluded nasal fossae, compared with controls, and the position of most turbinates was altered. These results suggest that a mechanical stimulus from respiratory airflow is necessary for the normal morphological development of turbinates. To explore this idea, we estimated the mechanical forces on turbinates caused by airflow during normal respiration that would be absent as a result of occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the mouse nasal cavity that provided the input for a computational fluid dynamics simulation of nasal airflow. The simulation revealed maximum shear stress values for the walls of turbinates in the 1 Pa range, a magnitude that causes remodeling in other biological tissues. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that nasal turbinates develop partly under the control of respiratory mechanical forces.

  20. Functional results in airflow improvement using a "flip-flap" alar technique: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stadio, Arianna; Macro, Carlo

    2017-02-21

    Pinched nasal point can be arising as congenital malformation or as results of unsuccessfully surgery. The nasal valve alteration due to this problem is not only an esthetic problem but also a functional one because can modify the nasal airflow. Several surgical techniques were proposed in literature, we proposed our. The purpose of the study is the evaluation of nose airway flow using our flip-flap technique for correction of pinched nasal tip. This is a retrospective study conducted on twelve patients. Tip cartilages were remodeled by means of autologous alar cartilage grafting. The patients underwent a rhinomanometry pre and post-surgery to evaluate the results, and they performed a self-survey to evaluate their degree of satisfaction in term of airflow sensation improvement. Rhinomanometry showed improved nasal air flow (range from 25% to 75%) in all patients. No significant differences were showed between unilateral and bilateral alar malformation (p=0.49). Patient's satisfaction reached the 87.5%. Our analysis on the combined results (rhinomanometry and surveys) showed that this technique leads to improvement of nasal flow in patients affected by pinched nasal tip in all cases. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of airflow velocity on moisture exchange at surfaces of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2006-01-01

    The moisture transfer between air and construction are affected of the boundary layer conditions close to the surface, which is influenced by the airflow patterns in the room. Therefore an investigation of the relation be-tween the surface resistance and the airflow velocity above a material sample...... resistances decrease for increasing airflow velocity above the boundary layer of the material surface. The measured resistances are somewhat smaller than the ones esti-mated by use of the Lewis relation....

  2. Spray pattern and droplet size analyses for high-shear viscosity determination of aqueous suspension corticosteroid nasal sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Justin; Pandey, Preetanshu; Tat, Henry; Willson, Jennifer; Donovan, Brent

    2008-09-01

    Aqueous suspension corticosteroid nasal sprays exhibit the rheological property of shear thinning, meaning they exhibit a decrease in viscosity upon application of shear. Most rheological methods are limited in the amount of shear that can be applied to samples (approximately 1,000 s(-1)) and thus can only approximate the viscosities at the high-shear conditions of nasal spray devices (approximately 10(5)-10(6) s(-1)). In the current work, spray area and droplet size were shown to demonstrate viscosity dependence. Three Newtonian fluids were used to determine equations to approximate viscosity at the spray nozzle from correlations to spray area and droplet size using a standard 100 microL Pfeiffer nasal spray pump. Several shear-thinning solutions, including four commercial aqueous suspension corticosteroid nasal sprays and three aqueous Avicel (1, 2, and 3%, wt/wt) samples, were analyzed to demonstrate the ability of spray area and droplet size analysis to estimate high-shear viscosities. The calculated viscosity values trend in accordance with the rheometer data along with the ability to distinguish differences between all samples analyzed.

  3. Influence of cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning and nasal geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, J; Hoffmann, T; Koehl, A; Walz, E M; Sommer, F

    2017-06-01

    Nasal geometries and temperature of the nasal mucosa are the primary factors affecting nasal air conditioning. Data on intranasal air conditioning after provoking the trigeminal nerve with a cold stimulus simulating the effects of an arctic condition is still missing. The objective was to investigate the influence of skin cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning, mucosal temperature and nasal geometry. Standardized in vivo measurements of intranasal air temperature, humidity and mucosal temperature were performed in 55 healthy subjects at defined detection sites before and after wearing a cooling face mask. Measurements of skin temperature, rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry were accomplished. After wearing the face mask the facial skin temperature was significantly reduced. Intranasal air temperature did not change. Absolute humidity and mucosal temperature increased significantly. The acoustic rhinometric results showed a significant increase of the volumes and the cross-sectional areas. There was no change in nasal airflow. Nasal mucosal temperature, humidity of inhaled air, and volume of the anterior nose increased after application of a cold face mask. The response is mediated by the trigeminal nerve. Increased mucosal temperatures as well as changes in nasal geometries seem to guarantee sufficient steady intranasal nasal air conditioning.

  4. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  5. Nasal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. Becker SS. Surgical management of polyps in the treatment of nasal airway ...

  6. Effect of airflow velocity on moisture exchange at surfaces of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2006-01-01

    The moisture transfer between air and construction are affected of the boundary layer conditions close to the surface, which is influenced by the airflow patterns in the room. Therefore an investigation of the relation be-tween the surface resistance and the airflow velocity above a material samp...

  7. Válvula nasal: anatomia e fisiologia Nasal valve: anatomy and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Nazareth Nigro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A porção anterior das cavidades nasais, da narina à válvula nasal (VN, é a região de maior resistência nasal ao fluxo aerífero, de suma importância para a fisiologia nasal. Na literatura existem terminologias diferentes para se referir às mesmas estruturas anatômicas e, ainda, o mesmo termo se referindo a estruturas anatômicas diferentes. OBJETIVO: Realizamos este trabalho com o objetivo de revisarmos o funcionamento da VN e definirmos com mais clareza estruturas anatômicas da porção anterior das cavidades nasais, principalmente a região da VN. CONCLUSÃO: Existe controvérsia na literatura quanto à nomenclatura das estruturas da VN. Neste trabalho definimos VN como uma estrutura tridimensional compreendida anteriormente pelo ostium internum e posteriormente pelo isthmus nasi.The anterior portion of the nasal cavities, from the nostril to the nasal valve (NV, is the place of highest nasal resistance to airflow, paramount to nasal physiology. There are different terminologies for the same anatomic structures in the literature. AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the NV function and define clearly the structures of the anterior portion of the nasal cavities, mainly the region of the NV. CONCLUSION: Internum ostium is the anterior segment and isthmus nasi is the posterior segment of the NV region.

  8. Influence of furnishing on indoor airflow near external walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of indoor environments in buildings are usually performed assuming uniform distribution of temperature and humidity of the indoor air, such as it would be in an idealised unfurnished room. The flow patterns near external walls may however be very different from the undisturbed airflow...

  9. Handedness, eyedness and nasal cycle in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Senol; Balci, Nese

    2007-06-01

    Autism is referred to as cerebral lateralization abnormality. In this study, the possible relationships among handedness, eyedness and nasal cycle in autism have been investigated. Thirty-seven children with autism and 20 controls were included in the study. The patient group included 27 boys and 10 girls who ranged in age from 5 to 20 years. For hand preference, hand used to write and throw a ball was accepted as dominant hand. For eye preference or dominance, eye used to look through keyhole of a door was accepted as dominant eye. Nasal dominance was assessed by a method of measuring the nasal airflow. The rates of left-handedness and left-eyedness were higher in children with autism compared to normal populations. A majority of children with autism had left nasal dominance. Autism and early language impairment may be associated with left handedness, eyedness and nasal dominance.

  10. Observing and Quantifying Airflows in the Infection Control of Aerosol- and Airborne-Transmitted Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, J. W.; Noakes, C. J.; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2011-01-01

    techniques have been applied to examine the temporalespatial information about the airflow patterns and the movement of related, suspended material within this air in a hospital setting. Closer collaboration with engineers has allowed clinical microbiologists, virologists and infection control teams...

  11. Experimental and modelling study of the effect of airflow orientation with respect to strip electrode on ozone production of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, J.; Pekárek, S.; Soukup, I.

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the effect of airflow orientation with respect to the strip active electrode on concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide produced in a planar generator based on the surface dielectric barrier discharge. The orientation of the airflow was tested in parallel and perpendicular with respect to the strips. It was found that in the investigated range of average discharge power, the ozone concentration increases approximately by 25% when airflow was oriented in parallel with respect to the strips in comparison with perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Similarly the increase of nitrogen dioxide concentration was observed for parallel orientation of the airflow with respect to the strips in comparison with the perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Within the range of wavelengths from 250 to 1100 nm, the changes of intensities of spectral lines associated with airflow orientation have been observed. A 3D numerical model describing ion trajectories and airflow patterns have also been developed.

  12. Impact of acoustic airflow on intrasinus drug deposition: New insights into the vibrating mode and the optimal acoustic frequency to enhance the delivery of nebulized antibiotic

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Aim: We investigated the impact of vibrating acoustic airflow, the high frequency (f ≥ 100 Hz) and the low frequency (f ≤ 45 Hz) sound waves, on the enhancement of intrasinus drug deposition.Methods: 81mKr-gas ventilation study was performed in a plastinated human cast with and without the addition of vibrating acoustic airflow. Similarly, intrasinus drug deposition in a nasal replica using gentamicin as a marker was studied with and without the superposition of differ...

  13. Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Mayo, Julie; Xu, Xun; Li, Jingyuan; Bringas, Pablo; Maas, Richard L; Rubenstein, John L R; Chai, Yang

    2009-12-01

    Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in human. During embryonic development, palatal shelves display oronasal (O-N) and anteroposterior polarity before the onset of fusion, but how the O-N pattern is established and how it relates to the expansion and fusion of the palatal shelves are unknown. Here we address these questions and show that O-N patterning is associated with the expansion and fusion of the palatal shelves and that Dlx5 is required for the O-N patterning of palatal mesenchyme. Loss of Dlx5 results in downregulation of Fgf7 and expanded Shh expression from the oral to the nasal side of the palatal shelf. This expanded Shh signaling is sufficient to restore palatal expansion and fusion in mice with compromised palatal mesenchymal cell proliferation, such as Msx1-null mutants. Exogenous Fgf7 inhibits Shh signaling and reverses the cranial neural crest (CNC) cell proliferation rescue in the Msx1/Dlx5 double knockout palatal mesenchyme. Thus, Dlx5-regulated Fgf7 signaling inhibits the expression of Shh, which in turn controls the fate of CNC cells through tissue-tissue interaction and plays a crucial role during palatogenesis. Our study shows that modulation of Shh signaling may be useful as a potential therapeutic approach for rescuing cleft palate.

  14. Effect of airflow on nanofiber yarn spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a new air-jet spinning method for the preparation of continuous twisted nanofiber yarns. The nozzle-twisting device is designed to create the 3-D rotating airflow to twist nanofiber bundles. The airflow characteristics inside the twisting chamber are studied numerically. The airflow field distribution and its effect on nanofiber yarn spinning at different pressures are also discussed.

  15. Effect of Nasal Obstruction on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Wakayama

    Full Text Available Nasal obstruction is a common problem in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy for obstructive sleep apnea and limits treatment compliance. The purpose of this study is to model the effects of nasal obstruction on airflow parameters under CPAP using computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and to clarify quantitatively the relation between airflow velocity and pressure loss coefficient in subjects with and without nasal obstruction.We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 16 Japanese adult subjects, of whom 9 had nasal obstruction and 7 did not (control group. Three-dimensional reconstructed models of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx with a CPAP mask fitted to the nostrils were created from each subject's CT scans. The digital models were meshed with tetrahedral cells and stereolithography formats were created. CPAP airflow simulations were conducted using CFD software. Airflow streamlines and velocity contours in the nasal cavities and nasopharynx were compared between groups. Simulation models were confirmed to agree with actual measurements of nasal flow rate and with pressure and flow rate in the CPAP machine.Under 10 cmH2O CPAP, average maximum airflow velocity during inspiration was 17.6 ± 5.6 m/s in the nasal obstruction group but only 11.8 ± 1.4 m/s in the control group. The average pressure drop in the nasopharynx relative to inlet static pressure was 2.44 ± 1.41 cmH2O in the nasal obstruction group but only 1.17 ± 0.29 cmH2O in the control group. The nasal obstruction and control groups were clearly separated by a velocity threshold of 13.5 m/s, and pressure loss coefficient threshold of approximately 10.0. In contrast, there was no significant difference in expiratory pressure in the nasopharynx between the groups.This is the first CFD analysis of the effect of nasal obstruction on CPAP treatment. A strong correlation between the inspiratory pressure loss coefficient and maximum airflow velocity was found.

  16. Oral Pressure and Nasal Flow on /m/ and /p/ in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Without Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searl, Jeff; Knollhoff, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : (1) To compare oral pressure and nasal airflow in 3- to 5-year-olds versus older children and adults; (2) to describe stability of these measures in 3- to 5-year-olds at two recording times; and (3) to report participation rates of 3- to 5-year-olds for the aerodynamic protocol. Design : Prospective, nonrandomized, convenience samples in four age groups. Setting : University clinic. Participants : A total of 105 individuals without cleft palate and with normal speech for their age who were 3 to 5 (n  =  45), 7 to 9 (n  =  20), 11 to 13 (n  =  20), or 20 to 30 years old (n  =  20). All had normal nasal resonance and absence of nasally obstructive conditions on the testing day. Main Outcome Measures : Oral pressure and nasal airflow on /p/ and /m/ in syllable series and the word "hamper." Results : Oral pressure was significantly higher on /p/ for 3- to 5-year-olds versus the two oldest groups. Nasal airflow on /p/ occurred infrequently across groups. Oral pressure on /m/ was significantly higher for 3- to 5-year-olds versus adults. Nasal airflow on /m/ increased significantly with age. Oral pressure and nasal flow did not differ at two measurement times for the 3- to 5-year-olds. Of the 3- to 5-year-olds, 88% completed the protocol. Conclusions : Oral pressure decreased on /p/ and nasal airflow increased on /m/ from early childhood into adulthood. Nasal air escape on /p/ occurred rarely for speakers of any age; when it did occur, the magnitude was limited. Most preschool-aged children should be able to complete a velopharyngeal aerodynamic protocol, and measures are stable even for these young speakers.

  17. Room Airflows with Low Reynolds Number Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Davidson, Lars

    The behaviour of room airflows under fully turbulent conditions is well known both in terms of experiments and, numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For room airflows where turbulence is not fully developed though, i.e. flows at low Reynolds numbers, the existing knowledge...

  18. Airflow Obstruction in Young Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Al-Hazmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years.

  19. Finite Element Model and Validation of Nasal Tip Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Cyrus T; Harb, Rani; Badran, Alan; Ho, David; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-03-01

    Nasal tip mechanical stability is important for functional and cosmetic nasal airway surgery. Palpation of the nasal tip provides information on tip strength to the surgeon, though it is a purely subjective assessment. Providing a means to simulate nasal tip deformation with a validated model can offer a more objective approach in understanding the mechanics and nuances of the nasal tip support and eventual nasal mechanics as a whole. Herein we present validation of a finite element (FE) model of the nose using physical measurements recorded using an ABS plastic-silicone nasal phantom. Three-dimensional photogrammetry was used to capture the geometry of the phantom at rest and while under steady state load. The silicone used to make the phantom was mechanically tested and characterized using a linear elastic constitutive model. Surface point clouds of the silicone and FE model were compared for both the loaded and unloaded state. The average Hausdorff distance between actual measurements and FE simulations across the nose were 0.39 ± 1.04 mm and deviated up to 2 mm at the outermost boundaries of the model. FE simulation and measurements were in near complete agreement in the immediate vicinity of the nasal tip with millimeter accuracy. We have demonstrated validation of a two-component nasal FE model, which could be used to model more complex modes of deformation where direct measurement may be challenging. This is the first step in developing a nasal model to simulate nasal mechanics and ultimately the interaction between geometry and airflow.

  20. Assessment of the effect of deviated nasal septum on the structure of nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junguo; Dou, Xin; Liu, Dingding; Song, Panpan; Qian, Xiaoyun; Wang, Shoulin; Gao, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of DNS on the structure of nasal cavity. The paranasal sinus coronal view CT of 108 patients with DNS and 129 hospitalized patients without DNS was retrospectively analyzed. The transverse diameter of nasal cavity (a), transverse diameter of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (b), angle between maxillary and palatal bone, interalveolar distance, and maxillary rotation distance were measured. The ratio of a/b in experimental group was 0.367 ± 0.006 which was significantly (P = 0.0023) less than that in control group (0.391 ± 0.005). For the angle between maxillary and palatal bone, there was no significant difference found between DNS and control group for both right and left sides. The interalveolar distance was 40.75 mm in experimental group, and 38.8 mm in control (P = 0.0002). For the maxillary rotation distance, findings were considered as significant (P DNS affects the development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, as well as increases the interalveolar distance and maxillary rotation distance. These influences may be caused by the alteration of airflow inside the nasal cavities.

  1. Airflow obstruction in young adults in Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING......% were nonsmokers with asthma and 17% were nonsmokers with no history of asthma. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness increased the prevalence of airflow obstruction in each of these groups. CONCLUSION: Smoking and asthma, jointly and individually, are major determinants of obstructive disorders in young...... adults. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness contributes to obstruction in both groups....

  2. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma with no nasal symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzomefuna, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) in an 8-year-old boy with a 4-month history of frontal headache and no symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea or postnasal drip. An ENT examination as well as ophthalmology assessment presented normal results. CT scan showed a lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The patient had an endoscopic resection of the lesion that was confirmed histologically to be a NCMH. Though NCMH is known to present usually in infants with obstructing nasal mass, an unusual presentation of a patient with throbbing headache without any nasal symptoms is reported here.

  3. Occupational Exposures and Chronic Airflow Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dimich-Ward

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent literature was reviewed to evaluate whether chronic airflow limitation is associated with occupational exposures to dusts. Only those studies that controlled for the effects of smoking were included. There is compelling evidence that exposure to inorganic dusts, such as from coal and hardrock mining or asbestos, are associated with the development of chronic airflow limitation, independently of pneumoconiosis. Nonsmoking gold miners are particularly at high risk of airflow obstruction and emphysema. Findings from studies of organic dusts, such as exposures to wood, cotton, grain or other agricultural dusts, or to mixed dust exposures, were less consistent but tended to show positive dose-response associations. In the majority of studies, no statistical interaction was shown between dust exposures and smoking; however, the effects of the dust exposures were often more pronounced. An occupational history should be considered, in addition to a smoking history, as an integral part of an investigation of chronic airflow limitation in a patient.

  4. Realistic glottal motion and airflow rate during human breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    The glottal geometry is a key factor in the aerosol delivery efficiency for treatment of lung diseases. However, while glottal vibrations were extensively studied during human phonation, the realistic glottal motion during breathing is poorly understood. Therefore, most current studies assume an idealized steady glottis in the context of respiratory dynamics, and thus neglect the flow unsteadiness related to this motion. This is particularly important to assess the aerosol transport mechanisms in upper airways. This article presents a clinical study conducted on 20 volunteers, to examine the realistic glottal motion during several breathing tasks. Nasofibroscopy was used to investigate the glottal geometrical variations simultaneously with accurate airflow rate measurements. In total, 144 breathing sequences of 30s were recorded. Regarding the whole database, two cases of glottal time-variations were found: "static" or "dynamic" ones. Typically, the peak value of glottal area during slow breathing narrowed from 217 ± 54 mm(2) (mean ± STD) during inspiration, to 178 ± 35 mm(2) during expiration. Considering flow unsteadiness, it is shown that the harmonic approximation of the airflow rate underevaluates the inertial effects as compared to realistic patterns, especially at the onset of the breathing cycle. These measurements provide input data to conduct realistic numerical simulations of laryngeal airflow and particle deposition. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Airflow Simulations around OA Intake Louver with Electronic Velocity Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwataik; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2009-04-01

    It is important to control outdoor airflow rates into HVAC systems in terms of energy conservation and healthy indoor environment. Technologies are being developed to measure outdoor air (OA) flow rates through OA intake louvers on a real time basis. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the airflow characteristics through an OA intake louver numerically in order to provide suggestions for sensor installations. Airflow patterns are simulated with and without electronic air velocity sensors within cylindrical probes installed between louver blades or at the downstream face of the louver. Numerical results show quite good agreements with experimental data, and provide insights regarding measurement system design. The simulations indicate that velocity profiles are more spatially uniform at the louver outlet relative to between louver blades, that pressure drops imposed by the sensor bars are smaller with sensor bars at the louver outlet, and that placement of the sensor bars between louver blades substantially increases air velocities inside the louver. These findings suggest there is an advantage to placing the sensor bars at the louver outlet face.

  6. Oral and nasal flowrate partitioning in healthy subjects performing graded exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malarbet, J.L.; Roy, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire); Bertholon, J.F.; Taieb, G. (Paris-13 Univ., 93 - Saint-Denis (France)); Becquemin, M.H.; Bouchikhi, A. (Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-01-01

    An experimental device was designed to measure partitioning of airflow between nose and mouth in response to incrementally graded exercise on an ergometer bicycle. Oral and nasal flow rates were recorded separately by two Fleisch pneumotachographs; cardiac frequency and arterial blood pressure were also recorded. Posterior rhinomanometry and flow rates during maximal vital capacity manoeuvre were simultaneously measured. Airflow fractions by mouth breathing were dependent upon the total ventilation required: at the maximal work load completed by ten subjects, they ranged from 30 to 67%. In six of them, breathing became abruptly oronasal at ventilation levels from 38 to 65 1. min[sup -1]. In the other four, oral breathing was already considerable at rest; and it increased regularly towards maximal ventilation. In these subjects, the oral to nasal airflow ratios, measured by the flow-volume curve method, were higher than in the other six. (author).

  7. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

  8. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testosterone nasal gel is used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the ... does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone nasal gel is used only for men with low testosterone ...

  9. Computer simulation of airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, B.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1995-12-01

    Knowledge of airflow patterns in the human lung is important for an analysis of lung diseases and drug delivery of aerosolized medicine for medical treatment. However, very little systematic information is available on the pattern of airflow in the lung and on how this pattern affects the deposition of toxicants in the lung, and the efficacy of aerosol drug therapy. Most previous studies have only considered the airflow through a single bifurcating airway. However, the flow in a network of more than one bifurcation is more complicated due to the effect of interrelated lung generations. Because of the variation of airway geometry and flow condition from generation to generation, a single bifurcating airway cannot be taken as a representative for the others in different generations. The flow in the network varies significantly with airway generations because of a redistribution of axial momentum by the secondary flow motions. The influence of the redistribution of flow is expected in every generation. Therefore, a systematic information of the airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway is needed, and it becomes the purpose of this study. This study has provided information on airflow in a lung model which is necessary to the study of the deposition of toxicants and therapeutic aerosols.

  10. Airflow resistance of airflow-regulating devices described by independent coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Geertsema, AA; Schutte, HK

    2001-01-01

    Rehabilitation after laryngectomy includes more and more the use of airflow-regulating devices such as shunt valves (SVs). tracheostoma valves (TSVs), and heat and moisture exchange (HME) filters. In determining the quality of those devices, airflow resistance is a very important factor. It is curre

  11. Effects of nasalance on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and the head voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Nicholas Kevin

    This study aims to measure the effect that nasality has on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and head voice. Not to be confused with forward resonance, nasality here will be defined as nasalance, the reading of a Nasometer, or the percentage of nasal and oral airflow during phonation. A previous study by Peer Birch et al. has shown that professional tenors used higher percentages of nasalance through their passaggio. They hypothesized that tenors used nasalance to make slight timbral adjustments as they ascended through passaggio. Other well respected authors including Richard Miller and William McIver have claimed that teaching registration issues is the most important component of training young tenors. It seemed logical to measure the acoustic effects of nasalance on the tenor passaggio and head voice. Eight professional operatic tenors participated as subjects performing numerous vocal exercises that demonstrated various registration events. These examples were recorded and analyzed using a Nasometer and Voce Vista Pro Software. Tenors did generally show an increase of nasalance during an ascending B-flat major scale on the vowels [i] and [u]. Perhaps the most revealing result was that six of seven tenors showed at least a 5-10% increase in nasalance on the note after their primary register transition on the vowel of [a]. It is suggested that this phenomenon receive further empirical scrutiny, because, if true, pedagogues could use nasalance as a tool for helping a young tenor ascend through his passaggio.

  12. The effect of nasal tramazoline with dexamethasone in obstructive sleep apnoea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; Minaritzoglou, Aliki; Zakynthinos, Georgios; Vagiakis, Emmanouil; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Although there is a strong correlation between oral/oro-nasal breathing and apnoea/hypopnoea index in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and normal nasal resistance at wakefulness, it remains unknown whether the pharmacological prevention of potential nasal obstruction during sleep could decrease oral/oro-nasal breathing and increase nasal breathing and subsequently decrease the apnoea/hypopnoea index. This study evaluated the effect of a combination of a nasal decongestant with corticosteroid on breathing route pattern and apnoea/hypopnoea index. 21 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (mean apnoea/hypopnoea index 31.1 events per hour) and normal nasal resistance at wakefulness were enrolled in a randomised crossover trial of 1 weeks' treatment with nasal tramazoline and dexamethasone compared with 1 weeks' treatment with nasal placebo. At the start and end of each treatment period, patients underwent nasal resistance measurement and overnight polysomnography with attendant measurement of breathing route pattern. Nasal tramazoline with dexamethasone was associated with decrease in oral/oro-nasal breathing epochs and concomitant increase in nasal breathing epochs, and mean decrease of apnoea/hypopnoea index by 21%. The change in nasal breathing epochs was inversely related to the change in apnoea/hypopnoea index (Rs=0.78; pnasal tramazoline with dexamethasone in OSA patients with normal nasal resistance at wakefulness can restore the preponderance of nasal breathing epochs and modestly improve apnoea/hypopnoea index.

  13. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  14. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.

  15. Finite Element Modeling of Airflow During Phonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlof P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a mathematical model of airflow in human vocal folds is presented. The geometry of the glottal channel is based on measurements of excised human larynges. The airflow is modeled by nonstationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a 2D computational domain, which is deformed in time due to vocal fold vibration. The paper presents numerical results and focuses on flow separation in glottis. Quantitative data from numerical simulations are compared to results of measurements by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV, performed on a scaled self-oscillating physical model of vocal folds.

  16. Pattern and determinants of newborn apnea in an under-resourced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-06

    Mar 6, 2011 ... world where all the mechanical devices required for the detection and ... nasal airflow measurement are not available in this unit hence, only skin color, heart rate ... discharge against medical advice. Babies with and without.

  17. Numerical analysis for the efficacy of nasal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; Liu, Ying-Xi; Sun, Xiu-Zhen; Su, Ying-Feng; Wang, Ying; Gai, Yin-Zhe

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we reconstructed upper airway and soft palate models of 3 obstructive sleep apnea—hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients with nasal obstruction. The airflow distribution and movement of the soft palate before and after surgery were described by a numerical simulation method. The curative effect of nasal surgery was evaluated for the three patients with OSAHS. The degree of nasal obstruction in the 3 patients was improved after surgery. For 2 patients with mild OSAHS, the upper airway resistance and soft palate displacement were reduced after surgery. These changes contributed to the mitigation of respiratory airflow limitation. For the patient with severe OSAHS, the upper airway resistance and soft palate displacement increased after surgery, which aggravated the airway obstruction. The efficacy of nasal surgery for patients with OSAHS is determined by the degree of improvement in nasal obstruction and whether the effects on the pharynx are beneficial. Numerical simulation results are consistent with the polysomnogram (PSG) test results, chief complaints, and clinical findings, and can indirectly reflect the degree of nasal patency and improvement of snoring symptoms, and further, provide a theoretical basis to solve relevant clinical problems. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Airflow Test of Acoustic Board Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Lise Mellergaard

    In the laboratory of Indoor Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University an airflow test on 2x10 samples of acoustic board were carried out the 2nd of June 2012. The tests were carried out for Rambøll and STO AG. The test includes connected values of volume flow...

  19. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  20. Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P

    1994-08-01

    Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

  1. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, TT; Kirkeby Nielsen, LP; Poulsen, Knud

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the m...

  2. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, TT; Kirkeby Nielsen, LP; Poulsen, Knud

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine...... the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively...... reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal...

  3. Two models of high frequency chest compression therapy: interaction of jacket pressure and mouth airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwon; Warwick, Warren J

    2007-01-01

    High frequency chest compression (HFCC) therapy assists clearing the secretions in the lung. This paper presents two mathematical models: 1) HFCC jacket function model (JFM) and 2) respiratory function model (RFM). JFM predicts the variation of the jacket pressure (Pj) from the respiratory pattern of mouth airflow (Fm). RFM predicts the HFCC induced mouth airflow (Fm) from the HFCC pulse pressures at the jacket (Pj). Fm and Pj were measured from a healthy subject during HFCC therapy. JFM, which was implemented with 2nd order system using prediction error method, shows the existence of breathing pattern at Pj. RFM, which was implemented with amplitude modulation technique, shows how the HFCC pulses affects to the Fm. JFM calculations match 78% of the measured respiratory pattern of Pj>. RFM calculations match 90% of measured HFCC induced Fm. These models can be used to test new breathing patterns before designing studies on patients having chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

  4. VOICE RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DEVIATED NASAL SEPTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Deviated nasal septum (DNS is a common disorder which alters the nasal cavity anatomically and physiologically and results in nasal obstruction for breathing, nasal blockage, allergies, allergic rhinitis, and dryness of throat, thus influencing the person’s quality of life. Literature indicates that acoustic and resonatory characteristics of voice are negatively influenced in individuals with DNS due to the compensation by laryngeal system to the blockage in the resonatory chamber. In this context, the present study was aimed to investigate the voice related quality of life in individuals with deviated nasal septum. Forty individuals with severely deviated nasal septum confirmed by an Otorhinolaryngologist through anterior rhinoscopy, computerized tomography and twenty five age and gender matched controls filled the Kannada version of Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI questionnaire. Results indicated significant impact of deviated nasal septum on voice related quality of life in 55% of the participants with DNS. Results of Mann-Whitney U test indicated significant effect of DNS on VHI scores in individuals with DNS compared to controls (p<0.001. With respect to response to the individual questions under VHI, although response was negative to most of the questions, two questions that received highest score belong to physical domain of VHI and are related to breathing difficulty and variations in voice throughout the day, indicating that they have more difficulty due to nasal blockage to airflow per se than their day-to-day functionality or communication.

  5. Reshaping of the Anterior Nasal Spine: An Important Step in Rhinoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccieri, Armando; Pascali, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of analysis of the nasal spine should not be underestimated in the correct planning of rhinoplasty. Deformations in position with respect to the midline and/or in size are often present, and their correction to ensure harmony between the spine and the other components of the nasal pyramid constitutes a key step in rhinoplasty that can lead to excellent results. Methods: The study includes 160 patients who underwent surgical treatment of the anterior nasal spine with or without other techniques of nasal reshaping. Eighty-seven of these patients presented with hyperplasia of the nasal spine, 43 with hypoplasia, and 30 with deviation. A combination of deviation and hyperplasia was present in 15 cases. Results: No patients developed postoperative complications. Five patients who underwent anterior nasal spine reduction reported postoperative numbness in the premaxillary area, but sensitivity was fully regained within 4 months after surgery in these patients. All the patients reported postoperative improvement of nasal airflow. A total of 142 patients considered their postoperative aesthetic result as excellent and 18 as good. Conclusion: The simplicity of the surgical procedures performed on the nasal spine and the marked aesthetic improvements thus achieved suggest that greater attention should be paid to this anatomical region.

  6. Estimation of Airflow in livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1995-01-01

    sickness among the livestock. Therefore it is of interest to estimate flow vector fields corresponding to the airflow introduced by a given ventilation system. By introducing particles (e.g. smoke or soapbubles) into the air-inlets of a model of a livestock building, the airflow in an laser......-illuminated plane may be visualized. Based of sequences of images recorded of this plane local measurements of the velocity field are obtained by analysis of the local energy distribution, which is sampled using a set of 3-D spatio-temporal Gabor filters. We will show how physically inspired a priori distribution...... of the flow field may be used to integrate the local observations to a smooth field....

  7. Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2009-01-01

    These user notes describe how to use a spreadsheet-based (Excel 2007) version of the ASHRAE method (Chen and Glicksman 2003) for calculating the amount of design cooling airflow required for a displacement ventilation (DV) system that is providing all sensible cooling for a conditioned space. The design tool has been developed by CBE and is available on the CBE Partner website: http://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/partners/downloads.php

  8. Analyzing airflow in static ice caves by using the calcFLOW method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Meyer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method to detect airflow through ice caves and to quantify the corresponding airflow speeds by the use of temperature loggers. The time series of temperature observations at different loggers are cross-correlated. The time shift of best correlation corresponds to the travel time of the air and is used to derive the airflow speed between the loggers. We apply the method to test data observed inside Schellenberger Eishöhle (ice cave. The successful determination of airflow speeds depends on the existence of distinct temperature variations during the time span of interest. Moreover the airflow speed is assumed to be constant during the period used for the correlation analysis. Both requirements limit the applicability of the correlation analysis to determine instantaneous airflow speeds. Nevertheless the method is very helpful to characterize the general patterns of air movement and their slow temporal variations. The correlation analysis assumes a linear dependency between the correlated data. The good correlation we found for our test data confirms this assumption. We therefore in a second step estimate temperature biases and scale factors for the observed temperature variations by a least squares adjustment. The observed phenomena, a warming and a damping of temperature variations depending on the distance the air traveled inside the cave, are explained by a mixing of the inflowing air with the air inside the cave. Furthermore we test the significance of the determined parameters by a standard F test and study the sensitivity of the procedure to common manipulations of the original observations like smoothing. In the end we will give an outlook on possible applications and further development of this method.

  9. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  10. Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R. Schachner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The lungs of birds have long been known to move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi. Recently a similar pattern of airflow has been observed in American alligators, a sister taxon to birds. The pattern of flow appears to be due to the arrangement of the primary and secondary bronchi, which, via their branching angles, generate inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves. Both the anatomical similarity of the avian and alligator lung and the similarity in the patterns of airflow raise the possibility that these features are plesiomorphic for Archosauria and therefore did not evolve in response to selection for flapping flight or an endothermic metabolism, as has been generally assumed. To further test the hypothesis that unidirectional airflow is ancestral for Archosauria, we measured airflow in the lungs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. As in birds and alligators, air flows cranially to caudally in the cervical ventral bronchus, and caudally to cranially in the dorsobronchi in the lungs of Nile crocodiles. We also visualized the gross anatomy of the primary, secondary and tertiary pulmonary bronchi of C. niloticus using computed tomography (CT and microCT. The cervical ventral bronchus, cranial dorsobronchi and cranial medial bronchi display similar characteristics to their proposed homologues in the alligator, while there is considerable variation in the tertiary and caudal group bronchi. Our data indicate that the aspects of the crocodilian bronchial tree that maintain the aerodynamic valves and thus generate unidirectional airflow, are ancestral for Archosauria.

  11. Epidemiology and burden of nasal congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael Stewart1, BJ Ferguson2, Len Fromer31Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, USA; 2Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA; 3University of California, Los Angeles; David Geffen School of Medicine Los Angeles, California, USAAbstract: Nasal congestion, which may be described as fullness, obstruction, reduced airflow, or being “stuffed up,” is a commonly encountered symptom in clinical practice. Systematic study of congestion has largely considered it as a component of a disease state. Conditions associated with congestion include nasal polyposis, obstructive sleep apnea, and anatomic variation; however, most information on the burden of congestion comes from studies of allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, diseases of which congestion is the major symptom. Congestion can be caused by other rhinologic conditions, such as non-allergic rhinitis, viral or bacterial rhinitis, and vasomotor rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis affects as much as one quarter of the population worldwide and imposes a significant economic burden. Additionally, allergic rhinitis significantly impairs quality of life; congestion causes allergic rhinitis sufferers decreased daytime productivity at work or school and reduces night-time sleep time and quality. Annually, rhinosinusitis affects tens of millions of Americans and leads to approximately $6 billion in overall health care expenditures; it has been found to be one of the most costly physical conditions for US employers. Given the high prevalence and significant social and economic burden of nasal congestion, this symptom should be a key consideration in treating patients with rhinologic disease, and there continues to be a significant unmet medical need for effective treatment options for this condition.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, congestion, epidemiology, obstruction, rhinosinusitis

  12. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vestibule. Nasal furuncles may develop into a spreading infection under the skin (cellulitis) at the tip of the nose. A doctor becomes concerned about infections in this part of the face because veins ...

  13. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.To use the nasal spray, follow these steps: ... used to treat certain types of migraine headaches (hemiplegic or basilar) or other types of headaches (such ...

  14. Nasal packing and stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue.

  15. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients in budesonide nasal spray. Check the package label for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  16. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients in fluticasone nasal spray. Check the package label for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking, or ...

  17. Nasal gouty tophus: Report a rare case presenting as a nasal hump with nasal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Chung-Han Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal nasal gouty tophus are rare occurrences with limited documentation. Here we report a male patient who has a history of poorly controlled gouty arthritis. He had nasal obstruction with an enlarging mass over his left nasal ridge for the past three years. Image studies revealed a nasal bone defect underneath the nasal lesion. The firm mass was excised and confirmed to be of gouty origin. The nasal bone defect was repaired with a titanium mesh plate to prevent nasal depression. He has fully recovered with no more nasal obstruction or recurrence of nasal tophus. The case report illustrates a common illness, gout, with a rare clinical manifestation leading to a common symptom, nasal obstruction. It demonstrates the importance of a detailed history, a thorough physical examination and most important of all, an extensive differential diagnosis in our clinical practice.

