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Sample records for naphthalene diimide dyes

  1. Photodegradation of polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dyes

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Barashkov, Nikolay; Heath, Jerry; Sisk, Wade N.

    2006-06-01

    Polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dye photodegradation is investigated by monitoring the fluorescence intensity as a function of 532 nm laser pulses. Anaerobically irradiated polymer-dye films exhibited an accelerated decrease in fluorescence intensity, which was partially recovered upon exposure to oxygen. Decelerated photodegradation rates were observed for perylene di-imide ethanol solutions upon the addition of a singlet oxygen quenching antioxidant. These observations suggest reversible photoreduction and type II photo-oxidation as important photodegradation mechanisms. Type II photo-oxidation for perylene red 532 nm irradiation is supported by a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.09±0.03, determined via detection of time-resolved O2 (a1Δg —> X3∑g-) infrared phosphorescence.

  2. Quinone methides tethered to naphthalene diimides as selective G-quadruplex alkylating agents.

    Di Antonio, Marco; Doria, Filippo; Richter, Sara N; Bertipaglia, Carolina; Mella, Mariella; Sissi, Claudia; Palumbo, Manlio; Freccero, Mauro

    2009-09-16

    We have developed novel G-quadruplex (G-4) ligand/alkylating hybrid structures, tethering the naphthalene diimide moiety to quaternary ammonium salts of Mannich bases, as quinone-methide precursors, activatable by mild thermal digestion (40 degrees C). The bis-substituted naphthalene diimides were efficiently synthesized, and their reactivity as activatable bis-alkylating agents was investigated in the presence of thiols and amines in aqueous buffered solutions. The electrophilic intermediate, quinone-methide, involved in the alkylation process was trapped, in the presence of ethyl vinyl ether, in a hetero Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, yielding a substituted 2-ethoxychroman. The DNA recognition and alkylation properties of these new derivatives were investigated by gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and enzymatic assays. The alkylation process occurred preferentially on the G-4 structure in comparison to other DNA conformations. By dissecting reversible recognition and alkylation events, we found that the reversible process is a prerequisite to DNA alkylation, which in turn reinforces the G-quadruplex structural rearrangement.

  3. Investigation on Fluorescence Quenching Mechanism of Perylene Diimide Dyes by Graphene Oxide

    Yuzhen Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perylene diimide derivatives were used as probes to investigate the effect of the molecular structures on the fluorescence quenching mechanism in a perylene diimide/graphene oxide system. The electrons transferred from the excited state of dyes to the conductive band of graphene oxide with different concentrations were determined by fluorescence spectra. The results indicated that the quenching efficiency of perylene diimides by graphene oxide was not only dependent on the difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of dyes and the conduction band of the graphene oxide, but also mainly on the difference in the molecular structures.

  4. Rational synthesis of AB-type N-substituted core-functionalized naphthalene diimides (cNDIs).

    Berezin, Andrey A; Sciutto, Andrea; Demitri, Nicola; Bonifazi, Davide

    2015-04-17

    Acid-mediated transformation of tetraethyl 2,6-diethoxynaphthalene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylate selectively affords the core-substituted naphthalene-anhydride-ester (cNAE) in quantitative yield. This anhydride can be selectively converted into hetero-N-substituted core-functionalized naphthalene diimides (cNDIs) through sequential condensation reactions in the presence of the precursor amine with very high isolated yields over four steps. The approach can be applied to prepare a large variety of heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic heterodiimides.

  5. A Selective G-Quadruplex DNA-Stabilizing Ligand Based on a Cyclic Naphthalene Diimide Derivative

    Md. Monirul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cyclic naphthalene diimide (cyclic NDI, 1, carrying a benzene moiety as linker chain, was synthesized and its interaction with G-quadruplex DNAs of a-core and a-coreTT as a human telomeric DNA, c-kit and c-myc as DNA sequence at promoter region, or thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA studied based on UV-VIS and circular dichroism (CD spectroscopic techniques, thermal melting temperature measurement, and FRET-melting assay. The circular dichroism spectra showed that 1 induced the formation of different types of G-quadruplex DNA structure. Compound 1 bound to these G-quadruplexes with affinities in the range of 106–107 M−1 order and a 2:1 stoichiometry. Compound 1 showed 270-fold higher selectivity for a-core than dsDNA with a preferable a-core binding than a-coreTT, c-kit, c-myc and TBA in the presence of K+, which is supported by thermal melting studies. The FRET-melting assay also showed that 1 bound preferentially to human telomeric DNA. Compound 1 showed potent inhibition against telomerase activity with an IC50 value of 0.9 μM and preferable binding to G-quadruplexes DNA than our previously published cyclic NDI derivative 3 carrying a benzene moiety as longer linker chain.

  6. High-Performance Visible-Blind UV Phototransistors Based on n-Type Naphthalene Diimide Nanomaterials.

    Song, Inho; Lee, Seung-Chul; Shang, Xiaobo; Ahn, Jaeyong; Jung, Hoon-Joo; Jeong, Chan-Uk; Kim, Sang-Wook; Yoon, Woojin; Yun, Hoseop; Kwon, O-Pil; Oh, Joon Hak

    2018-04-11

    This study investigates the performance of single-crystalline nanomaterials of wide-band gap naphthalene diimide (NDI) derivatives with methylene-bridged aromatic side chains. Such materials are found to be easily used as high-performance, visible-blind near-UV light detectors. NDI single-crystalline nanoribbons are assembled using a simple solution-based process (without solvent-inclusion problems), which is then applied to organic phototransistors (OPTs). Such OPTs exhibit excellent n-channel transistor characteristics, including an average electron mobility of 1.7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , sensitive UV detection properties with a detection limit of ∼1 μW cm -2 , millisecond-level responses, and detectivity as high as 10 15 Jones, demonstrating the highly sensitive organic visible-blind UV detectors. The high performance of our OPTs originates from the large face-to-face π-π stacking area between the NDI semiconducting cores, which is facilitated by methylene-bridged aromatic side chains. Interestingly, NDI-based nanoribbon OPTs exhibit a distinct visible-blind near-UV detection with an identical detection limit, even under intense visible light illumination (for example, 10 4 times higher intensity than UV light intensity). Our findings demonstrate that wide-band gap NDI-based nanomaterials are highly promising for developing high-performance visible-blind UV photodetectors. Such photodetectors could potentially be used for various applications including environmental and health-monitoring systems.

  7. Anion-Controlled Architecture and Photochromism of Naphthalene Diimide-Based Coordination Polymers

    Jian-Jun Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new cadmium coordination polymers, namely [Cd(NO32(DPNDI(CH3OH]·CH3OH (1, [Cd(SCN2(DPNDI] (2, and [Cd(DPNDI2(DMF2]·2ClO4 (3 (DPNDI = N,N-di(4-pyridyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide have been synthesized by reactions of DPNDI with Cd(NO32, Cd(SCN2, and Cd(ClO42, respectively. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional coordination polymer with strong lone pair-π interactions between the coordinated NO3− anions and the imide ring of DPNDI; while 2 is a two-dimensional network with a (4, 4 net topology. In the case of 3, due to the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate counter ions, it exhibits a non-interpenetrated square-grid coordination polymer containing one-dimensional rhomboid channels. The structural diversity in these compounds is attributed to different coordination abilities and geometries of counter anions. Due to the presence of electron-deficient NDI moiety, the photochromic behavior of these compounds was studied. Interestingly, only compounds 1 and 3 exhibit color changes under light irradiation. The influence of the anions on the photochromism process of the NDI-based materials has been discussed.

  8. G-Quadruplex Identification in the Genome of Protozoan Parasites Points to Naphthalene Diimide Ligands as New Antiparasitic Agents.

    Belmonte-Reche, Efres; Martínez-García, Marta; Guédin, Aurore; Zuffo, Michela; Arévalo-Ruiz, Matilde; Doria, Filippo; Campos-Salinas, Jenny; Maynadier, Marjorie; López-Rubio, José Juan; Freccero, Mauro; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Pérez-Victoria, José María; Morales, Juan Carlos

    2018-02-08

    G-quadruplexes (G4) are DNA secondary structures that take part in the regulation of gene expression. Putative G4 forming sequences (PQS) have been reported in mammals, yeast, bacteria, and viruses. Here, we present PQS searches on the genomes of T. brucei, L. major, and P. falciparum. We found telomeric sequences and new PQS motifs. Biophysical experiments showed that EBR1, a 29 nucleotide long highly repeated PQS in T. brucei, forms a stable G4 structure. G4 ligands based on carbohydrate conjugated naphthalene diimides (carb-NDIs) that bind G4's including hTel could bind EBR1 with selectivity versus dsDNA. These ligands showed important antiparasitic activity. IC 50 values were in the nanomolar range against T. brucei with high selectivity against MRC-5 human cells. Confocal microscopy confirmed these ligands localize in the nucleus and kinetoplast of T. brucei suggesting they can reach their potential G4 targets. Cytotoxicity and zebrafish toxicity studies revealed sugar conjugation reduces intrinsic toxicity of NDIs.

  9. Naphthalene Diimide Based n-Type Conjugated Polymers as Efficient Cathode Interfacial Materials for Polymer and Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Jia, Tao; Sun, Chen; Xu, Rongguo; Chen, Zhiming; Yin, Qingwu; Jin, Yaocheng; Yip, Hin-Lap; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2017-10-18

    A series of naphthalene diimide (NDI) based n-type conjugated polymers with amino-functionalized side groups and backbones were synthesized and used as cathode interlayers (CILs) in polymer and perovskite solar cells. Because of controllable amine side groups, all the resulting polymers exhibited distinct electronic properties such as oxidation potential of side chains, charge carrier mobilities, self-doping behaviors, and interfacial dipoles. The influences of the chemical variation of amine groups on the cathode interfacial effects were further investigated in both polymer and perovskite solar cells. We found that the decreased electron-donating property and enhanced steric hindrance of amine side groups substantially weaken the capacities of altering the work function of the cathode and trap passivation of the perovskite film, which induced ineffective interfacial modifications and declining device performance. Moreover, with further improvement of the backbone design through the incorporation of a rigid acetylene spacer, the resulting polymers substantially exhibited an enhanced electron-transporting property. Upon use as CILs, high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 10.1% and 15.2% were, respectively, achieved in polymer and perovskite solar cells. Importantly, these newly developed n-type polymers were allowed to be processed over a broad thickness range of CILs in photovoltaic devices, and a prominent PCE of over 8% for polymer solar cells and 13.5% for perovskite solar cells can be achieved with the thick interlayers over 100 nm, which is beneficial for roll-to-roll coating processes. Our findings contribute toward a better understanding of the structure-performance relationship between CIL material design and solar cell performance, and provide important insights and guidelines for the design of high-performance n-type CIL materials for organic and perovskite optoelectronic devices.

  10. Pronounced Side Chain Effects in Triple Bond-Conjugated Polymers Containing Naphthalene Diimides for n-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Nam, Sungho

    2018-03-23

    Three triple bond-conjugated naphthalene diimide (NDI) copolymers, poly{[N,N′-bis(2-R1)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-[(2,5-bis(2-R2)-1,4-phenylene)bis(ethyn-2,1-diyl)]} (PNDIR1-R2), were synthesized via Sonogashira coupling polymerization with varying alkyl side chains at the nitrogen atoms of the imide ring and 2,5-positions of the 1,4-diethynylbenzene moiety. Considering their identical polymer backbone structures, the side chains were found to have a strong influence on the surface morphology/nanostructure, thus playing a critical role in charge-transporting properties of the three NDI-based copolymers. Among the polymers, the one with an octyldodecyl (OD) chain at the nitrogen atoms of imide ring and a hexadecyloxy (HO) chain at the 2,5-positions of 1,4-diethynylbenzene, P(NDIOD-HO), exhibited the highest electron mobility of 0.016 cm2 V–1 s–1, as compared to NDI-based copolymers with an ethylhexyl chain at the 2,5-positions of 1,4-diethynylbenzene. The enhanced charge mobility in the P(NDIOD-HO) layers is attributed to the well-aligned nano-fiber-like surface morphology and highly ordered packing structure with a dominant edge-on orientation, thus enabling efficient in-plane charge transport. Our results on the molecular structure–charge transport property relationship in these materials may provide an insight into novel design of n-type conjugated polymers for applications in the organic electronics of the future.

  11. Molecular recognition of naphthalene diimide ligands by telomeric quadruplex-DNA: the importance of the protonation state and mediated hydrogen bonds.

    Spinello, A; Barone, G; Grunenberg, J

    2016-01-28

    In depth Monte Carlo conformational scans in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electronic structure calculations were applied in order to study the molecular recognition process between tetrasubstituted naphthalene diimide (ND) guests and G-quadruplex (G4) DNA receptors. ND guests are a promising class of telomere stabilizers due to which they are used in novel anticancer therapeutics. Though several ND guests have been studied experimentally in the past, the protonation state under physiological conditions is still unclear. Based on chemical intuition, in the case of N-methyl-piperazine substitution, different protonation states are possible and might play a crucial role in the molecular recognition process by G4-DNA. Depending on the proton concentration, different nitrogen atoms of the N-methyl-piperazine might (or might not) be protonated. This fact was considered in our simulation in terms of a case by case analysis, since the process of molecular recognition is determined by possible donor or acceptor positions. The results of our simulations show that the electrostatic interactions between the ND ligands and the G4 receptor are maximized in the case of the protonation of the terminal nitrogen atoms, forming compact ND G4 complexes inside the grooves. The influence of different protonation states in terms of the ability to form hydrogen bonds with the sugar-phosphate backbone, as well as the importance of mediated vs. direct hydrogen bonding, was analyzed in detail by MD and relaxed force constant (compliance constant) simulations.

  12. Asymmetric Alkyl Side-Chain Engineering of Naphthalene Diimide-Based n-Type Polymers for Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    Jia, Tao; Li, Zhenye; Ying, Lei; Jia, Jianchao; Fan, Baobing; Zhong, Wenkai; Pan, Feilong; He, Penghui; Chen, Junwu; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2018-02-13

    The design and synthesis of three n-type conjugated polymers based on a naphthalene diimide-thiophene skeleton are presented. The control polymer, PNDI-2HD, has two identical 2-hexyldecyl side chains, and the other polymers have different alkyl side chains; PNDI-EHDT has a 2-ethylhexyl and a 2-decyltetradecyl side chain, and PNDI-BOOD has a 2-butyloctyl and a 2-octyldodecyl side chain. These copolymers with different alkyl side chains exhibit higher melting and crystallization temperatures, and stronger aggregation in solution, than the control copolymer PNDI-2HD that has the same side chain. Polymer solar cells based on the electron-donating copolymer PTB7-Th and these novel copolymers exhibit nearly the same open-circuit voltage of 0.77 V. Devices based on the copolymer PNDI-BOOD with different side chains have a power-conversion efficiency of up to 6.89%, which is much higher than the 4.30% obtained with the symmetric PNDI-2HD. This improvement can be attributed to the improved charge-carrier mobility and the formation of favorable film morphology. These observations suggest that the molecular design strategy of incorporating different side chains can provide a new and promising approach to developing n-type conjugated polymers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cyclopenta[b]naphthalene cyanoacrylate dyes: synthesis and evaluation as fluorescent molecular rotors.

    Kocsis, Laura S; Elbel, Kristyna M; Hardigree, Billie A; Brummond, Kay M; Haidekker, Mark A; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

    2015-03-14

    We describe the design, synthesis and fluorescent profile of a family of environment-sensitive dyes in which a dimethylamino (donor) group is conjugated to a cyanoacrylate (acceptor) unit via a cyclopenta[b]naphthalene ring system. This assembly satisfies the typical D-π-A motif of a fluorescent molecular rotor and exhibits solvatochromic and viscosity-sensitive fluorescence emission. The central naphthalene ring system of these dyes was synthesized via a novel intramolecular dehydrogenative dehydro-Diels-Alder (IDDDA) reaction that permits incorporation of the donor and acceptor groups in variable positions around the aromatic core. A bathochromic shift of excitation and emission peaks was observed with increasing solvent polarity but the dyes exhibited a complex emission pattern with a second red emission band when dissolved in nonpolar solvents. Consistent with other known molecular rotors, the emission intensity increased with increasing viscosity. Interestingly, closer spatial proximity between the donor and the acceptor groups led to decreased viscosity sensitivity combined with an increased quantum yield. This observation indicates that structural hindrance of intramolecular rotation dominates when the donor and acceptor groups are in close proximity. The examined compounds give insight into how excited state intramolecular rotation can be influenced by both the solvent and the chemical structure.

  14. Microwave-assisted intramolecular dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of functionalized naphthalenes/solvatochromic dyes.

    Kocsis, Laura S; Benedetti, Erica; Brummond, Kay M

    2013-04-01

    Functionalized naphthalenes have applications in a variety of research fields ranging from the synthesis of natural or biologically active molecules to the preparation of new organic dyes. Although numerous strategies have been reported to access naphthalene scaffolds, many procedures still present limitations in terms of incorporating functionality, which in turn narrows the range of available substrates. The development of versatile methods for direct access to substituted naphthalenes is therefore highly desirable. The Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition reaction is a powerful and attractive method for the formation of saturated and unsaturated ring systems from readily available starting materials. A new microwave-assisted intramolecular dehydrogenative DA reaction of styrenyl derivatives described herein generates a variety of functionalized cyclopenta[b]naphthalenes that could not be prepared using existing synthetic methods. When compared to conventional heating, microwave irradiation accelerates reaction rates, enhances yields, and limits the formation of undesired byproducts. The utility of this protocol is further demonstrated by the conversion of a DA cycloadduct into a novel solvatochromic fluorescent dye via a Buchwald-Hartwig palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Fluorescence spectroscopy, as an informative and sensitive analytical technique, plays a key role in research fields including environmental science, medicine, pharmacology, and cellular biology. Access to a variety of new organic fluorophores provided by the microwave-assisted dehydrogenative DA reaction allows for further advancement in these fields.

  15. Photo-driven electron transfer from the highly reducing excited state of naphthalene diimide radical anion to a CO 2 reduction catalyst within a molecular triad

    Martinez, Jose F. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; La Porte, Nathan T. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Mauck, Catherine M. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Wasielewski, Michael R. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA

    2017-01-01

    The naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide) radical anion (NDI-˙), which is easily produced by mild chemical or electrochemical reduction (-0.5 Vvs.SCE), can be photoexcited at wavelengths as long as 785 nm, and has an excited state (NDI-˙*) oxidation potential of -2.1 Vvs.SCE, making it a very attractive choice for artificial photosynthetic systems that require powerful photoreductants, such as CO2 reduction catalysts. However, once an electron is transferred from NDI-˙* to an acceptor directly bound to it, a combination of strong electronic coupling and favorable free energy change frequently make the back electron transfer rapid. To mitigate this effect, we have designed a molecular triad system comprising an NDI-˙ chromophoric donor, a 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) intermediate acceptor, and a Re(dmb)(CO)3carbon dioxide reduction catalyst, where dmb is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, as the terminal acceptor. Photoexcitation of NDI-˙ to NDI-˙* is followed by ultrafast reduction of DPA to DPA-˙, which then rapidly reduces the metal complex. The overall time constant for the forward electron transfer to reduce the metal complex is τ = 20.8 ps, while the time constant for back-electron transfer is six orders of magnitude longer, τ = 43.4 μs. Achieving long-lived, highly reduced states of these metal complexes is a necessary condition for their use as catalysts. The extremely long lifetime of the reduced metal complex is attributed to careful tuning of the redox potentials of the chromophore and intermediate acceptor. The NDI-˙–DPA fragment presents many attractive features for incorporation into other photoinduced electron transfer assemblies directed at the long-lived photosensitization of difficult-to-reduce catalytic centers.

  16. Organic Semiconductors based on Dyes and Color Pigments.

    Gsänger, Marcel; Bialas, David; Huang, Lizhen; Stolte, Matthias; Würthner, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Organic dyes and pigments constitute a large class of industrial products. The utilization of these compounds in the field of organic electronics is reviewed with particular emphasis on organic field-effect transistors. It is shown that for most major classes of industrial dyes and pigments, i.e., phthalocyanines, perylene and naphthalene diimides, diketopyrrolopyrroles, indigos and isoindigos, squaraines, and merocyanines, charge-carrier mobilities exceeding 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been achieved. The most widely investigated molecules due to their n-channel operation are perylene and naphthalene diimides, for which even values close to 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been demonstrated. The fact that all of these π-conjugated colorants contain polar substituents leading to strongly quadrupolar or even dipolar molecules suggests that indeed a much larger structural space shows promise for the design of organic semiconductor molecules than was considered in this field traditionally. In particular, because many of these dye and pigment chromophores demonstrate excellent thermal and (photo-)chemical stability in their original applications in dyeing and printing, and are accessible by straightforward synthetic protocols, they bear a particularly high potential for commercial applications in the area of organic electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Photoconductance of Bulk Heterojunctions with Tunable Nanomorphology Consisting of P3HT and Naphtalene Diimide Siloxane Oligomers

    Grzegorczyk, W.J.; Ganesan, P.; Savenije, T.J.; Bavel, van S.; Loos, J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Zuilhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between the morphology, optical, and photoconductive properties of thin-film bulk heterojunctions of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with a series of electron-accepting siloxanes with a different number (x = 2, 4, 5) of pendant naphthalene diimide (NDIS) moieties is reported. All NDIS

  18. Perylene Diimide Based Fluorescent Dyes for Selective Sensing of Nitroaromatic Compounds: Selective Sensing in Aqueous Medium Across Wide pH Range.

    Hariharan, P S; Pitchaimani, J; Madhu, Vedichi; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2016-03-01

    Water soluble perylenediimide based fluorophore salt, N,N'-bis(ethelenetrimethyl ammoniumiodide)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylicbisimide (PDI-1), has been used for selective fluorescence sensing of picric acid (PA) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) in organic as well as aqueous medium across wide pH range (1.0 to 10.0). PDI-1 showed strong fluorescence in dimethylformamide (DMF) (Φf = 0.26 (DMF) and moderate fluorescence in water. Addition of picric acid (PA) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) into PDI-1 in DMF/aqueous solution selectively quenches the fluorescence. The concentration dependent studies showed decrease of fluorescence linearly with increase of PA and 4-NA concentration. The interference studies demonstrate high selectivity for PA and 4-NA. Interestingly, PDI-1 showed selective fluorescence sensing of PA and 4-NA across wide pH range (1.0 to 10.0). Selective fluorescence sensing of PA and 4-NA has also been observed with trifluoroacetate (PDI-2), sulfate (PDI-3) salt of PDI-1 as well as octyl chain substituted PDI (PDI-4) without amine functionality. These studies suggest that PA and 4-NA might be having preferential interaction with PDI aromatic core and quenches the fluorescence. Thus PDI based dyes have been used for selective fluorescent sensing of explosive NACs for the first time to the best our knowledge.

  19. New naphthalene polyimide with unusual molar absorption coefficient and excited state properties: Synthesis, photophysics and electrochemistry

    Ozser, Mustafa E. [Girne American University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Industrial Engineering, Girne, North Cyprus (Cyprus); Yucekan, Ilke; Bodapati, Jagadeesh B. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Famagusta, North Cyprus (Cyprus); Icil, Huriye, E-mail: huriye.icil@emu.edu.tr [Eastern Mediterranean University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Famagusta, North Cyprus (Cyprus)

    2013-11-15

    A high molecular weight 1,4,5,8-naphthalene polyimide (ENPI) by one-step polycondensation mechanism and for comparison its monomeric diimide (ENDI) were synthesized; the photophysical and electrochemical properties were studied in detail for ENPI. Monomer has shown unusual insolubility so that the characterization proven to be difficult, whereas ENPI has shown better solubility. The molecular weight data obtained by GPC for the polymer were M{sub n}=8240 and M{sub w}=34,000 g mol{sup −1} respectively with a polydispersity of 4.13. The polyimide exhibited outstandingly high molar absorption coefficients as 599,000, 1,021,000, and 972,700 M{sup −1} cm{sup −1}, which is first time reported in literature for the characteristic 0–2, 0–1, and 0–0 electronic transitions, respectively. ENPI showed concentration dependent and red shifted excimer emission in 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE). The polymer has undergone multielectron reductions in CHCl{sub 3} solution below 100 mV s{sup −1} scan rates which merged into two reversible one-electron reduction peaks at higher scan rates. In solid-state, similar scan rate dependent reduction peaks were noticed. The LUMO, HOMO and optical band gap values obtained for ENPI were −3.73, −6.91, and 3.18 eV respectively. ENDI polymer with striking features has great potential as new sensitizer for efficient dye sensitized organic cells. Highlights: • A high molecular weight naphthalene polyimide was synthesized (M{sub w}=34,000 g mol{sup −1}). • The oligoether polyimide exhibited outstanding molar absorptivity (972,700 M{sup −1} cm{sup −1}). • A red shifted excimer emission has been observed. • The polymer has undergone multielectron reductions.

