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Sample records for narcissus bulb pests

  1. The effect of γ-ray irradiation on growth and flowering of narcissus plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Hua

    2005-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ-ray on growth and flowering of water-planted narcissus bulb was investigated in this paper. The results showed that 20-60 Gy irradiation could obviously reduce the increment of weight of narcissus plant and inhibited the elongation growth of narcissus's roots and leaves, harmed the vascular bundle cells in leaves. But, the roots' diameter, leaves' breadth and thickness were very little influenced. The life-span of single flower was prolonged, first bloom time was delayed and the chlorophyll content in leaves was increased by 20 and 40 Gy treatment, which could fit the commodity treatment of narcissus bulb. (authors)

  2. [Introduction of hexaploid of Chinese narcissus and analysis of its chromosome change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Ya Nan; Wang, Ya Ying; Tian, Hui Qiao

    2007-06-01

    Anthers of Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta L. var chinesis Roem) were used as explants for callus induction and plant regeneration. About 80% anthers produced callus and 28% of the callus differentiated out bulbs, making a good experiment system of tissue culture of Chinese narcissus for further cellular and gene engineering. The 700 callus were treated by 0.5% colchicin for 5-6 days and then transformed into a MS medium containing 3 mg/L 6-BA to induce differentiation. 90 bulbs were obtained and 55 bulbs among them were checked the chromosome number from their root tips for three times. 29 bulbs (53%, 29/55) still kept triploidy and the most cells of root tips contained 30 chromosomes. 22 bulbs (40%, 22/55) displayed aneuploidy and the most cells of its root tips contained 10-50 chromosomes. 4 bulbs displayed hexaploidy and contained 60 chromosomes. After three months growing, the cells of root tips containing aneuploidy chromosomes disappeared, and the bulbs became triploidy. The chromosomes of 4 hexaploidy bulbs did not changed during three checks. The origin and disappearance of aneuploidy cells of Chinese narcissus after treated by colchicin were discussed.

  3. Penciptaan Naskah Drama Narcissus Berdasarkan Mitologi Yunani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Rahayuningtiar

    2013-11-01

    The Creation of the Drama Script of Narcissus Based on the Greek Mythology. The script of Narcissus drama is a script of drama with a classical genre which carries the tragic rhythm on it. Narcissus is a character in the story of the Greek Mythology. He is an arrogant young man who really likes to glorify himself on the beauty of what he has. Unfortunatelly, one day he was cursed to fall in love with his own reflection. The creation of drama script of Narcissus is aimed to fill the scarcity of drama scripts in which the basic sources of idea come from narcissistic phenomena in a society and the concept of the tragic rhythm in the Greek mythology. The method of creation brings a creative method comprising the steps of exploration, creation, and improvisation. The result of this script creation is a classical genre script which has a moral message in which a person who considers himself perfectly will give a bad impact to himself. Nevertheles, perfection belongs to God only. Key words: Narcissius, Greek , mythology

  4. Rozwój Narcissus poeticus L. [Development of Narcissus poeticus L.

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    B. Jamiołowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One generation of Narcissus poeticus develops during three seasons. The vegetative stage of the meristem lasts 11 months. It changes to a floral apex in the second year and initiates all the flower elements from the first days of June to mid August. The plants bloom in the third year.

  5. Host ranges of Penicillium species causing blue mold of bulb crops in Washington State and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    First reported from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of U.S.A. as causal agents of blue mold on edible and/or ornamental bulbs are Penicillium albocoremium (from Tulipa sp.; pathogenic on Allium sativum, A. cepa, A. stipitatum, Iris hollandica and Tulipa sp.), P. crustosum (from Narcissus; pathogenic on ...

  6. Was the myth of Narcissus misinterpreted by Freud? Narcissus, a model for schizoid-histrionic, not narcissistic, personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Arash

    2006-03-01

    Gods and heroes of Greek myths have been of interest to psychoanalysts, who find them as symbols of human intrapsychic life, evolution, and conflicts. Many of these gods and heroes, like Oedipus, Electra, Eros, and Narcissus, have had their names given to psychological situations, conflicts, and diseases. Freud picked the myth of Narcissus as a symbol of a self-absorbed person whose libido is invested in the ego itself, rather than in other people. The term narcissistic personality disorder, also taken from the myth, describes a self-loving character with grandiose feelings of uniqueness. In this article, I reevaluate the myth of Narcissus and present a different psychoanalytic concept for this story. I view Narcissus as a symbol of a youth who seeks the image of anima or a feminine mental image in interpersonal love relationships, an image that can never be found in the real external world. This misguided quest for an imaginary love object only results in solitude.

  7. Two New Alkaloids from Narcissus serotinus L.

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    Francesc Viladomat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae family is well known for the presence of an exclusive group of alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. Narcissus serotinus L. is a plant belonging to this family and its geographical distribution is mainly located along the Mediterranean coast. In the present work, specimens collected near Casablanca (Morocco were used to study the alkaloid content of this species. Starting with 350 g of the whole plant we used standard extraction and purification procedures to obtain fractions and compounds for GC-MS and NMR analysis. As well as five known alkaloids, we isolated two new compounds: 1-O-(3´-acetoxybutanoyllycorine and narseronine. The latter has been previously published, but with an erroneous structure.

  8. Structure of Pigment Metabolic Pathways and Their Contributions to White Tepal Color Formation of Chinese Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis cv Jinzhanyintai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujun; Yang, Jingwen; Lu, Bingguo; Jiang, Yaping; Chen, Haiyang; Hong, Yuwei; Wu, Binghua; Miao, Ying

    2017-09-08

    Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis ) is one of the ten traditional flowers in China and a famous bulb flower in the world flower market. However, only white color tepals are formed in mature flowers of the cultivated varieties, which constrains their applicable occasions. Unfortunately, for lack of genome information of narcissus species, the explanation of tepal color formation of Chinese narcissus is still not clear. Concerning no genome information, the application of transcriptome profile to dissect biological phenomena in plants was reported to be effective. As known, pigments are metabolites of related metabolic pathways, which dominantly decide flower color. In this study, transcriptome profile and pigment metabolite analysis methods were used in the most widely cultivated Chinese narcissus "Jinzhanyintai" to discover the structure of pigment metabolic pathways and their contributions to white tepal color formation during flower development and pigmentation processes. By using comparative KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, three pathways related to flavonoid, carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment metabolism showed significant variations. The structure of flavonoids metabolic pathway was depicted, but, due to the lack of F3'5'H gene; the decreased expression of C4H , CHS and ANS genes; and the high expression of FLS gene, the effect of this pathway to synthesize functional anthocyanins in tepals was weak. Similarly, the expression of DXS , MCT and PSY genes in carotenoids synthesis sub-pathway was decreased, while CCD1 / CCD4 genes in carotenoids degradation sub-pathway was increased; therefore, the effect of carotenoids metabolic pathway to synthesize adequate color pigments in tepals is restricted. Interestingly, genes in chlorophyll synthesis sub-pathway displayed uniform down-regulated expression, while genes in heme formation and chlorophyll breakdown sub-pathways displayed up-regulated expression, which also indicates negative regulation

  9. Evaporator bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, W.

    1977-01-01

    In order to prevent the hazard of a possible excursion in an evaporator bulb for radioactive liquids there is provided in the bottom of the vessel a recess filled with a neutron-absorbing and moderating material. The bottom drain pipe is coming out sideways and connected with a heated pipe feeding above into the vessel tangentially. (TK) [de

  10. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  11. Composition of Carotenoids and Flavonoids in Narcissus Cultivars and their Relationship with Flower Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available Narcissus is widely used for cut flowers and potted plants, and is one of the most important commercial bulbous flowers in the floricultural industry. In this study, ten carotenoid and eighteen flavonoid compounds from the perianths and coronas of fifteen narcissus cultivars were measured by HPLC-APCI-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Among these, six carotenoids, a total of seventeen flavonols and chlorogenic acid were identified in narcissus for the first time. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between flower color and pigment composition. We found that all-trans-violaxanthin and total carotenoid content were the main factors that affected flower color. These investigations could provide a global view of flower color formation and a theoretical basis for hybridization breeding in narcissus.

  12. American Narcissus: Lacanian Reflections on DeLillo’s Americana

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    Graley Herren

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Don DeLillo’s first novel, 'Americana' (1971, is assembled from a toolkit of psychological tropes. Critics have long recognized the novel’s debts to (and parodies of Sigmund Freud, leading one critic to dub protagonist David Bell as “the American Oedipus.” The present article reconsiders the novel from the perspective of Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalytic theories. Several of Lacan’s key concepts—including his seminal articulation of the Mirror Stage, his revisions to Freud’s Oedipus Complex, his emphasis on lack as the engine of desire, as well as his reflections on dreams, fantasies, and the gaze—help shed new light on DeLillo’s splintered portrait of postmodern subjectivity in 'Americana'. The article uses Lacan to explain how and why each of David Bell’s attempts at indulging his incestuous maternal desires ends in disappointment, with particular emphasis on his three failed attempts at restaging the primal scene. Lacanian psychology provides a conceptual framework and useful taxonomy for understanding the shifting desires, misrecognitions, obfuscations, deflections, projections, and self-reflections of the American Narcissus, David Bell.

  13. Solution structures of potato virus X and narcissus mosaic virus from Raman optical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Robinson, David J.; Hecht, Lutz

    2002-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) and narcissus mosaic virus (NMV) were studied using vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) in order to obtain new information on the structures of their coat protein subunits. The ROA spectra of the two intact virions are very similar to each other and similar to that of to......Potato virus X (PVX) and narcissus mosaic virus (NMV) were studied using vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) in order to obtain new information on the structures of their coat protein subunits. The ROA spectra of the two intact virions are very similar to each other and similar...

  14. Genome constitution of Narcissus variety, 'Tete-a-Tete', analysed through GISH and NBS profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Narcissus variety, ‘Tête-à-Tête’, has been the most popular variety since 1949, and a well known allotriploid (2n = 3x = 24 + B) of spontaneous origin. Because the identity of one of the parents of this variety was uncertain, the genome constitution of ‘Tête-à-Tête’ was investigated by using

  15. The jugular bulb diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadin, K.; Wilbrand, H.

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and forty-five temporal bone specimens were examined radiographically. Subsequently the topographic relationship between the jugular fossa and surrounding structures was evaluated in plastic casts of the specimens. Fifty-eight casts showed a high jugular fossa and in 17 a jugular bulb diverticulum was found. A diverticulum is regarded as an anomaly of the high jugular bulb and presumably has a potential for expansion. Most frequently a diverticulum was directed medially into the space between the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular aqueduct and the posterior cranial fossa. Seven diverticula reached the level of the internal acoustic meatus. Encroachment upon the vestibular aqueduct was seen in 4 casts and both the internal acoustic meatus and the cochlear aqueduct were very close to the diverticulum. A few diverticula were directed postero-laterally close to the facial canal and the stapedius muscle. The investigation was supplemented with a selected clinical material of radiographs of temporal bones with high fossae. The results corresponded to those of the experimental investigation. The jugular bulb diverticulum is a relatively common feature and should be regarded as an anomaly with a potential to give rise to clinical symptoms consequent to its intrusion upon surrounding structures. (orig.)

  16. The Effect of Thyme and Savory Essential Oils on Quality and Vase life of Cut Narcissus Flowers (Narcissus tazetta L. cv. Shahla

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    iman baninaeim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcissus is a genus of hardy, spring-blooming, bulbous plants in the family Amaryllidaceae. Numerous studies have demonstrated positive effects of various chemical additives (e.g. biocides, surfactants, ethylene inhibitors, wound healing enzyme inhibitors on the postharvest, water relations and longevity of cut flowers. Cut flowers can have limited commercial value because of their dehydrating during vase life that decreased water uptake. Petal senescence is part of a developmental continuum in cut flowers and proceeded by tissue differentiation, growth and development of seeds and coordinated by plant hormones. Senescence can be studied at cellular, tissue, organ or organization level as a genetically programmed event. The vase life of cut narcissus flowers is often very short. The development of senescence symptoms is caused by vascular occlusion, which inhibits water supply to the flowers. Petal senescence was marked by the loss of turgor in petal tissue followed by complete wilting. The development of occlusions is thought to be caused by various factors, such as bacteria, air emboli and physiological responses of stems to cutting. However, despite anecdotal evidence of positive effects, improving postharvest water relations of cut flowers by various physical stem-end treatments is little researched. Materials and Methods: The Narcissus flowers harvested from Khafr city of Fars province, in February 2015. The Thyme plants harvested in September 2014 and Savory plants harvested in December 2014 and then submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hours. This study was carried out in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The treatments included control (distilled water, two levels of Savory essential oil (50 and 100 ppm and two levels of Thyme essential oil (100 and 200 ppm. 2% sucrose were added to control and other of treatments . The cut flowers were also kept at temperature of 20±2 º

  17. From Narcissus to Genius through the Work of Pleshette DeArmitt

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    Marygrace Hemme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through my reading of the section of Pleshette Dearmitt’s book The Right to Narcissism, entitled “Kristeva: the Rebirth of Narcissus,” I illustrate the way in which DeArmitt’s reading of Narcissus is reflected in Julia Kristeva’s conception of genius. DeArmitt describes narcissism as a structure through which subjectivity, language, self-love, and love for the other come about. Narcissism develops through a metaphorical relation of identification with a “loving third” in which the subject-in-formation is transferred to the site of the other, to the place from which he or she is seen and heard through the words of the mother directed at an other. The emerging subject catches the words of others and repeats them. The speech of the other, then, is a model or pattern with which the subject-in-formation identifies repeatedly, and it is through identifying with the third that the forming subject becomes like the other, a speaking subject herself. All love comes from narcissism because it is a repetition of this identification and transference. I connect this account to Kristeva’s Female Genius Trilogy by claiming that these works are love stories since they are based on a repetition of the narcissistic structure on a cultural level in their content and in their form, though for each genius it manifests through a different register. For Hannah Arendt the relation is between the actor and the spectator; for Melanie Klein it is between the analyst and the analysand; and for Colette it is between the writer and the reader. 

  18. Radiosensitivity of garlic air bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhila, Eh.D.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents data on the radiosensitivity of various sorts of garlic. It is shown that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the irradiated aerial bulbs of stemmed varieties of garlic is directly dependent upon the gmma-ray dose. With increasing dose the germination capacity and the viability of the plants diminishes. A dose of 750 r was found to be critical for the bulbs of the garlic varieties studied

  19. Colour break in reverse bicolour daffodils is associated with the presence of Narcissus mosaic virus

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    Davies Kevin M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daffodils (Narcissus pseudonarcissus are one of the world's most popular ornamentals. They also provide a scientific model for studying the carotenoid pigments responsible for their yellow and orange flower colours. In reverse bicolour daffodils, the yellow flower trumpet fades to white with age. The flowers of this type of daffodil are particularly prone to colour break whereby, upon opening, the yellow colour of the perianth is observed to be 'broken' into patches of white. This colour break symptom is characteristic of potyviral infections in other ornamentals such as tulips whose colour break is due to alterations in the presence of anthocyanins. However, reverse bicolour flowers displaying colour break show no other virus-like symptoms such as leaf mottling or plant stunting, leading some to argue that the carotenoid-based colour breaking in reverse bicolour flowers may not be caused by virus infection. Results Although potyviruses have been reported to cause colour break in other flower species, enzyme-linked-immunoassays with an antibody specific to the potyviral family showed that potyviruses were not responsible for the occurrence of colour break in reverse bicolour daffodils. Colour break in this type of daffodil was clearly associated with the presence of large quantities of rod-shaped viral particles of lengths 502-580 nm in tepals. Sap from flowers displaying colour break caused red necrotic lesions on Gomphrena globosa, suggesting the presence of potexvirus. Red necrotic lesions were not observed in this indicator plant when sap from reverse bicolour flowers not showing colour break was used. The reverse transcriptase polymerase reactions using degenerate primers to carla-, potex- and poty-viruses linked viral RNA with colour break and sequencing of the amplified products indicated that the potexvirus Narcissisus mosaic virus was the predominant virus associated with the occurrence of the colour break

  20. Botrytis species on bulb crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorbeer, J.W.; Seyb, A.M.; Boer, de M.; Ende, van den J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. A number of Botrytis species are pathogens of bulb crops. Botrytis squamosa (teleomorph=Botrytotinia squamosa) causal agent of botrytis leaf blight and B. allii the causal agent of botrytis neck rotare two of the most important fungal diseases of onion. The taxonomics of several of the

  1. Ectopic Overexpression of a Novel R2R3-MYB, NtMYB2 from Chinese Narcissus Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Tobacco

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    Muhammad Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available R2R3 MYB transcription factors play key functions in the regulation of secondary metabolites. In the present study, a R2R3 MYB transcriptional factor NtMYB2 was identified from Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta L. var. Chinensis Roem and functionally characterized. NtMYB2 belongs to subgroup 4 of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor family that are related to repressor MYBs involved in the regulation of anthocyanin and flavonoids. Transient expression confirmed that NtMYB2 strongly reduced the red pigmentation induced by MYB- anthocyanin activators in agro-infiltrated tobacco leaves. Ectopic expression of NtMYB2 in tobacco significantly reduced the pigmentation and altered the floral phenotypes in transgenic tobacco flowers. Gene expression analysis suggested that NtMYB2 repressed the transcript levels of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, especially the UFGT gene. NtMYB2 gene is expressed in all examined narcissus tissues; the levels of transcription in petals and corona is higher than other tissues and the transcription level at the bud stage was highest. These results show that NtMYB2 is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway and may act as a repressor by down regulating the transcripts of key enzyme genes in Chinese narcissus.

  2. Ectopic Overexpression of a Novel R2R3-MYB, NtMYB2 from Chinese Narcissus Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad; Wang, Guiqing; Wu, Jiacheng; Waheed, Saquib; Allan, Andrew C; Zeng, Lihui

    2018-03-28

    R2R3 MYB transcription factors play key functions in the regulation of secondary metabolites. In the present study, a R2R3 MYB transcriptional factor NtMYB2 was identified from Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta L. var. Chinensis Roem) and functionally characterized. NtMYB2 belongs to subgroup 4 of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor family that are related to repressor MYBs involved in the regulation of anthocyanin and flavonoids. Transient expression confirmed that NtMYB2 strongly reduced the red pigmentation induced by MYB- anthocyanin activators in agro-infiltrated tobacco leaves. Ectopic expression of NtMYB2 in tobacco significantly reduced the pigmentation and altered the floral phenotypes in transgenic tobacco flowers. Gene expression analysis suggested that NtMYB2 repressed the transcript levels of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, especially the UFGT gene. NtMYB2 gene is expressed in all examined narcissus tissues; the levels of transcription in petals and corona is higher than other tissues and the transcription level at the bud stage was highest. These results show that NtMYB2 is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway and may act as a repressor by down regulating the transcripts of key enzyme genes in Chinese narcissus.

  3. The application of HPLC with on-line coupled UV/MS-biochemical detection for isolation of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Narcissus 'Sir Winston Churchill'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingkaninan, K.; Hazekamp, A.; de Best, C.M.; Irth, H.; Tjaden, U.R.; van der Heijden, R.; van der Greef, J.; Verpoorte, R.

    2000-01-01

    An HPLC with on-line coupled UV/MS-biochemical detection method for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in natural sources has been developed. The potential of this method is shown by the isolation of a new AChE inhibitor from the alcoholic extract of Narcissus 'Sir Winston Churchill'. Combining

  4. How to handle and care for bulbs in ophthalmic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many devices used in eye care rely on light bulbs or lamps for their operation. All light bulbs have a limited lifespan and when the bulb fails the device becomes unusable. Therefore, knowing how to handle, how to inspect and how to replace bulbs is important. Just as important is keeping spare bulbs to hand!

  5. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

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    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  6. Managing Pests in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides basic information on integrated pest management in schools, including information on the components of an IPM program and guidance on how to get started. Includes identification and control of pests, educational resources, and contact information

  7. Jugular bulb diverticulum combined with high jugular bulb: a case report with CT and MRA findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seog Wan

    2004-01-01

    Jugular bulb diverticulum is a rare condition that is characterized by the outpouching of the jugular bulb, and this can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. A few reports have revealed the radiologic findings about jugular bulb diverticulum, but none of them have described the MRA findings concerning this lesion. We present here the CT and MR venography findings in regards to a large high jugular blub and diverticulum we observed in a 47-year-old woman

  8. Jugular bulb diverticulum combined with high jugular bulb: a case report with CT and MRA findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seog Wan [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    Jugular bulb diverticulum is a rare condition that is characterized by the outpouching of the jugular bulb, and this can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. A few reports have revealed the radiologic findings about jugular bulb diverticulum, but none of them have described the MRA findings concerning this lesion. We present here the CT and MR venography findings in regards to a large high jugular blub and diverticulum we observed in a 47-year-old woman.

  9. From Batteries and Bulbs to High Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Maurice L.; Schwartz, Ivan C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a new, high-technology approach to making bulbs light in series and parallel circuits. Contains diagrams that illustrate the circuit patterns. Provides suggestions for applying the electronic principles that were addressed in the activities. (ML)

  10. Caffeine and the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, M G

    1997-08-01

    Caffeine, a popular CNS stimulant, is the most widely used neuroactive drug. Present in coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks as well as over-the-counter and prescription medications, it influences millions of users. This agent has achieved recent notoriety because its dependency consequences and addictive potential have been re-examined and emphasized. Caffeine's central actions are thought to be mediated through adenosine (A) receptors and monoamine neurotransmitters. The present article suggests that the olfactory bulb (OB) may be an important site in the brain that is responsible for caffeine's central actions in several species. This conclusion is based on the extraordinarily robust and selective effects of caffeine on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and particularly serotonin (5HT) utilization in the OB of mice. We believe that these phenomena should be given appropriate consideration as a basis for caffeine's central actions, even in primates. Concurrently, we review a rich rodent literature concerned with A, 5HT, NE, and DA receptors in the OB and related structures along with other monoamine parameters. We also review a more limited literature concerned with the primate OB. Finally, we cite the literature that treats the dependency and addictive effects of caffeine in humans, and relate the findings to possible olfactory mechanisms.

  11. Cortical feedback control of olfactory bulb circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alison M; Sturgill, James F; Poo, Cindy; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2012-12-20

    Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells integrate sensory input from olfactory bulb mitral and tufted (M/T) cells and project axons back to the bulb. However, the impact of cortical feedback projections on olfactory bulb circuits is unclear. Here, we selectively express channelrhodopsin-2 in olfactory cortex pyramidal cells and show that cortical feedback projections excite diverse populations of bulb interneurons. Activation of cortical fibers directly excites GABAergic granule cells, which in turn inhibit M/T cells. However, we show that cortical inputs preferentially target short axon cells that drive feedforward inhibition of granule cells. In vivo, activation of olfactory cortex that only weakly affects spontaneous M/T cell firing strongly gates odor-evoked M/T cell responses: cortical activity suppresses odor-evoked excitation and enhances odor-evoked inhibition. Together, these results indicate that although cortical projections have diverse actions on olfactory bulb microcircuits, the net effect of cortical feedback on M/T cells is an amplification of odor-evoked inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Roentgenologic image of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunin, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    When studying a series of aimed roentgenograms in patients with peptic ulcer a gas bubble of irregular spherical configuration or two-layer niche were determined near the bulb medial contour. Gas bubble was from 0.5-0.7 to 3.5 cm in diameter. In such cases penetrating ulcers were determined in operations. Along with other signs gas bubble symptom, sometimes two-layer signs may be used for timely and exact roentgenological diagnosis of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer in peptic ulcer disease

  13. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  14. Integrated nursery pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    What is integrated pest management? Take a look at the definition of each word to better understand the concept. Two of the words (integrated and management) are relatively straightforward. Integrated means to blend pieces or concepts into a unified whole, and management is the wise use of techniques to successfully accomplish a desired outcome. A pest is any biotic (...

  15. Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  16. A Pest of Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes worldwide. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in Idaho (G. pallida) and Quebec and Alberta, Can...

  17. Influence of vernalization and bulb size on the production of lily cut flowers and lily bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Brito de Almeida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of bulbs to cold, a physiological phenomenon called vernalization, and bulb size are important factors in the production of lily bulbs and flowers. This study aimed to verify the influence of vernalization of bulbs on flowering cut lily plants, as well as the impact of size and shape of harvest on the production and quality of flowers and bulbs. In turn, the way the stems of the plants used for cut-flower production are cropped is of higher importance for the production of new flower bulbs. In this sense, the experiment was conducted in Viçosa, MG, in a greenhouse in a randomized block design, in split splot scheme with three replications, in which the vernalization periods (25, 35 and 45 days at 4 ± 1 C constituted the plots; bulb sizes (diameters of 3.2-3.8 cm; 2.5-3.2 cm 1.9- and 2.5 cm, subplots and ways to harvest (full harvest of the stem at the required length for the commercial harvest of the flower, commercial stem harvest at the commercial length, maintaining 10cm of stem in the soil; removal of the floral buds as soon as their appearance is observed and harvest at the end of the season, the sub subplots. The bulbs were planted in beds, with 15 x 20 cm spacing. It was evaluated the number of plants that flowered and the number of flowers, the length and the diameter of the floral buds, fresh and dry weights, diameter and plant height as well as number, perimeter and amount of fresh and dry bulbs. There was a decrease in the plant height with the increase of the vernalization period and a reduction of the diameter of the planted bulbs, as well as of the number and the fresh and dry weights of the produced buds. The production of flowers and buds in number, size and weight was directly proportional to the size of the planted bulbs, while the form of harvest with removal of flower buds increased the number, the perimeter and the fresh and dry weights of the buds. Bulbs with diameter between 3.2 - 3.8 cm, stored for 25 days in

  18. Hydroponic technology for lily flowers and bulbs production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... the utilization of the hydroponic technology to produce flower and bulb of Asiatic ... when they became 2 cm long and mother bulb scales were removed at ..... cell layer culture system in Lilium:Rgeneration and transformation.

  19. Action of sulfurous acid on pollen. [Hepatica triloba; Helleborus orientalis; Vinca minor; Viola tricolor; Primula officinalis; Lilium candidum; Petunia; Pisum; Helleborus viridus; Galanthus nivealis; Vinca major; Convallaria maialis; Narcissus poeticus; Caltha palustris; Cystisus laburnum; Orchis maculata; Bilbergia; Eranthus; Crocus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabachnikoff, V

    1912-01-23

    The following ornamental plants: Hepatica triloba, Helleborus orientalis, Vinca minor, Viola tricolor, Primula officinalis, Lilium candidum, Petunia, Pisum, Helleborus viridus, Galanthus nivealis, Vinca major, Convallaria maialis, Narcissus poeticus, Caltha palustris, Cystisus laburnum, Orchis maculata, Bilbergia, Eranthus, and Crocus were tested for seed production. Exposure to sulfuric acid ranged from three to forty-eight hours. Responses were noted for varying concentrations.

  20. MODELS OF HOURLY DRY BULB TEMPERATURE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hourly meteorological data of both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity for 18 locations in Nigeria for the period 1995 to 2009 were analysed to obtain the mean monthly average and monthly hourly average of each of the two meteorological variables for each month for each location. The difference between the ...

  1. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.; Oehler, G.; Schulz, A.; Rau, W.S.; Giessen Univ.; Giessen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The radiological and clinical findings of 12 patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb are presented. This is a defined disease with characteristic radiological features: multiple small nodular defects of the contrast medium of 1-3 mm diameter. Histology shows complete heterotopia. Pathogenesis and clinical significance are discussed with reference to the literature on this subject. (orig.) [de

  2. Proteomic Analysis of the Human Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammalli, Manjunath; Dey, Gourav; Madugundu, Anil K; Kumar, Manish; Rodrigues, Benvil; Gowda, Harsha; Siddaiah, Bychapur Gowrishankar; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla Krishna; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2017-08-01

    The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death. In this context, the olfactory bulb is a vital component of the olfactory system receiving sensory information from the axons of the olfactory receptor neurons located in the nasal cavity and the first place that processes the olfactory information. We report in this study original observations on the human olfactory bulb proteome in healthy subjects, using a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. We identified 7750 nonredundant proteins from human olfactory bulbs. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins showed their involvement in biological processes associated with signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and olfaction. These new observations provide a crucial baseline molecular profile of the human olfactory bulb proteome, and should assist the future discovery of biomarker proteins and novel diagnostics associated with diseases characterized by olfactory dysfunction.

  3. Organic Flower Bulbs From Holland - Outlook for the French Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Elise

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is a major exporter of flower bulbs in the world. France is amongst the top10 of the biggest importers of Dutch flower bulbs. However, the growing of bulbs is very damaging to the environment. With the use of 1,5 million kilograms of pesticide and 16 million kilograms of artificial

  4. Bud abortion in tulip bulbs studied by magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, van M.G.; Nicolaij, K.; Franssen, J.M.; Kollöffel, C.

    2002-01-01

    After storage and subsequent planting of flower bulbs, the flower bud frequently appears to be aborted. This physiological aberration is probably caused by a change in the water status of the bulb and may be initiated during storage. The development of bud abortion in tulip bulbs was studied during

  5. Report of an exploratory study on vacuum drying of flower bulbs; Verslag orienterend onderzoek vacuumdrogen bloembollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkema, M.; Van der Klugt, J.W.

    2010-03-15

    In an exploratory practical study, several questions were answered with regard to vacuum drying. What are the effects on growing and flowering of flower bulbs: (1) of vacuum drying; (2) of half an hour of zero oxygen immediately after harvesting; and (3) of strong temperature shift immediately after harvesting? In addition, the following questions were answered: (4) do flower bulbs dry sufficiently in half an hour of vacuum?; (5) how do fungi and bacteria respond to half an hour in vacuum?; (6) how do animal pests (e.g. bulb mite)react to vacuum? [Dutch] In een orienterende praktijkproef is een aantal vragen beantwoord met betrekking tot vacuumdrogen. Wat zijn de effecten op de groei en de bloei van bloembollen: (1) van vacuumdrogen; (2)van een half uur zuurstofloosheid direct na de oogst?; en (3) van een sterke temperatuurwisseling direct na de oogst?. Daarnaast werden de volgende vragen beantwoord: (4) drogen bloembollen voldoende in een half uur vacuum?; (5) hoe reageren schimmels en bacterien op het vacuum?; (6) hoe reageren dierlijke aantasters (o.a. bollenmijt) op het vacuum?.

  6. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykas, C.; Vegalas, I.; Gougaulias, N.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH), fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM) of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs. (Author)

  7. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lykas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH, fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs.

  8. Pest control services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-04-27

    Apr 27, 2018 ... for Pest Control Services” addressed to the Purchase In-charge / Executive Secretary,. Indian Academy of ... shall be evaluated on two stage evaluation process. After evaluating ... decision of IASc is final and unquestionable.

  9. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  10. Integrated pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The hazards induced by pests are responsible for about 50% of the agricultural production. There are two types of methods for pest control. The traditional methods including chemical, biological, mechanical and physical methods. The modern methods depending on germs, phermones, hormones and genetic methods. The sterile insect technique is the most recent one and the more effective. It depends on the use of insect to destroy itself.

  11. PEST Analysis of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Stosic; Drasko Nikolic; Aleksandar Zdravkovic

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the current Serbian macro-environment on the businesses through the implementation of PEST analysis as a framework for assessing general or macro environment in which companies are operating. The authors argue the elements in presented PEST analysis indicate that the current macro-environment is characterized by the dominance of threats and weaknesses with few opportunities and strengths. Consequently, there is a strong need for faste...

  12. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  13. The European Commission's light bulb decree: Another costly regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frondel, Manuel; Lohmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Since September 2009, Regulation 244/2009 of the European Commission enforces the gradual phase-out of incandescent light bulbs. As of September 2012, only energy-efficient lighting sources will be allowed for sale. Among these are halogen light bulbs, light-emitting diodes (LED), or compact fluorescent light bulbs-often referred to as energy-saving light bulbs. The Commission's justification for the phase-out of conventional light bulbs maintains that a reduction in the electricity consumed will not only lead to lower energy cost for private households and industrial consumers, but at the same time lead to a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. This article discusses possible reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs and shows that the investment in energy-efficient light bulbs does not necessarily lead to significant cost reductions. Drawing on some illustrative examples, we demonstrate that the use of cheaper incandescent bulbs instead of energy-saving light bulbs can be economically rational in cases of rather low usage times, in which the higher initial purchasing price might only pay off after very long time spans. Furthermore, due to the coexistence with the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), this regulation attains no additional emission reductions beyond those achieved by the ETS alone. We thus conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs is inappropriate and should be abolished by the Commission. - Research highlights: → This article discusses reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs. → We show that using incandescent bulbs can be rational in cases of rather low usage times. → We conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs should be abolished by the Commission.

  14. Integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    An effective Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme requires a thorough knowledge of the biology of the target species, namely information on the dispersal, population densities and dynamics as well as the ecology of the natural enemies of the pest. Studies on these can be accomplished by radiolabelling techniques. In the event that conditions prevent the use of radioisotopes the insects can be labelled with either a rare earth or stable isotopes. All insects treated with the rare earths, once captured, are exposed to neutrons which produce radioactivity in the rare earths. There are two other approaches in the practical application of radiation to the problem of insect control: the exposure of insects to lethal doses of radiation and the release of sterile insects. The Insect and Pest Control Section contributes to all aspects of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and it is involved in the Agency's Coordinated Research Programme which permits scientists from the developing countries to meet to discuss agricultural problems and to devise means of solving crop-pest infestation problems by using isotopes and radiation. The success of radiation in insect pest control was underlined and reviewed at the international symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control jointly organized by the FAO and the IAEA and held in the FRG in 1981. Another important action is the BICOT programme in Nigeria between the IAEA and the Government of Nigeria on the biological control of tsetse flies by SIT

  15. Which bulb is brighter? It depends on connection! Strategies for illuminating electrical concepts using light bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren; Lee, Paul; Foong, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we examined teachers’ understanding of electrical concepts such as power, current and potential difference based on how these concepts were applied to understand the relative brightness seen in bulbs of different wattage under different connections—series or parallel. From the responses of teachers to a concept question, we identified common lines of reasoning and the associated conceptual difficulties. To support the explanation of the concept question, we set up relevant circuits and made measurements of the circuits. We discuss the temperature dependence of the resistance of the light bulb which although critical for in depth understanding of the relative brightness, was often omitted in the teacher responses. Lastly, we share insights and strategies to elicit and confront students' thinking and to help them resolve, extend and apply their thinking with regard to the related electrical concepts using various light bulb activities.

  16. An integrated pest management program as a pests control strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phukubje, Justice

    The study was conducted using a survey methodology and data collection was ... prevention and pest control measures at UB-Library, .... on pest equally include the rapid production of the young ones ...... Handbook of research methods; A ...

  17. Forest nursery pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Michelle S. Frank; Katy M. Mallams

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Forest Nursery Pests, Agriculture Handbook No. 680, was made possible by the work of many people from around the country. Contributing authors include U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service entomologists and pathologists, university professors and researchers, State extension specialists, consultants, and plant...

