WorldWideScience

Sample records for nasa laboratory astrophysics

  1. The NASA Astrophysics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  2. NASA Ames’ COSmIC Laboratory Astrophysics Facility: Recent Results and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2018-06-01

    The COSmIC facility was developed at NASA Ames to study interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1, 2]. COSmIC stands for “Cosmic Simulation Chamber” and is dedicated to the study of molecules, ions and nanoparticles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate space environments. COSmIC integrates a variety of instruments that allow generating; processing and monitoring simulated space conditions in the laboratory. It is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle expansion that generates a plasma in a free supersonic jet expansion coupled to high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostic tools, used for the detection and characterization of the species present in the expansion: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and fluorescence spectroscopy systems for photonic detection, and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [3, 4].Recent advances achieved in laboratory astrophysics using COSmIC will be presented, in particular in the domain of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) [5, 6] and the monitoring, in the laboratory, of the formation of dust grains and aerosols from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as circumstellar outflows [7] and planetary atmospheres [8, 9, 10]. Plans for future laboratory experiments on cosmic molecules and grains in the growing field of laboratory astrophysics (NIR-MIR CRDS, Laser Induced Fluorescence spectra of cosmic molecule analogs and the laser induced incandescence spectra of cosmic grain analogs) will also be addressed as well as the implications for astronomy.References: [1] Salama F., Proceed. IAU S251, Kwok & Sandford eds. CUP, 4, 357 (2008).[2] Salama F., et al., Proceed. IAU S332, Y. Aikawa, M. Cunningham, T. Millar, eds., CUP (2018)[3] Biennier L., et al., J. Chem. Phys., 118, 7863 (2003)[4] Ricketts C. et al. IJMS, 300, 26 (2011)[5] Salama F., et al., ApJ., 728, 154 (2011)[6] EDIBLES

  3. Recent Progress in Planetary Laboratory Astrophysics achieved with NASA Ames' COSmIC Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2016-10-01

    We describe the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for "Cosmic Simulation Chamber" and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nanoparticles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate various space environments such as planetary atmospheres. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. The COSmIC experimental setup is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion, that generates a plasma in the stream of a free supersonic jet expansion, coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection [2, 3], and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [4].Recent results obtained using COSmIC will be highlighted. In particular, the progress that has been achieved in an on-going study investigating the formation and the characterization of laboratory analogs of Titan's aerosols generated from gas-phase molecular precursors [5] will be presented. Plans for future laboratory experiments on planetary molecules and aerosols in the growing field of planetary laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed, as well as the implications of studies underway for astronomical observations.References: [1] Salama F., in Organic Matter in Space, IAU S251, Kwok & Sandford eds, CUP, S251, 4, 357 (2008).[2] Biennier L., Salama, F., Allamandola L., & Scherer J., J. Chem. Phys., 118, 7863 (2003)[3] Tan X, & Salama F., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 84318 (2005)[4] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300

  4. NASA's Astrophysics Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H.; Hanisch, R.; Bredekamp, J.

    2000-09-01

    The NASA Office of Space Science has established a series of archival centers where science data acquired through its space science missions is deposited. The availability of high quality data to the general public through these open archives enables the maximization of science return of the flight missions. The Astrophysics Data Centers Coordinating Council, an informal collaboration of archival centers, coordinates data from five archival centers distiguished primarily by the wavelength range of the data deposited there. Data are available in FITS format. An overview of NASA's data centers and services is presented in this paper. A standard front-end modifyer called `Astrowbrowse' is described. Other catalog browsers and tools include WISARD and AMASE supported by the National Space Scince Data Center, as well as ISAIA, a follow on to Astrobrowse.

  5. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  6. Laboratory Astrophysics Prize: Laboratory Astrophysics with Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescher, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is concerned with nuclear reaction and decay processes from the Big Bang to the present star generation controlling the chemical evolution of our universe. Such nuclear reactions maintain stellar life, determine stellar evolution, and finally drive stellar explosion in the circle of stellar life. Laboratory nuclear astrophysics seeks to simulate and understand the underlying processes using a broad portfolio of nuclear instrumentation, from reactor to accelerator from stable to radioactive beams to map the broad spectrum of nucleosynthesis processes. This talk focuses on only two aspects of the broad field, the need of deep underground accelerator facilities in cosmic ray free environments in order to understand the nucleosynthesis in stars, and the need for high intensity radioactive beam facilities to recreate the conditions found in stellar explosions. Both concepts represent the two main frontiers of the field, which are being pursued in the US with the CASPAR accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and the FRIB facility at Michigan State University.

  7. Scaling law in laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiangfan; Zhang Jie

    2001-01-01

    The use of state-of-the-art lasers makes it possible to produce, in the laboratory, the extreme conditions similar to those in astrophysical processes. The introduction of astrophysics-relevant ideas in laser-plasma interaction experiments is propitious to the understanding of astrophysical phenomena. However, the great difference between laser-produced plasma and astrophysical objects makes it awkward to model the latter by laser-plasma experiments. The author presents the physical reasons for modeling astrophysical plasmas by laser plasmas, connecting these two kinds of plasmas by scaling laws. This allows the creation of experimental test beds where observation and models can be quantitatively compared with laboratory data

  8. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Paul L.

    2014-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently released the NASA Strategic Plan 20141, and the NASA Science Mission Directorate released the NASA 2014 Science Plan3. These strategic documents establish NASA's astrophysics strategic objectives to be (i) to discover how the universe works, (ii) to explore how it began and evolved, and (iii) to search for life on planets around other stars. The multidisciplinary nature of astrophysics makes it imperative to strive for a balanced science and technology portfolio, both in terms of science goals addressed and in missions to address these goals. NASA uses the prioritized recommendations and decision rules of the National Research Council's 2010 decadal survey in astronomy and astrophysics2 to set the priorities for its investments. The NASA Astrophysics Division has laid out its strategy for advancing the priorities of the decadal survey in its Astrophysics 2012 Implementation Plan4. With substantial input from the astrophysics community, the NASA Advisory Council's Astrophysics Subcommittee has developed an astrophysics visionary roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions5, to examine possible longer-term futures. The successful development of the James Webb Space Telescope leading to a 2018 launch is an Agency priority. One important goal of the Astrophysics Division is to begin a strategic mission, subject to the availability of funds, which follows from the 2010 decadal survey and is launched after the James Webb Space Telescope. NASA is studying a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its next large astrophysics mission. NASA is also planning to partner with other space agencies on their missions as well as increase the cadence of smaller Principal Investigator led, competitively selected Astrophysics Explorers missions.

  9. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  10. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  11. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  12. NASA Announces 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    WASHINGTON -- NASA has selected fellows in three areas of astronomy and astrophysics for its Einstein, Hubble, and Sagan Fellowships. The recipients of this year's post-doctoral fellowships will conduct independent research at institutions around the country. "The new fellows are among the best and brightest young astronomers in the world," said Jon Morse, director of the Astrophysics Division in NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. "They already have contributed significantly to studies of how the universe works, the origin of our cosmos and whether we are alone in the cosmos. The fellowships will serve as a springboard for scientific leadership in the years to come, and as an inspiration for the next generation of students and early career researchers." Each fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years. The fellows may pursue their research at any host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2009. "I cannot tell you how much I am looking forward to spending the next few years conducting research in the U.S., thanks to the fellowships," said Karin Oberg, a graduate student in Leiden, The Netherlands. Oberg will study the evolution of water and ices during star formation when she starts her fellowship at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Cosmic Heavyweights in Free-for-all Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs Cassiopeia A Comes Alive Across Time and Space A diverse group of 32 young scientists will work on a wide variety of projects, such as understanding supernova hydrodynamics, radio transients, neutron stars, galaxy clusters and the intercluster medium, supermassive black holes, their mergers and the associated gravitational waves, dark energy, dark matter and the reionization process. Other research topics include

  13. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  14. Communicating the Science from NASA's Astrophysics Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hashima; Smith, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    Communicating science from NASA's Astrophysics missions has multiple objectives, which leads to a multi-faceted approach. While a timely dissemination of knowledge to the scientific community follows the time-honored process of publication in peer reviewed journals, NASA delivers newsworthy research result to the public through news releases, its websites and social media. Knowledge in greater depth is infused into the educational system by the creation of educational material and teacher workshops that engage students and educators in cutting-edge NASA Astrophysics discoveries. Yet another avenue for the general public to learn about the science and technology through NASA missions is through exhibits at museums, science centers, libraries and other public venues. Examples of the variety of ways NASA conveys the excitement of its scientific discoveries to students, educators and the general public will be discussed in this talk. A brief overview of NASA's participation in the International Year of Light will also be given, as well as of the celebration of the twenty-fifth year of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope.

  15. Balance in the NASA Astrophysics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The Decadal studies are usually instructed to come up with a “balanced program” for the coming decade of astrophysics initiatives, both on the ground and in space. The meaning of “balance” is left up to the Decadal panels. One meaning is that there should be a diversity of mission costs in the portfolio. Another that there should be a diversity of science questions addressed. A third is that there should be a diversity of signals (across electromagnetic wavebands, and of non-em carriers). It is timely for the astronomy community to debate the meaning of balance in the NASA astrophysics program as the “Statement of Task” (SoT) that defines the goals and process of the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal review are now being formulated.Here I propose some ways in which the Astro2020 SoT could be made more specific in order to make balance more evident and so avoid the tendency for a single science question, and a single mission to answer that question, to dominate the program. As an example of an alternative ambitious approach, I present a proof-of-principle program of 6, mostly “probe-class” missions, that would fit the nominal funding profile for the 2025-2035 NASA Astrophysics Program, while being more diverse in ambitious science goals and in wavelength coverage.

  16. NASA Astrophysics Funds Strategic Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Bernard D.; Ganel, Opher; Pham, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The COR and PCOS Program Offices (POs) reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), serving as the NASA Astrophysics Division's implementation arm for matters relating to the two programs. One aspect of the PO's activities is managing the COR and PCOS Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, helping mature technologies to enable and enhance future astrophysics missions. For example, the SAT program is expected to fund key technology developments needed to close gaps identified by Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) planned to study several large mission concept studies in preparation for the 2020 Decadal Survey.The POs are guided by the National Research Council's "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" Decadal Survey report, NASA's Astrophysics Implementation Plan, and the visionary Astrophysics Roadmap, "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions." Strategic goals include dark energy, gravitational waves, and X-ray observatories. Future missions pursuing these goals include, e.g., US participation in ESA's Euclid, Athena, and L3 missions; Inflation probe; and a large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) telescope.To date, 65 COR and 71 PCOS SAT proposals have been received, of which 15 COR and 22 PCOS projects were funded. Notable successes include maturation of a new far-IR detector, later adopted by the SOFIA HAWC instrument; maturation of the H4RG near-IR detector, adopted by WFIRST; development of an antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometer, a technology deployed by BICEP2/BICEP3/Keck to measure polarization in the CMB signal; advanced UV reflective coatings implemented on the optics of GOLD and ICON, two heliophysics Explorers; and finally, the REXIS instrument on OSIRIS-REx is incorporating CCDs with directly deposited optical blocking filters developed by another SAT-funded project.We discuss our technology development process, with community input and strategic prioritization informing calls for SAT proposals and

  17. NASA's Long-Term Astrophysics Data Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Rebull, L. M.; Desai, V.; Teplitz, H.; Groom, S.; Akeson, R.; Berriman, G. B.; Helou, G.; Imel, D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Accomazzi, A.; McGlynn, T.; Smale, A.; White, R.

    2017-01-01

    NASA regards data handling and archiving as an integral part of space missions, and has a strong track record of serving astrophysics data to the public, beginning with the the IRAS satellite in 1983. Archives enable a major science return on the significant investment required to develop a space mission. In fact, the presence and accessibility of an archive can more than double the number of papers resulting from the data. In order for the community to be able to use the data, they have to b...

  18. Laboratory Astrophysics Using a Spare XRS Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, M. Damian; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Porter, Frederick Scott; Brown, Gregory; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brekosky, Regis; Brown, Gregory V.; Gendreau, Keith C.; Gygax, John; Kahn, Steve; hide

    2000-01-01

    The XRS instrument on Astro-E is a fully self-contained microcalorimeter x-ray instrument capable of acquiring optimally filtering, and characterizing events for 32 independent pixels. With the launch of the Astro-E spacecraft, a full flight spare detector system has been integrated into a laboratory cryostat for use on the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The detector system contains a microcalorimeter array with 32 instrumented pixels heat sunk to 60 mK using an adiabatic demagnetization refrio,erator. The instrument has a composite resolution of 8eV at 1 keV and 12eV at 6 keV with a minimum of 95% quantum efficiency. This will allow high spectral resolution, broadband observations of collisionally excited plasmas which are produced in the EBIT experiment. Unique to our instrument are exceptionally well characterized 1000 Angstrom thick aluminum on polyimide infrared blocking filters. The detailed transmission function including the edc,e fine structure of these filters has been measured in our laboratory using an erect field grating spectrometer. This will allow the instrument to perform the first broadband absolute flux measurements with the EBIT instrument. The instrument performance as well as the results of preliminary measurements will be discussed. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.o.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48 and was supported by the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

  19. Highlights of the NASA particle astrophysics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William Vernon, E-mail: w.vernon.jones@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Division DH000, Science Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, Washington DC (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The NASA Particle Astrophysics Program covers Origin of the Elements, Nearest Sources of Cosmic Rays, How Cosmic Particle Accelerators Work, The Nature of Dark Matter, and Neutrino Astrophysics. Progress in each of these topics has come from sophisticated instrumentation flown on long duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica over the past two decades. New opportunities including Super Pressure Balloons (SPB) and International Space Station (ISS) platforms are emerging for the next major step. Stable altitudes and long durations enabled by SPB flights ensure ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) missions that can open doors to new science opportunities. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) has been operating on the ISS since May 2011. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) and Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiments are being developed for launch to the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) in 2015. And, the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) is planned for launch to the ISS JEM-EF after 2017. Collectively, these four complementary ISS missions covering a large portion of the cosmic ray energy spectrum serve as a cosmic ray observatory. (author)

  20. Highlights of the NASA particle astrophysics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, William Vernon

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Particle Astrophysics Program covers Origin of the Elements, Nearest Sources of Cosmic Rays, How Cosmic Particle Accelerators Work, The Nature of Dark Matter, and Neutrino Astrophysics. Progress in each of these topics has come from sophisticated instrumentation flown on long duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica over the past two decades. New opportunities including Super Pressure Balloons (SPB) and International Space Station (ISS) platforms are emerging for the next major step. Stable altitudes and long durations enabled by SPB flights ensure ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) missions that can open doors to new science opportunities. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) has been operating on the ISS since May 2011. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) and Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiments are being developed for launch to the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) in 2015. And, the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) is planned for launch to the ISS JEM-EF after 2017. Collectively, these four complementary ISS missions covering a large portion of the cosmic ray energy spectrum serve as a cosmic ray observatory. (author)

  1. NASA Astrophysics Data System's New Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Demleitner, M.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2000-05-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System has greatly increased its data holdings. The Physics database now contains almost 900,000 references and the Astronomy database almost 550,000 references. The Instrumentation database has almost 600,000 references. The scanned articles in the ADS Article Service are increasing in number continuously. Almost 1 million pages have been scanned so far. Recently the abstracts books from the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference have been scanned and put on-line. The Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society are currently being scanned back to Volume 1. This is the last major journal to be completely scanned and on-line. In cooperation with a conservation project of the Harvard libraries, microfilms of historical observatory literature are currently being scanned. This will provide access to an important part of the historical literature. The ADS can be accessed at: http://adswww.harvard.edu This project is funded by NASA under grant NCC5-189.

  2. 78 FR 2293 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics... meeting includes the following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --NASA Astrophysics Roadmapping It...

  3. Hydrodynamic Instability, Integrated Code, Laboratory Astrophysics, and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-10-01

    This is an article for the memorial lecture of Edward Teller Medal and is presented as memorial lecture at the IFSA03 conference held on September 12th, 2003, at Monterey, CA. The author focuses on his main contributions to fusion science and its extension to astrophysics in the field of theory and computation by picking up five topics. The first one is the anomalous resisitivity to hot electrons penetrating over-dense region through the ion wave turbulence driven by the return current compensating the current flow by the hot electrons. It is concluded that almost the same value of potential as the average kinetic energy of the hot electrons is realized to prevent the penetration of the hot electrons. The second is the ablative stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at ablation front and its dispersion relation so-called Takabe formula. This formula gave a principal guideline for stable target design. The author has developed an integrated code ILESTA (ID & 2D) for analyses and design of laser produced plasma including implosion dynamics. It is also applied to design high gain targets. The third is the development of the integrated code ILESTA. The forth is on Laboratory Astrophysics with intense lasers. This consists of two parts; one is review on its historical background and the other is on how we relate laser plasma to wide-ranging astrophysics and the purposes for promoting such research. In relation to one purpose, I gave a comment on anomalous transport of relativistic electrons in Fast Ignition laser fusion scheme. Finally, I briefly summarize recent activity in relation to application of the author's experience to the development of an integrated code for studying extreme phenomena in astrophysics.

  4. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  5. Challenges and opportunities in laboratory plasma astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2017-06-01

    We are in a period of explosive success and opportunity in the laboratory study of plasma phenomena that are relevant to astrophysics. In this talk I will share with you several areas in which recent work, often foreshadowed 20 or 30 years ago, has produced dramatic initial success with prospects for much more. To begin, the talk will provide a brief look at the types of devices used and the regimes they access, showing how they span many orders of magnitude in parameters of interest. It will then illustrate the types of work one can do with laboratory plasmas that are relevant to astrophysics, which range from direct measurement of material properties to the production of scaled models of certain dynamics to the pursuit of complementary understanding. Examples will be drawn from the flow of energy and momentum in astrophysics, the formation and structure of astrophysical systems, and magnetization and its consequences. I hope to include some discussion of collisionless shocks, very dense plasmas, work relevant to the end of the Dark Ages, reconnection, and dynamos. The talk will conclude by highlighting some topics where it seems that we may be on the verge of exciting new progress.The originators of work discussed, and collaborators and funding sources when appropriate, will be included in the talk.

  6. 75 FR 2893 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... of the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the... following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --Updates on Select Astrophysics Missions --Discussion of...

  7. 78 FR 66384 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics...: --Astrophysics Division Update --Presentation of Astrophysics Roadmap --Reports from Program Analysis Groups...

  8. 75 FR 51116 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics... topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey --Update on...

  9. Overview of NASA's Universe of Learning: An Integrated Astrophysics STEM Learning and Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise; Lestition, Kathleen; Squires, Gordon; Biferno, Anya A.; Cominsky, Lynn; Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is the result of a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University, and is one of 27 competitively-selected cooperative agreements within the NASA Science Mission Directorate STEM Activation program. The NASA's Universe of Learning team draws upon cutting-edge science and works closely with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) from across the NASA Astrophysics Physics of the Cosmos, Cosmic Origins, and Exoplanet Exploration themes. Together we develop and disseminate data tools and participatory experiences, multimedia and immersive experiences, exhibits and community programs, and professional learning experiences that meet the needs of our audiences, with attention to underserved and underrepresented populations. In doing so, scientists and educators from the partner institutions work together as a collaborative, integrated Astrophysics team to support NASA objectives to enable STEM education, increase scientific literacy, advance national education goals, and leverage efforts through partnerships. Robust program evaluation is central to our efforts, and utilizes portfolio analysis, process studies, and studies of reach and impact. This presentation will provide an overview of NASA's Universe of Learning, our direct connection to NASA Astrophysics, and our collaborative work with the NASA Astrophysics science community.

  10. Computational Laboratory Astrophysics to Enable Transport Modeling of Protons and Hydrogen in Stellar Winds, the ISM, and other Astrophysical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David

    As recognized prominently by the APRA program, interpretation of NASA astrophysical mission observations requires significant products of laboratory astrophysics, for example, spectral lines and transition probabilities, electron-, proton-, or heavy-particle collision data. Availability of these data underpin robust and validated models of astrophysical emissions and absorptions, energy, momentum, and particle transport, dynamics, and reactions. Therefore, measured or computationally derived, analyzed, and readily available laboratory astrophysics data significantly enhances the scientific return on NASA missions such as HST, Spitzer, and JWST. In the present work a comprehensive set of data will be developed for the ubiquitous proton-hydrogen and hydrogen-hydrogen collisions in astrophysical environments including ISM shocks, supernova remnants and bubbles, HI clouds, young stellar objects, and winds within stellar spheres, covering the necessary wide range of energy- and charge-changing channels, collision energies, and most relevant scattering parameters. In addition, building on preliminary work, a transport and reaction simulation will be developed incorporating the elastic and inelastic collision data collected and produced. The work will build upon significant previous efforts of the principal investigators and collaborators, will result in a comprehensive data set required for modeling these environments and interpreting NASA astrophysical mission observations, and will benefit from feedback from collaborators who are active users of the work proposed.

  11. Exploring Astrophysical Magnetohydrodynamics in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Mario

    2014-10-01

    Plasma evolution in many astrophysical systems is dominated by magnetohydrodynamics. Specifically of interest to this talk are collimated outflows from accretion systems. Away from the central object, the Euler equations can represent the plasma dynamics well and may be scaled to a laboratory system. We have performed experiments to investigate the effects of a background magnetic field on an otherwise hydrodynamically collimated plasma. Laser-irradiated, cone targets produce hydrodynamically collimated plasma jets and a pulse-powered solenoid provides a constant background magnetic field. The application of this field is shown to completely disrupt the original flow and a new magnetically-collimated, hollow envelope is produced. Results from these experiments and potential implications for their astrophysical analogs will be discussed.

  12. Innovation in NASA's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H.; Smith, D.

    2014-07-01

    New technology and media are being rapidly incorporated in NASA's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach (EPO) portfolio. In addition to web pages that provide basic information on missions and links to educational sites, missions have developed Facebook and Twitter followers. Recent highlights are presented about the innovative techniques used in presenting NASA science to the public, educators and students, together with representative examples. The immense treasure trove of electronic NASA EPO material is available to the public.

  13. Prospects of High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Johnny S.T.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have been observed but their sources and production mechanisms are yet to be understood. We envision a laboratory astrophysics program that will contribute to the understanding of cosmic accelerators with efforts to: (1) test and calibrate UHECR observational techniques, and (2) elucidate the underlying physics of cosmic acceleration through laboratory experiments and computer simulations. Innovative experiments belonging to the first category have already been done at the SLAC FFTB. Results on air fluorescence yields from the FLASH experiment are reviewed. Proposed future accelerator facilities can provided unprecedented high-energy-densities in a regime relevant to cosmic acceleration studies and accessible in a terrestrial environment for the first time. We review recent simulation studies of nonlinear plasma dynamics that could give rise to cosmic acceleration, and discuss prospects for experimental investigation of the underlying mechanisms

  14. Novel laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Parrish Clawson

    This thesis was motivated by the promise that some physical aspects of astrophysical jets and collimation processes can be scaled to laboratory parameters through hydrodynamic scaling laws. The simulation of astrophysical jet phenomena with laser-produced plasmas was attractive because the laser- target interaction can inject energetic, repeatable plasma into an external environment. Novel laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets involved constructing and using the YOGA laser, giving a 1064 nm, 8 ns pulse laser with energies up to 3.7 + 0.2 J . Laser-produced plasmas were characterized using Schlieren, interferometry and ICCD photography for their use in simulating jet and magnetosphere physics. The evolution of the laser-produced plasma in various conditions was compared with self-similar solutions and HYADES computer simulations. Millimeter-scale magnetized collimated outflows were produced by a centimeter scale cylindrically symmetric electrode configuration triggered by a laser-produced plasma. A cavity with a flared nozzle surrounded the center electrode and the electrode ablation created supersonic uncollimated flows. This flow became collimated when the center electrode changed from an anodeto a cathode. The plasma jets were in axially directed permanent magnetic fields with strengths up to 5000 Gauss. The collimated magnetized jets were 0.1-0. 3 cm wide, up to 2.0 cm long, and had velocities of ~4.0 × 10 6 cm/s. The dynamics of the evolution of the jet were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with fluxtube simulations from Bellan's formulation [6] giving a calculated estimate of ~2.6 × 10 6 cm/s for jet evolution velocity and evidence for jet rotation. The density measured with interferometry was 1.9 ± 0.2 × 10 17 cm -3 compared with 2.1 × 10 16 cm -3 calculated with Bellan's pressure balance formulation. Kinks in the jet column were produced consistent with the Kruskal-Shafranov condition which allowed stable and symmetric jets to form with

  15. 75 FR 13597 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... of the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the...: The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update. --Kepler...

  16. 77 FR 62536 - Meeting of Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-081] Meeting of Astrophysics Subcommittee... Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Science Committee. This Subcommittee reports to...: The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --Proposed...

  17. 76 FR 5405 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics... contacting Marian Norris. The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Astrophysics Division...

  18. 77 FR 4370 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics... topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --Update on Balloons Return to Flight Changes --James Webb Space...

  19. 77 FR 38090 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics...: --Astrophysics Division Update --James Webb Space Telescope Update --Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope Report...

  20. Best Practices in NASA's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H.; Smith, D.

    2015-11-01

    NASA's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program has partnered scientists and educators since its inception almost twenty years ago, leading to authentic STEM experiences and products widely used by the education and outreach community. We present examples of best practices and representative projects. Keys to success include effective use of unique mission science/technology, attention to audience needs, coordination of effort, robust partnerships and publicly accessible repositories of EPO products. Projects are broadly targeted towards audiences in formal education, informal education, and community engagement. All NASA programs are evaluated for quality and impact. New technology is incorporated to engage young students being raised in the digital age. All projects focus on conveying the excitement of scientific discoveries from NASA's Astrophysics missions, advancing scientific literacy, and engaging students in science and technology careers.

  1. The Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) Program and NASA Astrophysics Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Dana Edward; Clark, Coral; Harman, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a three-part professional development (PD) experience for high school physics, astronomy, and earth science teachers. AAA PD consists of: (1) blended learning via webinars, asynchronous content delivery, and in-person workshops, (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong’s B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, including interactions with NASA astrophysics & planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) during science flights on SOFIA, and (3) continuing post-flight opportunities for teacher & student connections with SMEs.

  2. 75 FR 61778 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-118)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics...

  3. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons

  4. Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments to Study Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel

    As a thesis project, I devised and implemented a scaled accretion shock experiment on the OMEGA laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics). This effort marked the first foray into the growing field of laser-created magnetized flowing plasmas for the Center for Laser Experimental Astrophysical Research (CLEAR) here at the University of Michigan. Accretion shocks form when streams of accreting material fall to the surface of a young, growing star along magnetic field lines and, due to their supersonic flow, create shocks. As I was concerned with what was happening immediately on the surface of the star where the shock forms, I scaled the system by launching a plasma jet (the "accreting flow") and driving it into a solid surface (the "stellar surface") in the presence of an imposed magnetic field parallel to the jet flow (locally analogous to the dipole field of the star). Early work for this thesis project was dedicated to building a magnetized flowing plasma platform at CLEAR. I investigated a method for launching collimated plasma jets and studied them using Thomson scattering, a method which measures parameters such as temperature and density by scattering a probe beam off the experimental plasma. Although the data were corrupted with probe heating effects, I overcame this problem by finding the mass density of the jets and using it to determine they were isothermal rarefactions with a temperature of 6 eV. Scaling an astrophysical phenomenon to the laboratory requires tailoring the parameters of the experiment to preserve its physics, rather than creating an experiment that merely superficially resembles it. I ensured this by distilling the driving physical processes of the astrophysical system--accretion shocks--into a list of dimensionless number constraints and mapping these into plasma parameter space. Due to this project being the first magnetized flowing plasma effort at CLEAR, it suffered the growing pains typical of a young research program. Of my two primary

  5. Laboratory simulation of infrared astrophysical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory infrared emission and absorption spectra have been taken of terrestrial silicates, meteorites and lunar soils in the form of micrometer and sub-micrometer grains. The emission spectra were taken in a way that imitates telescopic observations. The purpose was to see which materials best simulate the 10 μm astrophysical feature. The emission spectra of dunite, fayalite and Allende give a good fit to the 10 μm broadband emission feature of comets Bennett and Kohoutek. A study of the effect of grain size on the presence of the 10 μm emission features of dunite shows that for particles larger than 37 μm no feature is seen. The emission spectrum of the Murray meteorite, a Type 2 carbonaceous chondrite, is quite similar to the intermediate resolution spectrum of comet Kohoutek in the 10 μm region. Hydrous silicates or amorphous magnesium silicates in combination with high-temperature condensates, such as olivine or anorthite, would yield spectra that match the intermediate resolution spectrum of comet Kohoutek in the 10 μm region. Glassy olivine and glassy anorthite in approximately equal proportions would also give a spectrum that is a good fit to the cometary 10 μm feature. (Auth.)

  6. Enhancements to the NASA Astrophysics Science Information and Abstract Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

    1995-05-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System Astrophysics Science Information and Abstract Service, the extension of the ADS Abstract Service continues rapidly to expand in both use and capabilities. Each month the service is used by about 4,000 different people, and returns about 1,000,000 pieces of bibliographic information. Among the recent additions to the system are: 1. Whole Text Access. In addition to the ApJ Letters we now have whole text for the ApJ on-line, soon we will have AJ and Rev. Mexicana. Discussions with other publishers are in progress. 2. Space Instrumentation Database. We now provide a second abstract service, covering papers related to space instruments. This is larger than the astronomy and astrophysics database in terms of total abstracts. 3. Reference Books and Historical Journals. We have begun putting the SAO Annals and the HCO Annals on-line. We have put the Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics by M.V. Zombeck (Cambridge U.P.) on-line. 4. Author Abstracts. We can now include original abstracts in addition to those we get from the NASA STI Abstracts Database. We have included abstracts for A&A in collaboration with the CDS in Strasbourg, and are collaborating with the AAS and the ASP on others. We invite publishers and editors of journals and conference proceedings to include their original abstracts in our service; send inquiries via e-mail to ads@cfa.harvard.edu. 5. Author Notes. We now accept notes and comments from authors of articles in our database. These are arbitrary html files and may contain pointers to other WWW documents, they are listed along with the abstracts, whole text, and data available in the index listing for every reference. The ASIAS is available at: http://adswww.harvard.edu/

  7. NASA Astrophysics EPO Resources For Engaging Girls in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Mendoza, D.; Smith, D.; Hasan, H.

    2011-09-01

    A new collaboration among the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO community is to engage girls in science who do not self-select as being interested in science, through the library setting. The collaboration seeks to (i) improve how girls view themselves as someone who knows about, uses, and sometimes contributes to science, and (ii) increase the capacity of EPO practitioners and librarians (both school and public) to engage girls in science. As part of this collaboration, we are collating the research on audience needs and best practices, and SMD EPO resources, activities and projects that focus on or can be recast toward engaging girls in science. This ASP article highlights several available resources and individual projects, such as: (i) Afterschool Universe, an out-of-school hands-on astronomy curriculum targeted at middle school students and an approved Great Science for Girls curriculum; (ii) Big Explosions and Strong Gravity, a Girl Scout patch-earning event for middle school aged girls to learn astronomy through hands-on activities and interaction with actual astronomers; and (iii) the JWST-NIRCAM Train the Trainer workshops and activities for Girl Scouts of USA leaders; etc. The NASA Astrophysics EPO community welcomes the broader EPO community to discuss with us how best to engage non-science-attentive girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), and to explore further collaborations on this theme.

  8. A plasma deflagration accelerator as a platform for laboratory astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas C.; Loebner, Keith T. K.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2017-06-01

    The replication of astrophysical flows in the laboratory is critical for isolating particular phenomena and dynamics that appear in complex, highly-coupled natural systems. In particular, plasma jets are observed in astrophysical contexts at a variety of scales, typically at high magnetic Reynolds number and driven by internal currents. In this paper, we present detailed measurements of the plasma parameters within deflagration-produced plasma jets, the scaling of these parameters against both machine operating conditions and the corresponding astrophysical phenomena. Using optical and spectroscopic diagnostics, including Schlieren cinematography, we demonstrate the production of current-driven plasma jets of ∼100 km/s and magnetic Reynolds numbers of ∼100, and discuss the dynamics of their acceleration into vacuum. The results of this study will contribute to the reproduction of various types of astrophysical jets in the laboratory and indicate the ability to further probe active research areas such as jet collimation, stability, and interaction.

  9. 76 FR 14106 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics...: --Astrophysics Division Update. It is imperative that the meeting be held on these dates to accommodate the...

  10. 78 FR 20356 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics... password [email protected] The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Astrophysics Division...

  11. The NASA Astrophysics Data System joins the Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna M.; Chyla, Roman; Holachek, Alexandra; Sudilovsky, Vladimir; Elliott, Jonathan; Murray, Stephen S.

    2015-08-01

    Whether or not scholarly publications are going through an evolution or revolution, one comforting certainty remains: the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is here to help the working astronomer and librarian navigate through the increasingly complex communication environment we find ourselves in. Born as a bibliographic database, today's ADS is best described as a an "aggregator" of scholarly resources relevant to the needs of researchers in astronomy and physics. In addition to indexing content from a variety of publishers, data and software archives, the ADS enriches its records by text-mining and indexing the full-text articles, enriching its metadata through the extraction of citations and acknowledgments and the ingest of bibliographies and data links maintained by astronomy institutions and data archives. In addition, ADS generates and maintains citation and co-readership networks to support discovery and bibliometric analysis.In this talk I will summarize new and ongoing curation activities and technology developments of the ADS in the face of the ever-changing world of scholarly publishing and the trends in information-sharing behavior of astronomers. Recent curation efforts include the indexing of non-standard scholarly content (such as software packages, IVOA documents and standards, and NASA award proposals); the indexing of additional content (full-text of articles, acknowledgments, affiliations, ORCID ids); and enhanced support for bibliographic groups and data links. Recent technology developments include a new Application Programming Interface which provides access to a variety of ADS microservices, a new user interface featuring a variety of visualizations and bibliometric analysis, and integration with ORCID services to support paper claiming.

  12. Mini-conference and Related Sessions on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of some major physics issues and future perspectives discussed in the Mini-Conference on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics. This Mini-conference, sponsored by the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics, was held as part of the American Physical Society's Division of Plasma Physics 2003 Annual Meeting (October 27-31, 2003). Also included are brief summaries of selected talks on the same topic presented at two invited paper sessions (including a tutorial) and two contributed focus oral sessions, which were organized in coordination with the Mini-Conference by the same organizers

  13. Mini-conference and Related Sessions on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji

    2004-02-27

    This paper provides a summary of some major physics issues and future perspectives discussed in the Mini-Conference on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics. This Mini-conference, sponsored by the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics, was held as part of the American Physical Society's Division of Plasma Physics 2003 Annual Meeting (October 27-31, 2003). Also included are brief summaries of selected talks on the same topic presented at two invited paper sessions (including a tutorial) and two contributed focus oral sessions, which were organized in coordination with the Mini-Conference by the same organizers.

  14. A Solar System Perspective on Laboratory Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary science deals with a wide variety of natural materials in a wide variety of environments. These materials include metals, minerals, ices, gases, plasmas, and organic chemicals. In addition, the newly defined discipline of astrobiology introduces biological materials to planetary science. The environments range from the interiors of planets with megapascal pressures to planetary magnetospheres, encompassing planetary mantles, surfaces, atmospheres, and ionospheres. The interplanetary environment includes magnetic and electrical fields, plasma, and dust. In order to understand planetary processes over these vast ranges, the properties of materials must be known, and most of the necessary information comes from the laboratory. Observations of the bodies and materials in the Solar System are accomplished over the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum by remote sensing from Earth or spacecraft. Comets exemplify this; molecular and atomic identifications are made from the hard ultraviolet to radio wavelengths, while X-rays are emitted as comets interact with the solar wind. Gamma rays from the surfaces of the Moon and asteroids are diagnostic of the mineral and ice content of those bodies; eventually, gamma rays will also be observed by probes to comets. A number of planetary materials are available in the laboratory for extensive Study: rocks from the Moon, Mars, several asteroids, as well as dust from comets (and perhaps the Kuiper Belt) are closely studied at every level, including atomic (isotopic). Even pre-solar interstellar grains isolated from meteorites are scrutinized for composition and crystalline structure. Beyond the materials themselves, various agents and processes have altered them over the 4.6-Gy age of the Solar System. Solar radiation, solar wind particles, trapped magnetospheric particles, cosmic rays, and micrometeoroid impacts have produced chemical, physical, and morphological changes in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of all

  15. 75 FR 74089 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-149)] NASA Advisory Council; Science... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science Committee of the NAC...

  16. Laboratory Astrophysics Using High Energy Density Photon and Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bingham, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The development of intense laser and particle beams has opened up new opportunities to study high energy density astrophysical processes in the Laboratory. With even higher laser intensities possible in the near future vacuum polarization processes such as photon - photon scattering with or without large magnetic fields may also be experimentally observed. In this talk I will review the status of laboratory experiments using intense beans to investigate extreme astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae explosions, gamma x-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic accelerators etc. Just as intense photon or electron beams can excite relativistic electron plasma waves or wakefields used in plasma acceleration, intense neutrino beams from type II supernovae can also excite wakefields or plasma waves. Other instabilities driven by intense beams relevant to perhaps x-ray bursts is the Weibel instability. Simulation results of extreme processes will also be presented.

  17. Spectroscopics database for warm Xenon and Iron in Astrophysics and Laboratory Astrophysics conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Klapisch, Marcel; Bar-Shalom, Avi; Oreg, Josse

    2010-11-01

    The main contribution to spectral properties of astrophysics mixtures come often from Iron. On the other hand, in the so-called domain of ``Laboratory Astrophysics,'' where astrophysics phenomena are scaled down to the laboratory, Xenon (and Argon) are commonly used gases. At so called ``warm'' temperatures (T=5-50eV), L-shell Iron and M-shell Xenon present a very large number of spectral lines, originating from billions of levels. More often than not, Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium is assumed, leading to noticeable simplification of the computation. Nevertheless, complex and powerful atomic structure codes are required. We take benefit of powerful statistics and numerics, included in our atomic structure codes, STA[1] and HULLAC[2], to generate the required spectra. Recent improvements in both fields (statistics, numerics and convergence control) allow obtaining large databases (ro x T grid of > 200x200 points, and > 10000 frequencies) for temperature down to a few eV. We plan to port these improvements in the NLTE code SCROLL[3]. [1] A.Bar-Shalom, et al, Phys. Rev. A 40, 3183 (1989) [2] M.Busquet,et al, J.Phys. IV France 133, 973-975 (2006); A.Bar-Shalom, M.Klapisch, J.Oreg, J.Oreg, JQSRT 71, 169, (2001) [3] A.Bar-Shalom, et al, Phys. Rev. E 56, R70 (1997)

  18. Laboratory studies of photoionized plasma related to astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Peiqiang; Wang Feilu; Zhao Gang

    2011-01-01

    Photoionized plasma is universal in astronomy and has great importance on account of its close relation to compact astrophysical objects such as black holes. Recently, with the development of high energy density lasers and Z-pinch facilities, it has become possible to simulate astronomical photoionized plasma in the laboratory. These experiments help us to benchmark and modify the photoionization models, and to understand the photoionization processes to diagnose related astronomical plasma environments. (authors)

  19. Astrophysical radiative shocks: From modeling to laboratory experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzales, N.; Stehlé, C.; Audit, E.; Busquet, M.; Rus, Bedřich; Thais, F.; Acef, O.; Barroso, P.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Bauduin, D.; Kozlová, Michaela; Lery, T.; Madouri, A.; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2006), s. 535-540 ISSN 0263-0346 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 506350 - LASERLAB-EUROPE; European Commission(XE) 5592 - JETSET Grant - others:CNRS(FR) PNPS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laboratory astrophysics * laser plasmas * radiative shock waves * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.958, year: 2006

  20. Exploring extreme plasma physics in the laboratory and in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L. O.; Grismayer, T.; Fonseca, R. A.; Cruz, F.; Gaudio, F. D.; Martins, J. L.; Vieira, J.; Vranic, M.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction of ultra intense fields with plasmas is at the confluence of several sub-fields ranging from QED, and nuclear physics to high energy astrophysics, and fundamental plasma processes. It requires novel theoretical tools, highly optimised numerical codes and algorithms tailored to these complex scenarios, where physical mechanisms at very disparate temporal and spatial scales are self-consistently coupled in multidimensional geometries. The key developments implemented in Osiris will be presented along with some examples of problems, relevant for laboratory or astrophysical scenarios, that are being addressed resorting to the combination of massively parallel simulations with theoretical models. The relevance for near future experimental facilities such as ELI will also be presented. Work supported by the European Research Council (ERC-AdG-2015 InPairs Grant No. 695088).

  1. Criteria for Scaled Laboratory Simulations of Astrophysical MHD Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Drake, R. P.; Remington, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that two systems described by the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) evolve similarly, if the initial conditions are geometrically similar and certain scaling relations hold. The thermodynamic properties of the gas must be such that the internal energy density is proportional to the pressure. The presence of the shocks is allowed. We discuss the applicability conditions of the ideal MHD and demonstrate that they are satisfied with a large margin both in a number of astrophysical objects, and in properly designed simulation experiments with high-power lasers. This allows one to perform laboratory experiments whose results can be used for quantitative interpretation of various effects of astrophysical MHD. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  2. 5th International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrala, G.A

    2005-01-01

    During the past several years, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Research is underway in many areas, such as compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiation flow, radiative shocks and jets, complex opacities, equations o fstat, and relativistic plasmas. Beyond this current research and the papers it is producing, plans are being made for the application, to astrophysics-relevant research, of the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the 600 kj Ligne d'Intergration Laser (LIL) and the 2 MJ Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in Bordeaux, France; petawatt-range lasers now under construction around the world; and current and future Z pinches. The goal of this conference and these proceedings is to continue focusing and attention on this emerging research area. The conference brought together different scientists interested in this emerging new fi...