  20. Synthesis and photophysical characterizations of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles.

    Erten-Ela, Sule; Ozcelik, Serdar; Eren, Esin

    2011-07-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are studied in this paper. Microwave-assisted synthesis of naphthalene benzimidazoles provide higher yields than the conventional thermal synthesis. Comparative photophysical properties of naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are revealed that conjugation of electron-donating group onto naphthalimide moiety increases fluorescence quantum yields. Fluorophore-solvent interactions are also investigated using Lippert-Mataga equation for naphthalimides and naphthalene benzimidazoles. Thermal stabilities of naphthalene benzimidazoles are better than naphthalimides due to increased aromaticity. The experimental E(LUMO) levels of naphthalene benzimidazoles are found to be between 3.15 and 3.28 eV. Therefore, naphthalene benzimidazole derivatives consisting of anchoring groups are promising materials in organic dye sensitized solar cells. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  1. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  2. Interaction of albumin with perylene-diimides with aromatic substituents

    Farooqi, Mohammed; Penick, Mark; Burch, Jessica; Negrete, George; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) binding to proteins remains one of the fundamental aspects of research in biophysics. Ligand binding can regulate the function of proteins. Binding to small ligands remains a very important aspect in the study of the function of many proteins. Perylene diimide or PDI derivatives have attracted initial interest as industrial dyes and pigments. Recently, much attention has been focused on their strong π - π stacks resulting from the large PDI aromatic core. These PDI stacks have distinct optical properties, and provide informative models that mimic the light-harvesting system and initial charge separation and charge transfer in the photosynthetic system. The absorption property of PDI derivatives may be largely tuned from visible to near-infrared region by chemical modifications at the bay-positions. We are currently studying a new class of PDI derivatives with substituents made of the side chains of aromatic amino acids (Tyrosine, Tryptophan and Phenylalanine). We have looked at the fluorescence absorption and emission of these PDIs in water and other organic solvents. PDIs show evidence of dimerization and possible aggregation. We also present binding studies of these PDIs with Human Serum Albumin (HSA). The binding was studied using fluorescence emission quenching of the HSA Tryptophan residue. Stern-Volmer equation is used to derive the quenching constants. PDI binding to HSA also has an effect on the fluorescence emission of the PDIs themselves by red shifting the spectra. Funded by RCMI grant.

  3. Liquid Crystalline Perylene diimides : Architecture and Charge Carrier Mobilities

    Struijk, C.W.; Sieval, A.B.; Dakhorst, J.E.J.; Dijk, van M.; Kimkes, P.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Donker, H.

    2000-01-01

    The phase behavior of three N-alkyl-substituted perylene diimide derivatives is examined by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. The occurrence of multiple phase transitions indicates several crystalline and several liquid crystalline phases. X-ray diffraction

  4. Stepwise cyanation of naphthalene diimide for n-channel field-effect transistors

    Chang, Jingjing

    2012-06-15

    Stepwise cyanation of tetrabromonaphthalenediimide (NDI) 1 gave a series of cyanated NDIs 2-5 with the monocyanated NDI 2 and dicyanated NDI 3 isolated. The tri- and tetracyano- NDIs 4 and 5 show intrinsic instability toward moisture because of their extremely low-lying LUMO energy levels. The partially cyanated intermediates can be utilized as air-stable n-type semiconductors with OFET electron mobility up to 0.05 cm 2 V -1 s -1. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Dye-Incorporated Polynaphthalenediimide Acceptor for Additive-Free High-Performance All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    Chen, Dong; Yao, Jia; Chen, Lie; Yin, Jingping; Lv, Ruizhi; Huang, Bin; Liu, Siqi; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Chunhe; Chen, Yiwang; Li, Yongfang

    2018-04-16

    All-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) can offer unique advantages for applications in flexible devices, and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based polymer acceptors are the widely used polymer acceptors. However, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) still lags behind that of state-of-the-art polymer solar cells, due to low light absorption, suboptimal energy levels and the strong aggregation of the NDI-based polymer acceptor. Herein, a rhodanine-based dye molecule was introduced into the NDI-based polymer acceptor by simple random copolymerization and showed an improved light absorption coefficient, an up-shifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level and reduced crystallization. Consequently, additive-free all-PSCs demonstrated a high PCE of 8.13 %, which is one of the highest performance characteristics reported for all-PSCs to date. These results indicate that incorporating a dye into the n-type polymer gives insight into the precise design of high-performance polymer acceptors for all-PSCs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Supermolecular structure and charge carriers mobilities of perylene diimides

    Marcon, Valentina; Pisula, Wojtek; Andrienko, Denis [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Kirkpatrick, James [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Perylene diimides form columnar phases, where the molecules stack on top of each other and the columns arrange in a regular lattice. The self-organization into well-ordered columns results in the one-dimensional charge transport along the stack of the aromatic cores of the molecules. Most of the discotic molecules which organize in columns are p-type semiconductors, while the class of rylene diimide molecules, to which perylene belongs, forms n-type organic semiconductors. Using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we study the columnar phases of perylene diimides and establish correlations between the molecular structure, packing, and dynamical properties of these materials. By using a scheme which combines electronic structure calculations, MD and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, a correlation is then established between the molecular structure and charge mobility of perylenes columnar mesophases.

  7. Studies on Hydrogenation of Liquid Natural Rubber Using Diimide

    Nur Hanis Adila Azhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid natural rubber (LNR is a depolymerized natural rubber (NR which consists of shorter polymeric chains and lower molecular weight (Mw90% was achieved by manipulating the reaction parameters such as sources of diimide, TSH concentration, solvent, and reaction time. The optimum condition was 3 : 1 weight ratio of TSH/LNR in o-xylene at 130°C in 4-hour reaction period.

  8. Simplified MPN method for enumeration of soil naphthalene degraders using gaseous substrate.

    Wallenius, Kaisa; Lappi, Kaisa; Mikkonen, Anu; Wickström, Annika; Vaalama, Anu; Lehtinen, Taru; Suominen, Leena

    2012-02-01

    We describe a simplified microplate most-probable-number (MPN) procedure to quantify the bacterial naphthalene degrader population in soil samples. In this method, the sole substrate naphthalene is dosed passively via gaseous phase to liquid medium and the detection of growth is based on the automated measurement of turbidity using an absorbance reader. The performance of the new method was evaluated by comparison with a recently introduced method in which the substrate is dissolved in inert silicone oil and added individually to each well, and the results are scored visually using a respiration indicator dye. Oil-contaminated industrial soil showed slightly but significantly higher MPN estimate with our method than with the reference method. This suggests that gaseous naphthalene was dissolved in an adequate concentration to support the growth of naphthalene degraders without being too toxic. The dosing of substrate via gaseous phase notably reduced the work load and risk of contamination. The result scoring by absorbance measurement was objective and more reliable than measurement with indicator dye, and it also enabled further analysis of cultures. Several bacterial genera were identified by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from the MPN wells incubated in the presence of gaseous naphthalene. In addition, the applicability of the simplified MPN method was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between the level of oil contamination and the number of naphthalene degraders detected in soil.

  9. Intramolecular photoinduced electron-transfer in azobenzene-perylene diimide

    Feng Wen-Ke; Wang Shu-Feng; Gong Qi-Huang; Feng Yi-Yu; Feng Wei; Yi Wen-Hui

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the intramolecular photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) of covalent bonded azobenzene-perylene diimide (AZO-PDI) in solvents by using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy together with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopic techniques. Fast fluorescence quenching is observed when AZO-PDI is excited at characteristic wavelengths of AZO and perylene moieties. Reductive electron-transfer with transfer rate faster than 10 11 s −1 is found. This PET process is also consolidated by femtosecond transient absorption spectra

  10. Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides with a Phosphonate-Functionalized Perylene Diimide for Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation with a CoOx Catalyst.

    Kirner, Joel T; Finke, Richard G

    2017-08-23

    A planar organic thin film composed of a perylene diimide dye (N,N'-bis(phosphonomethyl)-3,4,9,10-perylenediimide, PMPDI) with photoelectrochemically deposited cobalt oxide (CoO x ) catalyst was previously shown to photoelectrochemically oxidize water (DOI: 10.1021/am405598w). Herein, the same PMPDI dye is studied for the sensitization of different nanostructured metal oxide (nano-MO x ) films in a dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell architecture. Dye adsorption kinetics and saturation decreases in the order TiO 2 > SnO 2 ≫ WO 3 . Despite highest initial dye loading on TiO 2 films, photocurrent with hydroquinone (H 2 Q) sacrificial reductant in pH 7 aqueous solution is much higher on SnO 2 films, likely due to a higher driving force for charge injection into the more positive conduction band energy of SnO 2 . Dyeing conditions and SnO 2 film thickness were subsequently optimized to achieve light-harvesting efficiency >99% at the λ max of the dye, and absorbed photon-to-current efficiency of 13% with H 2 Q, a 2-fold improvement over the previous thin-film architecture. A CoO x water-oxidation catalyst was photoelectrochemically deposited, allowing for photoelectrochemical water oxidation with a faradaic efficiency of 31 ± 7%, thus demonstrating the second example of a water-oxidizing, dye-sensitized photoelectrolysis cell composed entirely of earth-abundant materials. However, deposition of CoO x always results in lower photocurrent due to enhanced recombination between catalyst and photoinjected electrons in SnO 2 , as confirmed by open-circuit photovoltage measurements. Possible future studies to enhance photoanode performance are discussed, including alternative catalyst deposition strategies or structural derivatization of the perylene dye.

  11. G-Quadruplex Identification in the Genome of Protozoan Parasites Points to Naphthalene Diimide Ligands as New Antiparasitic Agents

    Belmonte-Reche, E.; Martínez-García, M.; Guédin, A.; Zuffo, M.; Arevalo-Ruiz, M.; Doria, F.; Campos-Salinas, J.; Maynadier, M.; Lopez-Rubio, J.J.; Freccero, M.; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Maria Perez-Victoria, J.; Carlos Morales, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2018), s. 1231-1240 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000477 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : terminal repeat promoter * plasmodium-falciparum Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016

  12. Spectroscopic, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of Pt(ii) and Pd(ii) complexes of a chelating 1,10-phenanthroline appended perylene diimide.

    Işık Büyükekşi, Sebile; Şengül, Abdurrahman; Erdönmez, Seda; Altındal, Ahmet; Orman, Efe Baturhan; Özkaya, Ali Rıza

    2018-02-20

    In this study, a bis-chelating bridging perylene diimide ditopic ligand, namely N,N'-di(1,10-phenanthroline)-1,6,7,12-tetrakis-(4-methoxyphenoxy)perylene tetracarboxylic acid diimide (1), was synthesized and characterized. Further reactions of 1 with d 8 metal ions such as Pt(ii) and Pd(ii) having preferential square-planar geometry afforded the novel triads [(Cl 2 )M(ii)-(1)-M(ii)(Cl 2 )] where M(ii) = Pt(ii) (2), and Pd(ii) (3), respectively. The isolated triads and the key precursor were fully characterized by FT-IR, 1D-NMR ( 1 H NMR and 13 C DEPT NMR), 2D-NMR ( 1 H- 1 H COSY, 1 H- 13 C HSQC, 1 H- 13 C HMBC), MALDI-TOF mass and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties of 1, 2 and 3 were investigated by cyclic voltammetry as well as in situ spectroelectrochemistry and also in situ electrocolorimetric measurements. These compounds were shown to exhibit net colour changes suitable for electrochromic applications. The compounds exhibited remarkably narrow HOMO-LUMO gaps, leading to their ease of reduction at low negative potentials. More importantly, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were also fabricated using 1-3 to clarify the potential use of these complexes as a sensitizer. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that 2 has good potential as a sensitizer material for DSSCs.

  13. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  14. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene

    Buchholz, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Naphthalene incubations form DNA adducts in vitro in a dose dependent manner in both mouse and rat tissues. Rodent tissue incubations with naphthalene indicate that naphthalene forms as many DNA adducts as Benzo(a)pyrene, a known DNA binding carcinogen. The mouse airway has the greatest number of DNA adducts, corresponding to the higher metabolic activation of naphthalene in this location. Both rat tissues, the rat olfactory (tumor target) and the airways (non-tumor target), have similar levels of NA-DNA adducts, indicating that short term measures of initial adduct formation do not directly correlate with sites of tumor formation in the NTP bioassays.

  15. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene

    Buchholz, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Naphthalene incubations form DNA adducts in vitro in a dose dependent manner in both mouse and rat tissues. Rodent tissue incubations with naphthalene indicate that naphthalene forms as many DNA adducts as Benzo(a)pyrene, a known DNA binding carcinogen. The mouse airway has the greatest number of DNA adducts, corresponding to the higher metabolic activation of naphthalene in this location. Both rat tissues, the rat olfactory (tumor target) and the airways (non-tumor target), have similar levels of NA-DNA adducts, indicating that short term measures of initial adduct formation do not directly correlate with sites of tumor formation in the NTP bioassays.

  16. Synthesis and properties of amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides

    Ma, Yongshan; Li, Xuemei; Wei, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Tianyi; Wu, Junsen; Ren, Huixue [Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan (China)

    2015-07-15

    We prepared amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides: N,N'-bi(L-glutamic acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (1), N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (2), N,N'-bi(Lglutamic amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (3) and N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (4). The structures of 3 and 4 were confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR and MS. The maximal absorption bands of compound 1 and 2 in concentrated sulfuric acid were red-shifted for about 48 and 74 nm, respectively, compared with that of Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA). Nearly no fluorescence was observed for compounds 1 and 2 in water, while compounds 3 and 4 were significantly water-soluble and had very high fluorescent quantum. The mechanism of the optical properties change was discussed, and the π-π stacking caused by H{sup +} led to the changes of fluorescence spectrum and absorption spectrum. The calculated molecular orbital energies and the frontier molecular orbital maps of compounds 1-2 based on density function theory (DFT) calculations were reported. Owing to the high water-soluble, the perylene derivatives 3 and 4 were successfully applied as high-performance fluorochromes for living hela cells imaging.

  17. Photoelectrochemical processes in organic semiconductor: Ambipolar perylene diimide thin film

    Kim, Jung Yong; Chung, In Jae

    2018-03-01

    A thin film of N,N‧-dioctadecyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C18) is spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Using the PTCDI-C18/ITO electrode, we fabricate a photoelectrochemical cell with the ITO/PTCDI-C18/Redox Electrolyte/Pt configuration. The electrochemical properties of this device are investigated as a function of hydroquinone (HQ) concentration, bias voltage, and wavelength of light. Anodic photocurrent is observed at V ≥ -0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, indicating that the PTCDI-C18 film acts as an n-type semiconductor as usual. However, when benzoquinone (BQ) is inserted into the electrolyte system instead of HQ, cathodic photocurrent is observed at V ≤ 0.0 V, displaying that PTCDI-C18 abnormally serves as a p-type semiconductor. Hence the overall results reveal that the PTCDI-C18 film can be an ambipolar functional semiconductor depending on the redox couple in the appropriate voltage.

  18. Mechanisms for naphthalene removal during electrolytic aeration.

    Goel, Ramesh K; Flora, Joseph R V; Ferry, John

    2003-02-01

    Batch tests were performed to investigate chemical and physical processes that may result during electrolytic aeration of a contaminated aquifer using naphthalene as a model contaminant. Naphthalene degradation of 58-66% took place electrolytically and occurred at the same rates at a pH of 4 and 7. 1,4-naphthoquinone was identified as a product of the electrolysis. Stripping due to gases produced at the electrodes did not result in any naphthalene loss. Hydrogen peroxide (which may be produced at the cathode) did not have any effect on naphthalene, but the addition of ferrous iron (which may be present in aquifers) resulted in 67-99% disappearance of naphthalene. Chlorine (which may be produced from the anodic oxidation of chloride) can effectively degrade naphthalene at pH of 4, but not at a pH of 7. Mono-, di- and poly chloronaphthalenes were identified as oxidation products. Ferric iron coagulation (due to the oxidation of ferrous iron) did not significantly contribute to naphthalene loss. Overall, electrolytic oxidation and chemical oxidation due to the electrolytic by-products formed are significant abiotic processes that could occur and should be accounted for if bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites via electrolytic aeration is considered. Possible undesirable products such as chlorinated compounds may be formed when significant amounts of chlorides are present.

  19. Advances of naphthalene degradation in Pseudomonas putida ND6

    Song, Fu; Shi, Yifei; Jia, Shiru; Tan, Zhilei; Zhao, Huabing

    2018-03-01

    Naphthalene is one of the most common and simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Degradation of naphthalene has been greatly concerned due to its economic, free-pollution and its fine effect in Pseudomonas putida ND6. This review summarizes the development history of naphthalene degradation, the research progress of naphthalene degrading gene and naphthalene degradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida ND6, and the researching path of this strain. Although the study of naphthalene degradation is not consummate in Pseudomonas putida ND6, there is a potential capability for Pseudomonas putida ND6 to degrade the naphthalene in the further research.

  20. Thiophene-fused tetracene diimide with low band gap and ambipolar behavior

    Ye, Qun

    2011-11-18

    The first tetracene diimide derivative fused with four thiophene rings, TT-TDI, was synthesized by an FeCl3 mediated oxidative cyclodehydrogenation reaction. TT-TDI exhibited a low band gap of 1.52 eV and amphoteric redox behavior. TT-TDI also showed a liquid crystalline property and ambipolar charge transport in thin film field-effect transistors. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Thiophene-fused tetracene diimide with low band gap and ambipolar behavior

    Ye, Qun; Chang, Jingjing; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Chi, Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    The first tetracene diimide derivative fused with four thiophene rings, TT-TDI, was synthesized by an FeCl3 mediated oxidative cyclodehydrogenation reaction. TT-TDI exhibited a low band gap of 1.52 eV and amphoteric redox behavior. TT-TDI also showed a liquid crystalline property and ambipolar charge transport in thin film field-effect transistors. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Synthesis and Photophysical Characterizations of Thermal -Stable Naphthalene Benzimidazoles

    Erten Ela, Şule; Özçelik, Serdar; Eren, Ersin

    2011-01-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are studied in this paper. Microwave-assisted synthesis of naphthalene benzimidazoles provide higher yields than the conventional thermal synthesis. Comparative photophysical properties of naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are revealed that conjugation of electron-donating group onto naphthalimide moiety increases fluorescence ...

  3. Recommended Vapor Pressure of Solid Naphthalen

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 1956-1970 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solid naphthalene * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization * enthalpy of fusion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2005

  4. 2-[3-(Naphthalen-2-ylphenyl]naphthaleneCAS 103068–17–3.

    Mark L. Wolfenden

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H18, consists of a benzene ring with meta-substituted 2-naphthalene substituents, which are essentially planar [r.m.s. deviations = 0.022 (1 and 0.003 (1 Å]. The conformation is syn, with equivalent torsion angles about the benzene–naphthalene bonds of −36.04 (13 and +34.14 (13°. The molecule has quasi-Cs molecular symmetry.

  5. Crystal structure of N,N′-bis[2-((benzyl{[5-(dimethylaminonaphthalen-1-yl]sulfonyl}aminoethyl]naphthalene-1,8:4,5-tetracarboximide 1,2-dichlorobenzene trisolvate

    Miguel Ángel Claudio-Catalán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C56H50N6O8S2·3C6H4Cl2, contains two half-molecules of the parent, A and B, which both have crystallographic inversion symmetry, together with three 2,3-dichlorobenzene molecules of solvation. Molecules A and B are conformationally similar, with dihedral angles between the central naphthalenediimide ring and the peripheral naphthalene and benzyl rings of 2.43 (7, 81.87 (7° (A and 3.95 (7, 84.88 (7° (B, respectively. The conformations are stabilized by the presence of intramolecular π–π interactions between the naphthalene ring and the six-membered diimide ring of the central naphthalenediimide moiety, with ring centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.5795 (8 Å (A and 3.5640 (8 Å (B. In the crystal, C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into infinite supramolecular chains along the c axis. These chains are interconnected through C—H...π and offset π–π interactions, generating supramolecular nanotubes which are filled by 1,2-dichlorobenzene molecules.

  6. Laser Dyes

    amplification or generation of coherent light waves in the UV,. VIS, and near IR region. .... ciency in most flashlamp pumped dye lasers. It is used as reference dye .... have led to superior laser dyes with increased photostabilities. For instance ...

  7. Recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, etc. , from tar

    1920-12-25

    A process is described for the recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, and the like from tar oils and similar liquors, characterized in that the oil is treated in a rapidly rotating hammer mill, such as a colloid mill, with water sufficient, in the presence or absence of suitable solvents, for the only portion preferably in the presence of emulsifiers; and is filtered through a filter with fine pores.

  8. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 10 5 and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

  9. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 105 and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA).

  10. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 10{sup 5} and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

  11. Cyanated diazatetracene diimides with ultrahigh electron affinity for n-channel field effect transistors

    Ye, Qun

    2013-03-15

    Several diazatetracene diimides with high electron affinity (up to 4.66 eV!) were prepared and well characterized. The LUMO energy level of these electron-deficient molecules was found to be closely related to their material stability. Compound 7 with ultrahigh electron affinity suffered from reduction and hydrolysis in the presence of silica gel or water. The stable compounds 3 and 6 showed n-channel FET behavior with an average electron mobility of 0.002 and 0.005 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, using a solution processing method. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. p-doped multiwall carbon nanotube/perylene diimide derivative photoelectrochemical cells for photocurrent generation

    Troeger, Anna; Ledendecker, Marc; Margraf, Johannes T.; Sgobba, Vito; Guldi, Dirk M. [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Vieweg, Benito F.; Spiecker, Erdmann [Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM) and Department Werkstoffwissenschaften/VII, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Suraru, Sabin-Lucian; Wuerthner, Frank [Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    A perylene diimide (PDI) derivative bearing four chlorine substituents in the bay area is deposited together with pristine multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and/or Nafion p-doped MWNTs (p-MWNTs) onto indium tin oxide (ITO) solid substrates by means of air-brushing. The resulting photoanodes are studied in photoelectrochemical cells and reveal highest photocurrent efficiencies when PDI and p-MWNT are combined as photoactive materials, indicating the beneficial effect of Nafion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Isomeric N-Annulated Perylene Diimide Dimers for Organic Solar Cells.

    Ma, Zetong; Fu, Huiting; Meng, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Yanming; Wang, Zhaohui

    2018-04-16

    Two isomeric N-annulated perylene diimide dimers, namely, p-BDNP and m-BDNP were designed and synthesized via geometric tuning. The distinct molecular geometry and packing arrangements of isomers with almost identical optical and electrochemical properties rendered us an in-depth understanding of the molecular structure-aggregation state-photovoltaic performance relationship. Blended with the commercially available donor PCE-10, p-BDNP and m-BDNP showed distinct differences in photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.01 % and 4.15 %, respectively. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Naphthalene distributions and human exposure in Southern California

    Lu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Turco, Richard P.; Winer, Arthur M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Lurmann, Fred W.; Miguel, Antonio H.; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu

    The regional distribution of, and human exposure to, naphthalene are investigated for Southern California. A comprehensive approach is taken in which advanced models are linked for the first time to quantify population exposure to the emissions of naphthalene throughout Southern California. Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in polluted urban environments, and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor air samples. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene may have adverse health effects, possibly causing cancer in humans. Among the significant emission sources are volatilization from naphthalene-containing products, petroleum refining, and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, with related vaporization from fuels, are found to contribute roughly half of the daily total naphthalene burden in Southern California. As part of this study, the emission inventory for naphthalene has been verified against new field measurements of the naphthalene-to-benzene ratio in a busy traffic tunnel in Los Angeles, supporting the modeling work carried out here. The Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model is used to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of naphthalene and its photooxidation products in Southern California. The present simulations reveal a high degree of spatial variability in the concentrations of naphthalene-related species, with large diurnal and seasonal variations as well. Peak naphthalene concentrations are estimated to occur in the early morning hours in the winter season. The naphthalene concentration estimates obtained from the SMOG model are employed in the Regional Human Exposure (REHEX) model to calculate population exposure statistics. Results show average hourly naphthalene exposures in Southern California under summer and winter conditions of 270 and 430 ng m -3, respectively. Exposure to significantly higher concentrations

  15. Application of UV/TiO2/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation to Remove Naphthalene from Water

    Behroz Karimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is released into the environment by burning such organic materials as fossil fuels and wood and in industrial and vehicle exhaust emissions. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, fuels, and dyes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of UV/TiO2/H2O2 process to decompose naphthalene in aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the photocatalytic degradation of naphthalene was investigated under UV light irradiation in the presence of TiO2 and H2O2 under a variety of conditions. Photodegradation efficiencies of H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV, and H2O2/TiO2/UV processes were compared in a batch reactor using the low pressure mercury lamp irradiation. The effects of operating parameters such as reaction time (min; solution pH; and initial naphthalene, TiO2, and H2O2 concentrations on photodegradation were examined. In the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system with a naphthalene concentration of 15 mg/L, naphthalene removal efficiencies of 63, 75, 80, 88, 92, 95, 96.5, and 98% were achieved, respectively, for reaction times of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 100 and 120 min. This is while removal efficienciesof 50, 59.5, 69, 80, 85, 88, 91, and 95% were obtained in the UV/TiO2 system under the same conditions. For initial pH values of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,9, 10, and 12, naphthalene removal efficiencies of approximately 96.8, 85.5, 86, 75.5, 68.8, 57.8, and 52.5% were acheived, respectively, with the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system. Thus, it may be claiomed that, compared to either H2O2/UV or TiO2/UV process, the H2O2/TiO2/UV process yielded a far more efficient photodegradation.