  18. Nasal steroids in snorers can decrease snoring frequency: a randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; Keliris, Anastasios; Minaritzoglou, Aliki; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Although it is anecdotally known that nasal obstruction is associated with snoring, it remains unknown whether the application of nasal steroids could decrease oral/oro-nasal breathing and increase nasal breathing, and subsequently decrease snoring indices. This study evaluated the effect of nasal budesonide on breathing route pattern and snoring. Twenty-four snorers were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of 1-week treatment with nasal budesonide compared with 1-week intervention with nasal placebo. At the start and end of each treatment period, patients underwent nasal resistance measurement and overnight polysomnography with concomitant measurement of breathing route pattern and snoring. Twelve patients were randomly assigned to a 1-week treatment with nasal budesonide, followed by 2-week washout period and a 1-week intervention with the nasal placebo; and 12 patients were randomly assigned to a 1-week intervention with nasal placebo, followed by 2-week washout period and a 1-week treatment with nasal budesonide. Nasal budesonide was associated with a decrease in oral/oro-nasal breathing epochs and concomitant increase in nasal breathing epochs, decrease of snoring frequency by [median (interquartile range)] 15.8% (11.2-18.8%), and an increase of rapid eye movement sleep; snoring intensity decreased only in patients with increased baseline nasal resistance by 10.6% (6.8-14.3%). The change in nasal breathing epochs was inversely related to the change in snoring frequency (Rs = 0.503; P decrease snoring frequency and increase rapid eye movement sleep. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  20. Considerations for efficient airflow design in cleanrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2004-07-29

    A high-performance cleanroom should provide efficient energy performance in addition to effective contamination control. Energy-efficient designs can yield capital and operational cost savings, and can be part of a strategy to improve productivity in the cleanroom industry. Based upon in-situ measurement data from ISO Class 5 clean rooms, this article discusses key factors affecting cleanroom air system performance and benefits of efficient airflow design in clean rooms. Cleanroom HVAC systems used in the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industries are very energy intensive, requiring large volumes of cleaned air to remove or dilute contaminants for satisfactory operations. There is a tendency, however, to design excessive airflow rates into cleanroom HVAC systems, due to factors such as design conservatism, lack of thorough understanding of airflow requirements, concerns about cleanliness reliability, and potential design and operational liabilities. Energy use of cleanroom environmental systems varies with system type and design, cleanroom functions, and the control of critical parameters such as temperature and humidity. In particular, cleanroom cleanliness requirements specified by cleanliness class have an impact on overall energy use. A previous study covering Europe and the US reveals annual cleanroom electricity usage for cooling and fan energy varies significantly depending on cleanliness class, and may account for up to three-quarters of total annual operating costs. A study on a semiconductor cleanroom in Japan found air delivery systems account for more than 30% of total power consumption. It is evident that the main factors dictating cleanroom operation energy include airflow rates and HVAC system efficiency. Improving energy efficiency in clean rooms may potentially contribute to significant savings in the initial costs of the facilities as well as operation and maintenance costs. For example, energy consumption by a typical chip

  1. Airflow limitation is accompanied by diaphragm dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebrandová, L; Chlumský, J; Vostatek, P; Novák, D; Rýznarová, Z; Bunc, V

    2016-07-18

    Chronic airflow limitation, caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or by asthma, is believed to change the shape and the position of the diaphragm due to an increase in lung volume. We have made a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of diaphragm in supine position with pulmonary functions, respiratory muscle function and exercise tolerance. We have studied the differences between patients with COPD, patients with asthma, and healthy subjects. Most interestingly we found the lung hyperinflation leads to the changes in diaphragmatic excursions during the breathing cycle, seen in the differences between the maximal expiratory diaphragm position (DPex) in patients with COPD and control group (p=0.0016). The magnitude of the diaphragmatic dysfunction was significantly related to the airflow limitation expressed by the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to slow vital capacity (FEV(1)/SVC), (%, p=0.0007); to the lung hyperinflation expressed as the ratio of the residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC), (%, p=0.0018) and the extent of tidal volume constrain expressed as maximal tidal volume (V(Tmax)), ([l], p=0.0002); and the ratio of tidal volume to slow vital capacity (V(T)/SVC), (p=0.0038) during submaximal exercise. These results suggest that diaphragmatic movement fails to contribute sufficiently to the change in lung volume in emphysema. Tests of respiratory muscle function were related to the position of the diaphragm in deep expiration, e.g. neuromuscular coupling (P(0.1)/V(T)) (p=0.0232). The results have shown that the lung volumes determine the position of the diaphragm and function of the respiratory muscles. Chronic airflow limitation seems to change the position of the diaphragm, which thereafter influences inspiratory muscle function and exercise tolerance. There is an apparent relationship between the position of the diaphragm and the pulmonary functions and exercise tolerance.

  2. NATURAL AIRFLOW PERFORMANCES OF DOUBLE-SKIN FACADE TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IYATI Wasiska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DSF (Double-Skin Facade aplications required on highrise building envelope to increase its thermal performance. The performance DSF with natural airflow, especially external air curtain mode, is affected by airflow around the building, and the design characteristics of the DSF. This paper investigated the performance of some DSF models, namely the multi-storey and box-window type, as well as those modification in utilizing natural airflow, especially with 90° wind direction toward the facade, using CFD techniques. The results showed that the multi-storey type has the best performance with higher average wind speed and equitable airflow distribution in all the facade zones.

  3. Voice low tone to high tone ratio: a potential quantitative index for vowel [a:] and its nasalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Wang, Ching-Ping; Yang, Cheryl C H; Kuo, Terry B J

    2006-07-01

    Hypernasality is associated with various diseases and interferes with speech intelligibility. A recently developed quantitative index called voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) was used to estimate nasalization. The voice spectrum is divided into low-frequency power (LFP) and high-frequency power (HFP) by a specific cutoff frequency (600 Hz). VLHR is defined as the division of LFP into HFP and is expressed in decibels. Voice signals of the sustained vowel [a :] and its nasalization in eight subjects with hypernasality were collected for analysis of nasalance and VLHR. The correlation of VLHR with nasalance scores was significant (r = 0.76, p < 0.01), and so was the correlation between VLHR and perceptual hypernasality scores (r = 0.80, p < 0.01). Simultaneous recordings of nasal airflow temperature with a thermistor and voice signals in another 8 healthy subjects showed a significant correlation between temperature rate of nasal airflow and VLHR (r = 0.76, p < 0.01), as well. We conclude that VLHR may become a potential quantitative index of hypernasal speech and can be applied in either basic or clinical studies.

  4. Nasal septum extramedullary plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasmacytomas are malignant tumors characterized by abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. They originate in either bone - solitary osseous plasmacytoma, or in soft tissue - extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP. EMP represents less than 1% of all head and neck malignancies. Case report. We presented a case of EMP of the nasal septum in a 44-year-old male who had progressive difficulty in breathing through the nose and frequent heavy epistaxis on the right side. Nasal endoscopy showed dark red, soft, polypoid tumor in the last third of the right nasal cavity arising from the nasal septum. The biopsy showed that it was plasmacytoma. Bence Jones protein in the urine, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow biopsy, skeletal survey and other screening tests failed to detect multiple myeloma. This confirmed the diagnosis of EMP. The mass was completely removed via an endoscopic approach, and then, 4 week later, radiotherapy was conducted with a radiation dose of 50 Gray. No recurrence was noted in a 3-year follow- up period. Conclusion. EMP of the nasal cavity, being rare and having long natural history, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for any ear, nose and throat surgeon. Depending on the resectability of the lesion, a combined therapy is the accepted treatment.

  5. Comparison of upper airway respiratory resistance measurements with the esophageal pressure/airflow relationship during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, C; Schwaibold, M; Randerath, W; Bolz, A; Jané, R

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of upper airway resistance is of interest in sleep disordered breathing to estimate upper airway patency. Resistance is calculated with the airflow and respiratory effort signals. However, there is no consensus on a standard for upper airway resistance measurement. This study proposes a new benchmarking method to objectively compare different upper airway resistance measurement methods by objectively differentiating between breaths with inspiratory flow limitation (high resistance) and non-limited breaths (low resistance). Resistance was measured at peak-Pes, at peak-flow, at the linear portion of a polynomial equation, as an area comparative and as average resistance for an inspiration. A total of 20 patients with systematic, gold-standard esophageal pressure and nasal airflow acquisition were analyzed and 109,955 breaths were automatically extracted and evaluated. Relative resistance values in relationship to a reference resistance value obtained during wakefulness were also analyzed. The peak-Pes measurement method obtained the highest separation index with significant (p < 0.001) differences to the other methods, followed by the area comparative and the peak-flow methods. As expected, average resistances were significantly (p < 0.001) lower for the non-IFL than for the IFL group. Hence, we recommend employing the peak-Pes for accurate upper airway resistance estimation.

  6. Nasal valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin, Fazil

    2011-04-01

    Nasal obstruction can be due to internal and external valve problems that can be seen before and after rhinoplasty. The main scope of this article is to concentrate on surgical solutions to these problems. To overcome nasal obstruction at the internal valve, spreader grafts, spreader flaps, upper lateral splay graft, butterfly graft, flaring suture, M-plasty, Z-plasty, and suspension sutures have been described. The management of the external valve problems is possible by using lateral crural dissection and repositioning, lateral crural strut grafts, alar battens, lateral crural turn-in flap, alar rim grafts, and various other methods. It is not easy to decide which techniques would work best in every case. After a thorough examination and analysis, the underlying cause of the nasal obstruction can be understood, and one or multiple procedures can be chosen according to each individual problem.

  7. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  8. The assessment of velopharyngeal function using nasal ram pressure testing following palatoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochmal, Daniel J; Zajac, David J; Alhudaib, Omar M; Emodi, Omri; van Aalst, John A

    2013-09-01

    Objective : To compare nasal ram pressure (NRP) data with perceptual speech assessments in young children following palatoplasty. Design and Setting : NRP monitoring, a noninvasive technique using a two-pronged nasal cannula that detects nasal airflow during speech, was performed on patients 12 months following palatoplasty in our Craniofacial Center. Patients : Eighteen English-speaking nonsyndromic patients, aged 21 to 28 months, without hearing or language deficits, underwent NRP testing. Main Outcome Measured : During NRP measurement, the number of oral stop consonants produced spontaneously or following prompts was recorded. Stops were considered produced with velopharyngeal closure if NRP demonstrated no nasal airflow. The percentage of closed stops as measured by NRP was compared to the clinical assessment by craniofacial team speech-language pathologists. Results : Eight patients achieved 100% stop closure. Four patients obtained 90% to 96% stop closure. Three patients had stop closure of 85%, 78%, and 50%. Three patients had 0% stop closure; two of these patients subsequently underwent secondary palatal surgery. No significant clinical speech deficits were noted in patients with >90% closure. No association with defect size or cleft type was identified. Conclusions : NRP monitoring is well-tolerated in young children following palatoplasty. Achieving velopharyngeal (VP) closure for >90% of stops is associated with a clinical assessment of adequate speech and VP function. Postoperative NRP testing may serve as a useful adjunct to clinical speech evaluation for early identification of children who require more intensive speech therapy or secondary palatal surgery.

  9. Lysosomal exoglycosidases in nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowska, Sylwia; Minarowska, Alina; Knaś, Małgorzata; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Kołodziejczyk, Paweł; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowski, Łukasz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Nasal polyps are smooth outgrowths assuming a shape of grapes, formed from the nasal mucosa, limiting air flow by projecting into a lumen of a nasal cavity. Up to now the surgical resection is the best method of their treatment, but etiology and pathogenesis of the nasal polyps is not yet fully established. The aim of the study was the assessment of the selected lysosomal exoglycosidases activity in the nasal polyps. In this study the activity of β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase and α-fucosidase was determined in the tissue of the nasal polyps obtained from 40 patients (10F, 30M) and control tissues derived from mucosa of lower nasal conchas obtained during mucotomy from 20 patients (10F, 10M). We observed significant lower values of GAL, FUC and tendency to decrease of MAN and GLU concentration in nasal polyps (P) in comparison to control healthy nasal mucosa (C). In nasal polyp tissue (P) no differences of GAL, MAN and FUC specific activity in comparison to control mucosa (C) were found. Our research supports bioelectrical theory of the nasal polyps pathogenesis and directs attention at research on glycoconjugates and glycosidases of the nasal mucosa extracellular matrix. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  11. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  12. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  13. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  14. On wind turbine power performance measurements at inclined airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T. F.

    2004-07-01

    The average airflow inclination in complex terrain may be substantial. The airflow inclination affects wind turbine performance and also affects the cup anemometer being used in power performance measurements. In this article the overall dependence of the power curve on inclined airflow is analysed for its influence on both the wind turbine and the cup anemometer. The wind turbine performance analysis is based on results of measurements and theoretical calculations with the aeroelastic code HAWC coupled to a 3D actuator disc model for varying yaw angle. The cup anemometer analysis at inclined flow is based on an averaging of measured angular characteristics in a wind tunnel with the distribution of airflow inclination angles over time. The relative difference in annual energy production in terrain with inclined airflow compared with flat terrain is simulated for cup anemometers with theoretical optimal angular characteristics for two different definitions of wind speed, as well as for five commercial cup anemometers with measured angular characteristics. Copyright

  15. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is important that you get enough calcium and vitamin D while you are using calcitonin salmon. Your doctor may prescribe supplements if your dietary ... examinations of the nose to make sure calcitonin salmon nasal spray is not ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  16. Nasalization in Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Jerzy

    1977-01-01

    This paper gives a complete account of vowel nasalization in Standard Polish. A distinction is made between obligatory and phonostylistic processes. Phonostylistic evidence may serve as a basis for making unambiguous decisions about the structure of underlying representations, intermediate phonological forms, and assimilation of borrowings to the…

  17. Nasal tooth: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Si Hyun; Kim, Ji Hye; Hwang, Hee Young; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, Chol Heui [Gachon Medical School, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Ectopic tooth is not uncommon and usually occurs in the palate and maxillary sinus. We report a case of ectopic tooth located in the nasal cavity, a rare site. The mass depicted by CT was highly attenuated, and central lucency was observed.

  18. Effects of T-type Channel on Natural Convection Flows in Airflow-Path of Concrete Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Gyeong Uk; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Cho, Chun Hyung [KORAD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The natural convection flows occurring in airflow-path are not simple due to complex flow-path configurations such as horizontal ducts, bent tube and annular flow-path. In addition, 16 T type channels acting as the shroud are attached vertically and 16 channel supporting the canister are attached horizontally on the inner surface of over-pack. The existence and nonexistence of T type channels have influences on the flow fields in airflow- path. The concrete storage cask has to satisfy the requirements to secure the thermal integrity under the normal, off-normal, and accident conditions. The present work is aiming at investigating the effects of T type channels on the flows in airflow-path under the normal conditions using the FLUENT 16.1 code. In order to focus on the flows in airflow-path, fuel regions in the canister are regarded as a single cylinder with heat sources and other components are fully modeled. This study investigated the flow fields in airflow-path of concrete storage cask, numerically. It was found that excepting for the fuel regions, maximum temperatures on other components were evaluated below allowable values. The location of maximum velocities depended on support channels, T type channels and flow area. The flows through air inlets developed along annular flow- path with forming the hot plumes. According to the existence and nonexistence of T type channel, the plume behavior showed the different flow patterns.

  19. Fine-scale flight strategies of gulls in urban airflows indicate risk and reward in city living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Williamson, Cara; Windsor, Shane P

    2016-09-26

    Birds modulate their flight paths in relation to regional and global airflows in order to reduce their travel costs. Birds should also respond to fine-scale airflows, although the incidence and value of this remains largely unknown. We resolved the three-dimensional trajectories of gulls flying along a built-up coastline, and used computational fluid dynamic models to examine how gulls reacted to airflows around buildings. Birds systematically altered their flight trajectories with wind conditions to exploit updraughts over features as small as a row of low-rise buildings. This provides the first evidence that human activities can change patterns of space-use in flying birds by altering the profitability of the airscape. At finer scales still, gulls varied their position to select a narrow range of updraught values, rather than exploiting the strongest updraughts available, and their precise positions were consistent with a strategy to increase their velocity control in gusty conditions. Ultimately, strategies such as these could help unmanned aerial vehicles negotiate complex airflows. Overall, airflows around fine-scale features have profound implications for flight control and energy use, and consideration of this could lead to a paradigm-shift in the way ecologists view the urban environment.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  20. Fine-scale flight strategies of gulls in urban airflows indicate risk and reward in city living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Birds modulate their flight paths in relation to regional and global airflows in order to reduce their travel costs. Birds should also respond to fine-scale airflows, although the incidence and value of this remains largely unknown. We resolved the three-dimensional trajectories of gulls flying along a built-up coastline, and used computational fluid dynamic models to examine how gulls reacted to airflows around buildings. Birds systematically altered their flight trajectories with wind conditions to exploit updraughts over features as small as a row of low-rise buildings. This provides the first evidence that human activities can change patterns of space-use in flying birds by altering the profitability of the airscape. At finer scales still, gulls varied their position to select a narrow range of updraught values, rather than exploiting the strongest updraughts available, and their precise positions were consistent with a strategy to increase their velocity control in gusty conditions. Ultimately, strategies such as these could help unmanned aerial vehicles negotiate complex airflows. Overall, airflows around fine-scale features have profound implications for flight control and energy use, and consideration of this could lead to a paradigm-shift in the way ecologists view the urban environment. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528784

  1. Subsurface Airflow Induced by Natural Forcings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu J. Jiao; LI Hai-long

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface air flow can be induced by natural processes, such as atmospheric or barometric pressure changes, water table fluctuations, topographic effects, and rainfall infiltration. Barometric pressure fluctuations are the most common cause of subsurface air flow, which can be significant under favourable geological conditions. This process has been studied most extensively because of its application to passive soil vapor extraction. Soil air flow induced by water table fluctuations can be significant, particularly where the fluctuations are of high frequency, for example, in tidal-influenced coastal areas. Topographic effects can lead to strong subsoil air flow in areas with great elevation differences. Rainfall infiltration usually produces only weak airflow. Air flow induced by these natural processes has important environmental and engineering implications. Among the different processes, air flow induced by tidal fluctuations has been studied the least, although it has exciting applications to coastal engineering projects and environmental remediation.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of airflow inside lungs using heterogenous anisotropic lung tissue elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilegbusi, Olusegun; Li, Ziang; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to model the airflow inside lungs during breathing and its fluid-structure interaction with the lung tissues and the lung tumor using subject-specific elastic properties. The fluid-structure interaction technique simultaneously simulates flow within the airway and anisotropic deformation of the lung lobes. The three-dimensional (3D) lung geometry is reconstructed from the end-expiration 3D CT scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The lung is modeled as a poro-elastic medium with anisotropic elastic property (non-linear Young's modulus) obtained from inverse lung elastography of 4D CT scans for the same patients. The predicted results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation along with the airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effect is also presented of anisotropic elasticity on both the spatio-temporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis.

  3. Anatomy of Forehead, Glabellar, Nasal and Orbital Muscles, and Their Correlation with Distinctive Patterns of Skin Lines on the Upper Third of the Face: Reviewing Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Antonio Carlos; Do Amaral, Thiago Paoliello Alves; Lessio, Bruno Pierotti; De Lima, Germano Andrighetto

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between the skin lines on the upper third of the face in cadavers, which represent the muscle activity in life and the skin lines achieved by voluntary contraction of the forehead, glabellar, and orbital muscles in patients. Anatomical dissection of fresh cadavers was performed in 20 fresh cadavers, 11 females and 9 males, with ages ranging from 53 to 77 years. Subcutaneous dissection identified the muscle shape and the continuity of the fibers of the eyebrow elevator and depress muscles. Subgaleal dissection identified the cutaneous insertions of the muscles. They were correlated with skin lines on the upper third of the face of the cadavers that represent the muscle activity in life. Voluntary contraction was performed by 20 voluntary patients, 13 females and 7 males, with ages ranging from 35 to 62 years. Distinct patterns of skin lines on the forehead, glabellar and orbital areas, and eyebrow displacement were identified. The frontalis exhibited four anatomical shapes with four different patterns of horizontal parallel lines on the forehead skin. The corrugator supercilii showed three shapes of muscles creating six patterns of vertical glabellar lines, three symmetrical and three asymmetrical. The orbicularis oculi and procerus had single patterns. The skin lines exhibited in voluntary contraction of the upper third of the face in patients showed the same patterns of the skin lines achieved in cadavers. Skin lines in cadavers, which are the expression of the muscle activity in life, were similar to those achieved in the voluntary contraction of patients, allowing us to assert that the muscle patterns of patients were similar to those identified in cadavers. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies

  4. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo

    2003-01-01

    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  5. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.; Slootweg, P.J.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and me

  6. Pulsatile airflow during phonation: an excised larynx model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, F; Scherer, R C

    1995-02-01

    Pulsatile airflow in the excised larynx was investigated with simultaneous recordings of air velocity, subglottal pressure, volume flow, and the electroglottograph signal for various conditions of the larynx. Canine larynges were mounted on a bench with sutures attached to cartilages to mimic the function of laryngeal muscles. Sustained oscillations were established and maintained with the flow of heated and humidified air through the trachea. The instantaneous air velocity above the glottis, which is the summation of a periodic velocity and the turbulent component, was measured with a constant temperature hot-wire probe at various locations. The phase-averaged velocity was used to construct the patterns of jet flow at selected time frames of the oscillation cycle. Results suggest that supraglottal air velocity is highly spatially and temporally dependent. Cycles of local air velocity with double peaks were not uncommon and a case is provided. For one phase-averaged phonatory cycle, a 9 x 13 velocity measurement grid demonstrated strongly nonuniform velocity surfaces for eight phases of the cycle, with greater velocities located anteriorly.

  7. Airflow Actuation of Shortfin Mako Shark Denticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devey, Sean; Hubner, Paul; Lang, Amy

    2016-11-01

    The shortfin mako shark is covered in microscopic scales called denticles, which may act as a mechanism for passive flow control. Recent research has investigated the theory that reversing flow could passively bristle these denticles, which could delay flow separation. Water tunnel studies have supported this theory, yet a wind tunnel study at a greater dynamic pressure found no significant differences between an airfoil covered with mako skin and a smooth airfoil. A likely cause is that surface tension between denticles, which must be wet to retain flexibility, prevented bristling. This would not be an issue in water. To determine what reverse airflow characteristics cause denticle bristling in air, a benchtop study was conducted in which a jet of air was impinged upon a sample of wet mako skin in the reverse flow direction. A microscope and camera captured video of the denticles under the air jet, and image analysis techniques were used to detect bristling. Analysis shows sporadic bristling around 16 m/s (q = 150 Pa) but full bristling does not occur until above 35 m/s (q = 740 Pa). The free stream velocities required to achieve such reversal speeds are much higher. For this reason, mechanical analogues will be used rather than real skin in future studies of this mechanism. Funding from Boeing and NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  8. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri L. Motoyama; Gustavo B. Joel; Paulo E. A. Pereira; Gilmar J. Esteves; Azevedo, Paulo H.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK) or a control group (CONT) and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75%...

  9. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  10. Influence of the turbinate volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging on nasal air conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Joerg; Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Vital, Victor; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Pauls, Sandra; Wacke, Florian; Wiesmiller, Kerstin M

    2009-01-01

    Changes in nasal airflow caused by varying intranasal volumes and cross-sectional areas affect the contact between air and surrounding mucosa entailing alterations in nasal air conditioning. This study evaluates the correlation between nasal air conditioning and the volumes of the inferior and middle turbinates as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled. Each volunteer had been examined by rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry, intranasal air temperature, and humidity measurements at defined intranasal sites as well as MRI of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. The volumetric data of the turbinates was based on the volumetric software Amira. Comparable results were obtained regarding absolute humidity values and temperature values within the nasal valve area and middle turbinate area for both the right and the left side of the nasal cavity. No statistically significant differences were found in the rhinomanometric values and the acoustic rhinometry results of both sides (p > 0.05). No statistical correlations were found between the volumes of the inferior (mean, 6.1 cm3) and middle turbinate (mean, 1.8 cm3) and the corresponding humidity and temperature values. Additionally, the air temperature and humidity values did not correlate with the rhinometrical endonasal volumes (0-20 mm and 20-50 mm from the nasal entrance). The normal range of volumes of the inferior and middle turbinate does not seem to have a significant impact on intranasal air conditioning in healthy subjects. The exact limits where alterations of the turbinate volume negatively affect nasal air conditioning are still unknown.

  11. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more

  12. Large-eddy simulation of airflow and heat transfer in a general ward of hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Farhad; Himika, Taasnim Ahmed; Molla, Md. Mamun

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a very popular alternative computational technique, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been used for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of airflow and heat transfer in general ward of hospital. Different Reynolds numbers have been used to study the airflow pattern. In LES, Smagorinsky turbulence model has been considered and a discussion has been conducted in brief. A code validation has been performed comparing the present results with benchmark results for lid-driven cavity problem and the results are found to agree very well. LBM is demonstrated through simulation in forced convection inside hospital ward with six beds with a partition in the middle, which acted like a wall. Changes in average rate of heat transfer in terms of average Nusselt numbers have also been recorded in tabular format and necessary comparison has been showed. It was found that partition narrowed the path for airflow and once the air overcame this barrier, it got free space and turbulence appeared. For higher turbulence, the average rate of heat transfer increased and patients near the turbulence zone released maximum heat and felt more comfortable.

  13. Characteristics of airflow in a CT-based ovine lung: a numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Lin, Ching-Long; Hoffman, Eric A

    2007-04-01

    The transient airflow in a rigid, asymmetric monopodial sheep (ovine) tracheobronchial tree of up to 13 generations was investigated numerically. The lung geometry was segmented and reconstructed from computed-tomographic (CT) images. The flow characteristics in the image-based sheep airway were compared with the flow patterns produced by a Weibel-based model at prime locations. Boundary conditions were prescribed 1) a velocity profile from experimental data at the inlet and 2) zero pressure at the bronchial outlets. A mesh convergence study was carried out to establish confidence in the model predictions, and gross left-right ventilation was validated against experimental xenon wash-in-washout data. Detailed flow characteristics were investigated at three points in the breathing cycle: 1) peak inhalation, 2) peak exhalation, and 3) transition. Simulation results revealed fundamental differences between airflow in monopodial and bipodial branching airways. Compared with idealized bipodial flow, the flow in the sheep airway was asymmetric and highly vortical, especially during exhalation and transition. The streak lines during the inhalation phase suggest that the left and right upper lobes are ventilated by airflow in the peripheral region of the trachea. This work may contribute to understanding the interplay between structure and function in the lung.

  14. Experimental investigation into the interaction between the human body and room airflow and its effect on thermal comfort under stratum ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Lin, Z

    2016-04-01

    Room occupants' comfort and health are affected by the airflow. Nevertheless, they themselves also play an important role in indoor air distribution. This study investigated the interaction between the human body and room airflow under stratum ventilation. Simplified thermal manikin was employed to effectively resemble the human body as a flow obstacle and/or free convective heat source. Unheated and heated manikins were designed to fully evaluate the impact of the manikin at various airflow rates. Additionally, subjective human tests were conducted to evaluate thermal comfort for the occupants in two rows. The findings show that the manikin formed a local blockage effect, but the supply airflow could flow over it. With the body heat from the manikin, the air jet penetrated farther compared with that for the unheated manikin. The temperature downstream of the manikin was also higher because of the convective effect. Elevating the supply airflow rate from 7 to 15 air changes per hour varied the downstream airflow pattern dramatically, from an uprising flow induced by body heat to a jet-dominated flow. Subjective assessments indicated that stratum ventilation provided thermal comfort for the occupants in both rows. Therefore, stratum ventilation could be applied in rooms with occupants in multiple rows.

  15. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  16. Airflow-induced triboelectric nanogenerator as a self-powered sensor for detecting humidity and airflow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hengyu; Chen, Jie; Tian, Li; Leng, Qiang; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo

    2014-10-08

    Humidity sensors are commonly based on the resistance change of metal oxide semiconductors, which show high sensitivity in low humidity but low sensitivity in high humidity. In this work, we design a novel humidity sensor based on the airflow-induced triboelectric nanogenerator (ATNG) that can serve as a self-powered sensor to detect humidity (especially in high humidity) and airflow rate. The output current or voltage change is investigated under different humidity (20-100% relative humidity) at fixed airflow rate and different airflow rates (15-25 L/min) at a fixed humidity. The working principle of the ATNG-based sensor is illustrated. We find that both output current and voltage can serve as a variable for detecting humidity, while only the output current can serve as a variable for determining airflow rate. Our study demonstrates an innovative approach toward detection of humidity and airflow rate with advantages of self-power, multifunction, low cost, simple fabrication, and high sensitivity.

  17. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  18. Coarticulatory nasalization in modern Greek: Evidence for a link between coarticulation and syllable structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakoumakou, Evanthia

    2005-04-01

    An acoustic analysis of the temporal extent of vowel nasalization in the productions of six native speakers of (Standard) Modern Greek showed that the temporal extent of anticipatory vowel nasalization is limited in all contexts, although it is more extensive before tautosyllabic than heterosyllabic nasals. (On average, in stressed syllables, heterosyllabic anticipatory nasalization was 27 ms long, tautosyllabic anticipatory was 48 ms long, and carryover was 70 ms.) Modern Greek patterns in this aspect with languages like Spanish, Italian, Ikalanga, which also show a tendency toward open syllables, and obstruents are, in general, dispreferred as codas. It is hypothesized that there may be a link between a tendency for open syllables in a language and limited extent of anticipatory nasalization and it is suggested that investigation of the prosodic organization of languages may prove fruitful in determining the factors that lead to cross-language coarticulatory differences regarding vowel nasalization.

  19. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  20. Effect of Airflows on Repetitive Nanosecond Volume Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Huo, Yuxin; Song, Jian; Yu, Daren; Zhang, Chaohai

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure discharges excited by repetitive nanosecond pulses have attracted significant attention for various applications. In this paper, a plate-plate discharge with airflows is excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. Under different experiment conditions, the applied voltages, discharge currents, and discharge images are recorded. The plasma images presented here indicate that the volume discharge modes vary with airflow speeds, and a diffuse and homogeneous volume discharge occurs at the speed of more than 35 m/s. The role of airflows provides different effects on the 2-stage pulse discharges. The 1st pulse currents nearly maintain consistency for different airflow speeds. However, the 2nd pulse current has a change trend of first decreasing and then rapidly increasing, and the value difference for 2nd pulse currents is about 20 A under different airflows. In addition, the experimental results are discussed according to the electrical parameters and discharge images. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51006027, 51437002, and 51477035)

  1. Temporal characteristics of nasalization in speakers with and without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seunghee; Kuehn, David P

    2011-03-01

    The purposes of the study were to compare the temporal characteristics of nasalization between speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip and normal adult speakers and to investigate the relationship between acoustic temporal measures and perceived nasality. Fifteen speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip and 15 speakers without cleft palate aged 13 to 45 years participated in this study. Two listeners judged the degree of nasality in speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip. Two distinct acoustic energies derived from the mouth and nose were recorded simultaneously while speakers were producing the speech tasks /pimip/, /pamap/, and /pumup/. Absolute and proportional measures related to nasalization duration were obtained. Speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip exhibited more extensive acoustic nasalization in the time domain than did speakers without cleft palate with or without cleft lip. Speakers without cleft palate with or without cleft lip showed larger nasalization-duration ratios in the high vowel contexts than in the low vowel context. Speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip did not exhibit distinct differences in nasalization-duration ratios among the vowel contexts. The acoustic measurements reflecting temporal patterns of oral-nasal acoustic impedance were related to the perception of hypernasality. These results suggest that the speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip showed longer duration of acoustic nasalization than speakers without cleft palate with or without cleft lip. Temporal characteristics of acoustic nasalization grew longer as the degree of perceived hypernasality increased. The positive correlation between temporal measures of acoustic nasalization and degree of perceived nasality suggests that temporal measures of nasalization would provide supplementary diagnostic information in relation to the degree of hypernasality.

  2. Definitive magnetic nasal prosthesis for partial nasal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nagaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillofacial trauma refers to any injury to the face or jaw caused by physical force, trauma, the presence of foreign objects, animal or human bites, and burns. Facial defects can be devastating in their impact on physical structure and function of the affected individual, leading to potential compromises in quality of life. Restoration of facial defects, especially nasal defects, is a difficult challenge for both the surgeon and the prosthodontist. Here is a case report of partial nasal defect caused by trauma, rehabilitated with a magnetic nasal prosthesis made with silicone elastomers using mechanical and anatomical retentive aids.

  3. Study on application and numerical simulation of the airflow temperature distribution rule in drifting tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝东; 卢国斌; 张浪; 周西华

    2003-01-01

    According to the law of conservation in the state of turbulent flow, the differential equation describing the airflow temperature distribution in drifting tunnel is derived, By theoretical analysis and field measurement of the airflow and thermal process in mine, theoretical analysis and systematic flow are developed. By PHONENICS program, the numerical simulation is processed, and the changing rule of airflow temperature with various parameters in drifting tunnel is derived. The airflow temperature in drifting tunnel decreases as the airflow velocity increases in a way of negative power exponent, and elevates linearly as the temperature of the incoming airflow elevates.

  4. Experimental Study on Airflow Reversal Within Bypass Branch During Mine Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福宝; 王德明; 周延

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis of conditions for airflow reversal within a bypass branch, the airflow reversal phenomena were successfully simulated in the laboratory experiments. Data obtained indicate that airflow reversal within a bypass branch is mainly caused by fire pressure yielded in the combustion branch. In addition, the maximum reversal quantity of airflow occurs in step with the highest temperature of fire, the highest concentration of CO2 and the lowest concentration of O2. Moreover, the time that fire size reaches the maximum value corresponds to the time airflow reversal in the bypass branch is most possible. The results are of great significance for guiding rescue work to avoid airflow reversal.

  5. Patterns of orbital disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses various patterns of presentations of orbital lesions. Since this article has been authored by an otolaryngologist, the entire concept has been viewed from otolaryngologist's angle. With the advent of nasal endoscope trans nasal access to orbit is becoming the order of the day. Major advantage being that external skin incision is avoided.

  6. Nasalization in Galician and Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Regueira Fernández, Xosé Luís

    2010-01-01

    Gallego y portugués compartieron una parte de su historia, y en su evolución el comportamiento de las nasales ha jugado un importante papel. El gallego contemporáneo no presenta nasalidad contrastiva (vocales orales vs nasales), mientras que si las tiene el portugués. En este trabajo muestro que la descripción de la coarticulación velar (o nasalización) de las vocales en contacto con sonorantes nasales es relevante para la descripción de las lenguas tanto gallega como portuguesa y, adem...

  7. Reducing airflow energy use in multiple zone vav systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, Ahmed Gidado

    Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are the most popular HVAC systems in commercial buildings. VAV systems are designed to deliver airflows at design conditions which only occur for a few hours in a year. Minimizing energy use in VAV systems requires reducing the amount of airflow delivered through the system at part load conditions. Air Handling Unit (AHU) fans are the major drivers of airflow in VAV systems and installing a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is the most common method of regulating airflow in VAV systems. A VFD drive does not necessarily save energy without use of an appropriate control strategy. Static pressure reset (SPR) is considered to be the most energy efficient control strategy for AHU fans with VFDs installed. The implementation of SPR however has many challenges; for example, rogue zones--zones which have faulty sensors or failed controls and actuators, system dynamics like hunting and system diversity. By investigating the parameters associated with the implementation of SPR in VAV systems, a new, improved, more stable SPR algorithm was developed and validated. This approach was further improved using Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) to eliminate rogue zones. Additionally, a CO2-Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) based minimum airflow control was used to further reduce ventilation airflow and save more energy from SPR. Energy savings ranging from 25% to 51% were recorded in actual buildings with the new SPR algorithm. Finally, a methodology that utilizes historical VAV data was developed to estimate the potential savings that could be realized using SPR. The approach employed first determines an effective system loss coefficient as a function of mean damper position using the historical duct static pressure, VAV damper positions and airflows. Additionally, the historical data is used to identify the maximum mean duct damper position realizable as a result of insuring a sufficient number of VAVs are fully open at any time. Savings are

  8. Nasal Delivery of High Molecular Weight Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal Cevher; Yıldız Ozsoy; Sevgi Gungor

    2009-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery may be used for either local or systemic effects. Low molecular weight drugs with are rapidly absorbed through nasal mucosa. The main reasons for this are the high permeability, fairly wide absorption area, porous and thin endothelial basement membrane of the nasal epithelium. Despite the many advantages of the nasal route, limitations such as the high molecular weight (HMW) of drugs may impede drug absorption through the nasal mucosa. Recent studies have focused particula...

  9. Strategy for Airflow Control of Cathode in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; LI Xiao-jing

    2008-01-01

    There are two important objectives for airflow control in proton exchange membrane fuel cells(PEMFCs). One is to keep the desired excess ratio(to provide sufficient reactant airflow) to ensure fast transient response and to minimize auxiliary power consumption, and the other one is to control the cathode pressure in stack within an acceptable range. In reality, the big inertia of stack's airflow-supplying activator limits the bandwidth of air-flow supply loop, which makes the first objective difficult to achieve, and another difficulty is that airflow is coupled with the cathode pressure in stack, which make it uneasy to keep the pressure unchanged in case of airflow perturbation. In order to overcome these difficulties, three dependant controllers are presented in this paper to control airflow, decouple the cathode pressure in stack from airflow and stabilize the cat hode pressure in stack respectively. The effectiveness of these controllers is proven by subsequent simulation and test results.

  10. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  11. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Arun; Nandini R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the li...

  12. Coarticulation effects on the nasalization of vowels using nasal/voice amplitude ratio instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, P L; Hamlet, S L

    1987-10-01

    Nasal coarticulation in phonetically controlled nonsense syllables was investigated in four normal adult speakers. Nasalization was determined using the ratio of a nasal accelerometer signal amplitude to airborn microphone signal amplitude. Measurements of nasalization were made at the midpoint of vowels and at a constant time from the nasal consonant. Nasal acoustical coupling was greater for high vowels than for low vowels in all consonant contexts. Nasalization was also greater for vowels between two nasal consonants than for vowels between a nasal consonant and a fricative or stop. Results for progressive versus regressive assimilation depended on the measurement strategy. For within-vowel measurements made a constant time from the nasal consonant, prenasal vowels showed greater nasalization than postnasal vowels. This nasal accelerometric technique shows promise for clinical assessment of articulatory details of velar function.

  13. Flow through the nasal cavity of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm-Davis, L. L.; Fish, F. E.

    2015-12-01

    The nasal cavity of spiny dogfish is a blind capsule with no internal connection to the oral cavity. Water is envisioned to flow through the cavity in a smooth, continuous flow pattern; however, this assumption is based on previous descriptions of the morphology of the olfactory cavity. No experimentation on the flow through the internal nasal cavity has been reported. Morphology of the head of the spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias) does not suggest a close external connection between the oral and nasal systems. However, dye visualization showed that there was flow through the nasal apparatus and from the excurrent nostril to the mouth when respiratory flows were simulated. The hydrodynamic flow through the nasal cavity was observed from flow tank experiments. The dorsum of the nasal cavity of shark heads from dead animals was exposed by dissection and a glass plate was glued over of the exposed cavity. When the head was placed in a flow, dye was observed to be drawn passively into the cavity showing a complex, three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow. Dye entered the incurrent nostril, flowed through the nasal lamellae, crossed over and under the nasal valve, and circulated around the nasal valve before exiting the excurrent nostril. When the nasal valve was removed, the dye became stagnant and back flowed out through the incurrent nostril. The single nasal valve has a hydrodynamic function that organizes a coherent flow of water through the cavity without disruption. The results suggest that the morphology of the nasal apparatus in concert with respiratory flow and ambient flows from active swimming can be used to draw water through the olfactory cavity of the shark.

  14. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruda, Milena Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis.

  15. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Milena Moreira; Monteiro, Daniela Yasbek; Fernandes, Atilio Maximino; Menegatti, Vanessa; Thomazzi, Emerson; Hubner, Ricardo Arthur; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis. PMID:25992133

  16. Integration of a Multizone Airflow Model into a Thermalsimulation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Sørensen, Karl Grau; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    a methodology adopted from water distribution network that automatically sets up the independent loops and is easy to implement into a computer program. Finally an example of verification of the model is given which demonstrates the ability of the models to accurately predict the airflow of a simple multizone...

  17. Airflow Interaction Interface: Playful 3-D CAD and Gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the vision and development of a tangible user interface (TUI) that allows ‘glassblowing-like’ interaction (IA) with a computer. The premise is that human fidelity in exerting pressure and airflow (i.e. breathing, blowing) could stimulate intuition, creative processing, and affor

  18. Compensation of airflow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Tiedemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Compensation of airflow maldistribution in fin-and tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning is investigated with regards to circuitry design and control of individual channel superheats. In particularly, the interlaced and the face split circuitry designs are compared numerically using...

  19. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  20. Airflow energy harvesting with high wind velocities for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Z. J.; Tuddenham, S. B.; Zhu, M.

    2016-11-01

    An airflow energy harvester capable of harvesting energy from vortices at high speed is presented in this paper. The airflow energy harvester is implemented using a modified helical Savonius turbine and an electromagnetic generator. A power management module with maximum power point finding capability is used to manage the harvested energy and convert the low voltage magnitude from the generator to a usable level for wireless sensors. The airflow energy harvester is characterized using vortex generated by air hitting a plate in a wind tunnel. By using an aircraft environment with wind speed of 17 m/s as case study, the output power of the airflow energy harvester is measured to be 126 mW. The overall efficiency of the power management module is 45.76 to 61.2%, with maximum power point tracking efficiency of 94.21 to 99.72% for wind speed of 10 to 18 m/s, and has a quiescent current of 790 nA for the maximum power point tracking circuit.