  3. Laboratory Plasma Source as an MHD Model for Astrophysical Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    The significance of the work described herein lies in the demonstration of Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun (MCG) devices like CPS-1 to produce energetic laboratory magneto-flows with embedded magnetic fields that can be used as a simulation tool to study flow interaction dynamic of jet flows, to demonstrate the magnetic acceleration and collimation of flows with primarily toroidal fields, and study cross field transport in turbulent accreting flows. Since plasma produced in MCG devices have magnetic topology and MHD flow regime similarity to stellar and extragalactic jets, we expect that careful investigation of these flows in the laboratory will reveal fundamental physical mechanisms influencing astrophysical flows. Discussion in the next section (sec.2) focuses on recent results describing collimation, leading flow surface interaction layers, and turbulent accretion. The primary objectives for a new three year effort would involve the development and deployment of novel electrostatic, magnetic, and visible plasma diagnostic techniques to measure plasma and flow parameters of the CPS-1 device in the flow chamber downstream of the plasma source to study, (1) mass ejection, morphology, and collimation and stability of energetic outflows, (2) the effects of external magnetization on collimation and stability, (3) the interaction of such flows with background neutral gas, the generation of visible emission in such interaction, and effect of neutral clouds on jet flow dynamics, and (4) the cross magnetic field transport of turbulent accreting flows. The applicability of existing laboratory plasma facilities to the study of stellar and extragalactic plasma should be exploited to elucidate underlying physical mechanisms that cannot be ascertained though astrophysical observation, and provide baseline to a wide variety of proposed models, MHD and otherwise. The work proposed herin represents a continued effort on a novel approach in relating laboratory experiments to

  4. NASA Astrophysics E/PO Impact: NASA SOFIA AAA Program Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral; Inverness Research Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team, Wested Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team

    2015-01-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, studying the universe at infrared wavelengths, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA also inspires the development of new scientific instrumentation and fosters the education of young scientists and engineers.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches). The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program and Outreach Offices are located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.Data will be collected to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star cycles, solar system formation, identification of complex molecules in space, our solar system, galactic dust, nebulae and ecosystems.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador (AAA) Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to elevate public scientific and technical literacy.The AAA effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Evaluation has confirmed the program's positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. The inspirational experience has positively impacted their practice and career trajectory. AAAs have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given

  5. Enhancing the Impact of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Using Real NASA Data in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, D. A.; SMD Astrophysics E/PO Community, NASA

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its education and public outreach (E/PO) community in enhancing the coherence, efficiency, and effectiveness of SMD-funded E/PO programs. As a part of this effort, the Astrophysics Forum is coordinating a collaborative project among the NASA SMD astrophysics missions and E/PO programs to create a broader impact for the use of real NASA data in classrooms. Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provide educators an authentic opportunity to teach students basic science process skills, inquiry, and real-world applications of the STEM subjects. The goal of this NASA SMD astrophysics community collaboration is to find a way to maximize the reach of existing real data products produced by E/PO professionals working with NASA E/PO grants and missions in ways that enhance the teaching of the STEM subjects. We present an initial result of our collaboration: defining levels of basic science process skills that lie at the heart of authentic scientific research and national education standards (AAAS Benchmarks) and examples of NASA data products that align with those levels. Our results are the beginning of a larger goal of utilizing the new NASA education resource catalog, NASA Wavelength, for the creation of progressions that tie NASA education resources together. We aim to create an informational sampler that illustrates how an educator can use the NASA Wavelength resource catalog to connect NASA real-data resources that meet the educational goals of their class.

  6. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins programs manage Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Thronson, Harley; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-07-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" and "Are we alone?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos2 (PCOS), Cosmic Origins3 (COR), and Exoplanet Exploration Program4 (ExEP) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the

  7. Introduction to plasma physics with space, laboratory and astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gurnett, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Introducing basic principles of plasma physics and their applications to space, laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, this new edition provides updated material throughout. Topics covered include single-particle motions, kinetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, small amplitude waves in hot and cold plasmas, and collisional effects. New additions include the ponderomotive force, tearing instabilities in resistive plasmas and the magnetorotational instability in accretion disks, charged particle acceleration by shocks, and a more in-depth look at nonlinear phenomena. A broad range of applications are explored: planetary magnetospheres and radiation belts, the confinement and stability of plasmas in fusion devices, the propagation of discontinuities and shock waves in the solar wind, and analysis of various types of plasma waves and instabilities that can occur in planetary magnetospheres and laboratory plasma devices. With step-by-step derivations and self-contained introductions to mathematical methods, this book...

  8. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  9. Simulations of Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using the CRASH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Matthew; Kuranz, Carolyn; Fein, Jeff; Wan, Willow; Young, Rachel; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

    2015-11-01

    Computer simulations can assist in the design and analysis of laboratory astrophysics experiments. The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) at the University of Michigan developed a code that has been used to design and analyze high-energy-density experiments on OMEGA, NIF, and other large laser facilities. This Eulerian code uses block-adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) with implicit multigroup radiation transport, electron heat conduction and laser ray tracing. This poster will demonstrate some of the experiments the CRASH code has helped design or analyze including: Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, magnetized flows, jets, and laser-produced plasmas. This work is funded by the following grants: DEFC52-08NA28616, DE-NA0001840, and DE-NA0002032.

  10. Heterodyne Receiver for Laboratory Spectrosocpy of Molecules of Astrophysical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehres, Nadine; Lewen, Frank; Endres, Christian; Hermanns, Marius; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We present first results of a heterodyne receiver built for high-resolution emission laboratory spectroscopy of molecules of astrophysical interest. The room-temperature receiver operates at frequencies between 80 and 110 GHz, consistent with ALMA band 3. Many molecules have been identified in the interstellar and circumstellar medium at exactly these frequencies by comparing emission spectra obtained from telescopes to high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra. Taking advantage of the recent progresses in the field of mm/submm technology in the astronomy community, we have built a room-temperature emission spectrometer making use of heterodyne receiver technology at an instantaneous bandwidth of currently 2.5 GHz. The system performance, in particular the noise temperature and systematic errors, is presented. The proof-of-concept is demonstrated by comparing the emission spectrum of methyl cyanide to respective absorption spectra and to the literature. Future prospects as well as limitations of the new laboratory receiver for the spectroscopy of complex organic molecules or transient species in discharges will be discussed.

  11. Potential Astrophysics Science Missions Enabled by NASA's Planned Ares V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley; Langhoff, Stepheni; Postman, Marc; Lester, Daniel; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    NASA s planned Ares V cargo vehicle with its 10 meter diameter fairing and 60,000 kg payload mass to L2 offers the potential to launch entirely new classes of space science missions such as 8-meter monolithic aperture telescopes, 12- meter aperture x-ray telescopes, 16 to 24 meter segmented telescopes and highly capable outer planet missions. The paper will summarize the current Ares V baseline performance capabilities and review potential mission concepts enabled by these capabilities.

  12. NASA's astrophysics archives at the National Space Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenberg, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA maintains an archive facility for Astronomical Science data collected from NASA's missions at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center. This archive was created to insure the science data collected by NASA would be preserved and useable in the future by the science community. Through 25 years of operation there are many lessons learned, from data collection procedures, archive preservation methods, and distribution to the community. This document presents some of these more important lessons, for example: KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid) in system development. Also addressed are some of the myths of archiving, such as 'scientists always know everything about everything', or 'it cannot possibly be that hard, after all simple data tech's do it'. There are indeed good reasons that a proper archive capability is needed by the astronomical community, the important question is how to use the existing expertise as well as the new innovative ideas to do the best job archiving this valuable science data.

  13. NASA Astrophysics Cosmic Origins (COR) and Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Strategic Technology Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Seery, Bernard D.

    2015-01-01

    The COR and PCOS Program Offices (PO) reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), serving as the NASA Astrophysics Division's implementation arm for matters relating to the two programs. One aspect of the PO's activities is managing the COR and PCOS Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, helping mature technologies to enable and enhance future astrophysics missions.The PO is guided by the National Research Council's 'New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics' Decadal Survey report, and NASA's Astrophysics Implementation Plan. Strategic goals include dark energy; gravitational waves; X-ray observatories, e.g., US participation in ATHENA; Inflation probe; and a large UV/Visible telescope.To date, 51 COR and 65 PCOS SAT proposals have been received, of which 11 COR and 18 PCOS projects were funded. Notable successes include maturation of a new far-IR detector, later adopted by the SOFIA HAWC instrument; maturation of the H4RG near-IR detector, adopted by WFIRST; development of an antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometer, a technology deployed by BICEP2 that allowed measurement of B-mode polarization in the CMB signal, a possible signature of Inflation; and finally, the REXIS instrument on OSIRIS-REx is incorporating CCDs with directly deposited optical blocking filters developed by another SAT-funded project.We discuss our technology development process, with community input and strategic prioritization informing calls for SAT proposals and guiding investment decisions. We also present results of this year's technology gap prioritization and showcase our current portfolio of technology development projects. These include five newly selected projects, kicking off in FY 2015.For more information, visit the COR Program website at cor.gsfc.nasa.gov and the PCOS website at pcos.gsfc.nasa.gov.

  14. Designing astrophysics missions for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-10-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultrahigh-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and an LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8- or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45 mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper introduces the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, provides a simple mass allocation recipe for designing large space telescope missions to this capacity, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope, and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  15. Laboratory Studies Of Astrophysically-interesting Phosphorus-bearing Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, Lucy M.; Halfen, D. T.; Sun, M.; Clouthier, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    Over the past year, there has been a renewed interest in the presence of phosphorus-containing molecules in the interstellar medium. Recent observations have increased the number of known interstellar phosphorus-bearing species from two (PN, CP) to six with the identification of HCP, CCP, and PH3 in the carbon-rich circumstellar shell of IRC+10216 and PO in the oxygen-rich envelope of VY Canis Majoris. More species of this type may be present in the ISM, but laboratory rest frequencies, necessary for such detections, are not generally known for many potential molecules. To fill in this gap, we have been conducting measurements of the pure rotational spectra of phosphorus-containing molecules of astrophysical interest, using both millimeter/submm direct absorption and Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy. We have developed a new phosphorus source for this purpose. These methods cover the frequency ranges 65-850 GHz and 4-40 GHz, respectively. Our recent study of the CCP radical (X2Πr) using both of these techniques has resulted in its identification in IRC+10216. Rotational spectra of other molecules such as PCN, HPS, and CH3PH2 have been recorded. We will report on these species and additional new laboratory developments

  16. Terrestrial aurora: astrophysical laboratory for anomalous abundances in stellar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique magnetic structure of the terrestrial aurora as a conduit of information between the ionosphere and magnetosphere can be utilized as a laboratory for physical processes at similar magnetic configurations and applied to various evolutionary phases of the solar (stellar system. The most spectacular heliospheric abundance enhancement involves the 3He isotope and selective heavy elements in impulsive solar flares. In situ observations of electromagnetic waves on active aurora are extrapolated to flaring corona in an analysis of solar acceleration processes of 3He, the only element that may resonate strongly with the waves, as well as heavy ions with specific charge-to-mass ratios, which may resonate weaker via their higher gyroharmonics. These results are applied to two observed anomalous astrophysical abundances: (1 enhanced abundance of 3He and possibly 13C in the late stellar evolutionary stages of planetary nebulae; and (2 enhanced abundance of the observed fossil element 26Mg in meteorites as a decay product of radioactive 26Al isotope due to interaction with the flare-energized 3He in the early solar system.

  17. Similarity and self-similarity in high energy density physics: application to laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falize, E.

    2008-10-01

    The spectacular recent development of powerful facilities allows the astrophysical community to explore, in laboratory, astrophysical phenomena where radiation and matter are strongly coupled. The titles of the nine chapters of the thesis are: from high energy density physics to laboratory astrophysics; Lie groups, invariance and self-similarity; scaling laws and similarity properties in High-Energy-Density physics; the Burgan-Feix-Munier transformation; dynamics of polytropic gases; stationary radiating shocks and the POLAR project; structure, dynamics and stability of optically thin fluids; from young star jets to laboratory jets; modelling and experiences for laboratory jets

  18. The molecular universe: from astronomy to laboratory astrophysics and back

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Molecules are found in a wide range of astronomical environments, fromour Solar System to distant starburst galaxies at the highest redshifts. Thanks to the opening up of the infrared and (sub)millimeter wavelength regime, culminating with Herschel and ALMA, more than 180 different species have now been found throughout the various stages of stellar birth and death: diffuse and dense interstellar clouds, protostars and disks, the envelopes of evolved stars and planetary nebulae, and exo-planetary atmospheres. Molecules and solid-state features are now also routinely detected in the interstellar medium of external galaxies, near and far.There are many motivations for studying this molecular universe. From the chemical perspective, interstellar space provides a unique laboratory to study basic molecular processes under very different conditions from those normally found in a laboratory on Earth. For astronomers, molecules are unique probes of the many environments where they are found, providing information on density, temperature, dynamics, ionization fractions and magnetic fields. Molecules also play an important role in the cooling of clouds allowing them to collapse, including the formation of the very first stars and galaxies. Finally, the molecular composition is sensitive to the history of the material, and ultimately provides critical information on our origins.This talk will summarize a number of recent observational highlights and provide examples of cases where the availability of new laboratory data proved crucial in the analysis. This includes basic data such as spectroscopy and collisional rate coefficients, but also an improved understanding of photoprocesses in the gaseous and solid state. Much of the chemistry in star- and planet-forming regions is now thought to be driven by gas-grain chemistry rather than pure gas-phase chemistry, and a few examples of the close link between models and laboratory experiments will be given. In spite of lingering

  19. From dripline to dripline: Nuclear astrophysics in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, Zach

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of a century the field of nuclear astrophysics has aimed to answer fundamental questions about nature, such as the origin of the elements and the behavior of high-density, low-temperature matter. Sustained and concerted efforts in nuclear experiment have been key to achieving progress in these areas and will continue to be so. Here I will briefly review recent accomplishments and open questions in experimental nuclear astrophysics. (paper)

  20. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  1. Laboratory astrophysics. Model experiments of astrophysics with large-scale lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabe, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    I would like to review the model experiment of astrophysics with high-power, large-scale lasers constructed mainly for laser nuclear fusion research. The four research directions of this new field named 'Laser Astrophysics' are described with four examples mainly promoted in our institute. The description is of magazine style so as to be easily understood by non-specialists. A new theory and its model experiment on the collisionless shock and particle acceleration observed in supernova remnants (SNRs) are explained in detail and its result and coming research direction are clarified. In addition, the vacuum breakdown experiment to be realized with the near future ultra-intense laser is also introduced. (author)

  2. Preface to special topic: High-energy density laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, Siegfried H

    2017-01-01

    Here, in the 1990s, when the large inertial confinement fusion facilities in the United States became accessible for discovery-class research, physicists soon realized that the combination of these energetic drivers with precision plasmas diagnostics would allow the unprecedented experimental study of astrophysical problems.

  3. Enhancing the Impact of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Sharing Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolone, Lindsay; Smith, D. A.; Astrophysics Science Education, NASA; Public Outreach Forum Team

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its education and public outreach community in enhancing the coherence, efficiency, and effectiveness of SMD-funded education and public outreach programs. As part of this effort, the four Forums (Astrophysics, Earth Science, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science) work together to coordinate resources and opportunities that enable sharing of best practices relevant to SMD-funded education and public outreach. Efforts include collaborating with SMD-funded education and public outreach programs to identify community needs for professional development; raising awareness of the existing body of best practices and educational research; and, organizing distance learning and face-to-face professional development opportunities. Topics include best practices in navigating NASA SMD education and public outreach program requirements, social media, engaging girls in science, and student misconceptions / reasoning difficulties. Opportunities to share best practices and learn from experts are extended to the broader astronomy and astrophysics community through the annual Astronomical Society of the Pacific education and public outreach conference. Evaluation of community professional development resources and opportunities is in progress.

  4. Formation and Evolution of Interstellar Dust - Bridging Astronomy and Laboratory Astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

    2010-05-01

    The study of the formation and the destruction processes of cosmic dust are essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. PAHs are important chemical building blocks of interstellar (IS) dust. They are detected in Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs, in their neutral and ionized forms, are an important, ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. Carbonaceous materials extracts from mixtures of hydrocarbons (C2H2, C2H4, and benzene) contain a high variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (From Jager et al. Carbon 45 (2007) 2981-2994). Studies of large molecular and nano-sized interstellar dust analogs formed from PAH precursors have been performed in our laboratory under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments. The species (molecules, molecular fragments, ions, nanoparticles, etc...) formed in the pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) plasma source are detected and characterized with a high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) coupled to a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS), thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. We will present new experimental results that indicate that nanoparticles are generated in the plasma. From these unique measurements, we derive information on the nature, the size and the structure of interstellar dust particles, the growth and the destruction processes of IS dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Acknowledgments: This research is supported by NASA APRA (Laboratory Astrophysics Program). C. S. C. & C. L. R. acknowledge the support of the NASA Postdoctoral Program.

  5. Resources from the NASA SMD Astrophysics Forum: Addressing the needs of the higher education community (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Schultz, G. R.; Smith, D.; Bianchi, L.; Blair, W. P.; Fraknoi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Four NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums organize individual SMD-funded E/PO projects and their teams into a coordinated effort. The Forums assist scientists and educators with becoming involved in SMD E/PO and make SMD E/PO resources and expertise accessible to the science and education communities. The Astrophysics Forum and the Astrophysics E/PO community have focused efforts to support and engage the higher education community on enhancing awareness of the resources available to them. To ensure Astrophysics higher education efforts are grounded in audience needs, we held informal conversations with instructors of introductory astronomy courses, convened sessions with higher education faculty and E/PO professionals at conferences, and examined existing literature and findings of the SMD Higher Education Working Group. This work indicates that most Astronomy 101 instructors are not specialists in areas of astrophysics where rapid progress is being made, older textbooks are out of date, and ideas are challenging for students. Instructors are seeking resources and training that support them in effectively teaching the latest science and are in need both basic material and information on new results. In this session, we will discuss our efforts to address these expressed needs, namely through Resource Guides and Slide Sets, and how these are applicable to topics in Heliophysics and Planetary Science. We have collaborated with the Astrophysics E/PO community, researchers, and Astronomy 101 instructors to create two Resource Guides on the topics of cosmology and exoplanets. These fields are ripe with scientific developments that college instructors have told us they find challenging to stay current. Each guide includes a wide variety of sources of background information, links to animations/simulations, classroom activities, and references on teaching each topic. Feedback from Astronomy 101 instructors indicated that the

  6. The impact of recent advances in laboratory astrophysics on our understanding of the cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, D W; Brickhouse, N S; Cowan, J J; Drake, R P; Federman, S R; Ferland, G J; Frank, A; Gudipati, M S; Haxton, W C; Herbst, E; Profumo, S; Salama, F; Ziurys, L M; Zweibel, E G

    2012-01-01

    An emerging theme in modern astrophysics is the connection between astronomical observations and the underlying physical phenomena that drive our cosmos. Both the mechanisms responsible for the observed astrophysical phenomena and the tools used to probe such phenomena—the radiation and particle spectra we observe—have their roots in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, plasma, nuclear and particle physics. Chemistry is implicitly included in both molecular and condensed matter physics. This connection is the theme of the present report, which provides a broad, though non-exhaustive, overview of progress in our understanding of the cosmos resulting from recent theoretical and experimental advances in what is commonly called laboratory astrophysics. This work, carried out by a diverse community of laboratory astrophysicists, is increasingly important as astrophysics transitions into an era of precise measurement and high fidelity modeling.

  7. Astrophysical research at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, proposal for a formal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokke, W.A.; Tarter, C.B.

    1979-12-01

    Basic research is often characterized as self-directed, moving on its own timescale, spurred by the unexpected. An effective, organized basic astrophysics research program does not have to be a contradiction in terms. A broadly chartered, long-range LLL Astrophysics Research Program, created and recognized by LLL management, can benefit the general scientific community, stimulate the staff, maintain important capability, and enrich the Laboratory.

  8. Astrophysical research at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, proposal for a formal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokke, W.A.; Tarter, C.B.

    1979-12-01

    Basic research is often characterized as self-directed, moving on its own timescale, spurred by the unexpected. An effective, organized basic astrophysics research program does not have to be a contradiction in terms. A broadly chartered, long-range LLL Astrophysics Research Program, created and recognized by LLL management, can benefit the general scientific community, stimulate the staff, maintain important capability, and enrich the Laboratory

  9. A Laboratory Astrophysical Jet to Study Canonical Flux Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Setthivoine [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-12-20

    Understanding the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields remains a fundamental problem in plasma physics, with important applications to astrophysics, fusion energy, and advanced space propulsion. For example, flows are of primary importance in astrophysical jets even if it is not fully understood how jets become so long without becoming unstable. Theories for the origin of magnetic fields in the cosmos rely on flowing charged fluids that should generate magnetic fields, yet this remains to be demonstrated experimentally. Fusion energy reactors can be made smaller with flows that improve stability and confinement. Advanced space propulsion could be more efficient with collimated and stable plasma flows through magnetic nozzles but must eventually detach from the nozzle. In all these cases, there appears to be a spontaneous emergence of flowing and/or magnetic structures, suggesting a form of self-organization in plasmas. Beyond satisfying simple intellectual curiosity, understanding plasma self-organization could enable the development of methods to control plasma structures for fusion energy, space propulsion, and other applications. The research project has therefore built a theory and an experiment to investigate the interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows. The theory is called canonical field theory for short, and the experiment is called Mochi after a rice cake filled with surprising, yet delicious fillings.

  10. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu WeiPing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Underground lab for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA will take the advantage of the ultralow background in Jinping underground lab, high current accelerator based on an ECR source and highly sensitive detector to study directly a number of crucial reactions to the hydrostatic stellar evolution for the first time at their relevant stellar energies. In its first phase, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ26Al, 19F(p,α16O, 13C(α,n16O and 12C(α,γ16O. The experimental setup, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be established during the above research. The current progress of JUNA will be given.

  11. Nestor: a neutrino astrophysics laboratory in the mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiriou, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    NESTOR is the underwater neutrino astrophysics telescope to be located in the international waters off the Southwest of Greece. The first phase of the experiment is the construction and deployment of a twelve floor tower, 330 m high and 34 m in diameter, consisting of 168 photomultipliers, with an effective sensitive area for TeV neutrinos of 20,000 m 2 . Detailed studies have been carried out over the last years, especially measurements of the optical properties of the water, underwater currents and sea bottom sedimentology at the NESTOR site. Most of the major components of the detector have been tested. The current status of the construction of the experiment will be presented. (author)

  12. Promising lines of investigations in the realms of laboratory astrophysics with the aid of powerful lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Batishchev, P. A.; Bolshakov, V. V.; Elkin, K. S.; Karabadzhak, G. F.; Kovkov, D. V.; Matafonov, A. P.; Raykunov, G. G.; Yakhin, R. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Fortov, V. E.; Krainov, V. P.; Rozanov, V. B.

    2013-01-01

    The results of work on choosing and substantiating promising lines of research in the realms of laboratory astrophysics with the aid of powerful lasers are presented. These lines of research are determined by the possibility of simulating, under laboratory conditions, problematic processes of presentday astrophysics, such as (i) the generation and evolution of electromagnetic fields in cosmic space and the role of magnetic fields there at various spatial scales; (ii) the mechanisms of formation and evolution of cosmic gamma-ray bursts and relativistic jets; (iii) plasma instabilities in cosmic space and astrophysical objects, plasma jets, and shock waves; (iv) supernova explosions and mechanisms of the explosion of supernovae featuring a collapsing core; (v) nuclear processes in astrophysical objects; (vi) cosmic rays and mechanisms of their production and acceleration to high energies; and (vii) astrophysical sources of x-ray radiation. It is shown that the use of existing powerful lasers characterized by an intensity in the range of 10 18 –10 22 W/cm 2 and a pulse duration of 0.1 to 1 ps and high-energy lasers characterized by an energy in excess of 1 kJ and a pulse duration of 1 to 10 ns makes it possible to perform investigations in laboratory astrophysics along all of the chosen promising lines. The results obtained by experimentally investigating laser plasma with the aid of the laser facility created at Central Research Institute of Machine Building (TsNIIMash) and characterized by a power level of 10 TW demonstrate the potential of such facilities for performing a number of experiments in the realms of laboratory astrophysics.

  13. A simulation package for soft X-ray and EUV spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas in different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G Y; Li, F; Wang, F L; Zhong, J Y; Zhao, G; Wu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic researches in astronomy are significantly dependent on theoretical modelling methods, such as Chianti, Xstar, Cloudy etc. Recently, a different research community - Laboratory Astrophysics tries to benchmark these theoretical models or simulate the astrophysical phenomenon directly in conditions accessed in ground laboratory. Those unavoidable differences between the astrophysical objects and laboratory provide a need for a self-consistent model to make a bridge for the two cases. So we setup a visualized simulation package for soft X-ray and EUV spectroscopy in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  14. High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology from Space: NASA's Physics of the Cosmos Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2016-03-01

    We summarize currently-funded NASA activities in high energy astrophysics and cosmology, embodied in the NASA Physics of the Cosmos program, including updates on technology development and mission studies. The portfolio includes development of a space mission for measuring gravitational waves from merging supermassive black holes, currently envisioned as a collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) on its L3 mission and development of an X-ray observatory that will measure X-ray emission from the final stages of accretion onto black holes, currently envisioned as a NASA collaboration on ESA's Athena observatory. The portfolio also includes the study of cosmic rays and gamma ray photons resulting from a range of processes, of the physical process of inflation associated with the birth of the universe and of the nature of the dark energy that dominates the mass-energy of the modern universe. The program is supported by an analysis group called the PhysPAG that serves as a forum for community input and analysis and the talk will include a description of activities of this group.

  15. The NASA Astrophysics Data System: Capabilities and Roadmap for the 2020s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; ADS Team

    2018-06-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is used daily by researchers and curators as a discovery platform for the Astronomy literature. Over the past several years, the ADS has been adding to the breadth and depth of its contents. Scholarly astronomy articles are now indexed as full-text documents, allowing for complete and accurate literature searches. High-level data products, data links, and software used in refereed astronomy papers are now also being ingested and indexed in our database. All the search functionality exposed in the new ADS interface is also available via its API, which we are continuing to develop and enhance. In this talk I will describe the current system, our current roadmap, and solicit input from the community regarding what additional data, services, and discovery capabilities the ADS should support.

  16. Laboratory astrophysics with high energy and high power lasers: from radiative shocks to young star jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diziere, A.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics are a rapidly developing domain of the High Energy Density Physics. It aims to recreate at smaller scales physical processes that astronomical telescopes have difficulties observing. We shall approach, in this thesis, three major subjects: 1) Jets ejected from young stars, characterized by an important collimation degree and ending with a bow shock; 2) Radiative shocks in which radiation emitted by the shock front itself plays a dominant role in its structure and 3) Accretion shocks in magnetic cataclysmic variables whose important cooling factor allows them to reach stationarity. From the conception to experimental realization, we shall attempt to reproduce in laboratory each of these processes by respecting the scaling laws linking both situations (experimental and astrophysical) established beforehand. The implementation of a large array of visible and X-ray diagnostics will finally allow to completely characterize them and calculate the dimensionless numbers that validate the astrophysical relevance. (author) [fr

  17. Nuclear astrophysics at Gran Sasso Laboratory: the LUNA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    LUNA is an experimental approach for the study of nuclear fusion reactions based on an underground accelerator laboratory. Aim of the experiment is the direct measurement of the cross section of nuclear reactions relevant for stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis. In the following the latest results and the future goals will be presented.

  18. Relativistic jets: An astrophysical laboratory for the Doppler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2018-05-01

    Special Relativity is one of the most abstract courses in the standard curriculum for physics majors, and therefore practical applications or laboratory exercises are particularly valuable for providing real-world experiences with this subject. This course poses a challenge for lab development because relativistic effects manifest themselves only at speeds close to the speed of light. The laboratory described in this paper constitutes a low-cost, low-barrier exercise suitable for students whose only background is the standard mechanics-plus-electromagnetism sequence. The activity uses research-quality astronomical data on SS433—a fascinating Galactic X-ray binary consisting of a compact object (a neutron star or a black hole) and a normal star. A pair of moderately relativistic jets moving with v ˜ 0.3 c in opposite directions emanate from the vicinity of the compact object and are clearly detected in optical and radio observations. Following step-by-step instructions, students develop a full kinematic model of a complex real-world source, use the model to fit the observational data, obtain best-fit parameters, and understand the limitations of the model. The observations are in exquisite agreement with the Doppler effect equations of Special Relativity. The complete lab manual, the dataset and the solutions are available in online supplemental materials; this paper presents the scientific and pedagogical background for the exercise.

  19. Cosmic PAHs: from infrared astronomy to laboratory astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joblin, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Astronomers consider polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to be the smallest dust particles and they use their infrared emission features, the aromatic infrared bands (AIBs), as a diagnostic of physical conditions in regions of star formation from the small scales of protoplanetary disks to the large scales of galaxies. This topic has to face several obstacles. One is the lack of identification of specific PAH species. Another one is that the AIB features carry not only information on the chemical diversity of species but also on photophysical processes involved in the relaxation of PAHs after having been energized by the absorption of UV photons from stars. In this presentation, I will discuss how we can progress in the analysis of the observed AIB spectrum by addressing both the photophysics of isolated PAHs and the formation and evolution of these molecules in cosmic environments. This is achieved by the combination of astronomical models with detailed investigation of molecular processes. The study of these processes has stimulated the development of dedicated laboratory setups and theoretical simulations at the forefront of molecular physics. I will more specifically present the opening given by ERC Synergy project Nanocosmos and the perspectives with the coming James Webb telescope.

  20. PAH-Mineral Interactions. A Laboratory Approach to Astrophysical Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfo Cruz Diaz, Gustavo; Mattioda, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules carry the infrared emission features which dominate the spectra of most galactic and extragalactic sources. Our study investigates the chemical evolution, chemical properties, physical properties, thermal stability, and photostability of samples produced from the UV-irradiation of simulated mineral dust grains coated with aromatics and astrobiologically relevant ices, using infrared spectroscopy. We investigate the chemical evolution of aromatic organics via anhydrous (no H2O ice) and hydrous (H2O ice) mechanisms. The anhydrous mechanism involves UV-induced catalytic reactions between organics and dense-cloud mineral grains, whereas the hydrous mechanism incorporates H2O-rich ice mixtures with the minerals and organics. These investigations identify the chemical and physical interactions occurring between the organic species, the dust grains and water-rich ices.These laboratory simulations also generate observable IR spectroscopic parameters for future astronomical observations with infrared telescopes such as SOFIA and JWST as well as provide empirical parameters for input into astronomical models of the early stages of planetary formation. These studies give us a deeper understanding of the potential catalytic pathways mineral surfaces provide and a deeper understanding of the role of ice-organic compositions in the chemical reaction pathways and how these processes fit into the formation of new planetary systems.In order to achieve these goals we use the Harrick ‘Praying Mantis’ Diffuse Reflectance Accessory (DRIFTS), which allows FTIR measurements of dust samples under ambient conditions by measuring the light scattered by the dust sample. We have also incorporated a low -temperature reaction chamber permitting the DRIFTS measurements at low temperatures and high-vacuum. This set-up permits the analysis of the solid particles surfaces revealing the chemical species adsorbed as well as their chemical evolution

  1. Laboratory Studies of Charging Properties of Dust Grains in Astrophysical/Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with UV/X-ray radiation, as well as by electron/ion impact. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of individual dust grains is required for understanding of the physical and dynamical processes in space environments and the role of dust in formation of stellar and planetary systems. In this paper we focus on charging of individual micron/submicron dust grains by processes that include: (a) UV photoelectric emissions involving incident photon energies higher than the work function of the material and b) electron impact, where low energy electrons are scattered or stick to the dust grains, thereby charging the dust grains negatively, and at sufficiently high energies the incident electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). It is well accepted that the charging properties of individual micron/submicron size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the bulk materials. However, no viable models for calculation of the charging properties of individual micron size dust grains are available at the present time. Therefore, the photoelectric yields, and secondary electron emission yields of micron-size dust grains have to be obtained by experimental methods. Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains. Our experimental results, obtained on individual, micron-size dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance facility (at NASA-MSFC), show that: (1) The measured photoelectric yields are substantially higher than the bulk values given in the literature and indicate a particle size dependence with larger particles having order-of-magnitude higher values than for submicron-size grains; (2) dust charging by low energy electron impact is a complex process. Also, our measurements indicate that

  2. NASA Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sanford (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research program is presented in a series of research briefs. Nineteen projects covering aeronautical fluid mechanics and related areas are discussed and augmented with the publication and presentation output of the Branch for the period 1990-1993.

  3. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  4. The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept study: forging the path to NASA astrophysics 2020 decadal survey prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Özel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  5. Prototyping a large-scale distributed system for the Great Observatories era - NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shames, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is a distributed information system intended to support research in the Great Observatories era, to simplify access to data, and to enable simultaneous analyses of multispectral data sets. Here, the user agent and interface, its functions, and system components are examined, and the system architecture and infrastructure is addressed. The present status of the system and related future activities are examined.

  6. Reverse-Engineering Laboratory Astrophysics: Oxygen Inner-shell Absorption in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.; Gatuzz, E.; Kallman, T. R.; Mendoza, C.; Gorczyca, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of X-ray spectra from photoionized astrophysical plasmas has been significantly improved due to recent advancements in the theoretical and numerical frameworks, as well as a consolidated and reliable atomic database of inner-shell transitions for all the relevant ions. We discuss these developments and the current state of X-ray spectral modeling in the context of oxygen cold absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM). Unconventionally, we use high-resolution astrophysical observations to accurately determine line positions, and adjust the theoretical models for a comprehensive interpretation of the observed X-ray spectra. This approach has brought to light standing discrepancies in the neutral oxygen absorption-line positions determined from observations and laboratory measurements. We give an overview of our current efforts to devise a definitive model of oxygen photoabsorption that can help to resolve the existing controversy regarding ISM atomic and molecular fractions.

  7. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy of micro- and nanodiamonds: an implication for laboratory astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucsik, Arnold; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Ninagawa, Kiyotaka; Ott, Ulrich; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Kayama, Masahiro; Simonia, Irakli; Boudou, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Color centers in selected micro- and nanodiamond samples were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and spectroscopy at 298 K [room temperature (RT)] and 77 K [liquid-nitrogen temperature (LNT)] to assess the value of the technique for astrophysics. Nanodiamonds from meteorites were compared with synthetic diamonds made with different processes involving distinct synthesis mechanisms (chemical vapor deposition, static high pressure high temperature, detonation). A CL emission peak centered at around 540 nm at 77 K was observed in almost all of the selected diamond samples and is assigned to the dislocation defect with nitrogen atoms. Additional peaks were identified at 387 and 452 nm, which are related to the vacancy defect. In general, peak intensity at LNT at the samples was increased in comparison to RT. The results indicate a clear temperature-dependence of the spectroscopic properties of diamond. This suggests the method is a useful tool in laboratory astrophysics.

  8. Promising lines of research in the realms of laboratory nuclear astrophysics by means of powerful lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, V. S., E-mail: belyaev@tsniimash.ru; Zagreev, B. V.; Kedrov, A. Yu.; Lobanov, A. V.; Matafonov, A. P. [Russian Space Agency, Pionerskaya, Central Research Institute for Machine Building (TsNIIMash) (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, V. V.; Savel’ev, A. B.; Mordvintsev, I. M.; Tsymbalov, I. N.; Shulyapov, S. A. [Moscow State University, International Laser Center (Russian Federation); Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Filippov, E. D.; Faenov, A. Ya. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Krainov, V. P. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Basic nuclear-astrophysics problems that can be studied under laboratory conditions at a laserradiation intensity of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} or more are specified. These are the lithium problem, the problem of determining neutron sources for s-processes of heavy-element formation, the formation of bypassed stable p-nuclei, and nuclear reactions involving isotopes used by astronomers for diagnostics purposes. The results of experiments at the Neodym laser facility are presented, and proposals for further studies in these realms are formulated.

  9. Multi-scale data visualization for computational astrophysics and climate dynamics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, Sean; Daniel, Jamison R; Gao, Jinzhu; Ostrouchov, George; Toedte, Ross J; Wang, Chaoli

    2006-01-01

    Computational astrophysics and climate dynamics are two principal application foci at the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). We identify a dataset frontier that is shared by several SciDAC computational science domains and present an exploration of traditional production visualization techniques enhanced with new enabling research technologies such as advanced parallel occlusion culling and high resolution small multiples statistical analysis. In collaboration with our research partners, these techniques will allow the visual exploration of a new generation of peta-scale datasets that cross this data frontier along all axes

  10. Laboratory Molecular Astrophysics as an Invaluable Tool in understanding Astronomical Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Helen Jane

    2015-08-01

    We are entering the decade of molecular astrochemistry: spectroscopic data pertaining to the interactions between baryonic matter and electromagnetic radiation are now at the forefront of astronomical observations. Elucidating such data is reliant on inputs from laboratory experiments, modeling, and theoretical chemistry / physics, a field that is intended to be a key focus for the proposed new commission in Laboratory Astrophysics.Here, we propose a “tour de force” review of some recent successes since the last GA in molecular astrophysics, particularly those that have been directly facilitated by laboratory data in Astrochemistry. It is vital to highlight to the astronomers that the absence of laboratory data from the literature would otherwise have precluded advances in our astronomical understanding, e.g:the detection of gas-phase water deep in pre-stellar cores,the detection of water and other molecular species in gravitationally lensed galaxies at z~6“Jumps” in the appearance or disappearance of molecules, including the very recent detection of the first branched organic molecule in the ISM, iso-propyl-cyanide,disentangling dense spectroscopic features in the sub-mm as measured by ALMA, Herschel and SOFIA, the so-called “weeds” and “flowers”,the first ''image'' of a CO snow-line in a protoplanetary disk.Looking forward, the advent of high spatial and spectral resolution telescopes, particularly ALMA, SKA E-ELT and JWST, will continue to drive forward the needs and interests of laboratory astrochemistry in the coming decade. We will look forward to five key areas where advances are expected, and both observational and laboratory techniques are evolving:-(a) understanding star forming regions at very high spatial and spectral senstivity and resolution(b) extragalactic astrochemistry(c) (exo-)planetary atmospheres, surfaces and Solar System sample return - linkinginterstellar and planetary chemistry(d) astrobiology - linking simple molecular

  11. Developing the Infrared PAH Emission Bands Into Calibrated Probes of Astrophysical Conditions with The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Christiaan

    We propose to quantitatively calibrate the PAH band strength ratios that have been traditionally used as qualitative proxies of PAH properties and linking PAH observables with local astrophysical conditions, thus developing PAHs into quantitative probes of astronomical environments. This will culminate in a toolbox (calibration charts) that can be used by PAH experts and non-PAH experts alike to unlock the information hidden in PAH emission sources that are part of the Spitzer and ISO archives. Furthermore, the proposed work is critical to mine the treasure trove of information JWST will return as it will capture, for the first time, the complete mid-infrared (IR) PAH spectrum with fully resolved features, through a single aperture, and along single lines-of-sight; making it possible to fully extract the information contained in the PAH spectra. In short, the work proposed here represents a major step in enabling the astronomical PAH model to reach its full potential as a diagnostic of the physical and chemical conditions in objects spanning the Universe. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a common and important reservoir of accessible carbon across the Universe, play an intrinsic part in the formation of stars, planets and possibly even life itself. While most PAH spectra appear quite similar, they differ in detail and contain a wealth of untapped information. Thanks to recent advances in laboratory studies and computer-based calculations of PAH spectra, the majority of which have been made at NASA Ames, coupled with the astronomical modeling tools we have developed, we can interpret the spectral details at levels never before possible. This enables us to extract local physical conditions and track subtle changes in these conditions at levels previously impossible. Building upon the tools and paradigms developed as part of the publicly available NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (PAHdb; www.astrochem.org/pahdb/), the purpose of our proposed research is

  12. The Intersection of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach and Higher Education: A Special Interest Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D.; Schultz, G.; Bianchi, L.; Blair, W.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents highlights from a group discussion on how the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education and public outreach (EPO) community could better support undergraduate astronomy education through EPO products and resources - current and future - targeted at the college level. The discussion was organized by the SMD Astrophysics EPO Forum through a Special Interest Group Meeting at the 2010 ASP Annual Meeting in Boulder. Our session took advantage of the simultaneous presence of EPO professionals and the Cosmos in the Classroom participants to seek out diverse perspectives on and experiences in higher education.

  13. High-energy Nd:glass laser facility for collisionless laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, C; Constantin, C G; Schaeffer, D B; Lucky, Z; Gekelman, W; Everson, E T; Tauschwitz, A; Weiland, T; Winske, D

    2012-01-01

    A kilojoule-class laser (Raptor) has recently been activated at the Phoenix-laser-facility at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) for an experimental program on laboratory astrophysics in conjunction with the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). The unique combination of a high-energy laser system and the 18 meter long, highly-magnetized but current-free plasma will support a new class of plasma physics experiments, including the first laboratory simulations of quasi-parallel collisionless shocks, experiments on magnetic reconnection, or advanced laser-based diagnostics of basic plasmas. Here we present the parameter space accessible with this new instrument, results from a laser-driven magnetic piston experiment at reduced power, and a detailed description of the laser system and its performance.