  18. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Integrated Pest Management (IPM) IPM Company: IPM is the Key - Oregon State University Extension Service Last updated May 11, 2018 Related Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en

  19. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  20. Unwelcome Guests: Extoic Forest Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun Jiang-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Exotic forest pests cost China and the United States billions of dollars each year. Current regulatory systems worldwide are over-whelmed with the increasing volume of international trade. Trade in nursery stock, wood products, pallets and dunnage have proven the most common means of transport for exotic forest pests. Despite our best efforts, pests such as chestnut...

  1. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  2. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  3. Networking of integrated pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Aubertot, Jean Noël; Begg, Graham; Birch, Andrew Nicholas E.; Boonekamp, Piet; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring; Jensen, Jens Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Kiss, Jozsef; Kudsk, Per; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Rasplus, Jean Yves; Sattin, Maurizio; Streito, Jean Claude; Messéan, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is facing both external and internal challenges. External challenges include increasing needs to manage pests (pathogens, animal pests and weeds) due to climate change, evolution of pesticide resistance as well as virulence matching host resistance. The complexity

  4. Phytochemical analysis of Cyrtanthus obliquus bulbs from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    dihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene was also isolated from the bulbs. The ... Fresh bulbs from C. obliquus were purchased at the Berea market in Durban and identified by a curator from the School of Biological and. Conservation Sciences, UKZN, Westville ...

  5. New treatment of vertigo caused by jugular bulb abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitier, Martin; Barbier, Charlotte; Marie-Aude, Thenint; Moreau, Sylvain; Courtheoux, Patrick; Patron, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    Jugular bulb abnormalities can induce tinnitus, hearing loss, or vertigo. Vertigo can be very disabling and may need surgical treatments with risk of hearing loss, major bleeding or facial palsy. Hence, we have developed a new treatment for vertigo caused by jugular bulb anomalies, using an endovascular technique. Three patients presented with severe vertigos mostly induced by high venous pressure. One patient showed downbeat vertical nystagmus during the Valsalva maneuver. The temporal-bone computed tomography scan showed a high rising jugular bulb or a jugular bulb diverticulum with dehiscence and compression of the vestibular aqueduct in all cases. We plugged the upper part of the bulb with coils, and we used a stent to maintain the coils and preserving the venous permeability. After 12- to 24-month follow-up, those patients experienced no more vertigo, allowing return to work. The 3-month arteriographs showed good permeability of the sigmoid sinus and jugular bulb through the stent, with complete obstruction of the upper part of the bulb in all cases. Disabling vertigo induced by jugular bulb abnormalities can be effectively treated by an endovascular technique. This technique is minimally invasive with a probable greater benefit/risk ratio compare with surgery. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. RESPONSE OF ONION (Allium cepa L.) BULB YIELD TO DAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    2012-06-17

    Jun 17, 2012 ... to the significance of onion bulbs in Nigeria, research efforts at the National Horticultural ... of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. O. A. T. Namo, Department of Plant Science and Technology, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria ... plants to a source of light (two mercury solar light fluorescence bulbs of 150 watts ...

  7. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  8. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. A cultivar (Allium cepa 'Copra') with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 degrees C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO(2) and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO(2) production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy.

  9. Defining sale ethylene for long term storage of tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Dijkstra, M.H.G.E.; Gude, H.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum ethylene level that can be permitted in storage rooms, without causing damage to tulip bulbs, is not exactly known. Therefore, a zero-tolerance for the presence of ethylene during storage of tulip bulbs is common practice. This results in excessive ventilation and coherent large energy

  10. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  11. Heat pump applications in Dutch flower bulb farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.B. de

    1999-01-01

    Increasing numbers of flower bulb fanns in the Netherlands are using heat pumps for conditioning bulbs. The main advantage of the (electric) heat pump is that it combines all conditioning steps (drying, cooling and heating) in one device. Another advantage is that it makes process control simple and

  12. Conservation of garlic bulbs (allium sativum L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting. (author)

  13. Atoms for pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Insects cause losses estimated at between 8% and 20% of total production of crops and livestock throughout the world. With the aim of developing technologies which can reduce such losses, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division actively sponsors projects and conducts research through the Entomology Section of the Agricultural Biotechnology Laboratory at Seibersdorf. In its work, the Section has placed considerable emphasis on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This technique involves the sterilization and release of large numbers of insects of the target species into the area where control is to be achieved. There, the sterile insects mate with the fertile wild insects, which produce no progeny: the technique is thus a highly specific form of ''birth control''. It is being used against a number of pest species in several countries

  14. Freezing Injury in Onion Bulb Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Jiwan P.; Levitt, Jacob; Stadelmann, Eduard J.

    1977-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs were frozen to −4 and −11 C and kept frozen for up to 12 days. After slow thawing, a 2.5-cm square from a bulb scale was transferred to 25 ml deionized H2O. After shaking for standard times, measurements were made on the effusate and on the effused cells. The results obtained were as follows. Even when the scale tissue was completely infiltrated, and when up to 85% of the ions had diffused out, all of the cells were still alive, as revealed by cytoplasmic streaming and ability to plasmolyze. The osmotic concentration of the cell sap, as measured plasmolytically, decreased in parallel to the rise in conductivity of the effusate. The K+ content of the effusate, plus its assumed counterion, accounted for only 20% of the total solutes, but for 100% of the conductivity. A large part of the nonelectrolytes in the remaining 80% of the solutes was sugars. The increased cell injury and infiltration in the −11 C treatment, relative to the −4 C and control (unfrozen) treatments, were paralleled by increases in conductivity, K+ content, sugar content, and pH of the effusate. In spite of the 100% infiltration of the tissue and the large increase in conductivity of the effusate following freezing, no increase in permeability of the cells to water could be detected. The above observations may indicate that freezing or thawing involves a disruption of the active transport system before the cells reveal any injury microscopically. PMID:16660100

  15. Cholinergic innervation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey G; Greig, Ann; Sakata, Yoko; Elkin, Dimitry; Michel, William C

    2007-10-20

    A number of fish species receive forebrain cholinergic input but two recent reports failed to find evidence of cholinergic cell bodies or fibers in the olfactory bulbs (OBs) of zebrafish. In the current study we sought to confirm these findings by examining the OBs of adult zebrafish for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. We observed a diffuse network of varicose ChAT-positive fibers associated with the nervus terminalis ganglion innervating the mitral cell/glomerular layer (MC/GL). The highest density of these fibers occurred in the anterior region of the bulb. The cellular targets of this cholinergic input were identified by exposing isolated OBs to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonists in the presence of agmatine (AGB), a cationic probe that permeates some active ion channels. Nicotine (50 microM) significantly increased the activity-dependent labeling of mitral cells and juxtaglomerular cells but not of tyrosine hydroxlase-positive dopaminergic neurons (TH(+) cells) compared to control preparations. The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, an alpha7-nAChR subunit-specific antagonist, calcium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid, or a cocktail of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists each blocked nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that AGB does not enter the labeled neurons through activated nAChRs but rather through activated iGluRs following ACh-stimulated glutamate release. Deafferentation of OBs did not eliminate nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that cholinergic input is primarily acting on bulbar neurons. These findings confirm the presence of a functioning cholinergic system in the zebrafish OB.

  16. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  17. Sensory quality of irradiated onion and garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Urioste, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The radioinhibition process has shown to prolong shelf-life of ''Valenciana sintetica 14'' onion variety and ''Colorado'' garlic variety. Sensory attributes of the irradiated bulbs were tested monthly by trained judges during extended storage in warehouse conditions (6-32C, R.H. 40-50%). The sensory properties observed were external and internal appearance, firmness and odor. The irradiated bulbs were judged to be superior in quality with respect to internal and external appearance (p 0.01) and firmness (p 0.01), after 180 days postharvest. The irradiated bulbs showed no difference in odor (p 0.05), when compared to unirradiated ones, through the storage period

  18. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  19. New Penicillium species associated with bulbs and root vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2003-01-01

    Taxa of the Penicillium series Corymbifera are known for their strongly fasciculate growth and association with the rhizosphere of vegetables and flower bulbs. Using micromorphology, colony characteristics on various media and chemotaxonomic profiling, P. albocoremium sensu stricto and two new...

  20. Hydroponic technology for lily flowers and bulbs production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-22

    EC) and .... rock wool cubes as growing medium; the tang measures were 112 ... and weight of bulb roots, stem roots, bulblets roots per plant were ... The statistical analysis system (SAS, 2012) was used to effect ..... In vitro cell.

  1. Holistic pest management [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a continuous process of solving problems. Murphy's Law of "anything that can go wrong, will go wrong" sounds as if it were meant for native plant production. One recurring problem is pests. Nursery managers have traditionally talked about "controlling" a pest. This approach...

  2. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in increased pesticide use, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic a...

  3. Profilaxia da peste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato dos Santos Araújo

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor parte da premissa de que a profilaxia da doença infecciosa decorre do encadeamento epidemiológico: fonte de infecção-veículo transmissor - receptivel, para explicar a da peste, baseada no mesmo princípio. Depois de citar os 4 principais complexos epidemiológicos da peste e afirmar que tôda a profilaxia da doença consiste em atingir os dois primeiros elos dessas cadeias e proteger o último, passa a classificar os vários métodos profiláticos empregados em 2 grandes grupos: o das medidas destrutivas ou provisórias e o das medidas supressivas ou definitivas. Entre as primeiras arrola a desratização e a despulização, às quais acrescenta o tratamento e isolamento do doente e do portaãor, e entre as segundas inclui a anti-ratização e a imunização. A seguir, passa a explicar em que consistem essas várias medidas profiláticas e quais os agentes de que se tem lançado mão para executá-las, expendendo ao curso dessa exposição o conceito que formula a respeito de cada uma delas, à guisa de apreciação do seu valor relativo. Enaltece sobretudo as medidas supressivas ou definitivas, às quais empresta a maior significação na luta antipestosa, chamando a atenção, em especial, para a necessidade de estudos imunológicos para aperfeiçoamento do poder imunitário das vacinas de germes vivos avirulentos, que considera um grande recurso para a profilaxia da doença, sobretudo para a proteção do rurícola, cujo labor e modo de vida o expõem inevitavelmente a se infectar, por ocasião da ocorrência de epizootias de origem silvestre. Concluída essa primeira parte, passa a fazer o histórico de como se desenvolveu a campanha contra a peste, no Brasil, desde a época da sua invasão em 1899 pelo pôrto de Santos até os nossos dias. Nesse histórico, detem-se um pouco para expôr a atuação do extinto Serviço Nacional de Peste, o qual, criado em 1941, após a reorganização do Departamento Nacional de Saúde, passou

  4. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Garel, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  5. Evaluating population and community structure against climate and land-use determinants to improve the conservation of the rare Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. nobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz, Ana Sofia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land-use changes are among the most relevant determinants of future persistence of rare plant species in rural landscapes. We analysed the structure of populations of a rare plant, Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. nobilis, and of their respective plant communities against several environmental variables (climate-, topography-, land-use-, and soil-related in order to identify the pressures that may directly or indirectly affect the persistence of the rare species. Overall, local land-use was the primary determinant of traits related to population renewal and community composition. Specifically, traditional farmlands supported higher community diversity and population individuals. Though moderate land-use intensification seemed to benefit plant community diversity, land abandonment could allow the persistence of N. pseudonarcissus subsp. nobilis populations. Also, a relevant influence of regional environment was perceived on species richness as well as on traits related to population condition, highlighting climate change as a potential determinant of the future persistence of the species. This study highlights the importance of considering key population traits as well as of community structure to accomplish conservation goals by accounting with the factors driving changes in the habitats in which rare species occur, from climate change to land-use and landscape management.Las alteraciones del clima y del uso del suelo están entre los factores más relevantes para la persistencia de las especies raras de plantas en paisajes rurales. Este trabajo evalúa la estructura de las poblaciones de una especie rara, Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. nobilis, así como de las comunidades de plantas en las cuales se incluyen, frente a variables ambientales (relacionadas con el clima, la topografía, el uso del suelo, y las propiedades del suelo, para identificar las presiones que puedan directa o indirectamente afectar a la especie. En general

  6. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  7. Management of maxillectomy defect with a hybrid hollow bulb obturator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamleshwar; Singh, Saumyendra V; Mishra, Niraj; Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor

    2013-01-01

    A woman having already undergone maxillectomy came to the department complaining of difficulty in eating and speech. During the construction of an obturator, the bulb area should be hollowed to reduce weight so that the teeth and supporting tissues are not stressed unnecessarily. The conventional open design drains fluid from the adjacent mucosa, possibly increasing the weight of the prosthesis, and is difficult to clean. The closed bulb design does not drain secretions and may cause obstruction and susceptibility to infection in the paranasal and pharyngeal regions, though it is easier to maintain. An alternative to the two designs, combining their advantages, is presented in this report. As the open hollow part of the obturator was shallow, it was easy to clean. Making the inferior part of the bulb hollow and closed led to a reduction in the overall weight of the prosthesis while increasing its resonance. PMID:23436886

  8. Controversial bulb disks still marketed as energy savers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.

    1982-05-24

    Despite a 1980 DOE study showing that incandescent bulb disks decrease lamp efficiency by reducing light output as well as energy consumption, at least two manufacturers are still marketing the disks. The companies claim that the Power Disc and Lite-Saver will extend bulb life up to 100 times and reduce wattage 42%, although they both acknowledge that light output is reduced as much as 74% for a 53% efficiency drop. Some users claim the life-extension feature is important when bulb replacement is difficult. The DOE study concludes that the disks are not cost-effective if the user wants equivalent lighting, and questions some of the manufacturers' advertising claims. Satisfied users counter with reports of good performance and no problems with shock or other safety hazards. (DCK)

  9. Glow curve characteristics of bulb type thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Feher, I.; Felszerfalvi, J.

    1993-01-01

    TL dosemeter readers are equipped usually with thermocouples connected to the heater unit. This layout can well be applied to stabilize the position of the glow curve as a function of heating-up time. Bulb type TL dosemeters do not have temperature sensors, no possibility for stabilization, which can cause an additional readout error of dose determination. For this reason, the time dependence of glow curves for bulb-type TL dosemeters was measured, and a new microprocessor controlled readout device was developed. (N.T.) 2 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Phosphorus requirement of flower bulbs. Results 1997-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Willigen, de P.; Oenema, O.; Brouwer, G.; Pasterkamp, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    The current fertilizer recommendations for flower bulbs in the Netherlands and the widespread use of farmyard manure result in a mean phosphorus (P) surplus of ~32 kg ha-1 year-1 (73 kg P2O5) on farm level. Implementation of the mineral bookkeeping s

  11. Carbon dioxide and ethylene interactions in tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Gude, H.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of CO, on ethylene-induced gummosis (secretion of polysaccharides), weight loss and respiration in tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L.) was investigated. A pretreatment with 1-MCP prevented these ethylene-induced effects, indicating that ethylene action must have been directed via the

  12. Groeimetingen bij de tulpebol = Growth measurements on the tulip bulb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    Tulips did not require a specific soil, if pH was not below 6.5 and water supply was sufficient. Influence of weather conditions was studied by comparing bulb production in different years and areas. Low temperatures after planting and during winter, a gradual increase in spring, sunshine in April

  13. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  14. Role of oxidative damage in tulip bulb scale micropropagation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van M.W.P.C.; Plas, van der L.H.W.

    1997-01-01

    The activation of oxygen stress-related enzymes was compared in regenerating and non-regenerating tulip bulb scale explants and regenerating stalk explants. The phospholipid composition of scale explants showed an increase of linolenic acid (1-15%) and a decrease in linoleic acid (70-55%). After

  15. Energy Saving Bulbs: An Emerging Threat to Public Health, from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy saving bulbs are promoted for their efficiency and capacity to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, the acknowledged cause of global warming and climate change. They however contain varying quantity of mercury that can easily contaminate the environment. Mercury is a neuro-toxin, but damage has also ...

  16. Hydroponic Technology for Lily Flowers and Bulbs Production Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the potential of nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic system for flowers and bulbs production of the Asiatic hybrid lily cv. "Blackout" using rainwater and some common nutrient solutions (Hoagland No. 2 Basal Salt Mixture, Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt Mixture and ...

  17. A Fan-tastic Alternative to Bulbs: Learning Circuits with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekey, Robert; Edwards, Andrea; McCullough, Roy; Reitz, William; Mitchell, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The incandescent bulb has been a useful tool for teaching basic electrical circuits, as brightness is related to the current or power flowing through a bulb. This has led to the development of qualitative pedagogical treatments for examining resistive combinations in simple circuits using bulbs and batteries, which were first introduced by James…

  18. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... on management, 32-115 kg ant brood (mainly new queens) was harvested per ha per year without detrimental effect on colony survival and worker ant densities. This suggest that ant biocontrol and ant harvest can be sustainable integrated in plantations and double benefits derived. As ant production is fuelled...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  19. The light bulb, cystoscopy, and Thomas Alva Edison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2010-09-01

    Thomas Alva Edison was an icon of American achievement who literally invented the 20th century. Although best known as the inventor of the electric light bulb, the phonograph, and motion pictures, he also left a lasting legacy via peripheral developmental applications, such as endoscopes. A review of published urologic writings about incandescent cystoscopes was cross-referenced to writings about or from Edison. Important events that allowed transference of technology from the Edison laboratory to clinical practice were emphasized. Edison was born in 1847 while Lincoln was serving in Congress; he died in 1931 when Hoover struggled with the Great Depression. Edison's life spanned the formative period of America that Henry Adams called the "coming of age." Edison received a Sprengel vacuum device in late 1879, and as usual, he was able to tweak the machine to better performance. For 5 days in October, 16 to 21, he improved the vacuum from 1/100,000 to 1/1,000,000 atm, and his first incandescent bulb burned softly. On December 21, 1879, he leaked the story to N.Y. Herald journalist Marshall Fox, and the world was notified of the light bulb. Special Christmas light visits started in Menlo Park just 4 days later. Edison patented the screw cap for easy changes, and the first bulbs sold for 40 cents (cost $1.40). 100,000 bulbs sold in 1882, 4 million by 1892, and 45 million in 1903. Immediately, competitors and specialty manufacturers entered the market. Dr. Henry Koch and Charles Preston in Rochester, N.Y., developed a smaller, low amperage bulb that could be fitted to medical devices. No discussion of electricity and modern applications would be complete without some discussion of Thomas Alva Edison and his sentinel contributions. The first church, post office, and ship were illuminated in 1892. The first hotel, theater, and electric sign were in 1893. The rapidity of dispersal and secondary applications of Edison's inventions is typified by the rise of cystoscopes

  20. Genetic analyses of bolting in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Samantha; Revanna, Roopashree; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Shaw, Martin; Wright, Kathryn; Thomson, Susan; Moya, Leire; Lee, Robyn; Macknight, Richard; McCallum, John

    2014-03-01

    We present the first evidence for a QTL conditioning an adaptive trait in bulb onion, and the first linkage and population genetics analyses of candidate genes involved in photoperiod and vernalization physiology. Economic production of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) requires adaptation to photoperiod and temperature such that a bulb is formed in the first year and a flowering umbel in the second. 'Bolting', or premature flowering before bulb maturation, is an undesirable trait strongly selected against by breeders during adaptation of germplasm. To identify genome regions associated with adaptive traits we conducted linkage mapping and population genetic analyses of candidate genes, and QTL analysis of bolting using a low-density linkage map. We performed tagged amplicon sequencing of ten candidate genes, including the FT-like gene family, in eight diverse populations to identify polymorphisms and seek evidence of differentiation. Low nucleotide diversity and negative estimates of Tajima's D were observed for most genes, consistent with purifying selection. Significant population differentiation was observed only in AcFT2 and AcSOC1. Selective genotyping in a large 'Nasik Red × CUDH2150' F2 family revealed genome regions on chromosomes 1, 3 and 6 associated (LOD > 3) with bolting. Validation genotyping of two F2 families grown in two environments confirmed that a QTL on chromosome 1, which we designate AcBlt1, consistently conditions bolting susceptibility in this cross. The chromosome 3 region, which coincides with a functionally characterised acid invertase, was not associated with bolting in other environments, but showed significant association with bulb sucrose content in this and other mapping pedigrees. These putative QTL and candidate genes were placed on the onion map, enabling future comparative studies of adaptive traits.

  1. An integrated pest management program as a pests control strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, libraries and archives are obliged to preserve collections in perpetuity. Preservation is a presiding managerial function of coordinating the endeavor to protect collections from deterioration. As part of preservation, libraries and archives have the responsibility to monitor and control pests within their collections.

  2. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Peste y Cólera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gómez Dantés

    2015-09-01

    de transporte para abandonar las caravanas a pie, a caballo y en carretas de bueyes que hacían muy lenta su diseminación; no obstante, su efectividad permaneció siendo terrorífica si se recuerdan los 25 millones de víctimas que provocó la peste en el siglo XIV...

  4. Before You Control Your Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Before You Control Your Pest There are many require chemical control. There are many types of professionals who may offer assistance at different Control Company Pesticide Safe Use Practices Agency or Service How they may be able to help: NPIC We

  5. Sustainable Pest Management : Achievements and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: (a) review World Bank's pest management activities during 1999-2004; (b) assess those in view of the changes in the external and internal contexts; (c) identify appropriate opportunities of engagement on pest and pesticide issues; and (d) suggest means to further promote sound pest management in the World Bank operations. The importance of sound pest management for sustainable agricultural production is being recognized by many developing countries. Many cou...

  6. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  7. Forest pest management in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold

    2012-01-01

    The scope, context and science guiding forest pest management have evolved and are likely to continue changing into the future. Here, I present six areas of advice to guide practitioners in the implementation of forest pest management. First, human dimensions will continue to play a key role in most pest problems and should always be a primary consideration in...

  8. Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

    The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

  9. Integrated Management of Structural Pests in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    The state of Illinois is encouraging schools to better inspect and evaluate the causes of their pest infestation problems through use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines developed by the Illinois Department of Public Health. This guide reviews the philosophy and organization of an IPM program for structural pests in schools,…

  10. 40 CFR 152.5 - Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pests. 152.5 Section 152.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.5 Pests. An organism is declared to be a pest...

  11. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the…

  12. Management of insect pests using semiochemical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroffio, C. A.; Guibert, V.; Richoz, P.

    2016-01-01

    multitrap for the economical management of both of these pests at the same time. This is one of the first approaches to pest management of non-lepidopteran insect pests of horticultural crops using semiochemicals in the EU, and probably the first to target multiple species from different insect orders...

  13. Student Active Participation in the Study of the Light Bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Ogrutan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an initiative approach to the study of light bulbs, involving active participation of the students engaged in interactive problem-/project-based learning of electromagnetic compatibility and energetic efficiency belonging to the environmental issues. The paper includes preliminary and complementary simulations of the hardware firmware-software-net ware development of a laboratory test bench for the study of conducted perturbations generated during the bulb firing sequence. This laboratory sub-system is useful both in association with traditional methods of learning as well as with e-Learning platforms. Finally, the paper presents the results of a concise survey of opinions on the outcomes of this research.

  14. The Soft Palate Friendly Speech Bulb for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kahlon, Sukhdeep Singh; Kahlon, Monaliza; Gupta, Shilpa; Dhingra, Parvinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency is an anatomic defect of the soft palate making palatopharyngeal sphincter incomplete. It is an important concern to address in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Speech aid prosthesis or speech bulbs are best choice in cases where surgically repaired soft palate is too short to contact pharyngeal walls during function but these prosthesis have been associated with inadequate marginal closure, ulcerations and patient discomfort. Here is a case report of...

  15. Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Using Standard Meteorological Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The heat stress management program at the Department of Energy''s Savannah River Site (SRS) requires implementation of protective controls on outdoor work based on observed values of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). To ensure continued compliance with heat stress program requirements, a computer algorithm was developed which calculates an estimate of WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. In addition, scripts were developed to generate a calculation every 15 minutes and post the results to an Intranet web site

  16. Stimulus-response functions of single avian olfactory bulb neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Demmers, Theodorus G M; Wathes, Christopher M; Jones, R Bryan; Gentle, Michael J

    2002-10-25

    This study investigated olfactory processing in a functional context by examining the responses of single avian olfactory bulb neurones to two biologically important gases over relevant concentration ranges. Recordings of extracellular spike activity were made from 80 single units in the left olfactory bulb of 11 anaesthetised, freely breathing adult hens (Gallus domesticus). The units were spontaneously active, exhibiting widely variable firing rates (0.07-47.28 spikes/s) and variable temporal firing patterns. Single units were tested for their response to an ascending concentration series of either ammonia (2.5-100 ppm) or hydrogen sulphide (1-50 ppm), delivered directly to the olfactory epithelium. Stimulation with a calibrated gas delivery system resulted in modification of spontaneous activity causing either inhibition (47% of units) or excitation (53%) of firing. For ammonia, 20 of the 35 units tested exhibited a response, while for hydrogen sulphide, 25 of the 45 units tested were responsive. Approximate response thresholds for ammonia (median threshold 3.75 ppm (range 2.5-60 ppm, n=20)) and hydrogen sulphide (median threshold 1 ppm (range 1-10 ppm, n=25)) were determined with most units exhibiting thresholds near the lower end of these ranges. Stimulus response curves were constructed for 23 units; 16 (the most complete) were subjected to a linear regression analysis to determine whether they were best fitted by a linear, log or power function. No single function provided the best fit for all the curves (seven were linear, eight were log, one was power). These findings show that avian units respond to changes in stimulus concentration in a manner generally consistent with reported responses in mammalian olfactory bulb neurones. However, this study illustrates a level of fine-tuning to small step changes in concentration (<5 ppm) not previously demonstrated in vertebrate single olfactory bulb neurones.

  17. LEDs Illuminate Bulbs for Better Sleep, Wake Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Life on the International Space Station (ISS) wreaks havoc on an astronaut’s biological rhythms, and one way NASA mitigates the problem is through the use of LED lighting to alternately stimulate energy and focus and induce relaxation. Satellite Beach, Florida-based Lighting Science partnered with Kennedy Space Center to commercialize an LED system designed for the ISS, resulting in its DefinityDigital product line of light bulbs now used in numerous homes, hotel chains, and resorts.

  18. The Soft Palate Friendly Speech Bulb for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Sukhdeep Singh; Kahlon, Monaliza; Gupta, Shilpa; Dhingra, Parvinder Singh

    2016-09-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency is an anatomic defect of the soft palate making palatopharyngeal sphincter incomplete. It is an important concern to address in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Speech aid prosthesis or speech bulbs are best choice in cases where surgically repaired soft palate is too short to contact pharyngeal walls during function but these prosthesis have been associated with inadequate marginal closure, ulcerations and patient discomfort. Here is a case report of untreated bilateral cleft lip and palate associated with palatal insufficiency treated by means of palate friendly innovative speech bulb. This modified speech bulb is a combination of hard acrylic and soft lining material. The hard self-curing acrylic resin covers only the hard palate area and a permanent soft silicone lining material covering the soft palate area. A claw-shaped wire component was extended backwards from acrylic and was embedded in soft silicone to aid in retention and approximation of two materials. The advantage of adding the soft lining material in posterior area helped in covering the adequate superior extension and margins for maximal pharyngeal activity. This also improved the hypernasality, speech, comfort and overall patient acceptance.

  19. Changes in olfactory bulb volume following lateralized olfactory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoias, S; Pietsch, K; Hummel, T

    2017-08-01

    Repeated exposure to odors modifies olfactory function. Consequently, "olfactory training" plays a significant role in hyposmia treatment. In addition, numerous studies show that the olfactory bulb (OB) volume changes in disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction. Aim of this study was to investigate whether and how olfactory bulb volume changes in relation to lateralized olfactory training in healthy people. Over a period of 4 months, 97 healthy participants (63 females and 34 males, mean age: 23.74 ± 4.16 years, age range: 19-43 years) performed olfactory training by exposing the same nostril twice a day to 4 odors (lemon, rose, eucalyptus and cloves) while closing the other nostril. Before and after olfactory training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed to measure OB volume. Furthermore, participants underwent lateralized odor threshold and odor identification testing using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery.OB volume increased significantly after olfactory training (11.3 % and 13.1 % respectively) for both trained and untrained nostril. No significant effects of sex, duration and frequency of training or age of the subjects were seen. Interestingly, PEA odor thresholds worsened after training, while olfactory identification remained unchanged.These data show for the first time in humans that olfactory training may involve top-down process, which ultimately lead to a bilateral increase in olfactory bulb volume.

  20. Chapter VIII. Contributions of propagation techniques and genetic modification to breeding - genetic engineering for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic engineering offers an opportunity to develop flower bulb crops with resistance to fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. Several of the flower bulb crops, Lilium spp., Gladiolus, Zantedeschia, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Narcissus, Ornithogalum, Iris, and Alstroemeria, have been transformed with t...

  1. Nuclear energy against insect pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-07-15

    The paper presents the main topics discussed at the scientific symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests, held in Athens last April, jointly organized by IAEA and FAO with the co-operation of the Greek Government. The sterile male technique is discussed in details and some results from the applications are given

  2. The European Commission's light bulb decree: Another costly regulation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel, E-mail: frondel@rwi-essen.de [Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB), Ruhr-Graduate School in Economics (RGS Econ) (Germany); Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany); Lohmann, Steffen [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany); Tinbergen Institute (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Since September 2009, Regulation 244/2009 of the European Commission enforces the gradual phase-out of incandescent light bulbs. As of September 2012, only energy-efficient lighting sources will be allowed for sale. Among these are halogen light bulbs, light-emitting diodes (LED), or compact fluorescent light bulbs-often referred to as energy-saving light bulbs. The Commission's justification for the phase-out of conventional light bulbs maintains that a reduction in the electricity consumed will not only lead to lower energy cost for private households and industrial consumers, but at the same time lead to a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. This article discusses possible reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs and shows that the investment in energy-efficient light bulbs does not necessarily lead to significant cost reductions. Drawing on some illustrative examples, we demonstrate that the use of cheaper incandescent bulbs instead of energy-saving light bulbs can be economically rational in cases of rather low usage times, in which the higher initial purchasing price might only pay off after very long time spans. Furthermore, due to the coexistence with the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), this regulation attains no additional emission reductions beyond those achieved by the ETS alone. We thus conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs is inappropriate and should be abolished by the Commission. - Research Highlights: > This article discusses reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs. > We show that using incandescent bulbs can be rational in cases of rather low usage times. > We conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs should be abolished by the Commission.

  3. The role of onion-associated fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to onion seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, Tal; Gal, Shira; Inbar, Moshe; Lebiush-Mordechai, Sara; Tsror, Leah; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In Israel Rhizoglyphus robini is considered to be a pest in its own right, even though the mite is usually found in association with fungal pathogens. Plant protection recommendations are therefore to treat germinating onions seedlings, clearly a crucial phase in crop production, when mites are discovered. The aim of this study was to determine the role of fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to germinating onion seedlings. Accordingly we (1) evaluated the effect of the mite on onion seedling germination and survival without fungi, (2) compared the attraction of the mite to species and isolates of various fungi, (3) assessed the effect of a relatively non-pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum on mite fecundity, and (4) determined the effects of the mite and of F. oxysporum separately and together, on onion seedling germination and sprout development. A significant reduction of seedling survival was recorded only in the 1,000 mites/pot treatment, after 4 weeks. Mites were attracted to 6 out of 7 collected fungi isolates. Mite fecundity on onion sprouts infested with F. oxysporum was higher than on non-infested sprouts. Survival of seedlings was affected by mites, fungi, and their combination. Sprouts on Petri dishes after 5 days were significantly longer in the control and mite treatments than both fungi treatments. During the 5-day experiment more mites were always found on the fungi-infected sprouts than on the non-infected sprouts. Future research using suppressive soils to suppress soil pathogens and subsequent mite damage is proposed.

  4. Peste y Cólera

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Gómez Dantés

    2015-01-01

    La peste y el cólera son sinónimos de destrucción, miseria, terror,desgracia y muerte. Ambas infecciones han diezmado a poblaciones enteras por millones, cursando implacables e invencibles la ruta de la seda, los desérticos territorios delmedio oriente y la Europa medieval,navegando mares completos desde elÍndico hasta el Mediterráneo, el Pacífico y el Atlántico, sin ser detenidas por cientos de años. Pacientemente esperaron los avances en los medios de transporte para abandonar las carava...

  5. Bulb turbine operating at medium head: XIA JIANG case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, F; Desrats, C; Petit, P; Liu, J

    2012-01-01

    With lots of references for 4-blade bulb turbines, such as these of Wu Jin Xia (4 units – 36.1 MW per unit – 9.2 m rated head), Chang Zhou (15 units – 46.7 MW per unit – 9.5 m rated head) and Tong Wan (4 units – 46.2 MW per unit – 11 m rated head), ALSTOM Power Hydro is one of the major suppliers of bulb turbines operating under medium head for the Chinese market. ALSTOM Power Hydro has been awarded in November 2010 a contract by Jiang Xi Province Xia Jiang Water Control Project Headquarters to equip Xia Jiang's new hydropower plant. The power dam is located on the Gan Jiang river, at about 160 km away from Nan Chang town in South Eastern China. The supply will consist in 5 bulb units including the furniture of both the turbine and its generator, for a total capacity of 200 MW, under a rated net head of 8.6 m. The prototype turbine is a 7.8 m diameter runner, rotating at 71.4 rpm speed. For this project, ALSTOM has proposed a fully new design of 4-blade bulb runner. This paper outlines the main steps of the hydraulic development. First of all, a fine tuning of the blade geometry was performed to enhance the runner behaviour at high loads and low heads, so that to fulfill the demanding requirements of efficiencies and maximum output. The challenge was also to keep an excellent cavitation behaviour, especially at the outer blade diameter in order to avoid cavitation erosion on the prototype. The shape of the blade was optimized by using the latest tools in computational fluid dynamics. Steady state simulations of the distributor and the runner were performed, in order to simulate more accurately the pressure fields on the blade and the velocity distribution at the outlet of the runner. Moreover, draft tube computations have been performed close to the design point and at higher loads. Then, a model fully homologous with the prototype was manufactured and tested at ALSTOM's laboratory in Grenoble (France). The model test results confirmed the predicted

  6. Bulb turbine operating at medium head: XIA JIANG case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, F.; Desrats, C.; Petit, P.; Liu, J.