  16. Pronounced Side Chain Effects in Triple Bond-Conjugated Polymers Containing Naphthalene Diimides for n-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Nam, Sungho; Hahm, Suk Gyu; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Hwajeong; Sajoto, Tissa; Ree, Moonhor; Marder, Seth R.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Bradley, Donal D.C.; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2018-01-01

    on the surface morphology/nanostructure, thus playing a critical role in charge-transporting properties of the three NDI-based copolymers. Among the polymers, the one with an octyldodecyl (OD) chain at the nitrogen atoms of imide ring and a hexadecyloxy (HO

  17. Singlet exciton interactions in crystalline naphthalene

    Heisel, F.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of prompt fluorescence in crystalline naphthalene at 300 K, excited by picosecond 266 nm pulse, has been studied as a function of excitation intensity. Experimental decay curves can be fitted only when the exponential distribution in depth of excitation and the radial (gaussian) intensity profile of the excitation are both taken into account. From analysis of decay at early time ( -10 cm 3 s -1 . If the reaction is diffusion-limited, this rate implies an average singlet diffusivity Dsub(S)=(2+-1)10 -4 cm 2 s -1

  18. Single-molecule studies of oligomer extraction and uptake of dyes in poly(dimethylsiloxane) films.

    Lange, Jeffrey J; Collinson, Maryanne M; Culbertson, Christopher T; Higgins, Daniel A

    2009-12-15

    Single-molecule microscopic methods were used to probe the uptake, mobility, and entrapment of dye molecules in cured poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films as a function of oligomer extraction. The results are relevant to the use of PDMS in microfluidic separations, pervaporation, solid-phase microextraction, and nanofiltration. PDMS films were prepared by spin-casting dilute solutions of Sylgard 184 onto glass coverslips, yielding approximately 1.4 microm thick films after curing. Residual oligomers were subsequently extracted from the films by "spin extraction". In this procedure, 200 microL aliquots of isopropyl alcohol were repeatedly dropped onto the film surface and spun off at 2000 rpm. Samples extracted 5, 10, 20, and 40 times were investigated. Dye molecules were loaded into these films by spin-casting nanomolar dye solutions onto the films. Both neutral perylene diimide (N,N'-bis(butoxypropyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide) and cationic rhodamine 6G (R6G) dyes were employed. The films were imaged by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The images obtained depict nonzero populations of fixed and mobile molecules in all films. Cross-correlation methods were used to quantitatively determine the population of fixed molecules in a given region, while a Bayesian burst analysis was used to obtain the total population of molecules. The results show that the total amount of dye loaded increases with increased oligomer extraction, while the relative populations of fixed and mobile molecules decrease and increase, respectively. Bulk R6G data also show greater dye loading with increased oligomer extraction.

  19. Molecular analysis of manufactured gas plant soils for naphthalene mineralization

    Sanseverino, J.; Werner, C.; Fleming, J.; Applegate, B.M.; King, J.M.H.; Sayler, G.S.; Blackburn, J.

    1991-01-01

    New molecular tools are being developed and tested to ascertain the biodegradability of hazardous wastes by soil bacterial population. The potential for manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil bacterial populations to degrade naphthalene, as a component mixture of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, was evaluated by the detection of a naphthalene biodegradative genotype by DNA probe hybridization with DNA extracts and colonies of cultured bacteria of the MGP soils. The activity of the naphthalene-degrading populations was evaluated by mineralization assays, 14 CO 2 production from 14 C-naphthalene. Direct messenger RNA (mRNA) extraction from MGP soil was evaluated as an instantaneous measure of naphthalene catabolic gene expression in MGP soil. The bioavailability of naphthalene for bacterial degradation within the MGP soils was assessed by measuring the bioluminescent response of a naphthalene-lux catabolic reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 (pUTK21). DNA extracted from 5 MGP soils and 1 creosote-contaminated soil and hybridized with a nahA gene probe indicated that the naphthalene degradative genes were present in all samples in the range of 0.06 to 0.95 ng/100 μl DNA extract which was calculated to represent 3.58 x 10 8 to 1.05 x 10 10 nahA positive cells/g soil. Phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo(a)pyrene were mineralized also by some of the soils. NAH7 homologous messenger RNA transcripts were detectable in one MGP soil and in the creosote-contaminated soil

  20. Kinetic Evaluation of Naphthalene Removal using Acid - Modified ...

    Kinetic evaluation of naphthalene onto acid – modified and unmodified bentonite clay mineral was investigated by means of the effects of concentration, contact time and pH. The amount of naphthalene adsorbed was determined spectrophotometrically. The optimum pH value and equilibrium contact time for the adsorption ...

  1. Utilizing dendritic scaffold for feasible formation of naphthalene ...

    the effect of dendritic scaffolds on the feasibility of naphthalene excimer formation has not been reported in the literature. Here, we report synthesis and photophysical study of naphthalene functionalized zero and first genera- tion PAMAM dendrimers in order to understand the mechanism of excimer formation in the system.

  2. Dietary curcumin prevents ocular toxicity of naphthalene in rats.

    Pandya, U; Saini, M K; Jin, G F; Awasthi, S; Godley, B F; Awasthi, Y C

    2000-06-05

    Administration of naphthalene is known to cause cataract formation in rats and rabbits and naphthalene-initiated cataract is frequently used as a model for studies on senile cataract in humans. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the mechanism of naphthalene-induced cataract. Curcumin, a constituent of turmeric, a spice used in Indian curry dishes, is an effective antioxidant and is known to induce the enzymes of glutathione-linked detoxification pathways in rats. During the present studies, we have examined whether low levels of dietary curcumin could prevent naphthalene-induced opacification of rat lens. The presence of apoptotic cells in lens epithelial cells was also examined by catalytically incorporating labeled nucleotide to DNA with either Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase or by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), which forms polymeric tail using the principle of TUNEL assay. The results of these studies demonstrated that the rats treated with naphthalene and kept on a diet supplemented with only 0.005% (w/w) curcumin had significantly less opacification of lenses as compared to that observed in rats treated only with naphthalene. Our studies also demonstrate, for the first time, that naphthalene-initiated cataract in lens is accompanied and perhaps preceded by apoptosis of lens epithelial cells and that curcumin attenuates this apoptotic effect of naphthalene.

  3. Synthesis of new derivatives of naphthalene

    Rivera Marrero, Suchitil; Sablon Carrazana, Marquiza; Lopez Barroso, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and there is no cure for this disease. It is known that it is triggered by the apparition of the senile plaques produced for the agglomeration of β-amyloid peptides. AD's reliable diagnosis is done post-mortem. Recently, non-invasive methods are evaluated for in vivo diagnosis of this disease by means of imaging techniques PET (Positron Emission Tomography), SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). In the case of the SPECT technique, new organic compounds labeled with radionuclides 1 23I , 1 25I , and 99 mT c have been described. Epidemiological studies have revealed that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decreases the relative risk of AD. In the last years, the search of compounds with similar structures it has increased in order to be used as labels or drugs. The objective of this paper was to synthesize new naphthalene derivatives, for its further use as quelating agents of 99 mT c, for the detection of β-amyloid plaque in the AD. Thus, spacer arms with different lengths were introduced at β-position (or 1-) of naphthalene molecule through various different reactions. The compounds were structurally characterized by IR, 1 H -NMR and 13 C - NMR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry

  4. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  5. Cyclic perylene diimide: Selective ligand for tetraplex DNA binding over double stranded DNA.

    Vasimalla, Suresh; Sato, Shinobu; Takenaka, Fuminori; Kurose, Yui; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2017-12-15

    Synthesized cyclic perylene diimide, cPDI, showed the binding constant of 6.3 × 10 6  M -1 with binding number of n = 2 with TA-core as a tetraplex DNA in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 7.4) containing 100 mM KCl using Schatchard analysis and showed a higher preference for tetraplex DNA than for double stranded DNA with over 10 3 times. CD spectra showed that TA-core induced its antiparallel conformation upon addition of cPDI in the absence or presence of K + or Na + ions. The cPDI inhibits the telomerase activity with IC 50 of 0.3 µM using TRAP assay which is potential anti-cancer drug with low side effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New naphthalene whole-cell bioreporter for measuring and assessing naphthalene in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated site.

    Sun, Yujiao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhang, Dayi; Ding, Aizhong; Chen, Cheng; Huang, Wei E; Zhang, Huichun

    2017-11-01

    A new naphthalene bioreporter was designed and constructed in this work. A new vector, pWH1274_Nah, was constructed by the Gibson isothermal assembly fused with a 9 kb naphthalene-degrading gene nahAD (nahAa nahAb nahAc nahAd nahB nahF nahC nahQ nahE nahD) and cloned into Acinetobacter ADPWH_lux as the host, capable of responding to salicylate (the central metabolite of naphthalene). The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter could effectively metabolize naphthalene and evaluate the naphthalene in natural water and soil samples. This whole-cell bioreporter did not respond to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; pyrene, anthracene, and phenanthrene) and demonstrated a positive response in the presence of 0.01 μM naphthalene, showing high specificity and sensitivity. The bioluminescent response was quantitatively measured after a 4 h exposure to naphthalene, and the model simulation further proved the naphthalene metabolism dynamics and the salicylate-activation mechanisms. The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter also achieved a rapid evaluation of the naphthalene in the PAH-contaminated site after chemical spill accidents, showing high consistency with chemical analysis. The engineered Acinetobacter variant had significant advantages in rapid naphthalene detection in the laboratory and potential in situ detection. The state-of-the-art concept of cloning PAHs-degrading pathway in salicylate bioreporter hosts led to the construction and assembly of high-throughput PAH bioreporter array, capable of crude oil contamination assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perylene Diimide as a Precise Graphene-like Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic

    Jalilov, Almaz S.; Nilewski, Lizanne G.; Berka, Vladimir [Hematology,; Zhang, Chenhao; Yakovenko, Andrey A. [Argonne National Laboratory, X-ray Science Division,; Wu, Gang [Hematology,; Kent, Thomas A. [Department; Center for Translational Research in Inflammatory Diseases, Michel E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas 77030, United States; Tsai, Ah-Lim [Hematology,; Tour, James M.

    2017-01-31

    Here we show that the active portion of a graphitic nanoparticle can be mimicked by a perylene diimide (PDI) to explain the otherwise elusive biological and electrocatalytic activity of the nanoparticle construct. Development of molecular analogues that mimic the antioxidant properties of oxidized graphenes, in this case the poly(ethylene glycolated) hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG–HCCs), will afford important insights into the highly efficient activity of PEG–HCCs and their graphitic analogues. PEGylated perylene diimides (PEGn–PDI) serve as well-defined molecular analogues of PEG–HCCs and oxidized graphenes in general, and their antioxidant and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD-like) properties were studied. PEGn–PDIs have two reversible reduction peaks, which are more positive than the oxidation peak of superoxide (O2•–). This is similar to the reduction peak of the HCCs. Thus, as with PEG–HCCs, PEGn–PDIs are also strong single-electron oxidants of O2•–. Furthermore, reduced PEGn–PDI, PEGn–PDI•–, in the presence of protons, was shown to reduce O2•– to H2O2 to complete the catalytic cycle in this SOD analogue. The kinetics of the conversion of O2•– to O2 and H2O2 by PEG8–PDI was measured using freeze-trap EPR experiments to provide a turnover number of 133 s–1; the similarity in kinetics further supports that PEG8–PDI is a true SOD mimetic. Finally, PDIs can be used as catalysts in the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction in water, which proceeds by a two-electron process with the production of H2O2, mimicking graphene oxide nanoparticles that are otherwise difficult to study spectroscopically.

  8. Characterization of excited electronic states of naphthalene by resonance Raman and hyper-Raman scattering

    Bonang, C.C.; Cameron, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The first resonance Raman and hyper-Raman scattering from naphthalene are reported. Fourth harmonic of a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser is used to resonantly excite the 1 B 1u + transition, producing Raman spectra that confirm the dominance of the vibronically active ν 28 (b 3g ) mode and the Franck--Condon active a g modes, ν 5 and ν 3 . A synchronously pumped stilbene dye laser and its second harmonic are employed as the excitation sources for hyper-Raman and Raman scattering from the overlapping 1 B 2 u + and 1 A g - states. The Raman spectra indicate that the equilibrium geometry of naphthalene is distorted primarily along ν 5 , ν 8 , and ν 7 normal coordinates upon excitation to 1 B 2 u + . The hyper-Raman spectrum shows that ν 25 (b 2u ) is the mode principally responsible for vibronic coupling between the 1 A g - and 1 B 2u + states. The results demonstrate the advantageous features of resonance hyper-Raman scattering for the case of overlapping one- and two-photon allowed transitions. Calculations based on simple molecular orbital configurations are shown to qualitatively agree with the experimental results

  9. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties.

  10. studies on the adsorption of naphthalene and pyrene from aqueous

    Admin

    The effectiveness of dried ground orange peels in adsorbing naphthalene and ... which are affordable and readily available have given ... banana pith, coconut husk and saw dust, biogas .... alcohol strength was purchased from Alconi Nigeria.

  11. Enhanced biodegradation of naphthalene in MGP aquifer microcosms

    Durant, N.D.; Jonkers, C.A.A.; Wilson, L.P.; Bouwer, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Subsurface sediments collected from a former manufactured-gas-plant (MGP) site contain bacteria capable of mineralizing significant amounts of 14 C-naphthalene in aerobic (8.5 mg/L O 2 ) sediment-water microcosms incubated at 10 C. The extent to which electron-acceptor (O 2 and NO 3 - ) and nutrient (NO 3 - and PO 4 3- ) amendments enhanced naphthalene mineralization in these sediments varied considerably. Oxygen-amended conditions (21 mg/L O 2 ) resulted in the greatest rate and extent of biodegradation for most sediments. Data suggested, however, that some MGP-site sediments prefer mixed NO 3 - /O 2 electron-acceptor conditions for naphthalene biodegradation. Significant denitrification was observed in the nitrate-amended sediments exhibiting naphthalene mineralization. In most cases, PO 4 3- complexed with the sediments either had no effect or inhibited naphthalene mineralization. Sediments unable to mineralize naphthalene over the 6-week incubation period were characterized by low pH ( 4 2- (>500 mg/L) conditions

  12. Biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthren by Bacillus subtilis 3KP

    Ni'matuzahroh, Trikurniadewi, N.; Pramadita, A. R. A.; Pratiwi, I. A.; Salamun, Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri

    2017-06-01

    The purposes of this research were to know growth response, degradation ability, and uptake mechanism of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. Bacillus subtilis 3KP was grown on Mineral Synthetic (MS) medium with addition of 1% yeast extract and naphthalene and phenanthrene respectively 200 ppm in different cultures. Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth response was monitored by Total Plate Count (TPC) method, the degradation ability was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon was monitored by emulsification activity, decrease of surface tension, and activity of Bacterial Adherence to Hydrocarbon (BATH). Bacillus subtilis 3KP was able to grow and show biphasic growth pattern on both of substrates. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were used as a carbon source for Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth that indicated by the reduction of substrate concomitant with the growth. At room temperature conditions (± 30°C) and 90 rpm of agitation for 7 days, Bacillus subtilis 3KP could degrade naphthalene in the amount of 70.5% and phenanthrene in the amount of 24.8%. Based on the analysis of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, three metabolites, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, salicylic acid, and pyrocatechol were found in both cultures. The metabolite identification became basis of propose degradation pathway of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. The results of hydrocarbon uptake mechanism test show that Bacillus subtilis 3KP used all of the mechanism to degrade naphthalene and phenanthrene.

  13. Charge versus Energy Transfer Effects in High-Performance Perylene Diimide Photovoltaic Blend Films.

    Singh, Ranbir; Shivanna, Ravichandran; Iosifidis, Agathaggelos; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Floudas, George; Narayan, K S; Keivanidis, Panagiotis E

    2015-11-11

    Perylene diimide (PDI)-based organic photovoltaic devices can potentially deliver high power conversion efficiency values provided the photon energy absorbed is utilized efficiently in charge transfer (CT) reactions instead of being consumed in nonradiative energy transfer (ET) steps. Hitherto, it remains unclear whether ET or CT primarily drives the photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the PDI excimer state in PDI-based blend films. Here, we affirm the key role of the thermally assisted PDI excimer diffusion and subsequent CT reaction in the process of PDI excimer PL deactivation. For our study we perform PL quenching experiments in the model PDI-based composite made of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2-6-diyl] (PBDTTT-CT) polymeric donor mixed with the N,N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) acceptor. Despite the strong spectral overlap between the PDI excimer PL emission and UV-vis absorption of PBDTTT-CT, two main observations indicate that no significant ET component operates in the overall PL quenching: the PL intensity of the PDI excimer (i) increases with decreasing temperature and (ii) remains unaffected even in the presence of 10 wt % content of the PBDTTT-CT quencher. Temperature-dependent wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments further indicate that nonradiative resonance ET is highly improbable due to the large size of PDI domains. The dominance of the CT over the ET process is verified by the high performance of devices with an optimum composition of 30:70 PBDTTT-CT:PDI. By adding 0.4 vol % of 1,8-diiodooctane we verify the plasticization of the polymer side chains that balances the charge transport properties of the PBDTTT-CT:PDI composite and results in additional improvement in the device efficiency. The temperature-dependent spectral width of the PDI excimer PL band suggests the presence of energetic disorder in the

  14. Efficient Long - Range Electron Transfer Processes in Polyfluorene – Perylene Diimide Blends

    Isakova, Anna

    2018-05-17

    In bulk heterojunction donor-acceptor (D-A) blends, high photovoltaic yields require charge carrier separation to outcompete geminate recombination. Recently, evidence for long-range electron transfer mechanisms has been presented, avoiding strongly-bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states. However, due to the lack of specific optical probes at the D-A interface, a detailed quantification of the long-range processes has not been feasible, until now. Here, we present a transient absorption study of long-range processes in a unique phase consisting of perylene diimide (PDI) crystals intercalated with polyfluorene (PFO), as widely used non-fullerene electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The intercalated PDI:PFO phase possesses specific well-separated spectral features for the excited states at the D-A interface. By use of femtosecond spectroscopy we reveal the excitation dynamics in this blend. PDI excitons undergo a clear symmetry-breaking charge separation in the PDI bulk, which occurs within several hundred femtoseconds, thus outcompeting excimer formation, known to limit charge separation yields when PDI is used as an acceptor. In contrast, PFO excitons are dissociated with very high yields in a one-step long-range process, enabled by large delocalization of the PFO exciton wavefunction. Moreover, both scenarios circumvent the formation of strongly-bound interfacial CT states and enable a targeted interfacial design for bulk heterojunction blends with near unity charge separation yields.

  15. Perylene diimide: Synthesis, fabrication and temperature dependent electrical characterization of heterojunction with p-silicon

    Tahir, Muhammad [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology Topi, KPK 23640 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200 KPK (Pakistan); Sayyad, Muhammad Hassan; Wahab, Fazal [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology Topi, KPK 23640 (Pakistan); Aziz, Fakhra, E-mail: fakhra69@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics, Jinnah College for Women, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Shahid, Muhammad; Munawar, Munawar Ali [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2013-10-01

    A novel, n-type, organic semiconductor N-Butyl-N′-(6-hydroxyhexyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid diimide (N-BuHHPDI) has been successfully synthesized in high yield. The compound has been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to understand the morphological properties of a new n-type organic semiconducting material. A 120 nm thin film of N-BuHHPDI has been sandwiched between Al and p-Si to form Al/N-BuHHPDI/p-Si device using the vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The electrical properties of sandwich type Al/N-BuHHPDI/p-Si device have been investigated. The current voltage (I–V) characteristics of the device, in dark, have been measured in the temperature range of 300–330 K. At room temperature, the device exhibits rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio of 51.5 at ±6.8 V. The device parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series and shunt resistances have been extracted using the conventional I–V characterization method. The effect of temperature on these parameters is also studied. Alternative electrical characterization methods such as Cheung's functions and Norde's techniques have been employed to measure the device parameters for comparison. The conduction mechanisms are investigated through the interface of N-BuHHPDI and p-Si.

  16. Electron Acceptors Based on α-Substituted Perylene Diimide (PDI) for Organic Solar Cells

    Zhao, Donglin [Department; Wu, Qinghe [Department; Cai, Zhengxu [Department; Zheng, Tianyue [Department; Chen, Wei [Materials; Institute; Lu, Jessica [Department; Yu, Luping [Department

    2016-02-02

    Perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives functionalized at the ortho-position (αPPID, αPBDT) were synthesized and used as electron acceptors in non-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells. Because of the good planarity and strong π-stacking of ortho-functionalized PDI, the αPPID and αPBDT exhibit a strong tendency to form aggregates, which endow the materials with high electron mobility. The inverted OPVs employing αPDI-based compounds as the acceptors and PBT7-Th as the donor give the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) values: 4.92% for αPBDT-based devices and 3.61% for αPPID-based devices, which are, respectively, 39% and 4% higher than that of their β-substituted counterparts βPBDT and βPPID. Charge separation studies show more efficient exciton dissociation at interfaces between αPDI-based compounds and PTB7-Th. The results suggest that α-substituted PDI derivatives are more promising electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic (OPV) components than β-isomers.

  17. pn-Heterojunction effects of perylene tetracarboxylic diimide derivatives on pentacene field-effect transistor.

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kang, Boseok; An, Gukil; Kim, BongSoo; Lee, Moo Hyung; Kang, Moon Sung; Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung Heon; Lee, Shichoon; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Jun Young; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-01-28

    We investigated the heterojunction effects of perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) derivatives on the pentacene-based field-effect transistors (FETs). Three PTCDI derivatives with different substituents were deposited onto pentacene layers and served as charge transfer dopants. The deposited PTCDI layer, which had a nominal thickness of a few layers, formed discontinuous patches on the pentacene layers and dramatically enhanced the hole mobility in the pentacene FET. Among the three PTCDI molecules tested, the octyl-substituted PTCDI, PTCDI-C8, provided the most efficient hole-doping characteristics (p-type) relative to the fluorophenyl-substituted PTCDIs, 4-FPEPTC and 2,4-FPEPTC. The organic heterojunction and doping characteristics were systematically investigated using atomic force microscopy, 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. PTCDI-C8, bearing octyl substituents, grew laterally on the pentacene layer (2D growth), whereas 2,4-FPEPTC, with fluorophenyl substituents, underwent 3D growth. The different growth modes resulted in different contact areas and relative orientations between the pentacene and PTCDI molecules, which significantly affected the doping efficiency of the deposited adlayer. The differences between the growth modes and the thin-film microstructures in the different PTCDI patches were attributed to a mismatch between the surface energies of the patches and the underlying pentacene layer. The film-morphology-dependent doping effects observed here offer practical guidelines for achieving more effective charge transfer doping in thin-film transistors.

  18. Efficient Long - Range Electron Transfer Processes in Polyfluorene – Perylene Diimide Blends

    Isakova, Anna; Karuthedath, Safakath; Arnold, Thomas; Howse, Jonathan; Topham, Paul D.; Toolan, Daniel Thomas William; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Lü er, Larry

    2018-01-01

    In bulk heterojunction donor-acceptor (D-A) blends, high photovoltaic yields require charge carrier separation to outcompete geminate recombination. Recently, evidence for long-range electron transfer mechanisms has been presented, avoiding strongly-bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states. However, due to the lack of specific optical probes at the D-A interface, a detailed quantification of the long-range processes has not been feasible, until now. Here, we present a transient absorption study of long-range processes in a unique phase consisting of perylene diimide (PDI) crystals intercalated with polyfluorene (PFO), as widely used non-fullerene electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The intercalated PDI:PFO phase possesses specific well-separated spectral features for the excited states at the D-A interface. By use of femtosecond spectroscopy we reveal the excitation dynamics in this blend. PDI excitons undergo a clear symmetry-breaking charge separation in the PDI bulk, which occurs within several hundred femtoseconds, thus outcompeting excimer formation, known to limit charge separation yields when PDI is used as an acceptor. In contrast, PFO excitons are dissociated with very high yields in a one-step long-range process, enabled by large delocalization of the PFO exciton wavefunction. Moreover, both scenarios circumvent the formation of strongly-bound interfacial CT states and enable a targeted interfacial design for bulk heterojunction blends with near unity charge separation yields.