  14. Tenth International Colloquium on UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Eric H.; Kahn, Steven M.

    UV and X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas draws interest from many disciplines. Contributions from international specialists are collected together in this book from a timely recent conference. In astrophysics, the Hubble Space Telescope, Astro 1 and ROSAT observatories are now providing UV and X-ray spectra and images of cosmic sources in unprecedented detail, while the Yohkoh mission recently collected superb data on the solar corona. In the laboratory, the development of ion-trap facilities and novel laser experiments are providing vital new data on high temperature plasmas. Recent innovations in the technology of spectroscopic instrumentation are discussed. These papers constitute an excellent up-to-date review of developments in short-wavelength spectroscopy and offer a solid introduction to its theoretical and experimental foundations. These proceedings give an up-to-date review of developments in short-wavelength spectroscopy and offer a solid introduction to its theoretical and experimental foundations. Various speakers presented some of the first results from the high resolution spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, the high sensitivity far ultraviolet and X-ray spectrometers of the ASTRO 1 Observatory, the imaging X-ray spectrometer on the ROSAT Observatory, and the high resolution solar X-ray spectrometer on Yohkoh. The development of ion trap devices had brought about a revolution in laboratory investigations of atomic processes in highly charged atoms. X-ray laser experiments had not only yielded considerable insight into electron ion interactions in hot dense plasmas, but also demonstrated the versatility of laser plasmas as laboratory X-ray sources. Such measurements also motivated and led to refinements in the development of large-scale atomic and molecular codes. On the instrumental side, the design and development of the next series of very powerful short wavelength observatories had generated a large number of

  15. Software process improvement in the NASA software engineering laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) was established in 1976 for the purpose of studying and measuring software processes with the intent of identifying improvements that could be applied to the production of ground support software within the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SEL has three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The concept of process improvement within the SEL focuses on the continual understanding of both process and product as well as goal-driven experimentation and analysis of process change within a production environment.

  16. The NASA Astrophysics Data System Free Access to the Astronomical Literature On-Line and through Email

    CERN Document Server

    Eichhorn, G; Grant, C S; Kurtz, M J; Murray, S S

    2001-01-01

    The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides access to the astronomical literature through the World Wide Web. It is a NASA funded project and access to all the ADS services is free to everybody world-wide.The ADS Abstract Service allows the searching of four databases with abstracts in Astronomy, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and the LANL Preprints with a total of over 2.2 million references. The system also provides access to reference and citation information, links to on-line data, electronic journal articles, and other on-line information. The ADS Article Service contains the articles for most of the astronomical literature back to volume 1. It contains the scanned pages of all the major journals (Astrophysical Journal, Astronomical Journal, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, and Solar Physics), as well as most smaller journals back to volume 1. The ADS can be accessed through any web browser without signup or login. Alternatively an email interface is ...

  17. 75 FR 33837 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... than 10 working days prior to the meeting: Full name; gender; date/ place of birth; citizenship; visa... following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --Ethics Briefing --Government Performance and Results Act... information 3 working days in advance by contacting Marian Norris via e-mail at [email protected] or by...

  18. The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Goldstein, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation ''superlasers'', the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings

  19. The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B.A.; Goldstein, W.H. [eds.

    1996-08-09

    The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation ``superlasers``, the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings.

  20. From the Telescope to the Laboratory and Back Again: The Center for Astrophysical Plasma Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Montgomery, Michael; Winget, Don; Schaeuble, Marc; Hawkins, Keith; Wheeler, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The Center for Astrophysical Plasma Properties (CAPP) is a new center focusing on the spectroscopic properties of stars and accretion disks using “at-parameter” experiments. Currently, these experiments use the X-ray output of the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories—the largest X-ray source in the world—to heat plasmas to the same conditions (temperature, density, and radiation environment) as those observed in astronomical objects. Current experiments include measuring (1) density-dependent opacities of iron-peak elements at solar interior conditions, (2) spectral lines of low-Z elements at white dwarf photospheric conditions, (3) atomic population kinetics of neon in a radiation-dominated environment, and (4) resonant Auger destruction (RAD) of silicon at accretion disk conditions around supermassive black holes. We will be moving to new astrophysical environments and additional experimental facilities, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). We seek students and collaborators to work on these experiments as well as the calculations that complement them. CAPP has funding for 5 years and can support up to six graduate students and three post-docs.

  1. 76 FR 35481 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Update. --Research and Analysis Update. --Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope Science Definition Team... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 11-054] NASA Advisory Council; Science... Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This subcommittee reports to the Science Committee of the NAC...

  2. 76 FR 59172 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Space Telescope, Science Definition Team. --Physics of the Cosmos/Cosmic Origins/Exoplanet Program... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-083)] NASA Advisory Council; Science... Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science Committee of the NAC...

  3. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; De Grouchy, P.; Music, J.; Suttle, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Ciardi, A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75005, Paris (France); Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G. [Departamento de Fisica de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Hansen, E.; Frank, A., E-mail: f.suzuki@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.

  4. FOSTER-Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment, A New IDEA Program From NASA Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devore, E.; Gillespie, C.; Hull, G.; Koch, D.

    1993-05-01

    Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment (FOSTER) is a new educational program from the Imitative to Develop Education through Astronomy in the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. Now in its first year of the pilot program, the FOSTER project brings eleven Bay Area teaaaachers to NASA Ames to participate in a year-long program of workshops, educational programs at their schools and the opportunity to fly aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) on research missions. As science and math educators, FOSTER teachers get a close-up look at science in action and have the opportunity to interact with the entire team of scientists, aviators and engineers that support the research abord the KAO. In June, a second group of FOSTER teachers will participate in a week-long workshop at ASes to prepare for flights during the 1993-94 school year. In addition, the FOSTER project trains teachers to use e-mail for ongoing communication with scientists and the KAO team, develops educational materials and supports opportunities for scientists to become directly involved in local schools. FOSTER is supported by a NASA grant (NAGW 3291).

  5. Flares: solar and stellar. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory workshop on astronomy and astrophysics, Abingdon, 19-21 May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1986-05-01

    The paper concerns solar and stellar flare phenomena reported at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics, May 1986. Eleven papers were presented at the Workshop on: the solar-stellar connection, observational evidence for solar and stellar flares, and flare models; and all are indexed separately. (UK)

  6. Laboratory oscillator strengths of Sc i in the near-infrared region for astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, A.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Atomic data is crucial for astrophysical investigations. To understand the formation and evolution of stars, we need to analyse their observed spectra. Analysing a spectrum of a star requires information about the properties of atomic lines, such as wavelengths and oscillator strengths. However, atomic data of some elements are scarce, particularly in the infrared region, and this paper is part of an effort to improve the situation on near-IR atomic data. Aims: This paper investigates the spectrum of neutral scandium, Sc I, from laboratory measurements and improves the atomic data of Sc I lines in the infrared region covering lines in R, I, J, and K bands. Especially, we focus on measuring oscillator strengths for Sc I lines connecting the levels with 4p and 4s configurations. Methods: We combined experimental branching fractions with radiative lifetimes from the literature to derive oscillator strengths (f-values). Intensity-calibrated spectra with high spectral resolution were recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer from a hollow cathode discharge lamp. The spectra were used to derive accurate oscillator strengths and wavelengths for Sc I lines, with emphasis on the infrared region. Results: This project provides the first set of experimental Sc I lines in the near-infrared region for accurate spectral analysis of astronomical objects. We derived 63 log(gf) values for the lines between 5300 Å and 24 300 Å. The uncertainties in the f-values vary from 5% to 20%. The small uncertainties in our values allow for an increased accuracy in astrophysical abundance determinations.

  7. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgner, Ch. [Nuclear Astrophysics group, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, protected from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance. Recently, a muon background study and geodetic measurements were carried out by the REGARD group. It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to 130 m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2.5 m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} s{sup -1}, in the direction of the tunnel entrance. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem accelerator with 250 μA up-charge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the

  8. Convoluted ν-Signals on 114Cd Isotope from Astrophysical and Laboratory Neutrino Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Tsakstara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At first, we evaluate scattering cross sections of low, and intermediate-energy neutrinos scattered off the 114 Cd isotope, the most abundant Cd isotope present also in the COBRA detector (CdTe and CdZnTe materials which aims to search for double beta decay events and neutrino observations at Gran Sasso laboratory (LNGS. The coherent ν-nucleus channel addressed here is the dominant reaction channel of the neutral current ν-nucleus scattering. Our ν-nucleus cross sections (calculated with a refinement of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation, QRPA refer to the gs→gs transitions for ν-energies εν≤100 MeV. Subsequently, simulated ν-signals on 114 Cd isotope are derived. Towards this purpose, the required folded cross section comes out of simulation techniques by employing several low, and intermediate-energy neutrino distributions of the astrophysical ν-sources, like the solar, supernova, and Earth neutrinos, as well as the laboratory neutrinos, the reactor neutrinos, the pion-muon stopped neutrinos, and the β-beam neutrinos.

  9. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Badavi, Francis F.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Boothman, David A.; Borak, Thomas B.; Britten, Richard A.; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Elgart, S. Robin; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Guida, Peter M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hellweg, Christine E.; Huff, Janice L.; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I.; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A.; Norman, Ryan B.; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S.; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A.; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W.; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A.; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Story, Michael D.; Turker, Mitchell S.; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2017-01-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation. PMID:26948012

  10. A concept for NASA's Mars 2016 astrobiology field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W; Wilson, Michael G; Abilleira, Fernando; Jordan, James F; Wilson, Gregory R

    2007-08-01

    The Mars Program Plan includes an integrated and coordinated set of future candidate missions and investigations that meet fundamental science objectives of NASA and the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). At the time this paper was written, these possible future missions are planned in a manner consistent with a projected budget profile for the Mars Program in the next decade (2007-2016). As with all future missions, the funding profile depends on a number of factors that include the exact cost of each mission as well as potential changes to the overall NASA budget. In the current version of the Mars Program Plan, the Astrobiology Field Laboratory (AFL) exists as a candidate project to determine whether there were (or are) habitable zones and life, and how the development of these zones may be related to the overall evolution of the planet. The AFL concept is a surface exploration mission equipped with a major in situ laboratory capable of making significant advancements toward the Mars Program's life-related scientific goals and the overarching Vision for Space Exploration. We have developed several concepts for the AFL that fit within known budget and engineering constraints projected for the 2016 and 2018 Mars mission launch opportunities. The AFL mission architecture proposed here assumes maximum heritage from the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). Candidate payload elements for this concept were identified from a set of recommendations put forth by the Astrobiology Field Laboratory Science Steering Group (AFL SSG) in 2004, for the express purpose of identifying overall rover mass and power requirements for such a mission. The conceptual payload includes a Precision Sample Handling and Processing System that would replace and augment the functionality and capabilities provided by the Sample Acquisition Sample Processing and Handling system that is currently part of the 2009 MSL platform.

  11. Nuclear Astrophysics at ELI-NP: the ELISSA prototype tested at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardo, Giovanni Luca; Anzalone, Antonello; Balabanski, Dimiter; Chesnevskaya, Svetlana; Crucillá, Walter; Filipescu, Dan; Gulino, Marisa; La Cognata, Marco; Lattuada, Dario; Matei, Catalin; Pizzone, Rosario Gianluca; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Romano, Stefano; Spitaleri, Claudio; Taffara, Alessandra; Tumino, Aurora; Xu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, under construction in Magurele near Bucharest in Romania, will provide high-intensity and high-resolution gamma ray beams that can be used to address hotly debated problems in nuclear astrophysics, such as the accurate measurements of the cross sections of the 24Mg(γ,α)20Ne reaction, that is fundamental to determine the effective rate of 28Si destruction right before the core collapse and the subsequent supernova explosion. For this purpose, a silicon strip detector array (named ELISSA, acronym for Extreme Light Infrastructure Silicon Strip Array) will be realized in a common effort by ELI-NP and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), in order to measure excitation functions and angular distributions over a wide energy and angular range. A prototype of ELISSA was built and tested at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy) with the support of ELI-NP. In this occasion, we have carried out experiments with alpha sources and with a 11 MeV 7Li beam. Thanks to our approach, the first results of those tests show up a very good energy resolution (better than 1%) and very good position resolution, of the order of 1 mm. Moreover, a threshold of 150 keV can be easily achieved with no cooling.

  12. Astrophysics Laboratory-Based Lecture Material Development of Solarscope with Integration and Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Melati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of laboratory-based lecture materials with integrated and interconnected value is a requirement for study and practical materials and in line with the vision and mission of UIN Sunan Kalijaga. As a result, the optimization of laboratory’s equipment is urgently needed. Although UIN Sunan Kalijaga Laboratory have had Solarscope telescope – which have a guidebook in German language – for six years, it was not optimally used even it can be used to satisfy the desires to observe astronomical objects economically, accurately and easy to operate. Based on above, this research propose to create a lab-work module for Solarscope with integration and interconnection value. This research used 4D methodology (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate and have passed the assessment and validation phase from material, media and integrated-interconnected value experts. The data analysis of the module which was mapped by Sukarja into 5 scale mark resulted in good grade in the module assessment by material experts with 80% from the ideal mark with most of the complaint is in the formula typing which is not clear in its derivative. The module assessment by media experts scored very good grade with 88.89% from the ideal mark regarding the content and the figures of the module. Lastly, from the integrated-interconnected value experts marked in good grade with 73.50% from the ideal mark and suggested the addition of supported Al-Qur’an verses and relevant exclamation of the Al-Qur’an’s passages. With all of these assessment results, this module can be used as the material of astrophysics lab-work and for supporting students’ researches with integration-interconnection value and enhance the university’s book collection which will support the vision and mission of UIN Sunan Kalijaga

  13. FOREWORD: 4th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckrone, David S.; Sugar, Jack

    1993-01-01

    or about work currently in progress. This resulted in a number of interesting exchanges, and served to facilitate the coordination of work to be done in the near term. Over the past 15 years we have witnessed the explosive growth of astrophysical spectroscopic observations in both the ultraviolet and infrared bands. Recently, with the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, the precision and resolution of such data have reached remarkable levels, giving one the sense that the body of atomic data currently to be found in the literature lags far behind what is needed to adequately interpret the observations. Similarly, high temperature laboratory experiments in plasma physics, e.g. fusion energy and x-ray lasers, are demanding larger quantities of atomic data over a wide range of ionization states. Fortunately, the experimental and computational techniques of atomic physics have kept pace. One may cite, for example, the extraordinary precision inherent in recent laboratory work with laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and with Fourier transform spectrometers, and for data of highly-ionized atoms, with ion traps and tokamak plasmas. The major challenge is to nurture and support expanded activity in those sub-disciplines of atomic physics that apply such modern techniques to the production of extensive volumes of atomic data, and to reinvigorate such "old fashioned" subjects as the term analysis of new, more accurate laboratory spectra. This series of conferences has a very special character. It is not sponsored or supported by any particular institution, government organization or professional society. The meetings occur only because they serve the common scientific interests of a broad and diverse group of people from around the world. They have had the delightful effect of stimulating professional collaborations and friendships among astronomers, physicists, chemists, mathematicians, and others, who might not have initially realized that they shared so much in

  14. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized

  15. Creating stars, supernovae, and the big bang in the laboratory: Nuclear Astrophysics with the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.

    1994-02-01

    This talk has been prepared for the Symposium on Novel Approaches to Nuclear Astrophysics hosted by the ACS Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology for the San Diego ACS meeting. This talk indeed describes a truly novel approach. It discusses a proposal for the construction of the National Ignition Facility which could provide the most powerful concentration of laser energy yet attempted. The energy from such a facility could be concentrated in such a way as to reproduce, for the first time in a terrestrial laboratory, an environment which nearly duplicates that which occurs within stars and during the first few moments of cosmic creation during the big bang. These miniature versions of cosmic explosions may allow us to understand better the tumultuous astrophysical environments which have profoundly influenced the origin and evolution of the universe

  16. Proceedings of the eighth international colloquium on ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas (IAU colloquium 86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This volume represents the Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas. The aim of this series of colloquia has been to bring together workers in the fields of astrophysical spectroscopy, laboratory spectroscopy and atomic physics in order to exchange ideas and results on problems which are common to these different disciplines. In addition to the presented papers there was a poster paper session

  17. Proceedings of the eighth international colloquium on ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas (IAU colloquium 86)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This volume represents the Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas. The aim of this series of colloquia has been to bring together workers in the fields of astrophysical spectroscopy, laboratory spectroscopy and atomic physics in order to exchange ideas and results on problems which are common to these different disciplines. In addition to the presented papers there was a poster paper session. (WRF)

  18. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairala, Juniper C.; Durkin, Robert; Marak, Ralph J.; Sipila, Stepahnie A.; Ney, Zane A.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Thomason, Arthur H.

    2012-01-01

    As an early step in the preparation for future Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. Neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA Johnson Space Center's Sonny Carter Training Facility to date have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the International Space Station (ISS). With the retirement of the Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial players for human transportation to space, evaluations at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) will take on a new focus. Test objectives are selected for their criticality, lack of previous testing, or design changes that justify retesting. Assembly tasks investigated are performed using procedures developed by the flight hardware providers and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance tasks are performed using a more systematic set of procedures, EVA Concept of Operations for the International Space Station (JSC-33408), also developed by the MOD. This paper describes the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated.

  19. Time and Frequency Activities at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tjoelker, R. L

    2007-01-01

    ...). When implemented into the DSN Frequency and Timing Subsystem (FTS), these technologies provide precise and stable phase, frequency, and time references for NASA's deep space communication, tracking, navigation, and radio science activities...

  20. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Klotz, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    Astronomy deals with the position and observation of the objects in our Universe, from planets to galaxies. It is the oldest of the sciences. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of these objects. It dates from the start of the 20. century. Nuclear astrophysics is the marriage of nuclear physics, a laboratory science concerned with the infinitely small, and astrophysics, the science of what is far away and infinitely large. Its aim is to explain the origin, evolution and abundance of the elements in the Universe. It was born in 1938 with the work of Hans Bethe, an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1967, on the nuclear reactions that can occur at the center of stars. It explains where the incredible energy of the stars and the Sun comes from and enables us to understand how they are born, live and die. The matter all around us and from which we are made, is made up of ninety-two chemical elements that can be found in every corner of the Universe. Nuclear astrophysics explains the origin of these chemical elements by nucleosynthesis, which is the synthesis of atomic nuclei in different astrophysical environments such as stars. Nuclear astrophysics provides answers to fundamental questions: - Our Sun and the stars in general shine because nuclear reactions are taking place within them. - The stars follow a sequence of nuclear reaction cycles. Nucleosynthesis in the stars enables us to explain the origin and abundance of elements essential to life, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. - Star explosions, in the form of supernovae, disperse the nuclei formed by nucleosynthesis into space and explain the formation of the heaviest chemical elements such as gold, platinum and lead. Nuclear astrophysics is still a growing area of science. (authors)

  1. Particle Physics & Astrophysics (PPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Scientists at SLAC's Particle Physics and Astrophysics develop and utilize unique instruments from underground to outer space to explore the ultimate laws of nature...

  2. Interferometric characterization of laboratory plasma astrophysical jets produced by a 1-μs pulsed power driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plouhinec, Damien; Zucchini, Frederic; Loyen, Arnaud; Sol, David; Combes, Philippe; Grunenwald, Julien; Hammer, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A high current driver based on microsecond LTD technology has been used to perform laboratory plasma astrophysics studies using a conical wire array load coupled a 950 kA, 1.2-μs pulsed power generator. A plasma jet is generated as a result of the on-axis shock formed by the ablation streams from the wires of a conical tungsten wire-array load together with conservation of the axial momentum. The aim of this paper is to produce a scaled-down laboratory simulation of astrophysical Herbig-Haro plasma jets occurring during star formation along with some of their interactions with the interstellar medium, such as a cross wind. Due to the relatively long duration of the current pulse delivered by the driver, the jet develops on a 2-μs timescale and grows up to 100 mm. A time-resolved laser interferometer has been fielded to measure the plasma areal electron density as a function of time in and around the plasma jets. The setup consists of a continuous diode-pumped solid state laser (5 W-532 nm), a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and fast gated visible multi frame camera. (authors)

  3. Microbial ecology laboratory procedures manual NASA/MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1990-01-01

    An essential part of the efficient operation of any microbiology laboratory involved in sample analysis is a standard procedures manual. The purpose of this manual is to provide concise and well defined instructions on routine technical procedures involving sample analysis and methods for monitoring and maintaining quality control within the laboratory. Of equal importance is the safe operation of the laboratory. This manual outlines detailed procedures to be followed in the microbial ecology laboratory to assure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  4. Chiral Lagrangian with broken scale: Testing the restoration of symmetries in astrophysics and in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, Luca; Drago, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    We study matter at high density and temperature using a chiral Lagrangian in which the breaking of scale invariance is regulated by the value of a scalar field, called dilaton [E. K. Heide, S. Rudaz, and P. J. Ellis, Nucl. Phys. A571, 713 (1994); G. W. Carter, P. J. Ellis, and S. Rudaz, Nucl. Phys. A603, 367 (1996); G. W. Carter, P. J. Ellis, and S. Rudaz, Nucl. Phys. A618, 317 (1997); G. W. Carter and P. J. Ellis, Nucl. Phys. A628, 325 (1998)]. We provide a phase diagram describing the restoration of chiral and scale symmetries. We show that chiral symmetry is restored at large temperatures, but at low temperatures it remains broken at all densities. We also show that scale invariance is more easily restored at low rather than large baryon densities. The masses of vector-mesons scale with the value of the dilaton and their values initially slightly decrease with the density but then they increase again for densities larger than ∼3ρ 0 . The pion mass increases continuously with the density and at ρ 0 and T=0 its value is ∼30 MeV larger than in the vacuum. We show that the model is compatible with the bounds stemming from astrophysics, as, e.g., the one associated with the maximum mass of a neutron star. The most striking feature of the model is a very significant softening at large densities, which manifests also as a strong reduction of the adiabatic index. Although the softening has probably no consequence for supernova explosion via the direct mechanism, it could modify the signal in gravitational waves associated with the merging of two neutron stars.

  5. astrophysical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartois E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clathrate hydrates, ice inclusion compounds, are of major importance for the Earth’s permafrost regions and may control the stability of gases in many astrophysical bodies such as the planets, comets and possibly interstellar grains. Their physical behavior may provide a trapping mechanism to modify the absolute and relative composition of icy bodies that could be the source of late-time injection of gaseous species in planetary atmospheres or hot cores. In this study, we provide and discuss laboratory-recorded infrared signatures of clathrate hydrates in the near to mid-infrared and the implications for space-based astrophysical tele-detection in order to constrain their possible presence.

  6. FOREWORD: The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchang-Brillet, Wad Lydia; Wyart, Jean-François; Zeippen, Claude

    1996-01-01

    The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas was held in Meudon, France, from August 28 to 31 1995. It was the fifth in a series started by the Atomic Spectroscopic Group at the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1983. Then followed the meetings in Toledo, USA, Amsterdam, The Nether- lands and Gaithersburg, USA, with a three year period. The original title of the series ended with "... for Astrophysics and Fusion Research" and became more general with the 4th colloquium in Gaithersburg. The purpose of the present meeting was, in line with tradition, to bring together "producers" and "users" of atomic data so as to ensure optimal coordination. Atomic physicists who study the structure of atoms and their radiative and collisional properties were invited to explain the development of their work, emphasizing the possibilities of producing precise transition wavelengths and relative line intensities. Astrophysicists and laboratory plasma physicists were invited to review their present research interests and the context in which atomic data are needed. The number of participants was about 70 for the first three meetings, then exploded to 170 at Gaithersburg. About 140 participants, coming from 13 countries, attended the colloquium in Meudon. This large gathering was partly due to a number of participants from Eastern Europe larger than in the past, and it certainly showed a steady interest for interdisciplinary exchanges between different communities of scientists. This volume includes all the invited papers given at the conference and, in the appendix, practical information on access to some databases. All invited speakers presented their talks aiming at good communication between scientists from different backgrounds. A separate bound volume containing extended abstracts of the poster papers has been published by the Publications de l'Observatoire de Paris, (Meudon 1996), under the responsibility of

  7. New Discoveries in the Galactic Neighborhood through Advances in Laboratory Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    WGLA, AAS; Brickhouse, Nancy; Cowan, John; Drake, Paul; Federman, Steven; Ferland, Gary; Frank, Adam; Herbst, Eric; Olive, Keith; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel Wolf; Ziurys, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    As the Galactic Neighborhood (GAN) panel is fully aware, the next decade will see major advances in our understanding of this area of research. To quote from their charge, these advances will occur in studies of the galactic neighborhood, including the structure and properties of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and their stellar populations and evolution, as well as interstellar media and star clusters. Central to the progress in these areas are the corresponding advances in laboratory ast...

  8. Neutrino astrophysics with the MACRO detector in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronga, F.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a search for neutrino emission from celestial objects and of a search for coincidences with gamma ray bursts. We have computed flux limits for WIMPS coming from the center of the Earth and of the Sun. For this search we used 605 upward-going muons produced by neutrino interactions in the rock below the MACRO detector in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. (orig.)

  9. LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION AND ASTROPHYSICAL DETECTION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED STATES OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, A. M.; Bermudez, C.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Area de Quimica-Fisica, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada del CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, A.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Pearson, J. C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Padadena, CA 91109 (United States); Marcelino, N., E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: cbermu@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: John.C.Pearson@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: nmarceli@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Ethyl cyanide, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, is an important interstellar molecule with a very dense rotational-vibrational spectrum. On the basis of new laboratory data in the range of 17-605 GHz and ab initio calculations, two new vibrational states, {nu}{sub 12} and {nu}{sub 20}, have been detected in molecular clouds of Orion. Laboratory data consist of Stark spectroscopy (17-110 GHz) and frequency-modulated spectrometers (GEM laboratory in Valladolid: 17-170, 270-360 GHz; Toyama: 26-200 GHz; Emory: 200-240 GHz; Ohio State: 258-368 GHz; and JPL: 270-318, 395-605 GHz). More than 700 distinct lines of each species were measured in J up to 71 and in K{sub a} up to 25. The states were fitted with Watson's S-reduction Hamiltonian. The two new states have been identified in the interstellar medium toward the Orion Nebula (Orion KL). The ground state, the isotopologues of CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, and the vibrationally excited states have been fitted to obtain column densities and to derive vibrational temperatures. All together, ethyl cyanide is responsible for more than 2000 lines in the observed frequency range of 80-280 GHz.

  10. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y

    2006-08-21

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, we caution that the energy containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper we introduce the concept of a minimum state as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper we show that the Reynolds number of the minimum state may be determined as 1.6 x 10{sup 5}. Our efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. At the last the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced supercomputing facilities increase

  11. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ye

    2007-01-01

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However, Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, the energy-containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper, the concept of a minimum state is introduced as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper, the Reynolds number of the minimum state is determined as 1.6x10 5 . The temporal criterion for the minimum state is also obtained. The efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. Finally, the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced

  12. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the Nuclear Science Laboratory: Applications to Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collon, P.; Bauder, W.; Bowers, M.; Lu, W.; Ostdiek, K.; Robertson, D.

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) program at the Nuclear Science Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame is focused on measurements related to galactic radioactivity and to nucleosynthesis of main stellar burning as well as the production of so called Short-Lived Radionuclides (SLRs) in the Early Solar System (ESS). The research program is based around the 11MV FN tandem accelerator and the use of the gas-filled magnet technique for isobar separation. Using a technique that evolved from radiocarbon dating, this paper presents a number of research programs that rely on the use of an 11MV tandem accelerator at the center of the AMS program.

  13. The VASIMR[registered trademark] VF-200-1 ISS Experiment as a Laboratory for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover Tim W.; Squire, Jared P.; Longmier, Benjamin; Cassady, Leonard; Ilin, Andrew; Carter, Mark; Olsen, Chris S.; McCaskill, Greg; Diaz, Franklin Chang; Girimaji, Sharath; hide

    2010-01-01

    The VASIMR[R] Flight Experiment (VF-200-1) will be tested in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in about four years. It will consist of two 100 kW parallel plasma engines with opposite magnetic dipoles, resulting in a near zero-torque magnetic system. Electrical energy will come from ISS at low power level, be stored in batteries and used to fire the engine at 200 kW. The VF-200-1 project will provide a unique opportunity on the ISS National Laboratory for astrophysicists and space physicists to study the dynamic evolution of an expanding and reconnecting plasma loop. Here, we review the status of the project and discuss our current plans for computational modeling and in situ observation of a dynamic plasma loop on an experimental platform in low-Earth orbit. The VF-200-1 project is still in the early stages of development and we welcome new collaborators.

  14. Laboratory characterization and astrophysical detection of vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide in Orion-KL

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A.; Tercero, B.; Kisiel, Z.; Daly, A. M.; Bermúdez, C.; Calcutt, H.; Marcelino, N.; Viti, S.; Drouin, B. J.; Medvedev, I. R.; Neese, C. F.; Pszczółkowski, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Context. We perform a laboratory characterization in the 18-1893 GHz range and astronomical detection between 80-280 GHz in Orion-KL with IRAM-30 m of CH2CHCN (vinyl cyanide) in its ground and vibrationally excited states. Aims: Our aim is to improve the understanding of rotational spectra of vibrationally excited vinyl cyanide with new laboratory data and analysis. The laboratory results allow searching for these excited state transitions in the Orion-KL line survey. Furthermore, rotational lines of CH2CHCN contribute to the understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the cloud. Methods: Laboratory measurements of CH2CHCN made on several different frequency-modulated spectrometers were combined into a single broadband 50-1900 GHz spectrum and its assignment was confirmed by Stark modulation spectra recorded in the 18-40 GHz region and by ab-initio anharmonic force field calculations. For analyzing the emission lines of vinyl cyanide detected in Orion-KL we used the excitation and radiative transfer code (MADEX) at LTE conditions. Results: Detailed characterization of laboratory spectra of CH2CHCN in nine different excited vibrational states: ν11 = 1, ν15 = 1, ν11 = 2, ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1), ν11 = 3/ν15 = 2/ν14 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν10 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 2,ν15 = 1), ν9 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 2) ⇔ (ν10 = 1,ν15 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν14 = 1), and ν11 = 4 are determined, as well as the detection of transitions in the ν11 = 2 and ν11 = 3 states for the first time in Orion-KL and of those in the ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1) dyad of states for the first time in space. The rotational transitions of the ground state of this molecule emerge from four cloud components of hot core nature, which trace the physical and chemical conditions of high mass star forming regions in the Orion-KL Nebula. The lowest energy vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide, such as ν11 = 1 (at 328.5 K), ν15 = 1 (at 478.6 K), ν11 = 2 (at 657.8 K), the ν10

  15. FAST TIMING ANALYSIS OF CYGNUS X-1 USING THE SPECTROMETER ON THE INTERNATIONAL GAMMA-RAY ASTROPHYSICS LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanac, Clement; Roques, Jean-Pierre; Jourdain, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time the high-frequency analysis of Cyg X-1 up to hard X-ray using the spectrometer on International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL). After analyzing the possible contribution from the background, and using the INTEGRAL archive from 2005 March to 2008 May, power density spectra were obtained up to 130 keV. First, we show that their overall shape is very similar to that observed at lower energies as they are well described by sets of Lorentzians. The strength of this fast variability (up to 40 Hz) does not drop at high energy since we show that it remains at ∼25% rms, even in the highest energy bands. Second, the hard X-ray variability patterns of Cyg X-1 are state dependent: the softer the spectrum (or the lower the hardness ratio), the lower the total fractional variability and the higher the typical frequencies observed. The strength of the total variability as a function of energy and state is then investigated. By comparison with simultaneous and published RXTE/Proportional Counter Array data, we show that in the hard state it remains quite constant in the 2-130 keV energy range. In the softer state it is also flat up to 50 keV and may increase at higher energy. The implications of this behavior on the models are then discussed.

  16. Battery-powered pulsed high density inductively coupled plasma source for pre-ionization in laboratory astrophysics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vernon H; Bellan, Paul M

    2015-07-01

    An electrically floating radiofrequency (RF) pre-ionization plasma source has been developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and to access new experimental regimes in the Caltech laboratory astrophysics experiments. The source uses a customized 13.56 MHz class D RF power amplifier that is powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 3-6 kV with the electrodes of the high voltage pulsed power experiments. The amplifier, which is capable of 3 kW output power in pulsed (<1 ms) operation, couples electrical energy to the plasma through an antenna external to the 1.1 cm radius discharge tube. By comparing the predictions of a global equilibrium discharge model with the measured scalings of plasma density with RF power input and axial magnetic field strength, we demonstrate that inductive coupling (rather than capacitive coupling or wave damping) is the dominant energy transfer mechanism. Peak ion densities exceeding 5 × 10(19) m(-3) in argon gas at 30 mTorr have been achieved with and without a background field. Installation of the pre-ionization source on a magnetohydrodynamically driven jet experiment reduced the breakdown time and jitter and allowed for the creation of hotter, faster argon plasma jets than was previously possible.

  17. FJ44 Turbofan Engine Test at NASA Glenn Research Center's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Joel T.; McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Harley, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A Williams International FJ44-3A 3000-lb thrust class turbofan engine was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. This report presents the test set-up and documents the test conditions. Farfield directivity, in-duct unsteady pressures, duct mode data, and phased-array data were taken and are reported separately.

  18. EVENT DRIVEN AUTOMATIC STATE MODIFICATION OF BNL'S BOOSTER FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY SOLAR PARTICLE SIMULATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, D.; BINELLO, S.; HARVEY, M.; MORRIS, J.; RUSEK, A.; TSOUPAS, N.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. NASA is interested in reproducing the energy spectrum from a solar flare in the space environment for a single ion species. To do this we have built and tested a set of software tools which allow the state of the Booster and the NSRL beam line to be changed automatically. In this report we will describe the system and present results of beam tests

  19. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)

  20. The Mochi LabJet Experiment for Measurements of Canonical Helicity Injection in a Laboratory Astrophysical Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Setthivoine; von der Linden, Jens; Sander Lavine, Eric; Carroll, Evan Grant; Card, Alexander; Quinley, Morgan; Azuara-Rosales, Manuel

    2018-06-01

    The Mochi device is a new pulsed power plasma experiment designed to produce long, collimated, stable, magnetized plasma jets when set up in the LabJet configuration. The LabJet configuration aims to simulate an astrophysical jet in the laboratory by mimicking an accretion disk threaded by a poloidal magnetic field with concentric planar electrodes in front of a solenoidal coil. The unique setup consists of three electrodes, each with azimuthally symmetric gas slits. Two of the electrodes are biased independently with respect to the third electrode to control the radial electric field profile across the poloidal bias magnetic field. This design approximates a shear azimuthal rotation profile in an accretion disk. The azimuthally symmetric gas slits provide a continuously symmetric mass source at the footpoint of the plasma jet, so any azimuthal rotation of the plasma jet is not hindered by a discrete number of gas holes. The initial set of diagnostics consists of current Rogowski coils, voltage probes, magnetic field probe arrays, an interferometer and ion Doppler spectroscopy, supplemented by a fast ion gauge and a retarding grid energy analyzer. The measured parameters of the first plasmas are ∼1022 m‑3, ∼0.4 T, and 5–25 eV, with velocities of ∼20–80 km s‑1. The combination of a controllable electric field profile, a flared poloidal magnetic field, and azimuthally symmetric mass sources in the experiment successfully produces short-lived (∼10 μs, ≳5 Alfvén times) collimated magnetic jets with a ∼10:1 aspect ratio and long-lived (∼100 μs, ≳40 Alfvén times) flow-stabilized, collimated, magnetic jets with a ∼30:1 aspect ratio.

  1. NASA Astrophysics E/PO: A Quarter Century of Discovery and Inspiration with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirdeh, Hussein; Straughn, Amber; Smith, Denise Anne; Eisenhamer, Bonnie

    2015-08-01

    April 24, 2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. In its quarter-century in orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope has transformed the way we understand the Universe, helped us find our place among the stars, and paved the way to incredible advancements in science and technology.In this presentation, we explain how NASA and ESA, including the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and partners, is using the 25th anniversary of Hubble’s launch as a unique opportunity to communicate to students, educators, and the public the significance of the past quarter-century of discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope. We describe the various programs, resources, and experiences we are utilizing to enhancethe public understanding of Hubble’s many contributions to the scientific world. These include educator professional development opportunities, exhibits, events, traditional and social media, and resources for educators (formal k-12, informal, and higher education). We also highlight how we are capitalizing on Hubble’s cultural popularity to make the scientific connection to NASA’s next Great Observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope.This presentation highlights many of the opportunities by which students, educators, and the public are joining in the anniversary activities, both in-person and online. Find out more at hubble25th.org and follow #Hubble25 on social media.

  2. NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center: Anticipating, Managing, and Preventing Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment at NASAs Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in North America. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pads were rendered even more severe by the highly corrosive hydrochloric acid (HCl) generated by the solid rocket boosters (SRBs). Numerous failures at the launch pads are caused by corrosion. The structural integrity of ground infrastructure and flight hardware is critical to the success, safety, cost, and sustainability of space missions. NASA has over fifty years of experience dealing with unexpected failures caused by corrosion and has developed expertise in corrosion control in the launch and other environments. The Corrosion Technology Laboratory at KSC evolved, from what started as an atmospheric exposure test site near NASAs launch pads, into a capability that provides technical innovations and engineering services in all areas of corrosion for NASA, external partners, and customers.This paper provides a chronological overview of NASAs role in anticipating, managing, and preventing corrosion in highly corrosive environments. One important challenge in managing and preventing corrosion involves the detrimental impact on humans and the environment of what have been very effective corrosion control strategies. This challenge has motivated the development of new corrosion control technologies that are more effective and environmentally friendly. Strategies for improved corrosion protection and durability can have a huge impact on the economic sustainability of human spaceflight operations.

  3. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  4. NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center: Anticipating, Managing, and Preventing Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material that results from its interaction with the environment. The marine environment at NASAs Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the United States. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pads were rendered even more severe by the 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that were generated by the solid rocket boosters. Numerous failures at the launch pads are caused by corrosion.The structural integrity of ground infrastructure and flight hardware is critical to the success, safety, cost, and sustainability of space missions. As a result of fifty years of experience with launch and ground operations in a natural marine environment that is highly corrosive, NASAs Corrosion Technology Laboratory at KSC is a major source of corrosion control expertise in the launch and other environments. Throughout its history, the Laboratory has evolved from what started as an atmospheric exposure facility near NASAs launch pads into a world-wide recognized capability that provides technical innovations and engineering services in all areas of corrosion for NASA and external customers.This presentation will provide a historical overview of the role of NASAs Corrosion Technology in anticipating, managing, and preventing corrosion. One important challenge in managing and preventing corrosion involves the detrimental impact on humans and the environment of what have been very effective corrosion control strategies. This challenge has motivated the development of new corrosion control technologies that are more effective and environmentally friendly. Strategies for improved corrosion protection and durability can have a huge impact on the economic sustainability of human spaceflight operations.

  5. NASA's In-Space Manufacturing Project: A Roadmap for a Multimaterial Fabrication Laboratory in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie; Werkheiser, Niki; Ledbetter, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Human space exploration to date has been limited to low Earth orbit and the moon. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique opportunity for NASA to partner with private industry for development and demonstration of the technologies needed to support exploration initiatives. One challenge that is critical to sustainable and safer exploration is the ability to manufacture and recycle materials in space. This paper provides an overview of NASA's in-space manufacturing (ISM) project, its past and current activities (2014-2017), and how technologies under development will ultimately culminate in a multimaterial fabrication laboratory ("ISM FabLab") to be deployed on the International Space Station in the early 2020s. ISM is a critical capability for the long endurance missions NASA seeks to undertake in the coming decades. An unanticipated failure that can be adapted for in low earth orbit, through a resupply launch or a return to earth, may instead result in a loss of mission while in transit to Mars. To have a suite of functional ISM capabilities that are compatible with NASA's exploration timeline, ISM must be equipped with the resources necessary to develop these technologies and deploy them for testing prior to the scheduled de-orbit of ISS in 2024. The presentation provides a broad overview of ISM projects activities culminating with the Fabrication Laboratory for ISS. In 2017, the in-space manufacturing project issued a broad agency announcement for this capability. Requirements of the Fabrication Laboratory as stated in the solicitation will be discussed. The FabLab will move NASA and private industry significantly closer to changing historical paradigms for human spaceflight where all materials used in space are launched from earth. While the current ISM FabLab will be tested on ISS, future systems are eventually intended for use in a deep space habitat or transit vehicle. The work of commercial companies funded under NASA's Small Business

  6. Report on the workshop "Decay spectroscopy at CARIBU: advanced fuel cycle applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics". 14-16 April 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondev, F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chowdhury, P.; Clark, J.A.; Lister, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.; Swewryniak, D. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Univ. of Massachusetts); (Univ. of Surrey)

    2011-10-06

    A workshop on 'Decay Spectroscopy at CARIBU: Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications, Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics' will be held at Argonne National Laboratory on April 14-16, 2011. The aim of the workshop is to discuss opportunities for decay studies at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS facility with emphasis on advanced fuel cycle (AFC) applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics research. The workshop will consist of review and contributed talks. Presentations by members of the local groups, outlining the status of relevant in-house projects and availabile equipment, will also be organized. time will also be set aside to discuss and develop working collaborations for future decay studies at CARIBU. Topics of interest include: (1) Decay data of relevance to AFC applications with emphasis on reactor decay heat; (2) Discrete high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy following radioactive decya and related topics; (3) Calorimetric studies of neutron-rich fission framgents using Total ABsorption Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (TAGS) technique; (4) Beta-delayed neutron emissions and related topics; and (5) Decay data needs for nuclear astrophysics.