  1. Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

    2015-11-01

    Bluff-body obstacles interacting with turbulent airflows are common in many natural and engineering applications (from desert pavement and shrubs over natural surfaces to cylindrical elements in compact heat exchangers). Even with obstacles of simple geometry, their interactions within turbulent airflows result in a complex and unsteady flow field that affects surface drag partitioning and transport of scalars from adjacent evaporating surfaces. Observations of spatio-temporal thermal patterns on evaporating porous surfaces adjacent to bluff-body obstacles depict well-defined and persistent zonation of evaporation rates that were used to construct a simple mechanistic model for surface-turbulence interactions. Results from evaporative drying of sand surfaces with isolated cylindrical elements (bluff bodies) subjected to constant turbulent airflows were in good agreement with model predictions for localized exchange rates. Experimental and theoretical results show persistent enhancement of evaporative fluxes from bluff-rough surfaces relative to smooth flat surfaces under similar conditions. The enhancement is attributed to formation of vortices that induce a thinner boundary layer over part of the interacting surface footprint. For a practical range of air velocities (0.5-4.0 m/s), low-aspect ratio cylindrical bluff elements placed on evaporating sand surfaces enhanced evaporative mass losses (relative to a flat surface) by up to 300% for high density of elements and high wind velocity, similar to observations reported in the literature. Concepts from drag partitioning were used to generalize the model and upscale predictions to evaporation from surfaces with multiple obstacles for potential applications to natural bluff-rough surfaces.

  2. A entomoftorose nasal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os dados clínico-patológicos de dois casos de entomoftorose nasal, nova doença humana causada por um ficomiceto - Entomophthora coronata. Os pacientes, uma menina e um homem, com 8 e 44 anos de idade respectivamente, apresentaram doença localizada, com nódulos no nariz e região paranasal, edema e deformação da face. O parasito foi isolado do primeiro caso, mas todas as tentativas para isolá-lo no segundo caso resultaram negativas. Histologicamente, havia reação granulomatosa, fibrose e edema, em torno de hifas não septadas, as quais exibiam envólucro eosinófilo amorfo em torno. Foram demonstrados anticorpos circulantes contra, as hifas do E. coronata no soro de um dos pacientes. O material eosinófilo em torno das hifas continha fibrina e material auto-fluorescente sob luz ultra-violeta, provavelmente lipofuscina, mas não foram demonstrados anticorpos ou antígenos nesta área. A apresentação destes casos, os primeiros a serem descritos no Brasil, é acompanhado, de uma revisão geral do assunto, pois tal poderá vir a ser de interesse para aqueles que estudam os problemas da patologia tropical em nosso meio.

  3. Image diagnosis of nasal bone fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Yoshiharu; Shimizu, Yayoi; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1988-04-01

    Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Conventional X-Ray films for nasal bones were analyzed and compared with HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone. Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla. Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films.

  4. The nasal distribution of metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S P; Morén, P F; Clarke, S W

    1987-02-01

    The intranasal distribution of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler has been assessed using a radiotracer technique. Inhalers were prepared by adding 99Tcm-labelled Teflon particles (simulating the drug particles) to chlorofluorocarbon propellants, and scans of the head (and chest) taken with a gamma camera. Ten healthy subjects (age range 19-29 years) each performed two radioaerosol studies with the inhaler held in two different ways: either in a single position (vial pointing upwards) or in two positions (vial pointing upwards and then tilted by 30 degrees in the sagittal plane). The vast majority of the dose (82.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- SEM) per cent and 80.7 +/- 3.1 per cent respectively for one-position and two-position studies) was deposited on a single localized area in the anterior one-third of the nose, the initial distribution pattern being identical for each study. No significant radioaerosol was detected in the lungs. Only 18.0 +/- 4.7 per cent and 15.4 +/- 4.1 per cent of the dose had been removed by mucociliary action after 30 minutes, and it is probable that the remainder had not penetrated initially beyond the vestibule. Since the deposition pattern was highly localized and more than half the dose probably failed to reach the turbinates it is possible that the overall effect of nasal MDIs is suboptimal for the treatment of generalized nasal disorders.

  5. Airborne Contamination Control through Directed Airflow in the Exam Room: A Pilot Study Using a Membrane Diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Pati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne infections have been documented as a major source of hospital acquired infection - one of the major concerns in healthcare delivery. An important factor contributing to airborne infection is cross contamination through air particulate dispersion as affected by the ventilation system design. Clean room technology (with membrane ceiling has been successfully used in technology and pharmaceutical industries to control airborne contamination. This study examined the performance of membrane ceiling technology in controlling air particulate dispersion in a mock-up exam room. It included both performance tests in a mock-up room and a simulation study of six different ventilation system designs using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis. Findings suggest that a membrane diffuser directed airflow ventilation strategy occupying approximately 20% to 30% of the ceiling surface and placed over the patient in a contemporary sized exam room provides a less turbulent airflow pattern and less mixing of the air between the patient and others in the room.

  6. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man.

  7. Actual therapeutic management of allergic and hyperreactive nasal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudack, Claudia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR and hyperractive disorders of the upper airways, depending upon the type of releasing stimuli, are defined as nasal hyperreactivity, for example in the case of AR, or as non-specific nasal hyperreactivity and as idiopathic rhinitis (IR (synonyms frequently used in the past: non-specific nasal hyperreactivity; vasomotor rhinitis in the case of non-characterised stimuli.An early and professional therapy of allergic disorders of the upper airways is of immense importance as allergic rhinitis is detected in comorbidities such as asthma and rhino sinusitis. The therapeutic concept is influenced by new and further developments in pharmacological substance classes such as antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids. Specific immune therapy, the only causal therapy for AR, has been reviewed over the past few years in respect of the type and pattern of application. However, to date no firm recommendations on oral, sublingual and /or nasal immune therapy have yet been drawn up based on investigations of these modifications.Therapeutic management of IR is aimed at a symptom-oriented therapy of nasal hyperactivity as etiological factors relating to this form of rhinitis are not yet sufficiently known. Drug groups such as mast cell stabilizers, systemic and topic antihistamines, topic and systemic glucocorticosteroids, ipatroium bromide and alpha symphatomimetics belong to the spectrum of the therapeutics employed.

  8. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  9. Alterações da cavidade nasal e do padrão respiratório após expansão maxilar Nasal cavity changes and the respiratory standard after maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ramires

    2008-10-01

    . AIM: Based on literature review, the purpose of this paper was to report the relationship among maxillary expansion, nasal cavity and Nasal Airflow Resistance. METHOD: A non-systematic literary review was conducted in search of experimental studies to treat maxillary atresia. Papers considering Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion were included, whereas those using Maxillary Expansion through Segmented Osteotomy were excluded. RESULT: Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion cause dentofacial changes, especially in the nasal cavity. Consequently, the nose width enlarges, reducing Nasal Airflow Resistance. CONCLUSION: Anteroposterior cephalometric studies show evidence of an enlarged nasal cavity following maxillary expansion.

  10. Oscillatory Behavior of an Arc Airfoil in Low-Speed Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molki, Majid; Sattari, Negin

    2011-11-01

    A computational investigation is conducted to study the oscillatory behavior of an arc airfoil situated in low-speed airflow. The present work is relevant to situations where the conventional rigid airfoils do not apply, such as the flight of bats. The outcome of this study is also beneficial in the design of micro air vehicles with flexible wings. The computations are performed using a deforming mesh to accommodate the airfoil oscillations. An unsteady, spatially second-order algorithm is employed to capture the time-variations of the lift and drag coefficients. A key feature of the present work is the flow response to airfoil oscillations. Fast Fourier Transform was applied to various parameters of the flow. For certain values of angle of attack for the non-oscillating airfoil, the flow has a dominant frequency and a well-defined vortex shedding. For other values of angle of attack, the flow around the non-oscillating airfoil contains many frequencies and has complex vortical structures. However, the oscillating airfoil in all cases makes the flow field periodic with well-defined patterns of vortex shedding. In this work, the flux of vorticity from the airfoil surface into the airflow is computed and compared with the pressure gradient along the surface of the airfoil. Effects of oscillations on magnitude and behavior of aerodynamic forces are also studied.

  11. Identification of nasal blood by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Koichi; Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Yoshino, Mineo

    2012-07-01

    A new approach for the identification of body fluid stains by comparing specific mRNA expression levels has been extensively studied in recent years. Here, we examine whether nasal blood, which is regarded as one of the most difficult types of blood to identify, can be identified by comparing mRNA expression levels of target genes specific to saliva, nasal secretion, and blood. The saliva-specific statherin gene (STATH) was found to be expressed at high levels in not only saliva (dCt value: 1.32±1.39, n=5), but also nasal secretions (dCt value: 0.90±1.14, n=5), while the histatin gene (HTN3) was only expressed at high levels in saliva (dCt value: 1.08±2.35, n=5). We also confirmed that the hemoglobin-beta gene (HBB) showed high expression levels in blood (dCt value: -9.51±0.40, n=5). Four nasal blood stains were found to highly express STATH (dCt value: 5.65±3.98) and HBB (dCt value: -8.79±1.67) but not HTN3, suggesting that the stain samples contained both nasal secretions and blood and can therefore be identified as nasal blood stains. Although menstrual blood showed the same expression pattern as nasal blood, the menstrual blood-specific protein matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) was not expressed in all nasal blood stain samples. Therefore, its expression levels could be used to discriminate between nasal and menstrual blood. In conclusion, real-time RT-PCR was able to identify nasal blood, although the stability of gene expression in nasal blood stains was low over time, suggesting that this assay may not be effective for older stains. Future work should examine the usefulness of this assay under various environmental conditions.

  12. Experimental study and simulation of airflow in solar chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifi, Nadia; Dokkar, Boubekeur; Negrou, Belkhir; Settou, Noureddine [Laboratory for Bioressources Saharan Preservation and Enhancement, University of Kasdi Merbah (Algeria)], e-mail: saifi.nadia2009@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energies, new technologies are arising that use renewable energies. The aim of this paper is to present a study of airflow in solar chimneys. Mathematical simulation and experiments were carried out on solar chimneys with different geometries. It was found that the width of the channel and the angle of inclination of the chimney influence the field speed. A case study was then carried out on a solar chimney in Ouargla Province, Algeria, to assess the impact of a chimney's inclination on its performance. The simulation was conducted using a finite volume method in Fluent 6.3.26 computer software. A good match between experimental and simulation results was found. This paper presented a study on airflow in solar chimney and demonstrated that simulations using Fluent and the finite element method were able to provide good results.

  13. Efficient airflow design for cleanrooms improves business bottom lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2003-01-05

    Based on a review of airflow design factors and in-situ energy measurements in ISO Cleanliness Class-5 cleanrooms, this paper addresses the importance of energy efficiency in airflow design and opportunities of cost savings in cleanroom practices. The paper discusses design factors that can long lastingly affect cleanroom system performance, and demonstrates benefits of energy efficient cleanroom design from viewpoints of environmental control and business operations. The paper suggests that a high performance cleanroom should not only be effective in contamination control, but also be efficient in energy and environmental performance. The paper also suggests that energy efficient design practice stands to bring in immediate capital cost savings and operation cost savings, and should be regarded by management as a strategy to improve business bottom lines.

  14. Computational Investigation of Dynamic Glottal Aperture Effects on Respiratory Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yan, Hong; Dong, Haibo

    2008-11-01

    The periodic movement of the glottal aperture (vocal folds) during tidal breathing has been long recognized as a factor in altering the airflow dynamics in the tracheobrnchial region. The potential influence from these altered flow structures on the transport and deposition of inhaled particles is not known. However, studies devoted to this dynamic physiological feature are scarce due to the complex anatomy in of the larynx and numerical challenges in simulating dynamic geometries. In this study, a high-fidelity immersed boundary solver is used to investigate this problem. A 3D human oral-larynx-lung model is firstly reconstructed from MRI data. The role of the vocal fold movement and associated airflow characteristics such as vortex shedding, Coanda effect etc. during inhalation and exhalation are then numerically studied.

  15. Schwannoma of the nasal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Karatas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign and slow growing tumors originating from the Schwann cells of peripheral nerve sheath. Schwannomas of sinonasal origin are rare (4% however septal schwannomas are much more rarer. We presented a 31 year old female patient. At physical examination a pale gray, smooth polypoid lesion obstructing the right nasal cavity was detected. Midfacial degloving and endoscopic approach were combined for surgical treatment. The tumor was originating from posteromedial area of the septal nasal cartilage, close to the bony cartilaginous junction. Postoperative histological examination of the specimen showed a benign tumoral growth consisting of spindle shaped cells and immunohistochemical staining of the tumor proved septal schwannoma.

  16. Aspiration of Nasopore nasal packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan; Reddy, Ekambar

    2017-10-04

    We present a case of postoperative Nasopore aspiration in an otherwise fit and well 11-year-old. An endoscopic adenoidectomy had been performed without incident and Nasopore packing placed into each nasal cavity. Immediately after extubation, there was marked hypoxia, tachypnoea and high clinical suspicion of pack aspiration. The patient returned to theatre for emergency rigid bronchoscopy and retrieval of nasal packing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Collecting aerosol in airflow with a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSB) is a highly efficient filter that takes the advantage of both fluidized beds and fixed beds. This paper presents the research to collect aerosol in airflow with a MSB. The filtering model of MSB is established with its parameters including magnetic field intensity,gas superficial velocity, average grain-size, and bed height on thecollection efficiency of MSB. The model is verified by experiments.

  18. Model Experiments for the Determination of Airflow in Large Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Model experiments are one of the methods used for the determination of airflow in large spaces. This paper will discuss the formation of the governing dimensionless numbers. It is shown that experiments with a reduced scale often will necessitate a fully developed turbulence level of the flow....... Details of the flow from supply openings are very important for the determination of room air distribution. It is in some cases possible to make a simplified supply opening for the model experiment....

  19. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  20. Nasal pulse oximetry overestimates oxygen saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H

    1990-01-01

    Ten surgical patients were monitored with nasal and finger pulse oximetry (Nellcor N-200) for five study periods with alternating mouth and nasal breathing and switching of cables and sensors. Nasal pulse oximetry was found to overestimate arterial oxygen saturation by 4.7 (SD 1.4%) (bias...

  1. A study of nasal cavity volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, Yasuyoshi (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).

  2. 下送风空调系统送风口气流方向对室内气流分布的影响分析%Study on the Influence of Different Inlet Wind Directions on Airflow Pattern for Under Floor Air Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李念平; 李灿; 王美霞

    2009-01-01

    A well-designed under floor air distribution (UFAD) system can provide such benefits as improving thermal comfort, ventilation efficiency and indoor air quality,and meanwhile reduce energy consumption,operation costs and floor-to-floor height in new constructions. This paper fouses on the association betwenn different air supply angles and airflow distribution for UFAD system. The air supply angle ot is the angle between inlet airflow and ground. The airflow distribution of an office with a UFAD system is simulated respectively by CFD when a is 0°45°and 90°Simulation results show that when a is 0°and 45°,the indoor air distributions are similar, the maximal velocity happens close to the floor,vortices are all below half of the storey height,and more vortices are formed when a is 450°when a is 90°the velocities close to the floor are small, and vortices happen above half of the storey height. Similiarity experiment is conducted in water when a is 0°experiment results indicate that velocity distribution agree with simulation results, which serves to predict and control the dust suspension.%一个设计良好的下送风空调系统具有改善热舒适性、通风效率和室内空气品质,减少能耗、建筑周期花费和层高等优点.本文通过对某一下送风空调系统在送风方向分别与地面之间的夹角(记为α)为0°、45°和90°的条件下,进行了数值模拟计算,分析了不同送风方向时室内气流分布的不同.研究结果 表明:α为0°和45°时的室内气流分布类似,室内最大速度都贴近地面,且形成的涡位于室内高度1/2以下,45°时室内产生更多的涡流;α为90°时靠近地面处流速很小,形成的涡位于室内高度1/2以上.对α为0°的情况进行了水模型试验,试验现象表明近地面处速度的分布与模拟计算结果 基本吻合.研究结果 对预测和控制下送风空调系统的扬尘有理论意义.

  3. Changes in nasal resistance and nasal geometry using pressure and acoustic rhinometry in a feline model of nasal congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLeod, R.L.; Mingo, G.G.; Herczku, C.

    1999-01-01

    This is the first report describing the use and pharmacological characterization of nasal patency by both pressure rhinometry and acoustic rhinometry (AcR) in an experimental cat model of nasal congestion. In pressure rhinometry studies, aerosolized compound 48/80 (0.1-3.0%), a mast cell liberator...... histamine (0.1-1.0%) on nasal geometry were similar to compound 48/80. We conclude that the cat is a useful model for evaluating the pharmacological actions of potential nasal decongestants. Furthermore, we also conclude that AcR is a useful method for noninvasive assessment of nasal patency...

  4. Nasal airway and septal variation in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Friel, Michael T; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Flores, Roberto L; Tholpady, Sunil; Kula, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) affects the dentoalveolar and nasolabial facial regions. Internal and external nasal dysmorphology may persist in individuals born with CLP despite surgical interventions. 7-18 year old individuals born with unilateral and bilateral CLP (n = 50) were retrospectively assessed using cone beam computed tomography. Anterior, middle, and posterior nasal airway volumes were measured on each facial side. Septal deviation was measured at the anterior and posterior nasal spine, and the midpoint between these two locations. Data were evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and post-hoc ANOVA tests. PCA results show partial separation in high dimensional space along PC1 (48.5% variance) based on age groups and partial separation along PC2 (29.8% variance) based on CLP type and septal deviation patterns. MANOVA results indicate that age (P = 0.007) and CLP type (P ≤ 0.001) significantly affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation. ANOVA results indicate that anterior nasal volume is significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.001), whereas septal deviation patterns are significantly affected by CLP type (P ≤ 0.001). Age and CLP type affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation patterns. Nasal airway volumes tend to be reduced on the clefted sides of the face relative to non-clefted sides of the face. Nasal airway volumes tend to strongly increase with age, whereas septal deviation values tend to increase only slightly with age. These results suggest that functional nasal breathing may be impaired in individuals born with the unilateral and bilateral CLP deformity.

  5. Nasal intubation: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal intubation technique was first described in 1902 by Kuhn. The others pioneering the nasal intubation techniques were Macewen, Rosenberg, Meltzer and Auer, and Elsberg. It is the most common method used for giving anesthesia in oral surgeries as it provides a good field for surgeons to operate. The anatomy behind nasal intubation is necessary to know as it gives an idea about the pathway of the endotracheal tube and complications encountered during nasotracheal intubation. Various techniques can be used to intubate the patient by nasal route and all of them have their own associated complications which are discussed in this article. Various complications may arise while doing nasotracheal intubation but a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and physics behind the procedure can help reduce such complications and manage appropriately. It is important for an anesthesiologist to be well versed with the basics of nasotracheal intubation and advances in the techniques. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy and the advent of newer devices have abolished the negative effect of blindness of the procedure.

  6. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...

  7. Diagnostic strategies in nasal congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Krouse

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available John Krouse1, Valerie Lund2, Wytske Fokkens3, Eli O Meltzer41Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Ear Institute, University College London, UK; 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; 4Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Nasal congestion is a major symptom of upper respiratory tract disorders, and its characterization an important part of the diagnosis of these illnesses. Patient history and assessment of nasal symptoms are essential components of diagnosis, providing an initial evaluation that may be adequate to rule out serious conditions. However, current congestion medications are not always fully effective. Thus, if symptoms do not respond adequately to therapy, or symptoms suggestive of more serious conditions are present, specialized assessments may be needed. Various techniques are available for diagnosing patients, including those used chiefly by primary care clinicians and those requiring the expertise of otolaryngologists, allergists, and other specialists. Endoscopy remains a mainstay for evaluating nasal blockage and its causes, while modalities such as peak nasal inspiratory flow and acoustic rhinometry are evolving to provide easy-to-use, noninvasive procedures that are sensitive enough to measure small but clinically important abnormalities and therapeutic changes. Several imaging modalities are available to the specialist for severe or unusual cases, as are specialized diagnostic procedures that measure adjunctive features of congestion, such as impaired mucociliary function.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, congestion, diagnosis, obstruction, rhinosinusitis

  8. Nasal Schwannoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Navarro YJ, Pérez-Carbajal AJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schwannomas are benign tumors that arise from Schwann cells peripheral nerves sheath. About 25-45% occur in the head and neck and only 4% of these tumors involve the sinunasal tract.Objective: To provide, through a clinic case and lecture review, the clinical and radiopatology findings of a bening and unusual tumors, as are the Nasal schwannomas. Case Report: We report a case of a young woman with nasal schwannoma, who complain of left nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea, which after subsequent imaging studies, surgical and pathology analisis, diagnosis was found. Sustained a favorable clinical evolution.Results and Discussion: The clinic and radiologic findings are nonspecific, depend upon the location or size of the tumor and subsequent involvement of surrounding structures, but generally present as a mass with less agressive behavior. The elective treatment is surgery, confirming this disease by microscopic and immunohistochemistry studies.Conclusion: Given these aspects must be considered nasal schwannomas within the differential diagnosis of a tumor with less aggressive behavior, clinical-radiological, because implies good results for the patient and unusual recurrence after surgery.

  9. Nasal angiomyolipoma: Report of two cases of an extremely rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Mohammed Abdul; Fatima, Ather; Kumudachalam, P; Priyadarshini, Ramya

    2017-01-01

    Nasal angiomyolipoma (AML) are extremely rare tumors and so far <15 cases have been reported in the literature, and this is the first instance that Nasal AML is reported from India. We report two cases of AML arising in the nasal cavity described in 60-year-old male and 50-year-old female patient. Grossly, they were well circumscribed, lobulated masses, and microscopically, they were composed of an intimate mixture of mature fat, smooth muscle cells, and thick-walled varying sized blood vessels. Immunoexpression pattern and histopathology were characteristic. Both the patients had complete resolution of symptoms after endoscopic excision of the tumor.

  10. Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.

  11. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis of nasal dorsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinath D.P Kamath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old lady presented with a slowly progressing firm mass on the nasal dorsum since 8 months. Her biochemical, haematological and collagen vascular disease screening tests were normal. Radiographs of the nasal bones showed a subcutaneous calcifying lesion with no evidence of nasal bone erosion. A diagnosis of idiopathic calcinosis cutis (ICC was made. The mass was excised and soft tissue defect was augmented with silicone prosthesis. The histopathology with the haematoxylin and eosin staining and von Kossa stain confirmed the diagnosis of calcinosis cutis. This is an unusual presentation of ICC involving the nasal dorsum requiring surgery and nasal dorsal augmentation with silicone prosthesis.

  12. Desert dune growth and development: measurements of airflow and morphological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddock, Matthew; Wiggs, Giles; Nield, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    The early stages of dune development remain a poorly understood aspect of bedform evolution. Flow-form feedbacks, however, are recognised to be fundamental in driving bedform growth across different stages of dune development. Specifically, the growth of aeolian bedforms has been linked theoretically with the location of the maximum windspeed at a point upwind of the bedform crest. This upwind position of maximum velocity, combined with the relaxation length scale for sand transport (Lsat) allows sand deposition in the crestal region of dunes, a necessity for vertical growth of the dune body. To date, there has been only limited empirical evidence of this process on a small number of individual dunes. We present field data from the Skeleton Coast dunefield in Namibia on the morphological change of a suite of bedforms over the full range of dune development stages (i.e. sand patch, protodune, dome and barchan dune). Our investigations include measurements at both high-energy event timescales and over a multi-annual period. For the event-scale periods, near-surface airflow measurements have been undertaken coincident with high frequency surface change allowing the coupling of flow dynamics and morphological change to the stage of dune development. This paper will highlight the extent to which the crestal flow velocity patterns elucidate the distribution of erosion and deposition for the range bedform types. For example, the airflow over the protodune demonstrates the crest-upwind velocity shift coinciding with patterns of sediment deposition and vertical growth. Annual change of the established dunes (dome and barchan) reveals features maintaining their shape while migrating, while also increasing their overall sediment volume. While flow-form measurements indicate the importance of airflow dynamics in driving dune growth as observed over the short term, multi-year change reveals shrinkage of both the sand patch and protodune at our study site. Such long term

  13. Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belagola D Sathyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. Aims: We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. Results: One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80% predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%. Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39% and others included transverse nasal line (28%, strip (28%, ridge (4% and loop (1%. Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Conclusions: Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.

  14. Intraosseous Hemangioma of the Middle Turbinate Misdiagnosed As a Nasal Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous hemangiomas account for 1% of all bone tumors and primarily originate from the vertebral column and skull bones. However, intraosseous hemangiomas of the nasal cavity are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of intraosseous hemangioma with a cavernous pattern arising from the middle turbinate that was preoperatively misdiagnosed as chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps. Except for nasal obstruction, there were no specific rhinologic symptoms. The tumor was excised en bloc by the endoscopic endonasal approach without preoperative embolization.

  15. Deposition of inhaled wood dust in the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Z F; Inthavong, K; Tu, J Y

    2007-11-01

    Detailed deposition patterns of inhaled wood dust in an anatomically accurate nasal cavity were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Three wood dusts, pine dust, heavy oak dust, and light oak dust, with a particle size distribution generated by machining (Chung et al., 2000), were simulated at an inhalation flow rate of 10 L/min. It was found that the major particle deposition sites were the nasal valve region and anterior section of the middle turbinate. Wood dust depositing in these regions is physiologically removed much more slowly than in other regions. This leads to the surrounding layer of soft tissues being damaged by the deposited particles during continuous exposure to wood dust. Additionally, it was found that pine dust had a higher deposition efficiency in the nasal cavity than the two oak dusts, due to the fact that it comprises a higher proportion of larger sized particles. Therefore, this indicates that dusts with a large amount of fine particles, such as those generated by sanding, may penetrate the nasal cavity and travel further into the lung.

  16. Investigation of non-uniform airflow signal oscillation during high frequency chest compression

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jongwon; Lee Yong W; Warwick Warren J; Sohn Kiwon; Holte James E

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background High frequency chest compression (HFCC) is a useful and popular therapy for clearing bronchial airways of excessive or thicker mucus. Our observation of respiratory airflow of a subject during use of HFCC showed the airflow oscillation by HFCC was strongly influenced by the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. We used a computational model-based approach to analyse the respiratory airflow during use of HFCC. Methods The computational model, which is based on previous ph...

  17. Experimental characterization of airflow, heat and mass transfer in a cold room filled with food products

    OpenAIRE

    Duret, S.; Hoang, H. -M.; Flick, Denis; Laguerre, O.

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and moisture heterogeneity, with non-uniform airflow in cold rooms was observed in several studies. This heterogeneity can lead to a deterioration of food quality and safety. Heat and mass transfer in cold rooms is a complex phenomenon because of the presence of the product (airflow modification, heat of respiration.) and the coupling between heat transfer and airflow. Temperature, velocity, humidity and heat transfer coefficient measurements were carried out in a ventilated cold ...

  18. Contamination control in HVAC systems for aseptic processing area. Part I: Case study of the airflow velocity in a unidirectional airflow workstation with computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M

    2000-01-01

    A unidirectional airflow workstation for processing a sterile pharmaceutical product is required to be "Grade A," according to EU-GMP and WHO-GMP. These regulations have employed the wording of "laminar airflow" for unidirectional airflow, with an unclear definition given. This seems to have allowed many reports to describe discussion of airflow velocity only. The guidance values as to the velocity are expressed in various words of 90 ft/min, 0.45 m/sec, 0.3 m/sec, +/- 20%, or "homogeneous air speed." It has been also little clarified how variation in airflow velocity gives influences on contamination control of a workstation working with varying key characteristics, such as ceiling height, internal heat load, internal particle generation, etc. The present author has revealed following points from a case study using Computational Fluid Dynamics: the airflow characteristic in Grade A area shows no significant changes with varying the velocity of supplied airflow, and the particles generated from the operator will be exhausted outside Grade A area without contamination.

  19. Real-time visualization and analysis of airflow field by use of digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jianglei; Wu, Bingjing; Chen, Xin; Liu, Junjiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin

    2013-04-01

    The measurement and analysis of airflow field is very important in fluid dynamics. For airflow, smoke particles can be added to visually observe the turbulence phenomena by particle tracking technology, but the effect of smoke particles to follow the high speed airflow will reduce the measurement accuracy. In recent years, with the advantage of non-contact, nondestructive, fast and full-field measurement, digital holography has been widely applied in many fields, such as deformation and vibration analysis, particle characterization, refractive index measurement, and so on. In this paper, we present a method to measure the airflow field by use of digital holography. A small wind tunnel model made of acrylic glass is built to control the velocity and direction of airflow. Different shapes of samples such as aircraft wing and cylinder are placed in the wind tunnel model to produce different forms of flow field. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer setup, a series of digital holograms carrying the information of airflow filed distributions in different states are recorded by CCD camera and corresponding holographic images are numerically reconstructed from the holograms by computer. Then we can conveniently obtain the velocity or pressure information of the airflow deduced from the quantitative phase information of holographic images and visually display the airflow filed and its evolution in the form of a movie. The theory and experiment results show that digital holography is a robust and feasible approach for real-time visualization and analysis of airflow field.

  20. Estimation of Airflow in Livestock Buildings using Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    In order to evaluate a given ventilation system in a livestock building and its sensitivity to wind, presence of heat sources (e.g. livestock) etc. it is of interest to estimate flow vector fields corresponding to the airflow. By introducing particles (e.g. smoke) into the air inlets of a model...... on the image sequence. After which the local estimates are integrated to smooth flow fields using a model that incorporates spatial smoothness. The algorithms are illustrated using a scale model of a pigs sty under isothermic conditions. It should be noted that this is an non-invasive technique (laser...

  1. EFFECT OF AIRFLOW AND HEAT INPUT RATES ON DUCT EFFICIENCY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-05-28

    Reducing the airflow and heat input rates of a furnace that is connected to a duct system in thermal contact with unconditioned spaces can significantly reduce thermal distribution efficiency. This is a straightforward theoretical calculation based on the increased residence time of the air in the duct at the lower flow rate, which results in greater conduction losses. Experimental tests in an instrumented residential-size duct system have confirmed this prediction. Results are compared with the heat-loss algorithm in ASHRAE Standid 152P. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible remedies for this loss of efficiency in existing systems and optional design strategies in new construction.

  2. CFD modeling of pharmaceutical isolators with experimental verification of airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, N; Akay, H U; Walsh, M R; Bell, W V; Troyer, G L; Dukes, R E; Mohan, P

    2007-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to predict the airflow in a transfer isolator using a commercial CFD code. In order to assess the ability of the CFD approach in predicting the flow inside an isolator, hot wire anemometry measurements and a novel experimental flow visualization technique consisting of helium-filled glycerin bubbles were used. The results obtained have been shown to agree well with the experiments and show that CFD can be used to model barrier systems and isolators with practical fidelity. This indicates that CFD can and should be used to support the design, testing, and operation of barrier systems and isolators.

  3. Airflow characteristics in the occupied zone of ventilated spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanzawa, H.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1987-01-01

    raft is one of the most common causes of complaint in ventilated or air-conditioned spaces. Therefore, knowing the turbulent airflow in these spaces and the impact of this flow on the sensation of draft is very important. The characteristics of turbulent flow (turbulence intensity, length scales...... of turbulence, turbulence kinetic energy, etc. ) were investigated in 20 typically ventilated spaces. Relationships between these characteristics and the mean velocity were found. The turbulence energy spectra are similar to those in a fully developed turbulent flow. The spectra reveal the major contribution...

  4. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2011-01-01

    . Passive method for control over the airflow characteristics at the breathing zone to increase the amount of clean air in inhalation consisted of a rectangular board (0.63 m x 0.36 m) placed below the table and pressed against the abdominal. It acted as a barrier reducing the convection flow upcoming from...... the lower body. The resultant velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry: a dual cavity laser (λ = 532 nm) and two CCD cameras with 35 and 60 mm lenses. Seeding consisting of glycerol droplets (d = 2-3 μm) was added to the total volume supply. The blocking...

  5. Smart polymers in nasal drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Chonkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones.

  6. A STUDY OF NASAL EOSINOPHILIA IN ASTHMA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Prabhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asthma is an inflammatory, reversible and progressive disease with episodes of exacerbations. Asthma is now considered as single airway disease and hence comprehensive diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of upper and lower respiratory tract is essential. Both the Nasal and Bronchial mucosa are the elements of united airway disease and Eosinophils measured from this mucosa can be an indirect marker of Airway inflammation in asthma. Eosinophil infiltration is hallmark feature of pathogenesis of asthma which is the trigger for the chronic airway inflammation and these are raised in acute exacerbations. Hence assessing Eosinophil is evidence of serological marker for Airway inflammation (AI. Nasal Smear Eosinophils (NSE is used in asthma with Allergic Rhinitis (AR. This study Using Definition of GINA explores the utility of NSE as marker for management of Asthma. METHODS: In this study 100 patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma attending the outpatient department in KIMS were studied. The severity of asthma was assessed as per FEV1 classification- Adapted from 2007 NHLBI Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Asthma Expert panel Report 3. The Statistical analysis was done with SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, Med Calc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1.software. RESULTS: Asthma was more common in Females in this study with M: F ratio of 1.04 and Allergic Rhinitis was found in 55% of Asthmatics. Nasal Eosinophilia was seen in 44% in asthmatic group and 49% in Asthma with Allergic Rhinitis. Absolute Eosinophil count (AEC and Differential count (DC for Eosinophils was almost same in both groups. The Sensitivity of NSE with respect to DC is 70% and in AR group with Asthma and in Asthma group with/without AR it was 38%. Similarly the NSE with respect to AEC was 47% in AR group with Asthma whereas in Asthma group with/without AR it was 38%. CONCLUSIONS: The finding confirms that symptoms, Variable airflow Obstruction and

  7. Nasal Outcomes of Presurgical Nasal Molding in Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Short-term nasal forms following primary lip repair were compared between presurgical nasal molding and control groups. Aim. To compare nasal symmetry between patients that had nasal molding and lip repair with those that had only lip repair. Design. Retrospective case-control study Patients. Complete unilateral CL+P patients had basilar and frontal photographs at two time points: (1 initial (2 postsurgical. 28 nasal molding patients and 14 control patients were included. Intervention. Presurgical nasal molding was performed prior to primary lip repair in intervention group. No nasal molding was performed in control group. Hypothesis. Nasal molding combined with lip surgery repair according to the Millard procedure provides superior nasal symmetry than surgery alone for nostril height-width ratios and alar groove ratios. Statistics. Shapiro-Wilk test of normality and Student’s -tests. Results. A statistically significant difference was found for postsurgical nostril height-width ratio (<.05. No other statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions. Nasal molding and surgery resulted in more symmetrical nostril height-width ratios than surgery alone. Alar groove ratios were not statistically significantly different between groups perhaps because application of nasal molding was not early enough; postsurgical nasal splints were not utilized; overcorrection was not performed for nasal molding.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrissa Diawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes.Nasal swab specimens were obtained from 143 hemodialyzed outpatients and 32 medical staff from January to June 2012. Each participant completed a short questionnaire. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was demographically related (age, gender, hemodialysis duration, comorbidity (diabetes, malignancy and exposure to health care (dialysis staff, hospitalization. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction were used on all the isolates in the research of twelve staphylococcal enterotoxins genes. Also the PCR was used to investigate on the three factors epidermal cell differentiation inhibitors; three exfoliatin toxins; two leukotoxins; the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and the hemolysin beta genes.Nasal screening revealed 38.16%, 50% and 18.75% S. aureus carries in chronic, acute hemodialysis patients and medical staff, respectively. Only young participants were likely to be S. aureus carries (p = 0.002. But there were no gender differences between the isolate carriers and non-carriers or some comorbidity factors such as viral hepatitis B and C, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infections, diabetes, chronic smoking, recent hospitalization or antibiotic therapy. Out of all isolates, only one (1.61% was methicillin-resistant and Twenty-one (33.87% had at least two virulence toxin genes.Knowledge and monitoring of antibiotic resistance profile and virulence of S. aureus carriage are essential in the treatment of infections generated by this pathogen, as well as in the control of clonal dissemination and prevent the spread of S. aureus resistance.

  9. Investigation of non-uniform airflow signal oscillation during high frequency chest compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jongwon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High frequency chest compression (HFCC is a useful and popular therapy for clearing bronchial airways of excessive or thicker mucus. Our observation of respiratory airflow of a subject during use of HFCC showed the airflow oscillation by HFCC was strongly influenced by the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. We used a computational model-based approach to analyse the respiratory airflow during use of HFCC. Methods The computational model, which is based on previous physiological studies and represented by an electrical circuit analogue, was used for simulation of in vivo protocol that shows the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. Besides, airflow was measured during use of HFCC. We compared the simulation results to either the measured data or the previous research, to understand and explain the observations. Results and discussion We could observe two important phenomena during respiration pertaining to the airflow signal oscillation generated by HFCC. The amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals varied depending on spontaneous airflow signals. We used the simulation results to investigate how the nonlinearity of airway resistance, lung capacitance, and inertance of air characterized the respiratory airflow. The simulation results indicated that lung capacitance or the inertance of air is also not a factor in the non-uniformity of HFCC airflow signals. Although not perfect, our circuit analogue model allows us to effectively simulate the nonlinear characteristics of the respiratory system. Conclusion We found that the amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals behave as a function of spontaneous airflow signals. This is due to the nonlinearity of the respiratory system, particularly variations in airway resistance.

  10. Current status of nuclear medicine in chronic airflow limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E.

    1987-06-01

    Radionuclide imaging, quite apart from its role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, offers information about the distribution of ventilatory and perfusion abnormalities within the lung. The extent of ventilatory abnormality seen can be related to the severity of airways obstruction as assessed spirometrically, whilst abnormalities in the matching of perfusion to ventilation can be related to the severity of hypoxaemia in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Clearance of mucus from the lungs of patients with chronic mucus hypersection may be assessed by following the clearance rate of insoluble radioaerosol particles; by such means the relative contributions of mucociliary transport and of cough to the overall clearance can be observed. Clearance is often severely impaired in patients with airways obstruction; the radioaerosol technique can be used to determine the effects of drug or physiotherapy treatment. Chronic airflow limitation leading to hypoxaemia can be associated with pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy - this may be investigated noninvasively by a radionuclide test of right ventricular ejection fraction.

  11. Unusual Postrhinoplasty Complication: Nasal Dorsum Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Giacomini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among all the possible complications of aesthetic rhinoplasty, a rare one is the development of cystic masses on the nasal dorsum: several theories suggest that cysts develop commonly by entrapment of nasal mucosa in the subcutaneous space, but they can also originate from foreign body reactions. This report deals with two cases of nasal dorsum cysts with different pathogenesis: both patients had undergone aesthetic rhinoplasty in the past (26 years ago and 14 years ago, resp.. Both cystic masses were removed via a direct open approach and nasal reconstruction was performed successfully with autologous vomer bone. The pathologic investigations showed a foreign body inclusion cyst associated with latex rubber in the first case and a sequestration of a mucosal-lined nasal bone was not removed at the time of primary rhinoplasty in the second case. A brief review of the literature focuses on the pathophysiology and treatment options for nasal dorsal cysts following aesthetic rhinoplasty.