    2012-11-01

    With lots of references for 4-blade bulb turbines, such as these of Wu Jin Xia (4 units - 36.1 MW per unit - 9.2 m rated head), Chang Zhou (15 units - 46.7 MW per unit - 9.5 m rated head) and Tong Wan (4 units - 46.2 MW per unit - 11 m rated head), ALSTOM Power Hydro is one of the major suppliers of bulb turbines operating under medium head for the Chinese market. ALSTOM Power Hydro has been awarded in November 2010 a contract by Jiang Xi Province Xia Jiang Water Control Project Headquarters to equip Xia Jiang's new hydropower plant. The power dam is located on the Gan Jiang river, at about 160 km away from Nan Chang town in South Eastern China. The supply will consist in 5 bulb units including the furniture of both the turbine and its generator, for a total capacity of 200 MW, under a rated net head of 8.6 m. The prototype turbine is a 7.8 m diameter runner, rotating at 71.4 rpm speed. For this project, ALSTOM has proposed a fully new design of 4-blade bulb runner. This paper outlines the main steps of the hydraulic development. First of all, a fine tuning of the blade geometry was performed to enhance the runner behaviour at high loads and low heads, so that to fulfill the demanding requirements of efficiencies and maximum output. The challenge was also to keep an excellent cavitation behaviour, especially at the outer blade diameter in order to avoid cavitation erosion on the prototype. The shape of the blade was optimized by using the latest tools in computational fluid dynamics. Steady state simulations of the distributor and the runner were performed, in order to simulate more accurately the pressure fields on the blade and the velocity distribution at the outlet of the runner. Moreover, draft tube computations have been performed close to the design point and at higher loads. Then, a model fully homologous with the prototype was manufactured and tested at ALSTOM's laboratory in Grenoble (France). The model test results confirmed the predicted ones: the

  7. ANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF CRACK PROPAGATION FOR BULB HYDRAULIC TURBINES SHAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea O. POPOVICU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hydroelectric Power Plants uses the regenerating energy of rivers. The hydraulic Bulb turbines running with low heads are excellent alternative energy sources. The shafts of these units present themselves as massive pieces, with cylindrical shape, manufactured from low-alloyed steels. The paper analyses the fatigue cracks occurring at some turbines in the neighbourhood of the connection zone between the shaft and the turbine runner flange. To obtain the tension state in this zone ANSIS and AFGROW computing programs were used. The number of running hours until the piercing of the shaft wall is established as a useful result.

  8. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  9. The pathogenesis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi and the role of antagonistic bulb-borne fungi in the chemical control of basal rot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi

    Basal plates and roots of narcissus were infected by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. narcissi (Cooke & Massee) Snyder &

  10. Agricultural pest control programmes, food security and safety | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural pest management control strategies are primarily concerned with food security and safety. Popular pest control methods include application of synthetic pesticides, biopesticides (plant extracts), non-chemical pest management and integrated pest management (IPM). The resistance of some of the pests to the ...

  11. Reliability of the Bulb Dynamometer for Assessing Grip Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Maher

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand function is an overall indicator of health and is often measured using grip strength. Handheld dynamometry is the most common method of measuring grip strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-rater and test-retest reliability, the reliability of one trial versus three trials, and the preliminary norms for a young adult population using the Baseline® Pneumatic Squeeze Bulb Dynamometer (30 psi. Methods: This study used a one-group methodological design. One hundred and three healthy adults (30 males and 73 females were recruited. Six measurements were collected for each hand per participant. The data was analyzed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC two-way effects model (2,2 and paired-samples t-tests. Results: The ICC for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.955 to 0.977. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the bulb dynamometer is a reliable tool to measure grip strength and should be further explored for reliable and valid use in diverse populations and as an alternative to the Jamar dynamometer.

  12. Neuronal Subtype Generation During Postnatal Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Alexandra; Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Cremer, Harold; Beclin, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    In the perinatal and adult forebrain, regionalized neural stem cells lining the ventricular walls produce different types of olfactory bulb interneurons. Although these postnatal stem cells are lineage related to their embryonic counterparts that produce, for example, cortical, septal, and striatal neurons, their output at the level of neuronal phenotype changes dramatically. Tiveron et al. investigated the molecular determinants underlying stem cell regionalization and the gene expression changes inducing the shift from embryonic to adult neuron production. High-resolution gene expression analyses of different lineages revealed that the zinc finger proteins, Zic1 and Zic2, are postnatally induced in the dorsal olfactory bulb neuron lineage. Functional studies demonstrated that these factors confer a GABAergic and calretinin-positive phenotype to neural stem cells while repressing dopaminergic fate. Based on these findings, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that allow acquisition of new traits during the transition from embryonic to adult neurogenesis. We focus on the involvement of epigenetic marks and emphasize why the identification of master transcription factors, that instruct the fate of postnatally generated neurons, can help in deciphering the mechanisms driving fate transition from embryonic to adult neuron production.

  13. Neuronal Subtype Generation During Postnatal Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Angelova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the perinatal and adult forebrain, regionalized neural stem cells lining the ventricular walls produce different types of olfactory bulb interneurons. Although these postnatal stem cells are lineage related to their embryonic counterparts that produce, for example, cortical, septal, and striatal neurons, their output at the level of neuronal phenotype changes dramatically. Tiveron et al. investigated the molecular determinants underlying stem cell regionalization and the gene expression changes inducing the shift from embryonic to adult neuron production. High-resolution gene expression analyses of different lineages revealed that the zinc finger proteins, Zic1 and Zic2, are postnatally induced in the dorsal olfactory bulb neuron lineage. Functional studies demonstrated that these factors confer a GABAergic and calretinin-positive phenotype to neural stem cells while repressing dopaminergic fate. Based on these findings, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that allow acquisition of new traits during the transition from embryonic to adult neurogenesis. We focus on the involvement of epigenetic marks and emphasize why the identification of master transcription factors, that instruct the fate of postnatally generated neurons, can help in deciphering the mechanisms driving fate transition from embryonic to adult neuron production.

  14. Integrated Pest Management Research Symposium: The Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Branham; Robert C. Thatcher; [Editors

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-seven papers are presented that summarize the findings from research and development work conducted as a part of the Integrated Pest Management RD&A Program for Bark Beetles of Southern Pines during the 5-year period 1980-85. Presentations cover the areas of sampling and impact assessment, bark beetle biology and ecology, host susceptibility, host/pest...

  15. Pest management in organic greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    The management of pests is one of the major challenges in organic greenhouse cropping systems. In this paper, I summarize the currently most problematic and persistent, as well as the newly emerging pest species in organic tomato, sweet pepper, cucumber and aubergine crops in Europe. Furthermore, I

  16. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plant pests. 12.31 Section 12.31 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a...

  17. Biological control of livestock pests: Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in biological methods for livestock and poultry pest management is largely motivated by the development of resistance to most of the available synthetic pesticides by the major pests. There also has been a marked increase in organic systems, and those that promote animal welfare by reducing...

  18. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  19. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  20. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  1. Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

  2. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  3. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

  4. Designing agricultural landscapes for natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingrover, E.G.; Geertsema, W.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The green–blue network of semi-natural non-crop landscape elements in agricultural landscapes has the potential to enhance natural pest control by providing various resources for the survival of beneficial insects that suppress crop pests. A study was done in the Hoeksche Waard to explore how

  5. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  6. Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available

  7. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana,

    Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation

    Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest

    control

  8. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  9. Integrated pest management - an overview and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Integrated pest management, better known as IPM, is a familiar term for those of us working in forest, conservation, and native plant nurseries. An almost synonymous concept is "holistic pest management" that has been the topic of chapters in recent Agriculture Handbooks that would be useful to growers of native plants (see Landis and others 2009; Landis and...

  10. Viability loss and oxidative stress in Lily bulbs during long-term cold storage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnier, J.F.M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The regeneration ability of bulb scales of the Asiatic hybrid lily (Lilium hybrids L.) ‘Enchantment’ was monitored for bulbs stored for 0 to 5 years at −2°C in moist peat. Regeneration ability decreased after more than 1 year of storage and was completely lost after 5 years. Possible involvement of

  11. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafra, S.; Przysowa, J.; Gwizdek-Wisniewska, A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were

  12. Role of Centrifugal Projections to the Olfactory Bulb in Olfactory Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselycznyk, Carly L.; Zhang, Steven; Linster, Christine

    2006-01-01

    While there is evidence that feedback projections from cortical and neuromodulatory structures to the olfactory bulb are crucial for maintaining the oscillatory dynamics of olfactory bulb processing, it is not clear how changes in dynamics are related to odor perception. Using electrical lesions of the olfactory peduncle, sparing output from the…

  13. Assessment of the internal quality of stored flower bulbs using magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, Maria Gerarda van

    2002-01-01

    Many flower bulbs have a life cycle of a year or more, flowering either in spring or in summer. Nevertheless, year-round production of cut flowers has become common practice in horticulture. To control flowering, which is necessary for the year-round production of flowers, bulbs are exposed to

  14. Extending the shelf life of flower bulbs and perennials in consumer packages by modiefied atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.; Miller, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of flower bulbs and herbaceous perennials in consumer packages declines rapidly due to sprouting and drying out. The present study was undertaken to develop Modified Atmosphere Packages (MAP) with suitable filling materials for a prolonged shelf life of different species of flower bulbs

  15. Controlling tulip stem nematodes in tulip bulbs by a hot water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    A hot water treatment (HWT) protocol is needed to control tulip stem nematode (TSN) in tulip bulbs. A HWT above approximately 45°C in tulips is assumed to be harmful to the bulbs. Experience with HWT to destroy stem nematodes in daffodils shows that the required temperature for this is 4 hours at

  16. Impact of climate change on insect pests of trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraal, L.G.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, L.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    There are many interactions and it is exetremely difficult to predict the impact of climate change on insect pests in the future, but we may expect an increase of certain primary pests as well as secondary pests and invasive species

  17. Diseases and pests in biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royle, D.J.; Hunter, Tom; McNabb, H.S. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of disease and pest problems in willow and poplar biomass systems for energy within Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States is described. The IEA Disease and Pest Activities within the recent Task XII (1995-1997), and previous Tasks since 1987, have provided outstanding opportunities for international co-operation which has served substantially to augment national research programmes. Work is described on recognizing different forms of an insect pest or pathogen and understanding the genetic basis of its variability, which is of fundamental importance in developing pest management strategies that exclude inputs of energy-rich materials such as pesticides. Options for more natural pest control are considered including breeding for resistance, plantation designs based on host genotype diversity and biological control 16 refs, 2 figs

  18. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  19. Non-condensible gas fraction predictions using wet and dry bulb temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.; Griffith, P.

    1983-03-01

    A technique is presented whereby non-condensible gas mass fractions in a closed system can be determined using wet bulb and dry bulb temperature and system pressure measurements. This technique would have application in situations where sampling techniques could not be used. Using an energy balance about the wet bulb wick, and expression is obtained which relates the vapor concentration difference between the wet bulb wick and the free stream to the wet and dry bulb temperature difference and a heat to mass transfer coefficient ratio. This coefficient ratio was examined for forced and natural convection flows. This analysis was verified with forced and natural convection tests over the range of pressure and temperature from 50 to 557 psig and 415 to 576 0 F. All the data could best be fit by the natural convection analysis. This is useful when no information about the flow field is known

  20. Accumulation and distribution of 14C-photosynthate during bulb development of Lilium oriental hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yiping; Huang Chunhui; Xu Weiwei; Zheng Huijun; Hangzhou College of Vocation Technology, Hangzhou

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrate contents were determined to study the carbon metabolism in bulbs of Lilium Oriental hybrid 'Sorbonne'. The starch contents decreased significantly after planting, and the contents of total soluble sugar and sucrose increased in interior scales before the blooming stage continuously. Using the scanning electron microscope, the starch granules were observed which gathering and stuffing in scale cell during bulb development. By 14 C trace technique, it was cleared that the 14 C-photosynthates were mainly allocated in stalk, leaves and flower bud, especially in the bud at the growth stage of bud development. Under neath leaf 14 C-labelling at the stage of bloom expired, about 85.5% of 14 C-photosynthates were transported and stored in bulb. It was indicated that the carbon photosynthates were mainly distributed in bulb and supported the bulb development after blooming. (authors)

  1. Calibration of hydrological model with programme PEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Šraj, Mojca

    2016-04-01

    PEST is tool based on minimization of an objective function related to the root mean square error between the model output and the measurement. We use "singular value decomposition", section of the PEST control file, and Tikhonov regularization method for successfully estimation of model parameters. The PEST sometimes failed if inverse problems were ill-posed, but (SVD) ensures that PEST maintains numerical stability. The choice of the initial guess for the initial parameter values is an important issue in the PEST and need expert knowledge. The flexible nature of the PEST software and its ability to be applied to whole catchments at once give results of calibration performed extremely well across high number of sub catchments. Use of parallel computing version of PEST called BeoPEST was successfully useful to speed up calibration process. BeoPEST employs smart slaves and point-to-point communications to transfer data between the master and slaves computers. The HBV-light model is a simple multi-tank-type model for simulating precipitation-runoff. It is conceptual balance model of catchment hydrology which simulates discharge using rainfall, temperature and estimates of potential evaporation. Version of HBV-light-CLI allows the user to run HBV-light from the command line. Input and results files are in XML form. This allows to easily connecting it with other applications such as pre and post-processing utilities and PEST itself. The procedure was applied on hydrological model of Savinja catchment (1852 km2) and consists of twenty one sub-catchments. Data are temporary processed on hourly basis.

  2. PEST reduces bias in forced choice psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M M; Forbes, S M; Creelman, C D

    1983-11-01

    Observers performed several different detection tasks using both the PEST adaptive psychophysical procedure and a fixed-level (method of constant stimuli) psychophysical procedure. In two experiments, PEST runs targeted at P (C) = 0.80 were immediately followed by fixed-level detection runs presented at the difficulty level resulting from the PEST run. The fixed-level runs yielded P (C) about 0.75. During the fixed-level runs, the probability of a correct response was greater when the preceding response was correct than when it was wrong. Observers, even highly trained ones, perform in a nonstationary manner. The sequential dependency data can be used to determine a lower bound for the observer's "true" capability when performing optimally; this lower bound is close to the PEST target, and well above the forced choice P (C). The observer's "true" capability is the measure used by most theories of detection performance. A further experiment compared psychometric functions obtained from a set of PEST runs using different targets with those obtained from blocks of fixed-level trials at different levels. PEST results were more stable across observers, performance at all but the highest signal levels was better with PEST, and the PEST psychometric functions had shallower slopes. We hypothesize that PEST permits the observer to keep track of what he is trying to detect, whereas in the fixed-level method performance is disrupted by memory failure. Some recently suggested "more virulent" versions of PEST may be subject to biases similar to those of the fixed-level procedures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Hepatoprotective Activity of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Bulb Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenping; Munafo, John P; Palatini, Kimberly; Esposito, Debora; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-11-11

    The hepatoprotective activities of two different extracts, a hydroethanolic crude bulb extract (CB) and a steroidal glycoside-rich 1-butanol extract (BuOH), prepared from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), were evaluated in a 24 week study in the female KK.Cg-A(y)/J Type 2 diabetic mouse model. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 16): control mice received Easter lily bulb extract-free drinking water together with a low- or high-fat diet (diabetic control); drinking water for the remaining groups was supplemented with CB extract (1%), BuOH extract (0.1 or 0.2%), and reference drug Metformin (0.001%), together with a high-fat diet. Both CB and BuOH extract treatment groups exhibited significantly improved liver function based on comparisons of triglycerides [diabetic 219 ± 34 mg/dL, CB 131 ± 27 mg/dL, BuOH(0.2%) 114 ± 35 mg/dL], CB total cholesterol (TC) (diabetic 196 ± 12 mg/dL, CB 159 ± 5 mg/dL), average liver mass [diabetic 2.96 ± 0.13 g, CB 2.58 ± 0.08 g, BuOH(0.1%) 2.48 ± 0.13 g], alanine transferase [diabetic 74 ± 5 units/L, CB 25 ± 1 units/L, BuOH(0.1%) 45 ± 1 units/L], and histological examinations. Glucose metabolism was improved only in CB, which was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice exposed to CB extract. These data suggest that steroidal glycosides 1-5 might play a role in the hepatoprotective activity of the BuOH extracts, while the results of the TC measurements and OGTT study indicate that other constituents present in the CB extract are responsible for its hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activity.

  4. Association of Enterobacter cloacae and other bacteria with onion bulb rot in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 1.6 million metric tons of onion bulbs are produced annually in the Pacific Northwest USA. Bulb decay can be a major problem and is caused by a variety of plant pathogens. Onion bulbs exhibiting symptoms of bacterial rot were sampled to determine the causal agents. Enterobacter cloacae...

  5. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joongho Kwon; Jonguck Choi; Hyungsik Yoon

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1Gy on the quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1 0 C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data. (author)

  6. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  7. Numerical simulation of draft tube flow of a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.G. [Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Institute of Technological and Exact Sciences, Avenida Doutor Randolfo Borges Junior, 1250 – Uberaba – MG (Brazil); Brasil, A.C.P. Jr. [University of Brasilia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia – DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a numerical study of draft tube of a bulb hydraulic turbine is presented, where a new geometry is proposed. This new proposal of draft tube has the unaffected ratio area, a great reduction in his length and approximately the same efficiency of the draft tube conventionally used. The numerical simulations were obtained in commercial software of calculation of flow (CFX-14), using the turbulence model SST, that allows a description of the field fluid dynamic near to the wall. The simulation strategy has an intention of identifying the stall of the boundary layer precisely limits near to the wall and recirculations in the central part, once those are the great causes of the decrease of efficiency of a draft tube. Finally, it is obtained qualitative and quantitative results about the flow in draft tubes.

  8. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joongho Kwon (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea)); Jonguck Choi; Hyungsik Yoon (Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Republic of Korea))

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of {gamma}-irradiation at 0.1Gy on the quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3{plus minus}1{sup 0}C and 80{plus minus}5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data. (author).

  9. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Draft tube flow phenomena across the bulb turbine hill chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquesne, P; Fraser, R; Maciel, Y; Aeschlimann, V; Deschênes, C

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the BulbT project launched by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines and the LAMH (Hydraulic Machine Laboratory of Laval University) in 2011, an intensive campaign to identify flow phenomena in the draft tube of a model bulb turbine has been done. A special focus was put on the draft tube component since it has a particular importance for recuperation in low head turbines. Particular operating points were chosen to analyse flow phenomena in this component. For each of these operating points, power, efficiency and pressure were measured following the IEC 60193 standard. Visualizations, unsteady wall pressure and efficiency measurements were performed in this component. The unsteady wall pressure was monitored at seven locations in the draft tube. The frequency content of each pressure signal was analyzed in order to characterize the flow phenomena across the efficiency hill chart. Visualizations were recorded with a high speed camera using tufts and cavitation bubbles as markers. The predominant detected phenomena were mapped and categorized in relation to the efficiency hill charts obtained for three runner blade openings. At partial load, the vortex rope was detected and characterized. An inflection in the partial load efficiency curves was found to be related to complex vortex rope instabilities. For overload conditions, the efficiency curves present a sharp drop after the best efficiency point, corresponding to an inflection on the power curves. This break off is more severe towards the highest blade openings. It is correlated to a flow separation at the wall of the draft tube. Also, due to the separation occurring in these conditions, a hysteresis effect was observed on the efficiency curves

  11. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  12. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides.

  13. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....

  14. Effect of basal forebrain stimulation on extracellular acetylcholine release and blood flow in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako

    2017-05-12

    The olfactory bulb receives cholinergic basal forebrain input, as does the neocortex; however, the in vivo physiological functions regarding the release of extracellular acetylcholine and regulation of regional blood flow in the olfactory bulb are unclear. We used in vivo microdialysis to measure the extracellular acetylcholine levels in the olfactory bulb of urethane-anesthetized rats. Focal chemical stimulation by microinjection of L-glutamate into the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain, which is the main source of cholinergic input to the olfactory bulb, increased extracellular acetylcholine release in the ipsilateral olfactory bulb. When the regional cerebral blood flow was measured using laser speckle contrast imaging, the focal chemical stimulation of the HDB did not significantly alter the blood flow in the olfactory bulb, while increases were observed in the neocortex. Our results suggest a functional difference between the olfactory bulb and neocortex regarding cerebral blood flow regulation through the release of acetylcholine by cholinergic basal forebrain input.

  15. The steady performance prediction of propeller-rudder-bulb system based on potential iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y B; Su, Y M; Ju, L; Huang, S L

    2012-01-01

    A new numerical method was developed for predicting the steady hydrodynamic performance of propeller-rudder-bulb system. In the calculation, the rudder and bulb was taken into account as a whole, the potential based surface panel method was applied both to propeller and rudder-bulb system. The interaction between propeller and rudder-bulb was taken into account by velocity potential iteration in which the influence of propeller rotation was considered by the average influence coefficient. In the influence coefficient computation, the singular value should be found and deleted. Numerical results showed that the method presented is effective for predicting the steady hydrodynamic performance of propeller-rudder system and propeller-rudder-bulb system. Comparing with the induced velocity iterative method, the method presented can save programming and calculation time. Changing dimensions, the principal parameter—bulb size that affect energy-saving effect was studied, the results show that the bulb on rudder have a optimal size at the design advance coefficient.

  16. Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Huimin; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang, E-mail: gangchen@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Trypsin was immobilized on miniature incandescent bulbs via chitosan coating. • The bulbs acted as enzymatic reactors and the generators of infrared radiation. • The bulb bioreactors were successfully employed in infrared-assisted proteolysis. • The proteolysis could accomplish within 5 min with high sequence coverages. - Abstract: A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng μL{sup −1} each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on post harvest storage life of onion bulb under ordinary room condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Badshah, N.; Mahboob, F.; Ayub, G.

    2003-01-01

    Post harvest storage life of radiated onion bulbs harvested at different stages of maturity and stored at ordinary room temperature (30-39 degree C) was studied at the Department of Horticulture, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during August 2002. Onion bulbs were harvested at two stages i.e. drooping and complete dried leaf. Four radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kilo rad (Kr) were applied with normal (control). The data of experiment was collected from weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. The results revealed that various radiation doses significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. Onion bulbs radiated with 8 Kr showed minimum percent weight loss (28.59%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency. Minimum percent rot attack (6.3%) was observed in 6 and 8 Kr. Radiation doses of 4, 6 and 8 Kr showed no sprouting at all. Maximum weight loss (43.20%), rot attack (16.2%), sprouting (40.78%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency were recorded for control. The results showed that harvesting stages are statistically non-significant. The interaction between radiation doses and harvesting stages are also non-significant. Harvesting stages significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting and taste pungency. Onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage recorded maximum percent weight loss (35.42%), percent sprouting (11.7%) and taste pungency while minimum percent weight loss (31.62%), percent sprouting (5.01%) and taste pungency was observed in onion bulbs of drooping stage. Maximum percent rot attack (10.9%) was noted in onion bulbs of drooping stage while minimum (7.3%) in onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage. Radiation dose of 8 Kr is recommended to reduce the post-harvest losses in onion bulbs. Drooping stage comparatively prolonged the shelf life of bulb

  18. Flowering pathway is regulated by bulb size in Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, S; Zaccai, M

    2016-07-01

    Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily) vegetative propagation occurs through production of underground bulbs containing apical and axillary meristems. In addition, sexual reproduction is achieved by flowering of elongated shoots above the bulb. It is generally accepted that L. longiflorum has an obligatory requirement for vernalisation and that long day (LD) regime hastens flowering. However, the effect of bulb size and origin, with respect to axillary or apical meristems on flowering, as well as the interactions between these meristems are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of bulb size, vernalisation and photoperiod on L. longiflorum flowering. To this end, we applied vernalisation and photoperiod treatments to the different bulb sizes and used a system of constant ambient temperature of 25 °C, above vernalisation spectrum, to avoid cold-dependent floral induction during plant growth. Vernalisation and LD hasten flowering in all bulbs. Large, non-vernalised bulbs invariably remained at a vegetative stage. However, small non-vernalised bulbs flowered under LD conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that cold exposure is not an obligatory prerequisite for L. longiflorum flowering, and that an alternative flowering pathway can bypass vernalisation in small bulbs. We suggest that apical dominance interactions determine the distinct flowering pathways of the apical and axillary meristems. Similar floral induction is achieved in propagated bulblets from scaling. These innovative findings in the field of geophyte floral induction represent valuable applicative knowledge for lily production. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Nuclear technology in pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been greatly explored for its use in various disciplines of entomology related to agriculture, medicine and industry. Since the ravages of the insects especially in the tropical and subtropical zones of the world are particularly serious, insect control is essential in the production of crop, animal produce and protection from dreadful communicable diseases. Presently, biological and para-biological control programmes are receiving major prominence due to insecticidal ill effects on health and environment, and due to development of insecticidal resistance in pests. The exposure to ionizing radiation is now the principal method for inducing reproductive sterility in mass-reared insects. Irradiation of insects is a relatively straightforward process with reliable quality control procedures. Using radiation may offer other advantages, such as insignificant increase in temperature during the process, use of treated insects immediately after processing, no addition of any residues harmful to human health or environment, etc. Various pragmatic perspectives of utilization of radiation as a tool in entomological research studies, in relation to noxious insects as well as ecologically beneficial insects, are highlighted. (author)

  20. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurindah Nurindah; Dwi Adi Sunarto

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM) techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012...

  1. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, M.R.; Wysocki, C.J.; Sturman, J.A.; Wen, G.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of [ 35 S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [ 35 S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [ 35 S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  2. Integrated Pest Management in Schools Program Brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Nation's children spend a considerable amount of their time in schools, as do teachers and school support staff. EPA is working to reduce the risk that both children and employees experience from pests and pesticides in and around schools.

  3. Genomics Data for Cowpea Pests in Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset contains the complete mitochondrial genome of Anoplocnemis curvipes F. (Coreinea, Coreidae, Heteroptera), a pest of fresh cowpea pods. To get to the...

  4. Pest repelling properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini-review sh......-review shows that four out of five tested ant species deposit pheromones that repel herbivorous prey from their host plants.......Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini...

  5. Global pest management program wins international award

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Miriam Sommers

    2009-01-01

    An agricultural research program managed at Virginia Tech has won an international award for its work with pest-management practices that show economic benefits with minimal impact on health and the environment.

  6. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program) has been applying a farmer participatory IPM strategy at on-farm research sites in eastern Uganda since 1995. Following five years of project implementation an evaluation ...

  7. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  8. Farmer's knowledge and perception of horticultural insect pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst 89% were aware of insect pest problems, only 35% used chemical treatment even though about 79% thought that pest damage ranged from mild to severe. Majority of the farmers adopt diverse number of traditional methods in pest control. Key words: Farmers, pests, horticultural crops, vegetable, control

  9. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271... Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic facility must use management practices to prevent pests, including but not limited to: (1) Removal of pest...

  10. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter. No. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This newsletter lists the FAO/IAEA meetings in the field of pest control held between September 1990 and February 1991 and provides very brief summaries of their contents. It also features a special report on the New World Screwworm in North Africa. An eradication programme, organized by the IAEA and the FAO and based on the sterile insect technique, was implemented, and as a result it is expected that the area will be declared free of the pest during autumn 1991

  11. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  12. 75 FR 38958 - Declaration of Prion as a Pest under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Prion as a Pest under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests to Include Prion....e., proteinaceous infectious particle) a ``pest'' under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... is adding prion to the list of pests in EPA's regulations. This amendment, together with the formal...

  13. models of hourly dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of key

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    3: Worst cases of MFE for Dry bulb temperature and Relative humidity. Fig. 4: Best cases of ... the Second Joint International Conference of. University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria and University ... Erbs, D. G., “Models and Applications for Weather.

  14. Study of Nutrient Content Variation in Bulb And Stalk of Onions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Keywords: Onion bulbs and stalks, proximate, nutrient elements, vitamins A and C; oxalate. ... application of fertilizers, manure, compost and ..... iron products, the use of natural source of Fe such .... in Fish and Sediment from Kubanni River,.

  15. Blood Supply--Susceptible Formation of Melanin Pigment in Hair Bulb Melanocytes of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Maeda, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Melanin pigment formation in the hair bulb melanocytes appeared to be susceptible to the blood supply, and melanocytosis was promoted in the follicles and in the epidermis of Kitl-Tg C57BL/6 mice.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (allium sativum L.) bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Aparicio, C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and meristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (author)

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Aparicio, C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and mieristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the Irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (Author) 47 refs

  18. Ectopic Opening of the Common Bile Duct into the Duodenal Bulb: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn [Catholic University St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    An ectopic opening of the common bile duct into the duodenal bulb is a very rare congenital malformation of the bile duct, which may cause a recurrent duodenal ulcer or biliary diseases including choledocholithiasis or cholangitis. ERCP plays major role in the diagnosis of this biliary malformation. We report a case of an ectopic opening of the common bile duct into the duodenal bulb, which was detected on the upper gastrointestinal series.

  19. Topological reorganization of odor representations in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yaksi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform glomerular patterns of sensory input into spatiotemporal patterns of output activity and thereby extract information about a stimulus. It is, however, unknown whether the chemotopic spatial organization of glomerular inputs is maintained during these computations. To explore this issue, we measured spatiotemporal patterns of odor-evoked activity across thousands of individual neurons in the zebrafish OB by temporally deconvolved two-photon Ca(2+ imaging. Mitral cells and interneurons were distinguished by transgenic markers and exhibited different response selectivities. Shortly after response onset, activity patterns exhibited foci of activity associated with certain chemical features throughout all layers. During the subsequent few hundred milliseconds, however, MC activity was locally sparsened within the initial foci in an odor-specific manner. As a consequence, chemotopic maps disappeared and activity patterns became more informative about precise odor identity. Hence, chemotopic maps of glomerular input activity are initially transmitted to OB outputs, but not maintained during pattern processing. Nevertheless, transient chemotopic maps may support neuronal computations by establishing important synaptic interactions within the circuit. These results provide insights into the functional topology of neural activity patterns and its potential role in circuit function.

  20. Speech rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients with hollow bulb obturator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravesh; Jain, Veena; Thakar, Alok

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of hollow bulb obturator prosthesis on articulation and nasalance in maxillectomy patients. A total of 10 patients, who were to undergo maxillectomy, falling under Aramany classes I and II, with normal speech and hearing pattern were selected for the study. They were provided with definitive maxillary obturators after complete healing of the defect. The patients were asked to wear the obturator for six weeks and speech analysis was done to measure changes in articulation and nasalance at four different stages of treatment, namely, preoperative, postoperative (after complete healing, that is, 3-4 months after surgery), after 24 hours, and after six weeks of providing the obturators. Articulation was measured objectively for distortion, addition, substitution, and omission by a speech pathologist, and nasalance was measured by Dr. Speech software. The statistical comparison of preoperative and six weeks post rehabilitation levels showed insignificance in articulation and nasalance. Comparison of post surgery complete healing with six weeks after rehabilitation showed significant differences in both nasalance and articulation. Providing an obturator improves the speech closer to presurgical levels of articulation and there is improvement in nasality also.

  1. Speech rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients with hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of hollow bulb obturator prosthesis on articulation and nasalance in maxillectomy patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients, who were to undergo maxillectomy, falling under Aramany classes I and II, with normal speech and hearing pattern were selected for the study. They were provided with definitive maxillary obturators after complete healing of the defect. The patients were asked to wear the obturator for six weeks and speech analysis was done to measure changes in articulation and nasalance at four different stages of treatment, namely, preoperative, postoperative (after complete healing, that is, 3-4 months after surgery, after 24 hours, and after six weeks of providing the obturators. Articulation was measured objectively for distortion, addition, substitution, and omission by a speech pathologist, and nasalance was measured by Dr. Speech software. Results: The statistical comparison of preoperative and six weeks post rehabilitation levels showed insignificance in articulation and nasalance. Comparison of post surgery complete healing with six weeks after rehabilitation showed significant differences in both nasalance and articulation. Conclusion: Providing an obturator improves the speech closer to presurgical levels of articulation and there is improvement in nasality also.

  2. Provenancing Flower Bulbs by Analytical Fingerprinting: Convallaria Majalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia M. van Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of agricultural products is gaining in appreciation while often hard to determine for various reasons. Geographical origin may be resolved using a combination of chemical and physical analytical technologies. In the present case of Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis rhizomes, we investigated an exploratory set of material from The Netherlands, three other European (EU countries and China. We show that the geographical origin is correlated to patterns of stable isotope ratios (isotope fingerprints and volatile organic carbon (VOC compounds (chemical fingerprints. These fingerprints allowed clear distinction using exploratory and supervised statistics. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry of 12C/13C, 14N/15N and 16O/18O isotopes separated materials from Europe and China successfully. The VOC patterns measured by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS allowed distinction of three groups: material from The Netherlands, the other EU countries and China. This knowledge is expected to help developing a systematic and efficient analytical tool for authenticating the origin of flower bulbs.

  3. Odor memory stability after reinnervation of the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Blanco-Hernández

    Full Text Available The olfactory system, particularly the olfactory epithelium, presents a unique opportunity to study the regenerative capabilities of the brain, because of its ability to recover after damage. In this study, we ablated olfactory sensory neurons with methimazole and followed the anatomical and functional recovery of circuits expressing genetic markers for I7 and M72 receptors (M72-IRES-tau-LacZ and I7-IRES-tau-GFP. Our results show that 45 days after methimazole-induced lesion, axonal projections to the bulb of M72 and I7 populations are largely reestablished. Furthermore, regenerated glomeruli are re-formed within the same areas as those of control, unexposed mice. This anatomical regeneration correlates with functional recovery of a previously learned odorant-discrimination task, dependent on the cognate ligands for M72 and I7. Following regeneration, mice also recover innate responsiveness to TMT and urine. Our findings show that regeneration of neuronal circuits in the olfactory system can be achieved with remarkable precision and underscore the importance of glomerular organization to evoke memory traces stored in the brain.

  4. [Homoisoflavanones and stilbenes from fresh bulb of Scilla scilloides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Min; Fan, Meng-Yang; Li, Juan; Wang, Zhi-Min; Gao, Hui-Min

    2014-10-01

    Mian-Zao-Er was collected from the bulbs of Scilla scilloides (Lindl. ) Druce, belonging to the Hyacinthaceae family. 17 compounds were obtained using various column chromatographies on macroporus resin (HPD100), silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS, as well as semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data as 2-hydroxy-7-methoxyscillascillin (1), scillascillin (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyspiro 2H-1-benzopyran-7'-bicyclo[4.2.0 ] octa [1,3,5 ] -trien } -4-one (3), socialinone (4), 4-methylresveratrol (5), (E)-resveratrol (6), scillavoneA (7), 3,9-di- hydroeucomnalin (8), 3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl) -5,7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (9), (3R)-5,7,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyspiro (2H-1-benzopyran-7'-bicyclo[4, 2, 0] octa [1, 3, 5]-trien} -4-one (10), scillabene A (11), 2-hydroxyscillascillin (12), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl) -5,7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (13), 3-( 4-hydroxybenzylidene) -5, 7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (14), 3-( 4-hydroxybenzyl) -5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxychroman-4-one (15), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl) -5-hydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxychroman-4-one (16), and 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5,8-hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-4-one (17). Among them, compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 13 and 15-17 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  5. THE NARCISSUS STORY WHICH COMPILED FROM ÂŞIK İRFANİ IN THE MALYA MALYA’DA ÂŞIK İRFANİ’DEN DERLENEN NERGİS HİKÂYESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan ALTINKAYNAK

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The folk stories that constitute a step of literary to novel from epic within types of verbal expression have met many elements that descend from the tradition of mythology, tale and epic since 16th century. Today, the tradition of minstrelsy stil continued tol ive in the Erzurum region depending on the minstresy traditon continues in the tradition of storytelling. In this article, after being mentioned the social background in the tradition of storytelling of Narcissus story which compiled from Âşık İrfani in the Malya, the story has been analyzed in terms of persons, time and place. ÖZET Sözlü anlatım ürünleri içerisinde destandan romana geçişin edebî bir merhalesini teşkil eden halk hikâyeleri, XVI. yüzyıldan itibaren mitoloji, masal ve destancılık geleneğinden miras kalan pek çok unsurla karşımıza çıkmıştır. Günümüzde âşıklık geleneğinin hâlâ canlı olarak devam ettiği Erzurum yöresinde âşıklık geleneğine bağlı olarak hikâye anlatma geleneği de devam etmektedir. Bu makalede, Malya’da Âşık İrfani’den derlenen Nergis hikâyesinin, hikâye anlatma geleneği içerisindeki sosyal zemininden bahsedildikten sonra şahıs kadrosu, zaman ve mekân bakımından tahlili yapılmıştır.