  7. The Explorer program for astronomy and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, B.D.; Becklin, E.E.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Dupree, A.K.; Elliot, J.L.; Hoffmann, W.F.; Hudson, H.S.; Jura, M.; Kurfess, J.; Murray, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    This report was prepared to provide NASA with a strategy for proceeding with Explorer-class programs for research in space astronomy and astrophysics. The role of Explorers in astronomy and astrophysics and their past accomplishments are discussed, as are current and future astronomy and astrophysics Explorers. Specific cost needs for an effective Explorer program are considered

  8. Hot Corrosion Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Special Projects Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Raymond C.; Cuy, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The Hot Corrosion Test Facility (HCTF) at the NASA Lewis Special Projects Laboratory (SPL) is a high-velocity, pressurized burner rig currently used to evaluate the environmental durability of advanced ceramic materials such as SiC and Si3N4. The HCTF uses laboratory service air which is preheated, mixed with jet fuel, and ignited to simulate the conditions of a gas turbine engine. Air, fuel, and water systems are computer-controlled to maintain test conditions which include maximum air flows of 250 kg/hr (550 lbm/hr), pressures of 100-600 kPa (1-6 atm), and gas temperatures exceeding 1500 C (2732 F). The HCTF provides a relatively inexpensive, yet sophisticated means for researchers to study the high-temperature oxidation of advanced materials, and the injection of a salt solution provides the added capability of conducting hot corrosion studies.

  9. RESULTS OF THE FIRST RUN OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, K.A.; AHRENS, L.; BRENNAN, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The results of commissioning of this new facility were reported in [l]. In this report we will describe the results of the first run. The NSRL is capable of making use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. Many modes of operation were explored during the first run, demonstrating all the capabilities designed into the system. Heavy ion intensities from 100 particles per pulse up to 12 x 10 9 particles per pulse were delivered to a large variety of experiments, providing a dose range up to 70 Gy/min over a 5 x 5 cm 2 area. Results presented will include those related to the production of beams that are highly uniform in both the transverse and longitudinal planes of motion [2

  10. Relativistic Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The relativistic astrophysics is the field of astrophysics employing the theory of relativity Einstein as physical-mathematical model is to study the universe. This discipline analyzes astronomical contexts in which the laws of classical mechanics of Newton's law of gravitation are not valid. (Author)

  11. Essential astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    Essential Astrophysics is a book to learn or teach from, as well as a fundamental reference volume for anyone interested in astronomy and astrophysics. It presents astrophysics from basic principles without requiring any previous study of astronomy or astrophysics. It serves as a comprehensive introductory text, which takes the student through the field of astrophysics in lecture-sized chapters of basic physical principles applied to the cosmos. This one-semester overview will be enjoyed by undergraduate students with an interest in the physical sciences, such as astronomy, chemistry, engineering or physics, as well as by any curious student interested in learning about our celestial science. The mathematics required for understanding the text is on the level of simple algebra, for that is all that is needed to describe the fundamental principles. The text is of sufficient breadth and depth to prepare the interested student for more advanced specialized courses in the future. Astronomical examples are provide...

  12. A Summer Research Program of NASA/Faculty Fellowships at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, Arden

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) is designed to give college and university faculty members a rewarding personal as well as enriching professional experience. Fellowships are awarded to engineering and science faculty for work on collaborative research projects of mutual interest to the fellow and his or her JPL host colleague. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have participated in the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program for more than 25 years. Administrative offices are maintained both at the Caltech Campus and at JPL; however, most of the activity takes place at JPL. The Campus handles all fiscal matters. The duration of the program is ten continuous weeks. Fellows are required to conduct their research on-site. To be eligible to participate in the program, fellows must be a U.S. citizen and hold a teaching or research appointment at a U.S. university or college. The American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) contracts with NASA and manages program recruitment. Over the past several years, we have made attempts to increase the diversity of the participants in the NFFP Program. A great deal of attention has been given to candidates from minority-serving institutions. There were approximately 100 applicants for the 34 positions in 2002. JPL was the first-choice location for more than half of them. Faculty from 16 minority-serving institutions participated as well as four women. The summer began with an orientation meeting that included introduction of key program personnel, and introduction of the fellows to each other. During this welcome, the fellows were briefed on their obligations to the program and to their JPL colleagues. They were also given a short historical perspective on JPL and its relationship to Caltech and NASA. All fellows received a package, which included information on administrative procedures, roster of fellows, seminar program, housing questionnaire, directions to JPL, maps of

  13. Astrophysical Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, James E.; King, Andrew

    2003-07-01

    Almost all conventional matter in the Universe is fluid, and fluid dynamics plays a crucial role in astrophysics. This new graduate textbook provides a basic understanding of the fluid dynamical processes relevant to astrophysics. The mathematics used to describe these processes is simplified to bring out the underlying physics. The authors cover many topics, including wave propagation, shocks, spherical flows, stellar oscillations, the instabilities caused by effects such as magnetic fields, thermal driving, gravity, shear flows, and the basic concepts of compressible fluid dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics. The authors are Directors of the UK Astrophysical Fluids Facility (UKAFF) at the University of Leicester, and editors of the Cambridge Astrophysics Series. This book has been developed from a course in astrophysical fluid dynamics taught at the University of Cambridge. It is suitable for graduate students in astrophysics, physics and applied mathematics, and requires only a basic familiarity with fluid dynamics.• Provides coverage of the fundamental fluid dynamical processes an astrophysical theorist needs to know • Introduces new mathematical theory and techniques in a straightforward manner • Includes end-of-chapter problems to illustrate the course and introduce additional ideas

  14. Organic Contamination Baseline Study in NASA Johnson Space Center Astromaterials Curation Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allen, Carlton C.; Allton, Judith H.

    2014-01-01

    Future robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and comets will require curating astromaterial samples with minimal inorganic and organic contamination to preserve the scientific integrity of each sample. 21st century sample return missions will focus on strict protocols for reducing organic contamination that have not been seen since the Apollo manned lunar landing program. To properly curate these materials, the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office under the Astromaterial Research and Exploration Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center houses and protects all extraterrestrial materials brought back to Earth that are controlled by the United States government. During fiscal year 2012, we conducted a year-long project to compile historical documentation and laboratory tests involving organic investigations at these facilities. In addition, we developed a plan to determine the current state of organic cleanliness in curation laboratories housing astromaterials. This was accomplished by focusing on current procedures and protocols for cleaning, sample handling, and storage. While the intention of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the current state of organic cleanliness in JSC curation laboratories, it also provides a baseline for determining whether our cleaning procedures and sample handling protocols need to be adapted and/or augmented to meet the new requirements for future human spaceflight and robotic sample return missions.

  15. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity

  16. Experimental studies of nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianjun; Zhou Xiaohong; Zhang Yuhu

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is an interdisciplinary subject combining micro-scale nuclear physics and macro-scale astrophysics. Its main aims are to understand the origin and evolution of the elements in the universe, the time scale of stellar evolution, the stellar environment and sites, the energy generation of stars from thermonuclear processes and its impact on stellar evolution and the mechanisms driving astrophysical phenomena, and the structure and property of compact stars. This paper presents the significance and current research status of nuclear astrophysics; we introduce some fundamental concepts, the nuclear physics input parameters required by certain astrophysics models, and some widely-used experimental approaches in nuclear astrophysics research. The potential and feasibility of research in this field using China’s current and planned large-scale scientific facilities are analyzed briefly. Finally, the prospects of the establishing a deep underground science and engineering laboratory in China are envisaged. (authors)

  17. Experimental investigation of the formation and propagation of plasma jets created by a power laser: application to laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loupias, B.

    2008-10-01

    Plasma jets are often observed in the polar regions of Young Stellar Objects (YSO). For a better understanding of the whole processes at the origin of their formation and evolution, this research thesis aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a plasma jet generation by a power laser, and at investigating its characteristics. After a detailed description of Young Stellar Objects jets and an overview of theoretical models, the author describes some experiments performed with gas guns, pulsed machines and power lasers. He describes means of generation of a jet by laser interaction via strong shock propagation. He reports experimental work, describing the target, laser operating conditions and the determination of jet parameters: speed, temperature, density. Then, he introduces results obtained for plasma jet propagation in vacuum, describes their evolution with respect to initial conditions (target type, laser operating conditions), and identifies optimal conditions for generating a jet similar to that in astrophysical conditions. He considers their propagation in ambient medium like for YSO jets in interstellar medium. Two distinct cases are investigated: collision of two successive shocks in a gaseous medium, and propagation of a plasma jet in a gas jet

  18. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  19. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  20. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  1. Neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulet, E.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of neutrino physics and astrophysics is given, starting with a historical account of the development of our understanding of neutrinos and how they helped to unravel the structure of the Standard Model. We discuss why it is so important to establish if neutrinos are massive and introduce the main scenarios to provide them a mass. The present bounds and the positive indications in favor of non-zero neutrino masses are discussed, including the recent results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos. The major role that neutrinos play in astrophysics and cosmology is illustrated. (author)

  2. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Price, R H

    1993-01-01

    Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two specific areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.

  3. Astrophysics today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Examining recent history, current trends, and future possibilities, the author reports the frontiers of research on the solar system, stars, galactic physics, and cosmological physics. The book discusses the great discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics and examines the circumstances in which they occurred. It discusses the physics of white dwarfs, the inflationary universe, the extinction of dinosaurs, black hole, cosmological models, and much more

  4. Recent Improvements to the Acoustical Testing Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Devin M.; Mirecki, Julius H.; Walker, Bruce E.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) consists of a 27 by 23 by 20 ft (height) convertible hemi/anechoic chamber and separate sound-attenuating test support enclosure. Absorptive fiberglass wedges in the test chamber provide an anechoic environment down to 100 Hz. A spring-isolated floor system affords vibration isolation above 3 Hz. These specifications, along with very low design background levels, enable the acquisition of accurate and repeatable acoustical measurements on test articles that produce very low sound pressures. Removable floor wedges allow the test chamber to operate in either a hemi-anechoic or anechoic configuration, depending on the size of the test article and the specific test being conducted. The test support enclosure functions as a control room during normal operations. Recently improvements were accomplished in support of continued usage of the ATL by NASA programs including an analysis of the ultra-sonic characteristics. A 3 dimensional traverse system inside the chamber was utilized for acquiring acoustic data for these tests. The traverse system drives a linear array of 13, 1/4"-microphones spaced 3" apart (36" span). An updated data acquisition system was also incorporated into the facility.

  5. The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

  6. The NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory: Summary of Capabilities, Recent Upgrades, and Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Vermilion, David J.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has a long history of providing materials research and thermophysical property data. A summary of the labs capabilities, recent upgrades, and ongoing and future work will be provided. The laboratory has recently added two new capabilities to its main levitation chamber: a rapid quench system and an oxygen control system. The rapid quench system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. The oxygen control system consists of an oxygen sensor, oxygen pump, and a control unit. The sensor is a potentiometric device that determines the difference in oxygen activity between two gas compartments separated by an electrolyte, which is yttria-stabilized zirconia. The pump utilizes coulometric titration to either add or remove oxygen. The system is controlled by a desktop control unit, which can also be accessed via a computer. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, theoretically in the range from 10-36 to 100 bar. The ESL laboratory also has an emissometer, called the High-Temperature Emissivity Measurement System (HiTEMS). This system measures the spectral emissivity of materials from 600degC to 3,000degC. The system consists of a vacuum chamber, a black body source, and a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). The system utilizes optics to swap the signal between the sample and the black body. The system was originally designed to measure the hemispherical spectral emissivity of levitated samples, which are typically 2.5mm spheres. Levitation allows emissivity measurements of molten samples, but more work is required to develop this capability. The system is currently setup measure the near-normal spectral emissivity of stationary samples, which has been used

  7. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example, there are ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron stars, relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynolds numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. The author will describe one of the more exciting examples and will attempt to convey the excitement he felt when he was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics that have not been so easily resolved. In fact, a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. The author will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma--astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) dynamos

  8. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Léna, Pierre; Lebrun, François; Mignard, François; Pelat, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This is the updated, widely revised, restructured and expanded third edition of Léna et al.'s successful work Observational Astrophysics. It presents a synthesis on tools and methods of observational astrophysics of the early 21st century. Written specifically for astrophysicists and graduate students, this textbook focuses on fundamental and sometimes practical limitations on the ultimate performance that an astronomical system may reach, rather than presenting particular systems in detail. In little more than a decade there has been extraordinary progress in imaging and detection technologies, in the fields of adaptive optics, optical interferometry, in the sub-millimetre waveband, observation of neutrinos, discovery of exoplanets, to name but a few examples. The work deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. And it also presents the ambitious concepts behind space missions aimed for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spec...

  9. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert C

    1995-01-01

    Combining a critical account of observational methods (telescopes and instrumentation) with a lucid description of the Universe, including stars, galaxies and cosmology, Smith provides a comprehensive introduction to the whole of modern astrophysics beyond the solar system. The first half describes the techniques used by astronomers to observe the Universe: optical telescopes and instruments are discussed in detail, but observations at all wavelengths are covered, from radio to gamma-rays. After a short interlude describing the appearance of the sky at all wavelengths, the role of positional astronomy is highlighted. In the second half, a clear description is given of the contents of the Universe, including accounts of stellar evolution and cosmological models. Fully illustrated throughout, with exercises given in each chapter, this textbook provides a thorough introduction to astrophysics for all physics undergraduates, and a valuable background for physics graduates turning to research in astronomy.

  10. Stellar astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A number of studies in the field of steller astrophysics were undertaken by the South African Astronomical Observatory in 1986. These studies included; evolutionary effects on the surface abundances of an early-type supergiant; hydrogen deficient stars; t tauri stars; rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Dra stars; carbon and heavy element stars, and slow variability and circumstellar shells of red variable stars. 4 figs

  11. Astrophysical cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, J. M.

    The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe.

  12. Astrophysical cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe. 47 refs

  13. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUN...

  14. Astrophysics a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kundt, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    For a quantitative understanding of the physics of the universe - from the solar system through the milky way to clusters of galaxies all the way to cosmology - these edited lecture notes are perhaps among the most concise and also among the most critical ones: Astrophysics has not yet stood the redundancy test of laboratory physics, hence should be wary of early interpretations. Special chapters are devoted to magnetic and radiation processes, supernovae, disks, black-hole candidacy, bipolar flows, cosmic rays, gamma-ray bursts, image distortions, and special sources. At the same time, planet earth is viewed as the arena for life, with plants and animals having evolved to homo sapiens during cosmic time. -- This text is unique in covering the basic qualitative and quantitative tools, formulae as well as numbers, needed for the precise interpretation of frontline phenomena in astrophysical research. The author compares mainstream interpretations with new and even controversial ones he wishes to emphasize. The...

  15. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSL--the first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal

  16. Modeling of a Turbofan Engine with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.; Nili, Samaun

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to apply a computational tool for the flow analysis of the turbine engine that has been tested with ice crystal ingestion in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has been used to test a highly instrumented Honeywell ALF502R-5A (LF11) turbofan engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. Test data analysis with an engine cycle code and a compressor flow code was conducted to determine the values of key icing parameters, that can indicate the risk of ice accretion, which can lead to engine rollback (un-commanded loss of engine thrust). The full engine aerothermodynamic performance was modeled with the Honeywell Customer Deck specifically created for the ALF502R-5A engine. The mean-line compressor flow analysis code, which includes a code that models the state of the ice crystal, was used to model the air flow through the fan-core and low pressure compressor. The results of the compressor flow analyses included calculations of the ice-water flow rate to air flow rate ratio (IWAR), the local static wet bulb temperature, and the particle melt ratio throughout the flow field. It was found that the assumed particle size had a large effect on the particle melt ratio, and on the local wet bulb temperature. In this study the particle size was varied parametrically to produce a non-zero calculated melt ratio in the exit guide vane (EGV) region of the low pressure compressor (LPC) for the data points that experienced a growth of blockage there, and a subsequent engine called rollback (CRB). At data points where the engine experienced a CRB having the lowest wet bulb temperature of 492 degrees Rankine at the EGV trailing edge, the smallest particle size that produced a non-zero melt ratio (between 3 percent - 4 percent) was on the order of 1 micron. This value of melt ratio was utilized as the target for all other subsequent data points analyzed, while the particle size was varied from 1 micron - 9

  17. Recent results in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coc, Alain; Kiener, Juergen [CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite Paris Sud 11, UMR 8609, Centre de Sciences Nucleaires et de Sciences de la Matiere (CSNSM), Orsay Campus (France); Hammache, Fairouz [CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite Paris Sud 11, UMR 8608, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Orsay Campus (France)

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we emphasize the interplay between astrophysical observations, modeling, and nuclear physics laboratory experiments. Several important nuclear cross sections for astrophysics have long been identified, e.g., {sup 12}C(α, γ){sup 16}O for stellar evolution, or {sup 13}C(α, n){sup 16}O and {sup 22}Ne(α, n){sup 25}Mg as neutron sources for the s-process. More recently, observations of lithium abundances in the oldest stars, or of nuclear gamma-ray lines from space, have required new laboratory experiments. New evaluation of thermonuclear reaction rates now includes the associated rate uncertainties that are used in astrophysical models to i) estimate final uncertainties on nucleosynthesis yields and ii) identify those reactions that require further experimental investigation. Sometimes direct cross section measurements are possible, but more generally the use of indirect methods is compulsory in view of the very low cross sections. Non-thermal processes are often overlooked but are also important for nuclear astrophysics, e.g., in gamma-ray emission from solar flares or in the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, and also motivate laboratory experiments. Finally, we show that beyond the historical motivations of nuclear astrophysics, understanding i) the energy sources that drive stellar evolution and ii) the origin of the elements can also be used to give new insights into physics beyond the standard model. (orig.)

  18. Recent results in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coc, Alain; Kiener, Juergen; Hammache, Fairouz

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we emphasize the interplay between astrophysical observations, modeling, and nuclear physics laboratory experiments. Several important nuclear cross sections for astrophysics have long been identified, e.g., 12 C(α, γ) 16 O for stellar evolution, or 13 C(α, n) 16 O and 22 Ne(α, n) 25 Mg as neutron sources for the s-process. More recently, observations of lithium abundances in the oldest stars, or of nuclear gamma-ray lines from space, have required new laboratory experiments. New evaluation of thermonuclear reaction rates now includes the associated rate uncertainties that are used in astrophysical models to i) estimate final uncertainties on nucleosynthesis yields and ii) identify those reactions that require further experimental investigation. Sometimes direct cross section measurements are possible, but more generally the use of indirect methods is compulsory in view of the very low cross sections. Non-thermal processes are often overlooked but are also important for nuclear astrophysics, e.g., in gamma-ray emission from solar flares or in the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, and also motivate laboratory experiments. Finally, we show that beyond the historical motivations of nuclear astrophysics, understanding i) the energy sources that drive stellar evolution and ii) the origin of the elements can also be used to give new insights into physics beyond the standard model. (orig.)

  19. Qualification of Coatings for Launch Facilities and Ground Support Equipment Through the NASA Corrosion Technology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion protection at NASA's Kennedy Space Center is a high priority item. The launch facilities at the Kennedy Space Center are located approximately 1000 feet from the Atlantic Ocean where they are exposed to salt deposits, high humidity, high UV degradation, and acidic exhaust from solid rocket boosters. These assets are constructed from carbon steel, which requires a suitable coating to provide long-term protection to reduce corrosion and its associated costs.

  20. Astrophysics on the Lab Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…

  1. Nuclear astrophysics data at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.; Blackmon, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    There is a new program of evaluation and dissemination of nuclear data of critical importance for nuclear astrophysics within the Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Recent activities include determining the rates of the important 14 O(α,p) 17 F and 17 F(p,γ) 18 Ne reactions, disseminating the Caughlan and Fowler reaction rate compilation on the World Wide Web, and evaluating the 17 O(p,α) 14 N reaction rate. These projects, which are closely coupled to current ORNL nuclear astrophysics research, are briefly discussed along with future plans

  2. NASA Glenn Research Center, Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Plan to Measure Engine Core Flow Water Vapor Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will be made at the 92nd AIAA Turbine Engine Testing Working Group (TETWoG), a semi-annual technical meeting of turbine engine testing professionals. The objective is to describe an effort by NASA to measure the water vapor content on the core airflow in a full scale turbine engine ice crystal icing test and to open a discussion with colleagues how to accurately conduct the measurement based on any previous collective experience with the procedure, instruments and nature of engine icing testing within the group. The presentation lays out the schematics of the location in the flow path from which the sample will be drawn, the plumbing to get it from the engine flow path to the sensor and several different water vapor measurement technologies that will be used: Tunable diode laser and infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Study of aluminum emission spectra in astrophysical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhan; Zhang Jie

    2001-01-01

    High temperature, high density and strong magnetic fields in plasmas produced by ultra-high intensity and ultrashort laser pulses are similar to the main characteristics of astrophysical plasmas. This makes it possible to simulate come astrophysical processes at laboratories. The author presents the theoretic simulation of aluminum emission spectra in astrophysical plasmas. It can be concluded that using laser produced plasmas, the authors can obtain rich information on astrophysical spectroscopy, which is unobservable for astronomer

  4. NASA Allstar Project Aeronautics Learning Laboratory for Science,Technology, and Research (Allstar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Cesar; Ebadian M. A.

    1998-01-01

    We finished the material development of Level 1, Level 2 and most of Level 3. We created three new galleries, one of streaming videos enabling the user to select his/her appropriate speed of Internet connectivity for better performance. The second gallery on NASA's X-series aircraft and the third is on F-series aircraft. We also completed the placement and activation of all thirteen kiosks. We added one more kiosk over the number suggested in the proposal at Baker Aviation High School - a Dade County Public School for special aviation programs. We felt that the goals of this school matched ALLSTAR's goals and that the placement of the kiosk would better help the local students become interested in the Aviation and Aeronautics field. We continue to work on the development of our "Teacher Resource Guide to ALLSTAR material" in which we tied our material into the national and Florida State standards. We finished the Florida Sunshine State standards, getting positive feedback from local and other educators who use the material on a regular basis. We had another successful workshop on October 29', 1997. We introduced the ALLSTAR website and kiosk to about twenty science and history teachers from Dade County Public Schools (DCPS). Most teachers were from middle schools, although we had some from elementary schools also. We provided several demonstrations of the ALLSTAR material to local schools in the Dade County Public Schools (DCPS) system. We used the ALLSTAR material with FIU's summer immersion program for FLAME students. This program includes a high number of minority students interested in science and engineering. We also presented the material at National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and National Congress on Aviation and Space Education (NCASE) conferences and will be presenting the material at the Southeast Florida Aviation Consortium (SEFAC). We provided two on-site workshops in the NSTA conference with total attended of about 70 teachers. The BBS was

  5. Use of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Conduct Charged Particle Radiobiology Studies Relevant to Ion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Kathryn D; Blakely, Eleanor A; Story, Michael D; Lowenstein, Derek I

    2016-06-01

    Although clinical studies with carbon ions have been conducted successfully in Japan and Europe, the limited radiobiological information about charged particles that are heavier than protons remains a significant impediment to exploiting the full potential of particle therapy. There is growing interest in the U.S. to build a cancer treatment facility that utilizes charged particles heavier than protons. Therefore, it is essential that additional radiobiological knowledge be obtained using state-of-the-art technologies and biological models and end points relevant to clinical outcome. Currently, most such ion radiotherapy-related research is being conducted outside the U.S. This article addresses the substantial contributions to that research that are possible at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which is the only facility in the U.S. at this time where heavy-ion radiobiology research with the ion species and energies of interest for therapy can be done. Here, we briefly discuss the relevant facilities at NSRL and how selected charged particle biology research gaps could be addressed using those facilities.

  6. Astrophysics at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, Felix; Bergstroem, Lars; Dermer, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Presents three complementary lectures on very-high-energy astrophysics given by worldwide leaders in the field. Reviews the recent advances in and prospects of gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Prepares readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors. With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA's Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergstroem presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.

  7. Is Photolytic Production a Viable Source of HCN and HNC in Astrophysical Environments? A Laboratory-based Feasibility Study of Methyl Cyanoformate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michael J.; Martínez-Núñez, Emilio; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Vázquez, Saulo A.; Smith, Jonathan M.; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the possibility that cyano-containing hydrocarbons may act as photolytic sources for HCN and HNC in astrophysical environments, we conducted a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the 193 nm photolysis of the cyano-ester, methyl cyanoformate (MCF). Experimentally, nanosecond time-resolved infrared emission spectroscopy was used to detect the emission from nascent products generated in the photolysis reaction. The time-resolved spectra were analyzed using a recently developed spectral reconstruction analysis, which revealed spectral bands assignable to HCN and HNC. Fitting of the emission band shape and intensity allowed determination of the photolysis quantum yields of HCN, HNC, and {CN}({A}2{{{\\Pi }}}1) and an HNC/HCN ratio of ˜0.076 ± 0.059. Additionally, multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations were used to characterize photoexcitation-induced reactions in the ground and four lowest singlet excited states of MCF. At 193 nm excitation, dissociation is predicted to occur predominantly on the repulsive S 2 state, with minor pathways via internal conversion from S 2 to highly excited ground state. An automated transition-state search algorithm was employed to identify the corresponding ground-state dissociation channels, and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus and Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the associated branching ratios. The proposed mechanisms were validated using the experimentally measured and quasi-classical trajectory-deduced nascent internal energy distributions of HCN and HNC. This work, along with previous studies, illustrates the propensity for cyano-containing hydrocarbons to act as photolytic sources for astrophysical HCN and HNC and may help explain the observed overabundance of HNC in astrophysical environments.

  8. Statistics and Informatics in Space Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E.

    2017-12-01

    The interest in statistical and computational methodology has seen rapid growth in space-based astrophysics, parallel to the growth seen in Earth remote sensing. There is widespread agreement that scientific interpretation of the cosmic microwave background, discovery of exoplanets, and classifying multiwavelength surveys is too complex to be accomplished with traditional techniques. NASA operates several well-functioning Science Archive Research Centers providing 0.5 PBy datasets to the research community. These databases are integrated with full-text journal articles in the NASA Astrophysics Data System (200K pageviews/day). Data products use interoperable formats and protocols established by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. NASA supercomputers also support complex astrophysical models of systems such as accretion disks and planet formation. Academic researcher interest in methodology has significantly grown in areas such as Bayesian inference and machine learning, and statistical research is underway to treat problems such as irregularly spaced time series and astrophysical model uncertainties. Several scholarly societies have created interest groups in astrostatistics and astroinformatics. Improvements are needed on several fronts. Community education in advanced methodology is not sufficiently rapid to meet the research needs. Statistical procedures within NASA science analysis software are sometimes not optimal, and pipeline development may not use modern software engineering techniques. NASA offers few grant opportunities supporting research in astroinformatics and astrostatistics.

  9. Rounding Up the Astrophysical Weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, James P.

    2016-09-01

    New instruments used for astronomy such as ALMA, Herschel, and SOFIA have greatly increased the quality of available astrophysical data. These improved data contain spectral lines and features which are not accounted for in the quantum mechanical (QM) catalogs. A class of molecules has been identified as being particularly problematic, the so-called "weeds". These molecules have numerous transitions, of non-trivial intensity, which are difficult to model due to highly perturbed low lying vibrational states. The inability to properly describe the complete contribution of these weeds to the astrophysical data has led directly to the misidentification of other target molecules. Ohio State's Microwave Laboratory has developed an alternative approach to this problem. Rather than relying on complex QM calculations, we have developed a temperature dependent approach to laboratory based terahertz spectroscopy. We have developed a set of simple packages, in addition to traditional line list catalogs, that enable astronomers to successfully remove the weed signals from their data. This dissertation will detail my laboratory work and analysis of three keys weeds: methanol, methyl formate and methyl cyanide. Also, discussed will be the analytical technique I used to apply these laboratory results to astrophysical data.

  10. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  11. NASA's Universe of Learning: Engaging Learners in Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, L.; Smith, D. A.; Lestition, K.; Greene, M.; Squires, G.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Universe of Learning is one of 27 competitively awarded education programs selected by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to enable scientists and engineers to more effectively engage with learners of all ages. The NASA's Universe of Learning program is created through a partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Chandra X-ray Center, IPAC at Caltech, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Exoplanet Exploration Program, and Sonoma State University. The program will connect the scientists, engineers, science, technology and adventure of NASA Astrophysics with audience needs, proven infrastructure, and a network of over 500 partners to advance the objectives of SMD's newly restructured education program. The multi-institutional team will develop and deliver a unified, consolidated suite of education products, programs, and professional development offerings that spans the full spectrum of NASA Astrophysics, including the Exoplanet Exploration theme. Program elements include enabling educational use of Astrophysics mission data and offering participatory experiences; creating multimedia and immersive experiences; designing exhibits and community programs; providing professional development for pre-service educators, undergraduate instructors, and informal educators; and, producing resources for special needs and underserved/underrepresented audiences. This presentation will provide an overview of the program and process for mapping discoveries to products and programs for informal, lifelong, and self-directed learning environments.

  12. Advanced Stirling Convertor Control Unit Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Kussmaul, Michael; Casciani, Michael; Brown, Gregory; Wiser, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Future NASA missions could include establishing Lunar or Martian base camps, exploring Jupiters moons and travelling beyond where generating power from sunlight may be limited. Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provide a dependable power source for missions where inadequate sunlight or operational requirements make other power systems impractical. Over the past decade, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting the development of RPSs. The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) utilized a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC). While flight development of the ASRG has been cancelled, much of the technology and hardware continued development and testing to guide future activities. Specifically, a controller for the convertor(s) is an integral part of a Stirling-based RPS. For the ASRG design, the controller maintains stable operation of the convertors, regulates the alternating current produced by the linear alternator of the convertor, provides a specified direct current output voltage for the spacecraft, synchronizes the piston motion of the two convertors in order to minimize vibration as well as manage and maintain operation with a stable piston amplitude and hot end temperature. It not only provides power to the spacecraft but also must regulate convertor operation to avoid damage to internal components and maintain safe thermal conditions after fueling. Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies has designed, developed and tested an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Advanced Stirling Convertor Control Unit (ACU) to support this effort. GRC used the ACU EDU as part of its non-nuclear representation of a RPS which also consists of a pair of Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), and associated support equipment to perform a test in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The RSIL was designed and built to evaluate hardware utilizing RPS technology. The RSIL provides insight into the electrical

  13. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center developed a nonnuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EMs (engineering models) 2 and 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of ASCs. The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASCs in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and super-capacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS's and RSIL's ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 volts or exceeded 36 volts. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASCs. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  14. Nuclear physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated a variety of research topics on the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics during the past year. We have continued our study of dihyperon states in dense matter and have started to make a connection between their properties in the core of neutron stars with the ongoing experimental searches at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We started to build a scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts using the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars close to an active galactic nucleous. We have been reconsidering the constraints due to neutron star cooling rates on the equation of state for high density matter in the light, of recent findings which show that the faster direct Urca cooling process is possible for a range of nuclear compositions. We have developed a model for the formation of primordial magnetic fields due to the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition. Encouraged by the most recent observational developments, we have investigated the possible origin of the boron and beryllium abundances. We have greatly improved the calculations of the primordial abundances of these elements I>y augmenting the reaction networks and by updating the most recent experimental nuclear reaction rates. Our calculations have shown that the primordial abundances are much higher than previously thought but that the observed abundances cannot be explained by primordial sources alone. We have also studied the origin of the boron and beryllium abundances due to cosmic ray spallation. Finally, we have continued to address the solar neutrino problem by investigating the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the MSW solution for a full three-family treatment of MSW mixing

  15. Nuclear physics and astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated a variety of research topics on the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics during the past year. We have continued our study of dihyperon states in dense matter and have started to make a connection between their properties in the core of neutron stars with the ongoing experimental searches at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We started to build a scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts using the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars close to an active galactic nucleous. We have been reconsidering the constraints due to neutron star cooling rates on the equation of state for high density matter in the light, of recent findings which show that the faster direct Urca cooling process is possible for a range of nuclear compositions. We have developed a model for the formation of primordial magnetic fields due to the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition. Encouraged by the most recent observational developments, we have investigated the possible origin of the boron and beryllium abundances. We have greatly improved the calculations of the primordial abundances of these elements I>y augmenting the reaction networks and by updating the most recent experimental nuclear reaction rates. Our calculations have shown that the primordial abundances are much higher than previously thought but that the observed abundances cannot be explained by primordial sources alone. We have also studied the origin of the boron and beryllium abundances due to cosmic ray spallation. Finally, we have continued to address the solar neutrino problem by investigating the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the MSW solution for a full three-family treatment of MSW mixing.

  16. Astrophysical Hydrodynamics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, Steven N

    2007-01-01

    This latest edition of the proven and comprehensive treatment on the topic -- from the bestselling author of ""Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics"" -- has been updated and revised to reflect the newest research results. Suitable for AS0000 and AS0200 courses, as well as advanced astrophysics and astronomy lectures, this is an indispensable theoretical backup for studies on celestial body formation and astrophysics. Includes exercises with solutions.

  17. Gravity, particles and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The author deals with the relationship between gravitation and elementary particle physics, and the implications of these subjects for astrophysics. The text is split up into two parts. The first part represents a relatively non-technical overview of the subject, while the second part represents a technical examination of the most important aspects of non-Einsteinian gravitational theory and its relation to astrophysics. Relevant references from the fields of gravitation, elementary particle theory and astrophysics are included. (Auth.)

  18. LAD Early Career Prize Talk:Laboratory astrophysics experiments investigating the effects of high energy fluxes on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth relevant to young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. Paul; Park, Hye Sook; Huntington, Channing; Miles, Aaron R.; Remington, Bruce A.; Plewa, Tomek; Trantham, Matt; Shvarts, Dov; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Steven; Wan, Wesley; Doss, Forrest; Kline, John; Flippos, Kirk; Malamud, Guy; Handy, Timothy; Prisbey, Shon; Grosskopf, Michael; Krauland, Christine; Klein, Sallee; Harding, Eric; Wallace, Russell; Marion, Donna; Kalantar, Dan

    2017-06-01

    Energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM), based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. When a blast wave emerges from an exploding star, it drives a forward shock into the CSM and a reverse shock forms in the expanding stellar ejecta, creating a young supernova remnant (SNR). As mass accumulates in the shocked layers, the interface between these two shocks decelerates, becoming unstable to the RT instability. Simulations predict that RT produces structures at this interface, having a range of spatial scales. When the CSM is dense enough, as in the case of SN 1993J, the hot shocked matter can produce significant radiative fluxes that affect the emission from the SNR. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae such as SN 1993J, might affect this structure. The experiment used NIF to create a RT unstable interface subject to a high energy flux by the emergence of a blast wave into lower-density matter, in analogy to the SNR. We also preformed and with a low energy flux to compare the affect of the energy flux on the instability growth. We found that the RT growth was reduced in the experiments with a high energy flux. In analyzing the comparison with SN 1993J, we discovered that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger than the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling SNRs.

  19. Modeling of Highly Instrumented Honeywell Turbofan Engine Tested with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL), an altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, has been used to test a highly instrumented turbine engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. This is a continuation of the PSL testing that successfully duplicated the icing events that were experienced in a previous engine (serial LF01) during flight through ice crystal clouds, which was the first turbofan engine tested in PSL. This second model of the ALF502R-5A serial number LF11 is a highly instrumented version of the previous engine. The PSL facility provides a continuous cloud of ice crystals with controlled characteristics of size and concentration, which are ingested by the engine during operation at simulated altitudes. Several of the previous operating points tested in the LF01 engine were duplicated to confirm repeatability in LF11. The instrumentation included video cameras to visually illustrate the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor (LPC) exit guide vane region in order to confirm the ice accretion, which was suspected during the testing of the LF01. Traditional instrumentation included static pressure taps in the low pressure compressor inner and outer flow path walls, as well as total pressure and temperature rakes in the low pressure compressor region. The test data was utilized to determine the losses and blockages due to accretion in the exit guide vane region of the LPC. Multiple data points were analyzed with the Honeywell Customer Deck. A full engine roll back point was modeled with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code. The mean line compressor flow analysis code with ice crystal modeling was utilized to estimate the parameters that indicate the risk of accretion, as well as to estimate the degree of blockage and losses caused by accretion during a full engine roll back point. The analysis provided additional validation of the icing risk parameters within the LPC, as well as the creation of models for

  20. Advances in instrumentation for nuclear astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Pain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the nuclear physics properties which govern energy generation and nucleosynthesis in the astrophysical phenomena we observe in the universe is crucial to understanding how these objects behave and how the chemical history of the universe evolved to its present state. The low cross sections and short nuclear lifetimes involved in many of these reactions make their experimental determination challenging, requiring developments in beams and instrumentation. A selection of developments in nuclear astrophysics instrumentation is discussed, using as examples projects involving the nuclear astrophysics group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These developments will be key to the instrumentation necessary to fully exploit nuclear astrophysics opportunities at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams which is currently under construction.

  1. Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Built upon a tradition of almost 300 years, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP) is in an historical sense the successor of one of the oldest astronomical observatories in Germany. It is the first institute in the world which incorporated the term `astrophysical' in its name, and is connected with distinguished scientists such as Karl Schwarzschild and Albert Einstein. The AIP constitutes on...

  2. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  3. Plasma in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Two examples of plasma phenomena of importance to astrophysics are reviewed. These are examples where astrophysical understanding hinges on further progress in plasma physics understanding. The two examples are magnetic reconnection and the collisionless interaction between a population of energetic particles and a cooler gas or plasma, in particular the interaction between galactic cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

  4. Fuzzy-TLX: using fuzzy integrals for evaluating human mental workload with NASA-Task Load indeX in laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzé-Amady, Marc; Raufaste, Eric; Prade, Henri; Meyer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mental workload in which various load sources must be integrated to derive reliable workload estimates. We report a new algorithm for computing weights from qualitative fuzzy integrals and apply it to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration -Task Load indeX (NASA-TLX) subscales in order to replace the standard pair-wise weighting technique (PWT). In this paper, two empirical studies were reported: (1) In a laboratory experiment, age- and task-related variables were investigated in 53 male volunteers and (2) In a field study, task- and job-related variables were studied on aircrews during 48 commercial flights. The results found in this study were as follows: (i) in the experimental setting, fuzzy estimates were highly correlated with classical (using PWT) estimates; (ii) in real work conditions, replacing PWT by automated fuzzy treatments simplified the NASA-TLX completion; (iii) the algorithm for computing fuzzy estimates provides a new classification procedure sensitive to various variables of work environments and (iv) subjective and objective measures can be used for the fuzzy aggregation of NASA-TLX subscales. NASA-TLX, a classical tool for mental workload assessment, is based on a weighted sum of ratings from six subscales. A new algorithm, which impacts on input data collection and computes weights and indexes from qualitative fuzzy integrals, is evaluated through laboratory and field studies. Pros and cons are discussed.

  5. Hydrodynamic instabilities in astrophysics and ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Drake, R.

    2005-01-01

    Inertial fusion systems and astrophysical systems both involve hydrodynamic effects, including sources of pressure, shock waves, rarefactions, and plasma flows. In the evolution of such systems, hydrodynamic instabilities naturally evolve. As a result, a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities is necessary to understand their behavior. In addition, high-energy-density facilities designed for ICF purposes can be used to provide and experimental basis for understanding astrophysical processes. In this talk. I will discuss the instabilities that appear in astrophysics and ICF from the common perspective of the basic mechanisms at work. Examples will be taken from experiments aimed at ICF, from astrophysical systems, and from experiments using ICF systems to address issues in astrophysics. The high-energy-density research facilities of today can accelerate small but macroscopic amounts of material to velocities above 100 km/s, can heat such material to temperature above 100 eV, can produce pressures far above a million atmospheres (10''12 dybes/cm''2 or 0.1 TPascal), and can do experiments under these conditions that address basic physics issues. This enables on to devise experiments aimed directly at important process such as the Rayleigh Taylor instability at an ablating surface or at an embedded interface that is accelerating, the Richtmeyer Meshkov evolution of shocked interfaces, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of shear flows. The talk will include examples of such phenomena from the laboratory and from astrophysics, and will discuss experiments to study them. (Author)

  6. Astrophysics in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Maoz, Dan

    2007-01-01

    A concise but thorough introduction to the observational data and theoretical concepts underlying modern astronomy, Astrophysics in a Nutshell is designed for advanced undergraduate science majors taking a one-semester course. This well-balanced and up-to-date textbook covers the essentials of modern astrophysics--from stars to cosmology--emphasizing the common, familiar physical principles that govern astronomical phenomena, and the interplay between theory and observation. In addition to traditional topics such as stellar remnants, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, Astrophysics in a N

  7. An invitation to astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2006-01-01

    This unique book provides a clear and lucid description of several aspects of astrophysics and cosmology in a language understandable to a physicist or beginner in astrophysics. It presents the key topics in all branches of astrophysics and cosmology in a simple and concise language. The emphasis is on currently active research areas and exciting new frontiers rather than on more pedantic topics. Many complicated results are introduced with simple, novel derivations which strengthen the conceptual understanding of the subject. The book also contains over one hundred exercises which will help s

  8. Nuclear astrophysics experiments with Pohang neutron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Duk; Yoo, Gwang Ho

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics experiments for fundamental understanding of Big Bang nucleosynthesis was performed at Pohang Neutron Facility. Laboratory experiments, inhomogeneous Big Bang nucleosynthesis and S-process were used for nucleosynthesis. For future study, more study on S-process for the desired data and nuclear network calculation are necessary

  9. 2004 ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    This publication of the Academy on Astronomy and Astrophysics is unique in ... bring out position papers on societal issues where science plays a major ..... funding agencies, the Astronomical Society of ..... orbit very close to the parent star.