  12. Post septorhinoplasty custom-made unilateral nasal stent for nasal cleft deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Rathee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nasal cleft deformity is a complicated problem. Utilization of nasal stent in post septorhinoplastyaims at establishing and maintaining airway patency, tissue position, and reduces tissue contracture after surgery. Case Report: A 16-year-old female patient presented with history of surgical reconstruction of congenital cleft lip and cleft palate with secondary septorhinoplasty of nasal cleft deformity. Patient was referred for nasal stent 1 week after septorhinoplasty. This case report provides a novel technique for fabrication of esthetic nasal stent after postseptorhinoplasty for secondary cleft nose deformity correction. Conclusion: This case report presents a simple, convenient technique for nasal stent fabrication for prevention of restenosis for cleft nose deformity post secondary septorhinoplasty. Provision of nasal stent allows breathing, maintains esthetics, comfort, nasal patency, and contour with minimal discomfort.

  13. Post septorhinoplasty custom-made unilateral nasal stent for nasal cleft deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Manu Rathee; Mohaneesh Bhoria; Priyanka Boora

    2015-01-01

    Context: Nasal cleft deformity is a complicated problem. Utilization of nasal stent in post septorhinoplastyaims at establishing and maintaining airway patency, tissue position, and reduces tissue contracture after surgery. Case Report: A 16-year-old female patient presented with history of surgical reconstruction of congenital cleft lip and cleft palate with secondary septorhinoplasty of nasal cleft deformity. Patient was referred for nasal stent 1 week after septorhinoplasty. This case repo...

  14. Velocity Measurements in Nasal Cavities by Means of Stereoscopic Piv - Preliminary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Fabio; Felisati, Giovanni; Quadrio, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in human nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics of the nasal anatomy and health problems, and ultimately led to improved surgery. The complex flow structure and the intricate geometry of the nasal cavities make achieving such goals a challenge for CFD specialists. The need for experimental data to validate and improve the numerical simulations is particularly crucial. To this aim an experimental set-up based on Stereo PIV and a silicon phantom of nasal cavities have been designed and realized at Politecnico di Milano. This work describes the main features and challenges of the set-up along with some preliminary results.

  15. Aspectos fonéticos del proceso de velarización en las nasales del español y del catalán (Phonetic aspects of velarization process in Spanish and Catalan nasals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Fernández Planas

    2012-12-01

    consonantal articulations by the simultaneous occurrence of an oral closure and a nasal airflow release. Airflow release through the nasal cavity appears to be the primary feature of nasal consonants, which facilitates coarticulatory processes such as place assimilation in pre-consonantal contexts (e.g. velarization before velar stops. The present study investigates the allophonic phonetic features of nasal + velar stop coarticulation in Spanish and Catalan. More specifically, we assessed the effects of speech rate, stress, morphological boundaries and the voicing and articulatory tension of the following stop. Electropalatographic analyses (WinEPG were conducted on 4 repetitions of several nasal + velar stop sequences produced by 3 speakers of Spanish and 3 speakers of Catalan. The results reveal the importance of the factors investigated, in particular the voicing and articulatory tension of the following vowel. It was also shown that a slow speech rate led to hyperarticulation and the consequent frequent loss of place assimilation present in faster speech styles. These findings and the presence of certain types of partial assimilation suggest that this type of coarticulation should be treated as a gradient rather than a categorical process.

  16. IgG4-Related Nasal Pseudotumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Døsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is recognized as one form of autoimmune pancreatitis. During the last ten years, it has also been described in several other organs. We present two patients with lesions showing a histological picture of fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations with abundant IgG4 positive plasma cells at hitherto unreported symmetrical nasal locations. The symmetrical complex consisted of one central lesion in the anterior nasal septum and the two others in each of the lateral nasal walls. The lesions extended from the anterior part of the inferior concha into the vestibulum and caused severe nasal obstruction.

  17. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2017-08-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis.

  18. Nasal and Oral Consonant Similarity in Speech Errors: Exploring Parallels with Nasal Consonant Harmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that "similar" sounds interact in phonological nasal consonant harmony, wherein certain consonants become nasals when the word contains a nasal (e.g., Kikongo: /-kun-idi/ [right arrow] [-kun-ini] "planted"). Across languages, stops and approximants are chiefly affected, especially voiced consonants and ones that match…

  19. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matova, S.P.; Elfrink, R.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Schaijk, R. van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with adju

  20. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  1. The Measurement of Airflow Using Singing Helmet That Allows Free Movement of the Jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jack J; Hanna, Rewais B; Willey, Malachi V; Rieves, Adam

    2016-11-01

    Airflow measurement is a useful method of evaluating laryngeal physiology. We introduce a noninvasive device that measures airflow without restricting jaw movement or requiring phonation into a mouthpiece, thus facilitating measurement during singing and connected speech. Validation and human subject trials were conducted. Airflow measurements were obtained from 16 male and 16 female subjects during singing, speech, and constant vowel production tasks. A similar helmet was designed by Stevens and Mead in 1968. The new device validity was evaluated by comparing the measured volume of air to a known volume of administered air using a calibration syringe. Subjects were asked to voice sustained vowels at low, medium, and high vocal intensity, read two sentences at a conversational volume, and perform different singing exercises while airflow was recorded. The device accurately and reliably measured airflow with mean airflow values falling within previously published ranges. There was an experimentally determined response time of 0.173 ± 0.014 seconds. Subjects were able to comfortably perform speech and singing exercises. Male subjects had higher airflow for all sustained vowels (P speech while allowing for free movement of the jaw. This device provides a more natural environment to measure airflow that could be used to help evaluate laryngeal function and aid in singing training. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Localized bi-nasal macular edema in optic chiasmal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J Lavaque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old healthy male complaining of vision loss in his right eye was discovered to have localized bi-nasal macular edema in the presence of a pituitary adenoma. The presence of a junctional scotoma composed by a central scotoma in the right eye associated with superior temporal quadrantanopia in the fellow eye was seen. The pattern detected in the visual field suggested the presence of an expansive mass at the level of the optic chiasm. Optical coherence tomography findings also revealed subtle macular thickness beyond normal in the superior and nasal quadrants of both maculae. This report illustrates the importance of suspecting a pituitary adenoma in the light of uncharacteristic retinal alterations.

  3. Advanced airflow distribution methods for reduction of personal exposure to indoor pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to recognize possible airflow distribution methods to protect the occupants from exposure to various indoor pollutants. The fact of the increasing exposure of occupants to various indoor pollutants shows that there is an urgent need to develop advanced airflow ...... distribution methods to reduce indoor exposure to various indoor pollutants. This article presents some of the latest development of advanced airflow distribution methods to reduce indoor exposure in various types of buildings.......The main objective of this study is to recognize possible airflow distribution methods to protect the occupants from exposure to various indoor pollutants. The fact of the increasing exposure of occupants to various indoor pollutants shows that there is an urgent need to develop advanced airflow...

  4. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Haicheng; GAO Wei; FAN Zhihui; LIU Yidi; REN Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length.The discharge images,optical emission spectra (OES),the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained.When airflow rate is increased,the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity,breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated.The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse,discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag,and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small vclocity is introduced into the discharge gap.These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap.

  5. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  6. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  7. Morphological interaction between the nasal septum and nasofacial skeleton during human ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Matthew J; Holton, Nathan E; Grünheid, Thorsten

    2017-02-20

    The nasal septal cartilage is thought to be a key growth center that contributes to nasofacial skeletal development. Despite the developmental influence of the nasal septum however, humans often exhibit a high frequency of septal deviation suggesting discordance in the growth between the septum and surrounding nasofacial skeleton. While there are numerous etiological factors that contribute to septal deviation, the surrounding nasofacial skeleton may also act to constrain the septum, resulting in altered patterns of growth. That is, while the nasal septum has a direct morphogenetic influence on aspects of the nasofacial skeleton, other nasofacial skeletal components may restrict septal growth resulting in deviation. Detailing the developmental relationship between these structures is important not only for understanding the causal determinants of nasal septal deviation, but also for developing a broader understanding of the complex interaction between the facial skeleton and chondrocranium. We selected 66 non-syndromic subjects from the University of Minnesota Orthodontic Clinic who ranged from 7 to 18 years in age and had an existing pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan. Using CBCT data, we examined the developmental relationship between nasal septal deviation and the surrounding nasofacial skeleton. We measured septal deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to a modeled non-deviated septum. We then collected a series of coordinate landmark data in the region immediately surrounding the nasal septum in the midsagittal plane representing the nasofacial skeleton. First, we examined ontogenetic changes in the magnitude of nasal septal deviation relative to chronological age and nasofacial size. Next, using Procrustes-based geometric morphometric techniques, we assessed the morphological relationship between nasal septal deviation and nasofacial skeletal shape. Our results indicate that variation in the magnitude of nasal septal

  8. Airflow Characteristics At The Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Velte, Clara Marika

    2011-01-01

    A workstation with Personalized Ventilation (PV) unit and a thermal manikin with realistic body and temperature distribution were set in a test room (4.70 m x 1.62 m x 2.6 m). Airflow at 15 L/s was supplied from a ceiling diffuser to ventilate the room and keep the temperature at 26 oC. The PV co...... measured near the mouth was 0.1 m/s, when the boxes were installed but not working. When the two slots supplied equal amount of air, the measured absolute mean velocity increased with increasing the supplied air with a maximum of 0.35 m/s at 10 L/s....

  9. Effect of airflow on biodrying of gardening wastes in reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.J.Colomer-Mendoza; L.Herrera-Prats; F.Robles-Martínez; A.Gallardo-Izquierdo; A.B.Pi(n)a-Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Biodrying consists of reducing moisture by using the heat from aerobic bio-degradation.The parameters that control the process are:aeration,temperature during the process,initial moisture of biowaste,and temperature and relative humidity of the input air.Lawn mowing and garden waste from the gardens of the University Jaume I,Castellón (Spain) were used as a substrate.Biodrying was performed in 10 reactors with known air volumes from 0.88 to 6.42 L/(min·kg dry weight).To promote aeration,5 of the reactors had 15% of a bulking agent added.The experiment lasted 20 days.After the experiments it was found that the bulking agent led to greater weight loss.However,the increased airflow rate was not linearly proportional to the weight loss.

  10. Optimized damper control of pressure and airflow in ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Hviid, Christian Anker; Terkildsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Conventional control strategies in variable air volume (VAV) ventilation systems do not take fully into advantage the potential energy savings since the system operation is based on maintaining a constant static pressure (CSP) set point in the main duct irrespective of the actual pressure demand....... The static pressure reset (SPR) control strategy can optimize the operation of the supply air fans by adjusting the pressure set point to be just enough to deliver the required airflow to the most critical zone. This study investigated the operation and energy savings potential of an SPR control algorithm...... by using the Simulink programming tool which is addon software to MATLAB mathematical programming language. A model of a VAV ventilation system was created in Simulink based on the International Building Physics Toolbox (IBPT); the IBPT thermal zone was remodelled in order to calculate dynamically...

  11. Effect of airflow on biodrying of gardening wastes in reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer-Mendoza, F J; Herrera-Prats, L; Robles-Martínez, F; Gallardo-Izquierdo, A; Piña-Guzmán, A B

    2013-05-01

    Biodrying consists of reducing moisture by using the heat from aerobic bio-degradation. The parameters that control the process are: aeration, temperature during the process, initial moisture of biowaste, and temperature and relative humidity of the input air. Lawn mowing and garden waste from the gardens of the University Jaume I, Castellón (Spain) were used as a substrate. Biodrying was performed in 10 reactors with known air volumes from 0.88 to 6.42 L/(min x kg dry weight). To promote aeration, 5 of the reactors had 15% of a bulking agent added. The experiment lasted 20 days. After the experiments it was found that the bulking agent led to greater weight loss. However, the increased airflow rate was not linearly proportional to the weight loss.

  12. Bronchial hypersecretion, chronic airflow limitation, and peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, F; Brille, D

    1981-11-01

    Men with and men without a history of peptic ulcers were compared using respiratory symptoms and spirographic measurements taken from data recorded in an epidemiologic study. Among the 1,049 men examined, 7% reported a history of peptic ulcer. A clear relationship appeared between bronchial hypersecretion and peptic ulcers. It persisted after adjustment for age, smoking habits, social class, and country of origin. Men with ulcers inhaled tobacco smoke more often. Ulcers, smoking, and chronic phlegm were independently related to a lower body build index. It seems that the relationship between smoking and ulcers was greater among men with chronic phlegm, and it is postulated that peptic ulcers and "chronic bronchitis" might be related to a "common secretory disorder." After adjustment for age, men with a history of peptic ulcers had, not a lower FEV1, but a higher vital capacity. A slightly lower FEV1/VC ratio cannot in such cases be considered as an index of chronic airflow limitation.

  13. Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwhuis, Wilco; Peters, Ivo R; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of `star drops'. This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results...

  14. Induced airflow in flying insects II. Measurement of induced flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Sanjay P; Jacobson, Nathaniel P

    2006-01-01

    The flapping wings of insects and birds induce a strong flow over their body during flight. Although this flow influences the sensory biology and physiology of a flying animal, there are very little data on the characteristics of this self-generated flow field or its biological consequences. A model proposed in the companion paper estimated the induced flow over flying insects. In this study, we used a pair of hot wire anemometers to measure this flow at two locations near the body of a tethered flapping hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The axial inflow anemometer measured the airflow prior to its entry into the stroke plane, whereas the radial outflow anemometer measured the airflow after it crossed the stroke plane. The high temporal resolution of the hot wire anemometers allowed us to measure not only the mean induced flow but also subtle higher frequency disturbances occurring at 1-4 times the wing beat frequency. These data provide evidence for the predictions of a mathematical model proposed in the companion paper. Specifically, the absolute value of the measured induced flow matches the estimate of the model. Also, as predicted by the model, the induced flow varies linearly with wing beat frequency. Our experiments also show that wing flexion contributes significantly to the observed higher frequency disturbances. Thus, the hot wire anemometry technique provides a useful means to quantify the aerodynamic signature of wing flexion. The phasic and tonic components of induced flow influence several physiological processes such as convective heat loss and gas exchange in endothermic insects, as well as alter the nature of mechanosensory and olfactory stimuli to the sensory organs of a flying insect.

  15. NASAL INVERTED PAPILLOMA OF UNUSUAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kasim s. kasim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of Schneiderian papilloma of the nasal septum are presented. The condition is rare, as indicated by a review of previously published cases. The clinical course of the lesion suggests that it behaves like Schneiderian papillomas elsewhere in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The need for aggressive surgical management and careful follow-up is emphasized.

  16. ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF NASAL INDEX OF EGYPTIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nasal index determination is one of the most commonly used anthropometric parameters in classifying human races. There are few reports in medical literature concerning nasal index that specifically address particular Egyptian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the normal parameters of external nose (width, height and nasal index in Egyptians. Methods: The study was conducted randomly on healthy Egyptian subjects of both sexes. Nasal height and width were measured using vernier caliper. Then, nasal index was determined for each subject. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A total of 290 subjects, 144 males and 146 females, aged 1 month– 65 years, were enrolled in the study. The study showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in nasal morphology, appearing after the age 20 years. The mean nasal index in the investigated adults was 68.01; in males and females was 71.46 and 64.56, respectively. Conclusions: The dominant nasal type in Egyptians was in-between mesorrhine "medium" and leptorrhine "narrow" nose. Forensic and anthropological research, as well as cosmetic and reconstructive surgery may benefit from age- and sex- based data of the study.

  17. Rhinoscleroma and nasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Henrique Fernandes de

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhinoscleroma, a rare nasal granulomatous disease, is caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. The nose is the primary occurrence region. Nasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare cancer, and could be of T or B type. The rhinoscleroma and the nasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma present with nasal obstruction as the main symptom, and are part of the nasal granulomatosis differential diagnosis. Objective: To report the association of rhinoscleroma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the same patient, by remarking the importance of the nasal granulomatosis' differential diagnosis. Case Report: A forty-nine year old female patient that appeared with a one-month progressive nasal obstruction. Rhinoscopy showed papillomatous feature lesion in left middle meatus. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed rhinoscleroma. The patient was duly treated with total remission of the lesion. Ten months after, she returned with the same symptoms, but the histologic study confirmed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Final Comments: Both pathologies may cause more severe nasal symptoms and complications. The early diagnostic enables the choice for the right treatment and contributes for the prognosis. The immunohistochemical study was essential for the diagnostic differentiation.

  18. Nasal Airway Resistance: Its Measurement and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lyle H.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of regulation of nasal airway resistance (Rn). Describes methods of calculating Rn by measuring pressure-flow relationship. Data are presented on improved methods for measuring Rn and effects for expiratory and inspiratory Rn after topical application of phenylephrine nasal decongestant spray. (Author/SA)

  19. Assessment of nasalance and nasality in patients with a repaired cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, Klaus; Gruber, Maike; Jagsch, Reinhold; Roesner, Imme; Baumann, Arnulf; Wutzl, Arno; Denk-Linnert, Doris-Maria

    2017-03-15

    In patients with a repaired cleft palate, nasality is typically diagnosed by speech language pathologists. In addition, there are various instruments to objectively diagnose nasalance. To explore the potential of nasalance measurements after cleft palate repair by NasalView(®), we correlated perceptual nasality and instrumentally measured nasalance of eight speech items and determined the relationship between sensitivity and specificity of the nasalance measures by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analyses and AUC (area under the curve) computation for each single test item and specific item groups. We recruited patients with a primarily repaired cleft palate receiving speech therapy during follow-up. During a single day visit, perceptive and instrumental assessments were obtained in 36 patients and analyzed. The individual perceptual nasality was assigned to one of four categories; the corresponding instrumental nasalance measures for the eight specific speech items were expressed on a metric scale (1-100). With reference to the perceptual diagnoses, we observed 3 nasal and one oral test item with high sensitivity. However, the specificity of the nasality indicating measures was rather low. The four best speech items with the highest sensitivity provided scores ranging from 96.43 to 100%, while the averaged sensitivity of all eight items was below 90%. We conclude that perceptive evaluation of nasality remains state of the art. For clinical follow-up, instrumental nasalance assessment can objectively document subtle changes by analysis of four speech items only. Further studies are warranted to determine the applicability of instrumental nasalance measures in the clinical routine, using discriminative items only.

  20. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... for repeated use in humans. 4. The nasal lavage technique adopted allowed the return of 99.2% (median value) of the instilled volume. The area irrigated was visualized on a gamma-camera, and was demonstrated to cover an area larger than the area reached by challenge from a pumpspray, i.e. a large part...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  1. [Nasal foreign body in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Salanne, S; Debuisson, C; Maréchal, C; Rekhroukh, H; Grouteau, E

    2009-09-01

    Provide a descriptive analysis of children admitted to a tertiary care pediatric emergency department (PED) for a nasal foreign body (NFB) and describe the current knowledge and management of such accidents. A retrospective study was conducted from January 2003 to May 2008, including all patients aged less than 15 years admitted for a NFB. The data collected were age, sex, geographic origin, time and day of admission, duration in PED, duration of NFB insertion, nostril location, symptoms and clinical signs, prehospital extraction attempts, facial x-ray, extraction mode, referral to an ENT specialist, progression, and complications. For statistical analysis, the data were entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The data were analyzed with StatView 5.1 (SAS Institute) and EpiInfo 6.04fr (VF, ENSP Epiconcept). In the descriptive analysis, the data are presented as mean values with standard deviation, median with extreme values or with 95% confidence intervals where appropriate, unless otherwise indicated. To compare qualitative variables, a chi(2) test (Mantel-Haenszel) was used and the two-tailed Fisher exact test if the expected value was 5 or less. Statistical significance was set at pChildren aged less than 4 years accounted for 71% of the studied population. The mean age was 3.5+/-1.6 years (range, 1.4-13 years). The majority of accidents occurred at home (95%). The length of time spent in the PED was 78+/-57 min. The NFB duration of insertion was unknown in one-quarter of cases, present for less than 4 h in 65% of cases. No symptoms were described in most cases (88%). When symptoms were described, bleeding, pain or nasal discomfort, and foul nasal odor were the principal symptoms. The right nostril was the predominant location (60%). This difference tended to disappear in the group of children aged less than 4 years. Five children had bilateral NFB. Nonorganic compounds accounted for 80% of the NFB: plastic beads or balls (39%), plastic or toy parts (20

  2. Functional nasal morphology of chimaerid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lauren E; Holmes, William M; Ferrando, Sara; Maclaine, James S; Kelsh, Robert N; Ramsey, Andrew; Abel, Richard L; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2013-09-01

    Holocephalans (chimaeras) are a group of marine fishes comprising three families: the Callorhinchidae (callorhinchid fishes), the Rhinochimaeridae (rhinochimaerid fishes) and the Chimaeridae (chimaerid fishes). We have used X-ray microcomputed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to characterise in detail the nasal anatomy of three species of chimaerid fishes: Chimaera monstrosa, C. phantasma and Hydrolagus colliei. We have shown that the nasal chamber of these three species is linked to the external environment by an incurrent channel and to the oral cavity by an excurrent channel via an oral groove. A protrusion of variable morphology is present on the medial wall of the incurrent channel in all three species, but is absent in members of the two other holocephalan families that we inspected. A third nasal channel, the lateral channel, functionally connects the incurrent nostril to the oral cavity, by-passing the nasal chamber. From anatomical reconstructions, we have proposed a model for the circulation of water, and therefore the transport of odorant, in the chimaerid nasal region. In this model, water could flow through the nasal region via the nasal chamber or the lateral channel. In either case, the direction of flow could be reversed. Circulation through the entire nasal region is likely to be driven primarily by the respiratory pump. We have identified several anatomical features that may segregate, distribute, facilitate and regulate flow in the nasal region and have considered the consequences of flow reversal. The non-sensory cilia lining the olfactory sensory channels appear to be mucus-propelling, suggesting that these cilia have a common protective role in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays and chimaeras). The nasal region of chimaerid fishes shows at least two adaptations to a benthic lifestyle, and suggests good olfactory sensitivity, with secondary folding enhancing the hypothetical flat sensory surface area by up to 70%.

  3. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-11-18

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.

  4. The Healthy Infant Nasal Transcriptome: A Benchmark Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Yi; Qiu, Xing; Wang, Lu; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Lofthus, Gerry; Corbett, Anthony; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Grier, Alex; Tesini, Brenda; Gill, Steven R.; Falsey, Ann R.; Caserta, Mary T.; Walsh, Edward E.; Mariani, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Responses by resident cells are likely to play a key role in determining the severity of respiratory disease. However, sampling of the airways poses a significant challenge, particularly in infants and children. Here, we report a reliable method for obtaining nasal epithelial cell RNA from infants for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, and describe baseline expression characteristics in an asymptomatic cohort. Nasal epithelial cells were collected by brushing of the inferior turbinates, and gene expression was interrogated by RNA-seq analysis. Reliable recovery of RNA occurred in the absence of adverse events. We observed high expression of epithelial cell markers and similarity to the transcriptome for intrapulmonary airway epithelial cells. We identified genes displaying low and high expression variability, both inherently, and in response to environmental exposures. The greatest gene expression differences in this asymptomatic cohort were associated with the presence of known pathogenic viruses and/or bacteria. Robust bacteria-associated gene expression patterns were significantly associated with the presence of Moraxella. In summary, we have developed a reliable method for interrogating the infant airway transcriptome by sampling the nasal epithelium. Our data demonstrates both the fidelity and feasibility of our methodology, and describes normal gene expression and variation within a healthy infant cohort. PMID:27658638

  5. The impact of smoking on airflow limitation in subjects with history of asthma and inactive tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Although smoking is the most important and modifiable cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, other risk factors including asthma and tuberculosis (TB are also associated. It is common for COPD patients to have more than one of these risk factors. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of airflow limitation (FEV1/FVC<0.7 according to the risk factors and to investigate their impact and interaction in airflow limitation.From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2012, we analyzed participants over 40 years of age by spirometry, chest radiograph and questionnaire about asthma and smoking history.Of 12,631 participants, 1,548 (12.3% had airflow limitation. The prevalence of airflow limitation in smokers (≥10 pack-year, asthmatics, and those with inactive TB was 23.9%, 32.1%, and 33.6%. The prevalence increased with the number of risk factors: 86.1% had airflow limitation if they had all three risk factors. Impacts of inactive TB and asthma on airflow limitation were equivalent to 47 and 69 pack-years of smoking, respectively. Airflow limitation resulted from lower levels of smoking in those with inactive TB and asthma. A potential interaction between smoking and inactive tuberculosis in the development of airflow limitation was identified (p = 0.054.Asthma and inactive TB lesions increase susceptibility to smoking in the development of airflow limitation. People with these risk factors should be seen as a major target population for anti-smoking campaigns to prevent COPD.

  6. Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor in nasal obstruction in patients with nasal allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Yamashita

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF enhances vascular permeability and that mast cells produce VEGF, suggesting the involvement of VEGF in allergic diseases. In the present study we quantitatively analyzed VEGF in the nasal lavage fluid of patients with nasal allergy. We performed nasal antigen challenge with Japanese cedar pollen antigen in 10 healthy adult volunteers and in 10 cedar pollen IgE-positive patients with nasal allergy. In all patients with nasal allergy, VEGF and histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid reached a peak 30 min after antigen challenge, then returned to prechallenge values 2 h after antigen challenge. In these patients, the histamine level increased three-fold, while the VEGF level increased 10-fold. However, in all healthy adult volunteers, VEGF and histamine levels did not increase. A stronger correlation was noted between the ratio of decreased nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased VEGF levels (R = 0.823; P < 0.001 than between the ratio of nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased histamine levels (R = 0.660; P < 0.01. These results suggest that VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal obstruction in the early phase of nasal allergy as a new factor involved in increasing vascular permeability.

  7. Compressive and tensile mechanical properties of the porcine nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dayeh, Ayman A; Herring, Susan W

    2014-01-03

    The expanding nasal septal cartilage is believed to create a force that powers midfacial growth. In addition, the nasal septum is postulated to act as a mechanical strut that prevents the structural collapse of the face under masticatory loads. Both roles imply that the septum is subject to complex biomechanical loads during growth and mastication. The purpose of this study was to measure the mechanical properties of the nasal septum to determine (1) whether the cartilage is mechanically capable of playing an active role in midfacial growth and in maintaining facial structural integrity and (2) if regional variation in mechanical properties is present that could support any of the postulated loading regimens. Porcine septal samples were loaded along the horizontal or vertical axes in compression and tension, using different loading rates that approximate the in vivo situation. Samples were loaded in random order to predefined strain points (2-10%) and strain was held for 30 or 120 seconds while relaxation stress was measured. Subsequently, samples were loaded until failure. Stiffness, relaxation stress and ultimate stress and strain were recorded. Results showed that the septum was stiffer, stronger and displayed a greater drop in relaxation stress in compression compared to tension. Under compression, the septum displayed non-linear behavior with greater stiffness and stress relaxation under faster loading rates and higher strain levels. Under tension, stiffness was not affected by strain level. Although regional variation was present, it did not strongly support any of the suggested loading patterns. Overall, results suggest that the septum might be mechanically capable of playing an active role in midfacial growth as evidenced by increased compressive residual stress with decreased loading rates. However, the low stiffness of the septum compared to surrounding bone does not support a strut role. The relatively low stiffness combined with high stress relaxation

  8. Anatomy of nasal complex in the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis (Cetacea, Mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Mónica R; Fernández, Marta S; Fordyce, R Ewan; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2015-01-01

    The nasal region of the skull has undergone dramatic changes during the course of cetacean evolution. In particular, mysticetes (baleen whales) conserve the nasal mammalian pattern associated with the secondary function of olfaction, and lack the sound-producing specializations present in odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises). To improve our understanding of the morphology of the nasal region of mysticetes, we investigate the nasal anatomy, osteology and myology of the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis, and make comparisons with other mysticetes. In E. australis external deflection surfaces around the blowholes appear to divert water off the head, and differ in appearance from those observed in balaenopterids, eschrichtiids and cetotherids. In E. australis the blowholes are placed above hypertrophied nasal soft tissues formed by fat and nasal muscles, a pattern also observed in balaenopterids (rorqual mysticetes) and a cetotherid (pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata). Blowhole movements are due to the action of five nasofacial muscles: dilator naris superficialis, dilator naris profundus, depressor alae nasi, constrictor naris, and retractor alae nasi. The dilator naris profundus found in E. australis has not been previously reported in balaenopterids. The other nasofacial muscles have a similar arrangement in balaenopterids, with minor differences. A novel structure, not reported previously in any mysticete, is the presence of a vascular tissue (rete mirabile) covering the lower nasal passage. This vascular tissue could play a role in warming inspired air, or may engorge to accommodate loss of respiratory space volume due to gas compression from increased pressure during diving.

  9. Numerical study on the air conditioning characteristics of the human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Woon; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Na, Yang

    2017-07-01

    The air-conditioning characteristics of the human nasal cavity were investigated using computational fluid dynamics. The wall layer was modeled as a heat conducting layer consisting of water with constant thickness placed on top of epithelial cells. By assuming constant tissue temperature, prescribed to be 36 (°)C, which is close to the alveolar condition, the proposed wall model yielded a spatially varying surface temperature distribution that is in reasonable agreement with the measurement studies in the literature. The results show that the regions of the main airway between the nasal valve, and the anterior of the middle turbinate were shown to have relatively low temperatures, whereas the superior meatus exhibited relatively high temperature. Water vapor flux evaluated at the surface of the mucus layer was found to be quite large in the region between the posterior of the vestibule and the anterior of the middle turbinate. Comparing the results obtained from the present model to those obtained with a constant surface temperature boundary condition of 32.6 °C or 34 °C revealed that temperature, and absolute humidity of the airflow increased faster through the turbinated airway passage. Even in the presence of sizable differences in the distributions of surface temperature and water vapor concentration, distributions of relative humidity of the air were found to be quite similar regardless of temperature boundary conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between the number of natural teeth and airflow obstruction: a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SW

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sei Won Kim,1 Kyungdo Han,2 Shin Young Kim,3 Chan Kwon Park,3 Chin Kook Rhee,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2Department of Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Potential associations between oral health and respiratory disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, have been suggested in several studies. Among the indicators reflecting oral health, the number of natural teeth is an integrated and simple index to assess in the clinic. In this study, we examined the relationship between the number of natural teeth and airflow obstruction, which is a central feature of COPD.Methods: A total of 3,089 participants over 40 years, who underwent reliable spirometry and oral health assessments were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012, a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey. Spirometry results were classified as normal, restrictive, or obstructive pattern. Total number and pairs of natural teeth were counted after excluding third molars.Results: After adjusting for other variables, such as age, body mass index, socioeconomic factors, and oral health factors, the group with airflow obstruction showed significantly fewer natural teeth than the other groups in males (P=0.014 and 0.008 for total number and total pairs of natural teeth, respectively. Compared with participants with full dentition, the adjusted odds ratio for airflow obstruction in males with fewer than 20 natural teeth was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.06–8.49 and with fewer than 10 pairs of natural teeth was 4.74 (95% confidence interval: 2.34–9.62. However, there

  11. Endoscopic removal of nasal septum chondrosarcoma in paediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasri Abu Bakar

    2014-07-01

    We report a boy with progressive history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Nasal endoscopy revealed a mass arising from nasal septum. Endoscopic excision of the tumour was successfully done followed by radiotherapy. Endoscopic excision of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum in its early stage should be considered for better outcome.

  12. Analytical Challenges and Regulatory Requirements for Nasal Drug Products in Europe and the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Trows

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery can be assessed by a variety of means and regulatory agencies, e.g., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA have published a set of guidelines and regulations proposing in vitro test methods for the characterization of nasal drug products. This article gives a summary of the FDA and EMA requirements regarding the determination of droplet size distribution (DSD, plume geometry, spray pattern and shot weights of solution nasal sprays and discusses the analytical challenges that can occur when performing these measurements. In order to support findings from the literature, studies were performed using a standard nasal spray pump and aqueous model formulations. The aim was to identify possible method-, device- and formulation-dependent influencing factors. The literature review, as well as the results from the studies show that DSD, plume geometry and spray pattern are influenced by, e.g., the viscosity of the solution, the design of the device and the actuation parameters, particularly the stroke length, actuation velocity and actuation force. The dominant factor influencing shot weights, however, is the adjustment of the actuation parameters, especially stroke length and actuation velocity. Consequently, for routine measurements assuring, e.g., the quality of a solution nasal spray or, for in vitro bioequivalence studies, the critical parameters, have to be identified and considered in method development in order to obtain reproducible and reliable results.

  13. Nasal obstruction and smell impairment in nasal polyp disease: correlation between objective and subjective parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hox, V; Bobic, S; Callebaux, I; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P W

    2010-12-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their sinonasal symptoms on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and questionnaires (SNOT-22 and SF-36). Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement, Sniffinatm Sticks (SS) smell test, blood analysis for eosinophilia, total IgE and culture for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were performed. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated with the SNOT-22 and SF-36 scores, which was not observed for VAS of other symptoms. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated well with PNIF values as well as VAS scores for smell dysfunction and SS results (both psmell reduction (psmell reduction in NP disease. Nasal blockage is the only symptom that correlates well with NP size and SNOT-22 scores, whereas smell reduction correlates with blood eosinophilia.

  14. Turbulent airflow meter for long-term monitoring in patient-ventilator circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S E; Shore, J H; Barnes, C W; Lindauer, J; Osborn, J J

    1977-03-01

    A new type of flowmeter is described which operates on the principle that pressure drop (deltaP) produced by turbulent volume flow (V) through a simple resistance chamber obeys a relation of V = K (deltaP)0.50. Data are given showing that the device follows a true power law with a single exponent for airflows ranging from 3.5 to 270 l/min. Standard instrumentation and a linearization circuit are used with the new flowmeter to provide linear steady-state and alternating airflow measurements up to peak rates of 150 l/min and frequency to 15 Hz. Data are presented comparing integrated airflow readings from the new turbulent flowmeter and a laminar-type flowmeter. The turbulent airflow meter appears to offer increased reliability for long-term patient monitoring use in patient-ventilator circuits.

  15. Effect of Local Nasal Immunotherapy on Nasal Blockage in Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nabe

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Local nasal immunotherapy may be clinically useful for allergic nasal blockage associated with nasal hyperresponsiveness. The mechanisms responsible for this effectiveness might not be related to IgE production. Additionally, the effectiveness for nasal tissue was dissociated from that seen for the ocular tissue.

  16. Effect of near-wall treatments on airflow simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gharbi, Najla El; Benzaoui, Ahmed; Amara, E H

    2010-01-01

    Airflow simulation results depend on a good prediction of near wall turbulence. In this paper a comparative study between different near wall treatments is presented. It is applied to two test cases: (1) the first concerns the fully developed plane channel flow (i.e. the flow between two infinitely large plates). Simulation results are compared to direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of Moser et al. (1999) for $Re\\tau$ = 590 (where $Re\\tau$ denotes the friction Reynolds number defined by friction velocity $u\\tau$, kinematics viscosity $v$ and the channel half-width $\\delta$); (2) the second case is a benchmark test for room air distribution (Nielsen, 1990). Simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with laser-doppler anemometry. Simulations were performed with the aid of the commercial CFD code Fluent (2005). Near wall treatments available in Fluent were tested: Standard Wall Functions, Non Equilibrium Wall Function and Enhanced Wall Treatment. In each case, suitable meshes with adequate...

  17. Airflow obstruction: is it asthma or is it COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogliani P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Ermanno Puxeddu, Mario Cazzola Department of Systems Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: Despite the availability of guideline recommendations, diagnostic confusion between COPD and asthma appears common, and often it is very difficult to decide whether the obstruction is caused by asthma or COPD in a patient with airway obstruction. However, there are well-defined features that help in differentiating asthma from COPD in the presence of fixed airflow obstruction. Nonetheless, the presentations of asthma and COPD can converge and mimic each other, making it difficult to give these patients a diagnosis of either condition. The association of asthma and COPD in the same patient has been designated mixed asthma–COPD phenotype or overlap syndrome. However, since the absence of a clear definition and the inclusion of patients with different characteristics under this umbrella term, it may not facilitate treatment decisions, especially in the absence of clinical trials addressing this heterogeneous population. We are realizing that neither asthma nor COPD are single diseases, but rather syndromes consisting of several endotypes and phenotypes, consequently comprising a spectrum of diseases that must be recognized and adequately treated with targeted therapy. Therefore, we must treat patients by personalizing therapy on the basis of those treatable traits present in each subject. Keywords: airway obstruction, asthma, ACOS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  18. Factors affecting distribution of airflow in a human tracheobronchial cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B S; Sussman, R G; Lippmann, M

    1993-09-01

    Air velocity was measured at end airways of hollow replicate casts of the human tracheobronchial tree in order to determine the flow distribution within casts extending to 3 mm diameter airways. Measurements were made by hot-wire anemometry for constant inspiratory flow rates of 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 L.min-1. Average flow distribution among the lung lobes was as follows: right upper, 18.5%; right middle, 9.2%; right lower, 32.3%; left upper, 15.7%; and left lower, 24.3%. An empirical model derived from the experimental flow distribution data demonstrated the effect of various morphometric parameters of the hollow cast on the distribution of airflow. Airway cross-sectional area, branching angle and total path-length were found to have the greatest influence. As the tracheal flow rate decreased from 60 to 7.5 L.min-1, the influence of branching angle was reduced, while total path-length became more influential. These results provide evidence for the transition of flow regimes within the TB tree within normal physiological flow ranges.

  19. Modeling and fabrication of a planar thin film airflow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Richard J.; Tanner, Philip G.; Thiel, David V.

    2001-11-01

    A thin film airflow transducer based on the hot wire anemometer principle was designed using current MEMS modelling & simulation software. Flow sensors are commonly implemented with thermal isolation of the sensor from the bulk substrate mass using methods such as reverse side etching or sacrificial layers, however this paper will present a sensor relying on thermal insulation only. This insulation may be provided by layers of material exhibiting relatively poor thermal conduction characteristics such as silicon dioxide or polyimide, giving rise to a number of advantages such as removing the process of reverse side etching. Limiting fabrication to use of simple processes such as photolithography and sputtering/evaporative deposition also simplifies this design and assists in greatly increasing the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes and materials. A combination of both theoretical computer modelling and physical fabrication and testing has been the approach to this research. Preliminary testing of this design has demonstrated small yet measurable temperature gradients across the device surface during steady state operation. The novel approach to this device is the investigation of pulsed operation, effectively a transient analysis that allows the thermal conduction effects of the bulk mass to be significantly reduced, leading to a significant increase of both efficiency and response time. Electro-thermo-mechanical and computational fluid dynamic analysis of the structure successfully model the thermal conduction, radiation and forced convection effects of the device during and after ohmic heating of the sensor's heating element.

  20. Field investigation on Salixpsammophila plant morphology and airflow structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Wang Zhi; Liu Lianyou; Hasi Eerdon; Sun Bingyan; Tang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The field investigation was undertaken to determin the characteristics of Salix psammophila plant morphdogy and airflow structure of single-line S.psammophila on the southern edge of the Mu Su sandland.The results showed that artificially cultivated single-line S.psammophila could accumulate sand because the plant decreased the windward and leeward wind velocity.There was a significant correlation (R = 0.696) between accumulated sand volume (V2) and plant volume (V1).The wind velocity was 6 m/s at a 4 m height of single-line S.psammophilahedge row.The wind velocity decreased at 3 H windward and increased at 2 H to windward.The wind velocity then steeply decreased to leeward and reached its lowest value at 1 H to leeward and gradually recovered to the open field velocity.The protection distance of the single-line S.psammophila was about 17 H' and the effective protection distance was aboui 13 H'.Single-line S.psammophila had few effects on the wind velocity when the wind was above the plant height.