  19. Fluorescent aggregates in naphthalene containing poly(urethane-urea)s

    Simas, E.R.; Akcelrud, Leni

    2003-01-01

    A series of segmented poly(urethane-urea)s containing naphthalene in the hard block and hexamethylene spacers in the soft block was prepared. The hard to soft segment ratio was varied systematically, to afford a series of polymers with various chromophore concentrations and a constant length of the chromophoric block, using a three-step synthetic procedure. The absorption, fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectra of solutions and films of the block copolymers provide strong evidence for aggregation. A red-shifted fluorescence spectrum peaking at 420 nm gains in intensity as the naphthalene concentration is increased. The excitation spectrum of this new emission is well to the red of the normal naphthalene absorption spectrum, consistent with the UV spectrum. Formation of a fluorescent ground state dimer (or higher aggregate) is proposed to account for these observations

  20. Nano-dyeing

    Ning Cui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing nanofibers is a frontier of both modern textile engineering and nanotechnology. This paper suggest a feasible method for dyeing nanofibers with a natural red (Roselle Calyx by bubble electrospinning. Reactive dye (Red S3B and acid dye (Red 2B were also used in the experiment for comparison. The dyeing process was finished during the spinning process.

  1. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of 1- and 2-halogenated naphthalenes

    Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2003-01-01

    Molar enthalpies of vaporization, Δ l g H m 0 , of 1-methyl-naphthalene, 1-chloro-napthalene, 2-chloro-naphthalene, 1-bromo-naphthalene, 2-bromo-naphthalene, and 1-iodo-naphthalene, as well as molar enthalpies of sublimation, Δ s g H m 0 , of 2-chloro-naphthalene and 2-bromo-naphthalene have been obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure determined with the transpiration method. These values and the correlation gas-chromatography method, based on the Kovat's index, have been used to determine Δ l g H m 0 and Δ s g H m 0 of 2-iodo-naphthalene. Results obtained in this work have been compared with those from the literature and found consistent

  2. Anaerobic degradation of naphthalene by the mixed bacteria under nitrate reducing conditions

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Ding Aizhong

    2009-01-01

    Mixed bacteria were enriched from soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The anaerobic degradation characteristics by the enriched bacteria with different initial naphthalene concentrations were investigated under nitrate reducing conditions. The results showed that the mixed bacteria could degrade nearly all the naphthalene over the incubations of 25 days when the initial naphthalene concentration was below 30 mg/L. The degradation rates of naphthalene increased with increasing initial concentrations. A high naphthalene concentration of 30 mg/L did not inhibit neither on the bacterial growth nor on the naphthalene degradation ability. The accumulation of nitrite was occurred during the reduction of nitrate, and a nitrite concentration of 50 mg/L had no inhibition effect on the degradation of naphthalene. The calculation of electron balances revealed that most of the naphthalene was oxidized whereas a small proportion was used for cell synthesis.

  3. Self-colored nanoparticles containing naphthalene-bisimide derivatives: Synthesis and protein adsorption study

    Polpanich, Duangporn, E-mail: duangporn@nanotec.or.th [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Asawapirom, Udom; Thiramanas, Raweewan; Piyakulawat, Phimwipha [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Novel polymerizable naphthalene-bisimide dyes were designed and synthesized. {yields} Highly monodispersed self-colored nanoparticles were successfully prepared. {yields} Good colloidal stability of the nanoparticles was achieved after protein adsorption. - Abstract: An approach to covalently bound the novel polymerizable dyes, 2,3,6,7-tetrathienyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-N,N' -di(2-methylallyl)-bisimide (ALN4T) and 2,3,6,7-tetra(2,2'-bithiophene)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-N,N' -di(2-methylallyl)-bisimide (ALN8T), and vinyl monomers for tailoring the self-colored nanoparticles (NPs) was demonstrated. Using the miniemulsion polymerization technique, the NPs with high conversion were synthesized. Examining the particles by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed a uniform size distribution. UV/vis spectroscopy results showed that the colored NPs comprising of ALN4T exhibited the same absorption maxima compared to that of the parent dye, while a hypsochromic shift was observed when using ALN8T. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model, the amount of protein adsorption ({Gamma}{sub ads}) onto the surface of the colored NPs was evaluated. The {Gamma}{sub ads} on the colored NPs was found to be dictated by synergistic effects of the conformation change of BSA at a given pH and the electrostatic interaction between the protein and the particle surface. The good colloidal stability of the NPs after BSA adsorption was observed by zeta potential measurement. Therefore, the prepared self-colored NPs have potential application in biomedical areas.

  4. A helical perylene diimide-based acceptor for non-fullerene organic solar cells: synthesis, morphology and exciton dynamics

    Chen, Li; Wu, Mingliang; Shao, Guangwei; Hu, Jiahua; He, Guiying; Bu, Tongle; Yi, Jian-Peng; Xia, Jianlong

    2018-05-01

    Helical perylene diimide-based (hPDI) acceptors have been established as one of the most promising candidates for non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs). In this work, we report a novel hPDI-based molecule, hPDI2-CN2, as an electron acceptor for OSCs. Combining the hPDI2-CN2 with a low-bandgap polymeric donor (PTB7-Th), the blending film morphology exhibited high sensitivity to various treatments (such as thermal annealing and addition of solvent additives), as evidenced by atomic force microscope studies. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) was improved from 1.42% (as-cast device) to 2.76% after thermal annealing, and a PCE of 3.25% was achieved by further addition of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO). Femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy studies revealed that the improved thin-film morphology was highly beneficial for the charge carrier transport and collection. And a combination of fast exciton diffusion rate and the lowest recombination rate contributed to the best performance of the DIO-treated device. This result further suggests that the molecular conformation needs to be taken into account in the design of perylene diimide-based acceptors for OSCs.

  5. Naphthalene and pyrene degradation in contaminated soil as a ...

    The effect of soil particle size distribution and percent organic matter on the degradation rate of naphthalene and pyrene in a water medium of 7.05 ml/min at 27 ± 2oC in a soil reactor was studied. Analysis of the pattern of disappearance of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using various particle sizes showed ...

  6. Studies on the adsorption of naphthalene and pyrene from aqueous ...

    The effectiveness of dried ground orange peels in adsorbing naphthalene and pyrene from an aqueous stream has been investigated in terms of variation in concentration, adsorbent dosage, agitation time and particle size. Experimental batch data was correlated by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models.

  7. Strong eld ionization of naphthalene: angular shifts and molecular potential

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Maurer, Jochen; Christensen, Lauge

    We analyze the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong eld ionization of xed-in-space naphthalene molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show that the angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distributions are very...... sensitive to the exact form of the molecular potential....

  8. Comparative study of electron conduction in azulene and naphthalene

    Wintec

    tional or electronic devices. Recent advances in experi- mental techniques have allowed ... stimulates us to study the electronic conduction in azulene molecule and to compare that with its isomer, naphthalene. ..... ernment of India, for funding and (SD) acknowledges CSIR,. Government of India, for a research fellowship.

  9. Haemolytic toxicity due to domestic naphthalene ball exposure in a ...

    This report presents a 29year-old male, Commercial tricycle driver, Ibo by tribe, Christian and single and was admitted with fatigue , severe abdominal pain , vomiting , yellowish coloration of the eyes and passage of dark urine (cocacola colored) following the use of naphthalene ball for the purpose of repelling mosquitoes ...

  10. Naphthalene Poisoning in Children: a Report of Two

    emergency ward with a history of ' Gzmphofingestion three days before presentation. He had developed fever ... hospitalization, and had had an uneventful neonatal period. There was no history ofineonatal jaundice. .... and methylthio derivatives which are excreted as glucuronide conjugates in the urine. Naphthalene.

  11. Modern methods for the sythesis of substituted naphthalenes

    De Koning, CB

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available of methanol afforded the naphthalene product 24 in 82% yield. Frontier molecular orbital calculations may be used to predict the formation of the preferred regioisomer, although experimentally, mixtures of regioisomers may still be formed.41,42 A recent...

  12. Hair dye poisoning

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  13. Degradation of azo dyes by sequential Fenton's oxidation and aerobic biological treatment

    Tantak, Nilesh P.; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2006-01-01

    A two stage sequential Fenton's oxidation followed by aerobic biological treatment train was used to achieve decolorization and to enhance mineralization of azo dyes, viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB5), Reactive Blue 13 (RB13), and Acid Orange 7 (AO7). In the first stage, Fenton's oxidation process was used while in the second stage aerobic sequential batch reactors (SBRs) were used as biological process. Study was done to evaluate effect of pH on Fenton's oxidation process. Results reveal that pH 3 was optimum pH for achieving decolorization and dearomatization of dyes by Fenton's process. Degradation of dye was assessed by COD reduction and reduction in aromatic amines (naphthalene chromophores) which was measured by reduction in absorbance at 200 nm. More than 95% of color was removed with Fenton's oxidation process in all dyes. In overall treatment train 81.95, 85.57, and 77.83% of COD reduction was achieved in RB5, RB13, and AO7 dyes, respectively. In the Fenton's oxidation process 56, 24.5, and 80% reduction in naphthalene group was observed in RB5, RB13, and AO7, respectively, which further increased to 81.34, 68.73, and 92% after aerobic treatment. Fenton's oxidation process followed by aerobic SBRs treatment sequence seems to be viable method for achieving significant degradation of azo dye

  14. Does a concomitant exposure to lead influence unfavorably the naphthalene subchronic toxicity and toxicokinetics?

    Katsnelson, Boris A; Minigaliyeva, Ilzira A; Degtyareva, Tamara D; Privalova, Larisa I; Beresneva, Tatyana A

    2014-01-01

    Rats were given 20 times during 40 d either naphthalene per gavage or the same and lead acetate intraperitoneally in single doses corresponding to 5% of the respective 50% lethal doses. The concomitant exposure to lead not only added some typical indicators of lead toxicity to the moderate naphthalene intoxication picture but also exaggerated some less specific indices for intoxication. However, a number of such indices testified to attenuation of naphthalene's adverse effects under the impact of lead. Lead also lowered urinary excretion of both total and conjugated naphthalene, while the free- to total naphthalene ratio in urine sharply increased. These results corroborate implicitly the initial hypothesis that lead, being an inhibitor of cytochrome P450, hinders phase I of the naphthalene biotransformation and, thus, the formation of derivates which can be more toxic but are capable of entering into reactions of conjugation with resulting detoxication and elimination of naphthalene from the body. © 2013 SETAC.

  15. Multi-functionalized naphthalene complexes for hydrogen storage

    Kalamse, Vijayanand; Wadnerkar, Nitin; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    A density functional study of hydrogen uptake capacity of multi-functionalized naphthalene with Ti and Li metal atom has been carried out. It is observed that, the naphthalene functionalized with two Ti atoms can interact with total eight hydrogen molecules in which each Ti metal atom interacts with four hydrogen molecules. Naphthalene decorated with two Li atoms can interact with total three H 2 molecules only. First ( 19 Li) and second ( 20 Li) Li atom can interact with only one and two hydrogen molecule respectively. It is observed that, hydrogen molecules bind strongly to the C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex than C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex. The gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex is found to be 6.72 and 3.73 wt% respectively. Moreover, after functionalizing naphthalene with four Li atoms, the uptake capacity is increased to 7.20 wt %. However, the thermochemistry result favors to Ti functionalized naphthalene complex (C 10 H 8 Ti 2 ) for hydrogen storage over Li functionalized naphthalene (both C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 ) complexes. Atom-centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) molecular dynamics simulations have been performed which showed that C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex cannot bind single hydrogen molecule at room temperature whereas C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules. -- Highlights: ► The gravimetric H 2 uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex is 6.72 wt%. ► Uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex is 3.73 and 7.20 wt% respectively. ► C 10 H 8 Ti is more promising material for hydrogen adsorption. ► C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules as shown by ADMP-MD results.

  16. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  17. Decomposition of naphthalene by dc gliding arc gas discharge.

    Yu, Liang; Li, Xiaodong; Tu, Xin; Wang, Yu; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-01-14

    Gliding arc discharge has been proved to be effective in treatment of gas and liquid contaminants. In this study, physical characteristics of dc gliding arc discharge and its application to naphthalene destruction are investigated with different external resistances and carrier gases. The decomposition rate increases with increasing of oxygen concentration and decreases with external resistance. This value can be achieved up to 92.3% at the external resistance of 50 kOmega in the oxygen discharge, while the highest destruction energy efficiency reaches 3.6 g (kW h)(-1) with the external resistance of 93 kOmega. Possible reaction pathways and degradation mechanisms in the plasma with different gases are proposed by qualitative analysis of postdestructed products. In the air and oxygen gliding arc discharges, the naphthalene degradation is mainly governed by reactions with oxygen-derived radicals.

  18. Electronic Interactions of n-Doped Perylene Diimide Groups Appended to Polynorbornene Chains: Implications for Electron Transport in Organic Electronics.

    Nguyen, Minh T; Biberdorf, Joshua D; Holliday, Bradley J; Jones, Richard A

    2017-11-01

    A polymer consisting of a polynorbornene backbone with perylene diimide (PDI) pendant groups on each monomeric unit is synthesized via ring opening metathesis polymerization. The PDI pendant groups along the polymer backbone, studied by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in addition to electrochemical methods, show evidence of molecular aggregation and corresponding electronic coupling with neighboring groups, which forms pathways for efficient electron transport from one group to another in a specific reduced form. When n-doped, the title polymer shows redox conductivity of 5.4 × 10 -3 S cm -1 , comparable with crystalline PDI materials, and is therefore a promising material for use in organic electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Study on the Novel Dicyanate Ester Resin Containing Naphthalene Unit

    Hong Qiang YAN; Hong Yun PENG; Li JI; Guo Rong QI

    2004-01-01

    The novel dicyanate ester resin containing naphthalene unit (DNCY) was synthesized, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analysis (EA).The thermal properties of DNCY resin was studied by thermal degradation analysis at a heating rate of 10 (C /min-1 in N2 and air. The DNCY resin exhibited better thermal and thermal-oxidative stability than bisphenol A dicyanate (BACY) resin.

  20. Crystal structure of bromidobis(naphthalen-1-ylantimony(III

    Omar bin Shawkataly

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [SbBr(C10H72], the SbIII atom has a distorted trigonal–pyramidal coordination geometry and the planes of the two naphthalene ring systems make a dihedral angle of 80.26 (18°. An intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen bond forms an S(5 ring motif. In the crystal, weak C—H...Br interactions link the molecules into helical chains along the b-axis direction.

  1. Dispersion of low frequency vibrations in the deuterated naphthalene crystal

    Bokhenkov, E.L.; Sheka, E.; Natkaniec, I.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion curves of the lattice vibrations and of the two lowest intramolecular vibrations in d 8 -naphthalene (C 10 D 8 ) crystal have been measured by coherent inelastic neutron scattering for the [010] and the [100] directions at the temperature of 98 K and partially at 5 K. The results are compared with calculations based on the Kitaigorodskii parameters for C-C, C-H and H-H interactions in organic molecular crystals. (author)

  2. Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on ...

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pineapple regeneration and shoot growth as affected by 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2.0 mg/l and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.2 mg/l in vitro. BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.2 mg/l were used in this study. BAP at 2.0 mg/l significantly affected the production ...

  3. Biodegradation of naphthalene from nonaqueous-phase liquids

    Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.; Ramaswami, A.

    1995-01-01

    Dissolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a non-aqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) to the aqueous phase renders these compounds bioavailable to microorganisms. Subsequent biodegradation of organic phase PAH then results in a depletion of PAH from the NAPL. This study focuses on identifying the rate-controlling processes affecting naphthalene biomineralization from a complex multicomponent NAPL, coal tar, and a simple two-component NAPL. A simplified dissolution degradation model is presented to identify quantitative criteria to assess whether mass transfer or biokinetic limitations control the overall rate of biotransformation of PAH compounds. Results show that the rate of mass transfer may control the overall rate of biotransformation in certain systems. Mass transfer does not limit biodegradation in slurry systems when coal tar is distributed in the micropores of a large number of small microporous silica particles. The end points of naphthalene degradation from the NAPLs have been evaluated, and results suggest that depletion of a significant mass of naphthalene from the NAPL phase is possible

  4. Isolation of naphthalene-degrading bacteria from tropical marine sediments

    Zhuang, W.-Q.; Tay, J.-H.; Maszenan, A.M.; Tay, S.T.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major environmental concern in many countries, and this has led to a concerted effort in studying the feasibility of using oil-degrading bacteria for bioremediation. Although many oil-degrading bacteria have been isolated from different environments, environmental conditions can impose a selection pressure on the types of bacteria that can reside in a particular environment. This study reports the successful isolation of two indigenous naphthalene-degrading bacteria from oil-contaminated tropical marine sediments by enrichment culture. Strains MN-005 and MN-006 were characterized using an extensive range of biochemical tests. The 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) sequence analysis was also performed for the two strains. Their naphthalene degradation capabilities were determined using gas chromatography and DAPI counting of bacterial cells. Strains MN-005 and MN-006 are phenotypically and phylogenetically different from each other, and belong to the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus, respectively. Strains MN-005 and MN-006 has maximal specific growth rates (μ max ) of 0.082±0.008 and 0.30±0.02 per hour, respectively, and half-saturation constants (K s ) of 0.79±0.10 and 2.52±0.32 mg per litre, respectively. These physiological and growth studies are useful in assessing the potential of these indigenous isolates for in situ or ex situ naphthalene pollutant bioremediation in tropical marine environments. (author)

  5. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  6. A Thermal Dehydrogenative Diels–Alder Reaction of Styrenes for the Concise Synthesis of Functionalized Naphthalenes

    Kocsis, Laura S.; Benedetti, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized naphthalenes are valuable building blocks in many important areas. A microwave-assisted, intramolecular dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction of styrenyl derivatives to provide cyclopenta[b]naphthalene substructures not previously accessible using existing synthetic methods is described. The synthetic utility of these uniquely functionalized naphthalenes was demonstrated by a single-step conversion of one of these cycloadducts to a fluorophore bearing a structural resemblance to Prodan. PMID:22913473

  7. A thermal dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction of styrenes for the concise synthesis of functionalized naphthalenes.

    Kocsis, Laura S; Benedetti, Erica; Brummond, Kay M

    2012-09-07

    Functionalized naphthalenes are valuable building blocks in many important areas. A microwave-assisted, intramolecular dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction of styrenyl derivatives to provide cyclopenta[b]naphthalene substructures not previously accessible using existing synthetic methods is described. The synthetic utility of these uniquely functionalized naphthalenes was demonstrated by a single-step conversion of one of these cycloadducts to a fluorophore bearing a structural resemblance to Prodan.

  8. Rigidifying Nonplanar Perylene Diimides by Ring Fusion Toward Geometry-Tunable Acceptors for High-Performance Fullerene-Free Solar Cells.

    Zhong, Hongliang; Wu, Chen-Hao; Li, Chang-Zhi; Carpenter, Joshua; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Chen, Jung-Yao; Ade, Harald; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2016-02-03

    Rigid fused perylene diimide (PDI) dimers bridged with heterocycles exhibit superior photovoltaic performance compared to their unfused semiflexible analogues. Changing the chalcogen atoms in the aromatic bridges gradually increases the twist angles between the two PDI planes, leading to a varied morphology in which the one bridged by thiophene achieves a balance and shows the best efficiency of 6.72%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Chemistry of Natural Dyes

    scientific principles, and the interaction between the dye and the dyed material is ... Dyes are classified based on their structure, source, method of application .... the right source that gives not only beautiful tones, but colourfast shades as well.

  10. uv dye lasers

    Abakumov, G.A.; Fadeev, V.V.; Khokhlov, R.V.; Simonov, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The most important property of visible dye lasers, that is, continuous wavelength tuning, stimulated the search for dyes capable to lase in uv. They were found in 1968. Now the need for tunable uv lasers for applications in spectroscopy, photochemistry, isotope separation, remote air and sea probing, etc. is clearly seen. A review of some recent advances in uv dye lasers is reviewed

  11. SEARCHING FOR NAPHTHALENE CATION ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Searles, Justin M.; Destree, Joshua D.; Snow, Theodore P.; Salama, Farid; York, Donald G.; Dahlstrom, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Interstellar naphthalene cations (C 10 H + 8 ) have been proposed by a study to be the carriers of a small number of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Using an archive of high signal-to-noise spectra obtained at the Apache Point Observatory, we used two methods to test the hypothesis. Both methods failed to detect significant absorption at lab wavelengths of interstellar spectra with laboratory spectra. We thereby conclude that C 10 H + 8 is not a DIB carrier in typical reddened sight lines.

  12. Naphthalene and Naphthoquinone: Distributions and Human Exposure in the Los Angeles Basin

    Lu, R.; Wu, J.; Turco, R.; Winer, A. M.; Atkinson, R.; Paulson, S.; Arey, J.; Lurmann, F.

    2003-12-01

    Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Naphthalene is found primarily in the gas-phase and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor samples. Evaporation from naphthalene-containing products (including gasoline), and during refining operations, are important sources of naphthalene in air. Naphthalene is also emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and wood, and is a component of vehicle exhaust. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene can damage or destroy red blood cells, causing hemolytic anemia. If inhaled over a long period of time, naphthalene may cause kidney and liver damage, skin allergy and dermatitis, cataracts and retinal damage, as well as attack the central nervous system. Naphthalene has been found to cause cancer as a result of inhalation in animal tests. Naphthoquinones are photooxidation products of naphthalene and the potential health effects of exposure to these quinones are a current focus of research. We are developing and applying models that can be used to assess human exposure to naphthalene and its photooxidation products in major air basins such as California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The work utilizes the Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model, and the REgional Human EXposure (REHEX) model, including an analysis of individual exposure. We will present and discuss simulations of basin-wide distributions of, and human exposures to, naphthalene and naphthoquinone, with emphasis on the uncertainties in these estimates of atmospheric concentrations and human exposure. Regional modeling of pollutant sources and exposures can lead to cost-effective and optimally health-protective emission control strategies.

  13. Hair dye contact allergy

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  14. A new process for the synthesis of naphthalene based tanning agent

    Mahboob, S.J.; Subhopoto, M.I.; Dewani, R.; Pervez, M.K.; Nazir, F.

    2010-01-01

    A new process developed for the preparation of naphthalene catechu tanning agent consisted of sulphonation of naphthalene, condensation with formaldehyde, combining with naturally occurring catechol, followed by neutralization of the reaction mixture. The product was then dried, analyzed and tested for application on wet blue leather which showed excellent tanning properties. (author)

  15. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    2010-07-01

    ... coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. 61.134 Section 61.134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke by...

  16. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  17. Rotation and diffusion of naphthalene on Pt(111)

    Kolsbjerg, E. L.; Goubert, G.; McBreen, P. H.; Hammer, B.

    2018-03-01

    The behavior of naphthalene on Pt(111) surfaces is studied by combining insight from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and van der Waals enabled density functional theory. Adsorption, diffusion, and rotation are investigated by a series of variable temperature STM experiments revealing naphthalene ability to rotate on-site with ease with a rotational barrier of 0.69 eV. Diffusion to neighbouring sites is found to be more difficult. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical investigations which confirm that the barrier for diffusion is slightly higher than the one for rotation. The theoretical barriers for rotation and translation are found to be 0.75 and 0.78 eV, respectively. An automatic mapping of the possible diffusion pathways reveals very detailed diffusion paths with many small local minima that would have been practically impossible to find manually. This automated procedure provides detailed insight into the preferred diffusion pathways that are important for our understanding of molecule-substrate interactions.

  18. Batch study, equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption of naphthalene using waste tyre rubber granules

    Felix A. Aisien

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of waste tyre rubber granules (WTRG for the batch adsorption of naphthalene from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of various operational variables such as contact time, initial naphthalene concentration, adsorbent dose, size of adsorbent particles, and temperature of solution on the adsorption capacity of WTRG was evaluated. The adsorption of naphthalene by WTRG was a fast kinetic process with an equilibrium contact time of 60 min. A low temperature (5°C, small adsorbent particle size (0.212 mm and higher adsorbent dosage favored the adsorption process. Results of isotherm studies revealed that adsorption of naphthalene was best described by the Langmuir isotherm equation (R2=0.997 while the kinetics of the process was best described by the Lagergren pseudofirst order kinetic equation (R2=0.998. This study has demonstrated the suitability of WTRG for the removal of naphthalene from aqueous solution.