  10. Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Astrophysics Decoding the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Judith A

    2007-01-01

    Astrophysics: Decoding the Cosmos is an accessible introduction to the key principles and theories underlying astrophysics. This text takes a close look at the radiation and particles that we receive from astronomical objects, providing a thorough understanding of what this tells us, drawing the information together using examples to illustrate the process of astrophysics. Chapters dedicated to objects showing complex processes are written in an accessible manner and pull relevant background information together to put the subject firmly into context. The intention of the author is that the book will be a 'tool chest' for undergraduate astronomers wanting to know the how of astrophysics. Students will gain a thorough grasp of the key principles, ensuring that this often-difficult subject becomes more accessible.

  12. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  13. Nonlinear dynamics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, J. C.; Sanjuan, M. A. F.

    2000-01-01

    Concepts and techniques from Nonlinear Dynamics, also known as Chaos Theory, have been applied successfully to several astrophysical fields such as orbital motion, time series analysis or galactic dynamics, providing answers to old questions but also opening a few new ones. Some of these topics are described in this review article, showing the basis of Nonlinear Dynamics, and how it is applied in Astrophysics. (Author)

  14. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Department of Physics, School for Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Astronomy Science and Technology Research Laboratory of Department of Education of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou ...

  15. Magnetic processes in astrophysics theory, simulations, experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Rüdiger, Günther; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    In this work the authors draw upon their expertise in geophysical and astrophysical MHD to explore the motion of electrically conducting fluids, the so-called dynamo effect, and describe the similarities and differences between different magnetized objects. They also explain why magnetic fields are crucial to the formation of the stars, and discuss promising experiments currently being designed to investigate some of the relevant physics in the laboratory. This interdisciplinary approach will appeal to a wide audience in physics, astrophysics and geophysics. This second edition covers such add

  16. Excitation of compound states in the subsystems as indirect tool in nuclear astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribble R.E.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical reactions proceeding through compound states represent one of the crucial part of nuclear astrophysics. However, due to the presence of the Coulomb barrier, it is often very difficult or even impossible to obtain the astrophysical S (E factor from measurements in the laboratory at astrophysically relevant energies. The Trojan Horse method (THM provides a unique tool to obtain the information about resonant astrophysical reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. Here the theory and application of the THM for the resonant reactions is addressed.

  17. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  18. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, M.

    1988-01-01

    It is true that: (1) The first observation of the neutrino burst from the supernova SN1987a by Kamiokande-II which was immediately confirmed by IBM; and (2) the first real-time, directional, and spectral observation of solar 8 B neutrinos also by Kamiokande-II could perhaps be considered as signalling the birth of observational astrophysics. The field, however, is still in its infancy and is crying out for tender loving care. Namely, while the construction of astronomy requires the time and the direction of the signal and that of astrophysics requires, in addition to the spectral information, the observations of (1) could not give the directional information and the results of both (1) and (2) are still suffering from the meager statistics. How do we remedy this situation to let this new born science of observational neutrino astrophysics grow healthy. This is what the author addresses in this talk. 15 refs., 8 figs

  19. Numerical simulation in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyama, Shoken

    1985-01-01

    There have been many numerical simulations of hydrodynamical problems in astrophysics, e.g. processes of star formation, supernova explosion and formation of neutron stars, and general relativistic collapse of star to form black hole. The codes are made to be suitable for computing such problems. In astrophysical hydrodynamical problems, there are the characteristics: problems of self-gravity or external gravity acting, objects of scales very large or very short, objects changing by short period or long time scale, problems of magnetic force and/or centrifugal force acting. In this paper, we present one of methods of numerical simulations which may satisfy these requirements, so-called smoothed particle methods. We then introduce the methods briefly. Then, we show one of the applications of the methods to astrophysical problem (fragmentation and collapse of rotating isothermal cloud). (Mori, K.)

  20. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Rayet, M.

    1990-01-01

    At all times and at all astrophysical scales, nuclear reactions have played and continue to play a key role. This concerns the energetics as well as the production of nuclides (nucleosynthesis). After a brief review of the observed composition of various objects in the universe, and especially of the solar system, the basic ingredients that are required in order to build up models for the chemical evolution of galaxies are sketched. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the stellar yields through an overview of the important burning episodes and nucleosynthetic processes that can develop in non-exploding or exploding stars. Emphasis is put on the remaining astrophysical and nuclear physics uncertainties that hamper a clear understanding of the observed characteristics, and especially compositions, of a large variety of astrophysical objects

  1. The new astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longair, M.

    1989-01-01

    The author offers a review of advances in astrophysics since 1945 when astronomers started to explore the universe beyond the bounds of the optical wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum, especially in the fields of radio, x ray and gamma ray, cosmic ray, ultraviolet and infrared astronomies, as well as neutral hydrogen and molecular line studies. Theoretical and technological advances have also kept pace. An overview of the new astrophysics is offered focusing on the large-scale distribution of matter and the background microwave radiation, galaxies, stellar evolution and the interstellar media (dust, gas and high energy particles). Nucleosynthesis in stars is mentioned in a broader discussion of stellar evolution, and dead stars including supernovae. Active galaxies and quasars are discussed. After considering what should be included in astrophysical cosmology, the author looks to the future of the science. (U.K.)

  2. Astrophysics Update 2

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, John W

    2006-01-01

    "Astrophysics Updates" is intended to serve the information needs of professional astronomers and postgraduate students about areas of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology that are rich and active research spheres. Observational methods and the latest results of astronomical research are presented as well as their theoretical foundations and interrelations. The contributed commissioned articles are written by leading exponents in a format that will appeal to professional astronomers and astrophysicists who are interested in topics outside their own specific areas of research. This collection of timely reviews may also attract the interest of advanced amateur astronomers seeking scientifically rigorous coverage.

  3. Astrophysical opacity library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Merts, A.L.; Magee, N.H. Jr.; Argo, M.F.

    1977-08-01

    The astrophysical elements opacity library includes equation of state data, various mean opacities, and 2000 values of the frequency-dependent extinction coefficients in equally spaced intervals u identical with hν/kT from 0 to 20 for 41 degeneracy parameters eta from -28 (nondegenerate) to 500 and 46 temperatures kT from 1 eV to 100 keV. Among available auxiliary quantities are the free electron density, mass density, and plasma cutoff frequency. A library-associated program can produce opacities for mixtures with up to 20 astrophysically abundant constituent elements at 4 levels of utility for the user

  4. Theoretical astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A concise yet comprehensive introduction to the central theoretical concepts of modern astrophysics, presenting hydrodynamics, radiation, and stellar dynamics all in one textbook. Adopting a modular structure, the author illustrates a small number of fundamental physical methods and principles, which are sufficient to describe and understand a wide range of seemingly very diverse astrophysical phenomena and processes. For example, the formulae that define the macroscopic behavior of stellar systems are all derived in the same way from the microscopic distribution function. This function it

  5. Astrophysics in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Maoz, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Winner of the American Astronomical Society's Chambliss Award, Astrophysics in a Nutshell has become the text of choice in astrophysics courses for science majors at top universities in North America and beyond. In this expanded and fully updated second edition, the book gets even better, with a new chapter on extrasolar planets; a greatly expanded chapter on the interstellar medium; fully updated facts and figures on all subjects, from the observed properties of white dwarfs to the latest results from precision cosmology; and additional instructive problem sets. Throughout, the text features the same focused, concise style and emphasis on physics intuition that have made the book a favorite of students and teachers.

  6. Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the first lecture of this volume, we will present the basic fundamental ideas regarding nuclear processes occurring in stars. We start from stellar observations, will then elaborate on some important quantum-mechanical phenomena governing nuclear reactions, continue with how nuclear reactions proceed in a hot stellar plasma and, finally, we will provide an overview of stellar burning stages. At the end, the current knowledge regarding the origin of the elements is briefly summarized. This lecture is directed towards the student of nuclear astrophysics. Our intention is to present seemingly unrelated phenomena of nuclear physics and astrophysics in a coherent framework.

  7. Measurements of Cyclotron Features and Pulse Periods in the High-Mass X-Ray Binaries 4U 1538-522 and 4U 1907+09 with the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Caballero, Isabel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kuhnel, Matthias; Furst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    We present a spectral and timing analysis of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of two high-mass X-ray binaries, 4U 1538-522 and 4U 1907+09. Our timing measurements for 4U 1538-522 find the pulse period to have exhibited a spin-up trend until approximately 2009, after which there is evidence for a torque reversal, with the source beginning to spin down to the most recently measured period of 525.407 plus or minus 0.001 seconds. The most recent INTEGRAL observations of 4U 1907+09 are not found to yield statistically significant pulse periods due to the significantly lower flux from the source compared with 4U 1538-522. A spectral model consisting of a power-law continuum with an exponential cutoff and modified by two cyclotron resonance scattering features is found to fit both sources well, with the cyclotron scattering features detected at approximately 22 and approximately 49 kiloelectronvolts for 4U 1538-522 and at approximately 18 and approximately 36 kiloelectronvolts for 4U 1907+09. The spectral parameters of 4U 1538-522 are generally not found to vary significantly with flux and there is little to no variation across the torque reversal. Examining our results in conjunction with previous work, we find no evidence for a correlation between cyclotron line energy and luminosity for 4U 1538-522. 4U 1907+09 shows evidence for a positive correlation between cyclotron line energy and luminosity, which would make it the fourth, and lowest luminosity, cyclotron line source to exhibit this relationship.

  8. An Initial Study of the Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Van Zante, Judith F.; King, Michael C.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an initial study of the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL). Ice accretion due to the ingestion of ice-crystals is being attributed to numerous jet-engine power-loss events. The NASA PSL is an altitude jet-engine test facility which has recently added a capability to inject ice particles into the flow. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. The present study utilized a NACA0012 airfoil. The mixed-phase conditions were generated by partially freezing the liquid-water droplets ejected from the spray bars. This paper presents data regarding (1) the freeze out characteristics of the cloud, (2) changes in aerothermal conditions due to the presence of the cloud, and (3) the ice accretion characteristics observed on the airfoil model. The primary variable in this test was the PSL plenum humidity which was systematically varied for two duct-exit-plane velocities (85 and 135 ms) as well as two particle size clouds (15 and 50 m MVDi). The observed clouds ranged from fully glaciated to fully liquid, where the liquid clouds were at least partially supercooled. The air total temperature decreased at the test section when the cloud was activated due to evaporation. The ice accretions observed ranged from sharp arrow-like accretions, characteristic of ice-crystal erosion, to cases with double-horn shapes, characteristic of supercooled water accretions.

  9. Airborne measurements of reactive organic trace gases in the atmosphere - with a focus on PTR-MS measurements onboard NASA's flying laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven Arne; Feil, Stefan; Hanel, Gernot; Jordan, Alfons; Mutschlechner, Paul; Crawford, James H.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Millet, Dylan

    2017-04-01

    Reactive organic gases (ROGs) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry as they affect the rates of ozone production, particle formation and growth, and oxidant consumption. Measurements of ROGs are analytically challenging because of their large variety and low concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere, and because they are easily affected by measurement artefacts. On aircraft, ROGs are typically measured by canister sampling followed by off-line analysis in the laboratory, fast online gas chromatography or online chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In this work, we will briefly sum up the state-of-the-art in this field before focusing on proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and its deployment onboard NASA's airborne science laboratories. We will show how airborne PTR-MS was successfully used in NASA missions for characterizing emissions of ROGs from point sources, for following the photochemical evolution of ROGs in a biomass burning plume, for determining biosphere-atmosphere fluxes of selected ROGs and for validating satellite data. We will also present the airborne PTR-MS instrument in its most recent evolution which includes a radiofrequency ion funnel and ion guide combined with a compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer and discuss its superior performance characteristics. The development of the airborne PTR-MS instrument was supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit) through the Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP) of the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) (grants #833451, #847967). This work was also partly supported by NASA under grant #NNX14AP89G.

  10. Astrophysical Russian Dolls

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, Abraham; Imara, Nia

    2017-01-01

    Are there examples of "astrophysical Russian dolls," and what could we learn from their similarities? In this article, we list a few such examples, including disks, filaments, and clusters. We suggest that forging connections across disciplinary borders enhances our perception of beauty, while simultaneously leading to a more comprehensive understanding of the Universe.

  11. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklorsky, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A selected list of articles of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, wherein up-to-date summaries of various topics in the field of high energy astrophysics can be found, is presented. A special report outlines work done in the Soviet Union in this area. (Auth.)

  12. Enhancing Undergraduate Education with NASA Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James G.; Meinke, Bonnie; Schultz, Gregory; Smith, Denise Anne; Lawton, Brandon L.; Gurton, Suzanne; Astrophysics Community, NASA

    2015-08-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) coordinates the work of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO projects and their teams to bring cutting-edge discoveries of NASA missions to the introductory astronomy college classroom. Uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogical expertise, the Forum has coordinated the development of several resources that provide new opportunities for college and university instructors to bring the latest NASA discoveries in astrophysics into their classrooms.To address the needs of the higher education community, the Astrophysics Forum collaborated with the astrophysics E/PO community, researchers, and introductory astronomy instructors to place individual science discoveries and learning resources into context for higher education audiences. The resulting products include two “Resource Guides” on cosmology and exoplanets, each including a variety of accessible resources. The Astrophysics Forum also coordinates the development of the “Astro 101” slide set series. The sets are five- to seven-slide presentations on new discoveries from NASA astrophysics missions relevant to topics in introductory astronomy courses. These sets enable Astronomy 101 instructors to include new discoveries not yet in their textbooks in their courses, and may be found at: https://www.astrosociety.org/education/resources-for-the-higher-education-audience/.The Astrophysics Forum also coordinated the development of 12 monthly “Universe Discovery Guides,” each featuring a theme and a representative object well-placed for viewing, with an accompanying interpretive story, strategies for conveying the topics, and supporting NASA-approved education activities and background information from a spectrum of NASA missions and programs. These resources are adaptable for use by instructors and may be found at: http://nightsky.jpl.nasa

  13. Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar medium, Light, Magnetisphere, Matter, Planet Earth, Public Impact, Solar Activity, Solar Heliosphere, Solar Interior, Solar Systems, Space, Stellar Astrophysics, Stellar Populations, Telescopes, Time The Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics covers 30 major subject areas, such as Active galaxies, Astrometry, Astrophysical theory, Atmospheres, Binary stars, Biography, Clusters, Coordinates, Cosmology, Earth, Education, Galaxies,

  14. 75 FR 1087 - Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee #13883; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee 13883; Notice of Meeting... Science Foundation announces the following Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee ( 13883) meeting... Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on issues within the field of astronomy and [[Page...

  15. 75 FR 22863 - Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee #13883; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee 13883; Notice of Meeting... Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee... Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on issues within the field of astronomy and...

  16. 77 FR 2095 - Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee #13883; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee 13883; Notice of Meeting... Science Foundation announces the following Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee ( 13883) meeting... Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on issues within the field of astronomy and...

  17. 76 FR 58049 - Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee #13883; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee 13883; Notice of Meeting... Science Foundation announces the following Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee ( 13883) meeting... Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on issues within the field of astronomy and...

  18. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Tribble, R.E.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Kroha, V.; Nunes, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  19. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  20. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  1. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  2. Nuclear astrophysics at DRAGON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, U.

    2014-01-01

    The DRAGON recoil separator is located at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF, Vancouver. It is designed to measure radiative alpha and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance. Over the last years, the DRAGON collaboration has measured several reactions using both radioactive and high-intensity stable beams. For example, the 160(a, g) cross section was recently measured. The reaction plays a role in steady-state helium burning in massive stars, where it follows the 12C(a, g) reaction. At astrophysically relevant energies, the reaction proceeds exclusively via direct capture, resulting in a low rate. In this measurement, the unique capabilities of DRAGON enabled determination not only of the total reaction rates, but also of decay branching ratios. In addition, results from other recent measurements will be presented

  3. Allen's astrophysical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This new, fourth, edition of Allen's classic Astrophysical Quantities belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date by a team of more than ninety internationally renowned astronomers and astrophysicists. While it follows the basic format of the original, this indispensable reference has grown to more than twice the size of the earlier editions to accommodate the great strides made in astronomy and astrophysics. It includes detailed tables of the most recent data on: - General constants and units - Atoms, molecules, and spectra - Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos - Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies - The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics - Stellar populations - Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae - Theoretical stellar evolution - Circumstellar and interstellar material - Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei ...

  4. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is revised the nuclear reactions which present an interest in astrophysics regarding the explanation of some problems such as the relative quantity of the elements, the structure and evolution of the stars. The principal object of the study is the determination of the experimental possibilities in the field of astrophysics, of an accelerator Van de Graaff's 700 KeV type. Two hundred nuclear reactions approximately, were found, and nothing or very little has been done in the intervals of energy which are of interest. Since the bombardment energies and the involved sections are low in some cases, there are real possibilities, for the largest number of stars to obtain important statistical data with the above mentioned accelerator, taking some necessary precautions. (author)

  5. The new astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longair, M.

    1993-01-01

    The various themes developed are: radioastronomy, X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray, ultraviolet, neutral hydrogen and molecular line astronomy, optical and theoretical astronomy; the large scale distribution of matter and radiation in the universe, the galaxies, stars and stellar evolution, the interstellar medium (gas, dust) and star formation, galaxies and clusters of galaxies, active galaxies and quasars, astrophysical cosmology, the astronomy of the future. 86 figs., 60 refs

  6. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  7. Facilities at Indian Institute of Astrophysics and New Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Bhuwan Chandra

    2018-04-01

    The Indian Institute of Astrophysics is a premier national institute of India for the study of and research into topics pertaining to astronomy, astrophysics and related subjects. The Institute's main campus in Bangalore city in southern India houses the main administrative set up, library and computer center, photonics lab and state of art mechanical workshop. IIA has a network of laboratories and observatories located in various places in India, including Kodaikanal (Tamilnadu), Kavalur (Tamilnadu), Gauribidanur (Karnataka), Leh & Hanle (Jammu & Kashmir) and Hosakote (Karnataka).

  8. Goddard's Astrophysics Science Division Annual Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kimberly A. (Editor); Reddy, Francis J. (Editor); Tyler, Patricia A. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Astrophysics Science Division (ASD) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is one of the largest and most diverse astrophysical organizations in the world, with activities spanning a broad range of topics in theory, observation, and mission and technology development. Scientific research is carried out over the entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays to radio wavelengths as well as particle physics and gravitational radiation. Members of ASD also provide the scientific operations for two orbiting astrophysics missions Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and Swift as well as the Science Support Center for Fermi. A number of key technologies for future missions are also under development in the Division, including X-ray mirrors, space-based interferometry, high contrast imaging techniques to search for exoplanets, and new detectors operating at gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, and radio wavelengths. The overriding goals of ASD are to carry out cutting-edge scientific research, provide Project Scientist support for spaceflight missions, implement the goals of the NASA Strategic Plan, serve and support the astronomical community, and enable future missions by conceiving new concepts and inventing new technologies.

  9. The Astrophysics Science Division Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William (Editor); Reddy, Francis (Editor); Tyler, Pat (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    The Astrophysics Science Division (ASD) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is one of the largest and most diverse astrophysical organizations in the world, with activities spanning a broad range of topics in theory, observation, and mission and technology development. Scientific research is carried out over the entire electromagnetic spectrum - from gamma rays to radio wavelengths - as well as particle physics and gravitational radiation. Members of ASD also provide the scientific operations for three orbiting astrophysics missions - WMAP, RXTE, and Swift, as well as the Science Support Center for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. A number of key technologies for future missions are also under development in the Division, including X-ray mirrors, space-based interferometry, high contrast imaging techniques to search for exoplanets, and new detectors operating at gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, and radio wavelengths. The overriding goals of ASD are to carry out cutting-edge scientific research, provide Project Scientist support for spaceflight missions, implement the goals of the NASA Strategic Plan, serve and support the astronomical community, and enable future missions by conceiving new concepts and inventing new technologies.

  10. Goddard's Astrophysics Science Division Annual Report 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan; Reddy, Francis; Tyler, Pat

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Science Division(ASD) at Goddard Space Flight Center(GSFC)is one of the largest and most diverse astrophysical organizations in the world, with activities spanning a broad range of topics in theory, observation, and mission and technology development. Scientific research is carried out over the entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays to radiowavelengths as well as particle physics and gravitational radiation. Members of ASD also provide the scientific operations for three orbiting astrophysics missions WMAP, RXTE, and Swift, as well as the Science Support Center for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. A number of key technologies for future missions are also under development in the Division, including X-ray mirrors, space-based interferometry, high contract imaging techniques to serch for exoplanets, and new detectors operating at gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, and radio wavelengths. The overriding goals of ASD are to carry out cutting-edge scientific research, and provide Project Scientist support for spaceflight missions, implement the goals of the NASA Strategic Plan, serve and suppport the astronomical community, and enable future missions by conceiving new conepts and inventing new technologies.

  11. Research in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattimer, J.M.; Yahil, A.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction between nuclear theory and some outstanding problems in astrophysics is examined. We are actively researching both the astrophysics of gravitational collapse, neutron star birth, and the emission of neutrinos from supernovae, on the one hand, and the nuclear physics of the equation of state of hot, dense matter on the other hand. There is close coupling between nuclear theory and the supernova phenomenon; in fact, nuclear matter properties, especially at supernuclear densities, might be best delineated by astrophysical considerations. Our research has also focused on the neutrinos emitted from supernovae, since they are the only available observables of the internal supernova mechanism. The recent observations of neutrinos from SN 1987A proved to be in remarkable agreement with models we pioneered in the one and one half years prior to its explosion in February 1987. We have also developed a novel hydrodynamical code in which shocks are treated via Riemann resolution rather than with artificial viscosity. We propose to modify it to use implicit differencing and to include multi-group neutrino diffusion and General Relativity. In parallel, we are extending calculations of the birth of a neutron star to include convection and mass accretion, by incorporating a hydrodynamic envelope onto a hydrostatic core. In view of the possible recent discovery of a pulsar in SN1987A, we are including the effects of rotation. We are undertaking a detailed comparison of current equations of state, focusing on disagreements regarding the nuclear incompressibly, symmetry energy and specific heat. Especially important is the symmetry energy, which below nuclear density controls free proton fractions and weak interaction rates and above this density critically influences the neutron star maximum mass and binding energy. 60 refs

  12. Astrophysics in 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Trimble, V; Aschwanden, MJ

    2000-01-01

    The year 1999 saw the arrival of a star with three planets, a universe with three parameters, and a solar corona that could be heated at least three ways. In addition, there were at least three papers on every question that has ever been asked in astrophysics, from "Will the Universe expand forever?" to "Does mantle convection occur in one or two layers?" The answers generally were, "Yes," "No," and "None of the above," to each of the questions. The authors have done their best to organize th...

  13. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  14. Status reports of supercomputing astrophysics in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nagasawa, Mikio

    1990-01-01

    The Workshop on Supercomputing Astrophysics was held at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK, Tsukuba) from August 31 to September 2, 1989. More than 40 participants of physicists, astronomers were attendant and discussed many topics in the informal atmosphere. The main purpose of this workshop was focused on the theoretical activities in computational astrophysics in Japan. It was also aimed to promote effective collaboration between the numerical experimentists working on supercomputing technique. The various subjects of the presented papers of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, gravitating systems, radiative transfer and general relativity are all stimulating. In fact, these numerical calculations become possible now in Japan owing to the power of Japanese supercomputer such as HITAC S820, Fujitsu VP400E and NEC SX-2. (J.P.N.)

  15. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  16. Astrophysics science operations - Near-term plans and vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegler, Guenter R.

    1991-01-01

    Astrophysics science operations planned by the Science Operations branch of NASA Astrophysics Division for the 1990s for the purpose of gathering spaceborne astronomical data are described. The paper describes the near-future plans of the Science Operations in the areas of the preparation of the proposal; the planning and execution of spaceborne observations; the collection, processing, and analysis data; and the dissemination of results. Also presented are concepts planned for introduction at the beginning of the 20th century, including the concepts of open communications, transparent instrument and observatory operations, a spiral requirements development method, and an automated research assistant.

  17. The path to improved reaction rates for astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, T.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on nuclear reactions in astrophysics and, more specifically, on reactions with light ions (nucleons and α particles) proceeding via the strong interaction. It is intended to present the basic definitions essential for studies in nuclear astrophysics, to point out the differences between nuclear reactions taking place in stars and in a terrestrial laboratory, and to illustrate some of the challenges to be faced in theoretical and experimental studies of those reactions. The discussion revolves around the relevant quantities for astrophysics, which are the astrophysical reaction rates. The sensitivity of the reaction rates to the uncertainties in the prediction of various nuclear properties is explored and some guidelines for experimentalists are also provided. (author)

  18. Nuclear Data and Reaction Rate Databases in Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas

    2018-06-01

    Astrophysical simulations and models require a large variety of micro-physics data, such as equation of state tables, atomic opacities, properties of nuclei, and nuclear reaction rates. Some of the required data is experimentally accessible, but the extreme conditions present in many astrophysical scenarios cannot be reproduced in the laboratory and thus theoretical models are needed to supplement the empirical data. Collecting data from various sources and making them available as a database in a unified format is a formidable task. I will provide an overview of the data requirements in astrophysics with an emphasis on nuclear astrophysics. I will then discuss some of the existing databases, the science they enable, and their limitations. Finally, I will offer some thoughts on how to design a useful database.

  19. The Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, Keith; Kallman, Timothy R.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Angelini, Lorella; Black, J. Kevin; Hill, Joanne E.; Jaeger, Theodore; Kaaret, Philip E.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Okajima, Takashi; Petre, Robert; Schnittman, Jeremy; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Tamagawa, Toru; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2016-07-01

    The Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) is one of three Small Explorer (SMEX) missions selected by NASA for Phase A study, with a launch date in 2020. The PRAXyS Observatory exploits grazing incidence X-ray mirrors and Time Projection Chamber Polarimeters capable of measuring the linear polarization of cosmic X-ray sources in the 2-10 keV band. PRAXyS combines well-characterized instruments with spacecraft rotation to ensure low systematic errors. The PRAXyS payload is developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Iowa, and RIKEN (JAXA) collaborating on the Polarimeter Assembly. The LEOStar-2 spacecraft bus is developed by Orbital ATK, which also supplies the extendable optical bench that enables the Observatory to be compatible with a Pegasus class launch vehicle. A nine month primary mission will provide sensitive observations of multiple black hole and neutron star sources, where theory predicts polarization is a strong diagnostic, as well as exploratory observations of other high energy sources. The primary mission data will be released to the community rapidly and a Guest Observer extended mission will be vigorously proposed.

  20. Applications for X-ray detectors in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remillard, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Position-sensitive X-Ray detectors continue to playa central role in high-energy astrophysics. The current science goals are reviewed with emphasis on requirements in terms of camera performance. Wide-field imaging techniques, including coded mask cameras, are an essential part of space programs because of the transient nature of high-priority targets, e.g. eruptions from black-hole binaries and cosmic explosions such as gamma ray bursts. Pointing X-ray telescopes are being planned with a wide range of photon energies and with collection designs that include both mirrors and coded masks. Requirements for high spectral resolution and high time resolution are driven by diverse types of X-ray sources such as msec pulsars, quasars with emission-line profiles shaped by general relativity, and X-ray binaries that exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations in the range of 40-1300 Hz. Many laboratories and universities are involved in space-qualification of new detector technologies, e.g. CZT cameras, X-ray calorimeters, new types of CCDs, and GEM detectors. Even X-ray interferometry is on the horizon of NASA's science roadmap. The difficulties in advancing new technologies for space science applications require careful coordinations between industry and science groups in order to solve science problems while minimizing risk

  1. Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.; Hix, W. Raphael; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeffery C.; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; Scott, Jason P.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Chae, Kyungyuk; Guidry, Michael W.; Koura, Hiroyuki; Meyer, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    A Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics has been developed to streamline the inclusion of the latest nuclear physics data in astrophysics simulations. The infrastructure consists of a platform-independent suite of computer codes that is freely available online at nucastrodata.org. Features of, and future plans for, this software suite are given

  2. Cyberinfrastructure for Computational Relativistic Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Poster presented at the NSF Office of Cyberinfrastructure CyberBridges CAREER PI workshop. This poster discusses the computational challenges involved in the modeling of complex relativistic astrophysical systems. The Einstein Toolkit is introduced. It is an open-source community infrastructure for numerical relativity and computational astrophysics.

  3. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  4. Black-hole astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  5. Astrophysics Faces the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2001-03-01

    The Medieval synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy and church doctrine, due largely to Thomas Aquinas, insisted that the universe outside the earth's atmosphere must be immutable, single-centered, fully inventoried, immaculate or perfect, including perfectly spherical, and much else that sounds strange to modern ears. The beginnings of modern astronomy can be largely described as the overthrow of these various concepts by a combination of new technologies and new ways of thinking, and many current questions in astrophysics can be directly tied to developments of those same concepts. Indeed they probably all can be, but not over time, ending with questions like: Do other stars have spots? What does it mean when quasar jets look like they are moving faster than the speed of light? Is there anything special about our star, our galaxy, our planet, or our universe? How did these all form, and what is their long-term fate?

  6. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  7. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  8. Exotic nuclei and astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penionzhkevich Yu.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nuclear physics investigations of the laws of the microscopic world contributed significantly to extension of our knowledge of phenomena occurring in the macroscopic world (Universe and made a formidable contribution to the development of astrophysical and cosmological theories. First of all, this concerns the expanding universe model, the evolution of stars, and the abundances of elements, as well as the properties of various stars and cosmic objects, including “cold” and neutron stars, black holes, and pulsars. Without claiming to give a full account of all cosmological problems, we will dwell upon those of them that, in my opinion, have much in common with nuclear-matter properties manifesting themselves in nuclear interactions.

  9. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  10. Astrophysics days and MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falgarone, Edith; Rieutord, Michel; Richard, Denis; Zahn, Jean-Paul; Dauchot, Olivier; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Berengere; Laval, Jean-Philippe; Noullez, Alain; Bourgoin, Mickael; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Leveque, Emmanuel; Chainais, Pierre; Abry, Patrice; Mordant, Nicolas; Michel, Olivier; Marie, Louis; Chiffaudel, Arnaud; Daviaud, Francois; Petrelis, Francois; Fauve, Stephan; Nore, C.; Brachet, M.-E.; Politano, H.; Pouquet, A.; Leorat, Jacques; Grapin, Roland; Brun, Sacha; Delour, Jean; Arneodo, Alain; Muzy, Jean-Francois; Magnaudet, Jacques; Braza, Marianna; Boree, Jacques; Maurel, S.; Ben, L.; Moreau, J.; Bazile, R.; Charnay, G.; Lewandowski, Roger; Laveder, Dimitri; Bouchet, Freddy; Sommeria, Joel; Le Gal, P.; Eloy, C.; Le Dizes, S.; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Bottausci, Frederic; Petitjeans, Philippe; Maurel, Agnes; Carlier, Johan; Anselmet, Fabien

    2001-05-01

    This publication gathers extended summaries of presentations proposed during two days on astrophysics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The first session addressed astrophysics and MHD: The cold interstellar medium, a low ionized turbulent plasma; Turbulent convection in stars; Turbulence in differential rotation; Protoplanetary disks and washing machines; gravitational instability and large structures; MHD turbulence in the sodium von Karman flow; Numerical study of the dynamo effect in the Taylor-Green eddy geometry; Solar turbulent convection under the influence of rotation and of the magnetic field. The second session addressed the description of turbulence: Should we give up cascade models to describe the spatial complexity of the velocity field in a developed turbulence?; What do we learn with RDT about the turbulence at the vicinity of a plane surface?; Qualitative explanation of intermittency; Reduced model of Navier-Stokes equations: quickly extinguished energy cascade; Some mathematical properties of turbulent closure models. The third session addressed turbulence and coherent structures: Alfven wave filamentation and formation of coherent structures in dispersive MHD; Statistical mechanics for quasi-geo-strophic turbulence: applications to Jupiter's coherent structures; Elliptic instabilities; Physics and modelling of turbulent detached unsteady flows in aerodynamics and fluid-structure interaction; Intermittency and coherent structures in a washing machine: a wavelet analysis of joint pressure/velocity measurements; CVS filtering of 3D turbulent mixing layer using orthogonal wavelets. The last session addressed experimental methods: Lagrangian velocity measurements; Energy dissipation and instabilities within a locally stretched vortex; Study by laser imagery of the generation and breakage of a compressed eddy flow; Study of coherent structures of turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds number

  11. General Astrophysics with the HabEx Workhorse Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; Clarke, John; Gaudi, B. Scott; Kiessling, Alina; Krause, Oliver; Martin, Stefan; Scowen, Paul; Somerville, Rachel; HabEx STDT

    2018-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) concept has been designed to enable an extensive suite of science, broadly put under the rubric of General Astrophysics, in addition to its exoplanet direct imaging science. General astrophysics directly addresses multiple NASA programmatic branches, and HabEx will enable investigations ranging from cosmology, to galaxy evolution, to stellar population studies, to exoplanet transit spectroscopy, to Solar System studies. This poster briefly describes one of the two primary HabEx General Astrophysics instruments, the HabEx Workhorse Camera (HWC). HWC will be a dual-detector UV-to-near-IR imager and multi-object grism spectrometer with a microshutter array and a moderate (3' x 3') field-of-view. We detail some of the key science we expect HWC to undertake, emphasizing unique capabilities enabled by a large-aperture, highly stable space-borne platform at these wavelengths.

  12. ZAPP: The Z Astrophysical Plasma Properties collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Falcon, R. E.; Loisel, G. P.; Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Hall, I.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Liedahl, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Z Facility at Sandia National Laboratories [Matzen et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005)] provides MJ-class x-ray sources that can emit powers >0.3 PW. This capability enables benchmark experiments of fundamental material properties in radiation-heated matter at conditions previously unattainable in the laboratory. Experiments on Z can produce uniform, long-lived, and large plasmas with volumes up to 20 cc, temperatures from 1–200 eV, and electron densities from 10 17–23  cc −1 . These unique characteristics and the ability to radiatively heat multiple experiments in a single shot have led to a new effort called the Z Astrophysical Plasma Properties (ZAPP) collaboration. The focus of the ZAPP collaboration is to reproduce the radiation and material characteristics of astrophysical plasmas as closely as possible in the laboratory and use detailed spectral measurements to strengthen models for atoms in plasmas. Specific issues under investigation include the LTE opacity of iron at stellar-interior conditions, photoionization around active galactic nuclei, the efficiency of resonant Auger destruction in black-hole accretion disks, and H-Balmer line shapes in white dwarf photospheres

  13. Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Ryutov, D D

    2004-12-10

    With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.

  14. Underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)

    2011-01-21

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.

  15. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Gade, A.

    2010-01-01

    The quest to comprehend how nuclear processes influence astrophysical phenomena is driving experimental and theoretical research programs worldwide. One of the main goals in nuclear astrophysics is to understand how energy is generated in stars, how elements are synthesized in stellar events and what the nature of neutron stars is. New experimental capabilities, the availability of radioactive beams and increased computational power paired with new astronomical observations have advanced the present knowledge. This review summarizes the progress in the field of nuclear astrophysics with a focus on the role of indirect methods and reactions involving beams of rare isotopes.

  16. Nuclear Astrophysics Experiments at CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiping; Li Zhihong; Bai Xixiang; Lian Gang; Guo Bing; Zeng, Sheng; Yan Shengquan; Wang Baoxiang; Shu Nengchuan; Wu Kaisu; Chen Yongshou

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes nuclear astrophysical studies using the unstable ion beam facility GIRAFFE. We measured the angular distributions for some low energy reactions, such as 7 Be(d, n) 8 B, 11 C(d, n) 12 N, 8 Li(d, n) 9 Be and 8 Li(d, p) 9 Li in inverse kinematics, and indirectly derived the astrophysical S-factors or reaction rates of 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B, 11 C(p, γ) 12 N, 8 Li(n, γ) 9 Li at astrophysically relevant energies

  17. Atoms in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Eissner, W; Hummer, D; Percival, I

    1983-01-01

    It is hard to appreciate but nevertheless true that Michael John Seaton, known internationally for the enthusiasm and skill with which he pursues his research in atomic physics and astrophysics, will be sixty years old on the 16th of January 1983. To mark this occasion some of his colleagues and former students have prepared this volume. It contains articles that de­ scribe some of the topics that have attracted his attention since he first started his research work at University College London so many years ago. Seaton's association with University College London has now stretched over a period of some 37 years, first as an undergraduate student, then as a research student, and then, successively, as Assistant Lecturer, Lecturer, Reader, and Professor. Seaton arrived at University College London in 1946 to become an undergraduate in the Physics Department, having just left the Royal Air Force in which he had served as a navigator in the Pathfinder Force of Bomber Command. There are a number of stories of ho...

  18. Photonuclear reactions: astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedorezov, V.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Brief review on astrophysical aspects in photonuclear studies is presented. Main attention is paid on the two kind experiments. The first one was performed at ESRF by GRAAL collaboration using the back scattering laser photons technique to study light speed anisotropy with respect to the dipole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. This is a modern analog of the Michelson - Morley experiment. The results obtained are not only methologically different from those of the above mentioned experiments but also provide stronger constrains on the light speed anisotropy in CMB frame. Second subject is related to the electron scattering on exotic nuclei which can play significant role in explosive phenomena such as novae, supernovae and neutron stars. Such approach may be considered as the alternative to traditional low energy accelerator experiments. Exotic nuclei for these purposes can be obtained at CSI (ELISe project). The experiment is foreseen to be installed at the New Experimental Storage Ring (NESR) at RAIR where cooled secondary beams of radioactive ions will collide with an intense electron beam circulating in a small electron storage beam

  19. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  20. Nuclear physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1993-06-01

    The authors report on recent progress of research at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. During the past year, the authors continued to work on Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis, the solar neutrino problem, the equation of state for dense matter, the quark-hadron phase transition, and the origin of gamma-ray bursts; and began studying the consequences of nuclear reaction rates in the presence of strong magnetic fields. They have shown that the primordial production of B and Be cannot explain recent detections of these elements in halo stars and have looked at spallation as the likely source of these elements. By looking at nucleosynthesis with inhomogeneous initial conditions, they concluded that the Universe must have been very smooth before nucleosynthesis. They have also constrained neutrino oscillations and primordial magnetic fields by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. On the solar neutrino problem, they have analyzed the implications of the SAGE and GALLEX experiments. They also showed that the presence of dibaryons in neutron stars depends weakly on uncertainties of nuclear equations of state. They have started to investigate the consequences of strong magnetic fields on nuclear reactions and implications for neutron star cooling and supernova nucleosynthesis

  1. NASA Thesaurus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) and the NTRS...

  2. Deep Space Thermal Cycle Testing of Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I) Solar Array Panels Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sisco, Jimmy

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I) satellite will be exposed to thermal conditions beyond normal experience flight temperatures due to the satellite's high elliptical orbital flight...

  3. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The SSC+ERC model using the external seed photons from hot dust or Broad Line Region (BLR) emission is probably favourable avoiding the extreme ... Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China.

  4. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China. National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China. Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese ...

  5. New and old accelerators: what can they do for astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    The quantum numbers and energy spectrum of high energy accelerators and storage rings are described, along with some ways they may contribute to astrophysical issues. Some emphasis is given to the role of relativistic heavy-ion colliders in possibly providing laboratory samples of quark-gluon plasma. 6 refs., 3 figs

  6. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron stars involve extreme physics which is difficult (perhaps impossible) to explore in laboratory experiments. We have to turn to astrophysical observations, and try to extract information from the entire range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, neutron stars may radiate gravitational waves through a range of ...

  7. Influences of the astrophysical environment on nuclear decay rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1987-09-01

    In many astronomical environments, physical conditions are so extreme that nuclear decay rates can be significantly altered from their laboratory values. Such effects are relevant to a number of current problems in nuclear astrophysics. Experiments related to these problems are now being pursued, and will be described in this talk. 19 refs., 5 figs

  8. An introduction to observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallaway, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Observational Astrophysics follows the general outline of an astrophysics undergraduate curriculum targeting practical observing information to what will be covered at the university level. This includes the basics of optics and coordinate systems to the technical details of CCD imaging, photometry, spectography and radio astronomy.  General enough to be used by students at a variety of institutions and advanced enough to be far more useful than observing guides targeted at amateurs, the author provides a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of observational astrophysics at undergraduate level to be used with a university’s teaching telescope.  The practical approach takes the reader from basic first year techniques to those required for a final year project. Using this textbook as a resource, students can easily become conversant in the practical aspects of astrophysics in the field as opposed to the classroom.

  9. Recent progress on astrophysical opacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A.

    1992-08-01

    Improvements in the calculation of the opacity of astrophysical plasmas has helped to resolve several long-standing puzzles in the modeling of variable stars. The most significant opacity enhancements over the Los Alamos Astrophysical Library (LAOL) are due to improvements in the equation of state and atomic physics. Comparison with experiment has corroborated the predicted large opacity increases due to transitions in M-shell iron. We give a summary of recent developments

  10. An introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, Steven N

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics for both astronomy and physics students. It provides a comprehensive and unified view of the general problems associated with fluids in a cosmic context, with a discussion of fluid dynamics and plasma physics. It is the only book on hydrodynamics that addresses the astrophysical context. Researchers and students will find this work to be an exceptional reference. Contents include chapters on irrotational and rotational flows, turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and instabilities.