  1. Bioinspired carbon nanotube fuzzy fiber hair sensor for air-flow detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Ehlert, Gregory J; Dickinson, Benjamin T; Phillips, David M; Ray, Cody W; Reich, Greg W; Baur, Jeffery W

    2014-05-28

    Artificial hair sensors consisting of a piezoresistive carbon-nanotube-coated glass fiber embedded in a microcapillary are assembled and characterized. Individual sensors resemble a hair plug that may be integrated in a wide range of host materials. The sensors demonstrate an air-flow detection threshold of less than 1 m/s with a piezoresistive sensitivity of 1.3% per m/s air-flow change.

  2. Continuous nanofiber yarns twisted through three-dimensional high-speed swirling airflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jian-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to fabricate continuous twisted nanofiber yarns. Nanofibers are bunched by a double conjugate electrospinning, and then twisted through a three-dimensional high-speed swirling airflow. Its principle and process are analyzed theoretically, and the airflow field inside the nozzle chamber is studied numerically, and mechanical properties of nanofiber yarns at different spinning conditions are systematically discussed.

  3. Modeling Airflow Using Subject-Specific 4DCT-Based Deformable Volumetric Lung Models

    OpenAIRE

    Olusegun J. Ilegbusi; Zhiliang Li; Behnaz Seyfi; Yugang Min; Sanford Meeks; Patrick Kupelian; Santhanam, Anand P.

    2012-01-01

    Lung radiotherapy is greatly benefitted when the tumor motion caused by breathing can be modeled. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of using anisotropic and subject-specific tissue elasticity for simulating the airflow inside the lungs. A computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) based approach is presented to simulate airflow inside a subject-specific deformable lung for modeling lung tumor motion and the motion of the surrounding tissues during radiotherapy. A flow-structure inter...

  4. Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of dewatered sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Gu, Wei-Mei; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2010-12-01

    Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the lower one (0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86% (19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial water) with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for evaporation was 60.6-72.6% of the total heat consumption (34,400-45,400kJ). The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ) and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency, sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was higher than lower one.

  5. Nasal Mucociliary Transport Before and After Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Anna; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of nasal mucociliary transport in 11 healthy subjects before and after they jogged 8-10 kilometers indicated that the transport time was significantly longer after jogging than before jogging. (Author/CB)

  6. Radiological changes and complications associated with nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological changes and complications associated with nasal polyposis. *A.().A. Ogunleye and ... polyposis patients seen at the department of Otorhin0- llaryngology of .... Long-standing nasasl polyps can enlarge to such a degree that they ...

  7. Nasal septal teratoma in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Oluwole A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teratoma is a rare developmental neoplasm that arises from totipotential tumor stem cells. Head and neck teratomas constitute about 10% of all cases. Only two cases of mature teratoma of the nasal septum have previously been documented in the world literature. Case presentation We present a case of histologically confirmed mature teratoma arising from the nasal septum in an eighteen month old Nigerian female who presented with a history of noisy breathing associated with recurrent rhinorrhea since birth. Physical examination revealed obstruction of the right nasal cavity by a pale fleshy mass. She underwent a total surgical excision and to date, after thirty one months follow-up, she is free from recurrence. Conclusion The prognosis for benign teratoma of the nasal septum is good following total surgical excision.

  8. Effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, I; Sastre, J; Mullol, J; Montoro, J; Jáuregui, I; Ferrer, M; del Cuvillo, A; Bartra, J; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    H1 antihistamines constitute one of the main references for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Classically, these drugs have been considered effective in controlling sneezing, rhinorrhea and itching, though they have not been regarded as particularly effective in application to nasal obstruction. The most recent studies, involving second-generation H1 antihistamines (desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, rupatadine), have shown these drugs to offer effects upon nasal obstruction significantly superior to those of placebo. The present review examines the effect of bilastine, a new, potent and highly specific H1 antihistamine without sedative effects or cardiac toxicity, upon nasal obstruction. The analysis of the data from the different clinical trials indicates that in patients with allergic rhinitis, the effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction is superior to that of placebo and similar to that of other second-generation H1 antihistamines, manifesting within 24 hours after the start of treatment.

  9. Unilateral nasal pain with migraine features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mónica; Montojo, Teresa; de la Casa, Beatriz; Vela, Lydia; Pareja, Juan A

    2013-09-01

    Migraine attacks exclusively felt in the face are very rare, the pain involving the territories supplied by the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve. Two patients suffering from heminasal pain attacks accompanied with typical migrainous features and responsive to oral or intranasal triptans - but not to intranasal lidocaine or oxymetazoline. In one patient, the attacks could be precipitated upon slight touching on the tip of the nose, in the other attacks were preceded by the nasal sensation typically heralding sneezing. Migraine pain mostly develops within the innervation territory of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve, which includes the nose. Therefore, episodes of unilateral nasal pain with migrainous features could be considered a migraine with unusual topography (nasal migraine). Painful nasal attacks occasionally preceded by stimulation of trigeminal afferents in the nose, could be conceived of as migraine-tic syndrome.

  10. Development of the cetacean nasal skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, M

    1999-01-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to aquatic life habits is reflected, in their nasal region, in three marked changes from the original relations found in land mammals. These changes include (1) the loss of the sense of smell, (2) translocation of the nostrils from the tip of the rostrum to the vertex of the head, and (3) elongation of the anterior head to form a rostrum protruding far towards anterior. The morphogenetic processes taking place during embryogenesis of the nasal skull play a decisive part in the development of all these changes. The lateral parts of the embryonic nasal capsule, encompassing the nasal passages, change their position from horizontal to vertical. At the same time, the structures of the original nasal floor (the solum nasi) are shifted in front of the nasal passages towards the rostrum. The structures of the original nasal roof (the tectum nasi) and of the nasal side wall (the paries nasi) are translocated behind the nasal passages towards the neurocranium. The medial nasal septum (the septum nasi) mostly loses its connection to the nasal passages and is produced into a point protruding far towards anterior. The transformed embryonic nasal skull of the Cetacea can be divided into three sections: 1. The median structures. These include the cartilaginous structures, viz., the rostrum nasi, the septum interorbitale and the spina mesethmoidalis, which are accompanied by the dermal bones, the vomer and the praemaxillare. In adult cetaceans the rostrum nasi is mostly preserved as a robust cartilage of the skull, which may possibly serve as a sound transmitting structure of the sonar system, or it may be responsible for the sensing of water streams and vibrations. 2. The posterior side wall structures. These include the following cartilaginous structures that are mostly heavily reduced or mutually fused: the cupula nasi anterior, the tectum nasi, the lamina cribrosa, the paries nasi, the commissura orbitonasalis, the cupula nasi posterior, the

  11. Local Nasal Specific Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passalacqua Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The possibility of producing local hyposensitization by administering allergens via mucosal routes was envisaged at the beginning of 1900, and local nasal immunotherapy has been extensively studied since the 1970s. Presently, there are 21 randomized controlled trials being conducted with the most common allergens, consistently showing the clinical efficacy of local nasal immunotherapy for rhinitis. Other advantages are that it has an optimal safety profile and can be self-administered at home by the patient. Moreover, there are several data from animal models and from humans that confirm the immunomodulatory effect of intranasally administered antigens. On the other hand, local nasal immunotherapy seems to be effective only on rhinitis symptoms and requires a particular technique of administration. For these reasons, its clinical use is progressively declining in favour of the sublingual route although nasal immunotherapy is validated in official documents and remains a viable alternative to injection.

  12. Primary nasal tuberculosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Ravi C; Al Kaabi, Juma; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2004-03-01

    During the past 2 decades, tuberculosis--both pulmonary and extrapulmonary--has re-emerged as a major health problem worldwide. Nasal tuberculosis--either primary or secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis or facial lupus--is rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal granulomas. We describe a case of primary nasal tuberculosis in an adult male who presented with a polypoid lesion in one nasal cavity. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the patient's successful response to antituberculous drug treatment. Given the rising incidence of tuberculosis, it is prudent that otolaryngologists remain cognizant of this infection as a potential cause of unusual lesions in the head and neck.

  13. Investigation on side-spray fluidized bed granulation with swirling airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Poh Mun; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2013-03-01

    Top-spray fluidized bed granulation with axial fluidization airflow from the bottom of the granulator is well-established in the pharmaceutical industry. The application of swirling airflow for fluidized bed granulation was more recently introduced. This study examined the effects of various process parameters on the granules produced by side-spray fluidized bed with swirling airflow using the central composite and Box-Behnken design of experiment. Influence of the amount of binder solution, spray rate, and distance between spray nozzle and powder bed were initially studied to establish operationally viable values for these parameters. This was followed by an in-depth investigation on the effects of inlet airflow rate, atomizing air pressure and distance between spray nozzle and powder bed on granule properties. It was found that the amount of binder solution had a positive correlation with granule size and percentage of lumps but a negative correlation with size distribution and Hausner ratio of the granules. Binder solution spray rate was also found to affect the granules size. High drug content uniformity was observed in all the batches of granules produced. Both inlet airflow rate and atomizing air pressure were found to correlate negatively with granule size and percentage of lumps but correlate positively with the size distribution of the granule produced. Percentage of fines was found to be significantly affected by inlet airflow rate. Distance between spray nozzle and powder bed generally affected the percentage of lumps.

  14. Airflow adjustment and minimization of the air power of ventilation network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INOUE Masahiro; YANG Wen-yu

    2011-01-01

    It is often required to know which roadway (adjustment roadway) resistances and how much values of the resistances should be changed to make the airflow rates in roadways (target roadways) to certain required values in the practice of mine ventilation.In this case,the airflow rates of the target roadways and the resistances of the roadways other than the adjustment roadways are the given conditions and the resistances of the adjustment roadways are the solutions to be found.No straightforward method to solve the problem has been found up to now.Therefore,trial and error method using the ventilation network analysis program is utilized to solve the problem so far.The method takes long calculation time and the best answer is not necessarily obtained.The authors newly defmed "airflow element" as an element of the ventilation network analysis.The resistances that satisfy the airflow requirements can be calculated straight forwardly by putting the function of the airflow element into the ventilation network analysis.The air power required for the ventilation can be minimized while meeting the airflow requirements by the advanced application of the method.The authors made the computer program fulfill the method.The program was applied to actual ventilation network and it was found that the method is very practical and the time required for the analysis is short.

  15. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  16. Nasal colonization of and clonal transmission of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus among Chinese military volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fen; Cui, Enbo; Guo, Tongsheng; Li, Haijing; Chen, Suming; Liu, Liming; Han, Wang; Bao, Chunmei; Mao, Yuanli; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Military facilities provide unique opportunities for studying Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and transmission patterns. In this cross-sectional observational study, we assessed the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization among Chinese military volunteers in two camps in the Beijing area. Antimicrobial resistance patterns, risk factors for colonization, and transmission patterns using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were also evaluated. From May to July 2007, 1,044 nasal swabs were collected from military volunteers from suburban (560) and urban (484) camps. A total of 209 S. aureus isolates were recovered, of which all were methicillin susceptible. Independent factors associated with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) nasal colonization included younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.03 to 2.21, P = 0.0347), higher education (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.73, P = 0.0056), shorter length of service (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.28 to 2.36, P = 0.0004), nonsmoking (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.14 to 2.28, P = 0.0069), and inactive participation in social events (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.25 to 5.49, P = 0.0082). Among 209 MSSA isolates, 126 (60.3%) were determined to be epidemic and a total of 12 genotypes were identified, of which four (90 isolates [71.4%]) represented the majority of strains. Length of service and camp location were statistically related to the four major MSSA genotype clonal transmissions. Our data indicated that MSSA, not methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), nasal colonization and clonal transmission occur in healthy military volunteers in Beijing. Younger, female, nonsmoking volunteers with higher education, little or no participation in social events, and less time in service are at higher risk for nasal MSSA carriage.

  17. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keck, Tilman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning.

  18. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  19. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, I; Sikder, B.; R. Sinha; Paul, R

    2004-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it’ s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it’ s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  20. [Nasal and pulmonary flora in the goat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Y; Borges, E; Favier, C; Oudar, J

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of bacteriological examinations carried out on 75 intranasal swabs and 80 goat lung punctures, aerobic, aero-anaerobic respiratory microbes and mycoplasma were studied. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was isolated both from nasal flora (37%) and from the lungs (27.5%) as well as Pasteurella spp which accounted respectively for 24% and 12.5%. The nasal flora are characterised by the presence of a Gram-negative strain included in the genus Moraxella and connected with Moraxella bovis species.

  1. Pharmacology of Nasal Medications: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    The author of this article reviews the pharmacology of nasal medication, focusing on the indications and side-effects. The newer group of non-sedating antihistamines proves to be a useful supplement to disodium cromoglycate and the traditional antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The topical steroids (flunisolide and beclomethasone dipropionate) did not produce a significant incidence of adrenal suppression, mucosal atrophy, or nasal candidiasis. The anticholinergic ipatropiu...

  2. Nasal anatomy of the non-mammaliaform cynodont Brasilitherium riograndensis (Eucynodontia, Therapsida) reveals new insight into mammalian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Irina; Maier, Wolfgang; Rodrigues, Pablo G; Schultz, Cesar L

    2014-11-01

    The mammalian nasal cavity is characterized by a unique anatomy with complex internal features. The evolution of turbinals was correlated with endothermic and macrosmatic adaptations in therapsids and in early mammals, which is still apparent in their twofold function (warming and moistening of air, olfaction). Fossil evidence for the transformation from the nonmammalian to the mammalian nasal cavity pattern has been poor and inadequate. Ossification of the cartilaginous nasal capsule and turbinals seems to be a feature that occurred only very late in synapsid evolution but delicate ethmoidal bones are rarely preserved. Here we provide the first µCT investigation of the nasal cavity of the advanced non-mammaliaform cynodont Brasilitherium riograndensis from the Late Triassic of Southern Brazil, a member of the sister-group of mammaliaforms, in order to elucidate a critical anatomical transition in early mammalian evolution. Brasilitherium riograndensis already had at least partially ossified turbinals as remnants of the nasoturbinal and the first ethmoturbinal are preserved. The posterior nasal septum is partly ossified and contributes to a mesethmoid. The nasal cavity is posteriorly expanded and forms a distinctive pars posterior (ethmoidal recess) that is ventrally separated from the nasopharyngeal duct by a distinct lamina terminalis. Thus, our observations clearly demonstrate that principal features of the mammalian nasal cavity were already present in the sister-group of mammaliaforms.

  3. Oral and nasal microbiota in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro A B; Aho, Velma T E; Paulin, Lars; Pekkonen, Eero; Auvinen, Petri; Scheperjans, Filip

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with neuropathological changes in olfactory and gastrointestinal tissues, and PD patients frequently suffer from hyposmia, hyposalivation, and dysphagia. Since hyposmia and gastrointestinal dysfunction are frequently premotor symptoms, it has been speculated that an external, for example microbial, agent could trigger the pathologic process in the corresponding organs, subsequently spreading to the central nervous system. We recently showed evidence for compositional differences between the fecal microbiota of PD patients and control subjects. In this study, our objective was to explore a possible connection between nasal and oral microbiota and PD. We compared the oral and nasal bacterial communities of PD patients (oral: n = 72, nasal: n = 69) and control subjects (oral: n = 76, nasal: n = 67) using a 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach. Oral and nasal microbiota differed markedly from each other, with no notable similarity within subjects. Oral microbiota of PD patients and control subjects had differences in beta diversity and abundances of individual bacterial taxa. An increase in the abundance of opportunistic oral pathogens was detected in males, both with and without PD. Our data did not reveal convincing differences between the nasal microbiota of control subjects and PD patients. The oral microbiome deserves additional research regarding its connection to PD and its biomarker potential. The higher abundance of oral pathogens in men underlines the importance of monitoring and promoting male dental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  5. Patterns of Growth and Decline in Lung Function in Persistent Childhood Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGeachie, Michael J; Yates, Katherine P; Zhou, Xiaobo; Guo, Feng; Sternberg, Alice L; Van Natta, Mark L; Wise, Robert A; Szefler, Stanley J; Sharma, Sunita; Kho, Alvin T; Cho, Michael H; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Castaldi, Peter J; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R; Dekker, Job; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Covar, Ronina A; Zeiger, Robert S; Adkinson, N Franklin; Williams, Paul V; Kelly, H William; Grasemann, Hartmut; Vonk, Judith M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Raby, Benjamin A; Houston, Isaac; Lu, Quan; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L; Tantisira, Kelan G; Silverman, Edwin K; Tonascia, James; Weiss, Scott T; Strunk, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracking longitudinal measurements of growth and decline in lung function in patients with persistent childhood asthma may reveal links between asthma and subsequent chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: We classified children with asthma according to four characteristic patterns of lung

  6. Ventilation imaging of the paranasal sinuses using xenon-enhanced dynamic single-energy CT and dual-energy CT: a feasibility study in a nasal cast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Sven F.; Helck, Andreas D.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C. [Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Moeller, Winfried; Eickelberg, Oliver [Institute for Lung Biology and Disease (iLBD) and Comprehensive Pneumology Center (CPC), Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg, Munich (Germany); Becker, Sven [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Schuschnig, Uwe [Pari Pharma GmbH, Graefelfing (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    To show the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) and dynamic CT for ventilation imaging of the paranasal sinuses in a nasal cast. In a first trial, xenon gas was administered to a nasal cast with a laminar flow of 7 L/min. Dynamic CT acquisitions of the nasal cavity and the sinuses were performed. This procedure was repeated with pulsating xenon flow. Local xenon concentrations in the different compartments of the model were determined on the basis of the enhancement levels. In a second trial, DECT measurements were performed both during laminar and pulsating xenon administration and the xenon concentrations were quantified directly. Neither with dynamic CT nor DECT could xenon-related enhancement be detected in the sinuses during laminar airflow. Using pulsating flow, dynamic imaging showed a xenon wash-in and wash-out in the sinuses that followed a mono-exponential function with time constants of a few seconds. Accordingly, DECT revealed xenon enhancement in the sinuses only after pulsating xenon administration. The feasibility of xenon-enhanced DECT for ventilation imaging was proven in a nasal cast. The superiority of pulsating gas flow for the administration of gas or aerosolised drugs to the paranasal sinuses was demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. Nasal carriage and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children in Ujjain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Marothi, Yogyata; Iyer, Rama V; Singh, Binita; Sharma, Megha; Eriksson, Bo; Macaden, Ragini; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2010-12-29

    There is increasing evidence that community acquired S. aureus infections are spreading among healthy children. Nasal colonization with S. aureus plays pivotal role in the increasing prevalence of resistant community acquired S. aureus infections worldwide. A regular surveillance system is important in ensuring quality of patient care. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of and the factors associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern among healthy children in Ujjain, India. A prospective study was done in paediatric outpatient clinics of R.D. Gardi medical college Ujjain, India. Healthy children from 1 month to 59 months of age were included. Information on previously known risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were collected and transported in Amies transport media with charcoal and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Of the 1,562 children from 1-month up-to five years of age included in the study 98 children tested positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus was 6.3% (95% CI 5.1-7.5) out of which 16.3% (95% CI 8.9-23.8) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The factors associated with nasal carriage were "child attending preschool" (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.25-8.03; P = 0.007) or "school" (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.27-7.18; P relatively low rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus in children below five years when compared to children of older age groups in India. Yet, prevalence of MRSA was relatively high.

  8. Testing limits to airflow perturbation device (APD measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshidi Shaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Airflow Perturbation Device (APD is a lightweight, portable device that can be used to measure total respiratory resistance as well as inhalation and exhalation resistances. There is a need to determine limits to the accuracy of APD measurements for different conditions likely to occur: leaks around the mouthpiece, use of an oronasal mask, and the addition of resistance in the respiratory system. Also, there is a need for resistance measurements in patients who are ventilated. Method Ten subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 were tested for each station in the experiment. The first station involved testing the effects of leaks of known sizes on APD measurements. The second station tested the use of an oronasal mask used in conjunction with the APD during nose and mouth breathing. The third station tested the effects of two different resistances added in series with the APD mouthpiece. The fourth station tested the usage of a flexible ventilator tube in conjunction with the APD. Results All leaks reduced APD resistance measurement values. Leaks represented by two 3.2 mm diameter tubes reduced measured resistance by about 10% (4.2 cmH2O·sec/L for control and 3.9 cm H2O·sec/L for the leak. This was not statistically significant. Larger leaks given by 4.8 and 6.4 mm tubes reduced measurements significantly (3.4 and 3.0 cm cmH2O·sec/L, respectively. Mouth resistance measured with a cardboard mouthpiece gave an APD measurement of 4.2 cm H2O·sec/L and mouth resistance measured with an oronasal mask was 4.5 cm H2O·sec/L; the two were not significantly different. Nose resistance measured with the oronasal mask was 7.6 cm H2O·sec/L. Adding airflow resistances of 1.12 and 2.10 cm H2O·sec/L to the breathing circuit between the mouth and APD yielded respiratory resistance values higher than the control by 0.7 and 2.0 cm H2O·sec/L. Although breathing through a 52 cm length of flexible ventilator tubing reduced the APD

  9. Relationship between lightning activity and vertical airflow characteristics in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Liping

    2017-07-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data, wind field data derived from dual-Doppler radars, and radar reflectivity data are combined to investigate the relationships between CG lightning and the parameters associated with vertical airflow. A new method for the identification of thunderstorm cells based on the aggregation of flashes is developed. It is found that approximately 79.1% of CG flashes are located in the region featuring weak vertical velocity at the 0 °C level, ranging from - 5 to 5 m s- 1, with the majority in the weak updraft region, especially for negative CG lightning and the CG lightning in the initial stage of thunderstorms. The CG lightning rate is correlated with the volume of updraft for vertical velocities within certain limits. The sum of absolute precipitation ice mass flux in the region from 7 to 11 km is more significantly correlated with the CG flash rate, with correlation coefficients of 0.73, 0.71, and 0.74 for the initial, mature, and dissipating stages of thunderstorms, respectively. On average, the updraft in the thunderstorm at the stage when the last CG flash occurs accounts for a much smaller ratio to the whole volume of the thunderstorm than that corresponding to the first CG flash. The maximum updraft and maximum height of the 10 and 20 m s- 1 updraft speeds are close for the first and last CG flashes, indicating the dependence of the lightning on strength of updraft. It is deduced that layered large-range charges may be more conducive to the generation of CG flashes than charge pockets in the thunderstorm.

  10. Rain-induced subsurface airflow and Lisse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H.; Jiao, J.J.; Weeks, E.P.

    2008-01-01

    Water-level increase after rainfall is usually indicative of rainfall recharge to groundwater. This, however, may not be true if the Lisse effect occurs. This effect represents the water-level increase in a well driven by airflow induced by an advancing wetting front during highly intensive rains. The rainwater, which may behave like a low-permeability lid, seals the ground surface so that the air pressure beneath the wetting front is increased because of air compression due to downward movement of the wetting front. A rapid and substantial rise of the water level in the well screened below water table, which bears no relationship to groundwater recharge, can be induced when various factors such as soil properties and the rain-runoff condition combine favorably. A transient, three-dimensional and variably saturated flow model was employed to study the air and groundwater flows in the soil under rain conditions. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to evaluate the reliability of the theory of the Lisse effect presented by Weeks to predict its magnitude in modeled situations that mimic the physical complexity of real aquifers, and to conduct parametric studies on the sensitivity of the water-level rise in the well to soil properties and the rain event. The simulation results reveal that the magnitude of the Lisse effect increases with the ponding depth. Soil permeability plays a key role in generating the Lisse effect. The water-level rise in the well is delayed relative to the air-pressure rise in the unsaturated zone when the soil permeability is low, and the maximum water-level rise is less than the maximum air pressure induced by rain infiltration. The simulation also explores the sensitivity of the Lisse effect to the van Genuchten parameters and the water table depth. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Correlations of nasal responses to leukotriene D4 and histamine nasal provocation with quality of life in allergic rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Xia, Shu; Shi, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) greatly affect the quality of life (QoL) in the patients with AR. The correlations of nasal response to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and histamine nasal provocation with health related QoL in AR are not clear. Objective To evaluate the correlations of nasal response to LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge with QoL in AR. Methods Patients randomly underwent LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge tests, completed the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQoLQ), and rating the symptom severity score (total symptom score 4, TSS4) in the previous week. The correlations between nasal challenge tests induced nasal responses and QoL in RQoLQ were analyzed. Results A total of 25 eligible AR patients enrolled and finished both LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge and completed the questionnaire of RQoLQ. Histamine nasal challenge induced sneezing, increased nasal resistant were correlated with most of the dimensions (general, practical, nasal, eye problems, and quality of sleep, p < 0.05), while LTD4 nasal challenge induced sneeze, increased nasal resistant only correlated with nasal and ocular problems. On the contrary, the severity of the sneeze assessed by TSS4, was not correlated with QoL, while the severity of rhinorrhea, congestion, and nasal pruritus were correlated with nasal and practical problems, and nasal congestion was also correlated with ocular problems (r = 0.60, p = 0.01). Conclusion LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge induced nasal responses were correlated with different clinical symptoms severity and QoL, which can be used as a good diagnosis and evaluation methods for the management of AR.

  12. Nasal meatus plasty: a contribution to plastic reconstruction of the nasal valve during midfacial degloving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz, Kai J.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Midfacial degloving is a proven method for easily accessing the midface, the nasal pyramid, the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses, the orbits, as well as the anterior skull base. Indications for this method of access mainly include tumour resections in the area of the midface, the septum, the maxillary sinus, the paranasal to the sphenoidal sinus as well as the clivus. In addition, this method of access allows for the exposure of the bony structures of the midface in the event of extensive fractures.In general, this method of access combines an incision in the oral vestibule and circular incisions in the nasal vestibule area in order to release the nasal pyramid.After removing the facial wall of the maxillary sinus, extensive exposure of the surgical site is possible.One disadvantage of this method of access is the difficult reconstruction of the nasal valve area, which often leads to cicatricial stenoses and difficulties with breathing through the nose. Furthermore, wound healing problems and osteoradionecrosis in the area of the lateral margin of the anterior nasal aperture after replantation of the facial wall of the maxillary sinus have been described, because in this area sufficient soft tissue coverage cannot be ensured when a conventional technique is used.We describe a soft tissue flap pedicled in the cranial and caudal directions in the nasal valve area which makes both the reconstruction of the nasal vestibule and sufficient soft tissue coverage of the anterior nasal aperture possible.

  13. Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroids derived from human nasal airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Stevens, Elizabeth Munkebjerg; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional explant spheroid formation is an ex vivo technique previously used in studies of airway epithelial ion and water transport. Explanted cells and sheets of nasal epithelium form fully differentiated spheroids enclosing a partly fluid-filled lumen with the ciliated apical....... Nasal ciliary cells and sheets were removed on day 1 by nasal brush biopsy and analyzed with regard to ciliary beat pattern-and frequency using high-speed video imaging for standard reference values. Three-dimensional explant spheroid formation was initiated in the same individual on the same day...... was successful in 15 out of 18 (82%) sampled individuals. Thus, formation was successful in seven healthy controls and eight PCD patients, while unsuccessful in 3 with PCD due to infection. Median (range) number of days in culture before harvesting of spheroids was 4 (1-5) in healthy versus 2 (1-5) in PCD...

  14. Structural variation in the nasal bone region of European moose (Alces alces L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygrén, K; Paatsama, S; de Gritz, B

    1990-01-01

    The ontogeny of typical (normal) nasal bone region of the European moose (Alces alces L.) and the 3 variants of the pattern, was studied. The variants, named as "extra bone type", "punctured type" and "open type" referring the morphology of the internasal suture, were originally observed in Finnish male and female moose skulls in 1971. All of the variants were later found in hunting trophy exhibitions presenting male moose trophies from Sweden, Norway, Baltic Republics of USSR and Poland. The frequencies of the variants showed regional differences. By using histological, radiological and OTC bone labelling methods, all of the nasal bone types were observed in this study in embryonal (N = 36), newborn (N = 21), juvenile (N = 38) and adult (N = 12) moose. Two twin embryos showed different nasal bone structure. The variation is considered to be of congenital origin.

  15. Subcutaneous Cavernous Hemangioma in the Nasal Dorsum: Report of Case Treated with Endoscopic Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socher, Jan Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hemangiomas are vascular malformations, with slow blood flow, that can occur in any part on the body. They are more common in women and, predominantly, are isolated lesions. The malformation does not spontaneously regress. Subcutaneous hemangioma is a rare variant with an aggressive growth pattern that sometimes recurs after excision. Objective Case report of a subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma in the nasal dorsum treated with endoscopic rhinoplasty. Case Report A 27-year-old woman had a fibroelastic tumor mass in the midline of the nasal dorsum, which was pulsatile; she had obstruction and nasal congestion with associated rhinorrhea, with evolution and worsening over the previous 2 years. Computed tomography showed a tumor demarcated in the nasal dorsum without evidence of intracranial communication. Endoscopic rhinoplasty with septoplasty and associated paranasal sinus sinusectomy was performed without arteriography embolization, sclerotherapy, or laser. Pathologic diagnosis showed cavernous hemangioma. Postoperative follow-up shows no recurrence at 3 years. Discussion This case presented with atypical features, thus making the diagnosis a challenge. Imaging studies were required to confirm the vascular nature of the tumor. Excisional biopsy is the procedure of choice for pathologic examination. Subcutaneous hemangiomas never involute and always need treatment. The surgical approach is exceptional because there was no preoperative diagnosis. In addition, the closed technique provided best aesthetic results in this case. Conclusion Endoscopic rhinoplasty is suitable for nasal dorsum tumor resection and has superior aesthetic result to open techniques.

  16. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  17. The characteristics of sea fog with different airflow over the Huanghai Sea in boreal spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; WANG Xin; ZHOU Wen; HUANG Huijun; WANG Dongxiao; ZHOU Faxiu

    2010-01-01

    Using the observations from ICOADS datasets and contemporaneous NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets during 1960-2002, the study classifies the airflows in favor of sea fog over the Huang-hai (Yellow) Sea in boreal spring (April-May) with the method of trajectory analysis, and analyzes the changes of proportions of warm and cold sea fogs along different paths of airflow. According to the heat balance equation, we investigate the relationships between the marine meteorological conditions and the proportion of warm and cold sea fog along different airflow paths. The major results are summarized as follows. (1) Sea fogs over the Huanghai Sea in spring are not only warm fog but also cold fog. The proportion of warm fog only accounts for 44% in April, while increases as high as 57% in May. (2) Four primary airflow paths leading to spring sea fog are identified. They are originated from the northwest, east, southeast and southwest of the Huanghai Sea, respectively. The occurrence ratios of the warm sea fog along the east and southeast airflow paths are high of 55% and 70%, while these along the southwest and northwest airflow paths are merely 17.9% and 50%. (3) The key physical processes governing the warm/cold sea fog are heat advection transport, longwave radiation cooling at fog top, solar shortwave warming and latent heat flux between air-sea interfaces. (4) The characteristics of sea fog along the four airflow paths relate closely to the conditions of water vapor advection, and the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  18. Airflow Measurement of the Car HVAC Unit Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal environment in a vehicular cabin significantly influence drivers’ fatigue and passengers’ thermal comfort. This environment is traditionally managed by HVAC cabin system that distributes air and modifies its properties. In order to simulate cabin thermal behaviour, amount of the air led through car vents must be determined. The aim of this study was to develop methodology to measure airflow from the vents, and consequently calculate corresponding air distribution coefficients. Three climatic cases were selected to match European winter, summer, and spring / fall conditions. Experiments were conducted on a test vehicle in a climatic chamber. The car HVAC system was set to automatic control mode, and the measurements were executed after the system stabilisation—each case was independently measured three times. To be able to evaluate precision of the method, the airflow was determined at the system inlet (HVAC suction and outlet (each vent, and the total airflow values were compared. The airflow was calculated by determining a mean value of the air velocity multiplied by an area of inlet / outlet cross-section. Hot-wire anemometry was involved to measure the air velocity. Regarding the summer case, total airflow entering the cabin was around 57 l s-1 with 60 % of the air entering the cabin through dashboard vents; no air was supplied to the feet compartment. The remaining cases had the same total airflow of around 42 l s-1, and the air distribution was focused mainly on feet and windows. The inlet and outlet airflow values show a good match with a maximum mass differential of 8.3 %.

  19. Airflow Measurement of the Car HVAC Unit Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Planka, Michal; Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    Thermal environment in a vehicular cabin significantly influence drivers' fatigue and passengers' thermal comfort. This environment is traditionally managed by HVAC cabin system that distributes air and modifies its properties. In order to simulate cabin thermal behaviour, amount of the air led through car vents must be determined. The aim of this study was to develop methodology to measure airflow from the vents, and consequently calculate corresponding air distribution coefficients. Three climatic cases were selected to match European winter, summer, and spring / fall conditions. Experiments were conducted on a test vehicle in a climatic chamber. The car HVAC system was set to automatic control mode, and the measurements were executed after the system stabilisation—each case was independently measured three times. To be able to evaluate precision of the method, the airflow was determined at the system inlet (HVAC suction) and outlet (each vent), and the total airflow values were compared. The airflow was calculated by determining a mean value of the air velocity multiplied by an area of inlet / outlet cross-section. Hot-wire anemometry was involved to measure the air velocity. Regarding the summer case, total airflow entering the cabin was around 57 l s-1 with 60 % of the air entering the cabin through dashboard vents; no air was supplied to the feet compartment. The remaining cases had the same total airflow of around 42 l s-1, and the air distribution was focused mainly on feet and windows. The inlet and outlet airflow values show a good match with a maximum mass differential of 8.3 %.

  20. Airflow limitations in pregnant women suspected of sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjeily, Ghada; Fung, Jennifer Y; Sharkey, Katherine M; Walia, Palak; Kao, Mary; Moore, Robin; Martin, Susan; Raker, Christina A; Millman, Richard P

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy physiology may predispose women to the development of airflow limitations during sleep. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether pregnant women suspected of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are more likely to have airflow limitations compared to non-pregnant controls. We recruited pregnant women referred for polysomnography for a diagnosis of SDB. Non-pregnant female controls matched for age, body mass index (BMI), and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) were identified from a database. We examined airflow tracings for changes in amplitude and shape. We classified airflow limitation by (a) amplitude criteria defined as decreased airflow of > or =10 s without desaturation or arousal (FL 10), or decreased airflow of any duration combined with either 1-2% desaturation or arousal, (FL 1-2%); and (b) shape criteria defined as the presence of flattening or oscillations of the inspiratory flow curve. We identified 25 case-control pairs. Mean BMI was 44.0±6.9 in cases and 44.1±7.3 in controls. Using shape criteria, pregnant women had significantly more flow-limited breaths throughout total sleep time (32.4±35.8 vs. 9.4±17.9, ppregnant controls. In a subgroup analysis, pregnant women without a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) who had an AHI pregnant women and controls (p=0.22). Pregnant women suspected of OSA have more frequent shape-defined airflow limitations than non-pregnant controls, even when they do not meet polysomnographic OSA criteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of synoptic airflow on UK daily precipitation extremes. Part II: regional climate model and E-OBS data validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraun, Douglas [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105, Kiel (Germany); Osborn, Timothy J. [School of Environmental Sciences, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom); Rust, Henning W. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Meteorologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    We investigate how well the variability of extreme daily precipitation events across the United Kingdom is represented in a set of regional climate models and the E-OBS gridded data set. Instead of simply evaluating the climatologies of extreme precipitation measures, we develop an approach to validate the representation of physical mechanisms controlling extreme precipitation variability. In part I of this study we applied a statistical model to investigate the influence of the synoptic scale atmospheric circulation on extreme precipitation using observational rain gauge data. More specifically, airflow strength, direction and vorticity are used as predictors for the parameters of the generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution of local precipitation extremes. Here we employ this statistical model for our validation study. In a first step, the statistical model is calibrated against a gridded precipitation data set provided by the UK Met Office. In a second step, the same statistical model is calibrated against 14 ERA40 driven 25 km resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project and the E-OBS gridded data set. Validation indices describing relevant physical mechanisms are derived from the statistical models for observations and RCMs and are compared using pattern standard deviation, pattern correlation and centered pattern root mean squared error as validation measures. The results for the different RCMs and E-OBS are visualised using Taylor diagrams. We show that the RCMs adequately simulate moderately extreme precipitation and the influence of airflow strength and vorticity on precipitation extremes, but show deficits in representing the influence of airflow direction. Also very rare extremes are misrepresented, but this result is afflicted with a high uncertainty. E-OBS shows considerable biases, in particular in regions of sparse data. The proposed approach might be used to validate other physical relationships in regional as well as global climate models. (orig.)

  2. Development of a physiologically relevant dripping analytical method using simulated nasal mucus for nasal spray formulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Masiuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for nasal spray formulations have been elementary evaluating the dripping characteristics of a formulation and have not assessed the behavior of the nasal formulation in the presence of varying types of mucus depending on the indication or diseased state. This research investigated the effects of nasal mucus on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and focused on developing an improved in vitro analytical test method that is more physiologically relevant in characterizing nasal formulation dripping behavior. Method development was performed using simulated nasal mucus preparations for both healthy and diseased states as coatings for the dripping experiment representing a wide range of viscosity. Factors evaluated during development of this in vitro test method included amount of mucus, application of mucus, drying times, and compatibility of the mucus on a C18 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC substrate. The dripping behavior of nasal formulations containing a range of 1% Avicel to 3.5% Avicel was assessed by actuating the nasal spray on a perpendicular TLC plate coated with either healthy or diseased simulated nasal mucus. After actuation of the nasal spray, the dripping of the formulation on the coated TLC plate was measured after the plate was repositioned vertically. The method that was developed generated reproducible results on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and provided critical information about the compatibility of the formulation with the nasal mucus for different diseased states, aiding in nasal spray formulation development and physical characterization of the nasal spray.

  3. Development of a physiologically relevant dripping analytical method using simulated nasal mucus for nasal spray formulation analysis$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tina Masiuk n; Parul Kadakia; Zhenyu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for nasal spray formulations have been elementary evaluating the dripping char-acteristics of a formulation and have not assessed the behavior of the nasal formulation in the presence of varying types of mucus depending on the indication or diseased state. This research investigated the effects of nasal mucus on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and focused on developing an improved in vitro analytical test method that is more physiologically relevant in characterizing nasal formulation dripping behavior. Method development was performed using simulated nasal mucus preparations for both healthy and diseased states as coatings for the dripping experiment representing a wide range of viscosity. Factors evaluated during development of this in vitro test method included amount of mucus, application of mucus, drying times, and compatibility of the mucus on a C18 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) substrate. The dripping behavior of nasal formulations containing a range of 1%Avicel to 3.5%Avicel was assessed by actuating the nasal spray on a perpendicular TLC plate coated with either healthy or diseased simulated nasal mucus. After actuation of the nasal spray, the dripping of the formulation on the coated TLC plate was measured after the plate was repositioned vertically. The method that was developed generated reproducible results on the dripping behavior of nasal formula-tions and provided critical information about the compatibility of the formulation with the nasal mucus for different diseased states, aiding in nasal spray formulation development and physical characterization of the nasal spray.