  19. STABILITY OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE, AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE

    Naphthalene is an important industrial chemical, which has recently been shown to cause tumors of the respiratory tract in rodents. It is thought that one or more reactive metabolites of naphthalene, namely, naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ), and 1,4-na...

  20. Loss mechanisms in organic solar cells based on perylene diimide acceptors studied by time-resolved photoluminescence

    Gerhard, Marina

    2016-04-27

    In organic photovoltaics (OPV), perylene diimide (PDI) acceptor materials are promising candidates to replace the commonly used, but more expensive fullerene derivatives. The use of alternative acceptor materials however implies new design guidelines for OPV devices. It is therefore important to understand the underlying photophysical processes, which either lead to charge generation or geminate recombination. In this contribution, we investigate radiative losses in a series of OPV materials based on two polymers, P3HT and PTB7, respectively, which were blended with different PDI derivatives. Our time-resolved photoluminescence measurements (TRPL) allow us to identify different loss mechanisms by the decay characteristics of several excitonic species. In particular, we find evidence for unfavorable morphologies in terms of large-scale pure domains, inhibited exciton transport and incomplete charge transfer. Furthermore, in one of the P3HT-blends, an interfacial emissive charge transfer (CT) state with strong trapping character is identified. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  1. Fine-Tuning the Quasi-3D Geometry: Enabling Efficient Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells Based on Perylene Diimides.

    Liu, Zhitian; Zhang, Linhua; Shao, Ming; Wu, Yao; Zeng, Di; Cai, Xiang; Duan, Jiashun; Zhang, Xiaolu; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-10

    The geometries of acceptors based on perylene diimides (PDIs) are important for improving the phase separation and charge transport in organic solar cells. To fine-tune the geometry, biphenyl, spiro-bifluorene, and benzene were used as the core moiety to construct quasi-three-dimensional nonfullerene acceptors based on PDI building blocks. The molecular geometries, energy levels, optical properties, photovoltaic properties, and exciton kinetics were systematically studied. The structure-performance relationship was discussed as well. Owing to the finest phase separation, the highest charge mobility and smallest nongeminate recombination, the power conversion efficiency of nonfullerene solar cells using PDI derivatives with biphenyl core (BP-PDI 4 ) as acceptor reached 7.3% when high-performance wide band gap donor material poly[(2,6-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene))-alt-(5,5-(1',3'-di-2-thienyl-5',7'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)benzo[1',2'-c:4',5'-c']dithiophene-4,8-dione))] was blended.

  2. Long-Lived Charge Separation at Heterojunctions between Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Perylene Diimide Electron Acceptors

    Kang, Hyun Suk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arias, Dylan H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackburn, Jeffrey L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sisto, Thomas J. [Columbia University; Peurifoy, Samuel [Columbia University; Zhang, Boyuan [Columbia University; Nuckolls, Colin [Columbia University

    2018-04-13

    Nonfullerene electron acceptors have facilitated a recent surge in the efficiencies of organic solar cells, although fundamental studies of the nature of exciton dissociation at interfaces with nonfullerene electron acceptors are still relatively sparse. Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs), unique one-dimensional electron donors with molecule-like absorption and highly mobile charges, provide a model system for studying interfacial exciton dissociation. Here, we investigate excited-state photodynamics at the heterojunction between (6,5) s-SWCNTs and two perylene diimide (PDI)-based electron acceptors. Each of the PDI-based acceptors, hPDI2-pyr-hPDI2 and Trip-hPDI2, is deposited onto (6,5) s-SWCNT films to form a heterojunction bilayer. Transient absorption measurements demonstrate that photoinduced hole/electron transfer occurs at the photoexcited bilayer interfaces, producing long-lived separated charges with lifetimes exceeding 1.0 us. Both exciton dissociation and charge recombination occur more slowly for the hPDI2-pyr-hPDI2 bilayer than for the Trip-hPDI2 bilayer. To explain such differences, we discuss the potential roles of the thermodynamic charge transfer driving force available at each interface and the different molecular structure and intermolecular interactions of PDI-based acceptors. Detailed photophysical analysis of these model systems can develop the fundamental understanding of exciton dissociation between organic electron donors and nonfullerene acceptors, which has not been systematically studied.

  3. Loss mechanisms in organic solar cells based on perylene diimide acceptors studied by time-resolved photoluminescence

    Gerhard, Marina; Gehrig, Dominik; Howard, Ian A.; Arndt, Andreas P.; Bilal, Mü henad; Rahimi-Iman, Arash; Lemmer, Uli; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Koch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In organic photovoltaics (OPV), perylene diimide (PDI) acceptor materials are promising candidates to replace the commonly used, but more expensive fullerene derivatives. The use of alternative acceptor materials however implies new design guidelines for OPV devices. It is therefore important to understand the underlying photophysical processes, which either lead to charge generation or geminate recombination. In this contribution, we investigate radiative losses in a series of OPV materials based on two polymers, P3HT and PTB7, respectively, which were blended with different PDI derivatives. Our time-resolved photoluminescence measurements (TRPL) allow us to identify different loss mechanisms by the decay characteristics of several excitonic species. In particular, we find evidence for unfavorable morphologies in terms of large-scale pure domains, inhibited exciton transport and incomplete charge transfer. Furthermore, in one of the P3HT-blends, an interfacial emissive charge transfer (CT) state with strong trapping character is identified. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  4. Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline 3,4,9,10-Perylene-Tetracarboxylic-Diimide Thin Film

    M. M. El-Nahhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of nanocrystalline 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-diimide (PTCDI were prepared on quartz substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The structural properties were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and the X-ray diffraction (XRD. The optical properties for the films were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range from 200 to 2500 nm. The optical constants (refractive index n and absorption index k were calculated and found to be independent on the film thickness in the measured film thickness range 117–163 nm. The dispersion energy (Ed, the oscillator energy (Eo, and the high-frequency dielectric constant ε∞ were obtained. The energy band model was applied, and the types of the optical transitions responsible for optical absorption were found to be indirect allowed transition. The onset and optical energy gaps were calculated, and the obtained results were also discussed.

  5. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  6. Disposition of naphthalene and its metabolites in the brain of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Collier, T.K.; Krahn, M.M.; Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to orally administered [ 3 H]naphthalene. Another group received naphthyl glucuronic acid and naphthyl sulfate via iv injection. Brain, liver, and blood were assayed for the parent compound and/or total metabolites. Individual naphthalene derivatives were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) using either radiometric or on-line fluorimetric detection systems. Naphthalene concentrations in brain (8.2 pmol/mg dry wt at 16 hr after feeding) approximated those found at the same time in liver (7.4 pmol/mg dry wt). A nonconjugated naphthalene derivative, 1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, also accumulated in brain (0.041 pmol/mg dry wt after 16 hr), although to a lesser degree than in liver (0.10 pmol/mg dry wt after 16 hr). Conjugated naphthalene derivatives, 1-naphthyl sulfate and 1-naphthyl glucuronic acid, although present in liver and blood, were largely excluded from the brain. Low naphthalene hydroxylase activity (<2.0 pmol product formed/mg protein/min) indicated that the trout brain has a minimal ability to oxidize aromatic hydrocarbons. These findings suggest that the brain of adult trout is substantially different from other tissues (e.g., liver and blood) with respect to the disposition of naphthalene and its metabolites

  7. Characterization of naphthalene degradation by Streptomyces sp. QWE-5 isolated from active sludge.

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, QWE-5, which utilized naphthalene as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated and identified as Streptomyces sp. It was a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium with a flagellum, with whole, smooth, convex and wet colonies. The optimal temperature and pH for QWE-5 were 35 °C and 7.0, respectively. The QWE-5 strain was capable of completely degrading naphthalene at a concentration as high as 100 mg/L. At initial naphthalene concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 mg/L, complete degradation was achieved within 32, 56, 96, 120 and 144 h, respectively. Kinetics of naphthalene degradation was described using the Andrews equation. The kinetic parameters were as follows: qmax (maximum specific degradation rate) = 1.56 h⁻¹, Ks (half-rate constant) = 60.34 mg/L, and KI (substrate-inhibition constant) = 81.76 mg/L. Metabolic intermediates were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, allowing a new degradation pathway for naphthalene to be proposed. In this pathway, monooxygenation of naphthalene yielded naphthalen-1-ol. Further degradation by Streptomyces sp. QWE-5 produced acetophenone, followed by adipic acid, which was produced as a combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation processes.

  8. [Degradation characteristics of naphthalene with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from soil contaminated by diesel].

    Liu, Wen-Chao; Wu, Bin-Bin; Li, Xiao-Sen; Lu, Dian-Nan; Liu, Yong-Min

    2015-02-01

    Abstract: A naphthalene-degrading bacterium (referred as HD-5) was isolated from the diesel-contaminated soil and was assigned to Pseudomonas aeruginosa according to 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Gene nah, which encodes naphthalene dioxygenase, was identified from strain HD-5 by PCR amplification. Different bioremediation approaches, including nature attenuation, bioaugmentation with strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biostimulation, and an integrated degradation by bioaugmentation and biostimulation, were evaluated for their effectiveness in the remediating soil containing 5% naphthalene. The degradation rates of naphthalene in the soil were compared among the different bioremediation approaches, the FDA and dehydrogenase activity in bioremediation process were measured, and the gene copy number of 16S rRNA and nah in soil were dynamically monitored using real-time PCR. It was shown that the naphthalene removal rate reached 71.94%, 62.22% and 83.14% in approaches of bioaugmentation (B), biostimulation(S) and integrated degradation composed of bioaugmentation and biostimulation (BS), respectively. The highest removal rate of naphthalene was achieved by using BS protocol, which also gives the highest FDA and dehydrogenase activity. The gene copy number of 16S rRNA and nah in soil increased by about 2.67 x 10(11) g(-1) and 8.67 x 10(8) g(-1) after 31 days treatment using BS protocol. Above-mentioned results also demonstrated that the screened bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, could grow well in naphthalene-contaminated soil and effectively degrade naphthalene, which is of fundamental importance for bioremediation of naphthalene-contaminated soil.

  9. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also

  10. for aqueous dye lasers

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... inclusion complex of RhB with the container molecule cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). Keywords. Temperature-dependent fluorescence; Rhodamine B; cucurbit[7]uril; host–guest complex; dye laser. PACS Nos 36.20.kd; 83.60.pq; 87.64.kv. 1. Introduction. Rhodamine B (RhB) is an efficient and photostable laser dye ...

  11. Extraction of dye

    Dyes of natural origins are great for color appreciation as any variation in the concentration of dye, mordant, type of water, soil and climate give variations in ... Grey scale and blue dyed silk were used for color fastness rating. ..... Down to Earth.

  12. Perylene-Diimide Based Donor-Acceptor-Donor Type Small-Molecule Acceptors for Solution-Processable Organic Solar Cells

    Ganesamoorthy, Ramasamy; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan; Sakthivel, Pachagounder

    2017-12-01

    Development of nonfullerene acceptors plays an important role in the commercial availability of plastic solar cells. We report herein synthesis of bay-substituted donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D)-type perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecules (SM-1 to SM-4) by Suzuki coupling method and their use as acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ-OSCs) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer donor. We varied the number of electron-rich thiophene units and the solubilizing side chains and also evaluated the optical and electrochemical properties of the small molecules. The synthesized small molecules were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS). The small molecules showed extensive and strong absorption in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region up to 750 nm, with bandgap (E_{{g}}^{{opt}} ) reduced below use as electron-accepting materials. The small molecules showed good thermal stability up to 300°C. BHJ-OSCs with SM-1 and P3HT polymer donor showed maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.19% with V oc of 0.30 V, J sc of 1.72 mA cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 37%. The PCE decreased with the number of thiophene units. The PCE of SM-2 was lower than that of SM-1. This difference in PCE can be explained by the higher aggregation tendency of the bithiophene compared with the thiophene unit. Introduction of the solubilizing group in the bay position increased the aggregation property, leading to much lower PCE than for the small molecules without solubilizing group.

  13. Naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide layer-based transistors with nanometer oxide and side chain dielectrics operating below one volt.

    Jung, Byung Jun; Martinez Hardigree, Josue F; Dhar, Bal Mukund; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Sun, Jia; See, Kevin Cua; Katz, Howard E

    2011-04-26

    We designed a new naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NTCDI) semiconductor molecule with long fluoroalkylbenzyl side chains. The side chains, 1.2 nm long, not only aid in self-assembly and kinetically stabilize injected electrons but also act as part of the gate dielectric in field-effect transistors. On Si substrates coated only with the 2 nm thick native oxide, NTCDI semiconductor films were deposited with thicknesses from 17 to 120 nm. Top contact Au electrodes were deposited as sources and drains. The devices showed good transistor characteristics in air with 0.1-1 μA of drain current at 0.5 V of V(G) and V(DS) and W/L of 10-20, even though channel width (250 μm) is over 1000 times the distance (20 nm) between gate and drain electrodes. The extracted capacitance-times-mobility product, an expression of the sheet transconductance, can exceed 100 nS V(-1), 2 orders of magnitude higher than typical organic transistors. The vertical low-frequency capacitance with gate voltage applied in the accumulation regime reached as high as 650 nF/cm(2), matching the harmonic sum of capacitances of the native oxide and one side chain and indicating that some gate-induced carriers in such devices are distributed among all of the NTCDI core layers, although the preponderance of the carriers are still near the gate electrode. Besides demonstrating and analyzing thickness-dependent NTCDI-based transistor behavior, we also showed <1 V detection of dinitrotoluene vapor by such transistors.

  14. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    Yang, Xiaohui; Zheng, Shijun; Chae, HyunSik; Li, Sheng; Mochizuki, Amane; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4

  15. Hydration of a Large Anionic Charge Distribution - Naphthalene-Water Cluster Anions

    Weber, J. Mathias; Adams, Christopher L.

    2010-06-01

    We report the infrared spectra of anionic clusters of naphthalene with up to three water molecules. Comparison of the experimental infrared spectra with theoretically predicted spectra from quantum chemistry calculations allow conclusions regarding the structures of the clusters under study. The first water molecule forms two hydrogen bonds with the π electron system of the naphthalene moiety. Subsequent water ligands interact with both the naphthalene and the other water ligands to form hydrogen bonded networks, similar to other hydrated anion clusters. Naphthalene-water anion clusters illustrate how water interacts with negative charge delocalized over a large π electron system. The clusters are interesting model systems that are discussed in the context of wetting of graphene surfaces and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Polyaniline nanotubes and their dendrites doped with different naphthalene sulfonic acids

    Zhang Zhiming; Wei Zhixiang; Zhang Lijuan; Wan Meixiang

    2005-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes (130-250 nm in average diameter) doped with α-naphthalene sulfonic acid (α-NSA), β-naphthalene sulfonic acid (β-NSA) and 1,5-naphthalene disulfonic acid were synthesized via a self-assembly process. It was found that the formation yield, morphology (hollow or solid), size, crystalline and electrical properties of the nanostructures are affected by the position and number of -SO 3 H groups attached to the naphthalene ring of NSA as well as the synthesis conditions. Moreover, these nanotubes aggregate to form a dendritic morphology when the polymerization is performed at a static state. The micelles composed of dopant or dopant/anilinium cations might act in a template-like fashion in forming self-assembled PANI nanotubes, which was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements, while the aggregated morphology of the nanotubes might result from polymer chain interactions including π-π interactions, hydrogen and ionic bonds

  17. Degradation of naphthalene and fluorene by radiolysis using accelerated electrons

    Flores de Jesus, I.

    2003-01-01

    The volume of the dangerous wastes in global level is causing the poisoning of planet and all of the ecosystems, degrading the life level of millions of humans and causing serious problems in the public health. Since a years ago the volumes of organic effluents generated by the few industry and small populations were so tiny that a natural debugger process in a time and space delimited, acquiring again their natural characteristics and they could be used again. Nowadays these wastes are so numerous and precise in some cases that the capacity of natural purification in the receiving channel is not enough, in addition to the difficulty to treat them in conventional processes, this leads to the decrease in the water's quality making impossible its future use and causing with this a serious ecological problem. This fact has motivated the development of measures that tend to the conservation of the environment and in consequence, the development of debugger technologies with no generation of sub products that often are more dangerous than the originals, due to the previous thing, the treatment by means of radiation of the water is impelled since is a method that allows to degrade or to eliminate in simultaneous form pathogenic microorganisms and organic substances. The radiation by means of electrons beams is a method of advanced treatment who allows to degrade organic compounds, transforming them in compounds with less molecular weight, and in the best of the cases until its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. In the present thesis the objective is the study of naphthalene and fluorene degradation by means of radiation with electron beams, establishing the operating conditions of the accelerator of Pelletron type. This research is supported by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, of a joint way with a series of antecedents in this subject, established in previous research with respect to the treatment of residual waters in a great scale, giving

  18. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  19. Simultaneous quantification of multiple urinary naphthalene metabolites by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Daniel C Ayala

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is an environmental toxicant to which humans are exposed. Naphthalene causes dose-dependent cytotoxicity to murine airway epithelial cells but a link between exposure and human pulmonary disease has not been established. Naphthalene toxicity in rodents depends on P450 metabolism. Subsequent biotransformation results in urinary elimination of several conjugated metabolites. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of naphthols have been used as markers of naphthalene exposure but, as the current studies demonstrate, these assays provide a limited view of the range of metabolites generated from the parent hydrocarbon. Here, we present a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for measurement of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of 1-naphthol as well as the mercapturic acids and N-acetyl glutathione conjugates from naphthalene epoxide. Standard curves were linear over 2 log orders. On column detection limits varied from 0.91 to 3.4 ng; limits of quantitation from 1.8 to 6.4 ng. The accuracy of measurement of spiked urine standards was -13.1 to + 5.2% of target and intra-day and inter-day variability averaged 7.2 (± 4.5 and 6.8 (± 5.0 %, respectively. Application of the method to urine collected from mice exposed to naphthalene at 15 ppm (4 hrs showed that glutathione-derived metabolites accounted for 60-70% of the total measured metabolites and sulfate and glucuronide conjugates were eliminated in equal amounts. The method is robust and directly measures several major naphthalene metabolites including those derived from glutathione conjugation of naphthalene epoxide. The assays do not require enzymatic deconjugation, extraction or derivatization thus simplifying sample work up.

  20. Solution processed white light photodetector based N, N′-di (2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide thin film phototransistor

    Tozlu, Cem, E-mail: tozlu.cem@gmail.com [Department of Energy System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, 70100 Karaman (Turkey); Kus, Mahmut [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Can, Mustafa [Department of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Cigli, 35620 Izmir (Turkey); Ersöz, Mustafa [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey)

    2014-10-31

    In this study, a solution-processed n-type photo-sensing organic thin film transistor was investigated using polymeric dielectric under different white light illuminations. N, N′-di (2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide and divinyl tetramethyl disiloxane-bis (benzo-cyclobutene) were used as a soluble active organic semiconductor and as a dielectric material, respectively. Stable amplification was observed in the visible region without gate bias by the device. The electrical characterization results showed that an n-type phototransistor with a saturated electron mobility of 0.6 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V·s and a threshold voltage of 1.8 V was obtained. The charge carrier density of the channel of the device exhibited photo-induced behaviors that strongly affected the electrical properties of the transistor. The photosensitivity and photoresponsivity values of the device were 63.82 and 24 mA/W, respectively. These findings indicate that perylene diimide is a promising material for use on organic based phototransistors. - Highlights: • A solution processed n-type organic phototransistor was fabricated. • The geometry of device allows to be used double sided photo-sensor to detect light. • The accumulation of charge carrier is effected strongly by illumination intensity. • The current amplification was observed clearly under illumination without gate bias.

  1. Direct thermal dyes

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  2. Dyes for displays

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  3. Synthesis of 2-Isopropyl Naphthalene Catalyzed by Et3NHCl-AlCl3 Ionic Liquids

    Li Chenmin; Qi Xin; Tang Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, 2-isopropyl naphthalene has been synthesized by the reaction of naphthalene and isopropyl bromide, using triethylamine hydrochloride-aluminum chloride ionic liquid as the catalyst. The effect of the catalyst composition, the reaction time, the reaction temperature, the ionic liquid dosage, as well as the molar ratio of the reagents on the 2-isopropyl naphthalene yield was systematically investigated. The optimal reaction conditions cover:an AlCl3 to Et3NHCl ratio of 2.0, a reaction time of 3 h, a reaction temperature of 15.0℃, a volume fraction of ionic liquid to the mixture (isopropyl bromide, n-dodecane and n-hexane) of 9%, and a naphthalene/isopropyl bromide molar ratio of 4.0. Under the optimal reaction condi-tions, the conversion of isopropyl bromide reached 98%and the selectivity of 2-isopropyl naphthalene was equal to 80%. The test results veriifed good catalytic activity upon using Et3NHCl-AlCl3 ionic liquid as the catalyst for alkylation of naph-thalene with isopropyl bromide. The activity of the ionic liquid remains unchanged after it has been recycled for 4 times.

  4. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods and Detectors for Naphthalene and/or Other Volatile Organic Compound Vapors

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds have been identified as serious health hazards. This is especially true for personnel working with JP8 jet fuel and other fuels containing naphthalene as well as other hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to naphthalene or other hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined. The badges employ a new native fluorescence based detection method to identify and differentiate VOCs. The particular focus of some embodiments are the detection and identification of naphthalene while other embodiments are directed to detection and identification of other VOCs like aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene.

  5. Cometabolic Degradation of Dibenzofuran and Dibenzothiophene by a Naphthalene-Degrading Comamonas sp. JB.

    Ji, Xiangyu; Xu, Jing; Ning, Shuxiang; Li, Nan; Tan, Liang; Shi, Shengnan

    2017-12-01

    Comamonas sp. JB was used to investigate the cometabolic degradation of dibenzofuran (DBF) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) with naphthalene as the primary substrate. Dehydrogenase and ATPase activity of the growing system with the presence of DBF and DBT were decreased when compared to only naphthalene in the growing system, indicating that the presence of DBF and DBT inhibited the metabolic activity of strain JB. The pathways and enzymes involved in the cometabolic degradation were tested. Examination of metabolites elucidated that strain JB cometabolically degraded DBF to 1,2-dihydroxydibenzofuran, subsequently to 2-hydroxy-4-(3'-oxo-3'H-benzofuran-2'-yliden)but-2-enoic acid, and finally to catechol. Meanwhile, strain JB cometabolically degraded DBT to 1,2-dihydroxydibenzothiophene and subsequently to the ring cleavage product. A series of naphthalene-degrading enzymes including naphthalene dioxygenase, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase, salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase, salicylate hydroxylase, and catechol 2,3-oxygenase have been detected, confirming that naphthalene was the real inducer of expression the degradation enzymes and metabolic pathways were controlled by naphthalene-degrading enzymes.

  6. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  7. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Buchholz, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    The project has two main goals: 1) Identify the types of adducts naphthalene (NA) forms with DNA and 2) determine whether adduct formation correlates with site selective tumor formation in defined subcompartments of the respiratory tract (respiratory and olfactory nasal epithelium and airways of mice, rats and rhesus monkeys). Five tasks are associated with the completion of the goals. Task 1: Contracting and Animal Use Approvals. IACUC and ACURO approvals are complete. The subcontract with UC Davis (UCD) was executed in December 2014. Task 2: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 1. Rat and mouse samples exposures completed. Monkey samples need to be exposed in next quarter. Task 3: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 2. Mouse and rat ex vivo exposures completed. Monkey samples need to be completed in the next quarter. Task 4: Sample Preparation and Analysis. Mouse and Rat Goal 2 samples completed. Monkey samples remain to be done for Goal 2. Rat samples completed for Goal 1. Mouse and Monkey samples for Goal 1 need to be completed. Task 5: Data Interpretation and Reporting. Poster will be presented at 2016 Society of Toxicology Meeting. Outline for paper on adduct formation complete and similar to poster for SOT meeting.

  8. Enhancement of naphthalene tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the ferredoxin-like protein (ADI1) from rice.

    Fu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bo; Han, Hong-Juan; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The ADI1 Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance and degradation efficiency to naphthalene and had great potential for phytoremediation of naphthalene in the plant material before composting or harvesting and removal. Naphthalene is a global environmental concern, because this substance is assumed to contribute considerably to human cancer risk. Cleaning up naphthalene contamination in the environment is crucial. Phytoremediation is an efficient technology to clean up contaminants. However, no gene that can efficiently degrade exogenous recalcitrant naphthalene in plants has yet been discovered. Ferredoxin (Fd) is a key player of biological electron transfer reaction in the PAH degradation process. The biochemical pathway for bacterial degradation of naphthalene has been well investigated. In this study, a rice gene, ADI1, which codes for a putative photosynthetic-type Fd, has been transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance and degradation efficiency of naphthalene. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic plants assimilated naphthalene from the culture media faster and removed more of this substance. When taken together, our findings suggest that breeding plants with overexpressed ADI1 gene is an effective strategy to degrade naphthalene in the environment.