  6. Fungi and bacteria boost resistance to pests and diseases : endophytes a useful addition to pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.

    2017-01-01

    More and more research is revealing that endophytes – microorganisms that live in the plant without harming it – can significantly boost a plant’s resistance to pests. These findings prompted researchers to investigate the potential of endophytes in pest control in greenhouse horticulture.

  7. A Practical Guide to Management of Common Pests in Schools. Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated Pest Management and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…

  8. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafra, S; Przysowa, J; Gwizdek-Wiśniewska, A; van der Wolf, J M

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were selected on the basis of antibiosis against D. zeae, siderophore production, and the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)-inactivation. In in vitro assays, 35 out of 565 hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates produced antimicrobial substances against D. zeae, whereas 20 degraded AHLs, and 35 produced siderophores. Isolates of interest were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and reaction in BIOLOG tests. Twenty-six isolates that differed in characteristics were selected for pathogenicity testing on hyacinth cultivars, Pink Pearl and Carnegie. Two strains identified as Rahnella aquatilis and one as Erwinia persicinus significantly reduced tissue maceration caused by D. zeae 2019 on hyacinth bulbs, but not on leaves. Hyacinth bulbs harbour bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups that are antagonistic to D. zeae, and some can attenuate decay of bulb tissue. Selected hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates have potential for control of soft rot disease caused by D. zeae in hyacinth bulb production.

  9. Permanent transparent color-warming glazes for dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie A.

    2014-02-01

    Illuminant metameric failure is frequently experienced when viewing material samples under LED generated light vs. traditional incandescent light. LED light temperatures can be improved with phosphor coatings, but long-wave red light is still generally absent in LED "warm-white" light, resulting in metameric failure of orange-to-red objects. Drawing on techniques developed for the architectural restoration of stained glass, we find that transparent, heat-resistant, permanent, pigmented coatings can be applied to any glass, aluminum or plastic surface of an LED bulb, including the phosphor plate, dome or envelope, to produce warmer visible light than in current warm-light LED bulbs. These glazes can be applied in combination with existing technologies to better tune the LED emitted light or they may be used alone. These pigmented coatings include, but are not limited to, those made by suspending inorganic materials in potassium silicates or durable transparent pigmented resins. The pigmented resin glazes may be produced in either a clear gloss vehicle or an iridescent, light diffusing transparent base. Further, a graduated density of the tinted glazes on dimmable bulbs allow the light to change color as wattage is diminished. The glazes may be applied in the manufacturing of the bulb or marketed to current bulb owners as an after-market product to better tune the thousands of LED light bulbs currently in use.

  10. Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100

  11. Pesticide-Induced Stress in Arthropod Pests for Optimized Integrated Pest Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R N C; Smagghe, G; Stark, J D; Desneux, N

    2016-01-01

    More than six decades after the onset of wide-scale commercial use of synthetic pesticides and more than fifty years after Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, pesticides, particularly insecticides, arguably remain the most influential pest management tool around the globe. Nevertheless, pesticide use is still a controversial issue and is at the regulatory forefront in most countries. The older generation of insecticide groups has been largely replaced by a plethora of novel molecules that exhibit improved human and environmental safety profiles. However, the use of such compounds is guided by their short-term efficacy; the indirect and subtler effects on their target species, namely arthropod pest species, have been neglected. Curiously, comprehensive risk assessments have increasingly explored effects on nontarget species, contrasting with the majority of efforts focused on the target arthropod pest species. The present review mitigates this shortcoming by hierarchically exploring within an ecotoxicology framework applied to integrated pest management the myriad effects of insecticide use on arthropod pest species.

  12. Modelling approach for biological control of insect pest by releasing infected pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Yuanshun; Chen Lansun

    2009-01-01

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interactions between a predator and a prey. Here we have extended the classical epidemic model to include a continuous and impulsive pest control strategies by releasing the infected pests bred in laboratory. For the continuous model, the results imply that the susceptible pest goes to extinct if the threshold condition R 0 0 > 1, the positive equilibrium of continuous model is globally asymptotically stable. Similarly, the threshold condition which guarantees the global stability of the susceptible pest-eradication periodic solution is obtained for the model with impulsive control strategy. Consequently, based on the results obtained in this paper, the control strategies which maintain the pests below an acceptably low level are discussed by controlling the release rate and impulsive period. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the efficiency of two control strategies are also discussed

  13. Insect pests of tea and their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Lakshmi K; Bhuyan, Mantu; Hazarika, Budhindra N

    2009-01-01

    Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to defend the plant against these pests, leading to rapid conversion of innocuous species into pests, development of resistance, and undesirable pesticide residues in made tea. As a result of importer and consumer concerns, pesticide residues have become a major problem for the tea industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) may help to overcome the overuse of pesticides and subsequent residues. We review the advances made in our understanding of the biology and ecology of major insect and mite pests of tea, host plant resistance, cultural practices, biocontrol measures, and need-based application of botanicals and safer pesticides to understand the present status of IPM and to identify future challenges to improvement.

  14. Effect of low doses gamma irradiation on seed, bulblets and bulbs of onion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, Mohammad

    1991-10-01

    Presowing seed irradiation has been reported as a useful application of radiation in agriculture to stimulate growth and increase the yield of certain crops. To the best of our knowledge the feasibility of this treatment has not yet been tested on onion in Syria. The effect of low doses gamma irradiation on onion seeds, bulblets and bulbs of two local varieties, red and white, was studied during three consecutive seasons (1986 - 1988). Air dried seeds were irradiated by gamma rays from 137 Cs source. Five, 10, 15, 20 and 30 GY, were applied at dose rate of 9.8 Gy/min. The irradiation of onion bulblets and bulbs were carried out with gamma-rays from 60 Co source at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min. using 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Gy. Within 7 - 10 days after irradiation, both controlled and irradiated seeds, bulblets and bulbs were sown in the field in complete randomized block design with 4 replicates. Irradiation of seeds with doses of 5, 10 and 15 Gy led to highly significant increases in bulblets yield in the three seasons. The increases ranged from 14.5 to 22.1 for red variety and from 16.2 to 22.3 for white variety. The irradiation of bulblets with 1 and 2 Gy increase significantly the yield of bulbs by 21.6 - 26.0% for red variety and 21.6 - 24.4% for white variety. A considerable increase in seed yield was obtained after irradiation of bulbs with 1 and 2 Gy doses. The average increment was about 21.0% for both varieties. Large scale application were performed in 1989 and 1990 using doses of 10 Gy for seeds and 1 Gy for bulblets and bulbs. A considerable increase in the yield was obtained. The average percentage increment was 16.9% and 23.3% for seeds, 18.6 and 20.9% for bulblets, 24.8 and 27.3% for bulbs, for red and white varieties respectively. Therefore, presowing irradiation of seeds, bulblets and bulbs of onion with low doses of gamma-rays (5 - 15 Gy for seeds and 1 - 2 Gy for bulblets and bulbs) can be of practical application resulting in improvement of yield of

  15. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    SIT methodologies have not been developed for many of the major potential invasive pest species for which it could play an important role in eradicating incipient outbreaks. Among the USDA-APHIS Exotic Pest Arthropod List for the USA, which highlights 100 high-risk pests, ca. fifty percent of this worst of the worst list are from the order Lepidoptera. Many of these Lepidoptera are not only a threat to the US but also to many other regions of the world. Nevertheless, research to develop SIT for these high risk, exotic lepidopteran pests is lacking in most cases (Asian gypsy moth being an exception). Cooperative efforts are needed to develop appropriate response strategies that would include eradication technologies in advance of invasive lepidopteran pest introductions. In collaboration with USDA scientists James Carpenter, Ken Bloem and Stephanie Bloem, FAO/IAEA has been supporting research and facilitating co-operation among scientists of different countries to develop F1 Sterility as a proactive approach for dealing with two such potential invasive lepidopteran pests. Because F1 Sterility produces competitive insects and has been reported in all lepidopteran species investigated, these studies should serve as useful models for half of the species on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. One is the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta, which features prominently on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. It is a polyphagous key pest in South Africa and many regional plant protection organizations have expressed concern of the spread of this damaging pest as a direct result of increased international trade. Under a multi-country and multi-agency effort mass rearing methods are being improved in South Africa, and radiation biology studies are being refined to determine the optimum dose of radiation to induce F1 Sterility for use in an SIT programme as an eradication tool should this pest be introduced into a foreign country. Another good example of our ill-preparedness to

  16. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  17. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    SIT methodologies have not been developed for many of the major potential invasive pest species for which it could play an important role in eradicating incipient outbreaks. Among the USDA-APHIS Exotic Pest Arthropod List for the USA, which highlights 100 high-risk pests, ca. fifty percent of this worst of the worst list are from the order Lepidoptera. Many of these Lepidoptera are not only a threat to the US but also to many other regions of the world. Nevertheless, research to develop SIT for these high risk, exotic lepidopteran pests is lacking in most cases (Asian gypsy moth being an exception). Cooperative efforts are needed to develop appropriate response strategies that would include eradication technologies in advance of invasive lepidopteran pest introductions. In collaboration with USDA scientists James Carpenter, Ken Bloem and Stephanie Bloem, FAO/IAEA has been supporting research and facilitating co-operation among scientists of different countries to develop F1 Sterility as a proactive approach for dealing with two such potential invasive lepidopteran pests. Because F1 Sterility produces competitive insects and has been reported in all lepidopteran species investigated, these studies should serve as useful models for half of the species on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. One is the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta, which features prominently on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. It is a polyphagous key pest in South Africa and many regional plant protection organizations have expressed concern of the spread of this damaging pest as a direct result of increased international trade. Under a multi-country and multi-agency effort mass rearing methods are being improved in South Africa, and radiation biology studies are being refined to determine the optimum dose of radiation to induce F1 Sterility for use in an SIT programme as an eradication tool should this pest be introduced into a foreign country. Another good example of our ill-preparedness to

  18. Two new tropolonic alkaloids from Colchicum speciosum Steven bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tayyeb*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Colchicum belongs to the family Colchicaceae, which comprises of 19 genera, and 225 species worldwide. They have been recognized for more than 2000 years for their noticeable biological properties. The Colchicum species are well known for presence of tropolonic alkaloids, mainly colchicine. Colchicine, is still the drug of choice for treatment of gout, and is used for the treatment of a number of proinflammatory disorders, such as familial Mediterranean fever, and Behcet’s disease. Clinical studies have proved colchicine to posses potent anti-tumor activity. Colchicum speciosum Steven is an indigenous perennial herbaceous plant widely distributed in northern, central and western regions of Iran.  Methods: In the present study, the phytochemical composition of MeOH extract from bulbs of C. speciosum collected fromSavadkouh region, Iranwas investigated by combination of HPLC-PDA-MS spectrometry and NMR specroscopy. The fractionation of MeOH extract was carried out by partitioning on CH2Cl2, EtOAc and water. Results: The isolation and purification of CH2Cl2 portion by combination of reverse and normal phase chromatography resulted in the isolation, purification and identification of two new tropolonic alkaloids, compounds (1 and (2, as well as two known compound colchicine (3 and demecolcine (4. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D (1H NMR and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC. The absolute configurations of isolated compounds were established by aid of circular dichroism. Conclusion: Phytochemical investigation of CH2Cl2 extract of C. speciosum by combination of HPLC, column chromatography and hyphenated spectroscopic techniques led to identification two new alkaloids with potential as lead compounds.

  19. Size matters - The olfactory bulb as a marker for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottstaedt, F; Weidner, K; Strauß, T; Schellong, J; Kitzler, H; Wolff-Stephan, S; Hummel, T; Croy, I

    2018-03-15

    Major Depression is mainly related to structural and functional alterations in brain networks involving limbic and prefrontal regions. Reduced olfactory sensitivity in depression is associated with reduced olfactory bulb (OB) volume. We determined if the OB volume reduction is a specific biomarker for depression and whether its diagnostic accuracy allows its use as a valid biomarker to support its diagnosis. 84 in-patients with mixed mental disorders and 51 age-matched healthy controls underwent structural MR imaging with a spin-echo T2-wheighted sequence. Individual OB volume was calculated manually (interrater-reliability = .81, p < .001) and compared between groups. Multiple regression analysis with OB volume as dependent variable and Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis to obtain its diagnostic accuracy for depression were ruled out. Patients exhibited a 13.5% reduced OB volume. Multiple regression analysis showed that the OB volume variation was best explained by depression (β = -.19), sex (β = -.31) and age (β = -.29), but not by any other mental disorder. OB volume attained a diagnostic accuracy of 68.1% for depression. The patient group mainly contained highly comorbid patients with mostly internalizing disorders which limits the generalisability of the results of the regression analysis. The OB may serve as a marker for depression. We assume that reduced neural olfactory input to subsequent limbic and salience processing structures moderates this relation. However, the OB was in an inferior position compared to conventional questionnaires for diagnosis of depression. Combination with further structural or functional measurements is suggested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Monthly forecasting of agricultural pests in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Samietz, J.; Calanca, P.; Weigel, A. P.; Fischer, A. M.; Rotach, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Given the repercussions of pests and diseases on agricultural production, detailed forecasting tools have been developed to simulate the degree of infestation depending on actual weather conditions. The life cycle of pests is most successfully predicted if the micro-climate of the immediate environment (habitat) of the causative organisms can be simulated. Sub-seasonal pest forecasts therefore require weather information for the relevant habitats and the appropriate time scale. The pest forecasting system SOPRA (www.sopra.info) currently in operation in Switzerland relies on such detailed weather information, using hourly weather observations up to the day the forecast is issued, but only a climatology for the forecasting period. Here, we aim at improving the skill of SOPRA forecasts by transforming the weekly information provided by ECMWF monthly forecasts (MOFCs) into hourly weather series as required for the prediction of upcoming life phases of the codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. Due to the probabilistic nature of operational monthly forecasts and the limited spatial and temporal resolution, their information needs to be post-processed for use in a pest model. In this study, we developed a statistical downscaling approach for MOFCs that includes the following steps: (i) application of a stochastic weather generator to generate a large pool of daily weather series consistent with the climate at a specific location, (ii) a subsequent re-sampling of weather series from this pool to optimally represent the evolution of the weekly MOFC anomalies, and (iii) a final extension to hourly weather series suitable for the pest forecasting model. Results show a clear improvement in the forecast skill of occurrences of upcoming codling moth life phases when incorporating MOFCs as compared to the operational pest forecasting system. This is true both in terms of root mean squared errors and of the continuous rank probability scores of the

  1. A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb anticipates feeding during food anticipatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Nahum; Juárez, Claudia; Morgado, Elvira; Meza, Enrique; Caba, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit pups ingest food, in this case milk, once a day with circadian periodicity and are a natural model of food anticipatory activity. During nursing, several sensory systems receive information about properties of the food, one of them being the olfactory system, which has received little attention in relation to synchronization by food. In addition, the olfactory bulb has a circadian pacemaker that exhibits rhythms independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but the biological functions of these rhythms are largely unknown. In the present contribution, we hypothesized that circadian suckling of milk synchronizes rhythms in the olfactory bulb. To this aim we explored by immunohistochemistry, rhythms of FOS and PER1 proteins, as indicators of activation and reporter of oscillations, respectively, through a complete 24-h cycle in periglomerular, mitral and granular cell layers of both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb. Subjects were 7-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h) or day (10:00 h), and also fasted subjects, to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. In the three layers of the main olfactory bulb, FOS was high at time of nursing, then further increased 1.5 h afterward, and then decreased to increase again in advance of the next nursing bout. This pattern persisted, without the postprandial increase, in fasted subjects with a shift in subjects nursed at 02:00. PER1 was increased 2-8 h after nursing and this increase persisted in most cell layers, with a shift, in fasted subjects. In the accessory olfactory bulb we only observed a consistent pattern of FOS expression in the mitral cell layer of nursed subjects, similar to that of the main olfactory bulb. We conclude that the main olfactory bulb is synchronized during milk ingestion, but during fasting its oscillations perhaps are modulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as proposed for rodents.

  2. A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb anticipates feeding during food anticipatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Nolasco

    Full Text Available Rabbit pups ingest food, in this case milk, once a day with circadian periodicity and are a natural model of food anticipatory activity. During nursing, several sensory systems receive information about properties of the food, one of them being the olfactory system, which has received little attention in relation to synchronization by food. In addition, the olfactory bulb has a circadian pacemaker that exhibits rhythms independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but the biological functions of these rhythms are largely unknown. In the present contribution, we hypothesized that circadian suckling of milk synchronizes rhythms in the olfactory bulb. To this aim we explored by immunohistochemistry, rhythms of FOS and PER1 proteins, as indicators of activation and reporter of oscillations, respectively, through a complete 24-h cycle in periglomerular, mitral and granular cell layers of both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb. Subjects were 7-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h or day (10:00 h, and also fasted subjects, to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. In the three layers of the main olfactory bulb, FOS was high at time of nursing, then further increased 1.5 h afterward, and then decreased to increase again in advance of the next nursing bout. This pattern persisted, without the postprandial increase, in fasted subjects with a shift in subjects nursed at 02:00. PER1 was increased 2-8 h after nursing and this increase persisted in most cell layers, with a shift, in fasted subjects. In the accessory olfactory bulb we only observed a consistent pattern of FOS expression in the mitral cell layer of nursed subjects, similar to that of the main olfactory bulb. We conclude that the main olfactory bulb is synchronized during milk ingestion, but during fasting its oscillations perhaps are modulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as proposed for rodents.

  3. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  4. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  5. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  6. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  7. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L. bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuinan Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C and longer photoperiod (14 h treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA, which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C–14 h and 25°C/18°C–14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb

  8. Controlling Household Pests. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Reviewed are good housekeeping practices for eliminating and preventing the return of common household pests. Each category of pest is described individually including a description of their habits, the damage they do, and approved methods of control. (SL)

  9. List of Pests of Significant Public Health Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This list is derived in large part from review of the pesticide/pest combinations for which efficacy (product performance) data are submitted and reviewed before registration. Pests that spread disease include cockroaches, lice, mosquitoes, and rodents.

  10. Investigations on pests, diseases and present early warning system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... where selective pesticides were used. Apple scab ... taken more attention and integrated pest management. (IPM), gained ... 2004 years and samples were taken (Figure 1). Pests ..... ground in the previous year. So, there is a ...

  11. A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Affects Progenitor Cell Numbers in Olfactory Bulbs and Dentate Gyrus of Vervet Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Burke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE alters hippocampal cell numbers in rodents and primates, and this may be due, in part, to a reduction in the number or migration of neuronal progenitor cells. The olfactory bulb exhibits substantial postnatal cellular proliferation and a rapid turnover of newly formed cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus to (1 investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2 determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years. Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group. These data are unique with respect to fetal ethanol effects on progenitor proliferation in the primate brain and suggest that the olfactory bulb may be a useful structure for studies of cellular proliferation.

  13. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  14. Performance analysis of photoresistor and phototransistor for automotive’s halogen and xenon bulbs light output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, A.; Kumar, C. Ramesh

    2017-11-01

    Illumination of any light is measured using a different kind of calibrated equipment’s available in the market such as a goniometer, spectral radiometer, photometer, Lux meter and camera based systems which directly display the illumination of automotive headlights light distribution in the unit of lux, foot-candles, lumens/sq. ft. and Lambert etc., In this research, we dealt with evaluating the photo resistor or Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) and phototransistor whether it is useful for sensing light patterns of Automotive Halogen and Xenon bulbs. The experiments are conducted during night hours under complete dark space. We have used the headlamp setup available in TATA SUMO VICTA vehicle in the Indian market and conducted the experiments separately for Halogen and Xenon bulbs under low and high beam operations at various degrees and test points within ten meters of distance. Also, we have compared the light intensity of halogen and xenon bulbs to prove the highest light intensity between halogen and Xenon bulbs. After doing a rigorous test with these two sensors it is understood both are good to sensing beam pattern of automotive bulbs and even it is good if we use an array of sensors or a mixed combination of sensors for measuring illumination purposes under perfect calibrations.

  15. Electrophysiological mapping of the accessory olfactory bulb of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groen, T; Ruardy, L; da Silva, F H

    1986-07-01

    Field potentials elicited by electrical stimulation of the vomeronasal nerve were measured in the accessory olfactory bulb of the rabbit. Maps were made of the distribution of surface field potentials and of the corresponding depth profiles. The surface maps followed closely the contours of the accessory olfactory bulb: at the frontal border the field potential tended to zero and at the center of the structure the field potential attained a maximum. Depth profiles of the field potentials through the accessory olfactory bulb presented a surface-negative wave and, in depth, a positive wave. The polarity reversal occurred at the deep part of the granule cell layer. The zero equipotential line followed closely the curvature of the granule cell layer. Current source density analysis of the depth profiles revealed a main sink at the external plexiform and granule cell layers. This indicates that the main activity in the accessory olfactory bulb is generated by the synapses between the mitral cells and the granule cells as is found in the main olfactory bulb.

  16. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  17. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  18. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  19. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  20. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  1. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  2. Right Of Way Pest Control. Manual 88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the right-of-way pest control category. The text discusses types of vegetation, the nature of herbicides, application methods, use for specific situations, and safety precautions. (CS)

  3. Demonstration and Research Pest Control. Manual 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the demonstration and research pest control category. The text discusses pesticide-organism interactions such as penetration, transport, accumulation, and biological magnification. Integrating pesticides…

  4. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  5. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  6. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  7. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  8. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  9. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  10. The European Insurance Industry: A PEST Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The insurance industry plays an important role for European economic stability and the threats and opportunities it faces should be carefully determined. In this paper we highlight the main challenges by using a Political, Economic, Social and Technological (PEST analysis. This work applies conventional actuarial thought on this area by focusing strictly on the European sector.

  11. (Precocene I) on Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... characterized by suppression of ovarian development and the cessation of ... There are evidence that JH plays a major role in regulating diapause, for ... wheat seeds (developed in insect physiology laboratory for Sunn pest rearing). ..... Action, (ed) Coats JR, New York: Academic, pp. 403-427. Bradford MM ...

  12. Insect pest management in stored grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored grain is vulnerable to attach by a variety of insect pests, that can generally be classified as external or internal feeders. Infestations primarily occur after grain is stored, though there is some evidence that infestations can occur in the field right before harvest. There are a variety of...

  13. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  14. Marine cargo imports and forest pest introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch

    2009-01-01

    A major pathway for the introduction of nonindigenous forest pests is accidental transport on cargo imported from overseas. Diseases may be brought into the United States via commercial trade of nursery stock or other live plant material, as has been suggested for Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death (Ivors and others 2006). Insects may...

  15. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics

  16. confidence in teaching integrated pest management (ipm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    The exploration for environmental friendly alternatives to pesticides use in agriculture has ... mechanical killing of pests; biological methods that include natural enemies; and ... Intervention through extension is especially important in furthering the ..... service providers to prioritize training and flow of information on advances ...

  17. Insect pests in asparagus; IPM perspectives!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozen, van K.; Huiting, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Resulting from Directive 2009/128/EC, all EU Member States have to comply with stricter guidelines regarding Integrated Pest Management before 2023. As implementation of IPM measures and strategies has a high perceived risk, demonstration of and discussion on possibilities may be a key element in

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests. In...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests. In...

  20. Pest Control in the School Environment:Adopting Integrated Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about establishing a school IPM program, including developing an official IPM policy statement, setting roles for participants and pest management objectives, inspecting sites, setting action threshold, applying IPM strategies and evaluating results.

  1. The applications of VIP 397/418 bulbs in free radical white pigmented coatings: UV curing evaluation for different free radical white pigmented formulations (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Bao; McCartney, R.

    1999-01-01

    White pigmented coatings have gained commercial success using a Gallium doped microwave F600-V bulb. A novel VIP 397/418 bulb has been made recently, by Fusion UV Systems, to increase UV curing efficiency of white pigmented coatings. Previous research work has shown that the VIP 397/418 bulb can cure cationic white pigmented coatings 40-60% faster than a F600-V bulb. Further evaluations of free radical white pigmented coatings have produced significant data indicating that better physical properties (40-50%) or higher cure speeds (50%) can be obtained by using the VIP 397/418 bulb than a F600-V bulb

  2. Optimal Application Timing of Pest Control Tactics in Nonautonomous Pest Growth Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shujuan; Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi

    2014-01-01

    Considering the effects of the living environment on growth of populations, it is unrealistic to assume that the growth rates of predator and prey are all constants in the models with integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Therefore, a nonautonomous predator-prey system with impulsive effect is developed and investigated in the present work. In order to determine the optimal application timing of IPM tactics, the threshold value which guarantees the stability of pest-free periodic solut...

  3. Opportunities for microbial control of pulse crop pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect pest complex in U.S. pulse crops is almost an “orphan” in terms of developed microbial control agents that the grower can use. There are almost no registered microbial pest control agents (MPCA) for the different pulse pests. In some cases a microbial is registered for use against specifi...

  4. Information on Pests in Schools and Their Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pests such as insects, rodents, fungi, and weeds can affect the school environment and the people who work and learn there. These pests can cause human health problems, and structural and plant damage. Know what pests you face before deciding on control.

  5. Problem prevention and holistic pest management [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2014-01-01

    As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a continuous process of solving problems. One recurring problem is pests. In the past, nursery managers waited for an insect or disease to appear and then sprayed some toxic chemical to wipe out the pest or disease. This approach, however, also wipes out natural predators of the pest, resulting in an...

  6. Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...

  7. Vegetation indices as indicators of damage by the sunn pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), also known as sting or cereal pest, is one of the most economically important pests of wheat in the world. In this study, a collapsible nylon cloth cage experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using remote sensing techniques to detect ...

  8. Influence of the Mother Bulb Size on the Growth and Development of Allium ‘Purple Rain’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Elena Rosca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aims was to study the influences of the mother bulb weight on the growth and development, of the plants of ornamental onion. The study was conducted during October 2015 – June 2016 and the biologic material was represented by Allium ‘Purple Rain’. The bulbs were divided in three different weight groups: W1 (15.1-30 g, W2 (5.1-15 g, W3 (< 5 g, which were reprezented the three variants (V1, V2, respectively V3. The bulbs were planted in the field and the plants were studied thrue the biometric determinations. The results were compared with the average of the experiment. The research showed  that  the all the analyzed  characters (number and length of leaves, number and  weight of new formed bulbs, flowers yield, diameter of the inflorescence were decreasing from V1 to the V3 variant. The highest number of the flowering plants (98.9 % was resulted from V1 variant. From V2, bloomed only 20% of the bulbs and from V3 the bulbs did not got flowers. The flowering time was earlier for the plants resulted from the biggest bulbs (V1, with around 3 days, then the V2 and around 7 days then V3.  The capacity to form new bulbs, expressed in bulb number or bulb weight per plant, was increased with the increasing of the mother bulb weight. The number of leaves per plant and the length of the leaves were higher for  V1, as against the other two variants

  9. A rare cause of conductive hearing loss: High lateralized jugular bulb with bony dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, James G; Singh, Pranay K

    2016-06-01

    We present a rare case of pediatric conductive hearing loss due to a high lateralized jugular bulb. An 8-year-old boy with a right-sided conductive hearing loss of 40 dB was found to have a pink bulge toward the inferior part of the right eardrum. Computed tomography showed a high, lateralized right jugular bulb that had a superolaterally pointing diverticulum that bulged into the lower mesotympanum and posterior external auditory meatus. It was explained to the child's parents that it is important never to put any sharp objects into the ears because of the risk of injury to the jugular vein. A high, lateralized jugular bulb with a diverticulum is a rare anatomic abnormality. Correct diagnosis of this abnormality is important so that inappropriate intervention does not occur.

  10. Specific olfactory receptor populations projecting to identified glomeruli in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Pedersen, P E; Greer, C A; Stewart, W B; Kauer, J S; Benson, T E; Shepherd, G M

    1984-08-01

    A critical gap exists in our knowledge of the topographical relationship between the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. The present report describes the application to this problem of a method involving horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin. This material was iontophoretically delivered to circumscribed glomeruli in the olfactory bulb and the characteristics and distribution of retrogradely labeled receptor cells were assessed. After discrete injections into small glomerular groups in the caudomedial bulb, topographically defined populations of receptor cells were labeled. Labeled receptor cell somata appeared at several levels within the epithelium. The receptor cell apical dendrites followed a tight helical course towards the surface of the epithelium. The data thus far demonstrate that functional units within the olfactory system may include not only glomeruli as previously suggested but, in addition, a corresponding matrix of receptor cells possessing functional and topographical specificity.

  11. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  12. Ulex europaeus I and glycine max bind to the human olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Oka, N; Kamo, H; Akiguchi, I; Kimura, J

    1993-12-24

    The distribution of binding sites for the fucose-selective lectin Ulex europaeus I and the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine-selective lectin glycine max in the human olfactory bulb were studied. These lectins bound to primary olfactory axons in the olfactory nerve layer and the glomerular layer. They also bound to fibers located in the deeper layers such as the external plexiform layer and the granular layer. Furthermore they projected to the olfactory stalk but not in the cerebrum. The deeper projections of the lectin binding fibers may affect the function of the olfactory bulb in humans.

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects progenitor cell numbers in olfactory bulbs and dentate gyrus of vervet monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Inyatkin, Alexey; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) to (1) investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2) determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years......). Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group...

  14. Closed hollow bulb obturator--one-step fabrication: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Ariffin, Yusnidar T; Yunus, Norsiah

    2013-10-01

    A method is described for the fabrication of a closed hollow bulb obturator prosthesis using a hard thermoforming splint material and heat-cured acrylic resin. The technique allowed the thickness of the thermoformed bulb to be optimized for weight reduction, while the autopolymerized seal area was covered in heat-cured acrylic resin, thus eliminating potential leakage and discoloration. This technique permits the obturator prosthesis to be processed to completion from the wax trial denture without additional laboratory investing, flasking, and processing. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 2. Onions and other bulb crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The various factors contributing to post harvest losses in onions and other bulb crops are briefly outlined in terms of the current storage methods. The present status of research on sprout inhibition by irradiation is reviewed in detail with respect to dose requirements, effect of time interval between harvest and irradiation, and the influence of environment on sprouting during storage. Biochemical mechanisms of sprout inhibition, metabolic and compositional changes (particularly sugars, anthocyanins, flavor and lachrymatory principles), and the culinary and processing qualities of irradiated onions are discussed. The future prospects for the commercial irradiation for sprout inhibition of bulb crops are considered

  16. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The year 2003 has again been a very intense period for all of us working at the Insect Pest Control Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture Programme. This issue reports normative activities, and the application of area-wide control and SIT. One that stands out during 2003 is the recent publication of 'Trapping Guidelines for Area-wide Fruit Fly Programmes', which responds to the request by Member States to harmonize internationally trapping procedures for Tephritid fruit flies of economic importance. These pest insects have a major impact on the international trade of fresh fruits and vegetables, and the guidelines provide strategic guidance and direction to NPPOs, RPPOs and industry on where and how to implement fruit fl y surveys. Using these guidelines in the implementation of surveys will support FAO and IAEA Member States in obtaining international recognition of their fruit fly control and quarantine activities. A new project is a world-directory of fruit fly workers. A tremendous amount of information is made available each year on Tephritid fruit flies: new technologies developed, new information on their biology and ecology; new control methods made available, new species identified, new outbreaks recorded and new operational control programmes launched. This site will attempt to collate this information and allow Tephritid fruit fly workers worldwide to keep up-to-date on the most recent developments. Another activity has been the development of more scientific methods for determining when an area achieves a pest-free status. A consultants meeting focused on this topic and a generic procedure has been developed for declaring an area to be 'pest-free' following an eradication campaign against an insect pest. This involves a probability model to deal with null trapping results and also a growth model to help verify that pest specimen were not present when control was stopped. Other normative and promotional activities under development include

  17. Morphological structure and water status in tulip bulbs from dormancy to active growth : visualization by NMR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der A.; Zemah, H.; As, van H.; Bendel, P.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to follow time-dependent morphological changes and changes in water status of tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L., cv. ‘Apeldoorn’) during bulb storage for 12 weeks at 20 °C (non-chilled) or 4 °C (chilled) and

  18. Induction of bulb organogenesis in in vitro cultures of tarda tulip (Tulipa tarda Stapf.) from seed-derived explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślanka, Małgorzata; Bach, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A protocol for obtaining bulbs via in vitro organogenesis was developed for tarda tulip ( Tulipa tarda Stapf). Scale explants were obtained from bulbs formed at the base of seedlings or from adventitious bulbs that developed from callus tissue forming on stolons or on germinating seeds. Some explants were subjected to chilling at 5°C for 12 wk. The culture media contained 3 or 6% sucrose and was supplemented with either no growth regulators, either 0.5 μM 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP) or 18.9 or 94.6 μM abscisic acid (ABA). Cultures were maintained in the dark at 20°C. Callus tissue developed mainly on media without growth regulators or with BAP. Callus was formed from up to 96% of explants derived from non-chilled adventitious bulbs that were treated with 3% sucrose and 0.5 μM BAP. Less callus was formed from chilled explants compared with non-chilled explants. Newly formed adventitious bulbs appeared on the explants via direct and indirect organogenesis. The media with BAP promoted the formation of adventitious bulbs at a rate of 56-92% from non-chilled explants, whereas a maximum rate of 36% was observed from chilled explants. ABA inhibited the induction of adventitious bulbs and callus. The adventitious bulbs obtained in these experiments contained a meristem, which was evidence that they had developed properly.

  19. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Krupke, Christian H; White, Michael A; Alexander, Corinne E

    2008-01-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  20. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Kiradoo, M.M.; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  1. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-06-16

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  2. Continuous spatial representations in the olfactory bulb may reflect perceptual categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eAuffarth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bulb of glomerular layer of the rat, in order to see how the recognition of odors in the nose is translated into a map of odor quality in the brain. We first confirm previous studies that the first principal component could be related to pleasantness, however the next higher principal components are not directly clear. We then find mostly continuous spatial representations for perceptual categories. We compare the space spanned by spatial and population codes to human reports of perceptual similarity between odors and our results suggest that perceptual categories could be already embedded in glomerular activations and that spatial representations give a better match than population codes. This suggests that human and rat perceptual dimensions of odorant coding are related and indicates that perceptual qualities could be represented as continuous spatial codes of the olfactory bulb glomerulus population.