  11. Minicourses in Astrophysics, Modular Approach, Vol. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Chicago.

    This is the first volume of a two-volume minicourse in astrophysics. It contains chapters on the following topics: planetary atmospheres; X-ray astronomy; radio astrophysics; molecular astrophysics; and gamma-ray astrophysics. Each chapter gives much technical discussion, mathematical treatment, diagrams, and examples. References are included with…

  12. Relativistic astrophysics and theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1982-01-01

    A brief historical review of the development of astrophysical science in the State Astrophysical Institute named after Shternberg (SAISh) has been given in a popular form. The main directions of the SAISh astrophysical investigations have been presented: relativistic theory of gravity, relativistic astrophysics of interplanetary medium and cosmology

  13. Assembly of NASA's Most Powerful X-Ray Telescope Completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    holes, many of which are invisible to us now. We may even see the processes that create the elements found here on Earth." Assembly of the observatory began in 1997 with the arrival of the high resolution mirror assembly at TRW Space and Electronics Group. In August 1997, the telescope's optical bench was mated with the mirrors, followed by integration of the telescope with the spacecraft in October. In February 1998, the observatory's science instrument module was mated to the top of the telescope. The complete observatory is 45 feet long, has a solar array wing span 64 feet wide, and weighs more than 5 tons. Using glass purchased from Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, the telescope's mirrors were built by Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., Danbury, Conn. The mirrors were coated by Optical Coating Laboratory Inc., Santa Rosa, Calif.; and assembled by Eastman-Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. The observatory's charged coupled device imaging spectrometer was developed by Pennsylvania State University at University Park, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), at Cambridge. One diffraction grating was developed by MIT, the other by the Space Research Organization Netherlands, Utrecht, in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany. The high resolution camera instrument was built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation of Boulder, Colo., developed the science instrument module. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program is managed by the Marshall Center for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., will operate the observatory for NASA. NOTE TO EDITORS: A photo of the integrated telescope is available via the World Wide Web at URL: http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/images.html Prepared by John Bryk

  14. Statistical gamma-ray emission of gold and its astrophysical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacoppo F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the excited states of gold isotopes were investigated at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. This study is important for the understanding of neutron capture rates in astrophysical plasmas relevant for heavy element nucleosynthesys.

  15. The NASA X-Ray Mission Concepts Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert; Ptak, A.; Bookbinder, J.; Garcia, M.; Smith, R.; Bautz, M.; Bregman, J.; Burrows, D.; Cash, W.; Jones-Forman, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Astrophysics Decadal Survey recommended a significant technology development program towards realizing the scientific goals of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). NASA has undertaken an X-ray mission concepts study to determine alternative approaches to accomplishing IXO's high ranking scientific objectives over the next decade given the budget realities, which make a flagship mission challenging to implement. The goal of the study is to determine the degree to which missions in various cost ranges from $300M to $2B could fulfill these objectives. The study process involved several steps. NASA released a Request for Information in October 2011, seeking mission concepts and enabling technology ideas from the community. The responses included a total of 14 mission concepts and 13 enabling technologies. NASA also solicited membership for and selected a Community Science Team (CST) to guide the process. A workshop was held in December 2011 in which the mission concepts and technology were presented and discussed. Based on the RFI responses and the workshop, the CST then chose a small group of notional mission concepts, representing a range of cost points, for further study. These notional missions concepts were developed through mission design laboratory activities in early 2012. The results of all these activities were captured in the final X-ray mission concepts study report, submitted to NASA in July 2012. In this presentation, we summarize the outcome of the study. We discuss background, methodology, the notional missions, and the conclusions of the study report.

  16. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  17. Astrophysics and the exploration of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck-Chieze, S.; Garcia, R.A.; Brun, A.S.; Minier, V.; Andre, Ph.; Motte, F.; Mathis, St.; Foglizzo, Th.; Decourchelle, A.; Ballet, J.; Chaty, S.; Corbel, St.; Rodriguez, J.; Brahic, A.; Charnoz, S.; Ferrari, C.; Lagage, P.O.; Masset, F.; Pantin, E.; Sauvage, M.; Galliano, F.; Goldwurm, A.; Ballet, J.; Decourchelle, A.; Grenier, I.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Bournaud, F.; Yvon, D.; Arnaud, M.; Teyssier, R.; Lehoucq, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Lehoucq, R.; Cirelli, M.; Bonvin, C.; Mansoulie, B.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Refregier, A.; Brax, Ph.; Lavignac, St.; Starck, J.L.; Talvard, M.; Sauvage, M.; Cara, Ch.; Lagage, P.O.; Ferrari, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sauvageot, J.L.; Lebrun, F.; Grenier, I.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gerbier, G.

    2009-01-01

    This special issue of Clefs CEA journal is entirely devoted to astrophysics and to the exploration and probing of the Universe. A first part of this dossier, described here, makes a status of our present day knowledge about stars, planets, galaxies, the Universe structure and dark matter. Content: 1 - Stars seed the Universe: What does the Sun tell us?, Probing stellar interiors, From the Sun to the stars, A tour of stellar nurseries, How heavy elements arise, How supernovae explode, Supernova remnants, High-energy objects - sources for astonishment, Focus: A Probing the Universe across the entire light spectrum; 2 - Planets: a dance of small bodies, swirling around up to the finale of their birth: How our world was born, The rings of Saturn: a magnificent research laboratory, Planetary cocoons; 3 - Galaxies: a richly paradoxical evolution: The active life of galaxies, A mysterious black hole, Elucidating the cosmic ray acceleration mechanism, Seeking out the great ancestors, The formation of galaxies: a story of paradoxes, The morphogenesis of galaxies; 4 - The Universe, a homogeneous 'soup' that has turned into a hierarchical structure: The grand thermal history of the Universe, The cosmic web, The formation of the structures of the Universe: the interplay of models, Does the Universe have a shape? Is it finite, or infinite?; 5 - Odyssey across the dark side of the Universe: The puzzle of dark matter, Astrophysics and the observation of dark matter, The theory of dark matter, Could dark matter be generated some day at LHC? A Universe dominated by dark energy, Astrophysics and the observation of dark energy, Theories of dark energy, The matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe; 6 - Journey into the lights of the Universe: Microwave - ESA Planck Surveyor, Submillimeter and infrared - ArTeMis, Herschel Space Observatory, VLT-VISIR, Cassini-CIRS, Visible - SoHo-GOLF, X-ray - XMM-Newton, Gamma ray - INTEGRAL, Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, HESS, EDELWEISS

  18. Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

  19. Nuclear Data for Astrophysics: Resources, Challenges, Strategies, and Software Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael Scott; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Hix, William Raphael; Roberts, Luke F.; Koura, Hiroyuki; Fuller, George M.; Tytler, David

    2008-01-01

    One of the most exciting utilizations of nuclear data is to help unlock the mysteries of the Cosmos -- the creation of the chemical elements, the evolution and explosion of stars, and the origin and fate of the Universe. There are now many nuclear data sets, tools, and other resources online to help address these important questions. However, numerous serious challenges make it important to develop strategies now to ensure a sustainable future for this work. A number of strategies are advocated, including: enlisting additional manpower to evaluate the newest data; devising ways to streamline evaluation activities; and improving communication and coordination between existing efforts. Software projects are central to some of these strategies. Examples include: creating a virtual 'pipeline' leading from the nuclear laboratory to astrophysics simulations; improving data visualization and management to get the most science out of the existing datasets; and creating a nuclear astrophysics data virtual (online) community. Recent examples will be detailed, including the development of two first-generation software pipelines, the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics for stellar astrophysics and the bigbangonline suite of codes for cosmology, and the coupling of nuclear data to sensitivity studies with astrophysical simulation codes to guide future research.

  20. Nuclear data for astrophysics: resources, challenges, strategies, and software solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.; Lingerfelt, E.J.; Nesaraja, C.D.; Raphael Hix, W.; Roberts, L.F.; Hiroyuki, Koura; Fuller, G.M.; Tytler, D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most exciting utilizations of nuclear data is to help unlock the mysteries of the Cosmos - the creation of the chemical elements, the evolution and explosion of stars, and the origin and fate of the Universe. There are now many nuclear data sets, tools, and other resources online to help address these important questions. However, numerous serious challenges make it important to develop strategies now to ensure a sustainable future for this work. A number of strategies are advocated, including: enlisting additional manpower to evaluate the newest data; devising ways to streamline evaluation activities; and improving communication and coordination between existing efforts. Software projects are central to some of these strategies. Examples include: creating a virtual - pipeline - leading from the nuclear laboratory to astrophysics simulations; improving data visualization and management to get the most science out of the existing datasets; and creating a nuclear astrophysics data virtual (online) community. Recent examples will be detailed, including the development of two first-generation software pipelines, the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics for stellar astrophysics and the Bigbangonline suite of codes for cosmology, and the coupling of nuclear data to sensitivity studies with astrophysical simulation codes to guide future research. (authors)

  1. VI European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics has reached the sixth edition, marking the tenth year's anniversary. The spirit of the school is to provide a very important occasion for a deep education of young researchers about the main topics of experimental nuclear astrophysics. Moreover, it should be regarded as a forum for the discussion of the last-decade research activity. Lectures are focused on various aspects of primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, including novel experimental approaches and detectors, indirect methods and radioactive ion beams. Moreover, in order to give a wide educational offer, some lectures cover complementary subjects of nuclear astrophysics such as gamma ray astronomy, neutron-induced reactions, short-lived radionuclides, weak interaction and cutting-edge facilities used to investigate nuclear reactions of interest for astrophysics. Large room is also given to young researcher oral contributions. Traditionally, particular attention is devoted to the participation of students from less-favoured countries, especially from the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The school is organised by the Catania Nuclear Astrophysics research group with the collaboration of Dipartimento di Fisica e Astromomia - Università di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare.

  2. Astrophysics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysics is the physics of the stars, and more widely the physics of the Universe. It enables us to understand the structure and evolution of planetary systems, stars, galaxies, interstellar gas, and the cosmos as a whole. In this Very Short Introduction, the leading astrophysicist James Binney shows how the field of astrophysics has expanded rapidly in the past century, with vast quantities of data gathered by telescopes exploiting all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, combined with the rapid advance of computing power, which has allowed increasingly effective mathematical modelling. He illustrates how the application of fundamental principles of physics - the consideration of energy and mass, and momentum - and the two pillars of relativity and quantum mechanics, has provided insights into phenomena ranging from rapidly spinning millisecond pulsars to the collision of giant spiral galaxies. This is a clear, rigorous introduction to astrophysics for those keen to cut their teeth on a conceptual trea...

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic models of astrophysical jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskin, Vasily S

    2010-01-01

    In this review, analytical results obtained for a wide class of stationary axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of compact astrophysical objects are analyzed, with an emphasis on quantitative predictions for specific sources. Recent years have witnessed a great increase in understanding the formation and properties of astrophysical jets. This is due not only to new observations but also to advances in analytical theory which has produced fairly simple relations, and to what can undoubtedly be called a breakthrough in numerical simulation which has enabled confirmation of theoretical predictions. Of course, we are still very far from fully understanding the physical processes occurring in compact sources. Nevertheless, the progress made raises hopes for near-future test observations that can give insight into the physical processes occurring in active astrophysical objects. (reviews of topical problems)

  4. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    distance. "Our measurements showed that the pulsar is about 950 light-years from Earth, essentially the same distance as the supernova remnant," said Steve Thorsett, of the University of California, Santa Cruz. "That means that the two almost certainly were created by the same supernova blast," he added. With that problem solved. the astronomers then turned to studying the pulsar's neutron star itself. Using a variety of data from different telescopes and armed with the new distance measurement, they determined that the neutron star is between 16 and 25 miles in diameter. In such a small size, it packs a mass roughly equal to that of the Sun. The next result of learning the pulsar's actual distance was to provide a possible answer to a longstanding question about cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are subatomic particles or atomic nuclei accelerated to nearly the speed of light. Shock waves in supernova remnants are thought to be responsible for accelerating many of these particles. Scientists can measure the energy of cosmic rays, and had noted an excess of such rays in a specific energy range. Some researchers had suggested that the excess could come from a single supernova remnant about 1000 light-years away whose supernova explosion was about 100,000 years ago. The principal difficulty with this suggestion was that there was no accepted candidate for such a source. "Our measurement now puts PSR B0656+14 and the Monogem Ring at exactly the right place and at exactly the right age to be the source of this excess of cosmic rays," Brisken said. With the ability of the VLBA, one of the telescopes of the NRAO, to make extremely precise position measurements, the astronomers expect to improve the accuracy of their distance determination even more. "This pulsar is becoming a fascinating laboratory for studying astrophysics and nuclear physics," Thorsett said. In addition to Brisken and Thorsett, the team of astronomers includes Aaron Golden of the National University of Ireland, Robert

  5. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1963-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 2 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of six chapters and begins with a summary of observational record on twilight extensions of the Venus cusps. The next chapter deals with the common and related properties of binary stars, with emphasis on the evaluation of their cataclysmic variables. Cataclysmic variables refer to an object in one of three classes: dwarf nova, nova, or supernova. These topics are followed by discussions on the eclipse phenomena and the eclipses i

  6. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 1 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This book is divided into five chapters and begins with an observational summary of the shock-wave theory of novae. The subsequent chapter provides the properties and problems of T tauri stars and related objects. These topics are followed by discussions on the structure and origin of meteorites and cosmic dust, as well as the models for evaluation of mass distribution in oblate stellar systems. The final chapter describes the methods of polarization mea

  7. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1966-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 4 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with a description of objective prism and its application in space observations. The next chapter deals with the possibilities of deriving reliable models of the figure, density distribution, and gravity field of the Moon based on data obtained through Earth-bound telescopes. These topics are followed by a discussion on the ideal partially relativistic, partially degenerate gas in an exact manner. A ch

  8. Advanced LIGO: sources and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creighton, Teviet

    2003-01-01

    Second-generation detectors in LIGO will take us from the discovery phase of gravitational-wave observations to the phase of true gravitational-wave astrophysics, with hundreds or thousands of potential sources. This paper surveys the most likely and interesting potential sources for Advanced LIGO, and the astrophysical processes that each one will probe. I conclude that binary inspiral signals are expected, while continuous signals from pulsars are plausible but not guaranteed. Other sources, such as core-collapse bursts, cosmic strings and primordial stochastic backgrounds, are speculative sources for Advanced LIGO, but also potentially the most interesting, since they push the limits of our theoretical knowledge

  9. Nuclear astrophysics away from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Howard, W.M.; Takahashi, K.; Ward, R.A.

    1985-08-01

    Explosive astrophysical environments invariably lead to the production of nuclei away from stability. An understanding of the dynamics and nucleosynthesis in such environments is inextricably coupled to an understanding of the properties of the synthesized nuclei. In this talk a review is presented of the basic explosive nucleosynthesis mechanisms (s-process, r-process, n-process, p-process, and rp-process). Specific stellar model calculations are discussed and a summary of the pertinent nuclear data is presented. Possible experiments and nuclear-model calculations are suggested that could facilitate a better understanding of the astrophysical scenarios. 39 refs., 4 figs

  10. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Berstein, Lee A.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Messer, Bronson; Brown, B. Alex; Brown, Edward F.; Brune, Carl R.; Champagne, Art E.; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron J.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib

    2016-01-01

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town mee...

  11. Nuclear astrophysics lessons from INTEGRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Measurements of high-energy photons from cosmic sources of nuclear radiation through ESA's INTEGRAL mission have advanced our knowledge: new data with high spectral resolution showed that characteristic gamma-ray lines from radioactive decays occur throughout the Galaxy in its interstellar medium. Although the number of detected sources and often the significance of the astrophysical results remain modest, conclusions derived from this unique astronomical window of radiation originating from nuclear processes are important, complementing the widely-employed atomic-line based spectroscopy. We review the results and insights obtained in the past decade from gamma-ray line measurements of cosmic sources in the context of their astrophysical questions.

  12. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1968-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 6 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with the description of improved methods for analyzing and classifying families of periodic orbits in a conservative dynamical system with two degrees of freedom. The next chapter describes the variation of fractional luminosity of distorted components of close binary systems in the course of their revolution, or the accompanying changes in radial velocity. This topic is followed by discussions on vari

  13. Fundamental symmetries and astrophysics with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1996-04-01

    A major new initiative at TRIUMF pertains to the use of radioactive beams for astrophysics and for fundamental symmetry experiments. Some recent work is described in which the β-decay-followed by alpha particle emission of 16 N was used to find the resonance parameters dominating the alpha particle capture in 12 C and thus to find the astrophysical S-factor of this reaction which is of crucial importance for alpha-particle burning and the subsequent collapse of stars. In some work underway trapped neural atoms of radioactive potassium atoms will be used to study fundamental symmetries of the weak interactions. Trapping has been achieved and soon 38m K decay will be used to search for evidence of scalar interactions and 37 K decay to search for right-handed gauge-bosom interactions. Future experiments are planned to look for parity non-conservation in trapped francium atoms. This program is part of a revitalization for the TRIUMF laboratory accompanied by the construction of the radioactive beam facility (ISAC). (author)

  14. Introductory materials for committee members: 1) instructions for the Los Alamos National Laboratory fiscal year 2010 capability reviews 2) NPAC strategic capability planning 3) Summary self-assessment for the nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses external peer review to measure and continuously improve the quality of its science, technology and engineering (STE). LANL uses capability reviews to assess the STE quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. STE capabilities are define to cut across directorates providing a more holistic view of the STE quality, integration to achieve mission requirements, and mission relevance. The scope of these capabilities necessitate that there will be significant overlap in technical areas covered by capability reviews (e.g., materials research and weapons science and engineering). In addition, LANL staff may be reviewed in different capability reviews because of their varied assignments and expertise. LANL plans to perform a complete review of the Laboratory's STE capabilities (hence staff) in a three-year cycle. The principal product of an external review is a report that includes the review committee's assessments, commendations, and recommendations for STE. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). This report will be used by Laboratory Management for STE assessment and planning. The report is also provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of LANL's Annual Performance Plan and to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) LLC's Science and Technology Committee (STC) as part of its responsibilities to the LANS Board of Governors.

  15. FOREWORD: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Naftali; Hass, Michael; Paul, Michael

    2012-02-01

    of neutrinos, such as double-beta decay and neutrino mixing were well represented at the conference. One of the central problems in modern cosmology and astrophysics is the search for dark matter. Several talks dealt with this subject and with methods to detect dark matter. Another intriguing and rather novel subject that was discussed at the meeting was time variation of fundamental physical constants. Two speakers have examined the sensitivity of Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis to the variation of the values of the fundamental constants. The role of some specific nuclei (such as Ni 56) in cosmology was pointed out. Many of the presentations at the conference described experimental studies of reactions relevant to nucleosynthesis at various stages of cosmic evolution. As reflected in the conference, these activities are widespread, encompassing many laboratories. Rare Isotope Beam (RIB) facilities are in the forefront of these studies. To understand the various processes of nucleosynthesis one has to have a good theory of nuclei far from the stability line. A number of presentations dealt with the description of such exotic nuclei. It is clear from the presentations that the future of experimental nuclear astrophysics looks promising as existing experimental facilities are being upgraded and new facilities are being built. X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Bursts and cosmic explosions were the subject of several talks. A discussion of various experiments attempting to measure time-reversal violation was the subject of one lecture. The solution of the puzzle as to why the universe is asymmetric with respect to matter-antimatter requires knowledge of the limit of time-reversal conservation. The late John Bahcall was a great astrophysicist and a supporter of the conference series 'Nuclear physics in Astrophysics'. On the last day of the conference, following a talk by Neta Bahcall from Princeton University on dark matter in the Universe, a short commemoration for John was held. Detailed

  16. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    27

    Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2nd Block, Bangalore. 560034, India .... the hydrogen rich thermosphere so significantly that the internal energy of the gas becomes greater than the gravitational potential energy. This leads ... way greenhouse, water vapor would reach the stratosphere where it would.

  17. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    Northern IMF as simulated by PIC code in parallel with MHD model-Journal of Astrophysics ... The global structure of the collisionless bow shock was inves- tigated by ..... international research community, access to modern space science simulations. ...... LaTeX Font Info: Redeclaring math alphabet \\mathbf on input line 29.

  18. An introduction to nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1987-09-01

    The role of nuclear reactions in astrophysics is described. Stellar energy generation and heavy element nucleosynthesis is explained in terms of specific sequences of charged-particle and neutron induced reactions. The evolution and final states of stars are examined. 20 refs. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Nuclear astrophysics of light nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall

    2013-01-01

    A review of nuclear astrophysics of light nuclei using radioactive beams or techniques developed for radioactive beams is given. We discuss Big Bang nucleosynthesis, with special focus on the lithium problem, aspects of neutrino-physics, helium-burning and finally selected examples of studies...

  20. Astronomy & Astrophysics: an international journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertout, C.

    2011-07-01

    After a brief historical introduction, we review the scope, editorial process, and production organization of A&A, one of the leading journals worldwide dedicated to publishing the results of astrophysical research. We then briefly discuss the economic model of the Journal and some current issues in scientific publishing.

  1. Compressed Baryonic Matter of Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Renxin

    2013-01-01

    Baryonic matter in the core of a massive and evolved star is compressed significantly to form a supra-nuclear object, and compressed baryonic matter (CBM) is then produced after supernova. The state of cold matter at a few nuclear density is pedagogically reviewed, with significant attention paid to a possible quark-cluster state conjectured from an astrophysical point of view.

  2. Electric Currents along Astrophysical Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Contopoulos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical black holes and their surrounding accretion disks are believed to be threaded by grand design helical magnetic fields. There is strong theoretical evidence that the main driver of their winds and jets is the Lorentz force generated by these fields and their associated electric currents. Several researchers have reported direct evidence for large scale electric currents along astrophysical jets. Quite unexpectedly, their directions are not random as would have been the case if the magnetic field were generated by a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Instead, in all kpc-scale detections, the inferred electric currents are found to flow away from the galactic nucleus. This unexpected break of symmetry suggests that a battery mechanism is operating around the central black hole. In the present article, we summarize observational evidence for the existence of large scale electric currents and their associated grand design helical magnetic fields in kpc-scale astrophysical jets. We also present recent results of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations which show the action of the Cosmic Battery in the vicinity of astrophysical black holes.

  3. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)

  4. Nuclear astrophysics: An application of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics, a fruitful combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics can be viewed as a special application of nuclear physics where the study of nuclei and their reactions are motivated by astrophysical problems. Nuclear astrophysics is also a good example for the state of the art interdisciplinary research. The origin of elements studied by geologists is explored by astrophysicists using nuclear reaction rates provided by the nuclear physics community. Due to the high interest in the field two recent Nuclear Physics Divisional Conferences of the European Physical Society were devoted to nuclear astrophysics and a new conference series entitled 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics' has been established. Selected problems of nuclear astrophysics will be presented emphasizing the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. As an example the role of 14 N(p,r) 15 O reaction rate in the determination of the age of globular clusters will be discussed in details

  5. International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornthum, B.; Kunjaya, C.

    2011-01-01

    The International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics, an annual astronomy and astrophysics competition for high school students, is described. Examples of problems and solutions from the competition are also given. (Contains 3 figures.)

  6. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect

  7. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth, E-mail: acd@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jha@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu [Centre for Particle Theory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.

  8. The importance of CNO isotopes in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audoze, J.

    1977-01-01

    The research into CNO isotopes in astrophysics includes many different subfields of astrophysics such as meteoretical studies, experimental and theoretical nuclear astrophysics, optical astronomy, radio astronomy, etc. The purpose of this paper is to give some overview of the topic and guideline among these different subfields. (G.T.H.)

  9. Physical-chemical processes of astrophysical interest: nitrogen chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Faure, Alexandre; Vuitton, Veronique; Bacmann, A.; Maret, Sebastien; Legal, Romane; Rist, Claire; Roncero, Octavio; Larregaray, Pascal; Hochlaf, Majdi; Senent, M. L.; Capron, Michael; Biennier, Ludovic; Carles, Sophie; Bourgalais, Jeremy; Le Picard, Sebastien; Cordier, Daniel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Trolez, Yann; Bertin, M.; Poderoso, H.A.M.; Michaut, X.; Jeseck, P.; Philippe, L.; Fillion, J.H.; Fayolle, E.C.; Linnartz, H.; Romanzin, C.; Oeberg, K.I.; Roueff, Evelyne; Pagani, Laurent; Padovani, Marco; Wakelam, Veronique; Honvault, Beatrice; Zvereva-Loete, Natalia; Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Scribano, Yohann; Hartmann, J.M.; Pineau des Forets, Guillaume; Hernandez, Mario; Lique, Francois; Kalugina, Yulia N.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.; Crespos, C.; Larregaray, P.; Martin-Gondre, L.; Petuya, R.; Quintas Sanchez, E.L.; Zanchet, Alexandre; Rodriguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Mate, Belen

    2013-06-01

    This document contains the programme and abstracts of contributions to a workshop on nitrogen chemistry within an astrophysical perspective. These contributions have been presented in sessions: Introduction (opening lecture, experimental approaches to molecular astrophysics, theoretical approaches to astrophysics, observations in molecular astrophysics), Physical-chemical theory of the gas phase (time-dependent approach in elementary activity, statistic approach in elementary activity in the case of the N+H_2 reaction, potential energy surfaces for inelastic and reactive collisions, collision rate for N_2H"+, ortho/para selection rules in the chemistry of nitrogen hydrides, cyanides/iso-cyanides excitation in the ISM, CN excitation, radiative association with N_2H as new interstellar anion, ro-vibratory excitation of HCN) Laboratory astrophysics (measurement of reaction products in the CRESUSOL project, reactivity of the CN- anion, N_2 photo-desorption in ices, CRESU study of nitrogen chemistry, chemistry of nitrogen complex molecules), Observations and chemistry of astrophysical media (the problem of interstellar nitrogen fractioning, abundance of N_2 in proto-stellar cores, HNC in Titan atmosphere and nitrogen-related mechanisms in hot Jupiters, HCN and HNC in dark clouds or how theoretical modelling helps in interpreting observations, nitrogen chemistry in cold clouds, deuteration of nitrogen hydrides, nitrogen in interstellar ices, biochemical molecules on Titan, coupling between excitation and chemistry, radiative transfer of nitrogen hydrides, ortho/para chemistry of nitrogen hydrides), Physical-chemical theory of gas-grain interactions (nitrogen reactivity on surfaces, IR spectra of ices of NH_3 and NH_3/N_2 mixtures)

  10. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...

  11. Selected topics in nuclear- and astro-physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.; Szeflinska, G.

    1991-11-01

    The subjects cover the properties of hot and dense matter created in laboratory (the dynamics of the nucleus-nucleus collisions, the structure of hot and spinning nuclei), the properties of hot and dense stellar matter, the nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest (including the latest developments of the tools such as e.g. the radioactive beams) and the nucleosynthesis (esp. R-processes). (author)

  12. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  13. Multifragmentation model for astrophysical strangelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Sayan; De, J.N.; Joarder, Partha S.; Raha, Sibaji; Syam, Debapriyo

    2012-01-01

    A model for the possible size distribution of astrophysical strangelets, that fragment out of the warm strange quark matter ejected during the merger of binary strange stars in the Galaxy, is presented here by invoking the statistical multifragmentation model. A simplified assumption of zero quark mass has been considered to obtain such mass-spectrum for the strangelets. An approximate estimate for the intensity of such strangelets in the galactic cosmic rays is also attempted by using a diffusion approximation.

  14. Ongoing Space Physics - Astrophysics Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, David

    2005-01-01

    I review several ongoing connections between space physics and astrophysics: a) Measurements of energetic particle spectra have confirmed theoretical prediction of the highest energy to which shocks can accelerate particles, and this has direct bearing on the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. b) Mass ejection in solar flares may help us understand photon ejection in the giant flares of magnetar outbursts. c) Measurements of electron heat fluxes in the solar wind can help us understand...

  15. Innovation @ NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  16. Magnetic Reconnection in Extreme Astrophysical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma physics process of breaking ideal-MHD's frozen-in constraints on magnetic field connectivity and of dramatic rearranging of the magnetic topol-ogy, which often leads to a violent release of the free magnetic energy. Reconnection has long been acknowledged to be of great importance in laboratory plasma physics (magnetic fusion) and in space and solar physics (responsible for solar flares and magnetospheric substorms). In addition, its importance in Astrophysics has been increasingly recognized in recent years. However, due to a great diversity of astrophysical environments, the fundamental physics of astrophysical magnetic reconnection can be quite different from that of the traditional recon-nection encountered in the solar system. In particular, environments like the solar corona and the magnetosphere are characterized by relatively low energy densities, where the plasma is ad-equately described as a mixture of electrons and ions whose numbers are conserved and where the dissipated magnetic energy basically stays with the plasma. In contrast, in many high-energy astrophysical phenomena the energy density is so large that photons play as important a role as electrons and ions and, in particular, radiation pressure and radiative cooling become dominant. In this talk I focus on the most extreme case of high-energy-density astrophysical reconnec-tion — reconnection of magnetar-strength (1014 - 1015 Gauss) magnetic fields, important for giant flares in soft-gamma repeaters (SGRs), and for rapid magnetic energy release in either the central engines or in the relativistic jets of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). I outline the key relevant physical processes and present a new theoretical picture of magnetic reconnection in these environments. The corresponding magnetic energy density is so enormous that, when suddenly released, it inevitably heats the plasma to relativistic temperatures, resulting in co-pious production of electron

  17. High energy astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Courvoisier, Thierry J -L

    2013-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 56: Technical Communications in Engineering and Science: The Practices Within a Government Defense Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonSeggern, Marilyn; Jourdain, Janet M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Research in recent decades has identified the varied information needs of engineers versus scientists. While most of that research looked at the differences among organizations, we surveyed engineers and scientists within a single Air Force research and development laboratory about their information gathering, usage, and production practices. The results of the Phillips Laboratory survey confirm prior assumptions about distinctions between engineering and science. Because military employees responded at a much higher rate than civilian staff, the survey also became an opportunity to profile a little-known segment of the engineer/scientist population. In addition to the effect Phillips Laboratory's stated mission may have on member engineers and scientists, other factors causing variations in technical communication and information-related activities are identified.

  19. Double layers and circuits in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-05-01

    As the rate of energy release in a double layer with voltage DeltaV is P corresponding to IDeltaV, a double layer must be treated part of a circuit which delivers the current I. As neither double layer nor circuit can be derived from magnetofluid models of a plasma, such models are useless for treating energy transfer by menas of double layers. They must be replaced by particle models and circuit theory. A simple circuit is suggested which is applied to the energizing of auroroal particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object (one example is the double radio sources). It is tentatively suggested in X-ray and gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). A study of how a number of the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat important concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits is made. It is found that students using these textbooks remain essentially ignorant of even the existence of these, in spite of the fact that some of them have been well known for half a centry (e.g., double layers, Langmuir, 1929: pinch effect, Bennet, 1934). The conclusion is that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of the astrophysicist. Earth bound and space telescope data must be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics and circuit theory, and of course with modern plasma theory. At least by volume the universe consists to more than 99 percent of plasma, and electromagnetic forces are 10/sup39/ time stronger than gravitation

  20. The Science and Prospects of Astrophysical Observations with New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chi; Zemcov, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Lisse, Carey; Poppe, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Astrophysical observation from the outer solar system provides a unique and quiet vantage point from which to understand our cosmos. If properly designed, such observations enable several niche science cases that are difficult or impossible to perform near Earth. NASA's New Horizons mission includes several instruments with ~10cm telescopes that provide imaging capability from UV to near-IR wavelengths with moderate spectral resolution. A carefully designed survey can optimize the expendable propellant and limited data telemetry bandwidth to allow several unique measurements, including a detailed understanding of the cosmic extragalactic background light in the optical and near-IR, studies of the local and extragalactic UV background, measurements of the properties of dust and ice in the outer solar system, searches for moons and other faint structures around exoplanets, and determinations of the mass of planets far from their parent stars using gravitational microlensing. New Horizons is currently in an extended mission, that will conclude in 2021, designed to survey distant objects in the Kuiper Belt at high phase angles and perform a close flyby of KBO 2014 MU69. Afterwards, the astrophysics community will have a unique, generational opportunity to use this mission for astronomical observations at heliocentric distances beyond 50 AU. In this poster, we present the science case for an extended 2021 - 2026 astrophysics mission, and discuss some of the practical considerations that must be addressed to maximize the potential science return.

  1. Dark matter: the astrophysical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of dark matter is one of the most urgent problems in cosmology. I describe the astrophysical case for dark matter, from both an observational and a theoretical perspective. This overview will therefore focus on the observational motivations rather than the particle physics aspects of dark matter constraints on specific dark matter candidates. First, however, I summarize the astronomical evidence for dark matter, then I highlight the weaknesses of the standard cold dark matter model (LCDM) to provide a robust explanation of some observations. The greatest weakness in the dark matter saga is that we have not yet identified the nature of dark matter itself

  2. Nuclear astrophysics with indirect methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubhchintak

    2016-01-01

    In the area of astrophysics, it is well known that several different type of nuclear reactions are involved in the production of elements and for energy generation in stars. The knowledge of rates and cross section of these reactions is necessary in order to understand the origin of elements in the universe. Particularly, interests are there in the processes like pp-chain, CNO cycle, r-process and s-process, which are responsible for the formation of majority of the nuclei via various reactions like (p, γ), (n, γ), (α, γ) etc

  3. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  4. Nuclear physics in astrophysics. Part 2. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyuerky, Gy.; Fueloep, Zs.

    2005-01-01

    The proceedings of the 20. International Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the European Physical Society covers a wide range of topics in nuclear astrophysics. The topics addressed are big bang nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis, measurements and nuclear data for astrophysics, nuclear structure far from stability, neutrino physics, and rare-ion-beam facilities and experiments. The perspectives of nuclear physics and astrophysics are also overviewed. 77 items are indexed separately for the INIS database. (K.A.)

  5. The NASA SETI program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, J.; Brocker, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    In 1959, it was proposed that a sensible way to conduct interstellar communication would be to use radio at or near the frequency of hydrogen. In 1960, the first Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) was conducted using a radiotelescope at Green Bank in West Virginia. Since 1970, NASA has systematically developed a definitive program to conduct a sophisticated search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligent life. The basic hypothesis is that life may be widespread in the univers, and that in many instances extraterrestrial life may have evolved into technological civilizations. The underlying scientific arguments are based on the continuously improving knowledge of astronomy and astrophysics, especially star system formation, and of planetary science, chemical evolution, and biological evolution. If only one in a million sun-like stars in our galaxy harbors species with cognitive intelligence, then there are 100,000 civilizations in the Milky Way alone. The fields of radioastronomy digital electronic engineering, spectrum analysis, and signal detection have advanced rapidly in the last twenty years and now allow for sophisticated systems to be built in order to attempt the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence signals. In concert with the scientific and engineering communities, NASA has developed, over the last several years, a Microwave Observing Project whose goal is to design, build, and operate SETI systems during the decade of the nineties in pursuit of the goal signal detection. The Microwave Observing Project is now approved and underway. There are two major components in the project: the Target Search Element and the Sky Survey Element.

  6. NASA’s Universe of Learning: Providing a Direct Connection to NASA Science for Learners of all Ages with ViewSpace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Rhue, Timothy; Smith, Denise A.; Squires, Gordon K.; Biferno, Anya A.; Lestition, Kathleen; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Godfrey, John; Lee, Janice C.; Manning, Colleen

    2018-06-01

    NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is the result of a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University, and is one of 27 competitively-selected cooperative agreements within the NASA Science Mission Directorate STEM Activation program. The NASA's Universe of Learning team draws upon cutting-edge science and works closely with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) from across the NASA Astrophysics Physics of the Cosmos, Cosmic Origins, and Exoplanet Exploration themes. As one example, NASA’s Universe of Learning program is uniquely able to provide informal learning venues with a direct connection to the science of NASA astrophysics via the ViewSpace platform. ViewSpace is a modular multimedia exhibit where people explore the latest discoveries in our quest to understand the universe. Hours of awe-inspiring video content connect users’ lives with an understanding of our planet and the wonders of the universe. This experience is rooted in informal learning, astronomy, and earth science. Scientists and educators are intimately involved in the production of ViewSpace material. ViewSpace engages visitors of varying backgrounds and experience at museums, science centers, planetariums, and libraries across the United States. In addition to creating content, the Universe of Learning team is updating the ViewSpace platform to provide for additional functionality, including the introduction of digital interactives to make ViewSpace a multi-modal learning experience. During this presentation we will share the ViewSpace platform, explain how Subject Matter Experts are critical in creating content for ViewSpace, and how we are addressing audience

  7. NASA reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, John E.; Fisk, Lennard A.; Aldrich, Arnold A.; Utsman, Thomas E.; Griffin, Michael D.; Cohen, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Activities and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs, both ongoing and planned, are described by NASA administrative personnel from the offices of Space Science and Applications, Space Systems Development, Space Flight, Exploration, and from the Johnson Space Center. NASA's multi-year strategic plan, called Vision 21, is also discussed. It proposes to use the unique perspective of space to better understand Earth. Among the NASA programs mentioned are the Magellan to Venus and Galileo to Jupiter spacecraft, the Cosmic Background Explorer, Pegsat (the first Pegasus payload), Hubble, the Joint U.S./German ROSAT X-ray Mission, Ulysses to Jupiter and over the sun, the Astro-Spacelab Mission, and the Gamma Ray Observatory. Copies of viewgraphs that illustrate some of these missions, and others, are provided. Also discussed were life science research plans, economic factors as they relate to space missions, and the outlook for international cooperation.

  8. HEASARC - The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Alan P.

    2011-01-01

    The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is NASA's archive for high-energy astrophysics and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, supporting the broad science goals of NASA's Physics of the Cosmos theme. It provides vital scientific infrastructure to the community by standardizing science data formats and analysis programs, providing open access to NASA resources, and implementing powerful archive interfaces. Over the next five years the HEASARC will ingest observations from up to 12 operating missions, while serving data from these and over 30 archival missions to the community. The HEASARC archive presently contains over 37 TB of data, and will contain over 60 TB by the end of 2014. The HEASARC continues to secure major cost savings for NASA missions, providing a reusable mission-independent framework for reducing, analyzing, and archiving data. This approach was recognized in the NRC Portals to the Universe report (2007) as one of the HEASARC's great strengths. This poster describes the past and current activities of the HEASARC and our anticipated developments in coming years. These include preparations to support upcoming high energy missions (NuSTAR, Astro-H, GEMS) and ground-based and sub-orbital CMB experiments, as well as continued support of missions currently operating (Chandra, Fermi, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL). In 2012 the HEASARC (which now includes LAMBDA) will support the final nine-year WMAP data release. The HEASARC is also upgrading its archive querying and retrieval software with the new Xamin system in early release - and building on opportunities afforded by the growth of the Virtual Observatory and recent developments in virtual environments and cloud computing.

  9. Nuclear astrophysics. Irfu - IN2P3 prospective of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assie, M.; Hammache, F.; Khan, E.; Margueron, J.; Sereville, N. de; Bastin, B.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Ploszajczak, M.; Sorlin, O.; Bernard, D.; Chieze, J.-P.; Decourchelle, A.; Ducret, J. E.; Foglizzo, T.; Gilles, D.; Schanne, S.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Coc, A.; Duprat, J.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Courtin, S.; Dufour, M.; Haas, F.; Gulminelli, F.; Gunsing, F.; Obertelli, A.; Maurin, D.; Renaud, M.; Smirnova, N.

    2011-01-01

    This document proposes a rather detailed overview of the different research works performed by nuclear astrophysicists belonging to the Irfu and to the IN2P3. It also presents the main results and envisaged researches. These issues are herein presented by distinguishing four main themes. The first one concerns the main issues of the field: cosmology and nuclear physics, hydrostatic nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution, explosive nucleosynthesis (supernovae, novae, X-bursts), neutron stars and protostars, galactic cosmic radiation and nuclear astrophysics, formation of the Solar System. The second theme concerns means of observation: astro-seismology, X astronomy, nuclear gamma astronomy, meteorites and micro-meteorites. The third theme concerns measurements in laboratory: steady beam accelerators, radioactive beam accelerators, neutron beams, production of radioactive targets, power lasers, isotopic analysis of extraterrestrial matter. The fourth theme concerns nuclear theories for astrophysics. Appendices propose summaries of objectives of current projects, and tables indicating involved staff and budgets

  10. AstroMail: Electronic mail for the astrophysics community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Phillip H.; Bogart, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Science Internet User Support Services program, NASA Goddard was interested in R&D which could extend the SolarMail system developed by members of the Wilcox Space Observatory at Stanford University to support a larger astrophysics user community. Specific objectives of the R&D effort were to include: a clone of the existing SolarMail system with additional documentation, enabling a parallel mail system to be established by populating the database; a cloned version of SolarMail functioning with a user database similar to that of the High Energy Astrophysics Division (HEAD) of the American Astronomical Society; a report on the status and surveyed usage of SolarMail and its clones into an extendable distributed mail system to serve as the basis for AstroMail, including a draft declaration of policy; a prototype AstroMail system based on the above specifications and including at least SolarMail and one of its clones supporting a set of astronomy user databases as subsets; and a report on the status of the prototype AstroMail with recommendations for future modifications to AstroMail.