  9. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Jarosz-Wilkołazka Anna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25. Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other

  10. Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Nanostructured TiO2 Electrode

    Sule Erten-Ela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free organic sensitizer consisting of donor, electron conducting, and anchoring anhydride groups was engineered at molecular level and synthesized. Dye sensitized solar cells based on conjugated naphthalene dye were fabricated using nanoporous electrode. Photoelectrodes with a 7 μm thick nanoporous layer and a 5 μm thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. DSSCs were fabricated in a FTO/nc-TiO2/organic dye/I-/I3-/Pt/FTO device geometry. Dye sensitized solar cell was characterized by current density-voltage (J-V measurement. All current-voltage (I-V measurements were done under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity and AM 1.5 conditions. The photovoltaic data revealed a short circuit photocurrent density of 1.86 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 430 mV, and a fill factor of 0.63, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 0.53%.

  11. The nongenotoxic carcinogens naphthalene and para-dichlorobenzene suppress apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Kokel, David; Li, Yehua; Qin, Jun; Xue, Ding

    2006-06-01

    Naphthalene (1) and para-dichlorobenzene (PDCB, 2), which are widely used as moth repellents and air fresheners, cause cancer in rodents and are potential human carcinogens. However, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here we describe a novel method for delivering and screening hydrophobic chemicals in C. elegans and apply this technique to investigate the ways in which naphthalene and PDCB may promote tumorigenesis in mammals. We show that naphthalene and PDCB inhibit apoptosis in C. elegans, a result that suggests a cellular mechanism by which these chemicals may promote the survival and proliferation of latent tumor cells. In addition, we find that a naphthalene metabolite directly inactivates caspases by oxidizing the active site cysteine residue; this suggests a molecular mechanism by which these chemicals suppress apoptosis. Naphthalene and PDCB are the first small-molecule apoptosis inhibitors identified in C. elegans. The power of C. elegans molecular genetics, in combination with the possibility of carrying out large-scale chemical screens in this organism, makes C. elegans an attractive and economic animal model for both toxicological studies and drug screens.

  12. Phenazine–naphthalene-1,5-diamine–water (1/1/2

    Maria Gdaniec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C12H8N2·C10H10N2·2H2O, contains one half-molecule of phenazine, one half-molecule of naphthalene-1,5-diamine and one water molecule. The phenazine and naphthalene-1,5-diamine molecules are located on inversion centers. The water molecules serve as bridges between the naphthalene-1,5-diamine molecules and also between the naphthalene-1,5-diamine and phenazine molecules. The naphthalene-1,5-diamine and water molecules are connected via N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a T4(2 motif. They are arranged into a two-dimensional polymeric structure parallel to (10overline{1} in which the water molecule is a single donor and a double acceptor, whereas the amino group is a double donor and a single acceptor in the hydrogen bonding. These two-dimensional assemblies alternate with the layers of phenazine molecules arranged into a herringbone motif. Each phenazine molecule is hydrogen bonded to two water molecules and thus a three-dimensional framework of hydrogen-bonded molecules is generated.

  13. Characterization of model peptide adducts with reactive metabolites of naphthalene by mass spectrometry.

    Nathalie T Pham

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is a volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon generated during combustion and is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment. Short term exposures of rodents to air concentrations less than the current OSHA standard yielded necrotic lesions in the airways and nasal epithelium of the mouse, and in the nasal epithelium of the rat. The cytotoxic effects of naphthalene have been correlated with the formation of covalent protein adducts after the generation of reactive metabolites, but there is little information about the specific sites of adduction or on the amino acid targets of these metabolites. To better understand the chemical species produced when naphthalene metabolites react with proteins and peptides, we studied the formation and structure of the resulting adducts from the incubation of model peptides with naphthalene epoxide, naphthalene diol epoxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone using high resolution mass spectrometry. Identification of the binding sites, relative rates of depletion of the unadducted peptide, and selectivity of binding to amino acid residues were determined. Adduction occurred on the cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues, and on the N-terminus. Monoadduct formation occurred in 39 of the 48 reactions. In reactions with the naphthoquinones, diadducts were observed, and in one case, a triadduct was detected. The results from this model peptide study will assist in data interpretation from ongoing work to detect peptide adducts in vivo as markers of biologic effect.

  14. Effects of side-chain and electron exchange correlation on the band structure of perylene diimide liquid crystals: a density functional study.

    Arantes, J T; Lima, M P; Fazzio, A; Xiang, H; Wei, Su-Huai; Dalpian, G M

    2009-04-23

    The structural and electronic properties of perylene diimide liquid crystal PPEEB are studied using ab initio methods based on the density functional theory (DFT). Using available experimental crystallographic data as a guide, we propose a detailed structural model for the packing of solid PPEEB. We find that due to the localized nature of the band edge wave function, theoretical approaches beyond the standard method, such as hybrid functional (PBE0), are required to correctly characterize the band structure of this material. Moreover, unlike previous assumptions, we observe the formation of hydrogen bonds between the side chains of different molecules, which leads to a dispersion of the energy levels. This result indicates that the side chains of the molecular crystal not only are responsible for its structural conformation but also can be used for tuning the electronic and optical properties of these materials.

  15. Removal effectiveness and mechanisms of naphthalene and heavy metals from artificially contaminated soil by iron chelate-activated persulfate

    Yan, Dickson Y.S.; Lo, Irene M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness and mechanisms of naphthalene and metal removal from artificially contaminated soil by FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate were investigated through batch experiments. Using FeEDTA-activated persulfate, higher naphthalene removal from the soil at 7 h was achieved (89%), compared with FeEDDS-activated persulfate (75%). The removal was mainly via the dissolution of naphthalene partitioned on mineral surfaces, followed by activated persulfate oxidation. Although EDDS is advantageous over EDTA in terms of biodegradability, it is not preferable for iron chelate-activated persulfate oxidation since persulfate was consumed to oxidize EDDS, resulting in persulfate inadequacy for naphthalene oxidation. Besides, 55 and 40% of naphthalene were removed by FeEDTA and FeEDDS alone, respectively. Particularly, 21 and 9% of naphthalene were degraded in the presence of FeEDTA and FeEDDS alone, respectively, which caused by electrons transfer among dissolved organic matter, Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and naphthalene. Over 35, 36 and 45% of Cu, Pb and Zn were removed using FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate. -- Highlights: ► FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate oxidation removed PAH and heavy metal from soil. ► More naphthalene was removed by FeEDTA-activated persulfate compared to FeEDDS. ► Persulfate was consumed to oxidize EDDS in FeEDDS-activated persulfate oxidation. ► Metals can be extracted from soil by free EDTA/EDDS dissociated from FeEDTA/FeEDDS. ► Naphthalene oxidation can be induced by e − transfer among Fe 2+ , DOM and naphthalene. -- This study focuses on the potencies and mechanisms of naphthalene and metal removal from contaminated soil by FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate

  16. Density functional theory study of adsorption geometries and electronic structures of azo-dye-based molecules on anatase TiO2 surface for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Prajongtat, Pongthep; Suramitr, Songwut; Nokbin, Somkiat; Nakajima, Koichi; Mitsuke, Koichiro; Hannongbua, Supa

    2017-09-01

    Structural and electronic properties of eight isolated azo dyes (ArNNAr', where Ar and Ar' denote the aryl groups containing benzene and naphthalene skeletons, respectively) were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) based on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and TD-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) methods The effect of methanol solvent on the structural and electronic properties of the azo dyes was elucidated by employing a polarizable continuum model (PCM). Then, the azo dyes adsorbed onto the anatase TiO 2 (101) slab surface through a carboxyl group. The geometries and electronic structures of the adsorption complexes were determined using periodic DFT based on the PWC/DNP method. The calculated adsorption energies indicate that the adsorbed dyes preferentially take configuration of the bidentate bridging rather than chelating or monodentate ester-type geometries. Furthermore, the azo compounds having two carboxyl groups are coordinated to the TiO 2 surface more preferentially through the carboxyl group connecting to the benzene skeleton than through that connecting to the naphthalene skeleton. The dihedral angles (Φ B-N ) between the benzene- and naphthalene-skeleton moieties are smaller than 10° for the adsorbed azo compounds containing one carboxyl group. In contrast, Φ B-N > 30° are obtained for the adsorbed azo compounds containing two carboxyl groups. The almost planar conformations of the former appear to strengthen both π-electrons conjugation and electronic coupling between low-lying unoccupied molecular orbitals of the azo dyes and the conduction band of TiO 2 . On the other hand, such coupling is very weak for the latter, leading to a shift of the Fermi level of TiO 2 in the lower-energy direction. The obtained results are useful to the design and synthesize novel azo-dye-based molecules that give rise to higher photovoltaic performances of the dye-sensitized solar cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...

  18. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. MEASUREMENT OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE-1,2-OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF NAPHTHALENE TO F344 RATS

    Naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ) and 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NPQ) are the major metabolites of naphthalene that are thought to be responsible for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this chemical. We measured cysteinyl adducts of these metabolites in ...

  20. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  1. [Characteristics of natural strains of naphthalene-utilizing bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas].

    Levchuk, A A; Vasilenko, S L; Bulyga, I M; Titok, M A; Thomas, K M

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-three strains of bacteria capable of utilizing naphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from 137 samples of soil taken in different sites in Belarus. All isolated bacteria contained extrachromosomal genetic elements of 45 to 150 kb in length. It was found that bacteria of 31 strains contained the IncP-9 incompatibility group plasmids, bacteria of one strain carried a plasmid containing replicons IncP-9 and IncP-7, and bacteria of 31 strains contained unidentified plasmids. Primary identification showed that the hosts of plasmids of naphthalene biodegradation are fluorescent bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas (P. putida and P. aeruginosa; a total of 47 strains) and unidentified nonfluorescent microorganisms (a total of 16 strains). In addition to the ability to utilize naphthalene, some strains exhibited the ability to stimulate the growth and development of the root system of Secale cereale.

  2. Physico-mechanical properties of naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system by different modes of solidification

    Sharma, B.L.; Gupta, S.; Tandon, S.; Kant, R.

    2008-01-01

    Anisotropic crystal growth kinetics from compositional melts encompassing the entire naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system, evidentially, evinces the dislocation mechanism. Rheological properties of eutectic phase melts at different temperatures explore the occurrence of molecular interactions emanating molecular clusters, rich in one phase or the other, in the eutectic melt. Microscopic studies confirm the crystalline faceted-faceted structure of the naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system. Implicit in the present work is the concept of strength-growth relationship that follows an identical form of the Weibull probability distribution curve. The curve exhibits two cut-off points corresponding to a lower strength limit in the slow and fast growth regions, and an upper strength limit in the moderate growth region. Relational essence between microstructural parameters essentially structuring morphology and excess thermodynamic functions implicitly governing molten state of the naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system is extracted

  3. Dye filled security seal

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  4. Further studies of the thermal and photochemical diels-alder reactions of N-methyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (MeTAD) with naphthalene and some substituted naphthalenes

    Breton; Newton

    2000-05-19

    MeTAD thermally reacted with naphthalene (2) and methylated naphthalenes to give equilibrium mixtures of starting materials and [4 + 2] cycloadducts. Methyl substitution on the naphthalene ring generally increased both the amount of cycloadduct formed and the rate of cycloaddition relative to 2. The isolated cycloadducts were all thermally labile and quantitatively reverted to the parent naphthalene in the presence of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene as a trap for liberated MeTAD. The rates of the cycloreversion reactions were affected by substitution patterns but not appreciably by solvent. A mechanism for the cycloaddition reaction is presented that proposes the involvement of a charge-transfer complex. Photochemically, MeTAD demonstrated lower regioselectivity in its reactions with substituted naphthalenes relative to the corresponding thermal reactions.

  5. Naphthalene Diels-Alder in a self-assembled molecular flask.

    Murase, Takashi; Horiuchi, Shinnosuke; Fujita, Makoto

    2010-03-10

    Despite its inertness toward pericyclic reactions under common conditions, naphthalenes readily undergo Diels-Alder reactions when coencapsulated with a suitable dienophile within the cavity of a self-assembled host. Localization of the reactant pair significantly reduces the entropic cost of the reaction, and preorganization within the host cavity controls both the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction: electronically disfavored exo adducts were obtained, and with substituted naphthalenes, the reaction takes place on the less electron-rich, unsubstituted ring. Our findings highlight the fact that judicious tuning of substrate size and shape within molecular flasks can unveil new and unusual reactivities for otherwise unreactive molecules.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  7. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  8. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  9. Levitated droplet dye laser

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  10. Dye laser principles with applications

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  11. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Furukawa, Shoji, E-mail: furukawa@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan); Iino, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomohisa; Kukita, Koudai; Yamauchi, Shoji [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such as the dye of red-cabbage, curcumin, and red-perilla. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using the mixture of red-cabbage and curcumin was about 0.6% (light source: halogen lamp), which was larger than that of the solar cells using one kind of dye. It was also found that the conversion efficiency was about 1.0% for the solar cell with the oxide semiconductor film fabricated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) whose molecular weight was 2,000,000 and red-cabbage dye. This indicates that the cost performance (defined by [conversion efficiency]/[cost of dye]) of the latter solar cell (dye: red-cabbage) is larger by more than 50 times than that of the solar cell using Ruthenium complex, even if the effect of the difference between the halogen lamp and the standard light source is taken into account.

  12. Effect of additional carbon source on naphthalene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida G7

    Lee, Kangtaek; Park, Jin-Won; Ahn, Ik-Sung

    2003-01-01

    Addition of a carbon source as a nutrient into soil is believed to enhance in situ bioremediation by stimulating the growth of microorganisms that are indigenous to the subsurface and are capable of degrading contaminants. However, it may inhibit the biodegradation of organic contaminants and result in diauxic growth. The objective of this work is to study the effect of pyruvate as another carbon source on the biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, naphthalene was used as a model PAH, ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source, and oxygen as an electron acceptor. Pseudomonas putida G7 was used as a model naphthalene-degrading microorganism. From a chemostat culture, the growth kinetics of P. putida G7 on pyruvate was determined. At concentrations of naphthalene and pyruvate giving similar growth rates of P. putida G7, diauxic growth of P. putida G7 was not observed. It is suggested that pyruvate does not inhibit naphthalene biodegradation and can be used as an additional carbon source to stimulate the growth of P. putida G7 that can degrade polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

  13. Preparation and Biological Properties of Ring-Substituted Naphthalene-1-Carboxanilides

    Goněc, T.; Kos, J.; Nevin, E.; Govender, R.; Peško, M.; Tengler, J.; Kushkevych, I.; Štastná, V.; Oravec, Michal; Kolař, P.; Mahony, J. O.; Králová, K.; Coffey, A.; Jampílek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 7 (2014), s. 10386-10409 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Naphthalene * lipophilicity * in vitro antimycobacterial activity * in vitro cytotoxicity * photosynthetic electron transport inhibition * spinach chloroplasts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Model Naphthalene-Utilizing Organism Pseudomonas putida OUS82

    Tay, Martin; Roizman, Dan; Cohen, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida OUS82 was isolated from petrol- and oil-contaminated soil in 1992, and ever since, it has been used as a model organism to study the microbial assimilation of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Here, we report the 6.7-Mb draft genome sequence of P. putida OUS82 and analyze its...

  15. Vibronic relaxation in molecular mixed crystals : Pentacene in naphthalene and p-terphenyl

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1981-01-01

    Picosecond photon echo techniques are used to measure directly vibronic relaxation times in the first excited singlet state of pentacene in naphthalene and p-terphenyl. In regions of low (< 300 cm–1) and high (> 1000 cm–1) vibrational energy, relaxation is fast (τ <2 ps) due to direct phonon

  16. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of 1-[(2-Substituted phenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl Carbamates

    Tomas Gonec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Series of thirteen 1-[(2-chlorophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl carbamates and thirteen 1-[(2-nitrophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl carbamates with alkyl/cycloalkyl/arylalkyl chains were prepared and characterized. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against Staphylococcus aureus, two methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains, Mycobacterium marinum, and M. kansasii. 1-[(2-Chlorophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl ethylcarbamate and 1-[(2-nitrophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl ethylcarbamate showed antistaphylococcal (MICs = 42 µM against MRSA and antimycobacterial (MICs = 21 µM activity against the tested strains comparable with or higher than that of the standards ampicillin and isoniazid. In the case of bulkier carbamate tails (R > propyl/isopropyl, the activity was similar (MICs ca. 70 µM. Screening of the cytotoxicity of both of the most effective compounds was performed using THP-1 cells, and no significant lethal effect was observed (LD50 >30 µM. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  17. Simultaneous solid phase extraction of cobalt, strontium and cesium from liquid radioactive waste using microcrystalline naphthalene

    Hamed, Mostafa Mohamed; Attallah, Mohamed Fathy; Metwally, Sayed Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Most of the procedures developed for the extraction of cobalt, strontium and cesium by solid phase extraction do not employ simultaneous extraction of them. In this study, rapid simultaneous removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + on microcrystalline naphthalene as solid-phase extractant was investigated. These ions were allowed to form chelates with oxine and then adsorbed on freshly microcrystalline naphthalene from aqueous solutions. The solid phase extraction procedure (SPE) was optimized by using model solution containing Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + in batch system. The effects of different parameters such as variation in pH, reagent concentration, standing time, naphthalene solution concentration and contact time on the simultaneous removal of these ions was studied. The obtained results indicated that, sorption was found to be rapid, and the percentage removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + was found to be 98, 79 and 68% within 10 min, respectively. The kinetics of the sorption process was investigated to understand the kinetic characteristics of sorption of metal chelates onto microcrystalline naphthalene. The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the removal and recovery of 60 Co and 134 Cs from liquid radioactive waste. The parameters can be used for designing a plant for treatment of wastewater economically.

  18. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of 14C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter

    2010-01-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of 14 C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with 14 C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  19. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of 14C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter

    2010-04-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of 14C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with 14C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  20. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of {sup 14}C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: bbuchholz@llnl.go [Center for AMS, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L. [Center for AMS, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 muCi) of {sup 14}C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with {sup 14}C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  1. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  2. Separation of uranium(VI) by liquid-solid extraction with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide diluted with naphthalene

    Shigetomi, Y.; Kojima, T.; Kamba, H.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid-liquid distribution with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and molten naphthalene has been investigated for the extraction of 20 metals from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions. Uranium is quantitatively extracted from 1 M nitric acid or hydrochloric acid by using 100 mg of TOPO and 200 mg of naphthalene and shaking for 5 min at 80 0 C, and separated from transition metals, alkaline earth metals and rare earth metals (except scandium). Addition of naphthalene increases the extraction efficiency. (Auth.)

  3. Polymers for organic photovoltaics based on 1,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)-naphthalene, thiophene, and benzothiadiazole

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    Two new conjugated polymers consisting of the donors 1,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)naphthalene, thiophene, or bithiophene and the acceptor benzothiadiazole has been synthesized and their optical and photovoltaic properties have been characterized. The two polymers were compared with earlier synthesized...... and characterized polymers containing benzene instead of naphthalene. The two polymers absorb light in the visible spectrum (400 to 700 nm). The naphthalene containing polymers had blueshifted absorption spectra compared to the benzene containing polymers and also higher band gaps. In photovoltaic devices...

  4. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  5. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  6. Dye solar cell research

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  7. CW organic dye laser

    Tuccio, S.A.; Peterson, O.G.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing continuous emission from a lasing medium comprising organic dye molecules in solution are described. Continuous emission is accomplished by flowing the medium through a focused optical cavity while simultaneously producing a population inversion in that portion of the medium flowing in close proximity to the focal point of the cavity. The population inversion is produced by pumping the medium longitudinally, along the optical axis of the cavity, preferably by the focused output of a continuous-wave argon laser. Sufficient thermal energy is continuously dissipated from the medium to maintain the optical homogeneity thereof at or above the quality required for continuous emission

  8. Nicholas reactions in the construction of cyclohepta[de]naphthalenes and cyclohepta[de]naphthalenones. The total synthesis of microstegiol.

    Taj, Rafiq A; Green, James R

    2010-12-03

    The application of the Nicholas reaction chemistry of 2,7-dioxygenated naphthalenes in the synthesis of cyclohepta[de]napthalenes and in the synthesis of (±)-microstegiol (1) is presented. The substitution profile of Nicholas monosubstitution (predominantly C-1) and disubstitution reactions (predominantly 1,6-) on 2,7-dioxygenated napthalenes is reported. Application of a 1,8-dicondensation product and selected C-1 monocondensation products to the construction of cyclohepta[de]naphthalenes by way of ring closing metathesis and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reactions, respectively, is described. Deprotection of the C-7 oxygen function to the corresponding naphthol allows tautomerization to cyclohepta[de]naphthalene-1-ones upon seven-membered-ring closure in most cases, and replacement of the C-2 oxygen function in the naphthalene by a methyl group ultimately allows the synthesis of (±)-microstegiol.

  9. Subnanometer Resolution and Enhanced Friction Contrast at the Surface of Perylene Diimide PDI8-CN2 Thin Films in Ambient Conditions.

    Buzio, Renato; Gerbi, Andrea; Barra, Mario; Chiarella, Fabio; Gnecco, Enrico; Cassinese, Antonio

    2018-03-13

    We report high-resolution surface morphology and friction force maps of polycrystalline organic thin films derived by deposition of the n-type perylene diimide semiconductor PDI8-CN 2 . We show that the in-plane molecular arrangement into ordered, cofacial slip-stacked rows results in a largely anisotropic surface structure, with a characteristic sawtooth corrugation of a few Ångstroms wavelength and height. Load-controlled experiments reveal different types of friction contrast between the alternating sloped and stepped regions, with transitions from atomic-scale dissipative stick-slip to smooth sliding with ultralow friction within the surface unit cell. Notably, such a rich phenomenology is captured under ambient conditions. We demonstrate that friction contrast is well reproduced by numerical simulations assuming a reduced corrugation of the tip-molecule potential nearby the step edges. We propose that the side alkyl chains pack into a compact low-surface-energy overlayer, and friction modulation reflects periodic heterogeneity of chains bending properties and subsurface anchoring to the perylene cores.

  10. Dipyrrolidinyl-substituted perylene diimide as additive for poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methylester bulk-heterojunction blends

    Vivo, Paola; Dubey, Rajeev; Lehtonen, Elina; Kivistö, Hannele; Vuorinen, Tommi; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the addition of 1,7-dipyrrolidinyl-substituted perylene diimide (1,7-PyPDI) to a traditional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) bulk-heterojunction blend on the performance of organic solar cells, are described. When the 1,7-PyPDI amount in the mixture is accurately tuned, the power conversion efficiency (η) of the 1,7-PyPDI-doped cells is enhanced compared to a reference non-doped device. Cells fabricated by spin-coating blends from chloroform solution with P3HT (monomer):PCBM:1,7-PyPDI molar ratio of 6.85:1:0.03 resulted in 39.6% higher power conversion efficiency than P3HT:PCBM blend. The efficiency improvement is attributed to possible photochemical interactions between the three components of the blend, which contribute to enhance the charge separation, and minimize the charge recombination processes. Moreover, the increased absorption and the microstructural implications induced by the introduction of 1,7-PyPDI contribute to explain the enhancement of the solar cell performance. - Highlights: • The solar cell active layer is doped with perylene derivative in different ratios. • The addition of the dopant significantly enhances the solar cell efficiency. • The possible role of the dopant in the heart of the solar cell is discussed

  11. Dipyrrolidinyl-substituted perylene diimide as additive for poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methylester bulk-heterojunction blends

    Vivo, Paola, E-mail: paola.vivo@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Dubey, Rajeev; Lehtonen, Elina; Kivistö, Hannele [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Vuorinen, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Lemmetyinen, Helge [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2013-12-02

    The effects of the addition of 1,7-dipyrrolidinyl-substituted perylene diimide (1,7-PyPDI) to a traditional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) bulk-heterojunction blend on the performance of organic solar cells, are described. When the 1,7-PyPDI amount in the mixture is accurately tuned, the power conversion efficiency (η) of the 1,7-PyPDI-doped cells is enhanced compared to a reference non-doped device. Cells fabricated by spin-coating blends from chloroform solution with P3HT (monomer):PCBM:1,7-PyPDI molar ratio of 6.85:1:0.03 resulted in 39.6% higher power conversion efficiency than P3HT:PCBM blend. The efficiency improvement is attributed to possible photochemical interactions between the three components of the blend, which contribute to enhance the charge separation, and minimize the charge recombination processes. Moreover, the increased absorption and the microstructural implications induced by the introduction of 1,7-PyPDI contribute to explain the enhancement of the solar cell performance. - Highlights: • The solar cell active layer is doped with perylene derivative in different ratios. • The addition of the dopant significantly enhances the solar cell efficiency. • The possible role of the dopant in the heart of the solar cell is discussed.