  3. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  4. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  5. A functional study of the rat olfactory bulb through autoradiography with 14C-2-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrier, Marie; Leveteau, Jean; Giachetti, Ismene; MacLeod, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    The autoradiographic methods has been used in the rat to map active regions in the olfactory bulb after a pulse of 14 C-2-deoxyglucose with electrical stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract. The highest optical densities were found at the external plexiform, mural, internal plexiform and granular layers: the lowest was found in the glomerular layer [fr

  6. Adventitious bud formation from bulb-scale explants of Lilium speciosum Thunb. in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartrijk, van J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the interactive effects are described of tissue, medium, and other environmental factors on the process of adventitious bud formation in vitro from bulb-scale explants of Lilium speciosum Thunb. Besides, results are presented of experiments

  7. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Compact Fluorescent Lamp and Common Light Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanushevsk, Atanas; Rendevski, Stojan

    2016-01-01

    For acquainting the students of applied physics and students of teaching physics with the concept of energy efficiency, electrical and spectral characteristics of two widely used lamps--integrated fluorescence lamp and common light bulb have been investigated. Characterization of the lamps has been done by measuring the spectral irradiance and…

  8. Establishment of the total RNA extraction system for lily bulbs with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... The brightness of. CTAB was higher than that of SDS, which indicated that only improved CTAB method can extract biologically active. RNA from lily bulbs. DISCUSSION. The presence of RNase, which can be classified into endogenous and exogenous, is the major cause for the failure of RNA extraction.

  9. Numerical prediction of a bulb turbine performance hill chart through RANS simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guénette, V; Houde, S; Ciocan, G D; Deschênes, C; Dumas, G; Huang, J

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of an international research consortium on low-head hydraulic turbine flow dynamics, the predictive behavior of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of the efficiency (η) hill chart of a bulb turbine is investigated. The paper presents the impacts of the blade tip gap and the hub gaps on performance predictions.

  10. Mutation breeding of bulb crops by means of radioactive irradiation and other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkema, H.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Results of mutation breeding of bulb crops by means of radioactive irradiation, colchicine and heat treatment are discussed. The optimal dose of X radiation is stated. Mutation frequency was low; it is suggested to apply radiation on plant material that is propagated by way of adventitious buds

  11. Anti-bacterial activity of Extract of Crinum jagus bulb against Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crinum jagus plant has been reportedly used for treatment of infectious diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the crude extract and chromatographic fractions from the bulb of Crinium jagus against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was investigated using Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ) and ...

  12. Newborn Interneurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb Promote Mate Recognition in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio eOboti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb of adult rodents, local interneurons are constantly replaced by immature precursors derived from the subventricular zone. Whether any olfactory sensory process specifically relies on this cell renewal remains largely unclear. By using the well-known model of mating-induced imprinting, we demonstrate that this olfactory memory formation critically depends on the presence of newborn granule neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Accordingly, we show that, in adult female mice, exposure to male pheromones increases the number of new granule cells surviving in the accessory olfactory bulb. This neuronal addition depends on the detection of sensory cues by the vomeronasal organ and requires centrifugal feedback activity from the amygdala. The stimuli affecting neuronal survival are contained in the low molecular weight fraction of urine and are implied in pheromonal recognition during mating. By chemical depletion of newly generated bulbar interneurons, we show a direct role of renewed granule cells in the accessory olfactory bulb in preventing pregnancy block by mating male odours. Taken together, our results indicate that adult neurogenesis is essential for specific brain functions such as persistent odour learning and mate recognition.

  13. Design recommendations for the optimized continuity diaphragm for prestressed concrete bulb-T beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This research focused on prestressed concrete bulb-T (PCBT) beams made composite with a cast-in-place concrete deck and continuous over several spans through the use of continuity diaphragms. The current design procedure in AASHTO states that a conti...

  14. Mites as vector of Tulip Virus X in stored tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.; Conijn, C.G.M.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Pham, K.T.K.; Kock, de M.J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip virus X (TVX) is a Potexvirus causing economic losses in tulip. Potexviruses are generally transmitted by mechanical contact and, indeed, several mechanical transmission pathways for TVX have been identified during tulip bulb production. However, TVX transmission does also seem to occur during

  15. Effect of Exogenous Hormones (NAA, BA, GA3, and Ethephon, Chemical Inhibitors (MH and CIP and Low Temperature on Sprouting of Onion Bulbs, AIIium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benkeblia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exogenous hormones (ABA, NAA, BA, GA; and ethephon and chemical inhibitors (MH and CW, associated with cooling, on sprouting of dormant (freshly harvested and non dormant (kept six months at 5-6 °C onion bulbs were investigated. Effects of NM and BA on the sprouting of the bulbs were similar, particularly when associated with cooling. Cooled + NAA and BA treated dormant bulbs, both sprouted after lo weeks, while non-cooled bulbs sprouted after 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. Non-dormant bulbs sprouted after 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. No significant effect of MH, ClP and STS on sprouting of non dormant bulbs was observed. Gibberellin and ethylene were less effective on sprouting of dormant onion bulbs. Nevertheless significant differences were observed between GA; or ethylene treated and cooled bulbs, and others treated bulbs. For non dormant bulbs, significant differences were noted among GA3,-ethephon-control, and MH-CIP treated bulbs. Sprouting of bulbs was also affected by ABA treatment, while cooling slowed down significantly this inhibitory effect of ABA.

  16. Protesa Maksilofasial Thermoplastic Nylon (Valplast dengan Hollow Bulb (Klas III Aramany palate schisis hereditary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azhindra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: pada penderita palato schisis (celah langit-langityang disebkan hereditary atau bawaan lahir terlihat defect yang menyebabkan gangguan bicara (sengau, penelanan, pengunyahan, estetik, dan psikologis. Untuk dapat mencapai fungsi bicara, fungsi mengunyah dan fungsi estetika diperlukan protesa untuk menutup celah tersebut. Tujuan: untuk meninformasikan cara rehabilitas defect atau cacat pada wajah dengan protesa maksilofasial thermoplastic nylon dengan hollow buib yang berguna untuk mengembalikan fungsi bicara, penelanan, pengunyahan, estetik dan psikologis penderita. Kasus dan penanganan: pasien pria berusia 46 tahun dating ke RSGM Prof. Soedomo atas rujukan dari poli RS. Dr. Sardjito. Saat datang pasien terganggu berbicara, menguyah dan menelan disebkan adanya celah langit-langit terbuka dan merupakan kelainan bawaan. Pasien kehilangan banyak gigi terutama pada gigi posterior pada rahang atas dan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Obturator ini dibuat segera dengan mempertimbangkan penutupan celah langit-langit, menggunakan bahan yang lebih ringan (menggunakan hoolow bulb agar keluhan pasien dapat diatasi didesain alat yang mempunyai retensi maksimal dan mengembalikan pengunyahan, fungsi bicara, penelanan, estetis dan psikologis sehingga pasien akan akan mempunyai bentuk wajah yang mendekati normal. Hollow bulb adalah rongga yang dibuat pada protesa maksilofasial untuk menutup rongga mulut, rongga hidung dan defect. Pada waktu insersi diperiksa retensi, stabilisasi, oklusi, estetik dan pengucapan. Kontrol dilakukan 1 minggu dan 1 bulan setelah pemakaian. Hasil pemeriksaan dan evaluasi setelah 1 minggu dan 1 bulan setelah pemakaian protesa maksilofasial hollow bulb didapatkan hasil dengan retensi, stabilisasi, olusi dan pengucapan lebih baik. Kesimpulan: setelah menggunakan protesa maksilofasial thermoplastic nylon dengan hollow buib pada penderita palato scisis, pasien dapat berbicara dan mengunyah dengan normal. Protesa maksilofasial

  17. Validating spatiotemporal predictions of an important pest of small grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Holtzer, Thomas O; Peairs, Frank B; Lester, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod pests are typically managed using tactics applied uniformly to the whole field. Precision pest management applies tactics under the assumption that within-field pest pressure differences exist. This approach allows for more precise and judicious use of scouting resources and management tactics. For example, a portion of a field delineated as attractive to pests may be selected to receive extra monitoring attention. Likely because of the high variability in pest dynamics, little attention has been given to developing precision pest prediction models. Here, multimodel synthesis was used to develop a spatiotemporal model predicting the density of a key pest of wheat, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov). Spatially implicit and spatially explicit models were synthesized to generate spatiotemporal pest pressure predictions. Cross-validation and field validation were used to confirm model efficacy. A strong within-field signal depicting aphid density was confirmed with low prediction errors. Results show that the within-field model predictions will provide higher-quality information than would be provided by traditional field scouting. With improvements to the broad-scale model component, the model synthesis approach and resulting tool could improve pest management strategy and provide a template for the development of spatially explicit pest pressure models. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera. The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012. Four packages of IPM evaluated were cotton varieties, i.e. Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13, and seed treatment with synthetic insecticide (imidacloprid before sowing or spraying molasses (10 ml L-1 water as food for natural enemies. The cotton plants were intercropped with groundnut and sprayed with neem seed extract (NSE at the action threshold level for pest control. These packages were compared among themselves and also with the methods usually used by farmers, i.e. planting cotton variety Kanesia 8 intercropped with groundnut and pest control using synthetic chemical insecticides. Twenty five plants were sampled randomly per plot and measured for their growth, leafhopper and  bollworm populations, as well as cotton seed yield per plot. Observations were made weekly, starting at 30 days after planting (DAP until 120 DAP. The results showed that the use of Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13 intercropped with groundnut and spraying molasses to conserve natural enemies was the best  pest management practice and superior to farmers’ practices. Conserving natural enemies is not only profitable (saving production cost of IDR1,150,000 to IDR1,500,000 ha-1 season-1, but also safe for the environment (no need to spray chemical insecticides.

  19. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  20. [A New Pest of Amomum villosum in Xishuangbanna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-min; Wang, Yan-fang; Zhang, Li-xia; Li, Rong-ying; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2015-11-01

    To report a new pest of Amomum villosum and its distribution, occurrence regularity and damage situation, in order to provide reference for its control. Reared the pest larvae, observed the morphological characters, and made a preliminary investigation on its distribution, occurrence regularity and damage situation. Through macroscopic examination, the pest was identified as Anisodera rugulosa, which distributed in the main producing areas of Amomum villosum in Xishuangbanna, the pest larvae ate the inside of Amomum villosum fruit, which made the fruit formed holes, more seriously, it made the whole fruit rot black. The pest causes the fruit yield reduction of Amomum villosum. Pest control work needs to be carry out as soon as possible.

  1. [Health risks from pest control products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C; Holthenrich, D; Schneider, H

    2014-05-01

    According to European biocide legislation, pest control products require assessment and authorization by the responsible national or European authorities. Biocidal products can only be authorized if they have no unacceptable effects on human health. The health risk assessment performed for authorization comprises (a) the derivation of reference values for the active substances and substances of concern contained in the biocidal product and (b) an exposure assessment. These parameters are required for risk characterization. No unacceptable health risks are expected if the determined exposure is less than the relevant reference value. In addition, the toxicological information is used for classification of the biocidal product. The assessment may, where necessary, result in specific conditions for use or other restrictions aimed at minimizing risk. The risk to human health from pest control products is mainly based on the toxicological properties of their active substances. Commonly, the coformulants used in pest control products are of less concern than the active substances (e.g., food ingredients and animal feed products). For example, most rodenticides belong to the group of anticoagulants, which are also effective in humans. Regarding intoxications through insecticides, the group of pyrethroids is of particular importance. Fumigants containing metal phosphides, hydrogen cyanide, or sulfuryl difluoride are particularly toxic. This toxicity is linked to the high acute inhalation toxicity of the gaseous active substances themselves or, in the case of phosphides, of the released gas phosphane. The aim of health risk assessment for the authorization of biocidal products is to ensure their safe application for users and all other persons involved, assuming an adequate and label-compliant use.

  2. Integrated pest management: theoretical insights from a threshold policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Michel I. da Silveira [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica (LNCC), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: michel@lncc.br; Faria, Lucas del B. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia. Setor de Ecologia], e-mail: lucasdbf@gmail.com

    2010-01-15

    An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical complexities inherent to the application of biocontrol only. In addition, pesticide toxicity depends rather on the species intrinsic parameters than on the chemical agent concentration. (author)

  3. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    In the past years it has often been pointed out that the name of the Insect and Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, and the name of this newsletter (Insect and Pest Control Newsletter) create confusion and expectations for control of rats, birds, weeds and other non-insect pests but which are not within our mandate. All work within the Subprogramme has been on insect pests, and in 1999 an external review recommended a change to Insect Pest Control Subprogramme since this is simpler, reduces confusion and retains the good recognition and high reputation that already exists. The IAEA management implemented this recommendation and consequently, as of this issue this newsletter is entitled Insect Pest Control Newsletter. There was a very constructive consultant's meeting recently held in Vienna on the development of genetic sexing strains for the codling moth, for which the demand for SIT application is significantly increasing. Based on the discussions during this meeting a real opportunity seems now to exist to move the field of Lepidoptera genetic sexing forward. The possibility of using an allele of a dominant lethal mutation, such as the temperature sensitive Notch, in the development of a genetic sexing system for codling moth is very exciting. As emerged during the meeting, if an appropriate allele of this mutation can be inserted onto the female determining chromosome of codling moth, through transformation, then it may be possible to kill female embryos with a cold temperature treatment. Another approach could be to translocate an autosomal insertion of the gene onto the female determining chromosome. If the insert of the dominant lethal mutation also included a gene expressing a fluorescent protein then the strain would also have a visible marker for the sexing procedure. This latter is very important for any use of a sexing strain in mass rearing. There appear to be few technical constraints to demonstrating 'proof of principle' for

  4. [3H]GABA uptake as a marker for cell type in primary cultures of cerebellum and olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, D.N.; Dutton, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    Uptake of [ 3 H]GABA into cell cultures of rat cerebellum and olfactory bulb was studied by autoradiography, using β-alanine and aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid to distinguish neuronal-specific and glial-specific uptake. Neurons and astrocytes were also labelled by tetanus toxin and anti-GFAP respectively. This combination of markers allowed identification and quantification of several cell types. Cerebellar cultures were found to contain 77% granule neurons, 7.5% inhibitory neurons (probably stellate and basket cells) and 15% astrocytes. Olfactory bulb cultures were over 50% in small neurons which accumulated GABA, the olfactory bulb granule neuron being GABAergic in vivo. (Auth.)

  5. Improving detection probabilities for pests in stored grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmouttie, David; Kiermeier, Andreas; Hamilton, Grant

    2010-12-01

    The presence of insects in stored grain is a significant problem for grain farmers, bulk grain handlers and distributors worldwide. Inspection of bulk grain commodities is essential to detect pests and thereby to reduce the risk of their presence in exported goods. It has been well documented that insect pests cluster in response to factors such as microclimatic conditions within bulk grain. Statistical sampling methodologies for grain, however, have typically considered pests and pathogens to be homogeneously distributed throughout grain commodities. In this paper, a sampling methodology is demonstrated that accounts for the heterogeneous distribution of insects in bulk grain. It is shown that failure to account for the heterogeneous distribution of pests may lead to overestimates of the capacity for a sampling programme to detect insects in bulk grain. The results indicate the importance of the proportion of grain that is infested in addition to the density of pests within the infested grain. It is also demonstrated that the probability of detecting pests in bulk grain increases as the number of subsamples increases, even when the total volume or mass of grain sampled remains constant. This study underlines the importance of considering an appropriate biological model when developing sampling methodologies for insect pests. Accounting for a heterogeneous distribution of pests leads to a considerable improvement in the detection of pests over traditional sampling models. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

    2007-01-01

    A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management.

  7. Future pest status of an insect pest in museums, Attagenus smirnovi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Åkerlund, Monika; Grøntoft, Terje

    2012-01-01

    in Europe show that it is widespread and common, also in regions with a climate that does not support its survival out of doors. Thus, dispersal of this pest probably only rarely occurs by flight, but usually with human activity. Due to the widespread distribution of A. smirnovi, it is likely that damages...

  8. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND MINERAL CONTENT IN EUCOMIS AUTUMNALIS (MILL. CHITT. PLANTS OBTAINED FROM BULBS TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES AND COATED WITH NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucomis autumnalis is an attractive ornamental species from the South Africa, commonly used in natural medicine. Plant protection programs, particularly those concerning plants grown for phytotherapeutics, are focused on prophylactic treatments that facilitate a limited use of pesticides negatively affecting the environment. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and sodium alginate are exemplary non-toxic and biodegradable substances used for hydrogel coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treating E. autumnalis bulbs with fungicide or coating with natural polysaccharides on the morphological traits and content of minerals in the leaves and bulbs. Prior to planting, the bulbs were divided into three groups: (I untreated bulbs (control; (II bulbs treated with Kaptan and Topsin fungicides; (III bulbs coated with oligochitosan and sodium alginate. Bulb coating was found to exert a stimulating effect on plant height, number and length of leaf, greenness index (SPAD, number of flowers per inflorescence, fresh weight of the aboveground part and fresh weight of bulbs. The leaves and bulbs of plants grown from coated bulbs contained more nitrogen, potassium and boron. Treating the bulbs with fungicides positively affected the number of leaves, greenness index and fresh weight of the aboveground part.

  9. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.212 Movement of plant pests by baggage...

  10. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210a Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests. (a) The...

  11. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F J J A; Booij, C J H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-07-22

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

  12. The Death of Narcissus: On Musical Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Currie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On the first page of the preface to Michael Steinberg’s excellent book, Listening to Reason: Culture, Subjectivity, and Nineteenth-Century Music, the author states that the book’s origin can be located specifically to “August 1990,” when he was giving “a short preconcert lecture on Brahms at the first Bard Music Festival.”

  13. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  14. Free sugar contents in onion bulbs on different cultivars and different production areas, and their changes by storage and gamma-irradiation. Free sugars in onion bulbs, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishibori, Sukie [Tokaigakuen Women' s Coll., Nagoya (Japan); Namiki, Kazuko

    1982-05-01

    Changes in the contents of free sugar in onion bulbs of different cultivars and different production areas were investigated during storage and processing by using gas-chromatography. No significant difference was observed in the total free sugar contents among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas except early season's cultivars which showed a slightly lower content of sugar. The free sugar was mainly composed with glucose (1.7 - 3.2%), fructose (1.1 - 2.5%) and sucrose (0.7 - 2.6%), and the composition was somewhat different among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas. During the storage at 4 - 5/sup 0/C, the total free suger contents gradually decreased during the first few months but more markedly to about 30% after sprouting. The middle part of onion bulbs contained more total free sugar than the other parts (middle part, 5.6 ..-->.. 3.5%, inner part, 5.2 ..-->.. 3.2%, outer part, 4.8 ..-->.. 1.5%), and the total free sugar contents in the outer part decreased markedly during the storage. The changes of the sugar contents after the freeze-drying were almost negligible, but showed significant decrease after the hot-air drying, especially for sucrose. The gamma irradiation with 5 - 50 krad gave no appreciable effects on the total free sugar contents though it seemed to make a slight increase in the sucrose content.

  15. Determining noncondensible gas fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures using wet and dry bulb temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, P.; Bowman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The work reported in this note was undertaken to provide a method of determining the noncondensible gas fractions in a steam-gas mixture such as might be found in large reactor safety experiment like LOFT. In essence, the method used involves measuring the wet and dry bulb temperatures and using an algorithm, in place of the psychometric chart, to determine the partial pressure of the noncondensible gas in the mixture. In accomplishing this, the authors did the following: (1) extended the use of wet and dry-bulb temperature readings to determine mixture composition up to a temperature of 589 K and a pressure of 4.13 x 10 6 Pa. (2) developed an algorithm to reduce the data (3) found which materials would survive those temperatures

  16. Development of Bioclimatic Design Tool for Oman Using Dry Bulb and Dew Point Temperatures Open Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Azri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioclimatic charts are used by engineers and architects in implementing passive cooling systems and architectural optimization with respect to natural air conditioning. Conventionally, the development of these charts is based on the availability of typical meteorological year which requires a record of meteorological data that are rarely available in sufficient amounts. Bioclimatic charts in Oman were developed earlier by the authors for limited locations based on the available typical meteorological years. Using dry bulb and dew point temperatures only, bioclimatic charts are developed for Adam, Buraimi, Ibra, Muscat, Nizwa, Rustaq, Saiq, Salalah, Suhar and Sur. These charts are better representative of bioclimatic trends since their development is mainly based on the relevant parameters, namely dry bulb temperature and dew point.

  17. Endogenous GABA and Glutamate Finely Tune the Bursting of Olfactory Bulb External Tufted Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayar, Abdallah; Ennis, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    In rat olfactory bulb slices, external tufted (ET) cells spontaneously generate spike bursts. Although ET cell bursting is intrinsically generated, its strength and precise timing may be regulated by synaptic input. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing whether the burst properties are modulated by activation of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate receptors. Blocking GABAA receptors increased—whereas blocking ionotropic glutamate receptors decreased—the number of spikes/burst without changing the interburst frequency. The GABAA agonist (isoguvacine, 10 μM) completely inhibited bursting or reduced the number of spikes/burst, suggesting a shunting effect. These findings indicate that the properties of ET cell spontaneous bursting are differentially controlled by GABAergic and glutamatergic fast synaptic transmission. We suggest that ET cell excitatory and inhibitory inputs may be encoded as a change in the pattern of spike bursting in ET cells, which together with mitral/tufted cells constitute the output circuit of the olfactory bulb. PMID:17567771

  18. Study on exploitation of Jerusalem artichoke bulbs in relation to chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. known in USA also as sunchoke, is a perennial plant, well-adapted to humid and cold climats, nonpretencious to soil and with good yield increase. The bulbs are the eatable part that grows in the ground that have certain similitudes with the potato. The value of Jerusalem artichoke as a technical and medical vegetable is based on the chemical composition of the plant. The bulbs of the Jerusalem artichoke harvested in autumn have been sensorially and chemically analyzed along the deposition during the cold season. Measurements were made on the light brown variety with a slightly elongated shape. The low mass loss during depostion, the high content of reducing sugar (4.7- 6.12% and total carbohydrates (94.27-96.18% enable their successful use in the functional food and for the production of alcohol.

  19. Protoplasmic Swelling as a Symptom of Freezing Injury in Onion Bulb Cells 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1986-01-01

    Freezing injury, in onion bulb tissue, is known to cause enhanced K+ efflux accompanied by a small but significant loss of Ca2+ following incipient freezing injury and swelling of protoplasm during the postthaw secondary injury. The protoplasmic swelling of the cell is thought to be caused by the passive influx of extracellular K+ into the cell followed by water uptake. Using outer epidermal layer of unfrozen onion bulb scales (Allium cepa L. cv Big Red), we were able to stimulate the irreversible freezing injury symptoms, by bathing epidermal cells in 50 millimolar KCl. These symptoms were prevented by adding 20 millimolar CaCl2 to the extracellular KCl solution. Our results provide evidence that loss of cellular Ca2+ plays an important role in the initiation and the progression of freezing injury. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16665083

  20. Energy saving during bulb storage applying modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapounas, A.A.; Campen, J.B.; Wildschut, J.; Bot, G.P. [Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticutlure and Applied Plant Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Tulip bulbs are stored in ventilated containers to avoid high ethylene concentration between the bulbs. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used in this study to examine the distribution of air flow between the containers and the potential energy saving by applying simple solutions concerning the design of the air inlet area and the adjustment of the ventilation rate. The variation in container ventilation was calculated to be between 60 and 180 per cent, with 100 per cent being the average flow through the containers. Various improvement measures were examined. The study showed that 7 per cent energy can be saved by smoothing the sharp corners of the entrance channels of the ventilation wall. The most effective and simple improvement was to cover the open top containers. In this case, the variation was between 80 and 120 per cent. The energy saving was about 38 per cent by adjusting the overall ventilation to the container with the minimal acceptable air flow.

  1. Reduction of Glucose Metabolism in Olfactory Bulb is an Earlier Alzheimer's Disease-related Biomarker in 5XFAD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-An Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The decline of (18F-FDG uptake in the olfactory bulb occurs earlier than other incidents, serving as an earlier in vivo biological marker of AD in 5XFAD mice and making early diagnosis of AD possibly.

  2. Vaginocervical stimulation enhances social recognition memory in rats via oxytocin release in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrazolo-López, A; Kendrick, K M; Aburto-Arciniega, M; Arriaga-Avila, V; Morimoto, S; Frias, M; Guevara-Guzmán, R

    2008-03-27

    The ability of vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) to promote olfactory social recognition memory at different stages of the ovarian cycle was investigated in female rats. A juvenile social recognition paradigm was used and memory retention tested at 30 and 300 min after an adult was exposed to a juvenile during three 4-min trials. Results showed that an intact social recognition memory was present at 30 min in animals with or without VCS and at all stages of the estrus cycle. However, whereas no animals in any stage of the estrus cycle showed retention of the specific recognition memory at 300 min, those in the proestrus/estrus phase that received VCS 10 min before the trial started did. In vivo microdialysis studies showed that there was a significant release of oxytocin after VCS in the olfactory bulb during proestrus. There was also increased oxytocin immunoreactivity within the olfactory bulb after VCS in proestrus animals compared with diestrus ones. Furthermore, when animals received an infusion of an oxytocin antagonist directly into the olfactory bulb, or a systemic administration of alpha or beta noradrenaline-antagonists, they failed to show evidence for maintenance of a selective olfactory recognition memory at 300 min. Animals with vagus or pelvic nerve section also showed no memory retention when tested after 300 min. These results suggest that VCS releases oxytocin in the olfactory bulb to enhance the social recognition memory and that this may be due to modulatory actions on noradrenaline release. The vagus and pelvic nerves are responsible for carrying the information from the pelvic area to the CNS.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  4. Effects of feeding Beta vulgaris saccharifera bulb for fattening desert lambs under tropical conditions of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of introducing Sugar Beet bulb as a cheap substitute for grains in rations formulated for sheep fattening. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Experimental unit of Rural Development and extension center, Faculty of animal production, University of Gezira. Twenty four Sudanese desert lambs (Ashgur ecotype were purchased from local markets to assess the effects of replacing grain with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris saccharifera Bulb on feed lot performance, carcass traits under tropical conditions of Sudan. Sugar Beet bulb was incorporated in three rations with a control ration (A: control, B, C, D at percentages of 0, 11, 22, and 33. Results: The results showed that total weight gain and daily feed intake in group D were significantly different at (P<0.05 where values of 5.59±1.73 and 0.94± 0.13 kg were recorded. Total weight gain, daily dry matter intake, daily energy intake and feed conversion ratio were in the range of 10.67- 5.59, 1.03-0.83, 0.33-0.27and 11.77- 7.70 kg respectively. Treatments showed no significant differences at (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, empty body weight, dressing % on slaughter weight basis and dressing % on empty weight basis, the obtained results for these traits were 27.78-25.37, 24.76- 22.22, 45.80- 43.45% and 51.41- 49.65%. Carcass cuts (Leg, Loin, Rack, Plate and Neck & shoulder weight and percentages showed no significant differences among treatments. Conclusion: It is concluded that replacing expensive grains with Beta vulgaris bulb can be practiced in sheep fattening project up to 22% with excellent results. [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 330-334

  5. Participation of the Olfactory Bulb in Circadian Organization during Early Postnatal Life in Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Navarrete

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence indicates that during pre-visual stages of development in mammals, circadian regulation is still not under the control of the light-entrainable hypothalamic pacemaker, raising the possibility that the circadian rhythmicity that occurs during postnatal development is under the control of peripheral oscillators, such as the main olfactory bulb (MOB. We evaluated the outcome of olfactory bulbectomy on the temporal pattern of core body temperature and gross locomotor activity in newborn rabbits. From postnatal day 1 (P1, pups were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: intact pups (INT, intact pups fed by enteral gavage (INT+ENT, sham operated pups (SHAM, pups with unilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-UNI, and pups with bilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-BI. At the beginning of the experiment, from P1-8, the animals in all groups were fed at 11:00, from P9-13 the feeding schedule was delayed 6 h (17:00, and finally, from P14-15 the animals were subjected to fasting conditions. The rabbit pups of the INT, INT+ENT, SHAM and OBx-UNI groups exhibited a clear circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity, with a conspicuous anticipatory rise hours prior to the nursing or feeding schedule, which persisted even during fasting conditions. In addition, phase delays in the nursing or feeding schedule induced a clear phase shift in both parameters. In contrast, the OBx-BI group exhibited atypical rhythmicity in both parameters under entrained conditions that altered the anticipatory component, as well as deficient phase control of both rhythms. The present results demonstrate that the expression of circadian rhythmicity at behavioral and physiological levels during early stages of rabbit development largely depends on the integrity of the main olfactory bulb.

  6. Novel subdomains of the mouse olfactory bulb defined by molecular heterogeneity in the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Golan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse olfactory system, the role of the olfactory bulb in guiding olfactory sensory neuron (OSN axons to their targets is poorly understood. What cell types within the bulb are necessary for targeting is unknown. What genes are important for this process is also unknown. Although projection neurons are not required, other cell-types within the external plexiform and glomerular layers also form synapses with OSNs. We hypothesized that these cells are important for targeting, and express spatially differentially expressed guidance cues that act to guide OSN axons within the bulb. Results We used laser microdissection and microarray analysis to find genes that are differentially expressed along the dorsal-ventral, medial-lateral, and anterior-posterior axes of the bulb. The expression patterns of these genes divide the bulb into previously unrecognized subdomains. Interestingly, some genes are expressed in both the medial and lateral bulb, showing for the first time the existence of symmetric expression along this axis. We use a regeneration paradigm to show that several of these genes are altered in expression in response to deafferentation, consistent with the interpretation that they are expressed in cells that interact with OSNs. Conclusion We demonstrate that the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers of the bulb can be divided into multiple domains based on the expression of these genes, several of which are known to function in axon guidance, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis. These genes represent candidate guidance cues that may act to guide OSN axons within the bulb during targeting.

  7. Economics of area-wide pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Area-wide pest management is commonly practised throughout the world, probably much more so than is generally recognised (Lindquist 2000, Klassen 2000). Apart from highly publicised area-wide schemes such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) for fruit flies, pheromone disruption for cotton bollworms and classical biological control, there are many examples of actions such as concerted host plant eradication, enforced closed crop seasons, organised pesticide rotation for resistance management, coordination of resistant crop genotypes, etc., some going back several centuries, which should also be considered as area-wide practices. Each of these is faced with many of the economic issues generally associated with area-wide management which will be discussed below. In general, there are to be four major questions to answer in devising an area-wide pest management programme: 1) Should a particular pest be controlled locally or area-wide? 2) What is an appropriate area over which management should be attempted? 3) Within that area what form of control is most efficient? 4) What level of organisation should be used to get the job done? It should be noted that apart from clearly objective measures such as technical effectiveness (say, mortality) or cost efficiency (mortality per dollar), there are many subjective measures that come into the evaluation of area-wide control due to the element of risk (for example, in quarantine and eradication), the boundaries of externalities (for example, variable probabilities of pesticide drift under different conditions or target organism sensitivities) and time preferences for returns on capital investments (such as insect rearing facilities or research to develop pheromone technologies). As a result of these subjective components, it may sometimes be difficult to reach clearly agreed decisions based on objective economic analyses, even with a consensus on the data used. There are three general classes of economic problems in comparing

  8. Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriga, Balaji; Mopuri, Ramgopal; MuraliKrishna, T

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum (A. sativum). Dried bulbs of A. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of 81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of 1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was 100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2'-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity (80%-90% of the standard). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy of A. sativum against S. litura, a polyphagous insect. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the outer-bulb discharge as ignition aid for automotive-HID lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, A; Groeger, S; Hoebing, T; Ruhrmann, C; Mentel, J; Awakowicz, P; Hechtfischer, U; Tochadse, G

    2014-01-01

    This work considers the ignition process of mercury-free high-intensity discharge lamps used for car headlights. These lamps have to run-up fast. This is achieved with a high xenon pressure of about 15 bar (cold) in the inner bulb. The high filling-gas pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with lower-pressure lamps used in general-lighting applications. In this paper the possibility is investigated to reduce the ignition voltage by optimizing a dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) in the outer bulb working as ignition aid. A special outer bulb was built up allowing gas exchange and adjustment of the gas pressure. For diagnostic purposes different electrical and optical methods are used, namely the recording of ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission by a photo-diode signal on nanosecond time scale as well as short-time photography by a intensified charge-coupled device camera. It was found that the DBD mainly generates a potential distribution within the lamp which supports ignition by an increase in the E-field in front of the electrodes and the wall. It is shown that this effect is distinctly more effective than UV radiation potentially emitted by the DBD. (paper)

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of pattern formation and pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Bill

    1986-10-01

    A mathematical model of the process of pattern recognition in the first olfactory sensory cortex of the rabbit is presented. It explains the formation and alteration of spatial patterns in neural activity observed experimentally during classical Pavlovian conditioning. On each inspiration of the animal, a surge of receptor input enters the olfactory bulb. EEG activity recorded at the surface of the bulb undergoes a transition from a low amplitude background state of temporal disorder to coherent oscillation. There is a distinctive spatial pattern of rms amplitude in this oscillation which changes reliably to a second pattern during each successful recognition by the animal of a conditioned stimulus odor. When a new odor is paired as conditioned stimulus, these patterns are replaced by new patterns that stabilize as the animal adapts to the new environment. I will argue that a unification of the theories of pattern formation and associative memory is required to account for these observations. This is achieved in a model of the bulb as a discrete excitable medium with spatially inhomogeneous coupling expressed by a connection matrix. The theory of multiple Hopf bifurcations is employed to find coupled equations for the amplitudes of competing unstable oscillatory modes. These may be created in the system by proper coupling and selectively evoked by specific classes of inputs. This allows a view of limit cycle attractors as “stored” fixed points of a gradient vector field and thereby recovers the more familiar dynamical systems picture of associative memory.

  11. Bifurcation analysis of oscillating network model of pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Bill

    1986-08-01

    A neural network model describing pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb is analysed to explain the changes in neural activity observed experimentally during classical Pavlovian conditioning. EEG activity recorded from an 8×8 arry of 64 electrodes directly on the surface on the bulb shows distinct spatial patterns of oscillation that correspond to the animal's recognition of different conditioned odors and change with conditioning to new odors. The model may be considered a variant of Hopfield's model of continuous analog neural dynamics. Excitatory and inhibitory cell types in the bulb and the anatomical architecture of their connection requires a nonsymmetric coupling matrix. As the mean input level rises during each breath of the animal, the system bifurcates from homogenous equilibrium to a spatially patterned oscillation. The theory of multiple Hopf bifurcations is employed to find coupled equations for the amplitudes of these unstable oscillatory modes independent of frequency. This allows a view of stored periodic attractors as fixed points of a gradient vector field and thereby recovers the more familiar dynamical systems picture of associative memory.