  4. Estudo comparativo do padrão de respiração e a porcentagem de ocupação da nasofaringe pela tonsila faríngea em crianças com ou sem história de infecção pelo HIV A comparative study of the breathing pattern and amount of nasopharynx obstruction by the pharyngeal tonsil in hiv infected and non infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michella Dinah Zastrow

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi estudar a associação entre o padrão de respiração e o tamanho da tonsila faríngea em 122 crianças (60 infectadas pelo HIV e 62 sem infecção. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: As crianças foram analisadas quanto ao padrão de respiração, fluxo nasal e ocupação da tonsila faríngea em radiografias cefalométricas de perfil, através de uma análise computadorizada. RESULTADOS: O padrão de respiração de maior ocorrência nos dois grupos foi o tipo misto. A maioria das crianças apresentou tipo de respiração bucal ou mista, não havendo associação entre o tipo de respiração e presença do HIV (p=0,091. O fluxo nasal mostrou predomínio do fluxo médio nos dois grupos. As crianças sem história de infecção pelo HIV apresentaram fluxo nasal de médio a grande e a maioria das crianças infectadas pelo HIV apresentou de pouco a médio fluxo nasal de ar, havendo uma associação positiva entre o fluxo nasal e a infecção pelo HIV (pAIM: the goal of the present investigation was to study the association between breathing pattern and pharyngeal tonsil size in 122 children (60 HIV infected and 62 without such infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The children were analyzed as to their breathing pattern, nasal flow and pharyngeal tonsil obstruction seen in side cephalometric x-rays, by means of a computerized analysis. RESULTS: The pattern that most occurred in both groups was the mixed type. Most of the children presented oral or mixed type breathing and there was no association between the type of breathing and HIV presence (p=0.091. Nasal flow was mainly medium in both groups. Children without prior history of HIV infection had medium to large nasal flow and most of the HIV-infected children had medium nasal airflow. There was a positive association between nasal flow and HIV infection (p<0.0001. The average percentage of nasopharynx obstruction by the pharyngeal tonsil was high in both groups, and there was

  5. Airflow attenuation and bed net utilization: observations from Africa and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Seidlein Lorenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Methods Qualitative studies suggest that bed nets affect the thermal comfort of users. To understand and reduce this discomfort the effect of bed nets on temperature, humidity, and airflow was measured in rural homes in Asia and Africa, as well as in an experimental wind tunnel. Two investigators with architectural training selected 60 houses in The Gambia, Tanzania, Philippines, and Thailand. Data-loggers were used to measure indoor temperatures in hourly intervals over a 12 months period. In a subgroup of 20 houses airflow, temperature and humidity were measured at five-minute intervals for one night from 21.00 to 6.00 hrs inside and outside of bed nets using sensors and omni-directional thermo-anemometers. An investigator set up a bed net with a mesh size of 220 holes per inch2 in each study household and slept under the bed net to simulate a realistic environment. The attenuation of airflow caused by bed nets of different mesh sizes was also measured in an experimental wind tunnel. Results The highest indoor temperatures (49.0 C were measured in The Gambia. During the hottest months of the year the mean temperature at night (9 pm was between 33.1 C (The Gambia and 26.2 C (Thailand. The bed net attenuated the airflow from a minimum of 27% (Philippines to a maximum of 71% (The Gambia. Overall the bed nets reduced airflow compared to un-attenuated airflow from 9 to 4 cm sec-1 or 52% (p -2 reduced airflow by 55% (mean; range 51 - 73%. A denser net (200 holes inch-2 attenuated airflow by 59% (mean; range 56 - 74%. Discussion Despite concerted efforts to increase the uptake of this intervention in many areas uptake remains poor. Bed nets reduce airflow, but have no influence on temperature and humidity. The discomfort associated with bed nets is likely to be most intolerable during the hottest and most humid period of the year, which frequently coincides with the peak of malaria vector densities and the force

  6. Effects of airflow on the distribution of filaments in atmospheric AC dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhihui; Qi, Haicheng; Liu, Yidi; Yan, Huijie; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) accompanied by airflow has attracted a significant attention for its extensive applications. In this paper, the effects of airflow on the characteristics of the atmospheric air DBD plasma are experimentally investigated using the DBD reactor excited by a 15 kHz AC power source. In order to study the discharge filaments distribution at different flow rates, transparent conductive indium tin oxide film is used as the upper electrode, and quartz glasses are used as insulated dielectrics. Experiment results prove that the breakdown voltage is decreased and more current pulses with declined amplitudes are produced when the airflow is introduced into the discharge gap. It is confirmed that although the discharge seems to be diffuse in the presence of airflow to the naked eyes, the discharge mode remains filamentary in the intensified charge-coupled device images within a single AC cycle. By acquiring the images with a different exposure time, it can be recognized that the discharge filaments move along the flow field direction with a velocity less than the corresponding flow rate. The movement of discharge filaments is attributed to the motion of the charge induced by the airflow.

  7. Airflow attenuation and bed net utilization: observations from Africa and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ikonomidis, Konstantin; Bruun, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Background/Methods Qualitative studies suggest that bed nets affect the thermal comfort of users. To understand and reduce this discomfort the effect of bed nets on temperature, humidity, and airflow was measured in rural homes in Asia and Africa, as well as in an experimental wind tunnel. Two...... of airflow caused by bed nets of different mesh sizes was also measured in an experimental wind tunnel. Results The highest indoor temperatures (49.0 C) were measured in The Gambia. During the hottest months of the year the mean temperature at night (9 pm) was between 33.1 C (The Gambia) and 26.2 C (Thailand...... was detected between the inside and outside of the bed net. Wind tunnel experiments with 11 different mesh-sized bed nets showed an overall reduction in airflow of 64% (range 55 - 71%) compared to un-attenuated airflow. As expected, airflow decreased with increasing net mesh size. Nets with a mesh of 136 holes...

  8. The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Bos, Jelte E; Keshavarz, Behrang

    2017-06-20

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known sensation in virtual environments and simulators, typically characterized by a variety of symptoms such as pallor, sweating, dizziness, fatigue, and/or nausea. Numerous methods to reduce VIMS have been previously introduced; however, a reliable countermeasure is still missing. In the present study, the effect of airflow and seat vibration to alleviate VIMS was investigated. Eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups (airflow, vibration, combined airflow and vibration, and control) and then exposed to a 15 min long video of a bicycle ride shot from first-person view. VIMS was measured using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale (FMS) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Results showed that the exposure of airflow significantly reduced VIMS, whereas the presence of seat vibration, in contrast, did not have an impact on VIMS. Additionally, we found that females reported higher FMS scores than males, however, this sex difference was not found in the SSQ scores. Our findings demonstrate that airflow can be an effective and easy-to-apply technique to reduce VIMS in virtual environments and simulators, while vibration applied to the seat is not a successful method.

  9. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  10. Nasal birth trauma: a review of appropriate treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, E C

    2012-02-01

    The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.

  11. Nanoparticles for nasal delivery of vaccines : monitoring adaptive immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous emergence of new pathogens and growing drug resistance of microorganisms asks for innovative vaccination strategies. An alternative to conventional multiple injection vaccines is the nasal route of vaccine delivery. The immune response induced following nasal antigen delivery depends

  12. PHONETIC EVIDENCE FOR THE NASAL CODA SHIFT IN MANDARIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented phonetic evidence to resolve the transcription disagreement concerning the syllable-final nasal shift in the variety of Mandarin spoken in Taiwan. Although three judges agreed that the rhyme /iŋ/ underwent a sound change, they perceived the nasal coda shift differently. Two of them transcribed it as a modification from /iŋ/ to /in/, whereas the other asserted that the velar nasal disappears with its preceding vowel nasalized. In order to resolve this transcription conflict, this study analyzed the acoustic attributes of the speculative sound alterations in question, including /in/, /iŋ/, /i/ and /ĩ/. The phonetic analysis indicated that the Taiwanese participants did not nasalize the preceding vowel deleting the nasal coda but tended to pronounce the post-vocalic velar nasal as its dental counterpart. This study concluded by discussing the implications of the synchronic variation for the theories of the nasal coda shift in Chinese dialects.

  13. Nasal Birth Trauma: A Review of Appropriate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cashman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.

  14. Condrossarcoma nasal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna Fábio de Rezende

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O condrossarcoma é uma neoplasia maligna proveniente de tecido cartilaginoso, cuja incidência em região de cabeça e pescoço é rara. É mais freqüente em pacientes do sexo masculino, entre a terceira e quarta décadas, e na face localiza-se no seio e osso maxilar, sendo raro no septo nasal. Esse relato descreve o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 13 anos de idade, que apresentava queixa de deformidade facial em região malar direita acompanhada de dores esporádicas. Ao exame físico apresentava um abaulamento de aproximadamente 3 cm de diâmetro em região malar esquerda, não sendo notada nenhuma alteração à rinoscopia anterior. Foram realizadas tomografia computadorizada (TC de seios paranasais, ressonância magnética de face e biópsia da lesão para estudo anatomopatológico, que inicialmente sugeria o diagnóstico de condroma. Após a exérese da massa, a paciente evoluiu com recidiva da lesão em apenas 5 meses. Diante deste fato surpreendente, foi requisitada a revisão da lâmina que evidenciou Condrossarcoma tipo I. Nova cirurgia foi realizada, visando a remoção do tumor, com tratamento radioterápico complementar. Atualmente, a paciente se encontra em acompanhamento ambulatorial, sem queixas álgicas e sem sinas de recidiva. Os condrossarcomas são tumores malignos de crescimento lento, mas localmente agressivos, tendo grande propensão a recidivas. A conduta é preferencialmente cirúrgica, uma vez que são pouco radiossensíveis e a quimioterapia é meramente paliativa. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar um caso de condrossarcoma em seio maxilar, etmóide, esfenóide e septo, discutindo o quadro clínico, diagnóstico, fatores prognósticos e conduta.

  15. Bilateral Nasoalveolar Cyst Causing Nasal Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Yildizoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature.

  16. Bilateral Nasoalveolar Cyst Causing Nasal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Polat, Bahtiyar; Durmaz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature. PMID:27980871

  17. Airflow resistance measurement for a layer of granular material based on the Helmholtz resonance phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizu, Takahisa; Tomatsu, Eiji; Katsuno, Nakako

    2017-04-01

    A Helmholtz resonance technique was employed to predict the airflow resistance of layers of granular materials, namely glass beads, brown rice, soybean, adzuki beans, and corn kernels. Each granular sample was placed on the tube mouth of an open-type Helmholtz resonator. The resonant frequency was determined by measuring the electric impedance of a loudspeaker that was installed in the resonator and driven by a chirp signal linearly sweeping from 90 to 220 Hz for 6.0 s. For a changing sample layer thickness, the resonant frequency was measured, and the specific airflow resistance was calculated by measuring the static pressure drop required for N2 gas to flow through the layer at a constant velocity of 0.042 m/s. When the thickness of the layer was fixed, the Helmholtz resonant frequency decreased as the specific airflow resistance increased, regardless of the kind of granular material.

  18. Qualitative real-time schlieren and shadowgraph imaging of human exhaled airflows: an aid to aerosol infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Julian W; Nicolle, Andre D G; Pantelic, Jovan; Jiang, Mingxiu; Sekhr, Chandra; Cheong, David K W; Tham, Kwok Wai

    2011-01-01

    Using a newly constructed airflow imaging system, airflow patterns were visualized that were associated with common, everyday respiratory activities (e.g. breathing, talking, laughing, whistling). The effectiveness of various interventions (e.g. putting hands and tissues across the mouth and nose) to reduce the potential transmission of airborne infection, whilst coughing and sneezing, were also investigated. From the digital video footage recorded, it was seen that both coughing and sneezing are relatively poorly contained by commonly used configurations of single-handed shielding maneuvers. Only some but not all of the forward momentum of the cough and sneeze puffs are curtailed with various hand techniques, and the remaining momentum is disseminated in a large puff in the immediate vicinity of the cougher, which may still act as a nearby source of infection. The use of a tissue (in this case, 4-ply, opened and ready in the hand) proved to be surprisingly effective, though the effectiveness of this depends on the tissue remaining intact and not ripping apart. Interestingly, the use of a novel 'coughcatcher' device appears to be relatively effective in containing coughs and sneezes. One aspect that became evident during the experimental procedures was that the effectiveness of all of these barrier interventions is very much dependent on the speed with which the user can put them into position to cover the mouth and nose effectively.From these qualitative schlieren and shadowgraph imaging experiments, it is clear that making some effort to contain one's cough or sneeze puffs is worthwhile. Obviously, there will be a large amount of variation between individuals in the exact hand or tissue (the most common methods) configuration used for this and other practical factors may hinder such maneuvers in daily life, for example, when carrying shopping bags or managing young children.

  19. Qualitative real-time schlieren and shadowgraph imaging of human exhaled airflows: an aid to aerosol infection control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian W Tang

    Full Text Available Using a newly constructed airflow imaging system, airflow patterns were visualized that were associated with common, everyday respiratory activities (e.g. breathing, talking, laughing, whistling. The effectiveness of various interventions (e.g. putting hands and tissues across the mouth and nose to reduce the potential transmission of airborne infection, whilst coughing and sneezing, were also investigated. From the digital video footage recorded, it was seen that both coughing and sneezing are relatively poorly contained by commonly used configurations of single-handed shielding maneuvers. Only some but not all of the forward momentum of the cough and sneeze puffs are curtailed with various hand techniques, and the remaining momentum is disseminated in a large puff in the immediate vicinity of the cougher, which may still act as a nearby source of infection. The use of a tissue (in this case, 4-ply, opened and ready in the hand proved to be surprisingly effective, though the effectiveness of this depends on the tissue remaining intact and not ripping apart. Interestingly, the use of a novel 'coughcatcher' device appears to be relatively effective in containing coughs and sneezes. One aspect that became evident during the experimental procedures was that the effectiveness of all of these barrier interventions is very much dependent on the speed with which the user can put them into position to cover the mouth and nose effectively.From these qualitative schlieren and shadowgraph imaging experiments, it is clear that making some effort to contain one's cough or sneeze puffs is worthwhile. Obviously, there will be a large amount of variation between individuals in the exact hand or tissue (the most common methods configuration used for this and other practical factors may hinder such maneuvers in daily life, for example, when carrying shopping bags or managing young children.

  20. The Fungi Flora of Healthy Nasal Mucosa in Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Environmental fungi, molds and yeasts, can infest the nasal cavity through inhaled air. There is some evidence that they could be the main cause of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) but little is known about the normal fungal flora in the human nose. The objective of this study was to assess the normal fungal flora of the nasal mucus in adults in Kerman. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study. Nasal swabs were used to sample the nasal cavity of 100 a...

  1. STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gannu Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, nasal vaccines and CNS...

  2. Intraosseous hemangioma of the nasal septum: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Ho; Kim, Eui Jong; Jang, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyung Mi; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Wan; Kim, Yoon Hwa [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Hemangioma can arise in the soft tissues and bone of the nasal cavity. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no prior case reports presenting intraosseous hemangioma of the nasal septum. Intraosseous hemangioma, in addition to a chondroid tumor, should be included in the differential diagnosis of a calcified mass of the nasal cavity. In the present report, we present a case of an intraosseous cavernous hemangioma in the nasal bony septum of a 53-year-old woman.

  3. The NOFLO trial: low-flow nasal prongs therapy in weaning nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Sinéad M

    2013-07-01

    To determine if low-flow nasal prongs therapy with room air, compared with no treatment, facilitates weaning from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight <1500 g) infants.

  4. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  5. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...

  7. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology. The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  8. Nasal bots...a fascinating world!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E; Scholl, Philip J; Cepeda-Palacios, Ramón; Jacquiet, Philippe; Dorchies, Philippe

    2010-11-24

    Larvae causing obligatory myiasis are numerous and they may affect cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, wounds, nasopharyngeal cavities (nasal bots), internal organs and the digestive tract (bots) of domestic and wild animals and humans as well. Nasal bots belong to the Family Oestridae, Subfamily Oestrinae, which includes several important genera: Oestrus, Kirkioestrus, and Gedoelstia infecting Artiodactyla (except Cervidae) in Africa and Eurasia, Cephenemyia and Pharyngomyia infecting Cervidae, Rhinoestrus infecting horses, Cephalopina infecting camels, Pharyngobolus infecting African elephants, and Tracheomyia infecting Australian kangaroos. Nasal bots are widespread in Mediterranean and tropical areas and in affected animals they induce sneezing and nasal discharge which may become caked with dust making breathing very difficult. The aforementioned species of larvae are host-specific but sometimes the may be deposited in human eyes inducing a painful opthalmomyiasis of short duration. The first fascinating trait of these parasites is the very efficient morphological and biological adaptations to parasitism they show either as larvae or as adults, in order to facilitate their survival and search for a suitable host. Nasal bots have reached different degrees of complexity in their life cycles. Indeed, while for some species (e.g., Oestrus ovis, Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus) larvae are injected by flies directly into nostrils and develop in the sinuses before being ejected for external pupation, some other species migrate from eyes to blood before returning to nasal cavities either through the ethmoid bone (Gedoelstia hässleri) or via lungs and bronchi (Gedoelstia cristata). Moreover, larvae are very well-adapted to their environment being able to undergo through hypobiosis either inside or outside the host, according to the climatic environmental conditions and seasonality. The second fascinating trait of nasal bots is related to host behavioural and immune

  9. Numerical Simulations of Airflow and Droplet Dispersion in a Horizontal Ammonia Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Heiselberg, Per Kvols;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia released in pig production industries can lead to eutrophication of surface waters, soil acidification, fertilization of vegetation and changes in ecosystems, etc. Air scrubbers with spray of aerosolized sulphur solution were used to remove the ammonia mixed in the airflow ventilated out......, and they were simulated by Eularian-Lagrangian method of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Realizable k-ε turbulence model were used to simulate airflow turbulence. Strong vortex rotating around the main stream direction were found along the scrubber. To weaken the vortex, the impact of adding a regulating...

  10. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF USING AIRFLOW TO PURGE RESIDUAL WATER IN AN INCLINED PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Fang(沈芳); YAN Zong-yi(严宗毅); ZHAO Yao-hua(赵耀华); Kiyoshi Horii

    2002-01-01

    A refined theoretical analysis for using the spiral airflow and axial airflow to purge residual water in an inclined pipe was presented. The computations reveal that, in most cases, the spiral flow can purge the residual water in the inclined pipe indeed while the axial flow may induce back flow of the water, just as predicted in the experiments presented by Horii and Zhao et al. In addition, the effects of various initial conditions on water purging were studied in detail for both the spiral and axial flow cases.

  11. Coupled Outdoor and Indoor Airflow Prediction for Buildings Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo Prasad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD for simultaneously predicting the outdoor and indoor airflows of single-cell and multi-storey buildings. Empirical models and two existing wind tunnel experimental data are used for validation. This study found that coupled CFD simulations provide sufficiently accurate airflow predictions and, in cases of buildings with complex façade treatments, accurately accounts for changes in ventilation performance, which may be impossible using empirical models. This study concludes that coupled CFD simulations can generally be used to predict ventilation performance in small and large buildings.

  12. Occupational exposure to pesticides are associated with fixed airflow obstruction in middle-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Burgess, John A; Perret, Jennifer L; Lodge, Caroline J; Morrison, Stephen; Johns, David Peter; Giles, Graham G; Gurrin, Lyle C; Thomas, Paul S; Hopper, John Llewelyn; Wood-Baker, Richard; Thompson, Bruce R; Feather, Iain H; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Walters, E Haydn; Abramson, Michael J; Matheson, Melanie Claire

    2017-07-07

    Population-based studies have found evidence of a relationship between occupational exposures and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but these studies are limited by the use of prebronchodilator spirometry. Establishing this link using postbronchodilator is critical, because occupational exposures are a modifiable risk factor for COPD. To investigate the associations between occupational exposures and fixed airflow obstruction using postbronchodilator spirometry. One thousand three hundred and thirty-five participants were included from 2002 to 2008 follow-up of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS). Spirometry was performed and lifetime work history calendars were used to collect occupational history. ALOHA plus Job Exposure Matrix was used to assign occupational exposure, and defined as ever exposed and cumulative exposure unit (EU)-years. Fixed airflow obstruction was defined by postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC exposure to biological dust (relative risk (RR)=1.58, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.48), pesticides (RR=1.74,95% CI 1.00 to 3.07) and herbicides (RR=2.09,95% CI 1.18 to 3.70) were associated with fixed airflow obstruction. Cumulative EU-years to all pesticides (RR=1.11,95% CI 1.00 to 1.25) and herbicides (RR=1.15,95% CI 1.00 to 1.32) were also associated with fixed airflow obstruction. In addition, all pesticides exposure was consistently associated with chronic bronchitis and symptoms that are consistent with airflow obstruction. Ever exposure to mineral dust, gases/fumes and vapours, gases, dust or fumes were only associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non-asthmatics only. Pesticides and herbicides exposures were associated with fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis. Biological dust exposure was also associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non-asthmatics. Minimising occupational exposure to these agents may help to reduce the burden of COPD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

  13. Effects of diffuser airflow minima on occupant comfort, air mixing, and building energy use (RP-1515)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Hoyt, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    There is great energy-saving potential in reducing variable air volume box minimum airflow set-points to about 10% of maximum. Typical savings are on the order of 10%-30% of total HVAC energy, remarkable for an inexpensive controls set-point change that properly maintains outside air ventilation...... comfort or air quality and that HVAC energy savings would be substantial. The hypotheses were almost entirely confirmed for both warm and cool seasons. But beyond this, the reduction of excess airflow during low-load periods caused occupants' cold discomfort in the warm season to be halved, a surprising...

  14. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J R; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-11-17

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune's symmetry axis - that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected.

  15. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Britt Michelsen; Severin Strobl; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Thorsten Pöschel

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barc...

  16. Computational fluid dynamics as surgical planning tool: a pilot study on middle turbinate resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Malhotra, Prashant; Rosen, David; Dalton, Pamela; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2014-11-01

    Controversies exist regarding the resection or preservation of the middle turbinate (MT) during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Any MT resection will perturb nasal airflow and may affect the mucociliary dynamics of the osteomeatal complex. Neither rhinometry nor computed tomography (CT) can adequately quantify nasal airflow pattern changes following surgery. This study explores the feasibility of assessing changes in nasal airflow dynamics following partial MT resection using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. We retrospectively converted the pre- and postoperative CT scans of a patient who underwent isolated partial MT concha bullosa resection into anatomically accurate three-dimensional numerical nasal models. Pre- and postsurgery nasal airflow simulations showed that the partial MT resection resulted in a shift of regional airflow towards the area of MT removal with a resultant decreased airflow velocity, decreased wall shear stress and increased local air pressure. However, the resection did not strongly affect the overall nasal airflow patterns, flow distributions in other areas of the nose, nor the odorant uptake rate to the olfactory cleft mucosa. Moreover, CFD predicted the patient's failure to perceive an improvement in his unilateral nasal obstruction following surgery. Accordingly, CFD techniques can be used to predict changes in nasal airflow dynamics following partial MT resection. However, the functional implications of this analysis await further clinical studies. Nevertheless, such techniques may potentially provide a quantitative evaluation of surgical effectiveness and may prove useful in preoperatively modeling the effects of surgical interventions.

  17. Airflow Pattern and Performance Analysis of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation in an Office Room using CFD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Chen, Qingyan; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2015-01-01

    geometrical model and the other is a porous media model. The numerical models are validated by the full-scale experimental studies in a climate chamber. The results indicate that porous media model performed better on predicting air flow characteristic below diffuse ceiling and air velocity near the floor...

  18. Effect of Local Nasal Immunotherapy on Nasal Blockage in Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Nabe; Kayoko Kubota; Nobuaki Mizutani; Masanori Fujii; Tetsuya Terada; Hiroshi Takenaka; Shigekatsu Kohno

    2008-01-01

    Background: As a non-injection route for immunotherapy, local nasal immunotherapy has been examined in allergic rhinitis patients. However, it is unclear how the immunotherapy affects sneezing, biphasic nasal blockage and nasal hyperresponsiveness. Thus, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of nasal immunotherapy on the symptoms of guinea pig allergic rhinitis. Additionally, we also evaluated whether the immunotherapy relieved pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis. Methods: Sensitized ani...

  19. Differential Kinetics and Distribution of Antibodies in Serum and Nasal and Vaginal Secretions after Nasal and Oral Vaccination of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Rudin, Anna; Johansson, Eva-Liz; Bergquist, Charlotta; Holmgren, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Although nasal vaccination has emerged as an interesting alternative to systemic or oral vaccination, knowledge is scarce about the immune responses after such immunization in humans. In the present study, we have compared the kinetics and organ distribution of the antibody responses after nasal and oral vaccination. We immunized female volunteers nasally or orally with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and determined the specific antibody levels in serum and nasal and vaginal secretions, as well...

  20. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis: a rare cause of neonatal nasal airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS is a rare cause of nasal airway obstruction that clinically mimics choanal atresia in a neonate. The differentiation between the two is very important as the management of the two conditions is different. Timely recognition is important to prevent fatal outcome. CNPAS may present as an isolated condition or with associated craniofacial anomalies. Despite typical findings of CNPAS being present on cross-sectional imaging, this condition is commonly overlooked, probably because of a lack of familiarity with the normal morphological features of the nasal cavity in infants and also owing to a lack of awareness of this rare entity. Here we report a case of CNPAS with pre- and post-surgical CT images and the complication that occurred owing to nasal stenting.

  1. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.153 Section 84.153 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  2. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.154 Section 84.154 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  3. Risk factors for nasal malignancies in German men: the South-German Nasal cancer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiser Eberhard M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies of the effects of nasal snuff and environmental factors on the risk of nasal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the impact of using nasal snuff and of other risk factors on the risk of nasal cancer in German men. Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. Tumor registries and ear, nose and throat departments provided access to patients born in 1926 or later. Results Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 cases (mean age 62.1 years and 2.401 population-based controls (mean age 60.8 years. Ever-use of nasal snuff was associated with an odds ratio (OR for nasal cancer of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–2.38 in the total study population, whereas OR in smokers was 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.02 and in never smokers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.43–2.80. The OR in ever-smokers vs. never-smokers was 1.60 (95% CI 1.24–2.07, with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.05–1.07 per pack-year smoked, and the risk was significantly decreased after quitting smoking. Exposure to hardwood dust for at least 1 year resulted in an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.40–3.91 in the total population, which was further increased in never-smokers (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.92–12.49 in analyses stratified by smoking status. The OR for nasal cancer after exposure to organic solvents for at least 1 year was 1.53 (1.17–2.01. Ever-use of nasal sprays/nasal lavage for at least 1 month rendered an OR of 1.59 (1.04–2.44. The OR after use of insecticides in homes was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04–2.11. Conclusions Smoking and exposure to hardwood dust were confirmed as risk factors for nasal carcinoma. There is evidence that exposure to organic solvents, and in-house use of insecticides could represent novel risk factors. Exposure to asbestos and use of nasal snuff were risk factors in smokers only.

  4. Nasal Functional Evaluation Using Nasal Endoscopy, Acoustic Rhinometry, and Rhinomanometry on Nasal Airway-Obstructed Patients after Endoscopic Septoplasty, Corrective Rhinoplasty, and Internal Nasal Valve Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiğit Özer Tiftikcioğlu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rhinoplasty is a very common surgical procedure that is performed throughout the world as well as in our country for aesthetic concerns, nasal obstruction, or both. However, functional results still remain subjective, and compared to the vast number of operations, studies about functional results in the literature are very limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate respiratory functions after corrective rhinoplasty and to find the benefits both numerically and statistically. Material and Methods: Thirty patients who were admitted to our department with nasal obstruction based on the statements of the patients were included in the study. Patients who were admitted only for aesthetic considerations were excluded from the study. These patients were preoperatively evaluated with radiographic and endoscopic imaging; preoperative nasal resistance and nasal airway cross-sectional area values were measured and recorded with acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry devices. Then, patients were operated by open rhinoplasty technique, and measurements were repeated at three months and one year postoperative follow-ups. Results: As a result of measurements made with rhinomanometry one year after the surgery, a decrease in resistance value was observed in 20 patients, and an increase in minimal cross-sectional area measured with acoustic rhinometry was observed in 24 patients. The values measured by both methods were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: As a result of our study, we advocate performing both functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty operations instead of functional or aesthetic purposes alone.

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E

    1999-01-01

    From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed...

  6. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.

  7. Staphylococcal nasal carriage of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naeem

    2010-07-01

    To determine the frequency of staphylococcal nasal carriage of health care workers (HCWs) and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates for appropriate decolonization therapy. An observational study. The study was conducted at Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, during the period from May 2007 to April 2008. Nasal swabs from anterior nares of HCWs were cultured and identified as Staphylococcus aureus, coagulasenegative staphylococci (CoNS), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) by using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on Muller Hinton Agar using disc diffusion method. Of the 468 HCWs, 213 (45.5%) participants were men and 255 (54.5%) were women. Eighty five (18.2%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, 07 (1.5%) for MRSA, 343 (73.3%) for CoNS and 10 (2.1%) for MRCoNS. The highest carriage rate for S. aureus was in midwives (30%) followed by maintenance staff (28.6%), security guards (25%), technicians (23.5%), staff nurses (22.7%) and 90% of S. aureus and CoNS were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin and fluoroquinolones tested. Fluoroquinolones, preferably oral levofloxacin in combination with topical gentamicin ointment, in places like Pakistan where mupirocin is not routinely available, can be used for decolonization of nasal staphylococcal carriage.

  8. Nasal prosthesis rehabilitation: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sumeet; Maru, Kavita; Shukla, Jyotsana

    2011-01-01

    Facial defects resulting from neoplasm, congenital malformation or trauma can be restored with facial prosthesis using different materials and retention methods to achieve life-like look and function. A nasal prosthesis can re-establish esthetic form and anatomic contours for mid-facial defects...

  9. Fracture of nasal bones: an epidemiologic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common diseases in the otorhinolaryngology emergency room is the nasal bones fracture. The peak of incidence is between 15 and 25 years of age. Generally men are more affected. Objective: To analyze the age, gender and the most frequent causes of nasal fractures evaluated in the otorhinolaryngology service of a tertiary hospital. Method: Retrospective study of records of the patients with nasal fracture diagnosis treated between July 1st, 2003 and July 1st, 2007. Results: 167 patients with nasal bones fracture were included in the study, including 134 men and 33 women. Violence was the most frequent cause, with 55 cases (32.9%, followed by fall from their own height, with 33 cases (19.7%, and motorcycle accident, 14 cases (8.4%. The most common age was between 21 and 39 years (46.1%. Conclusion: Male, age between 21 and 39 years and violence are the most common characteristics found in our service. Motorcycle accidents also play an important role in this affection.

  10. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  11. Sensory properties of selected terpenes. Thresholds for odor, nasal pungency, nasal localization, and eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S; Abraham, M H; Kumarsingh, R

    1998-11-30

    We tested four normosmics and four anosmics in detection thresholds for six terpenes commonly found indoors: cumene, p-cymene, delta-3-carene, linalool, 1,8-cineole and geraniol. Normosmics provided odor thresholds and anosmics provided nasal pungency thresholds. All subjects provided nasal localization (i.e., right/left nostril) and eye irritation thresholds. Each type of threshold was measured eight times per subject-stimulus combination. Stimuli were presented from squeeze bottles in a two-alternative forced-choice procedure via an ascending method of limits. Odor thresholds ranged between 0.1 and 1.0 parts per million (ppm, by volume). Nasal pungency thresholds lay about three orders of magnitude above odor thresholds. Nasal localization and eye irritation thresholds did not differ between normosmics and anosmics, and fell close to nasal pungency thresholds. Olfactory thresholds could be obtained for all stimuli in all repetitions using the criterion of five correct choices in a row. Trigeminal thresholds (i.e., pungency, localization and eye irritation) could be obtained on all repetitions only for some terpenes using that same criterion. Carene and cineol produced nasal pungency and eye irritation on all repetitions. None of the terpenes could be localized on all repetitions, but cineol was localized a higher percentage of instances than were the other stimuli. At the other extreme, geraniol failed to evoke any of the three trigeminal responses in most instances. Overall, the results indicate that the three trigeminal thresholds produce a uniform view of the potency of these terpenes, with nasal pungency and eye irritation being slightly more sensitive than nasal localization. Furthermore, application of a previously derived linear solvation energy relationship to the results reinforced the view that physicochemical properties can predict the chemesthetic impact of volatile organic compounds.

  12. Coblation nasal septal swell body reduction for treatment of nasal obstruction: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jeong; Kim, Hee Tae; Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon; Bae, Jung Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results of coblation nasal septal swell body (NSB) reduction for the treatment of nasal obstruction in patients with abnormally thickened NSB. The study design was a retrospective clinical series conducted at a single tertiary medical center. Eight patients underwent coblation NSB reduction. Pre-operative and post-operative nasal functions were evaluated by acoustic rhinometry and subjective symptom scales. We also analyzed pre-operative CT scan images and nasal endoscopic findings. The mean maximal NSB width was 16.4 ± 2.2 mm on pre-operative coronal CT scan images. The mean visual analog scale score for nasal obstruction was decreased from preoperative 7.63 ± 0.99 points to 3.88 ± 0.92 points (postoperative 3 months), 4.16 ± 0.78 points (postoperative 6 months), and 4.63 ± 0.69 points (postoperative 1 year). Six out of the eight patients were satisfied with the clinical outcome at 1 year after the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, coblation NSB reduction has not yet been reported in the medical literature. Our results show that it can be an effective treatment modality for nasal valve narrowing in patients with abnormally thickened NSB.

  13. Nasal surgery in patients with systemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachse, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multisystemic disorders represent a heterogenous group of diseases which can primarily manifest at the nose and paranasal sinuses as limited disease or secondarily as part of systemic involvement. Rhinologists therefore play an important role in the diagnostic but also therapeutic process. Although therapy of multisystemic disorders is primary systemic, additional rhinosurgery may become necessary. The spectrum of procedures consists of sinus surgery, surgery of the orbit and lacrimal duct, septorhinoplasty and closure of nasal septal perforation. Since the prevalence of most systemic diseases is very rare, recommendations are based on the analysis of single case reports and case series with a limited number of patients only. Although data is still limited, experiences published so far have shown that autologous cartilage or bone grafts can be used in nasal reconstruction of deformities caused by tuberculosis, leprosy, Wegener’s granulomatosis, sarcoidosis and relapsing polychondritis. Experiences gained from these diseases support the concept that well-established techniques of septorhinoplasty can be used in systemic diseases as well. However, a state of remission is an essential condition before considering any rhinosurgery in these patients. Even under these circumstances revision surgery has to be expected more frequently compared to the typical collective of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty. In addition, experiences gained from saddle nose reconstruction may in part be of value for the treatment of nasal septal perforations since implantation of cartilage grafts often represents an essential step in multilayer techniques of closure of nasal septal perforations. Aside from the treatment of orbital complications sinus surgery has been proven beneficial in reducing nasal symptoms and increasing quality of life in patients refractory to systemic treatment.

  14. [A case of neurinoma of the nasal septum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kikuo; Gondo, Kyujiro; Tomita, Kazuhide; Kasuya, Takao

    2003-05-01

    Neurinoma grows in the modulated nerve with Schwann cells, and is observed for all positions of the body. It is comparatively rare for neurinoma to grow in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, however. We report a case of neurinoma of the nasal septum. A 24-year-old man seen for nasal obstruction was found in anterior rhinoscopy to have a tumor of the bilateral nasal cavity. Computed tomography (CT) showed a soft tissue density mass in the anterior part of the nasal cavity. Because we suspected neurinoma from biopsy, we resected the tumor by Denker's operation under general anesthesia. We found that it originated from the nasal septum. Histopathological findings of the tumor indicated an Antoni A type neurinoma. After surgery, cartilago costalis was transplanted the plastic surgery to correct the defect in the nasal septum. The post operative course was good and no signs of recurrence were seen. This is the 19th case found in the literature.

  15. Evaluation of the nasal shape after orthognathic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ranier Maciel Dantas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may benefit from orthognathic surgery in the maxilla. Maxillary osteotomy may include procedures in the bone, cartilaginous, and soft tissues of the nose, leading to shape alterations. Objective: To evaluate the anatomic alterations of the nasal region in patients undergoing a Le Fort I osteotomy for advancement or superior impaction. Methods: This is a clinical prospective study. Twenty-one patients were evaluated during the preand postoperative periods. The positioning of the nasal tip and the modification of the nasal base were evaluated. Results: The results showed that the nasal tip was superiorly positioned in 85% of the cases, advanced in 80%, rotated in 80%, and there was a wide nasal base in 95%, resulting in esthetic improvement. Conclusions: Surgeries of maxillary advancement and superior reposition tend to cause elevation and advancement of the nasal tip, as well as enlargement of the nasal base.

  16. Dialectal and gender differences in nasalance for a Mandarin population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Kyung; Yu, Xiao-meng; Cao, Yan-jing; Liu, Xiao-ming; Huang, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are dialectal and gender related differences in nasalance of main Mandarin vowels and three sentences in 400 Chinese normal adults. The mean nasalance score difference for dialect and gender was significant (p nasalance scores show that Chongqing > Beijing > Shanghai > Guangzhou for the nasal sentence, oro-nasal sentence, /a/, /i/ and /u/. In addition, the average nasalance scores of females were higher than those of males for all speech materials in all dialects. The clinical significance of this study can be helpful in making nasalance clinical decisions for Chinese people with cleft palate, hearing disorders and dysarthria with resonance disorders. It also shows the theoretical and socio-cultural features for linguists considering dialects and gender.

  17. Experimental investigation of transient thermal behavior of an airship under different solar radiation and airflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Fu; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of the thermal behavior of airships is crucial to the development of airship technology. An experiment apparatus is constructed to investigate the thermal response characteristics of airships, and the transient temperature distributions of both hull and inner gas are obtained under the irradiation of a solar simulator and various airflow conditions. In the course of the research, the transient temperature change of the experimental airship is measured for four airflow speeds of 0 m/s (natural convection), 3.26 m/s, 5.5 m/s and 7.0 m/s, and two incident solar radiation values of 842.4 W/m2 and 972.0 W/m2. The results show that solar irradiation has significant influence on the airship hull and inner gas temperatures even if the airship stays in a ground airflow environment where the heat transfer is dominated by radiation and convection. The airflow around the airship is conducive to reduce the hull temperature and temperature nonuniformity. Transient thermal response of airships rapidly varies with time under solar radiation conditions and the hull temperature remains approximately constant in ˜5-10 min. Finally, a transient thermal model of airship is developed and the model is validated through comparison with the experimental data.

  18. Simulation of Thermal Distribution and Airflow for Efficient Energy Consumption in a Small Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Data centers have become ubiquitous in the last few years in an attempt to keep pace with the processing and storage needs of the Internet and cloud computing. The steady growth in the heat densities of IT servers leads to a rise in the energy needed to cool them, and constitutes approximately 40% of the power consumed by data centers. However, many data centers feature redundant air conditioning systems that contribute to inefficient air distribution, which significantly increases energy consumption. This remains an insufficiently explored problem. In this paper, a typical, small data center with tiles for an air supply system with a raised floor is used. We use a fluent (Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD to simulate thermal distribution and airflow, and investigate the optimal conditions of air distribution to save energy. The effects of the airflow outlet angle along the tile, the cooling temperature and the rate of airflow on the beta index as well as the energy utilization index are discussed, and the optimal conditions are obtained. The reasonable airflow distribution achieved using 3D CFD calculations and the parameter settings provided in this paper can help reduce the energy consumption of data centers by improving the efficiency of the air conditioning.

  19. Investigation of Airflow in a Room with displacement ventilation by means of a CFD-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, T. V.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The airflow in front of an inlet device in a room with displacement ventilation is investigated in this study. In continuation of the full-scale measurements and the development of a CFD-model, described in /1/, this report aims at testing the model and conducting numerical experiments to provide...