  11. Recent astrophysical applications of the Trojan Horse Method to nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tumino, A.; Fu, C.; Tribble, R.; Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Goldberg, V.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) is an unique indirect technique allowing to measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the recent applications of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming to the extraction of the bare astrophysical S b (E) for some two-body processes are discussed

  12. New NASA Technologies for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing new technologies to enable planetary exploration. NASA's Space Launch System is an advance vehicle for exploration beyond LEO. Robotic explorers like the Mars Science Laboratory are exploring Mars, making discoveries that will make possible the future human exploration of the planet. In this presentation, we report on technologies being developed at NASA KSC for planetary exploration.

  13. The NASA Tournament Laboratory (“NTL”): Improving Data Access at PDS while Spreading Joy and Engaging Students through 16 Micro-Contests

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMora, Andy; Raugh, A.; Erickson, K.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Knopf, W.; Lydon, M.; Lakhani, K.; Crusan, J.; Morgan, T. H.

    2012-10-01

    NASA PDS hosts terabytes of valuable data from hundreds of data sources and spans decades of research. Data is stored on flat-file systems regulated through careful meta dictionaries. PDS’s data is available to the public through its website which supports data searches through drill-down navigation. While the system returns data quickly, result sets in response to identical input differ depending on the drill-down path a user follows. To correct this issue, to allow custom searching, and to improve general accessibility, PDS sought to create a new data structure and API, and to use them to build applications that are a joy to use and showcase the value of the data to students, teachers and citizens. PDS engaged TopCoder and Harvard Business School through the NTL to pursue these objectives in a pilot effort. Scope was limited to Small Bodies Node data. NTL analyzed data, proposed a solution, and implemented it through a series of micro-contests. Contest focused on different segments of the problem; conceptualization, architectural design, implementation, testing, etc. To demonstrate the utility of the completed solution, NTL developed web-based and mobile applications that can compare targets, regardless of mission. To further explore the potential of the solution NTL hosted “Mash-up” challenges that integrated the API with other publically available assets, to produce consumer and teaching applications, including an Augmented Reality iPad tool. Two contests were also posted to middle and high school students via the NoNameSite.com platform, and as a result of these contests, PDS/SBN has initiated a Facebook program. These contests defined and implemented a data warehouse with the necessary migration tools to transform legacy data, produced a public web interface for the new search, developed a public API, and produced four mobile applications that we expect to appeal to users both within and without the academic community.

  14. The NASA Tournament Laboratory (NTL): Improving Data Access at PDS while Spreading Joy and Engaging Students through 16 Micro-Contests

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMora, Andy; Raugh, A.; Erickson, K.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Knopf, W.; Morgan, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA PDS hosts terabytes of valuable data from hundreds of data sources and spans decades of research. Data is stored on flat-file systems regulated through careful meta dictionaries. PDS's data is available to the public through its website which supports data searches through drill-down navigation. While the system returns data quickly, result sets in response to identical input differ depending on the drill-down path a user follows. To correct this Issue, to allow custom searching, and to improve general accessibility, PDS sought to create a new data structure and API, and to use them to build applications that are a joy to use and showcase the value of the data to students, teachers and citizens. PDS engaged TopCoder and Harvard Business School through the NTL to pursue these objectives in a pilot effort. Scope was limited to Small Bodies Node data. NTL analyzed data, proposed a solution, and implemented it through a series of micro-contests. Contest focused on different segments of the problem; conceptualization, architectural design, implementation, testing, etc. To demonstrate the utility of the completed solution, NTL developed web-based and mobile applications that can compare targets, regardless of mission. To further explore the potential of the solution NTL hosted "Mash-up" challenges that integrated the API with other publically available assets, to produce consumer and teaching applications, including an Augmented Reality iPad tool. Two contests were also posted to middle and high school students via the NoNameSite.com platform, and as a result of these contests, PDS/SBN has initiated a Facebook program. These contests defined and implemented a data warehouse with the necessary migration tools to transform legacy data, produced a public web interface for the new search, developed a public API, and produced four mobile applications that we expect to appeal to users both within and, without the academic community.

  15. NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) Professional Development and NASA Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, D. E.; Clark, C.; Harman, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a three-part professional development (PD) experience for high school physics, astronomy, and earth science teachers. AAA PD consists of: (1) blended learning via webinars, asynchronous content learning, and in-person workshops, (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong's B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, and (3) ongoing opportunities for connection with NASA astrophysics and planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). AAA implementation in 2016-18 involves partnerships between the SETI Institute and seven school districts in northern and southern California. AAAs in the current cohort were selected by the school districts based on criteria developed by AAA program staff working with WestEd evaluation consultants. The selected teachers were then randomly assigned by WestEd to a Group A or B to support controlled testing of student learning. Group A completed their PD during January - August 2017, then participated in NASA SOFIA science flights during fall 2017. Group B will act as a control during the 2017-18 school year, then will complete their professional development and SOFIA flights during 2018. A two-week AAA electromagnetic spectrum and multi-wavelength astronomy curriculum aligned with the Science Framework for California Public Schools and Next Generation Science Standards was developed by program staff for classroom delivery. The curriculum (as well as the AAA's pre-flight PD) capitalizes on NASA content by using "science snapshot" case studies regarding astronomy research conducted by SOFIA. AAAs also interact with NASA SMEs during flight weeks and will translate that interaction into classroom content. The AAA program will make controlled measurements of student gains in standards-based learning plus changes in student attitudes towards STEM, and observe & record the AAAs' implementation of curricular changes. Funded by NASA: NNX16AC51

  16. Massive magnetic monopoles in cosmology and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    The astrophysical and cosmological consequences of magnetic monopoles are discussed. The production of monopoles during phase transition in the early universe is addressed, and proposals which have been made to alleviate the monopole problem are summarized. Astrophysical limits on galactic magnetic monopoles are discussed along with experimental efforts to detect monopoles. Finally, monopole-induced proton decay is addressed. 48 references

  17. Highlights of modern astrophysics: Concepts and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, V.

    1986-01-01

    In this book, physicists and astronomers review issues in astrophysics. The book stresses accomplishments of observational and theoretical work, and demonstrates how to reveal information about stars and galaxies by applying the basic principles of physics. It pinpoints conflicting views and findings on important topics and indicates possibilities for future research in the field of modern astrophysics

  18. Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Demographics in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, James S.

    2011-05-01

    Astronomy has been undergoing a significant demographic shift over the last several decades, as shown by data presented in the 2000 National Research Council (NRC) report "Federal Funding of Astronomical Research," and the 2010 NRC report, "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics." For example, the number of advertised postdoctoral positions in astronomy has increased much more rapldly than the number of faculty positions, contributing to a holding pattern of early-career astronomers in multiple postdoctoral positions. This talk will summarize some of the current demographic trends in astronomy, including information about gender and ethnic diversity, and describe some of the possible implications for the future. I thank the members of the Astro2010 Demographics Study Group, as well as numerous white-paper contributors to Astro2010, for providing data and analyses.

  20. Silica aerogel and space astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch-Miramond, L.

    1985-09-01

    Silica aerogels have been produced in large and transparent blocks for space astrophysics experiments since the beginning of the 1970's. They were used in cosmic ray experiments on board balloons by the Saclay group. A new space venture where aerogel Cerenkov radiators will play a decisive role is currently being prepared by a large collaboration of European and US Institutes. It will be part of the so-called International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) which will explore the heliosphere over the full range of solar latitudes from the ecliptic (equatorial) plane to the magnetic poles of the sun. Comments on properties and long term behaviour of silica aerogel cerenkov radiators in space environment are given

  1. Axions in astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1984-07-01

    Axion models often have a spontaneously broken exact discrete symmetry. In that case, they have discretely degenerate vacua and hence domain walls. The properties of the domain walls, the cosmological catastrophe they produce and the ways in which this catastrophe may be avoided are explained. Cosmology and astrophysics provide arguments that imply the axion decay constant should lie in the range 10 8 GeV less than or equal to f/sub a/ less than or equal to 10 12 GeV. Reasons are given why axions are an excellent candidate to constitute the dark matter of galactic halos. Using the coupling of the axions to the electromagnetic field, detectors are described to look for axions floating about in the halo of our galaxy and for axions emitted by the sun

  2. The fundamentals of stellar astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W. II.

    1989-01-01

    A broad overview of theoretical stellar astrophysics is presented in a textbook intended for graduate students. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, assumptions, theorems, and polytropes; energy sources and sinks; the flow of energy through the star and the construction of stellar models; the theory of stellar evolution; relativistic stellar structure; the structure of distorted stars; stellar pulsation and oscillation. Also discussed are the flow of radiation through the stellar atmosphere, the solution of the radiative-transfer equation, the environment of the radiation field, the construction of a stellar model atmosphere, the formation and shape of spectral lines, LTE breakdown, illuminated and extended stellar atmospheres, and the transfer of polarized radiation. Diagrams, graphs, and sample problems are provided. 164 refs

  3. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations

  4. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P; Knodlseder, R; Sazonov, S; Griffiths, R; Bastie, P; Halloin, H; Pareschi, G; Ramsey, B; Jensen, C; Buis, E J; Ulmer, M; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Comastri, A; Barret, D; Leising, M; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Abrosimov, N; Smither, B; Ubertini, P; Olive, J F; Lund, N; Pisa, A; Courtois, P; Roa, D; Harrison, F; Pareschi, G; Frontera, F; Von Ballmoos, P; Barriere, N; Rando, N; Borde, J; Hinglais, E; Cledassou, R; Duchon, P; Sghedoni, M; Huet, B; Takahashi, T; Caroli, E; Quadrinin, L; Buis, E J; Skinner, G; Krizmanic, J; Pareschi, G; Loffredo, G; Wunderer, C; Weidenspointner, G; Wunderer, C; Koechlin, L; Bignami, G; Von Ballmoos, P; Tueller, J; Andritschke, T; Laurens, A; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  5. Nuclear astrophysics of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharov, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    In the first chapter we will discuss the problem of nuclear reactions in the interior of the sun and consider the modern aspects of the neutrino astrophysics of the Sun. The second chapter is devoted to the high energy interactions in the solar atmosphere during the flares. Among a great number of events during the solar flares we shall consider mainly the nuclear reactions. Special attention will be paid to the genetic connection between the different components of solar electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation. The idea of the unity of processes in different parts of the Sun, from hot and dense interior up to the rare plasma of the solar corona will be the main line of the book. (orig./WL) 891 WL/orig.- 892 HIS

  6. Large-Scale Astrophysical Visualization on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becciani, U.; Massimino, P.; Costa, A.; Gheller, C.; Grillo, A.; Krokos, M.; Petta, C.

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays digital sky surveys and long-duration, high-resolution numerical simulations using high performance computing and grid systems produce multidimensional astrophysical datasets in the order of several Petabytes. Sharing visualizations of such datasets within communities and collaborating research groups is of paramount importance for disseminating results and advancing astrophysical research. Moreover educational and public outreach programs can benefit greatly from novel ways of presenting these datasets by promoting understanding of complex astrophysical processes, e.g., formation of stars and galaxies. We have previously developed VisIVO Server, a grid-enabled platform for high-performance large-scale astrophysical visualization. This article reviews the latest developments on VisIVO Web, a custom designed web portal wrapped around VisIVO Server, then introduces VisIVO Smartphone, a gateway connecting VisIVO Web and data repositories for mobile astrophysical visualization. We discuss current work and summarize future developments.

  7. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by CSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Denis; Ouellet, Alain; Dupuis, Jean; Chicoine, Ruth-Ann

    2014-07-01

    Canada became actively engaged in space astronomy in the 1990s by contributing two fine guidance sensors to the FUSE Far-UV mission (NASA 1999-2008). In the same period, Canada contributed to ODIN's infrared instrument (ESA 2001-2006) and correlators for VSOP (JAXA 1997-2005). In early 2000, Canada developed its own space telescope, Micro-variability and Observations of STars (MOST), a 15-cm telescope on a microsatellite, operating since 2003, and more recently contributed to the realization of the BRITE nanosatellites constellation. Canada also provided hardware to the European Space Agency's Herschel HIFI instrument and simulators to the SPIRE instrument and data analysis tools for Planck. More recently the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) delivered detector units for the UVIT instrument on board the Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) ASTROSAT. The CSA's most important contribution to a space astronomy mission to date is the Fine Guidance Senor (FGS) and Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) instrument to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The CSA is currently building the laser metrology system for JAXA's ASTRO-H hard X-ray telescope. Canadian astronomers contributed to several high profile stratospheric balloon projects investigating the CMB and the CSA recently established a balloon launch facility. As expressed in Canada's new Space Policy Framework announced in February 2014, Canada remains committed to future space exploration endeavors. The policy aims at ensure that Canada is a sought-after partner in the international space exploration missions that serve Canada's national interests; and continuing to invest in the development of Canadian contributions in the form of advanced systems and optical instruments. In the longer term, through consultations and in keeping the Canadian astronomical community's proposed Long Range Plan, the CSA is exploring possibilities to contributions to important missions such as WFIRST, SPICA and Athena

  8. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemmerer D.

    2015-01-01

    Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  9. Line radiation effects in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kerr, F.M.; Gouveia, A.; Renner, Oldřich; Rose, S. J.; Scott, H.A.; Wark, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, - (2006), s. 363-369 ISSN 0022-4073 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : radiation transport * plasmas * opacity effects Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.599, year: 2006

  10. The INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory: INTEGRAL Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.ubertini@iaps.inaf.it; Bazzano, Angela

    2014-04-01

    The INTEGRAL Space Observatory was selected as the second Medium size mission (M2) of the ESAs Horizon 2000 vision programme. INTEGRAL is the first high angular and spectral resolution hard X-ray and soft γ-ray observatory with a wide band spectral response ranging from 3 keV up to 10 MeV energy band. This capability is supplemented by an unprecedented sensitivity enhanced by the 3 days orbit allowing long and uninterrupted observations over very wide field of view (up to ∼1000 squared degrees to zero response) and sub-ms time resolution. Part of the observatory success is due to its capability to link the high energy sky with the lower energy band. The complementarity and synergy with pointing soft X-ray missions such as XMM-Newton and CHANDRA and more recently with NuSTAR is a strategic feature to link the “thermal” and the “non-thermal” Universe observed at higher energies by space missions such as Fermi and AGILE and ground based TeV observatories sensitive to extremely high energies. INTEGRAL was launched on 17 October 2002 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakistan) aboard a Proton rocket as part of the Russian contribution to the mission, and has successfully spent almost 11 years in orbit. In view of its successful science outcome the ESA Space Programme Committee haw recently approved its scientific operation till the end of 2016. To date the spacecraft, ground segment and scientific payload are in excellent state-of-health, and INTEGRAL is continuing its scientific operations, originally planned for a 5-year technical design and scientific nominal operation plan. This paper summarizes the current INTEGRAL scientific achievements and future prospects, with particular regard to the high energy domain.

  11. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  12. The Astrophysical Weeds: Rotational Transitions in Excited Vibrational States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José L.; Kolesniková, Lucie; Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago

    2017-06-01

    The number of unidentified lines in the millimeter and submillimeter wave surveys of the interstellar medium has grown rapidly. The major contributions are due to rotational transitions in excited vibrational states of a relatively few molecules that are called the astrophysical weeds. necessary data to deal with spectral lines from astrophysical weeds species can be obtained from detailed laboratory rotational measurements in the microwave and millimeter wave region. A general procedure is being used at Valladolid combining different time and/or frequency domain spectroscopic tools of varying importance for providing the precise set of spectroscopic constants that could be used to search for this species in the ISM. This is illustrated in the present contribution through its application to several significant examples. Fortman, S. M., Medvedev, I. R., Neese, C.F., & De Lucia, F.C. 2010, ApJ,725, 1682 Rotational Spectra in 29 Vibrationally Excited States of Interstellar Aminoacetonitrile, L. Kolesniková, E. R. Alonso, S. Mata, and J. L. Alonso, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 2017, (in press).

  13. Plasma phenomenology in astrophysical systems: Radio-sources and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montani, Giovanni; Petitta, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    We review the plasma phenomenology in the astrophysical sources which show appreciable radio emissions, namely Radio-Jets from Pulsars, Microquasars, Quasars, and Radio-Active Galaxies. A description of their basic features is presented, then we discuss in some details the links between their morphology and the mechanisms that lead to the different radio-emissions, investigating especially the role played by the plasma configurations surrounding compact objects (Neutron Stars, Black Holes). For the sake of completeness, we briefly mention observational techniques and detectors, whose structure set them apart from other astrophysical instruments. The fundamental ideas concerning angular momentum transport across plasma accretion disks—together with the disk-source-jet coupling problem—are discussed, by stressing their successes and their shortcomings. An alternative scenario is then inferred, based on a parallelism between astrophysical and laboratory plasma configurations, where small-scale structures can be found. We will focus our attention on the morphology of the radio-jets, on their coupling with the accretion disks and on the possible triggering phenomena, viewed as profiles of plasma instabilities

  14. A New ECR Ion Source for Nuclear Astrophysics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaratto, John M.

    2008-10-01

    The Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA) is a low energy facility designed to study nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest at energies which are important for nucleosysthesis. In general, these reactions have extremely small cross sections, requiring intense beams and efficient detection systems. Recently, a new, high intensity electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source has been constructed (based on a design by Wills et al.[1]), which represents a substantial improvement in the capabilities of LENA. Beam is extracted from an ECR plasma excited at 2.45 GHz and confined by an array of permanent magnets. It has produced H^+ beams in excess of 1 mA on target over the energy range 100 - 200 keV, which greatly increases our ability to measure small cross sections. Initial measurements will focus on the ^23Na(p,γ)^24Mg reaction, which is of interest in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. The present uncertainty in the rate of this reaction is the result of an unobserved resonance expected at Elab =144 keV, which should be detectable using beams from the new ECR source. In collaboration with Arthur E. Champagne and Thomas B. Clegg, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and TUNL. [3pt] [1] J. S. C. Wills et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 65 (1999).

  15. Stellar structure and compact objects before 1940: Towards relativistic astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2017-06-01

    Since the mid-1920s, different strands of research used stars as "physics laboratories" for investigating the nature of matter under extreme densities and pressures, impossible to realize on Earth. To trace this process this paper is following the evolution of the concept of a dense core in stars, which was important both for an understanding of stellar evolution and as a testing ground for the fast-evolving field of nuclear physics. In spite of the divide between physicists and astrophysicists, some key actors working in the cross-fertilized soil of overlapping but different scientific cultures formulated models and tentative theories that gradually evolved into more realistic and structured astrophysical objects. These investigations culminated in the first contact with general relativity in 1939, when J. Robert Oppenheimer and his students George Volkoff and Hartland Snyder systematically applied the theory to the dense core of a collapsing neutron star. This pioneering application of Einstein's theory to an astrophysical compact object can be regarded as a milestone in the path eventually leading to the emergence of relativistic astrophysics in the early 1960s.

  16. Jet Propulsion Laboratory/NASA Lewis Research Center space qualified hybrid high temperature superconducting/semiconducting 7.4 GHz low-noise downconverter for NRL HTSSE-II program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadi, H.H.S.; Bowen, J.G.; Rascoe, D.L.; Chorey, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A deep space satellite downconverter receiver was proposed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) for the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) high temperature superconductivity space experiment, phase-II (HTSSE-II) program. Space qualified low-noise cryogenic downconverter receivers utilizing thin-film high temperature superconducting (HTS) passive circuitry and semiconductor active devices were developed and delivered to NRL. The downconverter consists of an HTS preselect filter, a cryogenic low-noise amplifier, a cryogenic mixer, and a cryogenic oscillator with an HTS resonator. HTS components were inserted as the front-end filter and the local oscillator resonator for their superior 77 K performance over the conventional components. The semiconducting low noise amplifier also benefited from cooling to 77 K. The mixer was designed specifically for cryogenic applications and provided low conversion loss and low power consumption. In addition to an engineering model, two space qualified units (qualification, flight) were built and delivered to NRL. Manufacturing, integration and test of the space qualified downconverters adhered to the requirements of JPL class-D space instruments and partially to MIL-STD-883D specifications. The qualification unit has ∼50 K system noise temperature which is a factor of three better than a conventional downconverter at room temperature

  17. Monopole, astrophysics and cosmic ray observatory at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarzo, C.; Enriquez, O.; Giglietto, N.

    1985-01-01

    A new large area detector, MACRO was approved for installation at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. The detector will be dedicated to the study of naturally penetrating radiation deep underground. It is designed with the general philosophy of covering the largest possible area with a detector having both sufficient built-in redundancy and use of complementary techniques to study very rare phenomena. The detector capabilities will include monopole investigations significantly below the Parker bound; astrophysics studies of very high energy gamma ray and neutrino point sources; cosmic ray measurements of single and multimuons; and the general observation of rare new forms of matter in the cosmic rays

  18. Monopole, astrophysics and cosmic ray observatory at Gran Sasso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, C.; Enriquez, O.; Giglietto, N.; Posa, F.; Attolini, M.; Baldetti, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Grianti, F.; Margiotta, A.; Serra, P.

    1985-01-01

    A new large area detector, MACRO was approved for installation at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. The detector will be dedicated to the study of naturally penetrating radiation deep underground. It is designed with the general philosophy of covering the largest possible area with a detector having both sufficient built-in redundancy and use of complementary techniques to study very rare phenomena. The detector capabilities will include monopole investigations significantly below the Parker bound; astrophysics studies of very high energy gamma ray and neutrino point sources; cosmic ray measurements of single and multimuons; and the general observation of rare new forms of matter in the cosmic rays.

  19. C{sub 60} AS A PROBE FOR ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brieva, A. C.; Jäger, C.; Huisken, F. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Gredel, R.; Henning, T., E-mail: aab01@alumni.aber.ac.uk [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The C{sub 60} molecule has been recently detected in a wide range of astrophysical environments through its four active intramolecular vibrational modes ( T {sub 1u}) near 18.9, 17.4, 8.5, and 7.0 μ m. The strengths of the mid-infrared emission bands have been used to infer astrophysical conditions in the fullerene-rich regions. Widely varying values of the relative intrinsic strengths (RIS) of these four bands are reported in laboratory and theoretical papers, which impedes the derivation of the excitation mechanism of C{sub 60} in the astrophysical sources. The spectroscopic analysis of the C{sub 60} samples produced with our method delivers highly reproducible RIS values of 100, 25 ± 1, 26 ± 1 and 40 ± 4. A comparison of the inferred C{sub 60} emission band strengths with the astrophysical data shows that the observed strengths cannot be explained in terms of fluorescent or thermal emission alone. The large range in the observed 17.4 μ m/18.9 μ m emission ratios indicates that either the emission bands contain significant contributions from emitters other than C{sub 60}, or that the population distribution among the C{sub 60} vibrational modes is affected by physical processes other than thermal or UV excitation, such as chemo-luminescence from nascent C{sub 60} or possibly Poincaré fluorescence resulting from an inverse internal energy conversion. We have carefully analyzed the effect of the weakly active fundamental modes and second order modes in the mid-infrared spectrum of C{sub 60}, and propose that neutral C{sub 60} is the carrier of the unidentified emission band at 6.49 μ m which has been observed in fullerene-rich environments.

  20. Frontier Research in Astrophysics - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this international workshop is to bring together astrophysicists and physicists who are involved in various topics at the forefront of modern astrophysics and particle physics. The workshop will discuss the most recent experimental and theoretical results in order to advance our understanding of the physics governing our Universe. To accomplish the goals of the workshop, we believe it is necessary to use data from ground-based and space-based experiments and results from theoretical developments: work on the forefront of science which has resulted (or promises to result in) high-impact scientific papers. Hence, the main purpose of the workshop is to discuss in a unique and collaborative setting a broad range of topics in modern astrophysics, from the Big Bang to Planets and Exoplanets. We believe that this can provide a suitable framework for each participant who (while obviously not involved in all the topics discussed), will be able to acquire a general view of the main experimental and theoretical results currently obtained. Such an up-to-date view of the current research on cosmic sources can help guide future research projects by the participants, and will encourage collaborative efforts across various topical areas of research. The proceedings will be published in Proceedings of Science (PoS)- SISSA and will provide a powerful resource for all the scientific community and will be especially helpful for PhD students. The following items will be reviewed: Cosmology: Cosmic Background, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Clusters of Galaxies. Physics of the Diffuse Cosmic Sources. Physics of Cosmic Rays. Physics of Discrete Cosmic Sources. Extragalactic Sources: Active Galaxies, Normal Galaxies, Gamma-Ray Bursts. Galactic Sources: Star Formation, Pre-Main-Sequence and Main- Sequence Stars, the Sun, Cataclysmic Variables and Novae, Supernovae and SNRs, X-Ray Binary Systems, Pulsars, Black Holes, Gamma-Ray Sources, Nucleosynthesis, Asteroseismology

  1. Radiative properties of astrophysical matter: a quest to reproduce astrophysical conditions on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in terrestrial laboratories can be used to evaluate the physical models that interpret astronomical observations. The properties of matter in astrophysical objects are essential components of these models, but terrestrial laboratories struggle to reproduce the extreme conditions that often exist. Megajoule-class DOE/NNSA facilities such as the National Ignition Facility and Z can create unprecedented amounts of matter at extreme conditions, providing new capabilities to test astrophysical models with high accuracy. Experiments at these large facilities are challenging, and access is very competitive. However, the cylindrically-symmetric Z source emits radiation in all directions, enabling multiple physics experiments to be driven with a single Z discharge. This helps ameliorate access limitations. This article describes research efforts under way at Sandia National Laboratories Z facility investigating radiation transport through stellar interior matter, population kinetics of atoms exposed to the intense radiation emitted by accretion powered objects, and spectral line formation in white dwarf (WD) photospheres. Opacity quantifies the absorption of radiation by matter and strongly influences stellar structure and evolution, since radiation dominates energy transport deep inside stars. Opacity models have become highly sophisticated, but laboratory tests at the conditions existing inside stars have not been possible - until now. Z research is presently focused on measuring iron absorption at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, where the electron temperature and density are 190 eV and 9 x 10 22 e/cc, respectively. Creating these conditions in a sample that is sufficiently large, long-lived, and uniform is extraordinarily challenging. A source of radiation that streams through the relatively-large samples can produce volumetric heating and thus, uniform conditions, but to achieve high temperatures a strong source is required. Z

  2. Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.; Schatz, Hendrik; Timmes, Frank X.; Wiescher, Michael; Greife, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    The Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group has been established to develop and promote the nuclear astrophysics research anticipated at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). RIA is a proposed next-generation nuclear science facility in the U.S. that will enable significant progress in studies of core collapse supernovae, thermonuclear supernovae, X-ray bursts, novae, and other astrophysical sites. Many of the topics addressed by the Working Group are relevant for the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, the planned GSI-Fair facility, and other advanced radioactive beam facilities

  3. NASA Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Bailey, David; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard; Levit, Creon; Merkle, Ralph; Srivastava, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    Laboratories throughout the world are rapidly gaining atomically precise control over matter. As this control extends to an ever wider variety of materials, processes and devices, opportunities for applications relevant to NASA's missions will be created. This document surveys a number of future molecular nanotechnology capabilities of aerospace interest. Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. We also list a number of applications for each of NASA's enterprises. If advanced molecular nanotechnology can be developed, almost all of NASA's endeavors will be radically improved. In particular, a sufficiently advanced molecular nanotechnology can arguably bring large scale space colonization within our grasp.

  4. Local models of astrophysical discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latter, Henrik N.; Papaloizou, John

    2017-12-01

    Local models of gaseous accretion discs have been successfully employed for decades to describe an assortment of small-scale phenomena, from instabilities and turbulence, to dust dynamics and planet formation. For the most part, they have been derived in a physically motivated but essentially ad hoc fashion, with some of the mathematical assumptions never made explicit nor checked for consistency. This approach is susceptible to error, and it is easy to derive local models that support spurious instabilities or fail to conserve key quantities. In this paper we present rigorous derivations, based on an asympototic ordering, and formulate a hierarchy of local models (incompressible, Boussinesq and compressible), making clear which is best suited for a particular flow or phenomenon, while spelling out explicitly the assumptions and approximations of each. We also discuss the merits of the anelastic approximation, emphasizing that anelastic systems struggle to conserve energy unless strong restrictions are imposed on the flow. The problems encountered by the anelastic approximation are exacerbated by the disc's differential rotation, but also attend non-rotating systems such as stellar interiors. We conclude with a defence of local models and their continued utility in astrophysical research.

  5. Mass-23 nuclei in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, P R; Amos, K; Van der Kniff, D; Canton, L; Karataglidis, S; Svenne, J P

    2015-01-01

    The formation of mass-23 nuclei by radiative capture is of great interest in astrophysics. A topical problem associated with these isobars is the so-called 22 Na puzzle of ONe white dwarf novae, where the abundance of 22 Na observed is not as is predicted by current stellar models, indicating there is more to learn about how the distribution of elements in the universe occurred. Another concerns unexplained variations in elements abundance on the surface of aging red giant stars. One method for theoretically studying nuclear scattering is the Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering (MCAS) formalism. Studies to date have used a simple collective-rotor prescription to model the target states which couple to projectile nucleons. While, in general, the target states considered all belong to the ground state rotor band, for some systems it is necessary to include coupling to states outside of this band. Herein we discuss an extension of MCAS to allow coupling of different strengths between such states and the ground state band. This consideration is essential when studying the scattering of neutrons from 22 Ne, a necessary step in studying the mass-23 nuclei mentioned above. (paper)

  6. Propulsion Systems Laboratory, Bldg. 125

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is NASAs only ground test facility capable of providing true altitude and flight speed simulation for testing full scale gas...

  7. Isometric embeddings in cosmology and astrophysics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    embedding theory, a given spacetime (or 'brane') is embedded in a higher- ..... If one recalls that the motivation (at least in part) for non-compact extra ... to successfully embed (apparently perfect fluid) astrophysical models, we typically need to.

  8. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Zank, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics' is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits resear...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliom, Laura R.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has identified technology transfer to U.S. industry as a laboratory mission which complements our national security mission and as a key component of the Laboratory's future. A number of technology transfer mechanisms - such as CRADA's, licenses, work-for-others, and consortia - are identified and specific examples are given. Sandia's experience with the Specialty Metals Processing Consortium is highlighted with a focus on the elements which have made it successful. A brief discussion of Sandia's potential interactions with NASA under the Space Exploration Initiative was included as an example of laboratory-to-NASA technology transfer. Viewgraphs are provided.

  10. Nuclear astrophysics and nuclei far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Unstable nuclei play a critical role in a number of astrophysical scenarios and are important for our understanding of the origin of the elements. Among the most important scenarios are the r-process (Supernovae), Novae, X-ray bursters, and Superbursters. For these astrophysical events I review the open questions, recent developments in astronomy, and how nuclear physics, in particular experiments with radioactive beams, needs to contribute to find the answers. (orig.)

  11. Cosmological and astrophysical neutrino mass measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K.N.; Calabrese, E.; Cooray, A.

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical measurements provide powerful constraints on neutrino masses complementary to those from accelerators and reactors. Here we provide a guide to these different probes, for each explaining its physical basis, underlying assumptions, current and future reach.......Cosmological and astrophysical measurements provide powerful constraints on neutrino masses complementary to those from accelerators and reactors. Here we provide a guide to these different probes, for each explaining its physical basis, underlying assumptions, current and future reach....

  12. Technology Development for a Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

  13. Astrophysics at nTOF facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliente, G.; Colonna, N.; Maronne, S.; Terlizzi, R.; Abondanno, U.; Fujii, K.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Belloni, F.; Aerts, G.; Berthoumieux, E.; Andriamonje, S.; Dridi, W.; Gunsing, F.; Pancin, J.; Perrot, L.; Alvarez, H.; Duran, I.; Paradela, C.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Embid-Segura, M.; Guerrero, C.; Martinez, T.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Marganiec, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Karamanis, D.; Audouin, L.; Dillman, I.; Heil, M.; Kappeler, F.; Mosconi, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wissak, K.; Badurek, G.; Jericha, E.; Leeb, H.; Oberhummer, H.; Pigni, M.T.; Baumann, P.; David, S.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G.; Lukic, S.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Bisterzo, S.; Ferrant, L.; Gallino, R.; Calvino, F.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Calviani, M.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P.; Capote, R.; Mengoni, A.; Capote, R.; Lozano, M.; Quesada, J.; Carrapico, C.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Tavora, L.; Vaz, P.; Cennini, P.; Chiaveri, E.; Dahlfors, M.; Kadi, Y.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wendler, H.; Chepel, V.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Goncalves, I.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Neves, F.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Dominga-Pardo, C.; Tain, J.L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Lamboudis, C.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Furman, W.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Reifarth, R.; Igashira, M.; Koehler, P.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Plomen, A.; Rullhusen, P.; Rauscher, T.; Rubbia, C.; Ventura, A.

    2009-01-01

    The neutron time of flight (n T OF) facility at CERN is a neutron spallation source, its white neutron energy spectrum ranges from thermal to several GeV, covering the full energy range of interest for nuclear astrophysics, in particular for measurements of the neutron capture cross-section required in s-process nucleosynthesis. This contribution gives an overview on the astrophysical program made at n T OF facility, the results and the implications will be considered.

  14. NASA funding opportunities for optical fabrication and testing technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-09-01

    NASA requires technologies to fabricate and test optical components to accomplish its highest priority science missions. The NRC ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey states that an advanced large-aperture UVOIR telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exo-planet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. The NRC 2012 NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities Report states that the highest priority technology in which NASA should invest to `Expand our understanding of Earth and the universe' is next generation X-ray and UVOIR telescopes. Each of the Astrophysics division Program Office Annual Technology Reports (PATR) identifies specific technology needs. NASA has a variety of programs to fund enabling technology development: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research); the ROSES APRA and SAT programs (Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science; Astrophysics Research and Analysis program; Strategic Astrophysics Technology program); and several Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) programs.

  15. The Astrophysics Source Code Library: Supporting software publication and citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; Teuben, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net), established in 1999, is a free online registry for source codes used in research that has appeared in, or been submitted to, peer-reviewed publications. The ASCL is indexed by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and Web of Science and is citable by using the unique ascl ID assigned to each code. In addition to registering codes, the ASCL can house archive files for download and assign them DOIs. The ASCL advocations for software citation on par with article citation, participates in multidiscipinary events such as Force11, OpenCon, and the annual Workshop on Sustainable Software for Science, works with journal publishers, and organizes Special Sessions and Birds of a Feather meetings at national and international conferences such as Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems (ADASS), European Week of Astronomy and Space Science, and AAS meetings. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the challenges of gathering credit for publishing software and ideas and efforts from other disciplines that may be useful to astronomy.

  16. Nuclear astrophysics: a new era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiescher, Michael; Aprahamian, Ani [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame (United States); Regan, Paddy [Department of Physics, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2002-02-01

    The latest generation of radioactive-ion-beam facilities promises to shed light on the complex nuclear processes that control the evolution of stars and stellar explosions. The most fundamental question in nature is where do we come from, or, put another way, what are we made of? The late Carl Sagan poetically said that we are all made of stardust, but the origin of the elements has fascinated scientists for thousands of years. Many of the greatest medieval and renaissance scientists dabbled in alchemy, trying to create the elements that make up the cosmos, but we had to wait until the early 20th century to recognize that elements are really defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. According to our current understanding, after the big bang most of the normal or baryonic material in the universe consisted of the lightest two elements, hydrogen and helium, with only trace amounts of lithium and beryllium. All the heavier elements that occur naturally on Earth were created from this original material via a series of nuclear reactions in the cores of stars or in stellar explosions. Over the last decade, ground-based telescopes and satellite-based Observatories have opened new windows on the stars across the electromagnetic spectrum, from infrared to gamma radiation. New technology now makes it possible to observe and analyse short-lived stellar explosions. Indeed, the distribution of elements in 'planetary nebula' and in the ejecta of supernovae and novae give a direct glimpse of individual nucleosynthesis processes. In the February issue of Physics World, Michael Wiescher, Paddy Regan and Ani Aprahamian describe how sate-of-the-art facilities are set to plug many of the gaps in our understanding of nuclear astrophysics. (U.K.)

  17. Preface: Eighth European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudio, Spitaleri; Livio, Lamia; Gianluca, Pizzone Rosario

    2016-01-01

    In this book a collection of the lecture notes given during the Eighth European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics is given. The school, whose first edition was first held in 2003, took place from 13 to 20 of September 2015 in Santa Tecla, a small village about 15 km north of Catania, characterized by its position on the volcanic shores of the Ionian Sea, surrounded by the spectacular “Timpa” area, a green protected park specific for its mediterranean vegetation. 80 young students and researchers from more than 20 countries attended the lectures and were also encouraged to present their work and results. The school, has tried once more to present to the young students the global picture of nuclear astrophysics research in the last years. Thus the scientific program of the school covered a wide range of topics dealing with various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, such as stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, neutrino physics, the Big Bang, direct and indirect methods and radioactive ion beams. Nuclear astrophysics plays a key role in understanding energy production in stars, stellar evolution and the concurrent synthesis of the chemical elements and their isotopes. It is also a fundamental tool to explain the ashes of the early universe, to determine the age of the universe through the study of pristine stellar objects and to predict the evolution of the Sun or Stars. The “bone structure” for the above aspects is based on nuclear reactions, whose rates need to be determined in laboratories. Although impressive progress has been made over the past decades, which was rewarded by Nobel prizes, several open questions are still unsolved, which challenge the basis of the present understanding. A list of the lecture topics is given below: —Big Bang Nucleosynthesis —Stellar evolution and Nucleosynthesis —radioactive ion beams —detector and facilities for nuclear astrophysics —indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics —plasma physics An

  18. A System Engineering Approach to Strategic Partnership Development: A pilot study with NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) and the National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment (NLAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, K.; Chang, G.; Basilio, R. R.; Hatfield, J.; Cox, E. L.

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence and availability of NASA remote sensing data over the last 40+ years have produced many opportunities for the development of science derived data applications. However, extending and systematically integrating the applications into decision support models and tools have been sporadic and incomplete. Despite efforts among the research communities and external partners, implementation challenges exist and still remain to be addressed. In order to effectively address the systemic gap between the research and applications communities, steps must be taken to effectively bridge that gap: specific goals, a clear plan, and a concerted and diligent effort are needed to produce the desired results. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission sponsored a pilot effort on science data applications with the specific intent of building strategic partnerships, so that organizations and individuals could effectively use OCO-2 data products for application development. The successful partnership with the USDA/ARS National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment (NLAE) has laid the foundation for: 1) requirements and lessons for establishing a strategic partnership for application development, 2) building opportunities and growing partnerships for new missions such as OCO-3, and 3) the development of a methodology and approach for integrating application development into a mission life cycle. This presentation will provide an overview of the OCO-2 pilot effort, deliverables, the methodology, implementation, and best practices.

  19. Searches for Astrophysical and Cosmological Axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; van Bibber, K; Sikivie, P; Zioutas, K

    2006-01-01

    The axion remains, after nearly 30 years, the most compelling and elegant solution to the strong-CP problem, i.e. why this symmetry is protected in QCD in spite of CP violation elsewhere. The axion is expected to be extremely light, and possess extraordinarily feeble couplings to matter and radiation. Because of its small couplings, the axion has defied experimental confirmation and is unlikely to be discovered in conventional laboratory experiments (i.e. production-detection). Nevertheless, a sufficiently light axion would have been produced abundantly in the Big Bang and is an excellent candidate for the dark matter of the Universe. Through the axion's two-photon coupling, implying axion-photon mixing in an external electromagnetic field, galactic halo axions may be feasibly detected by their resonant conversion to RF photons in a microwave cavity permeated by magnetic field with current technology. Over the past decade experiments have already set interesting limits in mass and coupling; upgrades in progress to photon detection schemes at or below the standard quantum limit will soon enable definitive searches. Similarly, axions produced in the solar burning core might be detectable by their conversion to x-rays in a magnetic helioscope. Indeed current published limits already equal the best bounds on axion-photon coupling inferred from the concordance of stellar evolution models and observations, from horizontal branch stars. Significant improvements in both the mass range and sensitivity of the axion helioscope technique will be forthcoming in the next few years. This report will first summarize the theoretical background of the axion, and laboratory, astrophysical and cosmological limits on its mass and couplings. Cavity microwave searches for cosmic axions will then be reviewed, focusing on the current large-scale experiments (ADMX in the US; CARRACK in Japan), and their enabling technologies (HFET and SQUID amplifiers; Rydberg-atom single-quantum detection

  20. International Conference on Recent Advances in Spectroscopy : Theoretical, Experimental, and Astrophysical Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Rajat K; Raveendran, A. V; Satya Narayanan, A; Recent Advances in Spectroscopy : Theoretical, Astrophysical and Experimental Perspectives

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there have been great advances in the fields of laboratory and astronomical spectroscopy. These have been equally matched by large-scale computations using state-of-the-art theoretical methods. The accurate atomic opacities that are available today play a great role in the field of biomedical research using nanotechnology. The proceedings of the "International Conference on Recent Advances in Spectroscopy: Theoretical, Experimental and Astrophysical Perspectives" contain both invited and contributory papers, which give the most recent results by the peers in the areas of theoretical and experimental atomic physics as well as observational astrophysics.