  12. Equipment for fully homologous bulb turbine model testing in Laval University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser R; Vallée D; Jean Y; Deschênes C

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of liberalisation of the energy market, hydroelectricity remains a first class source of clean and renewable energy. Combining the growing demand of energy, its increasing value and the appreciation associated to the sustainable development, low head sites formerly considered as non-profitable are now exploitable. Bulb turbines likely to equip such sites are traditionally developed on model using right angle transmission leading to piers enlargement for power take off shaft passage, thus restricting possibilities to have fully homologous hydraulic passages. Aiming to sustain good quality development on fully homologous scale model of bulb turbines, the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University has developed a brake with an enhanced power to weight ratio. This powerful brake is small enough to be located in the bulb shell while dissipating power without mandatory test head reduction. This paper first presents the basic technology of this brake and its application. Then both its main performance capabilities and dimensional characteristics will be detailed. The instrumentation used to perform accurate measurements will be finally presented

  13. Implementation of Olfactory Bulb Glomerular Layer Computations in a Digital Neurosynaptic Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil eImam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a biomimetic system that captures essential functional properties of the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb, specifically including its capacity to decorrelate similar odor representations without foreknowledge of the statistical distributions of analyte features. Our system is based on a digital neuromorphic chip consisting of 256 leaky-integrate-and-fire neurons, 1024x256 crossbar synapses, and AER communication circuits. The neural circuits configured in the chip reflect established connections among mitral cells, periglomerular cells, external tufted cells and superficial short axon cells within the olfactory bulb, and accept input from convergent sets of sensors configured as olfactory sensory neurons. This configuration generates functional transformations comparable to those observed in the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb. Our circuits, consuming only 45 pJ of active power per spike with a power supply voltage of 0.85V, can be used as the first stage of processing in low-power artificial chemical sensing devices inspired by natural olfactory systems.

  14. Implementation of olfactory bulb glomerular-layer computations in a digital neurosynaptic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Nabil; Cleland, Thomas A; Manohar, Rajit; Merolla, Paul A; Arthur, John V; Akopyan, Filipp; Modha, Dharmendra S

    2012-01-01

    We present a biomimetic system that captures essential functional properties of the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb, specifically including its capacity to decorrelate similar odor representations without foreknowledge of the statistical distributions of analyte features. Our system is based on a digital neuromorphic chip consisting of 256 leaky-integrate-and-fire neurons, 1024 × 256 crossbar synapses, and address-event representation communication circuits. The neural circuits configured in the chip reflect established connections among mitral cells, periglomerular cells, external tufted cells, and superficial short-axon cells within the olfactory bulb, and accept input from convergent sets of sensors configured as olfactory sensory neurons. This configuration generates functional transformations comparable to those observed in the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb. Our circuits, consuming only 45 pJ of active power per spike with a power supply of 0.85 V, can be used as the first stage of processing in low-power artificial chemical sensing devices inspired by natural olfactory systems.

  15. Sparse distributed representation of odors in a large-scale olfactory bulb circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb, lateral inhibition mediated by granule cells has been suggested to modulate the timing of mitral cell firing, thereby shaping the representation of input odorants. Current experimental techniques, however, do not enable a clear study of how the mitral-granule cell network sculpts odor inputs to represent odor information spatially and temporally. To address this critical step in the neural basis of odor recognition, we built a biophysical network model of mitral and granule cells, corresponding to 1/100th of the real system in the rat, and used direct experimental imaging data of glomeruli activated by various odors. The model allows the systematic investigation and generation of testable hypotheses of the functional mechanisms underlying odor representation in the olfactory bulb circuit. Specifically, we demonstrate that lateral inhibition emerges within the olfactory bulb network through recurrent dendrodendritic synapses when constrained by a range of balanced excitatory and inhibitory conductances. We find that the spatio-temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition plays a critical role in building the glomerular-related cell clusters observed in experiments, through the modulation of synaptic weights during odor training. Lateral inhibition also mediates the development of sparse and synchronized spiking patterns of mitral cells related to odor inputs within the network, with the frequency of these synchronized spiking patterns also modulated by the sniff cycle.

  16. Emergency transcatheter arterial embolization for critical massive bleeding due to duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Li Yiyun; Zhao Chunmei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of emergency transcatheter arterial embolization (ETAE) in treating critical massive bleeding due to duodenal bulb ulcer. Methods: ETAE was carried out in seven patients with acute massive bleeding due to endoscopically-proved duodenal bulb ulcer, who failed to respond conservative measures and were critically ill clinically. Super-selective catheterization of gastroduodenal artery or right gastroepiploic artery was performed, which was followed by arterial angiography to identify the bleeding site. According to the angiographic findings, ETAE with Gelfoam particles and coils was carried out. After the operation medical management was given and endoscopy re-examination was conducted. All the patients were follow up for 3∼6 months. Results: Angiographically, gastroduodenal artery bleeding was detected in all seven patients. ETAE was successfully accomplished in all cases. Complete clinical effectiveness was obtained in six patients while partial effectiveness in one case. No procedure-related complications occurred. Conclusion: For critical massive bleeding due to duodenal bulb ulcer ETAE is a highly effective and safe treatment, which can be regarded as an alternative to surgery. It is worth popularizing this technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  17. Production of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Growing Onion Bulbs Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa E (HQ324110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed H; Bashandy, Shymaa R

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen organic compounds were present in growing onion bulbs cultivar Giza 6 infected with P. aeruginosa, but only fourteen of them are present in dry infected onion bulbs; however, four compounds were missing in dry onion. The missing compounds in dry infected onion bulbs are pantolactone, 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(3H)-one, myristic acid, and linoleic acid. All of them were detected in growing onion (living cell) during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and it is hypothesized that it may be produced by plants and act as defence system. Pantolactone and myristic acid were selected to explore their effects on growth and virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exogenous application of pantolactone and myristic acid significantly inhibited pyocyanin production, protease, and lipase and polygalacturonase activity but did not have any significant effects on bacterial growth. The inhibition of virulence factors without reduction in bacterial growth may be providing strong support that these chemical molecules are general quorum sensing inhibitors than an antibacterial effect. Disruption of quorum sensing of pathogen indicates that this new approach has potential in fighting bacterial infections in human and plants.

  18. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  19. Weather-based pest forecasting for efficient crop protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu Olatinwo; Gerrit Hoogenboom

    2014-01-01

    Although insects, pathogens, mites, nematodes, weeds, vertebrates, and arthropods are different in many ways, they are regarded as pests. They are a major constraint to crop productivity and profitability around the world caused by direct and indirect damage to valuable crops. Insect pests, pathogens, and weeds account for an estimated 45% of pre- and post-harvest...

  20. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 73, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation field projects, coordinated research projects and research coordination meetings, developments at the Entomology Unit Seibersdorf, training courses offered on insect pest control as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section

  1. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 71, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  2. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 66, January 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  3. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 72, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  4. Effects Of Educational Workshops On Farmers' Pest Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy use of pesticides in Iran not only has critically harmful health effects on the farmers, but also harms the environment and consumer's health. One of the best approaches for overcoming this problem can be adoption of pest management practices and IPM (integrated pest management) systems by farmers.

  5. A post-processor for the PEST code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priesche, S.; Manickam, J.; Johnson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new post-processor has been developed for use with output from the PEST tokamak stability code. It allows us to use quantities calculated by PEST and take better advantage of the physical picture of the plasma instability which they can provide. This will improve comparison with experimentally measured quantities as well as facilitate understanding of theoretical studies

  6. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 69, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  7. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 68, January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  8. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 70, January 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  9. Challenges of Integrated Pest Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2009-01-01

    a response to the negative side effects of chemical control in the developed world, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) developed with an emphasis on reducing the role of pesticides. Later the role of natural enemies was recognized as being the cornerstone for sustainable pest management strategies.

  10. An Integrated Pest Management Tool for Evaluating Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Blake; Hurley, Janet; Merchant, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Having the ability to assess pest problems in schools is essential for a successful integrated pest management (IPM) program. However, such expertise can be costly and is not available to all school districts across the United States. The web-based IPM Calculator was developed to address this problem. By answering questions about the condition of…

  11. Nuclear ribosomal DNA diversity of a cotton pest ( Rotylenchulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) has emerged as a major cotton pest in the United States. A recent analysis of over 20 amphimictic populations of this pest from the US and three other countries has shown no sequence variation at the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) despite the region's ...

  12. 7 CFR 319.69-2 - Freedom from pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freedom from pests. 319.69-2 Section 319.69-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... § 319.69-2 Freedom from pests. All packing materials allowed entry under restriction shall be free from...

  13. Towards integrated management of the pests and pathogens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research initially concerned only specific cassava-pathogen or cassava-pest combinations, without attention being paid to the system as a whole, despite obvious epidemic convergences resulting from a common environment, analogies between effects on the host plant and probable interactions between the various pests ...

  14. Control of stored product pests by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food irradiation for prevention of food-borne illness and disinfestation of commodities of pests is increasing in a number of countries. The goal of this review is to analyze the literature and current use of irradiation to control stored-product pests and suggest research to optimize its potential....

  15. Investigations on pests, diseases and present early warning system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of three year surveys performed in the apple orchards in Isparta region, 19 pest species belonging to 4 orders were determined and it was found that the main pest was codling moth. Most of the predators and parasitoids were effective against aphids and they were mostly found in the orchards where selective ...

  16. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 67, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  17. Towards Integrated Pest Management in East Africa : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Bremmer, J.; Kerklaan, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk reduction through registration of less hazardous pesticides and the promotion of nonchemical pest and disease control approaches such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is essential for a more sustainable plant production in East Africa in order to enhance both export market access

  18. farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and their

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    A survey of 337 cotton farmers in the three northern regions of Ghana was ... five applications were made during the season. ... Keywords: cotton, farmer knowledge and perception, insect pest control, Ghana. .... bordered on tests of farmers' knowledge of cotton insect pests, their damage ..... Agricultural Experiment Station.

  19. Breeding cassava for multiple pest resistance in Africa | Mahungu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The green spider mite and cassava mealybug are by far the most economically important arthropod pests. The long growing period and diverse agroecologies in which cassava cultivars are grown expose them to one or more of these problems and the losses can be devastating. Multiple pest resistance helps to ensure ...

  20. Vegetation indices as indicators of damage by the sunn pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... nylon cloth cage experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using remote sensing techniques to ... conventionally used method for the sunn pest manage- ... Study area and sunn pest experiment design ... graphy is nearly flat. .... for determination of indices showed an increasing pattern.

  1. Challenges in the implementation of integrated pest management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enabling policies on pest management strategies are consistently proving to be vital prerequisites in promoting the use of IPM. The willingness of governments to support alternative pest management is considered crucial. Social and psychological factors predispose new technologies and practices to resistance by farmers ...

  2. Avocado pests in Florida: Not what you expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado, Persea americana Mill., is Florida's second most important fruit crop after citrus. Until recently, the complex of spider mite and insect pests that affected avocado in south Florida was under a 20 year Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program. The recent invasion of avocado orchards by a...

  3. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 73, July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation field projects, coordinated research projects and research coordination meetings, developments at the Entomology Unit Seibersdorf, training courses offered on insect pest control as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section.

  4. 78 FR 44924 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There... genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such...

  5. Information for Child Care Providers about Pesticides/Integrated Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about pesticides/integrated pest management, the health effects associated with exposure to pests and pesticides, and the steps that can be taken to use integrated pest management strategies in childcare facilities.

  6. Pest species diversity enhances control of spider mites and whiteflies by a generalist phytoseiid predator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Maanen, van R.; Holstein-Saj, van R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pest species diversity enhances biological pest control with generalist predators, we studied the dynamics of three major pest species on greenhouse cucumber: Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum

  7. Experimental and numerical study on inlet and outlet conditions of a bulb turbine with considering free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y P; Liao, W L; Feng, H D; Ruan, H; Luo, X Q

    2012-01-01

    For a bulb turbine, it has a low head and a big runner diameter, and the free surface influences the flow at the inlet and outlet of the turbine, which bring many problems such as vibration, cracks and cavitation to the turbine. Therefore, it is difficult to get the precise internal flow characteristics through a numerical simulation with conventional ideal flow conditions. In this paper, both numerical and experimental methods are adopted to investigate the flow characteristics at the inlet and outlet of the bulb turbine with considering free surface. Firstly, experimental and numerical studies in a low head pressure pipeline are conducted, and the corresponding boundary condition according with reality is obtained through the comparison between the model test result and the CFD simulation result. Then, through an analysis of the velocity and pressure fields at the inlet of the bulb turbine at different heads, the flow characteristics and rules at the entrance of the bulb turbine have been revealed with considering free surface; Finally, the performance predictions for a bulb turbine have been conducted by using the obtained flow rules at the inlet as the boundary condition of a turbine, and the causes that lead to non-uniform forces on blades, cavitation and vibration have been illustrated in this paper, which also provide a theory basis for an accurate numerical simulation and optimization design of a bulb turbine.

  8. ENTOMOLOGY - INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS IN FIELD CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Entomology - Insects and other pests in field crops, describes the most important pests of field crops supported by many photographs. The textbook encompasses 15 chapters. Importance of entomology in intensive plant production is discussed in introductory chapter, in terms of increased threat of insects and other pests. Morphology, anatomy and physiology are given in the second and third chapter, while ways and phases of insect development are elaborated in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter, overview of insect systematic is given. Polyphagous insects are described from the sixth to fourteenth chapter, as follows: pests of cereals, maize, sugar beet, sunflower, oil seed rape, soybean, forage crops and stored products. In the last chapter, principles of integrated pest management are described due to proper application of all control measures to obtain healthier food production.

  9. Invasive alien pests threaten the carbon stored in Europe's forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Klonner, Günther; Rammer, Werner; Essl, Franz; Moreno, Adam; Neumann, Mathias; Dullinger, Stefan

    2018-04-24

    Forests mitigate climate change by sequestering large amounts of carbon (C). However, forest C storage is not permanent, and large pulses of tree mortality can thwart climate mitigation efforts. Forest pests are increasingly redistributed around the globe. Yet, the potential future impact of invasive alien pests on the forest C cycle remains uncertain. Here we show that large parts of Europe could be invaded by five detrimental alien pests already under current climate. Climate change increases the potential range of alien pests particularly in Northern and Eastern Europe. We estimate the live C at risk from a potential future invasion as 1027 Tg C (10% of the European total), with a C recovery time of 34 years. We show that the impact of introduced pests could be as severe as the current natural disturbance regime in Europe, calling for increased efforts to halt the introduction and spread of invasive alien species.

  10. The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Jabran, Khawar; Cheema, Zahid A; Wahid, Abdul; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2011-05-01

    Allelopathy is a naturally occurring ecological phenomenon of interference among organisms that may be employed for managing weeds, insect pests and diseases in field crops. In field crops, allelopathy can be used following rotation, using cover crops, mulching and plant extracts for natural pest management. Application of allelopathic plant extracts can effectively control weeds and insect pests. However, mixtures of allelopathic water extracts are more effective than the application of single-plant extract in this regard. Combined application of allelopathic extract and reduced herbicide dose (up to half the standard dose) give as much weed control as the standard herbicide dose in several field crops. Lower doses of herbicides may help to reduce the development of herbicide resistance in weed ecotypes. Allelopathy thus offers an attractive environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides in agricultural pest management. In this review, application of allelopathy for natural pest management, particularly in small-farm intensive agricultural systems, is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Threat of invasive pests from within national borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Worner, Susan P; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Thomas, Matthew B

    2010-11-16

    Predicting and ranking potential invasive species present significant challenges to researchers and biosecurity agencies. Here we analyse a worldwide database of pest species assemblages to generate lists of the top 100 insect pests most likely to establish in the United States and each of its 48 contiguous states. For the United States as a whole, all of the top 100 pest species have already established. Individual states however tend to have many more 'gaps' with most states having at least 20 species absent from their top 100 list. For all but one state, every exotic pest species currently absent from a state's top 100 can be found elsewhere in the contiguous United States. We conclude that the immediate threat from known invasive insect pests is greater from within the United States than without. Our findings have potentially significant implications for biosecurity policy, emphasizing the need to consider biosecurity measures beyond established national border interventions.

  12. Forest pests in central America: Field guide. Technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    In Central America, plant health problems have grown to an unprecedented level during the past few years along with the establishment of extensive homogeneous forest plantations, at times leading to the such drastic solutions as widespread felling of trees or massive use of pesticides. This field guide on forest pests was commissioned by the Multipurpose Tree Crop Dissemination (MADELENA) project and focuses on pests found in Costa Rica, home of PIROF (Programa Interinstitucional de Proteccion Forestal), a pioneer in forest pest research. The guide offers fast identification of forest pests and some general information on their biology and epidemiology. It consists of two sections: (1) lists of the specific pests (insects, vertebrates, pathogens, and parasites) of 18 priority forest tree species, and lists of the specific tree part or developmental stage they afflict.

  13. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  14. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    In October 2004 the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture celebrated 40 years of existence. The creation in October 1964 of this Division, which includes the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, marked the beginning of what is certainly a unique and arguably the best example of inter-agency cooperation within the whole UN family. The goal was to join the talents and resources of both organizations to obtain better cooperation and less duplication of efforts in assisting their Member States in applying nuclear techniques for providing people with more, better and safer food and other agricultural products, while sustaining the natural resources base. The complete press release is included under 'Special News and Reports'

  15. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  16. An Integrated Pest Management Intervention Improves Knowledge, Pest Control, and Practices in Family Child Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Michelle; Hazard, Kimberly; Moser, Debra; Cox, Dana; Rose, Roberta; Alkon, Abbey

    2017-10-26

    To reduce young children's exposure to pesticides when attending family child care homes (FCCHs), we developed an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention for FCCH directors. First, we developed IPM educational materials and resources to provide the foundation for an IPM educational intervention for FCCHs. Next, we conducted and evaluated a six-month nurse child care health consultant (CCHC)-led education and consultation IPM intervention to increase IPM knowledge, IPM practices, IPM policies, and decrease the presence or evidence of pests. The pilot intervention study was conducted by three CCHCs in 20 FCCHs in three counties in California. Pre- and post-intervention measures were completed by the FCCH directors and observation measures were completed by the CCHCs. Results indicated significant increases in IPM knowledge, ( t -statistic (degrees of freedom), ( t (df) = 2.55(10), p child care homes to harmful chemicals.

  17. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter announces the development of a draft international standard to facilitate the transboundary shipment of sterile insects stands out. This was developed in response to requests from Member States and the private sector for regulation of the shipping of sterile insects. The draft standard will be considered, reviewed and hopefully endorsed over the next years by the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the governing body of the International Plant protection Convention (IPPC). Also of significance are the Fruit Fly Trapping Guidelines that have been developed to support the harmonization of monitoring procedures for these pest insects in view of the increasing fruit fly related transboundary interactions resulting from the rapidly growing trade in agricultural commodities, as well as travel, transport and tourism. An upcoming event also in the normative area is an FAO/IAEA Expert Meeting on 'Risk Assessment of Transgenic Arthropods' to be held at FAO, Rome from 8-12 April, 2002. The objective of the meeting are to a) assess current status of transgenesis in pest arthropods; b) to assess biosafety concerns for transgenic arthropod release; c) to provide guidance for future risk assessment protocols for case by case analysis; and d) to assess the possibility of establishing a working group under IPPC for setting guidelines for development and use of transgenic insect technology. An important event at the end of 2001 was the Resolution on the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) adopted by the FAO Conference held in Rome, 2-13 November 2001 (for the full text of the resolution see page 39).. The resolution acknowledges the severity of the trypanosomosis problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and the potential benefits of tsetse elimination, and calls upon affected member nations to include tsetse eradication in their Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and for the FAO to support them in their efforts to

  18. Control of insect pests with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2003-01-01

    Effects of electron beams with an energy of 2.5 MeV on insect pests were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. Electron beams at 400 Gy inactivated all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetraychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia and gerbera were tolerant to electron beams at 400-600 Gy, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea and iris were intolerant. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. Soft-electrons at 60 keV effectively inactivated eggs, larvae and pupae of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and eggs of adzuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) at a dose of 1 kGy. The adults of T. castaneum and P. interpunctella were inactivated by electron treatment at 5.0 kGy and 7.5 kGy, respectively. Adults of C. chinensis survived at 7.5 kGy, but were inactivated having lost ability to walk at 2.5 kGy. Soft-electrons at 60 keV could not completely inactivate the larvae of C. chinensis and smaller larvae (2nd instar) of maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais) inside beans and grains, because the electrons with low penetration did not reach the larvae due to the shield of beans or grains. However, soft-electrons at 60 keV inactivated eggs, larger larvae (4th instar) and pupae of S. zeamais in rice grains, which indicated that S. zeamais was exposed to electrons even inside the grains. (author)

  19. Habitat functionality for the ecosystem service of pest control: reproduction and feeding sites of pests and natural enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Schellhorn, N.A.; Cunningham, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    1 Landscape management for enhanced natural pest control requires knowledge of the ecological function of the habitats present in the landscape mosaic. However, little is known about which habitat types in agricultural landscapes function as reproduction habitats for arthropod pests and predators

  20. Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Child Care Centers Improves Knowledge, Pest Control, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Nouredini, Sahar; Swartz, Alicia; Sutherland, Andrew Mason; Stephens, Michelle; Davidson, Nita A; Rose, Roberta

    To reduce young children's exposure to pests and pesticides, an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention was provided for child care center staff. The 7-month IPM education and consultation intervention was conducted by trained nurse child care health consultants in 44 child care centers in California. IPM knowledge surveys were completed by child care staff, objective IPM assessments were completed by research assistants pre- and postintervention, and activity logs were completed by the nurses. There were significant increases in IPM knowledge for the child care staff who attended workshops. There were reductions in the prevalence of pests and increases in IPM practices at the postintervention compared with the preintervention time point. The nurses consulted an average of 5.4 hours per center. A nurse-led IPM intervention in child care centers can reduce exposure to harmful substances for young children attending child care centers. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential use of a serpin from Arabidopsis for pest control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available Although genetically modified (GM plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC(50 = 637 µg ml(-1. The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control.

  2. La peste (1992). De Albert Camus a Luis Puenzo

    OpenAIRE

    Ontoso Picón, David

    2006-01-01

    La peste muestra cómo se afecta la vida en una ciudad tras ser declarada una epidemia de peste. Pero va mucho más allá y refleja como el desastre y la desgracia pueden hacer aflorar los mejores sentimientos y actitudes de las personas para luchar y lograr sobreponerse ante lo que consideran injusto. El protagonista, el doctor Rieux, se queda en la ciudad porque marcharse sería desertar, siente la necesidad decombatir para acabar con el mal, que tiene la forma de la temible peste bubónica. Est...

  3. Relire Camus : une ethnocritique de la peste

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, Benkhodja

    2016-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous proposons d’étudier La Peste d’Albert Camus dans une perspective qui croise poétique des textes littéraires et ethnologie du symbolique. Dans cette optique, nous avons voulu concentrer notre réflexion sur les différents systèmes de croyances/créances qui gravitent autour du fléau de la peste afin de dégager la polyphonie culturelle constitutive de cette œuvre. In this paper, we propose to study La Peste by Albert Camus in a perspective that crosses poetic literary te...

  4. New Insights into the Microbiota of Moth Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereghetti, Valeria; Chouaia, Bessem; Montagna, Matteo

    2017-11-18

    In recent years, next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have helped to improve our understanding of the bacterial communities associated with insects, shedding light on their wide taxonomic and functional diversity. To date, little is known about the microbiota of lepidopterans, which includes some of the most damaging agricultural and forest pests worldwide. Studying their microbiota could help us better understand their ecology and offer insights into developing new pest control strategies. In this paper, we review the literature pertaining to the microbiota of lepidopterans with a focus on pests, and highlight potential recurrent patterns regarding microbiota structure and composition.

  5. Integrated Pest Management as European standard – is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Nilsen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the work within the European Committee for Standardization (CEN, standards for conservation of cultural property are being developed in CEN/TC (Technical Committee 346, Conservation of Cultural Property. In Working Group 4 Environment, a draft is being prepared to create a proposal for standardised Integrated Pest Management. The author of this paper welcomes delegates to the Meeting on Cultural Heritage Pests in Piacenza to contribute to the discussion regarding standardised methods for pest control in the cultural heritage sector.

  6. Expert System For Diagnosis Pest And Disease In Fruit Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, Satrio; Lukas, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    This paper discussed the development of an expert system to diagnose pests and diseases on fruit plants. Rule base method was used to store the knowledge from experts and literatures. Control technique using backward chain and started from the symptoms to get conclusions about the pests and diseases that occur. Development of the system has been performed using software Corvid Exsys developed by Exsys company. Results showed that the development of this expert system can be used to assist users in identifying the type of pests and diseases on fruit plants. Further development and possibility of using internet for this system are proposed.

  7. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratchige, N S; Lesna, I; Sabelis, M W

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris). Since our aim was to demonstrate such odours and not their relevance under soil conditions, the experiments were carried out using a classic Y-tube olfactometer in which the predators moved on a Y-shaped wire in open air. We found that food-deprived female predators can discriminate between odours from infested bulbs and odours from uninfested bulbs or artificially wounded bulbs. No significant difference in attractiveness to predators was found between clean bulbs and bulbs either wounded 30 min or 3 h before the experiment. These results indicate that it may not be simply the wounding of the bulbs, but rather the feeding by rust mites, which causes the bulb to release odours that attract N. cucumeris. Since bulbs are belowground plant structures, the olfactometer results demonstrate the potential for odour-mediated interactions in the soil. However, their importance in the actual soil medium remains to be demonstrated.

  8. 17β-estradiol enhances memory duration in the main olfactory bulb in CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, T Samuel; Fox, Laura C; Han, Crystal; Linster, Christiane

    2013-12-01

    Rodents rely heavily on odor detection, discrimination, and memory to locate food, find mates, care for pups, and avoid predators. Estrogens have been shown to increase memory retention in rodents performing spatial memory and object placement tasks. Here we evaluate the extent to which 17β-estradiol modulates memory formation and duration in the olfactory system. Adult CD-1 mice were gonadectomized and given either systemic 17β-estradiol replacement, local 17β-estradiol in the main olfactory bulb, or no replacement. Before performing the behavioral task the mice were given saline or PHTPP (an estrogen receptor β [ER-β] antagonist) via bilateral infusion into the main olfactory bulb. As the beta-type estrogen receptor (ER-β) is more abundant than the alpha-type estrogen receptor in the murine main olfactory bulb, the current study focuses on 17β-estradiol and its interactions with ERβ. Habituation, a simple, nonassociative learning task in which an animal is exposed to the same odor over successive presentations, was used to evaluate the animals' ability to detect odors and form an olfactory memory. To evaluate memory duration, we added a final trial of intertrial interval time (30 or 60 min) in which we presented the habituated odor. Neither surgical nor drug manipulation affected the ability of mice to detect or habituate to an odor. After habituation, gonadectomized 17β-estradiol-treated mice retained memory of an odor for 30 min, whereas non-estradiol-treated, 17β-estradiol+ERβ antagonist (PHTPP), and untreated male mice did not remember an odor 30 min after habituation. The results show that both systemic and local bulbar infusions of 17β-estradiol enhance odor memory duration in mice.

  9. Longitudinal assessment of grip strength using bulb dynamometer in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Pizzato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Grip strength is used to infer functional status in several pathological conditions, and the hand dynamometer has been used to estimate performance in other areas. However, this relationship is controversial in neuromuscular diseases and studies with the bulb dynamometer comparing healthy children and children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD are limited. OBJECTIVE: The evolution of grip strength and the magnitude of weakness were examined in boys with DMD compared to healthy boys. The functional data of the DMD boys were correlated with grip strength. METHOD: Grip strength was recorded in 18 ambulant boys with DMD (Duchenne Group, DG aged 4 to 13 years (mean 7.4±2.1 and 150 healthy volunteers (Control Group, CG age-matched using a bulb dynamometer (North Coast- NC70154. The follow-up of the DG was 6 to 33 months (3-12 sessions, and functional performance was verified using the Vignos scale. RESULTS: There was no difference between grip strength obtained by the dominant and non-dominant side for both groups. Grip strength increased in the CG with chronological age while the DG remained stable or decreased. The comparison between groups showed significant difference in grip strength, with CG values higher than DG values (confidence interval of 95%. In summary, there was an increment in the differences between the groups with increasing age. Participants with 24 months or more of follow-up showed a progression of weakness as well as maintained Vignos scores. CONCLUSIONS: The amplitude of weakness increased with age in the DG. The bulb dynamometer detected the progression of muscular weakness. Functional performance remained virtually unchanged in spite of the increase in weakness.

  10. Stimulation of the Locus Ceruleus Modulates Signal-to-Noise Ratio in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manella, Laura C; Petersen, Nicholas; Linster, Christiane

    2017-11-29

    Norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to influence sensory, and specifically olfactory processing at the behavioral and physiological levels, potentially by regulating signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The present study is the first to look at NE modulation of olfactory bulb (OB) in regards to S/N in vivo We show, in male rats, that locus ceruleus stimulation and pharmacological infusions of NE into the OB modulate both spontaneous and odor-evoked neural responses. NE in the OB generated a non-monotonic dose-response relationship, suppressing mitral cell activity at high and low, but not intermediate, NE levels. We propose that NE enhances odor responses not through direct potentiation of the afferent signal per se, but rather by reducing the intrinsic noise of the system. This has important implications for the ways in which an animal interacts with its olfactory environment, particularly as the animal shifts from a relaxed to an alert behavioral state. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory perception can be modulated by behavioral states such as hunger, fear, stress, or a change in environmental context. Behavioral state often affects neural processing via the release of circulating neurochemicals such as hormones or neuromodulators. We here show that the neuromodulator norepinephrine modulates olfactory bulb spontaneous activity and odor responses so as to generate an increased signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the olfactory bulb. Our results help interpret and improve existing ideas for neural network mechanisms underlying behaviorally observed improvements in near-threshold odor detection and discrimination. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711605-11$15.00/0.

  11. Anticonvulsant activity of the fractionated extract of Crinum jagus bulbs in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azikiwe CCA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the bulbs of Crinum jagus in experimental animals. Methods: The uprooted bulbs were air dried for a week and ground into creamy-paste. 200g of paste was macerated each in 2 litres of water, ethanol and petroleum ether and filtered after 48 h. The obtained filtrates were each evaporated at the appropriate temperature to solid residue. The residues were further fractionated with successive changes of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol into a pooled filtrate which was further evaporated to dry solid brown-paste. Phytochemistry was carried out based on Treas and Evans method of 1987. The acute toxicity study (LD50 was carried based on Lorke ’s 1983 method. Convulsion was induced using maximum electric shock (MEST, pentylenetetrazole(PTZ, strychnine and Picrotoxin in the appropriate animal models. Seizures onset time and death time were used as successful induction of convulsion while prolongations of these features were taken as anticonvulsant activity. Results where possible, were statistically analyzed using SPSS-16.0 version. Results: The LD 50 was got at 1118.003mg/kg (IP in mice using Lorke ’s 1983 method. Fractionated extract of Crinum jagus exhibited dose dependent antiseizure against MEST induced seizure (P<0.001 and comparable to that of phenytoin, a standard anti generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There were also observable antiseizure activity of the fractionated extracts against PTZ, strychnine and Picrotoxin induced seizure and comparable to their standard corresponding antiseizures. Conclusions: We conclude that the bulbs of Crinum jagus possess proven broad spectrum antiseizure and perhaps antiepileptogenic activity thus justifies its use in traditional medicine. Clinical trial in man is recommended.

  12. Learning-dependent neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb determines long-term olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, S; Mandairon, N; Kermen, F; Garcia, S; Sacquet, J; Didier, A

    2010-07-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the olfactory bulb are subjected to permanent adult neurogenesis. Their number is modulated by learning, suggesting that they could play a role in plastic changes of the bulbar network associated with olfactory memory. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were trained in an associative olfactory task, and we analyzed long-term retention of the task 5, 30, and 90 d post-training. In parallel, we assessed the fate of these newborn cells, mapped their distribution in the olfactory bulb and measured their functional implication using the immediate early gene Zif268. In a second set of experiments, we pharmacologically modulated glutamatergic transmission and using the same behavioral task assessed the consequences on memory retention and neurogenesis. Finally, by local infusion of an antimitotic drug, we selectively blocked neurogenesis during acquisition of the task and looked at the effects on memory retention. First we demonstrated that retrieval of an associative olfactory task recruits the newborn neurons in odor-specific areas of the olfactory bulb selected to survive during acquisition of the task and that it does this in a manner that depends on the strength of learning. We then demonstrated that acquisition is not dependent on neurogenesis if long-term retention of the task is abolished by blocking neurogenesis. Adult-born neurons are thus involved in changes in the neural representation of an odor; this underlies long-term olfactory memory as the strength of learning is linked to the duration of this memory. Neurogenesis thus plays a crucial role in long-term olfactory memory.

  13. cloudPEST - A python module for cloud-computing deployment of PEST, a program for parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Kunicki, Thomas C.; Kester, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents cloudPEST-a Python module with functions to facilitate deployment of the model-independent parameter estimation code PEST on a cloud-computing environment. cloudPEST makes use of low-level, freely available command-line tools that interface with the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2(TradeMark)) that are unlikely to change dramatically. This report describes the preliminary setup for both Python and EC2 tools and subsequently describes the functions themselves. The code and guidelines have been tested primarily on the Windows(Registered) operating system but are extensible to Linux(Registered).

  14. Expression Profiling Reveals Genes Involved in the Regulation of Wool Follicle Bulb Regression and Regeneration in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wool is an important material in textile manufacturing. In order to investigate the intrinsic factors that regulate wool follicle cycling and wool fiber properties, Illumina sequencing was performed on wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen, catagen and late telogen/early anagen phases. In total, 13,898 genes were identified. KRTs and KRTAPs are the most highly expressed gene families in wool follicle bulb. In addition, 438 and 203 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen phase compared to the catagen phase and the samples from the catagen phase compared to the late telogen/early anagen phase, respectively. Finally, our data revealed that two groups of genes presenting distinct expression patterns during the phase transformation may have important roles for wool follicle bulb regression and regeneration. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the gene expression patterns in the wool follicle bulb and add new data towards an understanding of the mechanisms involved in wool fiber growth in sheep.

  15. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  16. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, Singgih

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in 32 P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of 32 P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 μCi/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 μCi/ml 32 P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 μCi/ml respectivelly. (author)

  17. Prosthetic Rehabilitation by Palatal Hollow Bulb Obturator with Cast Metal Denture Base: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prosthetic reconstruction of partial maxillectomy defects is a challenging procedure that requires multidisciplinary expertise to achieve an acceptable function, speech and esthetics. This procedure improves the quality of life for the patient as a normal individual. Obturation of the defect depends on its volume and position of remaining hard and soft tissues which determine the retention, stability and support for the prosthesis. The prosthesis should be simple to handle, easy to maintain, biocompatible, light in weight and convenient for future adjustments. This case report describes a clinical case of partial maxillectomy which was successfully rehabilitated with a definitive closed hollow bulb obturator and cast metal denture base.

  18. Modified snap-on attachment with ′O-ring′ for two piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gunasekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of near normal functions in patients who have been treated with hemimaxillectomy is generally difficult, in view of the restriction in mouth opening following healing of large surgical wound. Further, the extent and nature of the surgical defect differ from patient to patient. Thus, design of an obturator needs to be patient oriented. In this report, we describe a novel snap-on attachment with O-ring in a conventional two piece hollow bulb obturator for a 70-year-old male treated for carcinoma of the left maxilla and sinus.