  12. Reactive bay functionalized perylene monoimide-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane organic electronic dye

    Wangatia Lodrick Makokha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation-induced quenching is particularly detrimental in perylene diimides, which are characterized by a near-unity fluorescence quantum yield in solution but are far less emissive in the solid state. Previously, perylene diimide has been improved by linking it to the inorganic cage of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes. As a further study on perylene diimidepolyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, we report on a double functionalized molecular structure, which can be used for substitution at the bay area and as a side group in other materials. Typical solution absorption and emission features of the perylene diimide fragment have been observed in this new reactive perylene diimide-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. Moreover, reduced stacking during aggregation and spherical particles exhibiting solid fluorescence have been obtained. Organic semiconducting material with enhanced solid state photophysical properties, like solid fluorescence is a subject of great interest owing to its possible high-tech applications in optoelectronic devices.

  13. Controlled shift in the tautomeric equilibrium of 4-​((phenylimino)​methyl)​naphthalen-​1-​ol

    Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Deneva, V; Manolova, y

    2013-01-01

    -​((Phenylimino)​methyl)​naphthalen-​1-​ol and 4-​((phenylimino)​methyl)​-​2-​(piperidin-​1-​ylmethyl)​naphthalen-​1-​ol have been synthesized and their tautomeric properties were investigated using mol. spectroscopy (UV-​vis absorption​/emission and NMR)​, X-​ray crystallog. anal. and quantum-​c...

  14. Adsorption of naphthalene and ozone on atmospheric air/ice interfaces coated with surfactants: a molecular simulation study.

    Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Hung, Francisco R

    2012-03-15

    The adsorption of gas-phase naphthalene and ozone molecules onto air/ice interfaces coated with different surfactant species (1-octanol, 1-hexadecanol, or 1-octanal) was investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Naphthalene and ozone exhibit a strong preference to be adsorbed at the surfactant-coated air/ice interfaces, as opposed to either being dissolved into the bulk of the quasi-liquid layer (QLL) or being incorporated into the ice crystals. The QLL becomes thinner when the air/ice interface is coated with surfactant molecules. The adsorption of both naphthalene and ozone onto surfactant-coated air/ice interfaces is enhanced when compared to bare air/ice interface. Both naphthalene and ozone tend to stay dissolved in the surfactant layer and close to the QLL, rather than adsorbing on top of the surfactant molecules and close to the air region of our systems. Surfactants prefer to orient at a tilted angle with respect to the air/ice interface; the angular distribution and the most preferred angle vary depending on the hydrophilic end group, the length of the hydrophobic tail, and the surfactant concentration at the air/ice interface. Naphthalene prefers to have a flat orientation on the surfactant coated air/ice interface, except at high concentrations of 1-hexadecanol at the air/ice interface; the angular distribution of naphthalene depends on the specific surfactant and its concentration at the air/ice interface. The dynamics of naphthalene molecules at the surfactant-coated air/ice interface slow down as compared to those observed at bare air/ice interfaces. The presence of surfactants does not seem to affect the self-association of naphthalene molecules at the air/ice interface, at least for the specific surfactants and the range of concentrations considered in this study.

  15. Ultraviolet Irradiation of Naphthalene in H2O Ice: Implications for Meteorites and Biogenesis

    Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) naphthalene was exposed to ultraviolet radiation in H2O ice under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. As we found in our earlier studies on the photoprocessing of coronene in H2O ice, aromatic alcohols and ketones (quinones) were formed. The regiochemistry of the reactions is described and leads to specific predictions of the relative abundances of various oxidized naphthalenes that should exist in meteorites if interstellar ice photochemistry influenced their aromatic inventory. Since oxidized PAHs are present in carbon-rich meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and ubiquitous in and fundamental to biochemistry, the delivery of such extraterrestrial molecules to the early Earth may have played a role in the origin and evolution of life.

  16. 1-[(E-2-(2-Hydroxy-5-methylphenyldiazen-2-ium-1-yl]naphthalen-2-olate

    Salah Eddine Bouaoud

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The title zwitterion, C17H14N2O2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, both of which are approximately planar, the dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system being 4.39 (12° in one molecule and 5.83 (12° in the other, and show an E conformation with respect to the azo double bond. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond in each molecule helps to establish their near planar conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked through O—H...O hydrogen bonds into infinite chains running along the a-axis direction. In addition, the chains are stacked along the b axis via π–π interactions between the benzene and the naphthalene rings of adjacent molecules, the centroid–centroid distances being 3.722 (3 and 3.823 (4 Å.

  17. Blue-Emitting Arylalkynyl Naphthalene Derivatives via a Hexadehydro-Diels-Alder Cascade Reaction.

    Xu, Feng; Hershey, Kyle W; Holmes, Russell J; Hoye, Thomas R

    2016-10-05

    We describe here three alkynyl substituted naphthalenes that display promising luminescence characteristics. Each compound is easily and efficiently synthesized in three steps by capitalizing on the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) cycloisomerization reaction in which an intermediate benzyne is captured by tetraphenylcyclopentadienone, a classical trap for benzyne itself. These compounds luminesce in the deep blue when stimulated either optically (i.e., photoluminescence in both solution and solid films) or electrically [in a light-emitting diode (LED)]. The photophysical properties are relatively insensitive to the electronic nature of the substituents (H, OMe, CO 2 Me) that define these otherwise identical compounds. Overall, our observations suggest that the twisted nature of the five adjacent aryl groups serves to minimize the intermolecular interaction between core naphthalene units in different sample morphologies. These compounds represent promising leads for the identification of others of value as the emissive component of organic LEDs (OLEDs).

  18. Performance of a Novel Hydrophobic Mesoporous Material for High Temperature Catalytic Oxidation of Naphthalene

    Guotao Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high surface area, hydrophobic mesoporous material, MFS, has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal synthesis method using a perfluorinated surfactant, SURFLON S-386, as the single template. N2 adsorption and TEM were employed to characterize the pore structure and morphology of MFS. Static water adsorption test indicates that the hydrophobicity of MFS is significantly higher than that of MCM-41. XPS and Py-GC/MS analysis confirmed the existence of perfluoroalkyl groups in MFS which led to its high hydrophobicity. MFS was used as a support for CuO in experiments of catalytic combustion of naphthalene, where it showed a significant advantage over MCM-41 and ZSM-5. SEM was helpful in understanding why CuO-MFS performed so well in the catalytic combustion of naphthalene. Experimental results indicated that MFS was a suitable support for catalytic combustion of large molecular organic compounds, especially for some high temperature catalytic reactions when water vapor was present.

  19. (E-1-(4-Aminophenyl-3-(naphthalen-2-ylprop-2-en-1-one

    Thawanrat Kobkeatthawin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title chalcone derivative, C19H15NO, exists in a trans configuration with respect to the C=C double bond. The molecule is slightly twisted with a dihedral angle of 6.12 (12° between the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system. The prop-2-en-1-one bridge is nearly planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0194 (2, and makes dihedral angles of 8.05 (19 and 11.47 (18° with the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains along the b axis. Weak N—H...π and C—H...π interactions and a short N...O contact [2.974 (4 Å] are also observed.

  20. Use of dyes in cariology.

    van de Rijke, J W

    1991-04-01

    The property of dyes to enhance contrast by their colour can be used in clinical dentistry and in investigations in vitro or in vivo. They have been used for indication of affected dental tissues, improvement of diagnostic methods, enhancement of patient awareness and information about specific processes. The development of particular dye systems, aimed at clinical application, is often laborious because of toxic effects, lack of specificity, irreversible staining or difficulties with removal of the dye. Clinically used dyes are often visually observed, which means a qualitative assessment of the staining, while quantification of the staining, if performed at all, is confined mostly to laboratory experiments. In this paper the application of dyes, arranged according to their specific purpose in cariology, is discussed, and a brief historical overview is given of the development of two particular dye applications for which commercial dye systems are now available. If certain requirements are met, dyes can be of great help in detection and quantification when used with several diagnostic methods.

  1. Conformationally constrained farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists: heteroaryl replacements of the naphthalene.

    Bass, Jonathan Y; Caravella, Justin A; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L; Deaton, David N; Madauss, Kevin P; Marr, Harry B; McFadyen, Robert B; Miller, Aaron B; Mills, Wendy Y; Navas, Frank; Parks, Derek J; Smalley, Terrence L; Spearing, Paul K; Todd, Dan; Williams, Shawn P; Wisely, G Bruce

    2011-02-15

    To improve on the drug properties of GSK8062 1b, a series of heteroaryl bicyclic naphthalene replacements were prepared. The quinoline 1c was an equipotent FXR agonist with improved drug developability parameters relative to 1b. In addition, analog 1c lowered body weight gain and serum glucose in a DIO mouse model of diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    Chunrong Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m-3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m-3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m-3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10-4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene

  3. One-pot synthesis of phthalazines and pyridazino-aromatics: a novel strategy for substituted naphthalenes.

    Kessler, Simon N; Wegner, Hermann A

    2012-07-06

    A new one-pot strategy for the synthesis of phthalazines and pyridazino-aromatics starting from aromatic aldehydes has been developed. A variety of substituents ranging from electron withdrawing to donating is tolerated furnishing the desired 1,2-diazine in good to excellent yields. The products have been applied to the bidentate Lewis acid catalyzed inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction opening a novel two-step entry into substituted naphthalenes, such as Naproxen.

  4. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  5. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration*

    Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an α-nitronaphthalene to β-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aromatics. Moodie and Schoefield [Hoggett, J. G., Moodie, R. B., Penton, J. R. & Schoefield, K. (1971) Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge Univ. Press, London)], as well as Perrin, independently concluded that, in the general scheme of nitration of reactive aromatics, there is the necessity to introduce into the classical Ingold mechanism an additional step involving a distinct intermediate preceding the formation of the Wheland intermediate (σ complexes). This view coincides with our two-step mechanistic picture [Kuhn, S. J. & Olah, G. A. (1961) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83, 4564-4571] of the nitronium salt nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene and toluene), in which low substrate selectivity but high positional selectivity was found, indicating the independence of substrate from positional selectivity. PMID:16593026

  6. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration.

    Olah, G A; Narang, S C; Olah, J A

    1981-06-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an alpha-nitronaphthalene to beta-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aromatics. Moodie and Schoefield [Hoggett, J. G., Moodie, R. B., Penton, J. R. & Schoefield, K. (1971) Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge Univ. Press, London)], as well as Perrin, independently concluded that, in the general scheme of nitration of reactive aromatics, there is the necessity to introduce into the classical Ingold mechanism an additional step involving a distinct intermediate preceding the formation of the Wheland intermediate (sigma complexes). This view coincides with our two-step mechanistic picture [Kuhn, S. J. & Olah, G. A. (1961) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83, 4564-4571] of the nitronium salt nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene and toluene), in which low substrate selectivity but high positional selectivity was found, indicating the independence of substrate from positional selectivity.

  7. Enhanced oxidation of naphthalene using plasma activation of TiO2/diatomite catalyst.

    Wu, Zuliang; Zhu, Zhoubin; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhou, Weili; Han, Jingyi; Tang, Xiujuan; Yao, Shuiliang; Zhang, Xuming

    2018-04-05

    Non-thermal plasma technology has great potential in reducing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission. But in plasma-alone process, various undesired by-products are produced, which causes secondary pollutions. Here, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the oxidation of naphthalene over a TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst at low temperature. In comparison to plasma-alone process, the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst significantly enhanced naphthalene conversion (up to 40%) and CO x selectivity (up to 92%), and substantially reduced the formation of aerosol (up to 90%) and secondary volatile organic compounds (up to near 100%). The mechanistic study suggested that the presence of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst intensified the electron energy in the DBD. Meantime, the energized electrons generated in the discharge activated TiO 2 , while the presence of ozone enhanced the activity of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst. This plasma-catalyst interaction led to the synergetic effect resulting from the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst, consequently enhanced the oxidation of naphthalene. Importantly, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of plasma to activate the photocatalyst for the deep oxidation of PAH without external heating, which is potentially valuable in the development of cost-effective gas cleaning process for the removal of PAHs in vehicle applications during cold start conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-Toxoplasma Activity of 2-(Naphthalene-2-γlthiol-1H Indole.

    Qasem Asgari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability, infectivity and immunity of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites exposed to 2-(naphthalene-2-ylthio-1H-indole.Tachyzoites of RH strain were incubated in various concentrations of 2-(naphthalene-2-ylthio-1H-indole (25-800 μM for 1.5 hours. Then, they were stained by PI and analyzed by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. To evaluate the infectivity, the tachyzoites exposed to the different concentrations of the compound were inoculated to 10 BALB/c mice groups. For Control, parasites exposed to DMSO (0.2% v/v were also intraperitoneally inoculated into two groups of mice. The immunity of the exposed tachyzoites was evaluated by inoculation of the naïve parasite to the survived mice.The LD50 of 2-(naphthalene-2-ylthio-1H-indole was 57 μmol. The longevity of mice was dose dependent. Five mice out of group 400μmol and 3 out of group 800μmol showed immunization to the parasite.Our findings demonstrated the toxoplasmocidal activity of the compound. The presence of a well-organized transporter mechanism for indole compounds within the parasite in conjunction with several effective mechanisms of these compounds on Toxoplasma viability would open a window for production of new drugs and vaccines.

  9. Photoinduced Charge Transport Spectra for Porphyrin and Naphthalene Derivative-based Dendrimers

    Park, J. H.; Wu, Y.; Parquette, J. R.; Epstein, A. J.

    2006-03-01

    Dendrimers are important chemical structures for harvesting charge. We prepared model dendrimers using two porphyrin derivatives and a naphthalene derivative. Films of these porphyrin derivatives have a strong Soret band (˜430nm) and four significant Q-bands; the naphthalene derivative has strong absorption at 365 and 383nm. Two kinds of photovoltaic cell structures [ITO/BaytronP/(thick or thin) dendrimer/Al] are constructed to investigate the optical response spectra of dendrimers under electric potential(V) on the cell (range from -1V to 2V). To obtain pure optical responses, incident light is modulated with an optical chopper and a lock-in amplifier is used to measure current (IAC) and phase (θ). For the excitation of the Soret band, IAC and θ do not change substantially with change of sign and amplitude of V. For Q-bands and naphthalene absorption bands, θ nearly follows the polarity of V on the cells and IAC is linear with V. Hence, IAC is nearly ohmic for Q- band although there are shifts due to built-in-potential. IAC for Soret band is almost same for thick and thin active layer cells. In contrast, IAC increases with thickness increase for Q bands. Mechanisms of photogeneration and charge transport will be discussed.

  10. Degradation and mineralization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and naphthalene in intertidal marine sediments

    Bauer, J.E.; Capone, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 μg/g [ppm]) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks

  11. Synthesis, characterization of bay-substituted perylene diimide based D-A-D type small molecules and their applications as a non-fullerene electron acceptor in polymer solar cells

    Ramasamy Ganesamoorthy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a series of bay substituted perylene diimide based donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D type small molecule acceptor derivatives such as S-I, S-II, S-III and S-IV for small molecule based organic solar cell (SM-OSC applications. The electron rich thiophene derivatives such as thiophene, 2-hexylthiophene, 2,2′-bithiophene, and 5-hexyl-2,2′-bithiophene were used as a donor (D, and perylene diimide was used as an acceptor (A. The synthesized small molecules were confirmed by FT-IR, NMR, and HR-MS. The small molecules showed wide and strong absorption in the UV-vis region up to 750 nm, which reduced the optical band gap to <2 eV. The calculated highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO were comparable with those of the PC61BM. Scanning electron microscope (SEM studies confirmed the aggregation of the small molecules, S-I to S-IV. Small molecules showed thermal stability up to 300 °C. In bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ-OSCs, the S-I based device showed a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE of 0.12% with P3HT polymer donor. The PCE was declined with respect to the number of thiophene units and the flexible alkyl chain in the bay position. Keywords: Perylene diimide, Donor–acceptor, Small molecule, Non-fullerene, Suzuki coupling

  12. Development of AVLIS dye laser system

    Sugiyama, Akira; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    CVL pumped single mode dye laser was performed. It was found that pressure tuning has some excellent feature in comparison to mechanical tuning in dye laser frequency control. For evaluation of dye laser amplifier, two-dimensional rate equation was proposed. Calculated data by this equation agreed with experimental data in large diameter input dye laser beam condition. (author)

  13. Treatment of dye house effluents

    Waheed, S.; Ashraf, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental considerations play an increasingly important role in processing of textiles. For textile, limits on particular substances have been and are being laid down either by law or as a result of the demands of clothing manufactures. One of the most complex areas in textile processing is textile printing and dyeing. Here, virtually all dye classes are used. In some printing processes such as reactive printing, many of products used end up in the wastewater. A study of the optimisation of wastewater treatment systems and the systematic management of water and the problems of dyeing are reviewed in this article. (author)

  14. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  15. Survery on Actual Conditions of Food Dyes

    佐藤, ひろみ

    1981-01-01

    Many food dyes are widely used as food additives in Japan, and many investigations have been pointed the problems of safety of these food dyes used in Japanese food. There are two types of commercial food dyes, one is synthetic dyes and the other is natural dyes.Recently Japanese food is not stained so colourfully, but it is stained faintly in colour near to natural food by using of mixed synthetic dyes. On their hand, many consumers have a tendency to prefer natural food dyes because they ha...

  16. Work function and temperature dependence of electron tunneling through an N-type perylene diimide molecular junction with isocyanide surface linkers.

    Smith, Christopher E; Xie, Zuoti; Bâldea, Ioan; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2018-01-18

    Conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) was employed to examine electron tunneling in self-assembled monolayer (SAM) junctions. A 2.3 nm long perylene tetracarboxylic acid diimide (PDI) acceptor molecule equipped with isocyanide linker groups was synthesized, adsorbed onto Ag, Au and Pt substrates, and the current-voltage (I-V) properties were measured by CP-AFM. The dependence of the low-bias resistance (R) on contact work function indicates that transport is LUMO-assisted ('n-type behavior'). A single-level tunneling model combined with transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) was employed to analyze the experimental I-V curves and to extract the effective LUMO position ε l = E LUMO - E F and the effective electronic coupling (Γ) between the PDI redox core and the contacts. This analysis revealed a strong Fermi level (E F ) pinning effect in all the junctions, likely due to interface dipoles that significantly increased with increasing contact work function, as revealed by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). Furthermore, the temperature (T) dependence of R was found to be substantial. For Pt/Pt junctions, R varied more than two orders of magnitude in the range 248 K tunneling mechanism and allow independent determination of ε l , giving values compatible with estimates of ε l based on analysis of the full I-V data. Theoretical analysis revealed a general criterion to unambiguously rule out a two-step transport mechanism: namely, if measured resistance data exhibit a pronounced Arrhenius-type temperature dependence, a two-step electron transfer scenario should be excluded in cases where the activation energy depends on contact metallurgy. Overall, our results indicate (1) the generality of the Fermi level pinning phenomenon in molecular junctions, (2) the utility of employing the single level tunneling model for determining essential electronic structure parameters (ε l and Γ), and (3) the importance of changing the nature of the contacts to

  17. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  18. Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.

    Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry

  19. Passive Sampling and Analysis of Naphthalene in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust with Retracted SPME Device and GC-MS

    Nassiba Baimatova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are the main source of urban air pollution. Quantification of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the exhaust gases is needed for emissions monitoring, enforcement, development, and testing of control technologies. The objective was to develop quantification of gaseous naphthalene in diesel engine exhaust based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME fiber coating and analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Extraction of naphthalene with retracted fibers followed Fick’s law of diffusion. Extracted mass of naphthalene was proportional to Cg, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limit (p = 0.95 was 11.5 ppb (0.06 mg·m−3 at t = 9 h, Z = 10 mm and T = 40 °C, respectively. It was found that the % mass extracted of naphthalene by SPME needle assembly depended on the type of fiber. Storage time at different temperatures did not affect analyte losses extracted by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 100 µm fiber. The developed method was tested on exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and tractor, and compared side-by-side with a direct injection of sampled exhaust gas method. Time-weighted average (TWA concentrations of naphthalene in exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and a tractor ranged from 0.08 to 0.3 mg·m−3 (15.3–53.7 ppb.

  20. Conversion of cresols and naphthalene in the hydroprocessing of three-component model mixtures simulating fast pyrolysis tars

    Wandas, R.; Surygala, J.; Sliwka, E. [Technical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum and Coal

    1996-05-01

    The hydroconversion of o-, m- and p-cresols in three-component model mixtures with naphthalene and n-hexadecane was investigated over a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at 360{degree}C, a hydrogen pressure of 7 MPa and a reaction time of 60 min. The results were compared with those obtained for cresols and naphthalene as single model compounds. A lower efficiency of cresol hydrodeoxygenation as well as naphthalene hydrogenation in the mixtures was found than in the conversion of the single compounds. Conversion mechanisms of cresols in the mixtures with naphthalene are considerably more complex than for individual components. Beside typical catalytic reactions, they include radical reactions in which tetralin, formed by naphthalene hydrogenation, participates as a labile-hydrogen source. The cresol reaction products in such systems include phenol, xylenols, xylenes and dimethycyclohexanes, i.e. compounds essentially absent in hydroconversion of cresols as single substances. Under the experimental conditions, the hydrodeoxygenation efficiency of the cresol isomers decreases in the sequence: para {gt} metal {gt} ortho. 22 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Naphthalene degradation by bacterial consortium (DV-AL) developed from Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India.

    Patel, Vilas; Jain, Siddharth; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-03-01

    Naphthalene degrading bacterial consortium (DV-AL) was developed by enrichment culture technique from sediment collected from the Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyzes revealed that the bacterial consortium (DV-AL) consisted of four strains namely, Achromobacter sp. BAB239, Pseudomonas sp. DV-AL2, Enterobacter sp. BAB240 and Pseudomonas sp. BAB241. Consortium DV-AL was able to degrade 1000 ppm of naphthalene in Bushnell Haas medium (BHM) containing peptone (0.1%) as co-substrate with an initial pH of 8.0 at 37°C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) within 24h. Maximum growth rate and naphthalene degradation rate were found to be 0.0389 h(-1) and 80 mg h(-1), respectively. Consortium DV-AL was able to utilize other aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, phenol, carbazole, petroleum oil, diesel fuel, and phenanthrene and 2-methyl naphthalene as sole carbon source. Consortium DV-AL was also efficient to degrade naphthalene in the presence of other pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    Clewell, H.J.; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  3. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    Clewell, H.J., E-mail: hclewell@thehamner.org; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-10-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  4. Electronic properties of semiconducting naphthalene bisimide derivatives—Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy versus electrochemistry

    Rybakiewicz, Renata; Gawrys, Pawel; Tsikritzis, Dimitris; Emmanouil, Konstantinos; Kennou, Stella; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Pron, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrochemical method for the determination of the ionization potential (IP) in organic semiconductors was validated. ► Excellent correlation was found between the IP values determined electrochemically and by UPS for naphthalene bisimides. ► Excellent correlation was found between the calculated (DFT) IP values and the experimentally determined ones. -- Abstract: Key parameters for organic semiconductors used as active layers in organic electronic devices are: solution processability, charge carriers mobility as well as the electron affinity (EA) and the ionization potential (IP) which determine their redox properties and by consequence their air stability. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the influence of different substituents at imide nitrogen atom (alkylaryl, thienylene and triarylamine) and at naphthalene core (triarylamine) on the IP and EA values in recently synthesized naphthalene bisimide derivatives, tested as promising semiconductors for flexible n-channel or ambipolar organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The ionization potentials were determined by Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) for thin semiconductor films evaporated in ultra-high vacuum. The values obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy were compared with the ones determined from electrochemical investigations of the semiconductors dissolved in an electrolyte solution. Using cyclic voltammetry the IPs was estimated from the onset of the first oxidation peak whereas EAs from the onset of the first reduction peak. In cases where it was not possible to record the oxidation wave in the electrolyte electrochemical window, the IPs values were calculated by subtracting the energy of the spectroscopically (UV–vis–NIR) determined band gap from the EA values and changing the sign. A good correlation between the spectroscopic (UPS) and electrochemical data was found

  5. Humidity effects on surface dielectric barrier discharge for gaseous naphthalene decomposition

    Abdelaziz, Ayman A.; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Seto, Takafumi

    2018-04-01

    Experiments are performed using dry and humid air to clarify the effects of water vapour on the characteristics of surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) and investigate its impact on the performance of the SDBD for decomposition of gaseous naphthalene in air stream. The current characteristics, including the discharge and the capacitive currents, are deeply analyzed and the discharge mechanism is explored. The results confirmed that the humidity affected the microdischarge distribution without affecting the discharge mode. Interestingly, it is found that the water vapour had a significant influence on the capacitance of the reactor due to its deposition on the discharge electrode and the dielectric, which, in turn, affects the power loss in the dielectric and the total power consumed in the reactor. Thus, the factor of the humidity effect on the power loss in the dielectric should be considered in addition to its effect on the attachment coefficient. Additionally, there was an optimum level of the humidity for the decomposition of naphthalene in the SDBD, and its value depended on the gas composition, where the maximum naphthalene decomposition efficiency in O2/H2O is achieved at the humidity level ˜10%, which was lower than that obtained in air/H2O (˜28%). The results also revealed that the role of the humidity in the decomposition efficiency was not significant in the humidified O2 at high power level. This was attributed to the significant increase in oxygen-derived species (such as O atoms and O3) at high power, which was enough to overcome the negative effects of the humidity.