  20. Airflow limitation in asthmatic children assessed with a non-invasive EMG technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, EJW; van Eykern, LA; de Haan, RJ; Griffioen, RW; Hoekstra, MO; van Aalderen, WMC

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between electromyography (EMG) of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at different levels of histamine-induced airflow limitation, and the response to salbutamol. Moreover, we assessed the reprod

  1. Underestimation of airflow obstruction among young adults using FEV(1)/FVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerveri, I.; Corsico, A. G.; Accordini, S.; Niniano, R.; Ansaldo, E.; Anto, J. M.; Kunzli, N.; Janson, C.; Sunyer, J.; Jarvis, D.; Svanes, C.; Gislason, T.; Heinrich, J.; Schouten, J. P.; Wjst, M.; Burney, P.; de Marco, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early detection of airflow obstruction is particularly important among young adults because they are more likely to benefit from intervention. Using the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) to forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEV(1)/FVC) Methods: To evaluate the characteristics and longi

  2. Airflow resistance of heat and moisture exchange filters with and without a tracheostoma valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Geertsema, AA; Schutte, HK

    2002-01-01

    Rehabilitation of laryngectomees has been furthered by the introduction of heat and moisture exchange (HME) filters, placed over a tracheostoma or on a tracheostoma valve (TSV). The airflow resistance of HME filters is an important factor with regard to the comfort of the patient. The goal of this s

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, AIRFLOW PRODUCTS AFP30

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AFP30 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Airflow Products. The pressure drop across the filter was 62 Pa clean and 247 Pa dust loaded. The filtration effici...

  4. Computational and experimental study of airflow around a fan powered UVGI lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaligotla, Srikar; Tavakoli, Behtash; Glauser, Mark; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2011-11-01

    The quality of indoor air environment is very important for improving the health of occupants and reducing personal exposure to hazardous pollutants. An effective way of controlling air quality is by eliminating the airborne bacteria and viruses or by reducing their emissions. Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) lamps can effectively reduce these bio-contaminants in an indoor environment, but the efficiency of these systems depends on airflow in and around the device. UVGI lamps would not be as effective in stagnant environments as they would be when the moving air brings the bio-contaminant in their irradiation region. Introducing a fan into the UVGI system would augment the efficiency of the system's kill rate. Airflows in ventilated spaces are quite complex due to the vast range of length and velocity scales. The purpose of this research is to study these complex airflows using CFD techniques and validate computational model with airflow measurements around the device using Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. The experimental results including mean velocities, length scales and RMS values of fluctuating velocities are used in the CFD validation. Comparison of these data at different locations around the device with the CFD model predictions are performed and good agreement was observed.

  5. Air-flow resistances of silicone rubber voice prostheses after formation of bacterial and fungal biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, GJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ

    Laryngectomized patients use silicone rubber voice prostheses to rehabilitate their voice. However, biofilm formation limits the lifetime of voice prostheses by causing leakage or an increased air-flow resistance and the prosthesis has to be replaced. To determine which bacterial or yeast strains,

  6. Experimental study on airflow fluctuation characteristic of an underfloor air supply terminal unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wu, Yanfang [Design Institute of Guangzhou Metro Corporation, Guangzhou 510010 (China)

    2010-11-15

    In order to investigate dynamic characteristic of underfloor air supply terminal unit, an IFV900A hot-wire anemometer was used to measure the corresponding velocity field. Turbulence intensity and power spectrum density exponent of air velocity signal were analyzed. The result showed that the outlet velocity distribution of underfloor air supply terminal unit was uniform. With increment of height, the velocity distribution trends to be uniform. Two velocity attenuation regions appear during airflow development. Turbulence intensity changes obviously with height. It is lower than that of mechanical wind. Turbulence intensity goes up with the increment of jetting distance. Power spectrum density exponent trends to the value of natural wind with increase of jetting distance and decrease of wind velocity. The exponent value approaches to the value of typical natural wind for the air velocity is 0.5 m/s under high supply air rate. With airflow diffusion, the fluctuation characteristic of airflow varies obviously with the jetting direction. The fluctuation characteristic of airflow changes to that of natural wind with the increase of height which can improve comfort of indoor environment. (author)

  7. Airflow visualization in a model of human glottis near the self-oscillating vocal folds model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horáček J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution describes PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry measurement of airflow in the glottal region of complex physical models of the voice production that consist of 1 : 1 scaled models of the trachea, the self-oscillating vocal folds and the human vocal tract with acoustical spaces that correspond to the vowels /a:/, /u:/ and /i:/. The time-resolved PIV method was used for visualization of the airflow simultaneously with measurements of subglottal pressure, radiated acoustic pressure and vocal fold vibrations. The measurements were performed within a physiologically real range of mean airflow rate and fundamental phonation frequency. The images of the vibrating vocal folds during one oscillation period were recorded by the high-speed camera at the same time instants as the velocity fields measured by the PIV method.In the region above the models of the ventricular folds and of the epilaryngeal tube it is possible to detect large vortices with dimensions comparable with the channel cross-section and moving relatively slowly downstream. The vortices disappear in the narrower pharyngeal part of the vocal tract model where the flow is getting more uniform. The basic features of the coherent structures identified in the laryngeal cavity models in the interval of the measured airflow rates were found qualitatively similar for all three vowels investigated.

  8. Comparison of turbulence models for numerical calculation of airflow in an annex 20 room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Lars P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The report deals with 2-D numerical calculation of room airflow in an isothermal annex 20 room. The report documents the ability of the flow solver EllipSys2D to give results in good agreement with measurements for the specified test case. The flow solver is a finite volume code solving...

  9. Fixed airflow obstruction in asthma: a descriptive study of patient profiles and effect on treatment responses

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, Donald P.; Chipps, Bradley E.; Trudo,Frank; Zangrilli, James G

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of fixed airflow obstruction (FAO) in asthma is unclear. Objective: To assess the relationship between FAO and clinical features of asthma and the effect of FAO on treatment response. Methods: Post hoc descriptive analysis of data stratified by FAO category (screening post-albuterol FEV1/FVC

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of Respiratory Resistance Measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallena, Sally K.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Johnson, Arthur T.; Vossoughi, Jafar; Tian, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine reliability of the airflow perturbation device (APD) to measure respiratory resistance within and across sessions during resting tidal (RTB) and postexercise breathing in healthy athletes, and during RTB across trials within a session in athletes with paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM)…

  11. Evaluation of Sub-Zonal Airflow Models for the Prediction of Local Interior Boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul W. M. H.; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    and applicability of the sub-zonal airflow model to predict the local indoor environmental conditions, as well as the local surface transfer coefficients near building components. Two test cases were analyzed for, respectively, natural and forced convection in a room. The simulation results predicted from the sub...

  12. Airflow limitation in asthmatic children assessed with a non-invasive EMG technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, EJW; van Eykern, LA; de Haan, RJ; Griffioen, RW; Hoekstra, MO; van Aalderen, WMC

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between electromyography (EMG) of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at different levels of histamine-induced airflow limitation, and the response to salbutamol. Moreover, we assessed the

  13. Correlations of nasal responses to leukotriene D4 and histamine nasal provocation with quality of life in allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Xia, Shu; Shi, Xu; Zheng, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) greatly affect the quality of life (QoL) in the patients with AR. The correlations of nasal response to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and histamine nasal provocation with health related QoL in AR are not clear. Objective To evaluate the correlations of nasal response to LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge with QoL in AR. Methods Patients randomly underwent LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge tests, completed the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life quest...

  14. Nasalance measures in German-speaking cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, Gwen R J; Grimaldi, Hannes; Upheber, Juliane; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Dempf, Rupert

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate nasalance measures in German-speaking patients with different types of repaired cleft lip and palate and to find out if significant nasalance gender differences exist in the different cleft groups. A total of 125 German-speaking cleft patients (74 male and 51 female) were included in this study: 18 patients with isolated unilateral cleft lip (UCL; mean age: 13.00 +/- 2.03 years), 66 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP; mean age: 14.80 +/- 3.45 years), 25 patients with isolated cleft palate (CP; mean age: 14.60 +/- 3.48 years), and 16 patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP; mean age: 14.30 +/- 3.61 years). Nasalance data were collected and computed using the NasalView hardware/software system (Fa. Tiger Electronics, Seattle, WA). Speech stimuli according to a modified Heidelberg Rhinophonia Assessment Form (sustained vowels "a," "e," "i," "o," and "u"; oral and nasal sentences; and three oral-nasal reading passages) were used to obtain nasalance scores. Nasalance distance and ratio were also calculated for the oral and nasal sentences and for one of the oral-nasal reading passages. Unpaired t tests showed no significant gender nasalance differences in each cleft group. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in mean nasalance distance and ratio. For the nasal sentence, a significant difference (P = 0.032) in mean nasalance scores was found between the UCL and UCLP groups.

  15. On the Forming Mechanism of the Cleaning Airflow of Pulse-jet Fabric Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiying, Cai; Wenge, Hao; Cong, Zhang; Jiaqi, Yu; Ting, Wang

    2017-04-05

    To reveal the formation mechanism of a pulse-jet airflow's cleaning effect in a filter bag, a theoretical model is built by using the theory of gas jet and unitary adiabatic flow according to given specifications and dimensions of the bags and resistance characteristics of the cloth and dust layer. It is about the relationship between cleaning system structure and operating parameters. The model follows the principle that the flow and kinetic energy of jet flow injected into a filter bag should be consistent with the flow of cleaning airflow in the bag and the pressure drop flowing through the filter cloth and dust layer. The purpose of the model is to achieve the peak pressure of cleaning airflow, which dominates the effect of the pulse-jet cleaning process. The cleaning system structure includes air pressure in the nozzle, structure and size of nozzle, exit velocity of nozzle, jet distance and diameter of jet cross-section. Based on the condition of cleaning system structure and operating parameters established by using the theoretical model, Fluent software is applied to carry out a numerical simulation of the jet airflow field at the nozzle's outlet, jet airflow field between nozzle and bag top, and cleaning airflow field in the filter bag. Experimental results are used to verify the reliability of the theoretical model. They are obtained in a pilot-scale test filter with a single bag, in length of 2m and in general full-scale dimensions of the cleaning system. The results show that when any rectification measure is not installed at the bag opening, the cross-sectional area covered by jet gas is hardly sufficient to cover the entire area of the bag opening. A large portion of the gases injected into the filter bag will overflow reversely upward from the edge due to pressure differences between the upper area and lower area inside the bag opening. This led to a serious shortage of the cleaning airflow and a limited increase in static pressure. When a venturi

  16. Strongly coupled interaction between a ridge of fluid and an inviscid airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2015-07-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. The behaviour of a steady thin sessile or pendent ridge of fluid on an inclined planar substrate which is strongly coupled to the external pressure gradient arising from an inviscid airflow parallel to the substrate far from the ridge is described. When the substrate is nearly horizontal, a very wide ridge can be supported against gravity by capillary and/or external pressure forces; otherwise, only a narrower (but still wide) ridge can be supported. Classical thin-aerofoil theory is adapted to obtain the governing singular integro-differential equation for the profile of the ridge in each case. Attention is focused mainly on the case of a very wide sessile ridge. The effect of strengthening the airflow is to push a pinned ridge down near to its edges and to pull it up near to its middle. At a critical airflow strength, the upslope contact angle reaches the receding contact angle at which the upslope contact line de-pins, and continuing to increase the airflow strength beyond this critical value results in the de-pinned ridge becoming narrower, thicker, and closer to being symmetric in the limit of a strong airflow. The effect of tilting the substrate is to skew a pinned ridge in the downslope direction. Depending on the values of the advancing and receding contact angles, the ridge may first de-pin at either the upslope or the downslope contact line but, in general, eventually both contact lines de-pin. The special cases in which only one of the contact lines de-pins are also considered. It is also shown that the behaviour of a very wide pendent ridge is qualitatively similar to that of a very wide sessile ridge, while the important qualitative difference between the behaviour of a very wide ridge and a narrower ridge is that, in general, for the latter one or both of the contact lines may never de-pin.

  17. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  18. Measured Performance of a Varied Airflow Small-Diameter Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-03-16

    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  19. Measured Performance of a Varied Airflow Small-Diameter Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  20. Strongly coupled interaction between a ridge of fluid and an inviscid airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, C.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of a steady thin sessile or pendent ridge of fluid on an inclined planar substrate which is strongly coupled to the external pressure gradient arising from an inviscid airflow parallel to the substrate far from the ridge is described. When the substrate is nearly horizontal, a very wide ridge can be supported against gravity by capillary and/or external pressure forces; otherwise, only a narrower (but still wide) ridge can be supported. Classical thin-aerofoil theory is adapted to obtain the governing singular integro-differential equation for the profile of the ridge in each case. Attention is focused mainly on the case of a very wide sessile ridge. The effect of strengthening the airflow is to push a pinned ridge down near to its edges and to pull it up near to its middle. At a critical airflow strength, the upslope contact angle reaches the receding contact angle at which the upslope contact line de-pins, and continuing to increase the airflow strength beyond this critical value results in the de-pinned ridge becoming narrower, thicker, and closer to being symmetric in the limit of a strong airflow. The effect of tilting the substrate is to skew a pinned ridge in the downslope direction. Depending on the values of the advancing and receding contact angles, the ridge may first de-pin at either the upslope or the downslope contact line but, in general, eventually both contact lines de-pin. The special cases in which only one of the contact lines de-pins are also considered. It is also shown that the behaviour of a very wide pendent ridge is qualitatively similar to that of a very wide sessile ridge, while the important qualitative difference between the behaviour of a very wide ridge and a narrower ridge is that, in general, for the latter one or both of the contact lines may never de-pin.

  1. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wook Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Pathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemicinfectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome.However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasalbone fracture.Methods This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasalcarriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken fromboth the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.Results Pathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci(CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci(MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second mostidentified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher thanthat in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effecton the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.Conclusions The prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture inKorea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rateof CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according tospecific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on thepotential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.

  2. Energy of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Windmill (theory, streamlined airflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Grechikhin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A windmill theory as an open power system is resolved in the paper. The paper presents a mechanism of a frontal resistance and a thrust load of the operating windmill which is based on occurrence of an active environmental component and formulates the conditions under which any minimum resistance and maximum thrust load are realized. An algorithm and software for calculation of windmill streamlining pattern are developed in the paper. The calculation results are given the paper.

  3. Augmentation Rhinoplasty in Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity: Preliminary Patients’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. C. Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction of cleft lip nasal deformity is challenging and there have been numerous methods described in the literature with little demonstrated technical superiority of one over another. The common clinical issues associated with cleft lip nasal deformity are its lack of symmetry, alar collapse on the affected side, obtuse nasal labial angle, short nasal length, loss of tip definition, and altered columella show among others. We carried out augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasties with rib graft in 16 patients over the one-year study period. Each of these patients was reviewed and given questionnaire before and after surgery to evaluate their response on the outcome to the approach. Preoperatively, nasal asymmetry is the main complaint (14/16, 87.5% among our series of patients. Postoperatively, 12 (75% patients out of the 16 reported significant improvement in their nasal symmetry with the other four marginal. All patients reported excellent nasal projection postoperatively with good nasal tip definition. Our series of patients reported overall good satisfaction outcome and will recommend this procedure to other patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. In conclusion, augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasty can be employed to achieve perceivable and satisfactory outcome in patients with cleft lip nasal deformity.

  4. Fundus imaging with a nasal endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahesh Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.

  5. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  6. SEPTOPLASTY WITH AND WITHOUT NASAL PACKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in rhinology to relieve nasal obstruction of patients with distortion in the midline cartilage or septum of the nose to relieve nasal obstruction of patient and findings consistent with nasal endoscopy. The anterior nasal packing routinely done following septoplasty is usually conventional and not evidence based. The purpose of nasal packing is to obtain haemostasis, enhance opposition of septal flaps, avoid septal haematoma formation, close the dead space, avoid synechiae formation, provide support to septal cartilage and prevent its displacement. OBJECTIVE This study intends to evaluate the effects of nasal packing on surgical success and related complications in septoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present clinical prospective and randomised study was carried out on patients attending Otorhinolaryngology Department of Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital between March 2012 and March 2015. Patients undergoing septoplasty were randomised either to receive anterior nasal packing or to not receive nasal packing postoperatively. RESULTS Levels of pain experienced by patients with nasal packing postoperatively during the initial 24 hours postoperatively and during the removal of the pack were significantly more. Post-operative headache, epiphora, swallowing discomfort and sleep disturbance were more in patients with nasal packing and statistically (p.05. Septal haematoma, adhesions and local infections in both groups were statistically insignificant (p>.05. CONCLUSION Septoplasty enhances the standard of living of patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction. Our study results suggest that nasal packing after septoplasty is not obligatory. Nasal packing causes considerably more pain and complications, and it should be reserved only for those who have bleeding predisposition.

  7. Minimally Invasive Procedures for Nasal Aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Alessio Redaelli; Pietro Limardo

    2012-01-01

    Nose has an important role in the aesthetics of face. It is easy to understand the reason of the major interest that has revolved around the correction of its imperfections for several centuries, or even from the ancient times. In the last decade, all the surgical or medical minimal-invasive techniques evolved exponentially. The techniques of rejuvenation and corrections of nasal imperfections did not escape this development that is much widespread in the medicine of the third millennium. In ...

  8. Plasmocitoma extramedular nasal en un perro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Giraldo M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de plasmocitoma nasal en un canino, macho entero, de raza Akita de 30 Kg de peso y veintiún meses de edad, con historia de epistaxis unilateral crónica. Se practicó examen clínico y biopsia de la neoplasia visible en la cavidad nasal izquierda. La ubicación y extensión del tumor fue determinada mediante tomografía computarizada de cabeza y cuello. Se realizaron análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico (IHQ del tejido tumoral. La tomografía computarizada evidenció una masa con densidad de tejido blando de 10 cm de longitud x 3.5 cm de diámetro y escasa captación de medio de contraste, que comprometía en su totalidad la cavidad nasal derecha y parte de la porción posterior de la coana izquierda. El análisis histopatológico reveló numerosas células redondas pleomórficas con poco citoplasma, rodeadas por trama escasa de tejido conectivo y bajo índice mitótico. En el examen IHQ la muestra fue negativa a los antígenos CD3 y CD20 para linfocitos T y B, respectivamente. Los hallazgos clínicos y de la tomografía computarizada, así como los resultados del análisis histopatológico del tejido tumoral, fueron compatibles con un plasmocitoma extramedular nasal de bajo grado de malignidad.

  9. Septum nasal perforation: treatments and literature' review

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Neto, Eulógio Emílio; Dolci, Luiz Eduardo Lutaif; Murta, Alexandre Antonio; Zanini, Fábio Duro

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present study consists in a bibliographical' review concerning the articles related to the different manifestations and forms of the septum nasal perforation, with a main emphasis in the description of its techniques of surgical correction. As the etiology, that is fundamentally iatrogenic, accordingly surgical trauma. Other causes include exhibition to chemical industrial reagents, cocaine use, intranasal steroidal therapeutic, neoplasia and, infectious conditions. There is...

  10. BLIND NASAL INTUBATION IN CRANIOROFACIAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R.DavidThakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restricted mouth opening presents one of the greatest challenges to the anesthetist for endotracheal intubation and ventilation. Awake blind nasal intubation has been one of the finest and favored techniques for intubation in previous decades for restricted mouth opening patients. A coordinated team approach, monitoring and adequate counseling of the patient is mandatory for the airway management to carry out a safe surgical procedure

  11. Minimally invasive procedures for nasal aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Redaelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nose has an important role in the aesthetics of face. It is easy to understand the reason of the major interest that has revolved around the correction of its imperfections for several centuries, or even from the ancient times. In the last decade, all the surgical or medical minimal-invasive techniques evolved exponentially. The techniques of rejuvenation and corrections of nasal imperfections did not escape this development that is much widespread in the medicine of the third millennium. In many cases, the techniques of surgical correction involve invasive procedure that necessitates, for the majority of cases, hospitalisation. The author, using a different approach, has developed mini-invasive techniques using botulinum toxin A (BTxA and absorbable fillers for the correction of nasal imperfections. BTxA allows to reduce the imperfections due to hypertension of muscles, while the absorbable fillers allow to correct all the imperfections of the nasal profile from the root to the tip in total safety. The correction is based on the precise rules that allow avoiding the majority of side effects. Results are long lasting and well appreciated by patients.

  12. Minimally invasive procedures for nasal aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, Alessio; Limardo, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    Nose has an important role in the aesthetics of face. It is easy to understand the reason of the major interest that has revolved around the correction of its imperfections for several centuries, or even from the ancient times. In the last decade, all the surgical or medical minimal-invasive techniques evolved exponentially. The techniques of rejuvenation and corrections of nasal imperfections did not escape this development that is much widespread in the medicine of the third millennium. In many cases, the techniques of surgical correction involve invasive procedure that necessitates, for the majority of cases, hospitalisation. The author, using a different approach, has developed mini-invasive techniques using botulinum toxin A (BTxA) and absorbable fillers for the correction of nasal imperfections. BTxA allows to reduce the imperfections due to hypertension of muscles, while the absorbable fillers allow to correct all the imperfections of the nasal profile from the root to the tip in total safety. The correction is based on the precise rules that allow avoiding the majority of side effects. Results are long lasting and well appreciated by patients.

  13. Genome-wide linkage analysis of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Edwin K; Mosley, Jonathan D; Palmer, Lyle J; Barth, Matthew; Senter, Jody M; Brown, Alison; Drazen, Jeffrey M; Kwiatkowski, David J; Chapman, Harold A; Campbell, Edward J; Province, Michael A; Rao, D C; Reilly, John J; Ginns, Leo C; Speizer, Frank E; Weiss, Scott T

    2002-03-15

    Familial aggregation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been demonstrated, but linkage analysis of COPD-related phenotypes has not been reported previously. An autosomal 10 cM genome-wide scan of short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic markers was analyzed for linkage to COPD-related phenotypes in 585 members of 72 pedigrees ascertained through severe, early-onset COPD probands without severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Multipoint non-parametric linkage analysis (using the ALLEGRO program) was performed for qualitative phenotypes including moderate airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV(1)) < 60% predicted, FEV(1)/FVC < 90% predicted], mild airflow obstruction (FEV(1) < 80% predicted, FEV(1)/FVC < 90% predicted) and chronic bronchitis. The strongest evidence for linkage in all subjects was observed at chromosomes 12 (LOD = 1.70) and 19 (LOD = 1.54) for moderate airflow obstruction, chromosomes 8 (LOD = 1.36) and 19 (LOD = 1.09) for mild airflow obstruction and chromosomes 19 (LOD = 1.21) and 22 (LOD = 1.37) for chronic bronchitis. Restricting analysis to cigarette smokers only provided increased evidence for linkage of mild airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis to several genomic regions; for mild airflow obstruction in smokers only, the maximum LOD was 1.64 at chromosome 19, whereas for chronic bronchitis in smokers only, the maximum LOD was 2.08 at chromosome 22. On chromosome 12p, 12 additional STR markers were genotyped, which provided additional support for an airflow obstruction locus in that region with a non-parametric multipoint approach for moderate airflow obstruction (LOD = 2.13) and mild airflow obstruction (LOD = 1.43). Using a dominant model with the STR markers on 12p, two point parametric linkage analysis of all subjects demonstrated a maximum LOD score of 2.09 for moderate airflow obstruction and 2.61 for mild airflow obstruction. In smokers only, the maximum two point LOD score for mild airflow

  14. The efficacy of Rhinos® SR on nasal resistance and nasal symptoms in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Setiawati

    2008-06-01

    symptom score (TSS, total nasal and nonnasal, and even the individual symptom scores, evaluated by the patient and the physician, showed similar pattern, i.e. both Rhinos® SR and placebo decreased the symptoms significantly from baseline, and the decreases by Rhinos® SR were larger than the decreases by placebo, but the decreases by Rhinos® SR and placebo were not statistically different. No adverse event was found in this study. From the present study it was concluded that in patients with moderate to severe PAR in a tropical country, Rhinos® SR was effective in relieving nasal congestion by objective measurements of NAR. Rhinos® SR twice a day for 7 days was also effective in reducing the clinical symptoms of PAR although the reductions did not reach statistical significance compared to those by placebo, and was well tolerated. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 114-26Keywords: loratadine, pseudoephedrine, rhinomanometry, perennial allergic rhinitis

  15. The Usefulness of Nasal Packing with Vaseline Gauze and Airway Silicone Splint after Closed Reduction of Nasal Bone Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Young Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPacking after closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture causes inconvenient nasal obstruction in patients. We packed the superior meatus with Vaseline gauze to support the nasal bone, and packed the middle nasal meatus with a Doyle Combo Splint consisting of an airway tube, a silastic sheet, and an expandable sponge to reduce the inconvenience. In addition, we aimed to objectively identify whether this method not only enables nasal respiration but also sufficiently supports the reduced nasal bone.MethodsNasal ventilation was measured via spirometry 1 day before surgery and compared to 1 day after surgery. To compare support of the reduced nasal bone by the 2 methods, 2 plastic surgeons assessed the displacementon X-rays taken after the surgery and after removing the packing. The extent of nasal obstruction, dry mouth, sleep disturbance, headache, and swallowing difficulty were compared with visual analog scales (VAS on a pre-discharge survey.ResultsIn the experimental group, the nasal respiration volume 1 day after surgery remained at 71.3%±6.84% on average compared to 1 day prior to surgery. Support of the reduced bone in the experimental group (2.80±0.4 was not significantly different from the control group (2.88±0.33. The VAS scores for all survey items were lower in the experimental group than in the control group, where a lower score indicated a lower level of inconvenience.ConclusionsThe nasal cavity packing described here maintained objective measures of nasal respiration and supported the reduced bone similar to conventional methods. Maintaining nasal respiration reduced the inconvenience to patients, which demonstrates that this packing method is useful.

  16. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  17. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  18. Objectivating nasality in healthy and velopharyngeal insufficient children with the Nasalance Acquisition System (NasalView). Defining minimal required speech tasks assessing normative values for Dutch language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogen Esch, Thijs T; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2004-08-01

    (1) To define normative nasalance data for Dutch language with "the NasalView System", and obtain a reference for normality when nasality is evaluated in children. (2) To investigate the minimal number of required speech tasks for a reliable nasalance measurement. 55 children (30 normal and 25 velopharyngeal insufficient), aged between 4 and 11 were included. All children had to read or repeat two Dutch passages ((one with a normal amount of nasal consonants (normal passage) and one with none (nonnasal passage)). Further, one normal and one velopharyngeal insufficient subject read a passage in repetition to test the NasalViews reproducibility: (1) For both passages, group means (GM) and standard deviations (S.D.) were used to compute "pathological nasalance boundaries" [GM +/- (2 x S.D.)], in combination with the coefficient of variation (CV), sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values. (2) With ANOVA all sentences within each passage were tested for significant differences in nasalance. (1) The pathological boundaries were 28.6-41.4% (GM: 35.0) and 21.4-34.7% (GM: 28.1), for the normal and nonnasal passage, respectively. For the normal passage a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 93% and a positive predictive value of 92% was computed. For the nonnasal passage these parameters were 96, 95 and 96%, respectively. Intra subject CVs of 3.6% (normal subject) and 1.5% (VI subject) showed good reproducibility of measurements. (2) Within the normal passage only the third sentence was significantly different in nasalance, compared to the entire passage (31.2% versus 35.0%). Within the nonnasal passage the second and fifth sentences were significantly different (23.8 and 24.8% versus 28.1%). However, the individual nonsignificantly different sentences showed a higher variation in nasalance compared to the entire passages. The NasalView System seems to be reliable and quantifies valid nasalance values when nasality is evaluated. Within both passages high

  19. [Language tests for the examination of nasal resonance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorek, J; Pruszewicz, A; Obrebowski, A

    1996-01-01

    A set of 7 word tests with different number of nasal phonemes was prepared. These tests are adjusted to technical possibilities of nasal resonance examination by means of own construction apparatus. The VII-th test consisting only oral speech sounds appeared to be most important for estimating physiological nasal resonance characteristic for the Polish language and gave individual timbre of the voice. For Polish language these resonance rate is 15.2%. It is useful as reference data to evaluate patients with pathological nasal resonance. The VII-th test together with the V-th one which contain 6.3% of nasal consonants, and the VI-th with 33.3% of them were used for detailed evaluation of nasal resonance.

  20. Anatomical study of nasal cartilage in buffalo (Bubalus bubulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Yeganehzad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used ten heads of adult buffalo taken from slaughterhouse. After transferring the samples to the anatomy hall, a split was carefully created on skin of muzzle and the skin was slowly separated from muscles and hypodermal connective tissue. Place of connection of cartilages to bone, cartilages to each other and shape of the cartilages were specified. In buffalo, nose apex has two nostrils fixed by bone and cartilage. After identifying and separating the cartilages, it was found that nasal cartilages in buffalo consisted of: 1 septum nasal located between two nostrils and reinforces it from inside. 2 dorso-lateral nasal cartilage constituting dorsal and lateral parts of the nostril. 3 ventro-lateral nasal cartilage constituting ventral and lateral parts of the nostril. 4 lateral accessory cartilage constituting lateral and ventral parts of the nostril. 5 medial accessory nasal cartilage located at Alar fold and connected to ventro-lateral nasal cartilage.

  1. Kartagener's syndrome presented with nasal obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Asilsoy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. Although it is rare in children, there may be also association with cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. About 50% of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients develop situs inversus and it is known as Kartagener's syndrome. The Kartagener's sydrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus. Clinically, patients present to the otolaryngologist with nasal obstruction. We as pediatricians, should consider nasal polyposis as a rare cause of nasal obstruction in children. In the presence of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections accompanying nasal polyposis, Kartagener's syndrome must be kept in mind as a rare reason. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 942-945

  2. Change in nasal congestion index after treatment in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Onder, Serap; Oysu, Cagatay; Deveci, Ildem; Sahin, Samil; Aktas, Betul

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) involves both surgical and medical approaches, and remains a controversial subject. Objective: The objective of this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to compare the medical and surgical treatments of CRSwNP in terms of their effect on the nasal congestion index (NCI). Methods: Forty-eight patients with CRSwNP were randomized either to medical or surgical therapy. Pretreatment and 3- and 6-month posttreatment assessments of the visual analog scale score, the 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test, saccharine clearance time, nasal endoscopy, and NCI measurement with acoustic rhinometry were performed. Forty-one subjects were included in the analysis. Results: Both the medical and surgical interventions for CRSwNP resulted in significant improvement in the visual analog scale score, 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test, saccharine clearance time, and nasal endoscopic examination scores. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the percentage change from baseline for any of the parameters at the 6-month posttreatment assessment. NCI showed no significant difference from baseline. Similarly, no significant difference was found between the medical and surgical groups in terms of their effect on the NCI (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Because NCI does not correlate with standard subjective measures in outcomes for this group of patients, it cannot be used as an outcome measurement of treatment of subjects with CRSwNP. Results of this prospective randomized study did not find any additional benefit of surgical therapy over medical therapy in subjects with CRSwNP.

  3. Hydrocolloid dressing in preventing nasal trauma secondary to nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with nasal devices (nCPAP) is widely used in the respiratory management of newborns. The present study aimed to compare the incidence of nasal trauma secondary to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) protected with or without hydrocolloid dressing in preterm infants. This prospective controlled study was performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Children's Hospital of Hunan Province from March 1, 2010 to June 31, 2010. A total of 65 infants, 46 males and 19 females, were recruited in this study. Their average gestational age was 32.6 weeks (range 28-37 weeks). The infants were randomly divided into clinical trial group (group A, n=33) and control group (group B, n=32). Paraffin oil was smeared around the nostrils before inserting prongs in group B; the infants in group A were covered on the infant's nostrils surface with hydrocolloid dressing (hydrocolloid dressing, 1.8 mm thick, 90029T, 3M Company, Minnesota, USA) with a size of 2-3 cm cutting two holes adapted to the nose and nostrils. The nostrils of those infants were inspected daily during nCPAP support until they were weaned off nCPAP. Nine infants (2 in group A and 7 in group B) developed nasal injury during nCPAP support. The Chi-square test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference (P=0.01) in the incidence of nasal injury between groups A and B. The study demonstrated that hydrocolloid dressing significantly decreased the incidence and the severity of nasal injury.

  4. Numerical analysis of respiratory flow patterns within human upper airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Gao, Fei

    2009-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is used to study the respiratory airflow dynamics within a human upper airway. The airway model which consists of the airway from nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea to triple bifurcation is built based on the CT images of a healthy volunteer and the Weibel model. The flow characteristics of the whole upper airway are quantitatively described at any time level of respiratory cycle. Simulation results of respiratory flow show good agreement with the clinical measures, experimental and computational results in the literature. The air mainly passes through the floor of the nasal cavity in the common, middle and inferior nasal meatus. The higher airway resistance and wall shear stresses are distributed on the posterior nasal valve. Although the airways of pharynx, larynx and bronchi experience low shear stresses, it is notable that relatively high shear stresses are distributed on the wall of epiglottis and bronchial bifurcations. Besides, two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction models of normal and abnormal airways are built to discuss the flow-induced deformation in various anatomy models. The result shows that the wall deformation in normal airway is relatively small.

  5. Experience in the management of patients with nasal fractures.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahily Espino Otero; Julio Romero Rodrígez; Odalys Acevedo Sierra; Jorge Luis Estepa Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nasal fracture is the most frequent facial trauma; its immediate treatment help avoiding further complications. Objective: to characterize the patients with nasal fracture who meet the criteria for treatment. Method: An observational, descriptive study was developed, including all patients (114) of 15 years or more with nasal fracture received at the Emergency Maxilo-Facial Surgical Department in the provincial hospital of Cienfuegos from June 2006 to April 2007. The studies varia...

  6. Muscle-building therapy in treatment of nasal valve collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Eviatar, Ephraim; Segal, Samuel

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the outcome of muscle-building therapy for nasal muscles in cases of nasal valve stenosis or collapse. The present study was performed to investigate the best way to combine transcutaneous and intranasal surface electromyography (sEMG) biofeedback training of muscles involved in nasal valve function with a home exercise program and electric stimulation of nasal muscles. A randomized pilot study of 3 groups of patients (n1=12, n2=12, n3=10; total 34 patients) presenting with symptoms of obstructed nasal breathing was conducted. All selected patients demonstrated nasal valve stenosis with a positive Cottler maneuver and clinically evident nasal valve collapse. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 12 months. Treatment for Group 1 included transcutaneous and intranasal electric stimulation of nasal muscles only. Treatment for Group 2 included biofeedback training and home exercise program of specific nasal movements, and treatment for Group 3 included surface and intranasal EMG biofeedback assisted specific strategies for nasal muscle education, home exercises and electric stimulation. All patients in these groups exhibited subjective improvement. For Group 3, in 80% the improvement was proved objectively; for Group 2, in 75% the improvement was proved objectively; for Group 1, in 58,33% the improvement was proved objectively. We found no significant difference between the results in Groups 3 and 2 and poorer results in Group 1. Relieve of nasal valve stenosis and collapse can be achieved with a complex muscle-building therapy as described. It helps a significant cohort of patients with symptoms of obstructed nasal breathing to avoid surgical intervention. Electric stimulation of the muscles does not contribute significantly in achieving of good results.

  7. Complex odontoma of the nasal cavity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan, Michelle; Kacker, Ashutosh

    2008-05-01

    We describe the case of a 76-year-old man who presented with symptoms of chronic nasal obstruction and recurrent sinusitis of many years' duration. The patient's history and radiographic findings established a diagnosis of a complex odontoma of the nasal cavity. The mass was surgically excised, and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. The occurrence of an odontoma in the nasal cavity is extremely rare.

  8. Treatment of Rhinitis Sicca Anterior with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Sonnemann; Olaf Scherner; Nina Werkhäuser

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1) and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2) over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians we...

  9. Compressive and tensile mechanical properties of the porcine nasal septum

    OpenAIRE

    Al Dayeh, Ayman A.; HERRING, SUSAN W.

    2013-01-01

    The expanding nasal septal cartilage is believed to create a force that powers midfacial growth. In addition, the nasal septum is postulated to act as a mechanical strut that prevents the structural collapse of the face under masticatory loads. Both roles imply that the septum is subject to complex biomechanical loads during growth and mastication. The purpose of this study was to measure the mechanical properties of the nasal septum to determine (1) whether the cartilage is mechanically capa...

  10. Patient experience with mupirocin or povidone-iodine nasal decolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannu Praveen Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, nasal vaccines and CNS delivery are explained lucidly. The relevant aspects of biological, physicochemical and pharmaceutical factors of nasal cavity that must be considered during the process of discovery and development of new drugs for nasal delivery as well as in their incorporation into appropriate nasal pharmaceutical formulations are also discussed. Nasal route is more suitable for those drugs which cannot be administered orally due to gastric degradation or hepatic first pass metabolism of the drug. Intranasal drug delivery is found much promising route for administration of peptides and protein drugs. Much has been investigated and much more are to be investigated for the recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems.

  12. Nasal and paranasal involvement in primary Sjogren`s syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midilli, R; Gode, S; Oder, G; Kabasakal, Y; Karci, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate nasal and paranasal signs and symptoms of the primary Sjogren`s syndrome patients and compare them with healthy controls. Seventy-seven (7 M, 70 F) primary Sjogren`s syndrome patients and 77 healthy controls were included in the study. Anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, 5 component smell discrimination test, nasal clearance analysis with saccharin test and electrorhinomanometer were performed. Nasal crusting was present in 31 and 24 individuals in patient and control groups, respectively. Sinusitis was present in 2 and 1 individuals in patient and control groups, respectively. Nasal polyposis was present in 7 and 1 individuals in patient and control groups, respectively. These differences were not statistically different. Although there were some findings in a few patients, nasal findings were insignificant and mild even in patients with severe oral or ocular findings. Rhinomanometry, nasal clearance determination or smell discrimination tests have very little value in the diagnosis or management of primary Sjogren`s syndrome. Nasal polyposis was higher in the patient group, though it did not reach a significant level. Nasal glandular involvement is mild and insignificant in primary Sjogren`s syndrome.

  13. Airflow energy harvesters of metal-based PZT thin films by self-excited vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, E.; Tsujiura, Y.; Kurokawa, F.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.

    2014-11-01

    We developed self-excited vibration energy harvesters of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films using airflow. To enhance the self-excited vibration, we used 30-μm-thick stainless steel (SS304) foils as base cantilevers on which PZT thin films were deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering. To compensate for the initial bending of PZT/SS304 unimorph cantilever due to the thermal stress, we deposited counter PZT thin films on the back of the SS304 cantilever. We evaluated power-generation performance and vibration mode of the energy harvester in the airflow. When the angle of attack (AOA) was 20° to 30°, large vibration was generated at wind speeds over 8 m/s. By FFT analysis, we confirmed that stable self-excited vibration was generated. At the AOA of 30°, the output power reached 19 μW at wind speeds of 12 m/s.

  14. Majority of never-smokers with airflow limitation do not have asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    , ischaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, deep venous thrombosis and PE) during 4.5 years median follow-up. RESULTS: NS+AFL-A compared with NS+AFL+A reported less allergy and respiratory symptoms, and had higher FEV1 and lower levels of eosinophils and IgE in peripheral blood. NS+AFL+A had increased......-AFL-A. CONCLUSIONS: Majority of NS+AFL-A do not seem to have undiagnosed asthma and may instead have airflow limitation caused by other risk factors....... 102 (42%) were never-smokers. In this group, 13 719 (35%) reported to have respiratory symptoms of whom 1610 (12%) had airflow limitation. We investigated characteristics and risk of complications (asthma or COPD exacerbations, pneumonias and all-cause mortality) and comorbidities (lung cancer...