  19. Fabrication of a hollow bulb prosthesis for the rehabilitation of an acquired total maxillectomy defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsi Krishna, C H; Babu, Jaya Krishna; Fathima, Tanveer; Reddy, G V K

    2014-01-01

    The prosthodontic rehabilitation of maxillary defects is a challenging and demanding task which requires careful pre-surgical and post-surgical planning. Maxillary defects can be congenital or acquired. Acquired defects include those following trauma or surgical treatment of benign or malignant neoplasms. A prosthodontist encounters problems such as absence of support, poor retention, and lack of prosthesis stability in treating these patients. The present case report describes a procedure to fabricate a definitive hollow bulb obturator prosthesis for the rehabilitation of a total maxillectomy defect. PMID:24671313

  20. Rehabilitation of patient with acquired maxillary defect, using a closed hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha S Bhasin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care means providing support and care for patients with life-threatening or debilitating illness so that they can live their life as comfortably as possible. The fact that cure is no longer a reality does not mean that care cannot be made available. Partial maxillectomy defect presents a prosthodontic challenge in terms of re-establishing oronasal separation. Such defect has direct effect on cosmetic, function and psychology of the patient. This article describes step by step clinical and laboratory procedures involved in the rehabilitation of a hemimaxillectomy patient, using a definitive closed hollow bulb obturator, which improved his physical, emotional, functional, social and spiritual needs.

  1. Ultrastructural relationships between the receptor nerve fiber and surrounding lamellae in Krause end-bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spassova, I

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural relationship between the receptor nerve fiber and the surrounding lamellae in Krause end-bulbs was discussed. Many sites of specialized junctions of symmetrical or asymmetrical type along the receptor nerve fiber and the surrounding lamellae were found. In addition, in close vicinity to them, spine-like digitations of the receptor nerve fiber, filled mainly with small clear vesicles, were observed. Mitochondrion-like cholinesterase-positive structures bulging in some cytoplasmic lamellae were also found. It is suggested that a functional link might exist between the specialized junctions, digitations and mitochrondrion-like structures in the transformation of external mechanical stimuli into nerve impulses.

  2. Pattern separation: a common function for new neurons in hippocampus and olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Amar; Wilson, Donald A; Hen, René

    2011-05-26

    While adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) and the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion of the hippocampus have fundamentally different properties, they may have more in common than meets the eye. Here, we propose that new granule cells in the OB and DG may function as modulators of principal neurons to influence pattern separation and that adult neurogenesis constitutes an adaptive mechanism to optimally encode contextual or olfactory information. See the related Perspective from Aimone, Deng, and Gage, "Resolving New Memories: A Critical Look at the Dentate Gyrus, Adult Neurogenesis, and Pattern Separation," in this issue of Neuron. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis on the roundness of bulb turbine generator based on the unbalanced magnetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z G; Yang, F Y; Chen, J H; Si, G L

    2012-01-01

    Because of design, manufacture, installation and operation, there are some relatively eccentric in bulb tubular turbine units under operating condition. It easily caused uneven air gap, unbalanced magnetic field, unbalanced magnetic pull and torque. It could also increase the bending and torsion vibration of generator,at the same time, the roundness of stator and rotor would be aggravated which often caused by accidents such as generator sweep chamber. In this paper, basing on the design, installation and operation experience, the reasons of the unbalanced magnetic pull, mechanism and operation research were analyzed by theoretical calculation and the prototype test.

  4. Assessment of filament led bulbs with respect to temporal light artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindén, Johannes; Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2017-01-01

    Temporal light artefacts, abbreviated TLAs (including flicker, stroboscopic effect and phantom arrays), i.e. undesired time modulation in luminance from a light source, has shown to be a threat to wider SSL adoption especially related to dimming functions and low-quality LED products. This is due...... to the effects that both noticeable and unperceivable TLAs have on human perception and wellbeing. In the present work a number of filament LED bulbs, currently available on the market, are assessed primarily with respect to TLAs, but also with respect to photometric, colorimetric and efficiency properties...

  5. Pest damage assessment in fruits and vegetables using thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkapattu Canthadai, Badrinath; Muthuraju, M. Esakki; Pachava, Vengalrao; Sengupta, Dipankar

    2015-05-01

    In some fruits and vegetables, it is difficult to visually identify the ones which are pest infested. This particular aspect is important for quarantine and commercial operations. In this article, we propose to present the results of a novel technique using thermal imaging camera to detect the nature and extent of pest damage in fruits and vegetables, besides indicating the level of maturity and often the presence of the pest. Our key idea relies on the fact that there is a difference in the heat capacity of normal and damaged ones and also observed the change in surface temperature over time that is slower in damaged ones. This paper presents the concept of non-destructive evaluation using thermal imaging technique for identifying pest damage levels of fruits and vegetables based on investigations carried out on random samples collected from a local market.

  6. Review of nonchemical methods for controlling stored products pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fumigation of stored products with methyl bromide has been an important means of limiting the loss of quality and quantity of these commodities that are subject to attack by cosmopolitan stored product pests. Methyl bromide was identified as a substance depleting ozone, and is expected to be withdrawn from production, importation, and use in Poland and other countries soon after 2000. Based on the current knowledge, most of alternatives to methyl bromide (controlled atmospheres, heat, cold, irradiation, biotechnical methods, inert dusts, biological methods, sanitation) have researchable gaps or other constraints. None of these alternatives used alone will replace methyl bromide. Successful pest control in the absence of methyl bromide will require the development of sophisticated pest monitoring and decision support systems to enable the use of integrated pest management strategies. (author)

  7. Emerald ash borer dispersal in Maryland: go forth young pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Sargent; Dick Bean; Michael Raupp; Alan J. Sawyer

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive pest from Asia, was introduced into Maryland in April 2003 via infested nursery stock shipped from Michigan to a nursery in southern...

  8. Hiring a Pest Management Professional for Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you hire someone to treat your bed bug infestation, make sure they use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques, check credentials, and know they may need multiple visits, to take apart furniture, and to use vacuums, heat, and pesticides.

  9. Adoption of Integrated Pest Management among Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Keywords: Integrated pest management, Cocoa farmers, Farmers Field School ... Total World production has increased in absolute terms from 3.98 million metric ..... and G.C. Rausser, eds Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 1B,.

  10. Strategies for Enhanced Crop Resistance to Insect Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Angela E

    2018-04-29

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades. Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating to plant secondary metabolism and immunity and microbiome science, are becoming available. Recent advances in metabolic engineering of plant secondary chemistry offer the promise of specific toxicity or deterrence to insect pests; improved understanding of plant immunity against insects provides routes to optimize plant defenses against insects; and the microbiomes of insect pests can be exploited, either as a target or as a vehicle for delivery of insecticidal agents. Implementation of these advances will be facilitated by ongoing advances in plant breeding and genetic technologies.

  11. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiles Herrero, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  12. Field grain losses and insect pest management practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... Statistical analyses revealed that the level of crop yield losses was ... There was, however, a negative correlation between crop yield loss due to insect pests and the efficacy of PCM applied.

  13. Information for Participants Implementing Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents, school faculty and staff, school administrators, and pest management professionals all have important roles in planning and implementing school IPM. Find out about these roles and resources available to help.

  14. Farmers' experiences in the management of pests and diseases of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Evaluation of farmers' experiences on pests and diseases is important for the development and introduction of management ... involved in on-farm testing and promotion of calliandra in ... bananas (Musa species), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and.

  15. Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... plantations, it is clear that separation of the trees from their natural enemies has resulted in exceptional performance.

  16. Health Benefits of Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following documents describe the health case for School IPM.They describe what IPM is, and then summarize currently available research pointing to how pest control via IPM makes for a healthier school environment.

  17. Local Community's Knowledge on Onion Production, Pests and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences (2014) Vol. 13 No. 2, 18-26 ... Pests Management in Kilosa and Kilolo Districts, Tanzania. D. P. Mamiro1*, A. P. ..... were advantaged for adoption of farm innovations in their ..... European Journal of.

  18. Habitat Management to Suppress Pest Populations: Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M; Wratten, Steve D; Landis, Douglas A; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-31

    Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects. Supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen (SNAP) has emerged as a major research topic and applied tactic with field tests and adoption often preceded by rigorous laboratory experimentation. As a result, the promise of habitat management is increasingly being realized in the form of practical worldwide implementation. Uptake is facilitated by farmer participation in research and is made more likely by the simultaneous delivery of ecosystem services other than pest suppression.

  19. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early…

  20. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  1. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.202...

  2. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of...

  3. 7 CFR 330.201 - Applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for permits to move plant pests. 330.201... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.201 Applications for permits to...

  4. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of...

  5. 7 CFR 330.205 - Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled. 330... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.205 Disposal of...

  6. Risk maps for targeting exotic plant pest detection programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Magarey; D.M. Borchert; J.S. Engle; M Garcia-Colunga; Frank H. Koch; et al

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, pest risk maps are used by the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey for spatial and temporal targeting of exotic plant pest detection programs. Methods are described to create standardized host distribution, climate and pathway risk maps for the top nationally ranked exotic pest targets. Two examples are provided to illustrate the risk mapping...

  7. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 78, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IPC Newsletter is prepared twice per year by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Contents: To Our Readers; Staff; Forthcoming Events; Past Events; Technical Cooperation Projects; Coordinated Research Projects and Research Coordination Meetings; Developments at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory; Reports; Announcements; In Memoriam; Other News; Relevant Published Articles; Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals; Priced and Unpriced Publications

  8. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 78, January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The IPC Newsletter is prepared twice per year by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Contents: To Our Readers; Staff; Forthcoming Events; Past Events; Technical Cooperation Projects; Coordinated Research Projects and Research Coordination Meetings; Developments at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory; Reports; Announcements; In Memoriam; Other News; Relevant Published Articles; Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals; Priced and Unpriced Publications

  9. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  10. Modelling the impacts of pests and diseases on agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, M; Magarey, R D; Bregaglio, S; Willocquet, L; Whish, J P M; Savary, S

    2017-07-01

    The improvement and application of pest and disease models to analyse and predict yield losses including those due to climate change is still a challenge for the scientific community. Applied modelling of crop diseases and pests has mostly targeted the development of support capabilities to schedule scouting or pesticide applications. There is a need for research to both broaden the scope and evaluate the capabilities of pest and disease models. Key research questions not only involve the assessment of the potential effects of climate change on known pathosystems, but also on new pathogens which could alter the (still incompletely documented) impacts of pests and diseases on agricultural systems. Yield loss data collected in various current environments may no longer represent a adequate reference to develop tactical, decision-oriented, models for plant diseases and pests and their impacts, because of the ongoing changes in climate patterns. Process-based agricultural simulation modelling, on the other hand, appears to represent a viable methodology to estimate the impacts of these potential effects. A new generation of tools based on state-of-the-art knowledge and technologies is needed to allow systems analysis including key processes and their dynamics over appropriate suitable range of environmental variables. This paper offers a brief overview of the current state of development in coupling pest and disease models to crop models, and discusses technical and scientific challenges. We propose a five-stage roadmap to improve the simulation of the impacts caused by plant diseases and pests; i) improve the quality and availability of data for model inputs; ii) improve the quality and availability of data for model evaluation; iii) improve the integration with crop models; iv) improve the processes for model evaluation; and v) develop a community of plant pest and disease modelers.

  11. Effect of wet bulb depression on heat sterilization time of slash pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson

    For international trade, heat sterilization of wood products is often required to prevent the spread of insects and pathogens. Application of heat sterilization requires estimates of the time necessary to heat the center of the wood configuration to the temperature required to kill the insect or other pest. The nature of the heating medium was found to have a...

  12. A pest is a pest is a pest? The dilemma of neotropical leaf-cutting ants: Keystone taxa of natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Harold G.; Pagani, Maria Inez; da Silva, Osvaldo Aulino; Forti, Luis Carlos; da Silva, Virgilio Pereira; de Vasconcelos, Heraldo Luis

    1989-11-01

    Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Acromyrmex and Atta are considered the principal polyphagous pests of the Neotropics Although some members of these genera are of economic importance, have a broad geographic distribution, and are extremely good colonizers, others are endemic and closely interact with native ecosystems. Control is generally practiced against any colony, irrespective of its taxonomic status. Indiscriminate control coupled with habitat destruction threatens endemic species with extinction, and, through habitat simplification, favors other pest species. As nests of Atta are large, having several square meters of nest surface, the endemic taxa can be easily used as environmental indicators for natural ecosystems Likewise, the pest species can be used to detect environmental disturbance As these ants are keystone species and easily identified by nonspecialists, efforts should be made to integrate these into viable conservation programs

  13. RNAi technology: a new platform for crop pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta, B; Rajam, M V

    2017-07-01

    The insect pests are big threat in meeting the food demands for future generation. The present pest control strategies, including the existing transgenic approaches show certain limitations and are not completely successful in limiting the insect pests. However, the sequence-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi) holds a great promise for effective management of agricultural pests. RNAi is naturally occurring conserved process responsible for gene regulation and defense against pathogens. The efficacy of RNAi varies among different insect orders and also depends upon various factors, including the target gene selection, method of dsRNAs delivery, expression of dsRNAs and presence of off-target effects. RNAi-mediated silencing of different insect genes involved in various physiological processes was found to be detrimental to insects growth, development and survival. In this article, we have reviewed the potential of RNAi-based strategies for effective management of insect pests. We have also discussed the various parameters, which are to be considered for host-induced RNAi-mediated control of insect pests without producing any effect on non-target organisms and environment.

  14. High tunnels: protection for rather than from insect pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwell, Laura L; Thompson, Sarah L; Kaplan, Ian; Foster, Ricky E

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are a season extension tool creating a hybrid of field and greenhouse growing conditions. High tunnels have recently increased in the USA and thus research on their management is lacking. One purported advantage of these structures is protection from common field pests, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. We compared insect pest populations in high tunnels with field production over two years for three crops: tomato, broccoli and cucumber. Greenhouse pests (e.g. aphids, whiteflies) were more prevalent in high tunnels, compared to field plots. Hornworms (tobacco (Manduca sexta L.) and tomato (M. quinquemaculata Haworth)), a common field pest on tomato, were also more abundant in high tunnels, requiring chemical control while field populations were low. The crucifer caterpillar complex (imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L.), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner)) was also more abundant in high tunnels in 2010. Cucumber beetle (striped (Acalymma vittatum F.) and spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Mannerheim)) densities were higher in high tunnels in 2010 and field plots in 2011. The common assumption that high tunnels offer protection from field pests was not supported. Instead, high tunnel growing conditions may facilitate higher pest populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  16. Pest Control Section Biochemical Group, Progress Report 1982-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Reserch efforts in the Pest Control Section, BARC, a continuator of insect sterilization and pest control section of the erstwhile Biology and Agriculture Division, were continued to develop integrated management practices for the control of important insect pests of agricultural and medical importance. Insect pests chosen are, ubiquitous potato tuberworm, a serious pest of potatoes, cotton bollworms with particular reference to spotted bollworms and a mosquito (Culex fatigans), a vector of filariasis. Keeping these insects as targets, research activities have been concentrated in the fields of biological control with parasities, pathogens and sterile insects, sex pheromones and insect plant interaction with a view to integrate pest management programme. Besides, the research activity also encompasses investigations of basic nature in the fields of insect sex pheromones, insect pathology and insect plant interaction. Studies on insect pheromones relate to the modifying influence of abiotic and biotic factors of the environment on pheromone production and perception and the possibility of insect developing resistance to pheromones. Studies in the field of insect plant interaction are directed towards identifying weak links in the insect plant relationship with a view to exploit them for developing control. Basic studies in the field of insect pathology relate to isolation and identification of entomopathogens, source of their pathogenecity, improvement in their virulence and formulation of cheaper and potent microbial insecticides. This report pertains to the period 1982-86. (Orig.). 11 tables, 5 figures

  17. Response of Physiological Growth Indices and Bulb Dry Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L. Genotypes to Priming and Seed Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadkhah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Priming is one of the most common methods of improving seed quality, which significantly affects their storability. Seed priming is a seed treatment that allows imbibition and activation of the initial metabolic events associated with seed germination, but prevents radicle emergence and growth. In other words, phase one and two of seed water imbibition curve are passed, but seeds do not enter the third phase of water uptake. Then seeds are dried back to their original water content. Seed priming is a pre-sowing strategy for influencing seed germination and seedling development by modulating pre-germination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant performance. Naturally, when speed and percentage emergence of germinating seeds are being high, growing sources like light, water and nutrient will be more used. Another factor that can affect the seed germination and seedling establishment is the seed size. As generally known, among producing factors, seed as the first consumer store, plays an important role in the transfer of genetic characters and improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits of production. One of the most important factors in maximizing crop yield is planting high quality seed. Seed size is an important physical indicator of seed quality that affects vegetative growth and is frequently related to yield, market grade factors and harvest efficiency. In the present paper, effects of different pre-sowing treatments and seed size on physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion cultivars were investigated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the response of physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion to priming and seed size, a field experiment was conducted in 2012-2013 cropping season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of East, Azarbayjan, Iran. This experiment was a factorial experiment based on a

  18. Sampling stored product insect pests: a comparison of four statistical sampling models for probability of pest detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistically robust sampling strategies form an integral component of grain storage and handling activities throughout the world. Developing sampling strategies to target biological pests such as insects in stored grain is inherently difficult due to species biology and behavioral characteristics. ...

  19. Neurodegenerative changes in the brainstem and olfactory bulb in people older than 50 years old: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Hehn de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in life expectancy in Brazil, concerns have grown about the most prevalent diseases in elderly people. Among these diseases are neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Protein deposits related to the development of these diseases can pre-date the symptomatic phases by years. The tau protein is particularly interesting: it might be found in the brainstem and olfactory bulb long before it reaches the limbic cortex, at which point symptoms occur. Of the 14 brains collected in this study, the tau protein was found in the brainstems of 10 (71.42% and in olfactory bulbs of 3 out 11. Of the 7 individuals who had a final diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 6 presented tau deposits in some region of the brainstem. Our data support the idea of the presence of tau protein in the brainstem and olfactory bulb in the earliest stages of AD.

  20. Synchronized Activity in The Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulbs and Vomeronasal Amygdala Elicited by Chemical Signals in Freely Behaving Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique; Teruel-Martí, Vicent

    2017-08-30

    Chemosensory processing in mammals involves the olfactory and vomeronasal systems, but how the activity of both circuits is integrated is unknown. In our study, we recorded the electrophysiological activity in the olfactory bulbs and the vomeronasal amygdala in freely behaving mice exploring a battery of neutral and conspecific stimuli. The exploration of stimuli, including a neutral stimulus, induced synchronic activity in the olfactory bulbs characterized by a dominant theta rhythmicity, with specific theta-gamma coupling, distinguishing between vomeronasal and olfactory structures. The correlated activation of the bulbs suggests a coupling between the stimuli internalization in the nasal cavity and the vomeronasal pumping. In the amygdala, male stimuli are preferentially processed in the medial nucleus, whereas female cues induced a differential response in the posteromedial cortical amygdala. Thus, particular theta-gamma patterns in the olfactory network modulates the integration of chemosensory information in the amygdala, allowing the selection of an appropriate behaviour.

  1. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi-Ming; Yao, Le-Yi; Qin, Qiu-Yan; Shen, Wang

    2013-12-26

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from jackfruit bulb was purified through acetone precipitation, ion-exchange column, and gel filtration column. PPO was a dimer with the molecular weight of 130 kDa determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration. The Km was 8.3 and 18.2 mM using catechol and 4-methylcatechol as substrates, respectively. The optimum pH was 7.0 (catechol as the substrate) or 6.5 (4-methylcatechol as the substrate). The optimum temperature was 8 °C. The enzyme was stable below 40 °C. The activation energy (Ea) of heat inactivation was estimated to be 103.30 kJ/mol. The PPO activity was activated by Mn(2+), SDS, Tween-20, Triton X-100, citric acid, and malic acid but inhibited by K(+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), kojic acid, tropolone, glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), and ascorbic acid (AA). Cys and AA were effective to reduce browning of jackfruit bulbs during the storage at 8 °C for 15 days.

  2. Association between radioinhibition process and membrane phase properties in bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Monica B.; Curzio, Osvaldo A.; Croci, Clara A.

    1997-01-01

    Garlic bulbs were irradiated 30 days after harvest with a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays, Along 270 days of storage phase properties of rough and smooth microsomal membranes isolated from storage leaf of garlic cloves were examined by wide angle X-ray diffraction. The diffractograms features peaks at Bragg spacing of 4.15 A and 3.75 A, revealing the presence of a gel (crystalline) phase, while the characteristics peak of the liquid-crystalline phase (4.6 A) was not observed in the studied membranes. Data from rough microsomal membranes were erratic and unreliable. The intensity of phase gel peaks decreased up to 30 days of the tratment in the smooth microsomal membranes. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident in about 60 days and was synchronous with a marked increase in the intensity of phase gel peaks. The presence of a greater proportion of lipids in crystalline state in irradiated samples 60 days after treatment suggest a decrease in the average fluidity in smooth microsomal menbranes. These results are discussed in relation to the use of wide angle X-ray diffraction of smooth microsomal membranes as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment of garlic bulbs. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  3. Distributed organization of a brain microcircuit analysed by three-dimensional modeling: the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eMigliore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The functional consequences of the laminar organization observed in cortical systems cannot be easily studied using standard experimental techniques, abstract theoretical representations, or dimensionally reduced models built from scratch. To solve this problem we have developed a full implementation of an olfactory bulb microcircuit using realistic three-dimensional inputs, cell morphologies, and network connectivity. The results provide new insights into the relations between the functional properties of individual cells and the networks in which they are embedded. To our knowledge, this is the first model of the mitral-granule cell network to include a realistic representation of the experimentally-recorded complex spatial patterns elicited in the glomerular layer by natural odor stimulation. Although the olfactory bulb, due to its organization, has unique advantages with respect to other brain systems, the method is completely general, and can be integrated with more general approaches to other systems. The model makes experimentally testable predictions on distributed processing and on the differential backpropagation of somatic action potentials in each lateral dendrite following odor learning, providing a powerful three-dimensional framework for investigating the functions of brain microcircuits.

  4. Respiration Gates Sensory Input Responses in the Mitral Cell Layer of the Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Shaina M.; Morse, Thomas M.; McTavish, Thomas S.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2016-01-01

    Respiration plays an essential role in odor processing. Even in the absence of odors, oscillating excitatory and inhibitory activity in the olfactory bulb synchronizes with respiration, commonly resulting in a burst of action potentials in mammalian mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) during the transition from inhalation to exhalation. This excitation is followed by inhibition that quiets MTC activity in both the glomerular and granule cell layers. Odor processing is hypothesized to be modulated by and may even rely on respiration-mediated activity, yet exactly how respiration influences sensory processing by MTCs is still not well understood. By using optogenetics to stimulate discrete sensory inputs in vivo, it was possible to temporally vary the stimulus to occur at unique phases of each respiration. Single unit recordings obtained from the mitral cell layer were used to map spatiotemporal patterns of glomerular evoked responses that were unique to stimulations occurring during periods of inhalation or exhalation. Sensory evoked activity in MTCs was gated to periods outside phasic respiratory mediated firing, causing net shifts in MTC activity across the cycle. In contrast, odor evoked inhibitory responses appear to be permitted throughout the respiratory cycle. Computational models were used to further explore mechanisms of inhibition that can be activated by respiratory activity and influence MTC responses. In silico results indicate that both periglomerular and granule cell inhibition can be activated by respiration to internally gate sensory responses in the olfactory bulb. Both the respiration rate and strength of lateral connectivity influenced inhibitory mechanisms that gate sensory evoked responses. PMID:28005923

  5. Neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb induced by paced mating in the female rat is opioid dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Santoyo-Zedillo

    Full Text Available The possibility to control the rate of sexual stimulation that the female rat receives during a mating encounter (pacing increases the number of newborn neurons that reach the granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. If females mate repeatedly, the increase in the number of neurons is observed in other regions of the AOB and in the main olfactory bulb (MOB. It has also been shown that paced mating induces a reward state mediated by opioids. There is also evidence that opioids modulate neurogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated whether the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (NX could reduce the increase in neurogenesis in the AOB induced by paced mating. Ovariectomized female rats were randomly divided in 5 different groups: 1 Control (not mated treated with saline, 2 control (not mated treated with naloxone, 3 females that mated without controlling the sexual interaction (no-pacing, 4 females injected with saline before pacing the sexual interaction and 5 females injected with NX before a paced mating session. We found, as previously described, that paced mating induced a higher number of new cells in the granular layer of the AOB. The administration of NX before paced mating, blocked the increase in the number of newborn cells and prevented these cells from differentiating into neurons. These data suggest that opioid peptides play a fundamental role in the neurogenesis induced by paced mating in female rats.

  6. Heat balance model for a human body in the form of wet bulb globe temperature indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kuwabara, Kohei; Horiba, Yosuke; Sawada, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the empirically derived wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to a rational thermal index based on the heat balance for a human body. We derive the heat balance model in the same form as the WBGT for a human engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production of 174W/m 2 while wearing typical vapor-permeable clothing under shady and sunny conditions. Two important relationships are revealed based on this derivation: (1) the natural wet bulb and black globe temperature coefficients in the WBGT coincide with the heat balance equation for a human body with a fixed skin wettedness of approximately 0.45 at a fixed skin temperature; and (2) the WBGT can be interpreted as the environmental potential to increase skin temperature rather than the heat storage rate of a human body. We propose an adjustment factor calculation method that supports the application of WBGT for humans dressed in various clothing types and working under various air velocity conditions. Concurrently, we note difficulties in adjusting the WBGT by using a single factor for humans wearing vapor-impermeable protective clothing. The WBGT for shady conditions does not need adjustment depending on the positive radiant field (i.e., when a radiant heat source exists), whereas that for the sunny condition requires adjustments because it underestimates heat stress, which may result in insufficient human protection measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chelating, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. bulb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The metal chelating activity, antioxidant properties and the effect on carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibition of Muscari comosum extracts have been investigated. M. comosum bulbs contain a total amount of the phenols with a value of 56.6 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per gram of extract and a flavonoid content of 23.4 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract. In order to evaluate the non-polar constituents, n-hexane extract was obtained. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids and ethyl esters as major constituents, with different aldehydes and alkanes as minor components. Ethanolic extract had the highest ferric-reducing ability power (66.7 μM Fe(II)/g) and DPPH scavenging activity with a concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC₅₀) value of 40.9 μg/ml. Moreover, this extract exhibited a good hypoglycaemic activity with IC₅₀ values of 81.3 and 112.8 μg/ml for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. In conclusion, M. comosum bulbs show promising antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity via the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These activities may be of interest from a functional point of view and for the revalorization of this ancient non-cultivated vegetable of Mediterranean traditional gastronomy.

  8. Responses of garlic bulbs to gamma irradiation. Changes in major amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parolo, Maria E.; Orioli, Gustavo A.; Croci, Clara A.

    1997-01-01

    Studies were conducted to provide information about the amino acids composition of garlic bulbs cv Colorado and to determinate the effect of a dose of 60 Gy of gamma rays on the behavior of the major free amino acids in relation to sprout growth radioinhibition. TLC and HPLC were used for identification and quantification of free amino acids. Eighteen free amino acids were identified in both parts of garlic bulbs: alanine, glycine, proline, methionine, serine, phenylalanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, threonine, cystine, cysteine, leucine + isoleucine and asparagine. In the inner sprout the major amino acids founded were: glutamine, glutamic acid, threonine, asparagine, cystine, cysteine and methionine; in the storage leaf also arginine was also predominant. In general concentration of amino acids appeared to less affected by irradiation in the storage leaf that in the inner sprout. An increase in the short time post-irradiation in glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine, theorine and methionine was observed. Sprout grouth radioinhibition was evident about 70 days after treatment and was preceded by a decrease in the major amino acids except methionine. It appears that concentration of same major amino acidscan be used as monitors of radioinhibition process in inner sprout of garlic. (author). 15 refs., 8 figs

  9. The Effect of Chronic Methamphetamine Exposure on the Hippocampal and Olfactory Bulb Neuroproteomes of Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhu

    Full Text Available Nowadays, drug abuse and addiction are serious public health problems in the USA. Methamphetamine (METH is one of the most abused drugs and is known to cause brain damage after repeated exposure. In this paper, we conducted a neuroproteomic study to evaluate METH-induced brain protein dynamics, following a two-week chronic regimen of an escalating dose of METH exposure. Proteins were extracted from rat brain hippocampal and olfactory bulb tissues and subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. Both shotgun and targeted proteomic analysis were performed. Protein quantification was initially based on comparing the spectral counts between METH exposed animals and their control counterparts. Quantitative differences were further confirmed through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM LC-MS/MS experiments. According to the quantitative results, the expression of 18 proteins (11 in the hippocampus and 7 in the olfactory bulb underwent a significant alteration as a result of exposing rats to METH. 13 of these proteins were up-regulated after METH exposure while 5 were down-regulated. The altered proteins belonging to different structural and functional families were involved in processes such as cell death, inflammation, oxidation, and apoptosis.

  10. Association between radioinhibition process and membrane phase properties in bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Monica B.; Curzio, Osvaldo A.; Croci, Clara A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica e Ingenieria Quimica

    1997-12-01

    Garlic bulbs were irradiated 30 days after harvest with a dose of 60.0 Gy of {sup 60} Co gamma rays, Along 270 days of storage phase properties of rough and smooth microsomal membranes isolated from storage leaf of garlic cloves were examined by wide angle X-ray diffraction. The diffractograms features peaks at Bragg spacing of 4.15 A and 3.75 A, revealing the presence of a gel (crystalline) phase, while the characteristics peak of the liquid-crystalline phase (4.6 A) was not observed in the studied membranes. Data from rough microsomal membranes were erratic and unreliable. The intensity of phase gel peaks decreased up to 30 days of the tratment in the smooth microsomal membranes. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident in about 60 days and was synchronous with a marked increase in the intensity of phase gel peaks. The presence of a greater proportion of lipids in crystalline state in irradiated samples 60 days after treatment suggest a decrease in the average fluidity in smooth microsomal menbranes. These results are discussed in relation to the use of wide angle X-ray diffraction of smooth microsomal membranes as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment of garlic bulbs. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Effects of a high jugular fossa and jugular bulb diverticulum on the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadin, K.; Thomander, L.; Wilbrand, H.; Uppsala Univ.

    1986-01-01

    From a series of patients undergoing routine radiographic examination, 112 temporal bones with a high jugular fossa were selected. Among these, 43 jugular bulb diverticula were found. The structures affected by a high fossa or diverticulum were recorded and correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patient. The vestibule was suspected to be affected in five patients. Two of these patients had tinnitus and vertigo, and three had hearing loss. In one of the latter the hearing loss was most marked in the supine position. The cochlea was close to the fossa in three patients, all of whom had tinnitus. Four patients had a defect of the posterior semicircular canal. One of them lost his hearing after a severe fit of coughing, became unsteady and showed signs of a fistula. The internal acoustic meatus and the mastoid portion of the facial canal were affected in two and four patients, respectively, who had no recorded symptoms. Twelve of 34 patients with Meniere's disease and a high jugular fossa on the side of the diseased ear had a dehiscence of the vestibular aqueduct caused by the fossa or diverticulum, compared with nine of 58 patients in the unselected material. For comparison and demonstration of topographic relationships, 58 casts of unselected radiograhed temporal bone specimens with high jugular fossae or diverticula were investigated. In patients with a high jugular fossa or jugular bulb diverticulum, tomographic assessment may be of value. (orig.)

  12. Stressors impair odor recognition memory via an olfactory bulb-dependent noradrenergic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Manella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-associative habituation and odor recognition tasks have been widely used to probe questions social recognition, odor memory duration, and odor memory specificity. Among others, these paradigms have provided valuable insight into how neuromodulation, and specifically norepinephrine/noradrenaline (NE influences odor memory. In general, NE levels are modulated by arousal, stress, and behavioral state, and there is sparse evidence of a direct relationship between NE and odor memory in adult rodents. The present study uses simple mild psychological stressors (bright light and sound, to modulate NE levels physiologically in order to probe its effect on olfactory memory. In rats with bilateral bulbar cannulations, we show that these stressors modulate olfactory memory and that this effect is at least partially mediated by olfactory bulb. Specifically, we show that the presence of stressors during the acquisition of odor memory suppresses memory for an odor when tested 30 minutes after the acquisition. This suppression is blocked by infusing NE antagonists into the olfactory bulb prior to odor acquisition. Additionally, we find that infusion of bulbar NE is sufficient to suppress odor memory in a manner mimicking that of our stressors. These effects are unlikely to be solely mediated by locomotor/exploratory changes produced by stressors, although these stressors influence certain behaviors not directly related to odor investigation. This study provides important information about how behaviorally relevant changes in NE can influence top-down sensory processing and odor memory.

  13. Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessberger, Jakob; Zhong, Weiwei; Brankačk, Jurij; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that local field potentials (LFP) in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB) follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR) in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG) and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC). During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep.

  14. Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Jessberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that local field potentials (LFP in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC. During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep.

  15. Pest Prevalence and Evaluation of Community-Wide Integrated Pest Management for Reducing Cockroach Infestations and Indoor Insecticide Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Buckley, Brian; Yang, Ill; Wang, Desen; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard

    2018-04-02

    Pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. Frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. In this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in all the cockroach-infested apartments and two bed bug apartments with the goal of eliminating pest infestations, reducing pyrethroid residues, and increasing resident satisfaction with pest control services. The IPM-treated apartments were revisited and treated biweekly or monthly for 7 mo. Initial inspection found the top three pests and their infestation rates to be as follows: German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L. [Blattodea: Blattellidae]), 28%; rodents, 11%; and bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]), 8%. Floor wipe samples were collected in the kitchens and bedrooms of 20 apartments for pyrethroid residue analysis before the IPM implementation; 17 of the 20 apartments were resampled again at 7 mo. The IPM program reduced cockroach counts per apartment by 88% at 7 wk after initial treatment. At 7 mo, 85% of the cockroach infestations found in the initial survey were eliminated. The average number of pyrethroids detected decreased significantly from 6 ± 1 (mean ± SEM) and 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 in the kitchens and bedrooms, respectively. The average concentrations of targeted pyrethroids residue also decreased significantly in the kitchens and bedrooms.