  1. Disseminating NASA-based science through NASA's Universe of Learning: Girls STEAM Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, E.; Meinke, B. K.; Smith, D. A.; Ryer, H.; Slivinski, C.; Kenney, J.; Arcand, K.; Cominsky, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Girls STEAM Ahead with NASA (GSAWN) initiative partners the NASA's Universe of Learning (UoL) resources with public libraries to provide NASA-themed activities for girls and their families. The program expands upon the legacy program, NASA Science4Girls and Their Families, in celebration of National Women's History Month. Program resources include hands-on activities for engaging girls, such as coding experiences and use of remote telescopes, complementary exhibits, and professional development for library partner staff. The science-institute-embedded partners in NASA's UoL are uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. The thematic topics related to NASA Astrophysics enable audiences to experience the full range of NASA scientific and technical disciplines and the different career skills each requires. For example, an activity may focus on understanding exoplanets, methods of their detection, and characteristics that can be determined remotely. The events focus on engaging underserved and underrepresented audiences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations (e.g. National Girls Collaborative Project or NGCP), and remote engagement of audiences. NASA's UoL collaborated with another NASA STEM Activation partner, NASA@ My Library, to announce GSAWN to their extensive STAR_Net network of libraries. This partnership between NASA SMD-funded Science learning and literacy teams has included NASA@ My Library hosting a professional development webinar featuring a GSAWN activity, a newsletter and blog post about the program, and plans for future exhibit development. This presentation will provide an overview of the program's progress to engage girls and their families through the development and dissemination of NASA-based science programming.

  2. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  4. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  5. Nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on CNO-cycle reactions and AGB nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Cognata, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 100 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method and new experimental facilities such as deep underground laboratories have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results.

  6. Laboratory Measurements of Optical Properties of Micron Size Individual Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Witherow, W. K.; Camata, R.; Gerakines, P.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory program is being developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for experimental determination of the optical and physical properties individual dust grains in simulated astrophysical environments. The experimental setup is based on an electrodynamic balance that permits levitation of single 0.1 - 10 micron radii dust grains in a cavity evacuated to pressures of approx. 10(exp -6) torr. The experimental apparatus is equipped with observational ports for measurements in the UV, visible, and infrared spectral regions. A cryogenic facility for cooling the particles to temperature of approx. 10-50K is being installed. The current and the planned measurements include: dust charging processes, photoelectric emissions and yields with UV irradiation, radiation pressure measurements, infrared absorption and scattering properties, and condensation processes, involving the analogs of cosmic dust grains. Selected results based on photoemissions, radiation pressure, and other laboratory measurements will be presented.

  7. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics. Asymptotic normalization coefficient and trojan horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Pirlepesov, F.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.E.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Brown, B.A.; Nunes, F.M.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Cherubini, S.; Pizzone, R.G.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Irgaziev, B.F.; Tang, X.D.

    2006-01-01

    Owing to the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible, to measure astrophysical reaction rates in the laboratory. That is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. Here we address two important indirect techniques, the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) and the Trojan Horse (TH) methods. We discuss the application of the ANC technique for calculation of the astrophysical processes in the presence of subthreshold bound states, in particular, two different mechanisms are discussed: direct capture to the subthreshold state and capture to the low-lying bound states through the subthreshold state, which plays the role of the subthreshold resonance. The ANC technique can also be used to determine the interference sign of the resonant and nonresonant (direct) terms of the reaction amplitude. The TH method is unique indirect technique allowing one to measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysically relevant energies. We explain why there is no Coulomb barrier in the sub-process amplitudes extracted from the TH reaction. The expressions for the TH amplitude for direct and resonant cases are presented. (orig.)

  8. Plasma Astrophysics, part II Reconnection and Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  9. Plasma Astrophysics, Part I Fundamentals and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2006-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  10. Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G

    2006-01-01

    The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.

  11. The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh; hide

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.

  12. Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L

    2005-02-11

    Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics.

  13. Astrophysical hints of axion-like particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncadelli, M.; Galanti, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing three astrophysical hints of the existence of axion-like particles (ALPs), we describe in more detail a new similar hint involving flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Detection of FSRQs above about 20GeV pose a challenge to very-high-energy (VHE) astrophysics, because at those energies the ultraviolet emission from their broad line region should prevent photons produced by the central engine to leave the source. Although a few astrophysical explanations have been put forward, they are totally ad hoc. We show that a natural explanation instead arises within the conventional models of FSRQs provided that photon-ALP oscillations occur inside the source. Our analysis takes the FSRQ PKR 1222+206 as an example, and it looks tantalizing that basically the same choice of the free model parameters adopted in this case is consistent with those that provide the other three hints of the existence of ALPs.

  14. The Astrophysics Science Division Annual Report 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William; Reddy, Francis; Tyler, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The Astrophysics Science Division (ASD) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is one of the largest and most diverse astrophysical organizations in the world, with activities spanning a broad range of topics in theory, observation, and mission and technology development. Scientific research is carried out over the entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays to radio wavelengths as well as particle physics and gravitational radiation. Members of ASD also provide the scientific operations for three orbiting astrophysics missions WMAP, RXTE, and Swift, as well as the Science Support Center for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. A number of key technologies for future missions are also under development in the Division, including X-ray mirrors, and new detectors operating at gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, and radio wavelengths. This report includes the Division's activities during 2008.

  15. Doppler tomography in fusion plasmas and astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler tomography is a well-known method in astrophysics to image the accretion flow, often in the shape of thin discs, in compact binary stars. As accretion discs rotate, all emitted line radiation is Doppler-shifted. In fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements in magnetically confined plasma......, the Dα-photons are likewise Doppler-shifted ultimately due to gyration of the fast ions. In either case, spectra of Doppler-shifted line emission are sensitive to the velocity distribution of the emitters. Astrophysical Doppler tomography has lead to images of accretion discs of binaries revealing bright...... and limits, analogies and differences in astrophysical and fusion plasma Doppler tomography and what can be learned by comparison of these applications....

  16. UV-Visible Spectra of PAHs and Derivatives Seeded in Supersonic Jet. Astrophysical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Bejaoui; Salama, Farid

    2018-06-01

    Laboratory absorption spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives measured under astrophysical relevant conditions are crucial to test the PAHs-DIBs hypothesis as well as the PAH model for the IR emission bands. Our dedicated experimental setup on the COsmic SImulation Chamber (COSmIC) provides an excellent platform to study neutral and ionized PAHs under the low temperature and pressure conditions that are representative of interstellar environments [1]. In this work, we study the effect of the substitution of CH bond(s) by a nitrogen atom(s) on the electronic spectra of phenanthrene. The electronic transitions associated with the lower excited states of neutral phenanthrene (C14H10) and phenanthridine (C13H9N) are measured in gas phase in the 315-345 nm region. Molecules are seeded in a supersonic expansion of argon gas and the absorption spectra are measured using the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. Additional measurements of the absorption spectra of phenanthrene, phenantridine and 1,10-phenanthroline (C12H8N2) isolated in 10 K argon matrices are also performed. The comparison between the CRDS spectra with the absorption of the matrix-isolated molecules highlight the matrix-induced perturbations in band position, profiles and broadening and illustrates the need of gas phase measurements for more accurate comparisons with astronomical spectra.[1] Salama, F., Galazutdinov, G., Krelowski, et al. ApJ 728, 154[FS1] (2011).[2] A. Tielens, ApJ 526 Pt 1265–273 (2008),Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the APRA Program of NASA SMD

  17. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts. Keywords: Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, architecture, botanic garden, tourism, Cultural Astronomy.

  18. Theoretical nuclear structure and astrophysics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Tomás R

    2014-01-01

    Next generation of radioactive ion beam facilities like FAIR will open a bright future for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics research. In particular, very exotic nuclei (mainly neutron rich) isotopes will be produced and a lot of new exciting experimental data will help to test and improve the current nuclear models. In addition, these data (masses, reaction cross sections, beta decay half-lives, etc.) combined with the development of better theoretical approaches will be used as the nuclear physics input for astrophysical simulations. In this presentation I will review some of the state-of-the-art nuclear structure methods and their applications.

  19. Sources and astrophysical effects of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    The probable sources of short intense gravitational wave emissions are discussed and it is concluded, on the basis of current astrophysical ideas, that the number of events detected by an apparatus such as Weber's would not be more than one pulse par century. Some proposed explanations of a higher event rate are examined briefly but it is suggested that the sensitivity would probably have to be improved by a factor 10 8 if a few events per year due to extragalactic supernovae are to be detectable. The article concludes by mentioning several other kinds of gravitational waves of potential interest in astrophysics

  20. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1972-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 9 covers reviews on the advances in astronomy and astrophysics. The book presents reviews on the Roche model and its applications to close binary systems. The text then describes the part played by lunar eclipses in the evolution of astronomy; the classical theory of lunar eclipses; deviations from geometrical theory; and the methods of photometric observations of eclipses. The problems of other phenomena related in one way or another to lunar eclipses are also considered. The book further tackles the infrared observation on the eclipsed moon, as

  1. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics 7

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 7 covers reviews about the advances in astronomy and astrophysics. The book presents reviews on the scattering of electrons by diatomic molecules and on Babcock's theory of the 22-year solar cycle and the latitude drift of the sunspot zone. The text then describes reviews on the structures of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury) and on type III solar radio bursts. The compact and dispersed cosmic matter is also considered with regard to the search for new cosmic objects and phenomena and on the nature of the ref shift from compact

  2. Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics

  3. Spherical Panoramas for Astrophysical Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-05-01

    Data immersion has advantages in astrophysical visualization. Complex multi-dimensional data and phase spaces can be explored in a seamless and interactive viewing environment. Putting the user in the data is a first step toward immersive data analysis. We present a technique for creating 360° spherical panoramas with astrophysical data. The three-dimensional software package Blender and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to immerse users in data exploration. Several examples employing these methods exhibit how the technique works using different types of astronomical data.

  4. On the saturation of astrophysical dynamos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil; Archontis, Vasilis

    2004-01-01

    In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate in the li......In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate...

  5. Bibliometric indicators of young authors in astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havemann, Frank; Larsen, Birger

    2015-01-01

    We test 16 bibliometric indicators with respect to their validity at the level of the individual researcher by estimating their power to predict later successful researchers. We compare the indicators of a sample of astrophysics researchers who later co-authored highly cited papers before...... their first landmark paper with the distributions of these indicators over a random control group of young authors in astronomy and astrophysics. We find that field and citation-window normalisation substantially improves the predicting power of citation indicators. The sum of citation numbers normalised...

  6. Engaging Scientists in Meaningful E/PO: How the NASA SMD E/PO Community Addresses the Needs of the Higher Ed Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Schultz, Gregory R.; Smith, Denise A.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Gurton, Suzanne; NASA Astrophysics E/PO Community

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) coordinates the work of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO projects and their teams to bring cutting-edge discoveries of NASA missions to the introductory astronomy college classroom. The Astrophysics Forum assists scientist and educator involvement in SMD E/PO (uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise) and makes SMD E/PO resources and expertise accessible to the science and education communities. We present three new opportunities for college instructors to bring the latest NASA discoveries in Astrophysics into their classrooms.To address the expressed needs of the higher education community, the Astrophysics Forum collaborated with the Astrophysics E/PO community, researchers, and Astronomy 101 instructors to place individual science discoveries and learning resources into context for higher education audiences. Among these resources are two Resource Guides on the topics of cosmology and exoplanets, each including a variety of accessible sources.The Astrophysics Forum also coordinates the development of the Astro 101 slide set series--5 to 7-slide presentations on new discoveries from NASA Astrophysics missions relevant to topics in introductory astronomy courses. These sets enable Astronomy 101 instructors to include new discoveries not yet in their textbooks into the broader context of the course: http://www.astrosociety.org/education/astronomy-resource-guides/.The Astrophysics Forum also coordinated the development of 12 monthly Universe Discovery Guides, each featuring a theme and a representative object well-placed for viewing, with an accompanying interpretive story, strategies for conveying the topics, and supporting NASA-approved education activities and background information from a spectrum of NASA missions and programs: http://nightsky.jpl.nasa.gov/news-display.cfm?News_ID=611

  7. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics and Low Energy Nuclear Physics - Part 1. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcones, Almudena [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, Jutta E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Others, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-04

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.

  8. Gravitational waves: A challenge to theoretical astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, V.; Miller, J.C.; Rezzolla, L.

    2001-01-01

    During the 20th century, new windows on the Universe have been opened by the advent of radio astronomy and X-ray astronomy and these, together with the great advances in optical astronomy (both from the Earth's surface and from space), have revolutionized our understanding of the Universe and the way in which it works. Now, as we enter the twenty-first century, we await the opening of another new window - that provided by gravitational waves - which will allow us a closer 'view' of black holes and neutron stars, as well as providing a new probe of processes in the very early Universe. This is an exciting prospect but one which poses a serious challenge to theoretical astrophysics. The new generation of detectors (both laser interferometers and resonant detectors) require input from theoreticians regarding the possible mechanisms for generation of gravitational waves by astronomical sources and predictions of the waveforms produced. This input is essential in order both to tune the parameters of the detectors and to provide templates for use in extracting the tiny gravitational-wave signals from the ambient noise. Also, we need to understand how gravitational wave data, when it arrives, could be used in order to obtain information about the nature of the sources and about their dynamical evolution as well as, perhaps, giving deeper insights into some questions of fundamental physics by means of probing the state of matter under the extreme conditions of energy and pressure found in the interior of neutron stars and in the very early universe. This can provide opportunities beyond the capabilities of experiments carried out in terrestrial laboratories. For a week at the beginning of June 2000, 106 scientists from 28 countries came to Trieste for a meeting whose aim was to present a survey of the current status of the response of theoreticians to the challenge described above, as well as including progress reports on the different types of detector. The meeting was a

  9. Measurements of radiative material properties for astrophysical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The new generation of z-pinch, laser, and XFEL facilities opens the possibility to produce astrophysically-relevant laboratory plasmas with energy densities beyond what was previously possible. Furthermore, macroscopic plasmas with uniform conditions can now be created, enabling more accurate determination of the material properties. This presentation will provide an overview of our research at the Z facility investigating stellar interior opacities, AGN warm-absorber photoionized plasmas, and white dwarf photospheres. Atomic physics in plasmas heavily influence these topics. Stellar opacities are an essential ingredient of stellar models and they affect what we know about the structure and evolution of stars. Opacity models have become highly sophisticated, but laboratory tests have not been done at the conditions existing inside stars. Our research is presently focused on measuring Fe at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, where the electron temperature and density are believed to be 190 eV and 9 x 10 22 e/cc, respectively. The second project is aimed at testing atomic kinetics models for photoionized plasmas. Photoionization is an important process in many astrophysical plasmas and the spectral signatures are routinely used to infer astrophysical object's characteristics. However, the spectral synthesis models at the heart of these interpretations have been the subject of very limited experimental tests. Our current research examines photoionization of neon plasma subjected to radiation flux similar to the warm absorber that surrounds active galactic nuclei. The third project is a recent initiative aimed at producing a white dwarf photosphere in the laboratory. Emergent spectra from the photosphere are used to infer the star's effective temperature and surface gravity. The results depend on knowledge of H, He, and C spectral line profiles under conditions where complex physics such as quasi-molecule formation may be important. These

  10. FIRST KODAI-TRIESTE WORKSHOP ON PLASMA ASTROPHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, S. S; Krishan, V; TURBULENCE, DYNAMOS, ACCRETION DISKS, PULSARS AND COLLECTIVE PLASMA PROCESSES

    2008-01-01

    It is well established and appreciated by now that more than 99% of the baryonic matter in the universe is in the plasma state. Most astrophysical systems could be approximated as conducting fluids in a gravitational field. It is the combined effect of these two that gives rise to the mind boggling variety of configurations in the form of filaments, loops , jets and arches. The plasma structures that cannot last for more than a second or less in a laboratory remain intact for astronomical time and spatial scales in an astrophysical setting. The case in point is the well known extragalactic jets whose collimation and stability has remained an enigma inspite of the efforts of many for many long years. The high energy radiation sources such as the active galactic nuclei again summon the coherent plasma radiation processes for their exceptionally large output from regions of relatively small physical sizes. The generation of magnetic field, anomalous transport of angular momentum with decisive bearing on star for...

  11. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins Technology Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-01-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the Astrophysics Division's main investment method to mature technologies

  12. Evolution and seismic tools for stellar astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Mario JPFG

    2008-01-01

    A collection of articles published by the journal "Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume 316, Number 1-4", August 2008. This work covers 10 evolution codes and 9 oscillation codes. It is suitable for researchers and research students working on the modeling of stars and on the implementation of seismic test of stellar models.

  13. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanic, Dstroke; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential U e was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments

  14. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach. (orig.)

  15. Studying shocks in model astrophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly discuss some properties of the shocks in the existing models for quasi two-dimensional astrophysical flows. All of these models which allow the study of shock analytically have some unphysical characteristics due to inherent assumptions made. We propose a hybrid model for a thin flow which has fewer unpleasant features and is suitable for the study of shocks. (author). 5 refs

  16. Neutrino Masses and Mixings and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, George M.

    1998-10-01

    Here we discuss the implications of light neutrino masses and neutrino flavor/type mixing for dark matter, big bang nucleosynthesis, and models of heavy element nucleosynthesis in super novae. We will also argue the other way and discuss possible constraints on neutrino physics from these astrophysical considerations.

  17. Astronomical optical interferometry, II: Astrophysical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankov S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical interferometry is entering a new age with several ground- based long-baseline observatories now making observations of unprecedented spatial resolution. Based on a great leap forward in the quality and quantity of interferometric data, the astrophysical applications are not limited anymore to classical subjects, such as determination of fundamental properties of stars; namely, their effective temperatures, radii, luminosities and masses, but the present rapid development in this field allowed to move to a situation where optical interferometry is a general tool in studies of many astrophysical phenomena. Particularly, the advent of long-baseline interferometers making use of very large pupils has opened the way to faint objects science and first results on extragalactic objects have made it a reality. The first decade of XXI century is also remarkable for aperture synthesis in the visual and near-infrared wavelength regimes, which provided image reconstructions from stellar surfaces to Active Galactic Nuclei. Here I review the numerous astrophysical results obtained up to date, except for binary and multiple stars milliarcsecond astrometry, which should be a subject of an independent detailed review, taking into account its importance and expected results at microarcsecond precision level. To the results obtained with currently available interferometers, I associate the adopted instrumental settings in order to provide a guide for potential users concerning the appropriate instruments which can be used to obtain the desired astrophysical information.

  18. Astrophysics, cosmology and high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A brief survey is given of some topics in astrophysics and cosmology, with special emphasis on the inter-relation between the properties of the early Universe and recent ideas in high energy physics, and on simple order-of-magnitude arguments showing how the scales and dimensions of cosmic phenomena are related to basic physical constants. (orig.)

  19. Particle physics-astrophysics working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.W.; Kolb, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    The working group met each afternoon and listened to mini-symposia on a broad range of subjects covering all aspects of particle physics---astrophysics both theoretical and experimental. This paper reports that as a result, a number of papers which follow were commissioned to reflect the present status and future prospects of the field

  20. Workshop on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discussions related to gravitational wave experiments viz. LIGO and LISA as well as to observations of supermassive black holes dominated the workshop sessions on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics in the ICGC-2004. A summary of seven papers that were presented in these workshop sessions has been ...

  1. Exotic nuclear beta transitions astrophysical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, K

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical study of nuclear beta -transitions under various astrophysical circumstances is reviewed by illustrative examples: 1) continuum-state electron captures in a matter in the nuclear statistical equiplibrium, and ii) bound-state beta -decays in stars in connection with a cosmochronometer and with the s-process branchings. (45 refs).

  2. Microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics includes particle motion in an electromagnetic field, conformal transformations, conformally invariant theory of gravitation, particle orbits, Friedman models with k = 0, +-1, the history and present status of steady-state cosmology, and the nature of mass. (U.S.)

  3. Pulsars as tools for fundamental physics & astrophysics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, J.M.; Kramer, M.; Lazio, T.J.W.; Stappers, B.W.; Backer, D.C.; Johnston, S.

    2004-01-01

    The sheer number of pulsars discovered by the SKA, in combination with the exceptional timing precision it can provide, will revolutionize the field of pulsar astrophysics. The SKA will provide a complete census of pulsars in both the Galaxy and in Galactic globular clusters that can be used to

  4. Cosmological grand unification monopoles: astrophysical constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.N.

    1982-01-01

    I review the general arguments which suggest that relic GU magnetic monopoles should emerge from the early universe, and I discuss several astrophysical settings in which their effects could be, but are not, observed. This places limits on their possible flux, and their abundance bound to more ordinary material

  5. Astrophysical contributions of the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Boggess, A.; Maran, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Findings that have been made by the IUE in a variety of astrophysical areas are reviewed. Results on stellar chromospheres and transition regions, evolutionary processes in interacting binaries, winds from early-type stars, the ISM, SN 1987A, active galactic nuclei, and solar system objects are addressed. 158 refs

  6. Minicourses in Astrophysics, Modular Approach, Vol. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Chicago.

    This is the second of a two-volume minicourse in astrophysics. It contains chapters on the following topics: stellar nuclear energy sources and nucleosynthesis; stellar evolution; stellar structure and its determination; and pulsars. Each chapter gives much technical discussion, mathematical treatment, diagrams, and examples. References are…

  7. Teaching Astrophysics to Upper Level Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn Bradt, Hale

    2010-03-01

    A Socratic peer-instruction method for teaching upper level undergraduates is presented. Basically, the instructor sits with the students and guides their presentations of the material. My two textbooks* (on display) as well as many others are amenable to this type of teaching. *Astronomy Methods - A Physical Approach to Astronomical Observations (CUP 2004) *Astrophysics Processes-The Physics of Astronomical Phenomena (CUP 2008)

  8. Astronomy and astrophysics in the new millennium: Panel reports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, National Research Council

    2001-01-01

    In preparing the report, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium , the AASC made use of a series of panel reports that address various aspects of ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysic...

  9. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 1977, papers in Astrophysics and Astronomy appeared as a special section in Pramana. ... The journal publishes original research papers on all aspects of astrophysics and ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  10. Magnetized and collimated millimeter scale plasma jets with astrophysical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Parrish C.; Quevedo, Hernan J.; Valanju, Prashant M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Magnetized collimated plasma jets are created in the laboratory to extend our understanding of plasma jet acceleration and collimation mechanisms with particular connection to astrophysical jets. In this study, plasma collimated jets are formed from supersonic unmagnetized flows, mimicking a stellar wind, subject to currents and magnetohydrodynamic forces. It is found that an external poloidal magnetic field, like the ones found anchored to accretion disks, is essential to stabilize the jets against current-driven instabilities. The maximum jet length before instabilities develop is proportional to the field strength and the length threshold agrees well with Kruskal-Shafranov theory. The plasma evolution is modeled qualitatively using MHD theory of current-carrying flux tubes showing that jet acceleration and collimation arise as a result of electromagnetic forces.

  11. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for understanding spectacular stellar explosions such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts will be greatly enhanced by the availability of the low-energy, high-intensity, accelerated beams of proton-rich radioactive nuclei currently being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These beams will be utilized in absolute cross section measurements of crucial (p, γ) capture reactions in efforts to resolve the substantial qualitative uncertainties in current models of explosive stellar hydrogen burning outbursts. Details of the nuclear astrophysics research program with the unique HRIBF radioactive beams and a dedicated experimental endstation--centered on the Daresbury Recoil Separator--will be presented

  12. X-ray polarimetry and new prospects in high-energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgrò, C.

    2016-01-01

    Polarimetry is universally recognized as one of the new frontiers in X-ray astrophysics. It is a powerful tool to investigate a variety of astrophysical processes, as well as a mean to study fundamental physics in space. A renewed interest is testified by dedicated missions approved for phase A by ESA and NASA. The main advance is the availability of a gas pixel detector that is able to add polarization measurement to imaging and spectroscopy, and can be used at the focus of a conventional X-ray optics. The detector exploits the photoelectric effect in gas and a finely segmented ASIC as a collecting anode. In this work I will describe in detail the experimental technique and the detector concept, and illustrate the scientific prospects of these new missions.

  13. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Anjan A. Sen. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 33 Review. Cosmology and Astrophysics using the Post-Reionization HI · Tapomoy Guha Sarkar Anjan A. Sen · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  14. 3rd Session of the Sant Cugat Forum on Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Gravitational wave astrophysics

    2015-01-01

    This book offers review chapters written by invited speakers of the 3rd Session of the Sant Cugat Forum on Astrophysics — Gravitational Waves Astrophysics. All chapters have been peer reviewed. The book goes beyond normal conference proceedings in that it provides a wide panorama of the astrophysics of gravitational waves and serves as a reference work for researchers in the field.

  15. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India. Kavli Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Thirty Meter Project Office, ...

  16. Engaging Scientists in Meaningful E/PO: How the NASA SMD E/PO Community Addresses the needs of Underrepresented Audiences through NASA Science4Girls and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Bonnie K.; Smith, Denise A.; Bleacher, Lora; Hauck, Karin; Soeffing, Cassie; NASA SMD E/PO Community

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) coordinates the work of individual NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO projects and their teams to bring the NASA science education resources and expertise to libraries nationwide. The Astrophysics Forum assists scientists and educators with becoming involved in SMD E/PO (which is uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise) and makes SMD E/PO resources and expertise accessible to the science and education communities. The NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. As such, the initiative engages girls in all four NASA science discipline areas (Astrophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Heliophysics), which enables audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging this particular underserved and underrepresented audience in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.

  17. Fullerenes, PAHs, Amino Acids and High Energy Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Iglesias-Groth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present theoretical, observational and laboratory work on the spectral properties of fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes. Fullerenes in its various forms (individual, endohedral, hydrogenated, etc. can contribute to the UV bump in the extinction curves measured in many lines of sight of the Galaxy. They can also produce a large number of absorption features in the optical and near infrared which could be associated with diffuse interstellar bands. We summarise recent laboratory work on the spectral characterisation of fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes (for a range of temperatures. The recent detection of mid-IR bands of fullerenes in various astrophysical environments (planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae provide additional evidence for a link between fullerene families and diffuse interstellar bands. We describe recent observational work on near IR bands of C60+ in a protoplanetary nebula which support fullerene formation during the post-AGB phase. We also report on the survival of fullerenes to irradiation by high energy particles and gamma photons and laboratory work to explore the chemical  reactions that take place when fullerenes are exposed to this radiations in the presence of water, ammonia and other molecules as a potential path to form amino acids.

  18. VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics 17-25 November 2015, Chiapas, Mexico The VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics was held at the MCTP, at the Autonomous University of Chiapas (UNACH), Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico thanks to the Science for Development ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Regional Seminar, 17-25 November 2015 (http://mctp.mx/e-VI-School-on-Cosmic-Rays-and-Astrophysics.html). The School series started in La Paz, Bolivia in 2004 and it has been, since then, hosted by several Latin American countires: 1.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2004), 2.- Puebla, Mexico (September, 2006), 3.- Arequipa, Peru (September, 2008), 4.- Santo André, Brazil (September, 2010), 5.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2012). It aims to promote Cosmic Ray (CR) Physics and Astrophysics in the Latin American community and to provide a general overview of theoretical and experimental issues on these topics. It is directed to undergraduates, postgraduates and active researchers in the field. The lectures introduce fundamental Cosmic Ray Physics and Astrophysics with a review of standards of the field. It is expected the school continues happening during the next years following a tradition. In this edition, the list of seminars included topics such as experimental techniques of CR detection, development of CR showers and hadronic interactions, composition and energy spectrum of primary CR, Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), neutrino Astrophysics, spacecraft detectors, simulations, solar modulation, and the current state of development and results of several astroparticle physics experiments such as The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, HAWC in Mexico, KASCADE and KASCADE Grande, HESS, IceCube, JEM-EUSO, Fermi-LAT, and others. This time the school has been complemented with the ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Seminar of theory on Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The organization was done by MCTP, the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics. The school had 46 participants, 30 students from Honduras, Brazil

  19. Karl Schwarzschild and the professionalization of astrophysics. (German Title: Karl Schwarzschild und die Professionalisierung der Astrophysik)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor

    Professionalization is characteristic for physics and astronomy since 1830, and forms the basis for their rapid evolution in the 20th century. Karl Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy are presented: the introduction of course lectures in a repeating cycle, a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, simulations and suggestions for astronomy at high schools and for the training of high school teachers, an interest in international organisation, and the initiative and planning of a southern observatory.

  20. Space Radiation Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of space radiation on astronauts is one of the most important limiting factors for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit, including a journey to Mars. This talk will present an overview of space radiation issues that arise throughout the solar system and will describe research efforts at NASA aimed at studying space radiation effects on astronauts, including the experimental program at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent work on galactic cosmic ray simulation at ground based accelerators will also be presented. The three major sources of space radiation, namely geomagnetically trapped particles, solar particle events and galactic cosmic rays will be discussed as well as recent discoveries of the harmful effects of space radiation on the human body. Some suggestions will also be given for developing a space radiation program in the Republic of Korea.

  1. White paper on nuclear astrophysics and low energy nuclear physics Part 1: Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.

    2016-01-01

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21–23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9–10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). Our white paper is informed informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12–13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. Answers to long standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade because of the developments outlined in this white paper.

  2. Visualization needs and techniques for astrophysical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapferer, W; Riser, T

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulations have evolved continuously towards being an important field in astrophysics, equivalent to theory and observation. Due to the enormous developments in computer sciences, both hardware- and software-architecture, state-of-the-art simulations produce huge amounts of raw data with increasing complexity. In this paper some aspects of problems in the field of visualization in numerical astrophysics in combination with possible solutions are given. Commonly used visualization packages along with a newly developed approach to real-time visualization, incorporating shader programming to uncover the computational power of modern graphics cards, are presented. With these techniques at hand, real-time visualizations help scientists to understand the coherences in the results of their numerical simulations. Furthermore a fundamental problem in data analysis, i.e. coverage of metadata on how a visualization was created, is highlighted.

  3. Critical ionisation velocity effects in astrophysical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1979-08-01

    Critical ionisation velocity effects are relevant to astrophysical situations where neutral gas moves through a magnetised plasma. The experimental significance of the critical velocity is well established and the physical basis is now becoming clear. The underlying mechanism depends on the combined effects of electron impact ionisation and electron energisation by collective plasma interactions. For low density plasmas a theory based on a circular process involving electron heating through a modified two stream instability has been developed. Several applications of critical velocity effects to astrophysical plasmas have been discussed in the literature. The importance of the effect in any particular case may be determined from a detailed consideration of energy and momentum balance, using appropriate atomic rate coefficients and taking full account of collective plasma processes. (Auth.)

  4. International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA-2015) will be held in Moscow, Russia, from October 5 to 10, 2015. The conference is organized by Center of Basic Research and Particle Physics of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”. The aim of the Conference is to promote contacts between scientists and development of new ideas in fundamental research. Therefore we will bring together experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical aspects of nuclear, particle, astroparticle physics and cosmology. ICPPA-2015, aims to present the most recent results in astrophysics and collider physics and reports from the main experiments currently taking data. The working languages of the conference are English and Russian.

  5. Numerical Methods for Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics in Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R I; Stone, J M

    2007-11-20

    We describe numerical methods for solving the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for astrophysical fluid flow. Such methods are essential for the investigation of the time-dependent and multidimensional dynamics of a variety of astrophysical systems, although our particular interest is motivated by problems in star formation. Over the past few years, the authors have been members of two parallel code development efforts, and this review reflects that organization. In particular, we discuss numerical methods for MHD as implemented in the Athena code, and numerical methods for radiation hydrodynamics as implemented in the Orion code. We discuss the challenges introduced by the use of adaptive mesh refinement in both codes, as well as the most promising directions for future developments.

  6. Astrophysical data analysis with information field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enßlin, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Non-parametric imaging and data analysis in astrophysics and cosmology can be addressed by information field theory (IFT), a means of Bayesian, data based inference on spatially distributed signal fields. IFT is a statistical field theory, which permits the construction of optimal signal recovery algorithms. It exploits spatial correlations of the signal fields even for nonlinear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems. The alleviation of a perception threshold for recovering signals of unknown correlation structure by using IFT will be discussed in particular as well as a novel improvement on instrumental self-calibration schemes. IFT can be applied to many areas. Here, applications in in cosmology (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure) and astrophysics (galactic magnetism, radio interferometry) are presented

  7. Modern fluid dynamics for physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Regev, Oded; Yecko, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    This book grew out of the need to provide students with a solid introduction to modern fluid dynamics. It offers a broad grounding in the underlying principles and techniques used, with some emphasis on applications in astrophysics and planetary science. The book comprehensively covers recent developments, methods and techniques, including, for example, new ideas on transitions to turbulence (via transiently growing stable linear modes), new approaches to turbulence (which remains the enigma of fluid dynamics), and the use of asymptotic approximation methods, which can give analytical or semi-analytical results and complement fully numerical treatments. The authors also briefly discuss some important considerations to be taken into account when developing a numerical code for computer simulation of fluid flows. Although the text is populated throughout with examples and problems from the field of astrophysics and planetary science, the text is eminently suitable as a general introduction to fluid dynamics. It...

  8. The Future of Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, gamma ray astrophysics has entered the astrophysical mainstream. Extremely successful space-borne (GeV) and ground-based (TeV) detectors, combined with a multitude of partner telescopes, have revealed a fascinating “astroscape" of active galactic nuclei, pulsars, gamma ray bursts, supernova remnants, binary stars, star-forming galaxies, novae much more, exhibiting major pathways along which large energy releases can flow. From  a basic physics perspective, exquisitely sensitive measurements have constrained the nature of dark matter, the cosmological origin of magnetic field and the properties of black holes. These advances have motivated the development of new facilities, including HAWC, DAMPE, CTA and SVOM, which will further our understanding of the high energy universe. Topics that will receive special attention include merging neutron star binaries, clusters of galaxies, galactic cosmic rays and putative, TeV dark matter.

  9. Neutrino particle astrophysics: status and outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of astrophysical neutrinos at high energy by IceCube raises a host of questions: What are the sources? Is there a Galactic as well as an extragalactic component? How does the astrophysical spectrum continue to lower energy where the dominant signal is from atmospheric neutrinos? Is there a measureable flux of cosmogenic neutrinos at higher energy? What is the connection to cosmic rays? At what level and in what energy region should we expect to see evidence of the π0 decay photons that must accompany the neutrinos at production? Such questions are stimulating much theoretical activity and many multi-wavelength follow-up observations as well as driving plans for new detectors. My goal in this presentation will be to connect the neutrino data and their possible interpretations to ongoing multi-messenger observations and to the design of future detectors.

  10. Numerical Methods for Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics in Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R I; Stone, J M

    2007-01-01

    We describe numerical methods for solving the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for astrophysical fluid flow. Such methods are essential for the investigation of the time-dependent and multidimensional dynamics of a variety of astrophysical systems, although our particular interest is motivated by problems in star formation. Over the past few years, the authors have been members of two parallel code development efforts, and this review reflects that organization. In particular, we discuss numerical methods for MHD as implemented in the Athena code, and numerical methods for radiation hydrodynamics as implemented in the Orion code. We discuss the challenges introduced by the use of adaptive mesh refinement in both codes, as well as the most promising directions for future developments

  11. Global kinetic theory of astrophysical jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.

    1989-01-01

    We suggest that an astrophysical plasma stream flowing outward from a central object aling an open magnetic field line with decreasing field strength generally will have anisotropic velocity distributions. I particular, the electron distribution function of this type of plasma streams will contain a 'thermally populated' region and a stretche out high energy tail (or 'jet-like') region collimated in the utward direction of the magnetic field line. Our argument is based on a global, collisional, kinetic theory. Because the 'kinetic jets' are always pointed aling the outward direction of the field lines, thy are automatically collimated and will assume whatever the peculiar geometries dictated by the magnetic field. This result should be useful in the understanding of the basic structures of such diverse astrophysical objects as the extragalactic radio jets, stellar winds, the solar wind, planetary polar winds, and galactic jets. (author). 8 refs.; 2 figs

  12. The Trojan horse method in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliotta, M.; Rolfs, C.; Lattuada, M.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Spitaleri, C.; Miljanic, Dj.; Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the Coulomb barrier, reaction cross sections in astrophysics cannot be accessed directly at the relevant Gamow energies, unless very favourable conditions are met (e.g. LUNA--underground experiments). Theoretical extrapolations of available data are then needed to derive the astrophysical S(0)-factor. Various indirect processes have been used in order to obtain additional information on the parameters entering these extrapolations. The Trojan Horse Method is an indirect method which might help to bypass some of the problems typically encountered in direct measurements, namely the presence of the Coulomb barrier and the effect of the electron screening. However, a comparison with direct data in an appropriate energy region (e.g. around the Coulomb barrier) is crucial before extending the method to the relevant Gamow energy. Additionally, experimental and theoretical tests are needed to validate the assumptions underlying the method. The application of the Trojan Horse Method to some cases of interest is discussed

  13. Astrophysical data analysis with information field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enßlin, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    Non-parametric imaging and data analysis in astrophysics and cosmology can be addressed by information field theory (IFT), a means of Bayesian, data based inference on spatially distributed signal fields. IFT is a statistical field theory, which permits the construction of optimal signal recovery algorithms. It exploits spatial correlations of the signal fields even for nonlinear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems. The alleviation of a perception threshold for recovering signals of unknown correlation structure by using IFT will be discussed in particular as well as a novel improvement on instrumental self-calibration schemes. IFT can be applied to many areas. Here, applications in in cosmology (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure) and astrophysics (galactic magnetism, radio interferometry) are presented.

  14. Astrophysical data analysis with information field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enßlin, Torsten, E-mail: ensslin@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, D-80539 München (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    Non-parametric imaging and data analysis in astrophysics and cosmology can be addressed by information field theory (IFT), a means of Bayesian, data based inference on spatially distributed signal fields. IFT is a statistical field theory, which permits the construction of optimal signal recovery algorithms. It exploits spatial correlations of the signal fields even for nonlinear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems. The alleviation of a perception threshold for recovering signals of unknown correlation structure by using IFT will be discussed in particular as well as a novel improvement on instrumental self-calibration schemes. IFT can be applied to many areas. Here, applications in in cosmology (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure) and astrophysics (galactic magnetism, radio interferometry) are presented.

  15. ''DIANA'' - A New, Deep-Underground Accelerator Facility for Astrophysics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, M.; Leitner, D.; Lemut, A.; Vetter, P.; Wiescher, M.

    2009-01-01

    The DIANA project (Dakota Ion Accelerators for Nuclear Astrophysics) is a collaboration between the University of Notre Dame, University of North Carolina, Western Michigan University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to build a nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility 1.4 km below ground. DIANA is part of the US proposal DUSEL (Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory) to establish a cross-disciplinary underground laboratory in the former gold mine of Homestake in South Dakota, USA. DIANA would consist of two high-current accelerators, a 30 to 400 kV variable, high-voltage platform, and a second, dynamitron accelerator with a voltage range of 350 kV to 3 MV. As a unique feature, both accelerators are planned to be equipped with either high-current microwave ion sources or multi-charged ECR ion sources producing ions from protons to oxygen. Electrostatic quadrupole transport elements will be incorporated in the dynamitron high voltage column. Compared to current astrophysics facilities, DIANA could increase the available beam densities on target by magnitudes: up to 100 mA on the low energy accelerator and several mA on the high energy accelerator. An integral part of the DIANA project is the development of a high-density super-sonic gas-jet target which can handle these anticipated beam powers. The paper will explain the main components of the DIANA accelerators and their beam transport lines and will discuss related technical challenges

  16. Irradiation effects induced by multiply charged heavy ions on astrophysical materials such as crystals and ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlinay, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The solar system and the interstellar medium are permanently exposed to radiations such as solar wind and cosmic rays. The interaction between energetic particles and astrophysical materials (ices, silicates and carbon-based materials) plays an important role in several astrophysical phenomena. Laboratory experiments correlated to observational data may allow a better understanding of these phenomena. The aim of this thesis was to study the effect of slow and fast heavy ions on lithium fluoride and on astrophysical materials such as ices and silicates. We focused on the sputtering phenomenon. The present study was performed with a time of flight imaging technique (XY-TOF-SIMS) at the CIMAP-GANIL laboratory. The major fraction of secondary ions is found to be emitted in the form of clusters. Several parameters affect sputtering: the stopping power regime, the thickness of the target, the incident angle and, for low highly charged ions, the projectile charge. Our laboratory simulations exhibit the possibility that sputtered particles contribute to the formation of Mercury's and Jupiter's moons exosphere. (author)

  17. Coulomb dissociation studies for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motobayashi, T [Dept. of Physics, Rikkyo Univ., Toshima, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The Coulomb dissociation method was applied to several radiative capture processes of astrophysical interest. The method has an advantage of high experimental efficiency, which allow measurements with radioactive nuclear beams. The reactions {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O and {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B are mainly discussed. They are the key reaction in the hot CNO cycle in massive stars and the one closely related to the solar neutrino problem, respectively. (orig.)

  18. Neutrino masses in astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffelt, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    Astrophysical and cosmological arguments and observations give us the most restrictive constraints on neutrino masses, electromagnetic couplings, and other properties. Conversely, massive neutrinos would contribute to the cosmic dark-matter density and would play an important role for the formation of structure in the universe. Neutrino oscillations may well solve the solar neutrino problem, and can have a significant impact on supernova physics. (author) 14 figs., tabs., 33 refs

  19. An anelastic approximation arising in astrophysics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Donatelli, D.; Feireisl, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 369, 3-4 (2017), s. 1573-1597 ISSN 0025-5831 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes system * astrophysics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.314, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00208-016-1507-x

  20. Astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos in Supernova detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1985-09-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are the place of very fundamental phenomena, whose privileged messengers are neutrinos. But such events are very rare. Then, SN detection has to be combined with other purposes. The recent developments of SN detectors have been associated with developments of underground particle physics (proton decay, monopoles ...). But here, I will restrict myself to discuss the possibilities for a supernova detector to be sensitive to other sources of neutrinos, astrophysical or terrestrial