  15. Study of airflow during respiratory cycle in semi-realistic model of human tracheobronchial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcner, Jakub; Zaremba, M.; Maly, M.; Jedelsky, J.; Lizal, F.; Jicha, M.

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with study of airflow under breathing process, which is characteristic by unsteady behavior. Simulations provided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was compared with experiments performed on similar geometry of human upper airways. This geometry was represented by mouth cavity of realistic shape connected to an idealized tracheobronchial tree up to fourth generation of branching. Commercial CFD software Star-CCM+ was used to calculate airflow inside investigated geometry and method of Reynolds averaging of Navier-Stokes equations was used for subscribing the turbulent behavior through model geometry. Conditions corresponding to resting state were considered. Comparisons with experiments were provided on several points through trachea and bronchial tree and results with respect to inspiratory and respiratory part of breathing cycle was discussed.

  16. Airflow and Contaminant Distribution in Hospital Wards with a Displacement Ventililation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, H.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Airflow and Contaminant Distribution in Hospital Wards with a Displacement Ventilalation System. The 2nd International Conference on Build Environment and Public Health, BEPH 2004, Shenzhen , China . ABSTRACT Displacement ventilation has not been considered to be an applicable system for hospital...... to accurately predict three-dimensional distribution of air velocity, temperature, and contaminant concentration in the ward. Indoor airflow in a displacement ventilation system involves a combination of different flow streams such as the gravity currents and thermal plumes. It is important to choose...... assisted us to understand the contaminant dispersion. It was shown that the interaction of exhaled flow and the body thermal plume generated by manikin would affect exhaled virus-laden aerosols distribution in the ward with displacement ventilation system....

  17. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, John C.; Xenofos, George D.; Farrow, John L.; Tyler, Tom; Williams, Robert; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a full-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrumentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors.

  18. Characterizing Indoor Airflow and Pollutant Transport using Simulation Modeling for Prototypical Buildings. I. Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, M.D.; Daisey, J.M.; Feustel, H.E.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the first efforts at developing a set of prototypical buildings defined to capture the key features affecting airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. These buildings will be used to model airflow and pollutant transport for emergency response scenarios when limited site-specific information is available and immediate decisions must be made, and to better understand key features of buildings controlling occupant exposures to indoor pollutant sources. This paper presents an example of this approach for a prototypical intermediate-sized, open style, commercial building. Interzonal transport due to a short-term source release, e.g., accidental chemical spill, in the bottom and the upper floors is predicted and corresponding HVAC system operation effects and potential responses are considered. Three-hour average exposure estimates are used to compare effects of source location and HVAC operation.

  19. Ventilation imaging of the paranasal sinuses using xenon-enhanced dynamic single-energy CT and dual-energy CT: a feasibility study in a nasal cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Sven F; Möller, Winfried; Becker, Sven; Schuschnig, Uwe; Eickelberg, Oliver; Helck, Andreas D; Reiser, Maximilian F; Johnson, Thorsten R C

    2012-10-01

    To show the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) and dynamic CT for ventilation imaging of the paranasal sinuses in a nasal cast. In a first trial, xenon gas was administered to a nasal cast with a laminar flow of 7 L/min. Dynamic CT acquisitions of the nasal cavity and the sinuses were performed. This procedure was repeated with pulsating xenon flow. Local xenon concentrations in the different compartments of the model were determined on the basis of the enhancement levels. In a second trial, DECT measurements were performed both during laminar and pulsating xenon administration and the xenon concentrations were quantified directly. Neither with dynamic CT nor DECT could xenon-related enhancement be detected in the sinuses during laminar airflow. Using pulsating flow, dynamic imaging showed a xenon wash-in and wash-out in the sinuses that followed a mono-exponential function with time constants of a few seconds. Accordingly, DECT revealed xenon enhancement in the sinuses only after pulsating xenon administration. The feasibility of xenon-enhanced DECT for ventilation imaging was proven in a nasal cast. The superiority of pulsating gas flow for the administration of gas or aerosolised drugs to the paranasal sinuses was demonstrated. • Ventilation of the paranasal sinuses is poorly understood. • Dual-energy CT ventilation imaging has been explored using phantom simulation. • Xenon can be seen in the paranasal sinuses using pulsating xenon flow. • Dual-energy CT uses a lower radiation dose compared with dynamic ventilation CT.

  20. Payload bay atmospheric vent airflow testing at the Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Several concerns related to venting the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload bay during launch led to laboratory experiments with a flight-type vent box installed in the wall of a subsonic wind tunnel. This report describes the test setups and procedures used to acquire data for characterization of airflow through the vent box and acoustic tones radiated from the vent-box cavity. A flexible boundary-layer spoiler which reduced the vent-tone amplitude is described.

  1. CT-diagnosed emphysema and prognosis of chronic airflow obstruction: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Fukuda, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Keitaro; Takaku, Yotaro; Hijikata, Naoya; Hoshi, Toshiko; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Ueda, Miyuki; Takayanagi, Noboru; Sugita, Yutaka; Araki, Ryuichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective CT-diagnosed emphysema is associated with poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its clinical impacts on prognoses of asthma with chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) are not well known. We sought to compare mortalities and prognostic factors in COPD and asthma with CAO by the presence or absence of CT-diagnosed emphysema. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Referral centre hospital for respiratory disease. Participants 1272 patients aged over 40 years w...

  2. THE ANALYSIS FOR THE AIRFLOW EXCITING-VIBRATION FORCE OF CONTROL STAGE OF STEAM TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴山; 张耀明; 马浩; 曲庆文; 赵又群

    2001-01-01

    Based on the hydrodynamics, the airflow exciting-vibration force of control stage of steam turbine is studied by using the momentum theorem. A formulation for calculating the air exciting-vibration force of the control stage of steam turbine is deduced first by using theoretical analysis method and taking all the design factors of vane and nozzles into consideration. Moreover, the exciting-vibration forces in different load cases are discussed respectively.

  3. Airflow study of pathologic larynges using a constant temperature anemometer: further experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, K; Fujita, F

    1992-08-01

    Phonatory airflow was recorded in 361 laryngeal disease patients and 59 normal subjects by using a constant temperature anemometer to measure Isshiki's proposed parameter, the AC/DC percentage. The pathologic groups displayed AC/DC percentage values smaller than those of the normal group. The value differentials observed among the various diseases suggest that the AC/DC percentage may reflect the vibrational capacity of the vocal cords.

  4. Description of the airflow produced by an air-assisted sprayer during pesticide applications to citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Salcedo; Cruz Garcera; Rafael Granell; Enrique Molto; Patricia Chueca

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric drift of plant protection products is considered a major source of air pollution during pesticide applications. Citrus protection against pests and diseases usually requires application of these products using air-blast sprayers. Many authors have emphasized the influence of vegetation on the risk of spray drift. The aim of this work was to describe in detail how the airflow from an air-blast sprayer behaves when it reaches citrus trees and, in particular, the effect that the tree...

  5. Experience in the management of patients with nasal fractures. Experiencia en el manejo de los pacientes con fracturas nasales.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nasal fracture is the most frequent facial trauma; its immediate treatment help avoiding further complications. Objective: to characterize the patients with nasal fracture who meet the criteria for treatment. Method: An observational, descriptive study was developed, including all patients (114) of 15 years or more with nasal fracture received at the Emergency Maxilo-Facial Surgical Department i...

  6. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN DERIVED NASALANCE MEASURES AND PERCEIVED NASALITY IN CHILDREN WITH REPAIRED CLEFT LIP AND PALATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attuluri Navya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD is one of the associated condition reported in individuals with repaired cleft lip and palate (RCLP leading to hypernasality. Nasality can be assessed by nasometer through nasalance values. But, mean nasalance values (N found to be overlapping between individuals with RCLP and normals. To overcome these limitations Nasalance Distance (ND and Nasalance Ratio (NR are derived based on nasalance range. Aims: The study is aimed to evaluate, correlate and compare acoustical (N, ND & NR and perceptual measures of nasality between the children with RCLP and control group. Settings and Design: Institutional setup and standard group comparison design Methods and Material: The study included fifteen children with RCLP ranging from 6 to 11 years and the control group consists of age and gender matched 15 typically developing children. Four point standard rating scale was used to rate the hypernasality by three speech language pathologists (SLP’s and Nasometer was used to measure the mean and derived nasalance scores for vowels and sentences in Kannada. Statistical analysis: SPSS, Cronbach’s Alpha test, multivariate analysis and Pearson’s product movement correlation were used to analyze the data. Results: Significant increase in the mean nasalance value and NR was seen in children with RCLP than the control group, whereas ND was contrary. ND was highly correlated with perceived nasality than N. The NR of sentences shows high negative correlation. Conclusions: The measures based on range of nasalance can be adapted to the routine clinical examinations for better correlation with perceived nasality.

  7. Airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a thermal manikin - Impact of specific personal and indoor environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Tham, Kwok Wai; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a summary of experimental measurements on the airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a non-breathing thermal manikin. The two objectives are: (1) to examine the extent to which personal (body posture, clothing insulation, table positioning) and environmental...... pollutants under factors that influence the CBL. The results show that the CBL generated by the thermal manikin influenced the airflow characteristics and pollution distribution in the breathing zone. Parameters such as room air temperature, body posture, clothing insulation, table positioning...

  8. The effect of nasalization on /a/ vowel formants before and after nasal consonant in 4-9-year old normal Persian speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowsar Baghban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Nasalization of a vowel refers to the addition of nasal resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Also, vowel nasalization occurs because of coarticulation. Coupling of the nasal resonating space to the oropharyngeal cavity alters the vocal tract formants in complex ways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nasalization on /a/ vowel formants in before and after nasal consonant.Methods: In current cross-sectional study, voice samples of 60 normal children ranging the age of four-nine years were investigated. Participants were asked to repeat / ʔ ama/ three times and vowel /a/ after presentation of an auditory model. Then, obtained samples were analyzed using Praat 5.3.13 . Average of F0, F1, F2 and F3 were calculated for /a/ comes before and after /m/ in production of / ʔ ama/ over three trials.Results: There were statistically significant differences of F1, F2 and F3 between / a/ which proceeds nasal consonant and /a/ follows nasal consonant , the before nasal consonant /a/ versus single /a/ and the after nasal consonant /a/ versus single /a/ (p=0.001 for all.Conclusion : F1, F2 and F3 in /a/ before nasal consonant affected by anticipatory nasal coarticulation and in /a/ after nasal consonant affected by carry-over nasal coarticulation . This study showed nasal coarticulation and nasalization result in decreasing F1, F2 and F3 in /a/ vowel.

  9. Group differences in measures of voice production and revised values of maximum airflow declination rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkell, J S; Hillman, R E; Holmberg, E B

    1994-08-01

    In previous reports, aerodynamic and acoustic measures of voice production were presented for groups of normal male and female speakers [Holmberg et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 511-529 (1988); J. Voice 3, 294-305 (1989)] that were used as norms in studies of voice disorders [Hillman et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 32, 373-392 (1989); J. Voice 4, 52-63 (1990)]. Several of the measures were extracted from glottal airflow waveforms that were derived by inverse filtering a high-time-resolution oral airflow signal. Recently, the methods have been updated and a new study of additional subjects has been conducted. This report presents previous (1988) and current (1993) group mean values of sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, maximum airflow declination rate, ac flow, peak flow, minimum flow, ac-dc ratio, inferred subglottal air pressure, average flow, and glottal resistance. Statistical tests indicate overall group differences and differences for values of several individual parameters between the 1988 and 1993 studies. Some inter-study differences in parameter values may be due to sampling effects and minor methodological differences; however, a comparative test of 1988 and 1993 inverse filtering algorithms shows that some lower 1988 values of maximum flow declination rate were due at least in part to excessive low-pass filtering in the 1988 algorithm. The observed differences should have had a negligible influence on the conclusions of our studies of voice disorders.

  10. Development of an Indoor Airflow Energy Harvesting System for Building Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Fei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been widely used for intelligent building management applications. Typically, indoor environment parameters such as illumination, temperature, humidity and air quality are monitored and adjusted by an intelligent building management system. However, owing to the short life-span of the batteries used at the sensor nodes, the maintenance of such systems has been labor-intensive and time-consuming. This paper discusses a battery-less self-powering system that converts the mechanical energy from the airflow in ventilation ducts into electrical energy. The system uses a flutter energy conversion device (FECD capable of working at low airflow speeds while installed on the ventilation ducts inside of buildings. A power management strategy implemented with a circuit system ensures sufficient power for driving commercial electronic devices. For instance, the power management circuit is capable of charging a 1 F super capacitor to 2 V under ventilation duct airflow speeds of less than 3 m/s.

  11. Elasto-Aerodynamics-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Scavenging Air-Flow Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhua; Mu, Xiaojing; Wang, Xue; Gu, Alex Yuandong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2015-10-27

    Efficient scavenging the kinetic energy from air-flow represents a promising approach for obtaining clean, sustainable electricity. Here, we report an elasto-aerodynamics-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on contact electrification. The reported TENG consists of a Kapton film with two Cu electrodes at each side, fixed on two ends in an acrylic fluid channel. The relationship between the TENG output power density and its fluid channel dimensions is systematically studied. TENG with a fluid channel size of 125 × 10 × 1.6 mm(3) delivers the maximum output power density of about 9 kW/m(3) under a loading resistance of 2.3 MΩ. Aero-elastic flutter effect explains the air-flow induced vibration of Kapton film well. The output power scales nearly linearly with parallel wiring of multiple TENGs. Connecting 10 TENGs in parallel gives an output power of 25 mW, which allows direct powering of a globe light. The TENG is also utilized to scavenge human breath induced air-flow energy to sustainably power a human body temperature sensor.

  12. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  13. Human-mediated dispersal of seeds by the airflow of vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lippe, Moritz; Bullock, James M; Kowarik, Ingo; Knopp, Tatjana; Wichmann, Matthias C; Wichmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Human-mediated dispersal is known as an important driver of long-distance dispersal for plants but underlying mechanisms have rarely been assessed. Road corridors function as routes of secondary dispersal for many plant species but the extent to which vehicles support this process remains unclear. In this paper we quantify dispersal distances and seed deposition of plant species moved over the ground by the slipstream of passing cars. We exposed marked seeds of four species on a section of road and drove a car along the road at a speed of 48 km/h. By tracking seeds we quantified movement parallel as well as lateral to the road, resulting dispersal kernels, and the effect of repeated vehicle passes. Median distances travelled by seeds along the road were about eight meters for species with wind dispersal morphologies and one meter for species without such adaptations. Airflow created by the car lifted seeds and resulted in longitudinal dispersal. Single seeds reached our maximum measuring distance of 45 m and for some species exceeded distances under primary dispersal. Mathematical models were fit to dispersal kernels. The incremental effect of passing vehicles on longitudinal dispersal decreased with increasing number of passes as seeds accumulated at road verges. We conclude that dispersal by vehicle airflow facilitates seed movement along roads and accumulation of seeds in roadside habitats. Dispersal by vehicle airflow can aid the spread of plant species and thus has wide implications for roadside ecology, invasion biology and nature conservation.

  14. Human-mediated dispersal of seeds by the airflow of vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz von der Lippe

    Full Text Available Human-mediated dispersal is known as an important driver of long-distance dispersal for plants but underlying mechanisms have rarely been assessed. Road corridors function as routes of secondary dispersal for many plant species but the extent to which vehicles support this process remains unclear. In this paper we quantify dispersal distances and seed deposition of plant species moved over the ground by the slipstream of passing cars. We exposed marked seeds of four species on a section of road and drove a car along the road at a speed of 48 km/h. By tracking seeds we quantified movement parallel as well as lateral to the road, resulting dispersal kernels, and the effect of repeated vehicle passes. Median distances travelled by seeds along the road were about eight meters for species with wind dispersal morphologies and one meter for species without such adaptations. Airflow created by the car lifted seeds and resulted in longitudinal dispersal. Single seeds reached our maximum measuring distance of 45 m and for some species exceeded distances under primary dispersal. Mathematical models were fit to dispersal kernels. The incremental effect of passing vehicles on longitudinal dispersal decreased with increasing number of passes as seeds accumulated at road verges. We conclude that dispersal by vehicle airflow facilitates seed movement along roads and accumulation of seeds in roadside habitats. Dispersal by vehicle airflow can aid the spread of plant species and thus has wide implications for roadside ecology, invasion biology and nature conservation.

  15. Comparative analysis of realistic CT-scan and simplified human airway models in airflow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Nasrul Hadi; Osman, Kahar; Helmi, Nor Harris N; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed A Rafiq

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to model the human upper respiratory system have undergone many phases. Geometrical proximity to the realistic shape has been the subject of many research projects. In this study, three different geometries of the trachea and main bronchus were modelled, which were reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) scan images. The geometrical variations were named realistic, simplified and oversimplified. Realistic refers to the lifelike image taken from digital imaging and communications in medicine format CT scan images, simplified refers to the reconstructed image based on natural images without realistic details pertaining to the rough surfaces, and oversimplified describes the straight wall geometry of the airway. The characteristics of steady state flows with different flow rates were investigated, simulating three varied physical activities and passing through each model. The results agree with previous studies where simplified models are sufficient for providing comparable results for airflow in human airways. This work further suggests that, under most exercise conditions, the idealised oversimplified model is not favourable for simulating either airflow regimes or airflow with particle depositions. However, in terms of immediate analysis for the prediction of abnormalities of various dimensions of human airways, the oversimplified techniques may be used.

  16. Reconstruction of sound source signal by analytical passive TR in the environment with airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Long; Li, Min; Yang, Debin; Niu, Feng; Zeng, Wu

    2017-03-01

    In the acoustic design of air vehicles, the time-domain signals of noise sources on the surface of air vehicles can serve as data support to reveal the noise source generation mechanism, analyze acoustic fatigue, and take measures for noise insulation and reduction. To rapidly reconstruct the time-domain sound source signals in an environment with flow, a method combining the analytical passive time reversal mirror (AP-TR) with a shear flow correction is proposed. In this method, the negative influence of flow on sound wave propagation is suppressed by the shear flow correction, obtaining the corrected acoustic propagation time delay and path. Those corrected time delay and path together with the microphone array signals are then submitted to the AP-TR, reconstructing more accurate sound source signals in the environment with airflow. As an analytical method, AP-TR offers a supplementary way in 3D space to reconstruct the signal of sound source in the environment with airflow instead of the numerical TR. Experiments on the reconstruction of the sound source signals of a pair of loud speakers are conducted in an anechoic wind tunnel with subsonic airflow to validate the effectiveness and priorities of the proposed method. Moreover the comparison by theorem and experiment result between the AP-TR and the time-domain beamforming in reconstructing the sound source signal is also discussed.

  17. Sleep position and the ocular surface in a high airflow environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauba, Vinod; Curtis, Zoe J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the relationship between sleep position and ocular surface symptoms and signs in an high air flow environment. Methods Prospective observational study of new patients attending the dry eye clinic was performed. Patients with pre-existing ocular history, relevant systemic history (e.g. Sjogren’s syndrome) or who were using topical or systemic therapy for dry eye were not included. Data were collected from the patient to document their dry eye symptoms; preferred dependent sleeping side and their bedroom airflow. All patients were examined by a clinician blind to the patient’s responses where Schirmer’s test and slit lamp examination were performed looking for the presence of lagophthalmos and corneal epitheliopathy. Results 48 patients enrolled into the study of which 23 were males and 25 were females with a normal and comparable age distribution. The study found a strong association between patients’ preferred sleeping side and the incidence of corneal epitheliopathy in the contralateral eye particularly in patients with evidence of lagophthalmos. Dry eye symptoms were found to be worse and tear production lower on the contralateral side to the preferred sleeping side particularly in patients who sleep in a high airflow environment. Conclusion In patients sleeping in a high airflow environment with nocturnal lagophthalmos, this study observed an association between preferred dependent sleep position and increased dry eye symptoms, lower Schirmer’s scores and increased corneal epitheliopathy in the contralateral eye. PMID:24526862

  18. Modeling and Assessment of Buoyancy-Driven Stratified Airflow in High-Space Industrial Hall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-qing; CHEN Ke; HU Jian-jun; KOU Guang-xiao; WANG Zhi-yong

    2009-01-01

    In industrial environment,heat sources often are contaminant sources and health threatening con-taminants are mainly passive,so a detailed understanding of airflow mode can assist in work environment hy-giene measurement and prevention.This paper presented a numerical investigation of stratified airflow scenario in a high-space industrial hall with validated commercial code and experimentally acquired boundary conditions.Based upon an actually undergoing engineering project,this study investigated the performance of the buoyancy-driven displacement ventilation in a large welding hall with big components manufactured.The results have demonstrated that stratified airflow sustained by thermal buoyancy provides zoning effect in terms of clean and polluted regions except minor stagnant eddy areas.The competition between negative buoyant jets from displace-ment radial diffusers and positive buoyant plume from bulk object constitutes the complex transport characteris-tics under and above stratification interface.Entrainment,downdraft and turbulent eddy motion complicate the upper mixing zone,but the exhaust outlet plays a less important role in the whole field flow.And the corre-sponding suggestions concerning computational stability and convergence,further improvements in modeling and measurements were given.

  19. Emphysema predicts hospitalisation and incident airflow obstruction among older smokers: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A McAllister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emphysema on CT is common in older smokers. We hypothesised that emphysema on CT predicts acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease among older smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants in a lung cancer screening study age ≥ 60 years were recruited into a prospective cohort study in 2001-02. Two radiologists independently visually assessed the severity of emphysema as absent, mild, moderate or severe. Percent emphysema was defined as the proportion of voxels ≤ -910 Hounsfield Units. Participants completed a median of 5 visits over a median of 6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was hospitalization, emergency room or urgent office visit for chronic lower respiratory disease. Spirometry was performed following ATS/ERS guidelines. Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70 and FEV1<80% predicted. RESULTS: Of 521 participants, 4% had moderate or severe emphysema, which was associated with acute episodes of care (rate ratio 1.89; 95% CI: 1.01-3.52 adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, as was percent emphysema, with similar associations for hospitalisation. Emphysema on visual assessment also predicted incident airflow obstruction (HR 5.14; 95% CI 2.19-21.1. CONCLUSION: Visually assessed emphysema and percent emphysema on CT predicted acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease, with the former predicting incident airflow obstruction among older smokers.

  20. Airflow and autonomic responses to stress and relaxation in asthma: the impact of stressor type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussafy, David; Campbell, Tavis S; Lavoie, Kim; Aboud, Frances E; Ditto, Blaine

    2005-09-01

    The impact of stress on respiratory airflow in asthmatics is unclear. Part of the uncertainty may spring from the different physiological effects of different stressors. Given their potential to elicit increases in parasympathetic vagal activity, stressful situations that present few opportunities for coping (passive coping stressors) may be particularly problematic for people with asthma. Thirty-one adult asthmatics participated in a protocol including a widely used passive coping stressor (the cold pressor test), an active coping stressor (mental arithmetic), an interview about an upsetting asthma-related incident (viewed as a potential passive coping stressor given the exposure to unpleasant memories), and progressive muscle relaxation. Repeated measurements of airflow (via peak expiratory flow), vagal tone (via heart rate variability), and other variables were obtained. The cold pressor test, asthma interview and progressive muscle relaxation produced significant decreases in airflow compared to the baseline period. The cold pressor test and progressive muscle relaxation produced significant, complementary increases in vagal tone. These results suggest that passive coping stressors and other stimuli (e.g., certain forms of relaxation) that elicit increased vagal tone may be associated with poorer asthma control, a view consistent with a significant negative correlation between the participant's mean vagal tone response to the tasks and score on a measure of asthma self-efficacy.

  1. Airflow and thermal simulation in a controlled test chamber with different heating configurations using CFD modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candanedo, L.; Karava, P.; Bessoudo, M.; Tzempelikos, A.; Athienitis, A. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Handfield, L. [Inst. de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Shawnigan, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Efficient windows and facades can reduce perimeter heating and energy consumption costs in buildings. In this study, 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to model airflow and heat transfer in a controlled test chamber at a Hydro-Quebec laboratory. The aim of the study was to investigate thermofluidic phenomena in the vicinity of windows and facades for rooms heated with baseboard heaters and rooms heated with heated windows. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was employed to study the airflow in a plane close to a window that was heated with either embedded heaters or indirectly with a baseboard heater. The PIV system was synchronized with a data acquisition system which collected temperature data from the 4 walls, ceiling, floor, and each of the 5 windows. Time-averaged values were used for boundaries. Navier-Stokes equations were used to calculate laminar flow and heat transfer. An indoor zero-equation turbulence model was used to characterize indoor airflow. The Rayleigh number was used to categorize the nature of the buoyancy-induced flow. The simulations showed good agreement with experimental data. The largest differences in air speed measurements were found in the cavity formed by the blind and the window glazing. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. Air-cooled volcanoes ? New insights on convective airflow process within Miyakejima and Piton de la Fournaise volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, R.; Geshi, N.; Kurita, K.; Aoki, Y.; Ichihara, M.; Staudacher, T.; Bachelery, P.

    2012-04-01

    Subsurface airflow in the unsaturated zone of the soil has been extensively investigated in a variety of disciplines such as mining, nuclear waste or agriculture science. In volcanology, the recent discovery of subsurface airflow close to the terminal cone of Piton de La Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island, France) provides for the first time insights into the convective behavior of air within the unsaturated layer [1]. The characteristics of the aerothermal system, its occurrence in other volcanoes, its ability to transport heat during quiescent periods and the perturbation of this system before eruptions are the key questions we want to address following this discovery. In this study, we present observations of subsurface convective airflow within opened fractures located at the summit of Miyakejima and Piton de la Fournaise volcanoes from anemometric and temperature data. Two anemometers and thermocouples were placed at the surface and at the center of the fracture at two-meter depth during a diurnal cycle. Six thermocouples also measured the temperature at 1 meter-depth, on a profile set perpendicularly to the fracture. Finally, a thermal camera was used to make punctual measurements of the surface temperature of the fracture. At Miyakejima, two surveys were realized in winter 2010 and summer 2011. During the winter, mild air exit was detected from the fracture with a central vertical velocity of 20 to 50 cm/s. The temperature of the site was constant during the diurnal cycle (~ 22°C), leading to a maximum temperature contrast of 15°C between the fracture and the atmosphere just before sunrise. During summer, a different hydrodynamic behavior was observed: Air inflow was detected during the whole diurnal cycle with a mean velocity of 20 cm/s. The temperature of the fracture followed the temperature of the atmosphere at 2 meters-depth. In the case of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, the same convective behavior was observed at two different fractures during

  3. Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, Emily A

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal prongs compared with nasal mask reduces the rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants within 72 hours of starting therapy.

  4. Glottal airflow and transglottal air pressure measurements for male and female speakers in soft, normal, and loud voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, E B; Hillman, R E; Perkell, J S

    1988-08-01

    Measurements on the inverse filtered airflow waveform (the "glottal waveform") and of estimated average transglottal pressure and glottal airflow were made from noninvasive recordings of productions of syllable sequences in soft, normal, and loud voice for 25 male and 20 female speakers. Statistical analyses showed that with change from normal to loud voice, both males and females produced loud voice with increased pressure, accompanied by increased ac flow and increased maximum airflow declination rate. With change from normal voice, soft voice was produced with decreased pressure, ac flow and maximum airflow declination rate, and increased dc and average flow. Within the loudness conditions, there was no significant male-female difference in air pressure. Several glottal waveform parameters separated males and females in normal and loud voice. The data indicate higher ac flow and higher maximum airflow declination rate for males. In soft voice, the male and female glottal waveforms were more alike, and there was no significant difference in maximum airflow declination rate. The dc flow did not differ significantly between males and females. Possible relevance to biomechanical differences and differences in voice source characteristics between males and females and across loudness conditions is discussed.

  5. Statistical data analysis method for multi-zonal airflow measurement using multiple kinds of perfluorocarbon tracer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Hiroyasu; Onishi, Yoshinori [Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corporation, 4-17, Etchujima 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8530 (Japan); Tanabe, Shin-ichi [School of Science and Engineering, Department of Architecture, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kashihara, Seiichi [R and D Laboratories, Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, 2-1, Samejima Fuji-shi, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    Conventional multi-zonal ventilation measurement methods by multiple types of perfluorocarbon tracers use a number of different gases equal to the number of zones (n). The possible n x n+n airflows are estimated from the mass balance of the gases and the airflow balance. However, some airflows may not occur because of inter-zonal geometry, and the introduction of unnecessary, unknown parameters can impair the accuracy of the estimation. Also, various error factors often yield an irrational negative airflow rate. Conventional methods are insufficient for the evaluation of error. This study describes a way of using the least-squares technique to improve the precision of estimation and to evaluate reliability. From the equations' residual, the error variance-covariance matrix {lambda}{sub q} of the estimated airflow rate error is deduced. In addition, the coefficient of determinant using the residual sum of squares and total variation is introduced. Furthermore, the error matrix{sub m}{lambda}{sub q} from the measurement errors in the gas concentration and gas emission rate is deduced. The discrepancy ratio of the model premises is defined by dividing the diagonal elements of the former by those of the latter. Moreover, the index of irrationality of the estimated negative airflow rate is defined, based on the different results of the three estimation methods. Some numerical experiments are also carried out to verify the flow rate estimation and the reliability evaluation theory. (author)

  6. Relationship between Pulmonary Airflow and Resistance in Patients with Airway Narrowing Using An 1-D Network Resistance and Compliance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long

    2016-11-01

    To predict the proper relationship between airway resistance and regional airflow, we proposed a novel 1-D network model for airway resistance and acinar compliance. First, we extracted 1-D skeletons at inspiration images, and generated 1-D trees of CT unresolved airways with a volume filling method. We used Horsfield order with random heterogeneity to create diameters of the generated 1-D trees. We employed a resistance model that accounts for kinetic energy and viscous dissipation (Model A). The resistance model is further coupled with a regional compliance model estimated from two static images (Model B). For validation, we applied both models to a healthy subject. The results showed that Model A failed to provide airflows consistent with air volume change, whereas Model B provided airflows consistent with air volume change. Since airflows shall be regionally consistent with air volume change in patients with normal airways, Model B was validated. Then, we applied Model B to severe asthmatic subjects. The results showed that regional airflows were significantly deviated from air volume change due to airway narrowing. This implies that airway resistance plays a major role in determining regional airflows of patients with airway narrowing. Support for this study was provided, in part, by NIH Grants U01 HL114494, R01 HL094315, R01 HL112986, and S10 RR022421.

  7. Efficacy of mupirocin nasal ointment in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in chronic haemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. L. Holton; L. E. Nicolle; D. Diley; K. Bernstein

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTopical 2% mupirocin ointment eradicated chronic Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage immediately post-therapy in 17 (77%) of 22 haemodialysis patients. Mean time to recurrence was 3.8 weeks. Similar pre-therapy and post-therapy phage types occurred in 12 (71%) of 17 patients. Staphyloco

  8. Nasal mites of Tyrannidae (Aves in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Mendes

    Full Text Available A total of 81 Tyraniidae birds were examined, 80 Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766 (Great kiscadee, and one Machetornis rixosa (Vieilot, 1819 (Cattle tyrant, for collection of nasal mites, which were identified as Ptilonyssus spinosus (Brooks & Strandtmann, 1960 and Sternostoma longisetosae (Hyland, 1961 (Rhinonyssidae. This finding characterises the first report of P. spinosus and S. longisetosae in P. sulphuratus, and the first record of P. spinosus in M. rixosa, and expands the geographic distribution of these species. It is the first occurrence of S. longisetosae in the Neotropics, and the first citation of P. spinosus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  9. Septum nasal perforation: treatments and literature' review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Neto, Eulógio Emílio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study consists in a bibliographical' review concerning the articles related to the different manifestations and forms of the septum nasal perforation, with a main emphasis in the description of its techniques of surgical correction. As the etiology, that is fundamentally iatrogenic, accordingly surgical trauma. Other causes include exhibition to chemical industrial reagents, cocaine use, intranasal steroidal therapeutic, neoplasia and, infectious conditions. There is a few data concerning the prevalence of septum perforation in the general population. The decision making about surgical correction or medical treatment depend on the anatomic characteristics and of the pathogenesis of the septal perforation.

  10. Fronto-nasal Encephalocele. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ferrer Montoya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Encephalocele is a herniation of the brain tissue through a congenital or acquired defect of the skull. The congenital condition is caused by a neural-tube defect attributable to an interaction among several genes and environmental factors. Anterior encephalocele is a rare entity and its incidence varies depending on the geographic area. We report the case of a newborn with a tumour protruding through the fronto-nasal region with a central pedunculated polypoid formation, in addition to the presence of bilateral cleft lip and palate. Surgical treatment was decided after consulting the Neurosurgery Department. This case report is interesting due to the rarity of this entity.

  11. Chronic urticaria treated with soft nasal filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old boy having two attacks of urticaria per day for the last 5 years and intermittent attacks of sneezing and rhinorrhoea, and without any clues to the causative agent in spite of a detailed history and follow up, showed almost complete relief on wearing an ordinary cloth mask for 3 days. He was subsequently trained to use the soft nasal filters and obtained almost 80% relief in urticaria and complete relief in rhinitis during the next 1 year. Wearing the mask for 2 days again led to complete relief and further training in the proper use of the filters was helpful.

  12. Human perception of air movement. Impact of frequency and airflow direction on draught sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genhong Zhou

    1999-08-01

    Draught is defined as an unwanted local cooling of the human body caused by air movement. Air velocity and temperature are the main characteristics of air movement in rooms. Characteristics of instantaneous air velocity and temperature records previously measured in ventilated indoor spaces were analyzed. Air velocity and temperature fluctuated randomly. The amplitude and frequency of the fluctuations changed over time. Air movements around the human body were measured with a three-dimensional laser Doppler amemometer. A new parameter, equivalent frequency, was defined as an integral single parameter for describing the frequency characteristics of air velocity. The equivalent frequency of a randomly fluctuating velocity is defined as the frequency of sinusoidal velocity fluctuations with the same ratio of the standard deviation of acceleration to the standard deviation of air velocity as in the random velocity fluctuations. The equivalent frequencies of numerous instantaneous air-velocity records measured in ventilated space were analysed. The equivalent frequency of an airflow in an indoor space was found to be 0.1 to 2 Hz. The equivalent frequencies of most of the airflows were between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. The relation between equivalent frequency and mean air velocity and standard deviation was established. Experiments were performed to identify the impact of the equivalent frequency on the human perception of draught. Forty subjects (20 women and 20 men) were subjected to airflows from behind with mean air velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s, with equivalent frequencies from 0 to 1 Hz at an air temperature of 20 deg. C. In this human-subject experimental study the frequency was found to have a significant impact on draught sensation. Subjects were more sensitive to airflow at an equivalent frequency between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. A mathematical model for the simulation of draught was established and a computer program was developed for simulating the draught. The program

  13. The Efficacy of a Protocolized Nursing Care on Nasal Skin Breakdown in Preterm Neonates Receiving Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective method of ventilation in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Using an appropriate nasal skin care protocol is identical to prevention or reduction of nasal skin breakdown in those who receive NCPAP. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an evidence-based clinical care protocol on nasal skin integrity in preterm newborns who receive NCPAP.Materials and Methods: A Randomized Controlled Trial was used to conduct the study. A cohort of 110 preterm newborns with a gestational age (GA of 25 to 36 weeks, receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP for RDS in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university teaching hospital were selected to perform the study. They were randomly assigned to a protocolized nasal skin care (group A or to a group receiving the routine care (group B. Nasal skin integrity of the preterm neonates, were measured on a daily basis for 10 days using the Neonatal Skin Condition Scale (NSCS 24 hours after placement of NCPAPs in both groups.Results: Each intervention and control group included 55 neonates. 65.50% of neonates in the control group and 47.30% of neonates in the intervention group were male. Repeated measures analysis showed thatNSCS scores were significantly lower in intervention group receiving nasal skin care in accordance with the protocol than the control group receiving the routine nasal skin care (P=0.000. Conclusion: In this study, the protocolized care reduced nasal skin breakdown in the preterm newborns receiving NCPAP. Therefore, it can be used as an effective method in nasal skin care in neonates who are treated by NCPAP.

  14. Langerhans cells and subsets of lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellquist-Dahl, B; Olsen, K E; Irander, K;

    1991-01-01

    Langerhans cells and different lymphocytes were studied in the nasal mucosa of 39 woodwork teachers and a control group of 14 healthy subjects. Ten of the woodwork teachers were sensitized as determined by skin prick test. A panel of different monoclonal antibodies was applied on the frozen nasal...

  15. Polyvinyl siloxane: novel material for external nasal splinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, N K; Rathnaprabhu, V; Ramesh, S; Parameswaran, A

    2016-01-01

    External nasal splinting is performed routinely after nasal bone fracture reductions, osteotomies, and rhinoplasties. Materials commonly used include plaster of Paris (POP), thermoplastic splints, self-adhesive padded aluminium splints, and Orthoplast, among many others. The disadvantages of these materials are described in this paper, and polyvinyl siloxane is recommended as an effective and more readily available alternative material to counter these pitfalls.

  16. [Use of Solcoseryl DAP after nasal septum surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeski, A; Makowska, W

    1991-01-01

    Solcoseryl is a biological agent, which accelerates the healing tissue procedure. This influence was studied during the nasal septum surgery. In 25 patients the postoperational nasal plug was inserted with the Solcoseryl and in 10 (control) with the paraffin. The cytologic verifications were performed before and after the surgery. In the solcoseryl group the mucosa regeneration procedure was accelerated and the inflammation reduced.

  17. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  18. Nasal endoscopy is recommended for diagnosing adults with chronic rhinosinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuister, A.M.H.; Goto, N.A.; Oostveen, E.J.; de Jong, W.U.; van der Valk, E.S.; Kaper, N.M.; Aarts, M.C.J.; Grolman, W.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the diagnostic value of nasal endoscopic findings in adults suspected of chronic rhinosinusitis. Data Sources PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Review Methods A comprehensive search was performed up to March 5, 2013. Articles that assessed the diagnostic value of nasal en

  19. Nasal air-conditioning after partial turbinectomy: myths versus facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Vital, Victor; Constantinidis, Jannis; Kekes, George

    2015-01-01

    Turbinectomy, although a common procedure, is often accused of having a negative impact in all nasal functions. This study is the first in vivo study that evaluates objectively the effect of partial turbinectomy on nasal air-conditioning capacity. In total, 57 patients with prior partial inferior turbinectomy and 28 healthy controls were examined. Intranasal temperature and humidity values were measured at the level of the head of inferior and middle turbinate. Nasal patency was evaluated by means of acoustic rhinometry. The clinical assessment was completed with nasal endoscopy and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation questionnaire for subjective evaluation of nasal patency. Significant changes of temperature were found in both detection sites with 13% reduced heating capacity of the air at the level of the inferior and 19% at the level of the middle turbinate, respectively. No similar results were found for humidity measurements. No correlations were found between air-conditioning values and acoustic rhinometry results for both study groups. Nasal endoscopy revealed normal healing in all patients. No major complications were reported by the patients. Their subjective ratings of nasal obstruction were similar to healthy controls. Partial turbinectomy seems to have a negative impact on intranasal air heating but not to humidification. This effect has no impact on clinical condition and subjective perception of surgical outcome.

  20. INTERESTING CASE RECORD OF A TOOTH INSIDE NASAL CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I am presenting an interesting case report of an ectopic eruption of teeth into left nasal cavity. Discussion is focused on clinical, radiological presentation, probable etiology, diagnosis, management and complications.Tooth inside nasal cavity is a rare form of supernumerary teeth which can be identified by performing CTscan.