  16. Intraguild Competition of Three Noctuid Maize Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivenha, J P F; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V; Blankenship, E E

    2016-08-01

    The western bean cutworm Striacosta albicosta (Smith), the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are among the major lepidopteran pests of maize in the United States, belonging to the same guild and injuring the reproductive tissues of this crop. Here, intraguild competition of these lepidopterans on non-Bt maize was evaluated through survival analysis of each species under laboratory and field conditions. Competition scenarios were carried out in arenas containing maize silk or ear tissue, using larvae on different stadium of development. Fitness cost competition studies were conducted to examine the influence of intraguild competition and cannibalism and predation rates on larval development. The survival of S. albicosta competing with the other species was significantly lower than in intraspecific competition, even when the larvae were more developed than the competitor. For S. frugiperda, survival remained high in the different competition scenarios, except when competing in a smaller stadium with H. zea Larvae of H. zea had a high rate of cannibalism, higher survival when competing against S. albicosta than S. frugiperda, and reduced survival when the H. zea larvae were at the same development stadium or smaller than the competitors. Based on fitness cost results, the absence of a competitor for the feeding source may confer an advantage to the larval development of S. frugiperda and H. zea Our data suggest that S. frugiperda has a competitive advantage against the other species, while S. albicosta has the disadvantage in the intraguild competition on non-Bt maize. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation dose and timing of treatment after harvest on the storeability of garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Cho, H.O.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation dose and time of treatment after harvest on the storage of garlic bulbs was investigated. The effectiveness of irradiation for external sprout inhibition was not affected by the treatment time within 45 days after harvest. At 285 days after harvest, irradiation of 50 - 150 Gy caused about 6% less decrease in weight loss compared with the unirradiated group, and spoilage rates of the unirradiated and irradiated cloves were 100% and 17 - 20%, respectively. For the overall storageability of garlic bulbs, 75 Gy was shown to be the minimal optimum dose, and there was no apparent effect depending upon the time of irradiation treatment after harvest

  18. Global attractivity and permanence of a stage-structured pest management SI model with time delay and diseased pest impulsive transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Jianjun; Meng Xinzhu; Chen Lansun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a stage-structured pest management SI model with time delay and diseased pests impulsive transmission. We obtain the sufficient conditions of the global attractivity of pest-extinction boundary periodic solution and the permanence of the system. We also prove that all solutions of the system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Our results provide a reliable tactic basis for the practice of pest management

  19. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  20. Self-reported prevalence of pests in Dutch households and the use of the health belief model to explore householders' intentions to engage in pest control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A Lipman

    Full Text Available Pests in the home are a health risk because they can be vectors for infectious disease, contribute to allergies and cause damage to buildings. The aims of this study were to record which categories of pests were reported in homes and to use a social cognition model, the health belief model, to investigate which psychological factors influence householders' intentions to control pests. An online questionnaire was completed by 413 respondents between 11 September and 31 November 2015. A large majority of respondents reported pests in or around their home within the previous year. The prevalences were: flying insects 98%, crawling insects 85%, rodents 62%, birds 58%, and moles 20%. Regression analysis for the health belief model revealed that perceiving greater benefits and fewer barriers to pest control and expecting severe consequences of zoonotic infections predicted higher intention to control pests. Intentions towards pest control were not influenced by perceiving oneself as susceptible to catching a disease from pests or health motivation (striving towards a healthy lifestyle. Intentions to engage in pest control were lower for households reporting bird prevalence. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness of domestic pest control should focus on increasing the benefits that individuals associate with effective pest control, lowering barriers, and on underlining the severity of the diseases that pests may carry.

  1. Self-reported prevalence of pests in Dutch households and the use of the health belief model to explore householders’ intentions to engage in pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Stefan A.

    2017-01-01

    Pests in the home are a health risk because they can be vectors for infectious disease, contribute to allergies and cause damage to buildings. The aims of this study were to record which categories of pests were reported in homes and to use a social cognition model, the health belief model, to investigate which psychological factors influence householders’ intentions to control pests. An online questionnaire was completed by 413 respondents between 11 September and 31 November 2015. A large majority of respondents reported pests in or around their home within the previous year. The prevalences were: flying insects 98%, crawling insects 85%, rodents 62%, birds 58%, and moles 20%. Regression analysis for the health belief model revealed that perceiving greater benefits and fewer barriers to pest control and expecting severe consequences of zoonotic infections predicted higher intention to control pests. Intentions towards pest control were not influenced by perceiving oneself as susceptible to catching a disease from pests or health motivation (striving towards a healthy lifestyle). Intentions to engage in pest control were lower for households reporting bird prevalence. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness of domestic pest control should focus on increasing the benefits that individuals associate with effective pest control, lowering barriers, and on underlining the severity of the diseases that pests may carry. PMID:29284047

  2. Self-reported prevalence of pests in Dutch households and the use of the health belief model to explore householders' intentions to engage in pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Stefan A; Burt, Sara A

    2017-01-01

    Pests in the home are a health risk because they can be vectors for infectious disease, contribute to allergies and cause damage to buildings. The aims of this study were to record which categories of pests were reported in homes and to use a social cognition model, the health belief model, to investigate which psychological factors influence householders' intentions to control pests. An online questionnaire was completed by 413 respondents between 11 September and 31 November 2015. A large majority of respondents reported pests in or around their home within the previous year. The prevalences were: flying insects 98%, crawling insects 85%, rodents 62%, birds 58%, and moles 20%. Regression analysis for the health belief model revealed that perceiving greater benefits and fewer barriers to pest control and expecting severe consequences of zoonotic infections predicted higher intention to control pests. Intentions towards pest control were not influenced by perceiving oneself as susceptible to catching a disease from pests or health motivation (striving towards a healthy lifestyle). Intentions to engage in pest control were lower for households reporting bird prevalence. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness of domestic pest control should focus on increasing the benefits that individuals associate with effective pest control, lowering barriers, and on underlining the severity of the diseases that pests may carry.

  3. Male-killing bacteria as agents of insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berec, Ludek; Maxin, Daniel; Bernhauerová, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    1. Continual effort is needed to reduce the impact of exotic species in the context of increased globalization. Any innovation in this respect would be an asset. 2. We assess the potential of combining two pest control techniques: the well-established sterile insect technique (SIT) and a novel male-killing technique (MKT), which comprises inoculation of a pest population with bacteria that kill the infected male embryos. 3. Population models are developed to assess the efficiency of using the MKT for insect pest control, either alone or together with the SIT. We seek for conditions under which the MKT weakens requirements on the SIT. 4. Regarding the SIT, we consider both non-heritable and inherited sterility. In both cases, the MKT and SIT benefit one another. The MKT may prevent the SIT from failing when not enough sterilized males are released due to high production costs and/or uncertainty on their mating ability following a high irradiation dose. Conversely, with already established SIT, pest eradication can be achieved after introduction of male-killing bacteria with lower vertical transmission efficiency than if the MKT was applied alone. 5. For tephritid fruit flies with non-heritable sterility, maximal impact of the SIT is achieved when the released males are fully sterile. Conversely, for lepidopterans with inherited sterility, maximal impact of the SIT is achieved for intermediate irradiation doses. In both cases, increasing vertical transmission efficiency of male-killing bacteria benefits the SIT; high enough vertical transmission efficiency allows for pest eradication where the SIT is absent or induces only pest suppression when used alone. 6. Synthesis and applications. While both techniques can suppress or eliminate the pest on their own, combined application of the male-killing technique and the sterile insect technique substantially increases pest control efficiency. If male-killing bacteria are already established in the pest, any assessment of

  4. Temporal Response Properties of Accessory Olfactory Bulb Neurons: Limitations and Opportunities for Decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoles-Frenkel, Michal; Kahan, Anat; Ben-Shaul, Yoram

    2018-05-23

    The vomeronasal system (VNS) is a major vertebrate chemosensory system that functions in parallel to the main olfactory system (MOS). Despite many similarities, the two systems dramatically differ in the temporal domain. While MOS responses are governed by breathing and follow a subsecond temporal scale, VNS responses are uncoupled from breathing and evolve over seconds. This suggests that the contribution of response dynamics to stimulus information will differ between these systems. While temporal dynamics in the MOS are widely investigated, similar analyses in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) are lacking. Here, we have addressed this issue using controlled stimulus delivery to the vomeronasal organ of male and female mice. We first analyzed the temporal properties of AOB projection neurons and demonstrated that neurons display prolonged, variable, and neuron-specific characteristics. We then analyzed various decoding schemes using AOB population responses. We showed that compared with the simplest scheme (i.e., integration of spike counts over the entire response period), the division of this period into smaller temporal bins actually yields poorer decoding accuracy. However, optimal classification accuracy can be achieved well before the end of the response period by integrating spike counts within temporally defined windows. Since VNS stimulus uptake is variable, we analyzed decoding using limited information about stimulus uptake time, and showed that with enough neurons, such time-invariant decoding is feasible. Finally, we conducted simulations that demonstrated that, unlike the main olfactory bulb, the temporal features of AOB neurons disfavor decoding with high temporal accuracy, and, rather, support decoding without precise knowledge of stimulus uptake time. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A key goal in sensory system research is to identify which metrics of neuronal activity are relevant for decoding stimulus features. Here, we describe the first systematic

  5. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Unal, Fatma

    2015-03-01

    Endemic Muscari muscarimi Medikus is the most fragrant plant among Muscari species and has a high ornamental potential. The natural populations of M. muscarimi, are severely affected by increased environmental pollution and urbanization. There is a need to develop a micropropagation method that should serve effectively for commercial propagation and conservation. Therefore, the study targeted to set up a strategy for efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration system of M. muscarimi using twin scale bulb explants on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 μM BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) plus 2.685, 5.37, 10.74 μM NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid). Maximum number of 19 daughter axillary bulblets and 16 daughter adventitious bulblets per twin bulb scale explant was regenerated on 1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA and 17.76 μM BAP plus 2.685 μM NAA respectively. The daughter bulblets regenerated on twin bulb scales on 8 out of 9 regeneration treatment could be easily rooted on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.9 μM IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid). The daughter bulblets regenerated on 9th treatment (1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA) were transferred to 1.0 × MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose to break negative carry over effect of this dose of BAP-NAA, where they grew 2-3 roots of variable length. Daughter bulblet diameter was increased by culturing them on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44 μM BAP plus 5.37 μM NAA. The results verified that both age and the source of explants had significant effect on regeneration. In another set of experiments, twin scales were obtained from in vitro regenerated daughter bulblets, although they induced bulblets, yet their bulblet regeneration percentage, mean number of bulblets per explant and their diameter were significantly reduced. In vitro regenerated bulblets were acclimatized in growth chamber under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity on

  6. Optimization of the Runner for Extremely Low Head Bidirectional Tidal Bulb Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyao Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for bidirectional bulb turbine runners which is completed using ANSYS Workbench. The optimization procedure is able to check many more geometries with less manual work. In the procedure, the initial blade shape is parameterized, the inlet and outlet angles (β1, β2, as well as the starting and ending wrap angles (θ1, θ2 for the five sections of the blade profile, are selected as design variables, and the optimization target is set to obtain the maximum of the overall efficiency for the ebb and flood turbine modes. For the flow analysis, the ANSYS CFX code, with a SST (Shear Stress Transport k-ω turbulence model, has been used to evaluate the efficiency of the turbine. An efficient response surface model relating the design parameters and the objective functions is obtained. The optimization strategy was used to optimize a model bulb turbine runner. Model tests were carried out to validate the final designs and the design procedure. For the four-bladed turbine, the efficiency improvement is 5.5% in the ebb operation direction, and 2.9% in the flood operation direction, as well as 4.3% and 4.5% for the three-bladed turbine. Numerical simulations were then performed to analyze the pressure pulsation in the pressure and suction sides of the blade for the prototype turbine with optimal four-bladed and three-bladed runners. The results show that the runner rotational frequency (fn is the dominant frequency of the pressure pulsations in the blades for ebb and flood turbine modes, and the gravitational effect, rather than rotor-stator interaction (RSI, plays an important role in a low head horizontal axial turbine. The amplitudes of the pressure pulsations on the blade side facing the guide vanes varies little with the water head. However, the amplitudes of the pressure pulsations on the blade side facing the diffusion tube linearly increase with the water head. These results could provide

  7. Predicting Spatial Distribution of Key Honeybee Pests in Kenya Using Remotely Sensed and Bioclimatic Variables: Key Honeybee Pests Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Makori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bee keeping is indispensable to global food production. It is an alternate income source, especially in rural underdeveloped African settlements, and an important forest conservation incentive. However, dwindling honeybee colonies around the world are attributed to pests and diseases whose spatial distribution and influences are not well established. In this study, we used remotely sensed data to improve the reliability of pest ecological niche (EN models to attain reliable pest distribution maps. Occurrence data on four pests (Aethina tumida, Galleria mellonella, Oplostomus haroldi and Varroa destructor were collected from apiaries within four main agro-ecological regions responsible for over 80% of Kenya’s bee keeping. Africlim bioclimatic and derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI variables were used to model their ecological niches using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt. Combined precipitation variables had a high positive logit influence on all remotely sensed and biotic models’ performance. Remotely sensed vegetation variables had a substantial effect on the model, contributing up to 40.8% for G. mellonella and regions with high rainfall seasonality were predicted to be high-risk areas. Projections (to 2055 indicated that, with the current climate change trend, these regions will experience increased honeybee pest risk. We conclude that honeybee pests could be modelled using bioclimatic data and remotely sensed variables in MaxEnt. Although the bioclimatic data were most relevant in all model results, incorporating vegetation seasonality variables to improve mapping the ‘actual’ habitat of key honeybee pests and to identify risk and containment zones needs to be further investigated.

  8. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  9. Role of plant pathology in integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, B J

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a paradigm that is widely adopted by all pest control disciplines but whose early definitions and philosophical basis belong to entomologists. Plant pathology research and extension work has historically emphasized integration of several control strategies and fits both historical and modern definitions of IPM. While the term IPM has been used only sparingly in the phytopathology literature, the integrated disease management strategies emphasized are now considered to be at the forefront of ecologically based or biointensive pest management. While IPM is broadly endorsed by crop protection disciplines, farmers, other agriculturalists, and consumers, the potential for Integrated Pest Management has not been fully realized. Most IPM programs reflect a package of tools and decision aids for individual crop insect, weed, nematode, and plant disease management. IPM programs that integrate all types of pests with the agroecosystem, crop growth and loss models still await the formation of interdisciplinary teams focusing on growers needs. Lack of funding for both discipline and interdisciplinary developmental research and implementation is responsible for the paucity of comprehensive IPM programs for the majority of the U.S. crop acreage. This review explores the origins and evolution of the IPM paradigm and reviews efforts to achieve the body of knowledge and implementation structure to achieve IPM's full potential.

  10. Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Asymmetric public goods game cooperation through pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, T; Ohtsuki, H; Fukui, S

    2017-12-21

    Cooperation in a public goods game has been studied extensively to find the conditions for sustaining the commons, yet the effect of asymmetry between agents has been explored very little. Here we study a game theoretic model of cooperation for pest control among farmers. In our simple model, each farmer has a paddy of the same size arranged adjacently on a line. A pest outbreak occurs at an abandoned paddy at one end of the line, directly threatening the frontier farmer adjacent to it. Each farmer pays a cost of his or her choice to an agricultural collective, and the total sum held by the collective is used for pest control, with success probability increasing with the sum. Because the farmers' incentives depend on their distance from the pest outbreak, our model is an asymmetric public goods game. We derive each farmer's cost strategy at the Nash equilibrium. We find that asymmetry among farmers leads to a few unexpected outcomes. The individual costs at the equilibrium do not necessarily increase with how much the future is valued but rather show threshold behavior. Moreover, an increase in the number of farmers can sometimes paradoxically undermine pest prevention. A comparison with a symmetric public goods game model reveals that the farmer at the greatest risk pays a disproportionate amount of cost in the asymmetric game, making the use of agricultural lands less sustainable. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of Ecologically-Based Pest Management in California Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Houston; Daane, Kent M

    2017-10-11

    Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest management paradigm in vineyards. While the adoption of IPM has led to notable and significant reductions in the environmental impacts of grape production, some growers are becoming interested in the use of an explicitly non-pesticide approach to pest management that is broadly referred to as ecologically-based pest management (EBPM). Essentially a subset of IPM strategies, EBPM places strong emphasis on practices such as habitat management, natural enemy augmentation and conservation, and animal integration. Here, we summarize the range and known efficacy of EBPM practices utilized in California vineyards, followed by a discussion of research needs and future policy directions. EBPM should in no way be seen in opposition, or as an alternative to the IPM framework. Rather, the further development of more reliable EBPM practices could contribute to the robustness of IPM strategies available to grape growers.

  13. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant's ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest's physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented.

  14. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a Specific And Safe Tool for Insect Pest Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully used bioinsecticide in the integrated pest management programs in the world. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity". Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

  16. Robust Manipulations of Pest Insect Behavior Using Repellents and Practical Application for Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Wolfin, Michael S; Loeb, Gregory M

    2017-10-01

    In agricultural settings, examples of effective control strategies using repellent chemicals in integrated pest management (IPM) are relatively scarce compared to those using attractants. This may be partly due to a poor understanding of how repellents affect insect behavior once they are deployed. Here we attempt to identify potential hallmarks of repellent stimuli that are robust enough for practical use in the field. We explore the literature for success stories using repellents in IPM and we investigate the mechanisms of repellency for two chemical oviposition deterrents for controlling Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, a serious pest of small fruit crops. Drosophila suzukii causes injury by laying her eggs in ripening fruit and resulting larvae make fruit unmarketable. In caged choice tests, reduced oviposition was observed in red raspberry fruit treated with volatile 1-octen-3-ol and geosmin at two initial concentrations (10% and 1%) compared to untreated controls. We used video monitoring to observe fly behavior in these caged choice tests and investigate the mode of action for deterrence through the entire behavioral repertoire leading to oviposition. We observed fewer visitors and more time elapsed before flies first landed on 1-octen-3-ol-treated fruits than control fruits and concluded that this odor primarily inhibits behaviors that occur before D. suzukii comes in contact with a potential oviposition substrate (precontact). We observed some qualitative differences in precontact behavior of flies around geosmin-treated fruits; however, we concluded that this odor primarily inhibits behaviors that occur after D. suzukii comes in contact with treated fruits (postcontact). Field trials found reduced oviposition in red raspberry treated with 1-octen-3-ol and a combination of 1-octen-3-ol and geosmin, but no effect of geosmin alone. Recommendations for further study of repellents for practical use in the field are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by

  17. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The Second International Conference on Areawide Insect Pest Control sponsored by FAO and IAEA will be held from 9 to 13 May, 2005 in Vienna, Austria. This conference will provide a forum for the presentation of scientific papers dealing with areawide insect management programmes, including those applying the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and will include significant time for plenary discussion. The framework of the conference is being developed and the announcement with details of the Conference can be found under http://www.pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Meetings/Meetings2005.asp. It is planned to hold several Research Coordination Meetings in conjunction with this meeting. The Interregional Training Course on The Use of the Sterile Insect and Related Techniques for the Integrated Areawide Management of Insect Pests, was held from 4 May to 1 June 2004 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. This is a unique course that provides participants with a complete overview of all aspects related to areawide and SIT operational programmes. Both USA and external lecturers participated with an adequate balance between theory and practical laboratory and field exercises. Third, the SIT programme in Madeira is in negotiations with a private company regarding some type of partnership to ensure sustainability of the programme when EC funding comes to an end. These developments have been followed very closely by the sub-programme and we have been involved in providing advice, developing collaborative links and interacting at the R and D and technology transfer levels. There will be ample scope for further collaboration when these initiatives become fully realized. The fifth meeting of the Working Group on Fruit Flies of the Western Hemisphere (WGFFWH) took place in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, from 16 to 21 May 2004 and more than 200 participants attended. The meeting has a very unique format where scientists, action programme managers and the industry interact, greatly encouraging discussions and

  18. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant pests... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.203 Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in...

  19. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  20. Evaluation of olfactory bulb size on MR imaging in normal volunteers and anosmic or hyposmic patients without nasal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Ho; Lee, Yul; Yoon, In Sook; Lee, Kyung Won; Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Kyung Hun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the size of the olfactory bulb using MRI in normal volunteers and anosmic or hyposmic patients without nasal diseases. MRI performed in 20 normal volunteers with a normal sense of smell, and in 15 anosmic or hyposmic or hyposmic patients without nasal disease but with abnormality in the olfactory function test. Coronal T1-weighted MRI was performed, with a section thickness of 3 mm. The cross sectional area, width and height of the olfactory bulb were measured in multiple sequential images and the largest values of these were analysed. The difference in the size of the olfactory bulb between normal volunteers and anosmic or hyposmic patients was evaluated and student''s test was used for statistical analysis. The size of the olfactory bulb is significantly less in anosmic or hyposmic patients without nasal disease than in normal volunteers; in such patients, olfactory MRI could be a useful evaluative modality. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. The Role of Astrocytes in the Generation, Migration, and Integration of New Neurons in the Adult Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengatharan, Archana; Bammann, Rodrigo R.; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration, and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain. In the subventricular zone, neural stem cells with astrocytic properties display regional and temporal specificity when generating different neuronal subtypes. Non-neurogenic astrocytes contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the neurogenic niche. Neuroblast chains migrate through the rostral migratory stream ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Astrocytes play an important regulatory role in neuroblast migration and also assist in the development of a vasculature scaffold in the migratory stream that is essential for neuroblast migration in the postnatal brain. In the olfactory bulb, astrocytes help to modulate the network through a complex release of cytokines, regulate blood flow, and provide metabolic support, which may promote the integration and survival of new neurons. Astrocytes thus play a pivotal role in various processes of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis, and it is likely that many other functions of these glial cells will emerge in the near future. PMID:27092050

  2. Temporal physiological and biochemical changes in Hippeastrum vittatum ‘Red Lion’ bulbs stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Starch and soluble sugar concentrations, α-amylase activity and soluble protein of Hippeastrum vittatum ‘Red Lion’ bulbs were assessed under different storage temperatures and storage periods. Bulbs were stored for 45 days at 20°, 12°, 8° or 4°C. Starch concentration decreased most at 4°C on the 45th day, changing from 29.7% to 10.9% in the exterior scales and from 33.0% to 13.0% in the interior scales. The α-amylase activity in the exterior scales, except at 4° and 8°C, decreased significantly between 0 and 15 days of storage, and then increased significantly from the 15th day until the end of the trial. The soluble sugar concentration increased most at 4°C: in the exterior scales it changed from 54.73 to 153.93 mg•g-1 while in the interior scales it increased from 39.67 to 148.11 mg•g-1. The soluble protein concentration in all treatments peaked on the 30th day at 8°C in the exterior scales (2.15 mg•g-1 and at 12°C in the interior scales (2.17 mg•g-1. Understanding these physiological and biochemical changes in the bulbs of H. vittatum after storage would serve as a reference for bulb dormancy mechanisms in future studies.

  3. Transcriptome profile and cytogenetic analysis of immortalized neuronally restricted progenitor cells derived from the porcine olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we established and phenotypically characterized an immortalized porcine olfactory bulb neuroblast cell line, OBGF400 (Uebing-Czipura et al., 2008). To facilitate the future application of these cells in studies of neurological dysfunction and neuronal replacement therapies, a comprehensive...

  4. Localisation of 3H-GABA in the rat olfactory bulb: An in vivo and in vitro autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, E.H.; Cuello, A.C.; Priestley, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to further clarify the localisation of GABAergic elements in the olfactory bulb we have performed, in vivo and in vitro, autoradiographic studies with 3 H-GABA (#betta#-amino butyric acid) and 3 H-DABA (L-2,4 diamino butyric acid). The results have shown a strong labelling with 3 H-GABA of the glial cells in all the layers of the olfactory bulb. A high concentration of grains was observed in the periglomerular region. The labelling in the external plexiform layer was uniformly distributed in the neuropile with the strongest activity at the level of the dendritic processes of the granule cells, leaving the mitral cell dendrites and cell bodies almost free of grains. 3 H-DABA showed a very similar pattern to 3 H-GABA. When olfactory bulb slices were preincubated with #betta#-alanine the labelling of the glial elements almost disappeared especially at the level of the olfactory nerve layer. The labelling pattern of the other layers of the bulb remained mostly unchanged. This supports the view that a population of periglomerular and granule cells are GABAergic and that #betta#-alanine competes with GABA uptake sites only in glial cells. (orig.)

  5. From Tulip Bulbs to Sub-Prime Mortgages Examining the Sub-Prime Crisis: The Case for a Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alan A.; Atwater, J. Brian; Kannan, Vijay R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The collapse of the sub-prime mortgage market parallels several earlier failures within the financial services sector, begging the question why the lessons of past failures were not learned. Throughout history from the tulip bulb crisis of the 1600s to the most recent economic crisis, decision-makers keep making the same mistakes. This…

  6. Irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. A compilation of technical data for its authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This publication contains a compilation of available scientific and technical data on the irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. The compilation was prepared in response to the requirement of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and associated Code that radiation treatment of food be justified on the basis of a technological need or of a need to improve the hygienic quality of the food. It was also in response to the recommendations of the FAO/IAEA/WHO/ITC-UNCTAD/GATT International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food (Geneva, 1989) concerning the need for regulatory control of radiation processing of food. 448 refs, 6 tabs

  7. Climate-neutral flower bulb businesses. Vision for 2020; Klimaatneutrale bloembollenbedrijven. Visie op 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Wageningen UR, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The flower bulb sector has the ambition to realize economically viable climate-neutral (no net CO2 emission in the business)breeding and cultivation practices in new businesses as of 2020. Based on available statistics (Statistics Netherlands) and data from businesses who have been participating in the Energy monitor since 1995, trends and developments have been identified for the three types of business in this sector, addressing area, forcing production, crop composition and energy use (electricity and heat) [Dutch] De bloembollensector heeft de ambitie om in nieuwe bedrijven vanaf 2020 economisch rendabel klimaatneutraal (geen netto CO2-uitstoot op het bedrijf) te kweken en te telen. Op basis van de beschikbare statistieken (CBS) en van gegevens van de bedrijven die sinds 1995 aan de Energiemonitor deelnemen zijn voor de drie bedrijfstypen in deze sector de trends en ontwikkelingen m.b.t. areaal, broeiproductie, gewassamenstelling en het energieverbruik (elektra en warmte), in kaart gebracht.

  8. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (Pchicken diets with garlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.

  9. Novel flow quantification of the carotid bulb and the common carotid artery with vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    technique transverse oscillation the blood velocities of both the axial and the transverse directions are obtained and the complexity of blood flow can be visualized. The aim of the study was to determine the technical performance and interpretation of vector concentration as a tool for estimation of flow...... (US) using a commercial vector flow ultrasound scanner (ProFocus, BK Medical, Denmark) with a linear 5 MHz transducer transverse oscillation vector flow software. CCA and CB areas were marked in one cardiac cycle from each volunteer. The complex flow was assessed by medical expert evaluation...... and by vector concentration calculation. A vortex with complex flow was found in all carotid bulbs, whereas the CCA had mainly laminar flow. The medical experts evaluated the flow to be mainly laminar in the CCA (0.82 +/- 0.14) and mainly complex (0.23 +/- 0.22) in the CB. Likewise, the estimated vector...

  10. Finite Element Analysis Design of a Split Rotor Bracket for a Bulb Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyao Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotor bracket is a key component of the generator rotor with cracks in the rotor bracket leading to rubbing between the rotor and stator, which threatens safe operation of the unit. The rotor rim is so complicated that the equivalent radial stiffness of rim was determined by numerical simulation other than engineering experience. A comprehensive numerical method including finite element analyses and the contact method for multibody dynamics has been used to design the split rotor bracket. The com-putational results showed that cracks would occur in the initial design of the bracket when the turbine operated at the runaway speed, and the bracket design should be improved. The improved design of the bracket was strong enough to avoid cracks and rub between the rotor and stator. This design experience will help improve the design of split rotor brackets for bulb turbine generators.

  11. Changes in endogenous growth inhibitors in onion bulbs (Allium cepa L. cv. Sochaczewska during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kielak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in inhibitor activity in the onion bulbs (Allium cepa L. cv. Sochaczewska during storage were investigated. Onions were dried under an umbrella roof until October 15th or November 15th and thereafter stored in a cold-room at 0-1°C until May 15th. The activity of inhibitors fluctuated markedly during the storage period. At least two peaks and two decreases of inhibitor activity were observed. The weather conditions seemed to strongly influence the level and the date of appearance of inhibitors in onions. Higher inhibitor activity is usually connected with better storage and less sprouting of onions during storage. Prolonged drying under an umbrella roof enhanced onion quality after storage only in these cases when it actually improved the drying of onions.

  12. Olfactory bulb dysgenesis, mirror neuron system dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation as the neural basis for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Ramachandran, V S

    2010-05-01

    Autism is a disorder characterized by social withdrawal, impoverished language and empathy, and a profound inability to adopt another's viewpoint - a failure to construct a "theory of mind" for interpreting another person's thoughts and intentions. We previously showed that these symptoms might be explained, in part, by a paucity of mirror neurons. Prompted by an MRI report of an individual with autism, we now suggest that there may be, in addition, a congenital aplasia/dysplasia of the olfactory bulbs with consequent reduction of vasopressin and oxytocin receptor binding. There may also be sub-clinical temporal lobe epilepsy affecting the recently discovered third visual system that is rich in "empathy" related mirror neurons (MNS) and projects (via the TOP junction - just below the inferior parietal lobule) to limbic structures that regulate autonomic outflow. This causes deranged autonomic feedback, resulting in additional deficiencies in MNS with loss of emotional empathy and introspection.

  13. Nerinine and homolycorine, amaryllidaceae alkaloids from the bulbs of Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Babashpour-Asl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Many members of the Amaryllidaceae are regarded as toxic. The toxic constituents that occur in the whole family are referred to as the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. The main aim of this study was the identification of alkaloid compounds from Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin, a medicinal plant from Amaryllidaceae. Methods: Planar and column chromatography techniques were used for isolation of alkaloid components. GC/MS analysis was carried out for the identification of alkaloid compounds. Results: Silica gel column chromatography of the alkaloidal extract of G. transcaucasicus bulbs afforded seven fractions. Preparative thin layer chromatography of these fractions led to the isolation of compounds 1 (nerinineand 2 (homolycorine. Galantamine was not detected in any of these fractions. Conclusion: Our findings showed that G. transcaucasicus could be a new source of bioactive alkaloids for possible applications in pharmaceutical industries.

  14. The comparative analysis of model and prototype test results of Bulb turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisek, M; Bozic, I; Ignjatovic, B

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of the hydropower plant oblique water inflow and its influence on the turbines operation. Oblique water inflow on the low head hydropower plant with bulb turbines influences turbine characteristics. The characteristics change occurs due to swirl incidence in the turbine inlet which spreads to the guide vanes inlet. Downstream, the flow conditions change is caused in the turbine runner in relation to the flow conditions without swirl inflow. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of swirl flow incidence in the turbine conduit. With the aim of presenting and analyzing the oblique water inflow consequences on the hydropower plant operation, the existing turbine model tests results, performed in the laboratories, and the in situ prototype testing results have been used.

  15. Sensory-Evoked Intrinsic Imaging Signals in the Olfactory Bulb Are Independent of Neurovascular Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vincis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain-imaging techniques used in humans and animals, such as functional MRI and intrinsic optical signal (IOS imaging, are thought to largely rely on neurovascular coupling and hemodynamic responses. Here, taking advantage of the well-described micro-architecture of the mouse olfactory bulb, we dissected the nature of odor-evoked IOSs. Using in vivo pharmacology in transgenic mouse lines reporting activity in different cell types, we show that parenchymal IOSs are largely independent of neurotransmitter release and neurovascular coupling. Furthermore, our results suggest that odor-evoked parenchymal IOSs originate from changes in light scattering of olfactory sensory neuron axons, mostly due to water movement following action potential propagation. Our study sheds light on a direct correlate of neuronal activity, which may be used for large-scale functional brain imaging.

  16. The olfactory bulb theta rhythm follows all frequencies of diaphragmatic respiration in the freely behaving rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eRojas-Líbano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory-motor relationships are part of the normal operation of sensory systems. Sensing occurs in the context of active sensor movement, which in turn influences sensory processing. We address such a process in the rat olfactory system. Through recordings of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMG, we monitored the motor output of the respiratory circuit involved in sniffing behavior, simultaneously with the local field potential (LFP of the olfactory bulb (OB in rats moving freely in a familiar environment, where they display a wide range of respiratory frequencies. We show that the OB LFP represents the sniff cycle with high reliability at every sniff frequency and can therefore be used to study the neural representation of motor drive in a sensory cortex.

  17. A randomized trial of Foley Bulb for Labor Induction in Premature Rupture of Membranes in Nulliparas (FLIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Jennifer M H; Stone, Joanne; Factor, Stephanie H; Booker, Whitney; Newland, Meredith; Bianco, Angela

    2017-09-01

    In premature rupture of membranes (PROM), the risk of chorioamnionitis increases with increasing duration of membrane rupture. Decreasing the time from PROM to delivery is associated with lower rates of maternal infection. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists suggests that all women with PROM who do not have a contraindication to vaginal delivery have their labor induced instead of being managed expectantly. Although the use of oxytocin for labor induction has been demonstrated to decrease the time to delivery compared with expectant management, no studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cervical ripening with a Foley bulb to additionally decrease the time to delivery. To determine whether simultaneous use of an intracervical Foley bulb and oxytocin decreases time from induction start to delivery in nulliparous patients with PROM compared with the use of oxytocin alone. A randomized trial was conducted from August 2014 to February 2016 that compared the use of concurrent Foley bulb/oxytocin vs oxytocin alone in nulliparous patients ≥34 weeks' gestational undergoing labor induction for PROM. Our primary outcome was time from induction to delivery. Secondary outcomes were mode of delivery, tachysystole, chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, Apgar scores, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 128 women were randomized. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. We found no difference in induction-to-delivery time between women induced with concurrent Foley bulb/oxytocin vs oxytocin alone (median time 13.0 hours [interquartile 10.7, 16.1] compared with 10.8 hours [interquartile range 7.8, 16.6], respectively, P = .09). There were no significant differences in mode of delivery, rates of postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, or epidural use. Both groups had similar rates of tachysystole as well as total oxytocin dose. There were no differences in neonatal birth weight, Apgar scores, cord gases, or

  18. Prevention methods for pest control and their use in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. THE CONTROL OF PESTS IN ECOSYSTEMS BY UNCHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H BUNESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important way to control the pests is to not use chemicals, preventing the environmental pollution in the different ecosystems. We proposed to study and apply the unchemical methods according to ecological pest management, to control some pesticide resistant pests. The research has been oriented to the physical methods: the use of the light radiation reflected by different materials (supports, directly applied on the hostplant leaves or on the ground, which remove the insects from the damaged zone; the use of visual traps (coloured panels and coloured plates, which attract and capture the insects. The researches were carried out in 2002, with five experiences organised in two ecosystems (orchard and mountain grazing. The both categories of methods were very effective.

  20. Game theory as a conceptual framework for managing insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel S; Staňková, Kateřina

    2017-06-01

    For over 100 years it has been recognized that insect pests evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. More recently, managers have advocated restrained use of pesticides, crop rotation, the use of multiple pesticides, and pesticide-free sanctuaries as resistance management practices. Game theory provides a conceptual framework for combining the resistance strategies of the insects and the control strategies of the pest manager into a unified conceptual and modelling framework. Game theory can contrast an ecologically enlightened application of pesticides with an evolutionarily enlightened one. In the former case the manager only considers ecological consequences whereas the latter anticipates the evolutionary response of the pests. Broader applications of this game theory approach include anti-biotic resistance, fisheries management and therapy resistance in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.