  6. Synthesis and Preliminary Properties of Novel Poly(aryl ethers Containing β-Naphthalene Pendant Group

    L. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel poly(aryl ethers containing β-naphthalene pendant group were synthesized and the structures of these polymers were confirmed by 1HNMR spectroscopy. The polymers exhibited good thermal stabilities with high Tg of 256°C and 274°C, respectively. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, such as DMAc, DMSO, CH2Cl2, and CHCl3, and can be electrospun into microfiber (1–5 µm with lots of nanopores (<100 nm from CHCl3 solution. These fibers showed high hydrophobicity, and the contact angle of fibers is above 120°.

  7. Solid-phase extraction and determination of trace elements in environmental samples using naphthalene adsorbent

    Pourreza, N.

    2004-01-01

    Naphthalene co-precipitated with quaternary ammonium salt such as tetraoctyl ammonium bromide and methyltrioctyl ammonium chloride have been used as adsorbent for solid phase extraction of metal ions such as Hg, Cd and Fe. The metal ions are retained on the adsorbent in a column as their complexes with suitable ligands and eluted by an eluent before instrumental measurements. The optimization of the procedures for solid phase extraction and consequent determination of trace elements and application to environmental samples especially water samples will be discussed. (author)

  8. 1-{(Z-[2-Methoxy-5-(trifluoromethylanilino]methylidene}naphthalen-2(1H-one

    Hakan Kargılı

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C19H14F3NO2, crystallizes in the keto–amine tautomeric form, with a strong intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond. The molecule is almost planar; the dihedral angle between the naphthalene ring system and the benzene ring is 4.60 (7°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains along the c axis by C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The F atoms of the trifluoromethyl group are disordered over two positions with refined site occupancies of 0.668 (9 and 0.332 (9.

  9. Regiospecific and stereoselective hydroxylation of 1-indanone and 2-indanone by naphthalene dioxygenase and toluene dioxygenase.

    Resnick, S M; Torok, D S; Lee, K; Brand, J M; Gibson, D T

    1994-01-01

    The biotransformation of 1-indanone and 2-indanone to hydroxyindanones was examined with bacterial strains expressing naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) and toluene dioxygenase (TDO) as well as with purified enzyme components. Pseudomonas sp. strain 9816/11 cells, expressing NDO, oxidized 1-indanone to a mixture of 3-hydroxy-1-indanone (91%) and 2-hydroxy-1-indanone (9%). The (R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone was formed in 62% enantiomeric excess (ee) (R:S, 81:19), while the 2-hydroxy-1-indanone was racemi...

  10. Experimental determination and prediction of liquid-solid equilibria for binary (methyl palimitate + naphthalene mixture

    Benziane M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid-liquid equilibria for binary mixtures of {Methyl palmitate (1 + Naphthalene (2} were measured using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Simple eutectic behaviours for this system are observed. The experimental results were correlated by means of the NRTL, Wilson, UNIQUAC and ideal models. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all measured data vary from 0.5477 K (for UNIQUAC model to 3.34K; the deviation depend on the model used. The best solubility correlation was obtained with UNIQUAC model and this observation confirms previous results.

  11. Bis(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium naphthalene-1,5-disulfonate dihydrate

    Yu-feng Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title organic salt, 2C4H7N2+·C10H6O6S22−·2H2O, consists of a 2-methylimidazolium cation, a half of a naphthalene-1,5-disulfonate anion, which lies about a center of symmetry, and a water molecule. In the crystal, N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the cations, anions and water molecules into the layers parallel to (111.

  12. Chlorido{(E-1-[(2-methoxyphenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}palladium(II

    Assia Mili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Pd(C17H13N2O2Cl], the PdII atom is tetracoordinated by an N and two O atoms of an (E-1-[(2-methoxyphenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olate ligand and by a Cl atom, and has a square-planar coordination. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. The dimers are linked via offset π–π interactions [intercentroid distance = 3.546 (3 Å], forming chains running parallel to [100].

  13. Toward Singlet-Triplet Bistable Nonalternant Kekulé Hydrocarbons: Azulene-to-Naphthalene Rearrangement.

    Das, Soumyajit; Wu, Jishan

    2015-12-04

    Recent developments of open-shell singlet diradicaloids motivated the search for stable singlet-triplet bistable nonalternant polycyclic hydrocarbons. During the synthesis of this type of molecule, such as the dibenzo-cyclohepta[def]fluorene 3, an unexpected azulene-to-naphthalene rearrangement was observed at room temperature, which resulted in new nonalternant hydrocarbons 8a/8b with a closed-shell singlet ground state. These studies provided insight into the unique chemistry of azulene and challenges for the synthesis of singlet-triplet bistable polycyclic hydrocarbons.

  14. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  15. Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Activity of 1-[(2-Chlorophenylcarbamoyl]- and 1-[(2-Nitrophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl Alkylcarbamates

    Tomas Gonec

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight 1-[(2-chlorophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl alkylcarbamates and eight 1-[(2-nitrophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl alkylcarbamates were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. The PET-inhibiting activity of the compounds was relatively low; the corresponding IC50 values ranged from 0.05 to 0.664 mmol/L; and the highest activity within the series of compounds was observed for 1-[(2-chlorophenyl-carbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl propylcarbamate. It has been proven that the compounds are PET-inhibitors in photosystem II. Despite rather low PET-inhibiting activities, primary structure-activity trends can be discussed.

  16. Isolation of a naphthalene-degrading strain from activated sludge and bioaugmentation with it in a MBR treating coal gasification wastewater.

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin

    2015-03-01

    A highly effective naphthalene-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from acclimated activated sludge from a coal gasification wastewater plant, and identified as a Streptomyces sp., designated as strain QWE-35. The optimal pH and temperature for naphthalene degradation were 7.0 and 35°C. The presence of additional glucose and methanol significantly increased the degradation efficiency of naphthalene. The strain showed tolerance to the toxicity of naphthalene at a concentration as great as 200 mg/L. The Andrews mode could be fitted to the degradation kinetics data well over a wide range of initial naphthalene concentrations (10-200 mg/L), with kinetic values q max = 0.84 h(-1), K s = 40.39 mg/L, and K i = 193.76 mg/L. Metabolic intermediates were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, allowing a new degradation pathway for naphthalene to be proposed for the first time. Strain QWE-35 was added into a membrane bioreactor (MBR) to enhance the treatment of real coal gasification wastewater. The results showed that the removal of chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen were similar between bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented MBRs, however, significant removal of naphthalene was obtained in the bioaugmented reactor. The findings suggest a potential bioremediation role of Streptomyces sp. QWE-35 in the removal of naphthalene from wastewaters.

  17. Ultrasound-promoted synthesis of 2-organoselanyl-naphthalenes using Oxone® in aqueous medium as an oxidizing agent

    Gelson Perin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A green methodology to synthesize 2-organoselanyl-naphthalenes based on the reaction of alkynols with diaryl diselenides is described. The electrophilic species of selenium were generated in situ, by the oxidative cleavage of the Se–Se bond of diaryl diselenides by Oxone® using water as the solvent. The reactions proceeded efficiently under ultrasonic irradiation as an alternative energy source, using a range of alkynols and diorganyl diselenides as starting materials. Through this methodology, the corresponding 2-organoselanyl-naphthalenes were obtained in moderate to good yields (56–94% and in short reaction times (0.25–2.3 h.

  18. Preparation and Biological Properties of Ring-Substituted Naphthalene-1-Carboxanilides

    Tomas Gonec

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of twenty-two ring-substituted naphthalene-1-carboxanilides were prepared and characterized. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized carboxanilides was performed against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. N-(2-Methoxyphenylnaphthalene-1-carboxamide, N-(3-methoxy-phenylnaphthalene-1-carboxamide, N-(3-methylphenylnaphthalene-1-carboxamide, N-(4-methylphenylnaphthalene-1-carboxamide and N-(3-fluorophenylnaphthalene-1-carboxamide showed against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis two-fold higher activity than rifampicin and three-fold higher activity than ciprofloxacin. The most effective antimycobacterial compounds demonstrated insignificant toxicity against the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line. The testing of biological activity of the compounds was completed with the study of photosynthetic electron transport (PET inhibition in isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. The PET-inhibiting activity expressed by IC50 value of the most active compound N-[4-(trifluoromethylphenyl]naphthalene-1-carboxamide was 59 μmol/L. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  19. Selected chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants in Bjornoya (Bear Island) freshwater biota

    Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm N.; Kallenborn, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Levels of selected sparsely investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been measured in organisms from two Arctic lakes on Bjornoya (Bear Island). Elevated levels of chlorobornanes (CHBs) (up to 46.7 ng/g wet weight=ww), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (up to 27.2 ng/g ww), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) (up to 1.1 ng/g ww) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, only 4 congeners) (up to 62.7 pg/g ww), were measured in biota from Lake Ellasjoen. In Lake Oyangen, located only 5 km north of Ellasjoen, levels of these contaminants were significantly lower. δ 15 N-values were 7-10%o higher in organisms from Ellasjoen as compared to Oyangen. This is attributed to biological inputs related to seabird activities. The present study illustrates that contaminants such as CHBs, brominated flame retardants and PCNs accumulate in the Ellasjoen food web in a manner similar to PCBs and conventional organochlorine pesticides. Transport mechanisms that control PCB and DDT distributions, i.e. atmospheric long-range transport and biotransport by seabirds, are also relevant for the contaminants investigated in the present study. - Elevate levels of chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants have been measured in biota from a Norwegian Arctic lake

  20. The development of a MIP-optosensor for the detection of monoamine naphthalenes in drinking water.

    Valero-Navarro, Angel; Salinas-Castillo, Alfonso; Fernández-Sánchez, Jorge F; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Mallavia, Ricardo; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2009-03-15

    To enhance the advantages of fluorescent flow-through sensing for drinking water we have designed a novel sensing matrix based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The synergic combination of a tailor-made MIP recognition with a selective room temperature fluorescence detection is a novel concept for optosensing devices and is assessed here for the simple and selective determination of pollutants in water. We describe a simple approach to preparing synthetic receptors for monoamine naphthalene compounds (MA-NCs) using non-covalent molecular imprinting techniques and naphthalene as template. We examine in detail the binding characteristics of the imprinted polymer and describe the flow-through sensor of MA-NCs by solid-surface fluorescence. Its detection limits for recognizing 1-naphthylamine (1-NA) and 2-naphthylamine (2-NA) separately are 26 ngmL(-1) and 50 ngmL(-1), respectively, and it also determines 1-NA and 2-NA simultaneously with a detection limit of 45 ngmL(-1). All the instrumental, chemical and flow variables were carefully optimized and an interference study was carried out to demonstrate its applicability and selectivity. Finally, we applied it to the analysis of 1-NA and 2-NA in tap and mineral waters, obtaining a 98% average recovery rate.

  1. Reduction of benzene and naphthalene mass transfer from crude oils by aging-induced interfacial films.

    Ghoshal, Subhasis; Pasion, Catherine; Alshafie, Mohammed

    2004-04-01

    Semi-rigid films or skins form at the interface of crude oil and water as a result of the accumulation of asphaltene and resin fractions when the water-immiscible crude oil is contacted with water for a period of time or "aged". The time varying patterns of area-independent mass transfer coefficients of two compounds, benzene and naphthalene, for dissolution from crude oil and gasoline were determined. Aqueous concentrations of the compounds were measured in the eluent from flow-through reactors, where a nondispersed oil phase and constant oil-water interfacial area were maintained. For Brent Blend crude oil and for gasoline amended with asphaltenes and resins, a rapid decrease in both benzene and naphthalene mass transfer coefficients over the first few days of aging was observed. The mass transfer coefficients of the two target solutes were reduced by up to 80% over 35 d although the equilibrium partition coefficients were unchanged. Aging of gasoline, which has negligible amounts of asphaltene and resin, did not result in a change in the solute mass transfer coefficients. The study demonstrates that formation of crude oil-water interfacial films comprised of asphaltenes and resins contribute to time-dependent decreases in rates of release of environmentally relevant solutes from crude oils and may contribute to the persistence of such solutes at crude oil-contaminated sites. It is estimated that the interfacial film has an extremely low film mass transfer coefficient in the range of 10(-6) cm/min.

  2. Emitting materials based on phenylanthracene-substituted naphthalene derivatives for organic light-emitting diodes

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Jwajin [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440‐746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Song Eun; Lee, Ho Won [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@wow.hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440‐746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study reports the emitting materials based on phenylanthracene-substituted naphthalene derivatives to achieve efficient electroluminescent properties for OLED applications. An OLED device using 4,4′-bis(10-phenylanthracen-9-yl)-1,1′-binaphthalene exhibited the blue emission with the CIE coordinates of (0.19, 0.16) and efficient electroluminescent properties with the luminance, power and external quantum efficiency of 1.70 cd/A, 0.79 lm/W and 1.26% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Also, the other device using 1,4-bis(10-phenylanthracene-9-yl)naphthalene exhibited white emission with the CIE coordinates of (0.34, 0.43) at 7V, respectively. This device exhibits the luminance, power and external quantum efficiency of 2.22 cd/A, 1.13 lm/W and 0.86% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. - Highlights: • We synthesized fluorescent materials based on phenylanthracene derivatives. • Electroluminescence properties of these materials depend on the molecular structures. • These blue and white materials have great potential for application in OLEDs.

  3. Effect of aging on mass transfer naphthalene from creosotes to water

    Alshafie, M.; Ghoshal, S.

    2002-01-01

    Semi-gelatinous interfacial films or 'skins' have been observed to form at the interface of creosote and water when creosote is aged (contacted over an extended time period) in water under quiescent conditions for a few days. The objective of the research is to investigate whether aging of creosote-water interfaces and the formation of interfacial films retard dissolution of a target solute, naphthalene, from samples of creosote. Mass transfer experiments were conducted in gently stirred flow-through reactors where the NAPL was coated on glass beads so as to keep the NAPL and the aqueous phases segregated. The aqueous concentration in the reactor effluent was determined in samples collected at different time points and the equilibrium partitioning coefficients and area-independent mass transfer coefficients were calculated. Over the period of one week, the mass transfer rate coefficients of the naphthalene from creosote to water underwent approximately 30% reduction. Further reduction was observed up to 3 weeks of aging. This significant reduction in mass transfer coefficient has important implications on potential rates of dissolution of the solutes, and thus on rates of clean up of creosote-contaminated sites. (author)

  4. Emitting materials based on phenylanthracene-substituted naphthalene derivatives for organic light-emitting diodes

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Jwajin; Lee, Song Eun; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the emitting materials based on phenylanthracene-substituted naphthalene derivatives to achieve efficient electroluminescent properties for OLED applications. An OLED device using 4,4′-bis(10-phenylanthracen-9-yl)-1,1′-binaphthalene exhibited the blue emission with the CIE coordinates of (0.19, 0.16) and efficient electroluminescent properties with the luminance, power and external quantum efficiency of 1.70 cd/A, 0.79 lm/W and 1.26% at 20 mA/cm 2 , respectively. Also, the other device using 1,4-bis(10-phenylanthracene-9-yl)naphthalene exhibited white emission with the CIE coordinates of (0.34, 0.43) at 7V, respectively. This device exhibits the luminance, power and external quantum efficiency of 2.22 cd/A, 1.13 lm/W and 0.86% at 20 mA/cm 2 , respectively. - Highlights: • We synthesized fluorescent materials based on phenylanthracene derivatives. • Electroluminescence properties of these materials depend on the molecular structures. • These blue and white materials have great potential for application in OLEDs

  5. Naphthalene poisoning

    ... the urine) Shortness of breath Yellowing of skin (jaundice) NOTE: People with a condition called glucose-6- ... Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. Impact of molecular solvophobicity vs. solvophilicity on device performances of dimeric perylene diimide based solution-processed non-fullerene organic solar cells.

    Lu, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Xin; Zhan, Chuanlang; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Xinliang; Chen, Lili; Yao, Jiannian

    2013-07-21

    Because of their outstanding molecular optoelectronic properties, perylene diimides (PDIs) are promising alternatives to the commonly used PCBM. However, the overly strong aggregation ability, poor solution-processability and compatibility of PDIs severely limit their photovoltaic applications. We turned to borrowing the amphiphile concept to improve these supramolecular properties. Practically, we fine-tuned the molecular solvophobicity with respect to the molecular solvophilicity, e.g. F(solvophob/solvophil), by changing the number of the weakly solvophobic 2-methoxyethoxyl (EG) groups in the bay-region of the thienyl-bridged dimeric PDI backbone, forming three PDI dimers of Bis-PDI-T (0 EG), Bis-PDI-T-EG (2 EG) and Bis-PDI-T-di-EG (4 EG) (Scheme 1). The photovoltaic properties using these dimers as the solution-processed non-fullerene electron-acceptor and P3HT as the electron-donor were investigated via the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PDI dimer/Ca/Al. Bis-PDI-T exhibited overly strong aggregation ability and very poor solution-processability, which severely limited compatibility, giving a very poor power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.007%. When two EG groups were attached at the 1,1'-positions, the resulted Bis-PDI-T-EG showed dramatically reduced aggregation ability, improved solution-processability, compatibility and proper phase separation. Small sized phases (∼20 nm) dominated in the active layer and the best PCE was increased to 0.39%. When four solvophobic EG functions were introduced, affording Bis-PDI-T-di-EG with excellent supramolecular properties, particularly, the improvement of the phase separation with an increased phase size of 24 nm and the enhanced electron and hole mobilities, by 2-4 times, with respect to that of Bis-PDI-T-EG. The best PCE was further enhanced to 0.88%. After using 1-chloronaphthalene as the co-solvent of 1,2-dichlorobenzene to further improve the compatibility, the PCE was improved further up to 0.41% for

  7. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  8. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation.

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally

    2010-01-01

    Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

  9. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  10. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  11. Naphthalene induced activities on growth, respiratory metabolism and biochemical composition in juveniles of Metapenaeus affinis (H.Milne Edward, 1837)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.; Faniband, M.

    Toxicity of naphthalene was carried out on Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne Edward, 1837) to investigate its effects on growth, metabolic index and biochemical constituents. Growth rate in terms of weight gain was 32.13% in control, 12.12% in 0.125 ppm...

  12. Diels-Alder Reaction of Isobenzofurans/Cyclopentadienones with Tetrathiafulvalene: Preparation of Naphthalene, Fluoranthene, and Fluorenone Derivatives.

    Karunakaran, Jayachandran; Mohanakrishnan, Arasambattu K

    2018-02-16

    Diels-Alder reaction of 1,3-diarylbenzo[c]furan/cyclopentadienone with TTF followed by triflic acid mediated cleavage of the resulting adducts led to the formation of the respective 1,4-diaryl substituted naphthalenes, fluoranthenes, and fluorenones. The photophysical properties of representative diaryl-substituted hydrocarbons are also reported.

  13. Synthesis of naphthalenes through three-component coupling of alkynes, Fischer carbene complexes, and benzaldehyde hydrazones via isoindole intermediates.

    Duan, Shaofeng; Sinha-Mahapatra, Dilip K; Herndon, James W

    2008-04-17

    The synthesis of naphthalene derivatives through three-component coupling of 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde hydrazones with carbene complexes and electron-deficient alkynes has been examined. The reaction involves formation of an isoindole derivative, followed by intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, followed by nitrene extrusion. The reaction was highly regioselective using unsymmetrical alkynes.

  14. Synthesis and two-electron redox behavior of diazuleno[2,1-a:1,2-c]naphthalenes.

    Ito, Shunji; Nomura, Akiko; Morita, Noboru; Kabuto, Chizuko; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Maejima, Seiko; Fujimori, Kunihide; Yasunami, Masafumi

    2002-10-18

    The Diels-Alder reaction of di-2-azulenylacetylene with tetraphenylcyclopentadienone afforded 7,8,9,10-tetraphenyldiazuleno[2,1-a:1,2-c]naphthalene in one pot via autoxidation of the presumed 1,2-di-2-azulenylbenzene derivative. In contrast, a similar reaction of bis(1-methoxycarbonyl-2-azulenyl)acetylene with tetraphenylcyclopentadienone gave the 1,2-di-2-azulenylbenzene derivative. The following cyclodehydrogenation reaction of the benzene derivative with iron(III) chloride afforded diazuleno[2,1-a:1,2-c]naphthalene 6,11-bismethoxycarbonyl derivative. The redox behavior of these novel diazuleno[2,1-a:1,2-c]naphthalenes was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). These compounds exhibited two-step oxidation waves at +0.22 to +0.71 V upon CV, which revealed the formation of a radical cation and dication stabilized by the fused two azulene rings under the electrochemical oxidation conditions. Since the 1,2-di-2-azulenylbenzene derivative was oxidized at higher oxidation potentials (+0.83 and +1.86 V), the fusion of the two azulene rings to naphthalene increased electron-donating properties because of the formation of a closed-shell dicationic structure. Formation of the radical cation was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy under the electrochemical oxidation conditions, although no evidence was obtained for the presumed dication under the conditions of the UV-vis spectroscopy measurement.

  15. Iptycenes with an acridinone motif developed through [4+2] cycloaddition of tethered naphthalene and iminoquinone via a radical reaction.

    Raju, Selvam; Annamalai, Pratheepkumar; Chen, Pei-Ling; Liu, Yi-Hung; Chuang, Shih-Ching

    2017-06-06

    A new class of iptycenes was developed by combining 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)anilines and p-benzoquinones through copper(ii)-mediated radical cyclisation. This unusual cyclisation reaction resulted in the robust and efficient syntheses of iptycenes with an acridinone motif. These iptycenes can be further transformed into planar acridinone heterocyclics through the Diels-Alder reaction.

  16. Synthesis of beta zeolite with mesopores from a milk containing precursor and its performance in naphthalene isopropylation

    Tokarová, V.; Šťávová, G.; Nováková, J.; Stiborová, S.; Kašpárek, A.; Zukal, Arnošt

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 222, č. 1 (2017), s. 343-356 ISSN 1878-5190 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Beta zeolite * Mesopores * Naphthalene isopropylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  17. Application of a luminescence-based biosensor for assessing naphthalene biodegradation in soils from a manufactured gas plant

    Paton, G.I.; Reid, B.J.; Semple, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Despite numerous reviews suggesting that microbial biosensors could be used in many environmental applications, in reality they have failed to be used for which they were designed. In part this is because most of these sensors perform in an aqueous phase and a buffered medium, which is in contrast to the nature of genuine environmental systems. In this study, a range of non-exhaustive extraction techniques (NEETs) were assessed for (i) compatibility with a naphthalene responsive biosensor and (ii) correlation with naphthalene biodegradation. The NEETs removed a portion of the total soil naphthalene in the order of methanol > HPCD > βCD > water. To place the biosensor performance to NEETs in context, a biodegradation experiment was carried out using historically contaminated soils. By coupling the HPCD extraction with the biosensor, it was possible to assess the fraction of the naphthalene capable of undergoing microbial degradation in soil. - Exposure of microbial biosensors to cyclodextrin solutions allows the assessment of the degradable fraction of contaminants in soil.

  18. Synthesis of Naphthalenes through Three-Component Coupling of Alkynes, Fischer Carbene Complexes, and Benzaldehyde Hydrazones via Isoindole Intermediates

    Duan, Shaofeng; Sinha-Mahapatra, Dilip K.; Herndon, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of naphthalene derivatives through three-component coupling of 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde hydrazones with carbene complexes and electron-deficient alkynes has been examined. The reaction involves formation of an isoindole derivative, followed by intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction, followed by nitrene extrusion. The reaction was highly regioselective using unsymmetrical alkynes. PMID:18351767

  19. Synthesis of Naphthalenes through Three-Component Coupling of Alkynes, Fischer Carbene Complexes, and Benzaldehyde Hydrazones via Isoindole Intermediates

    Duan, Shaofeng; Sinha-Mahapatra, Dilip K.; Herndon, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of naphthalene derivatives through three-component coupling of 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde hydrazones with carbene complexes and electron-deficient alkynes has been examined. The reaction involves formation of an isoindole derivative, followed by intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction, followed by nitrene extrusion. The reaction was highly regioselective using unsymmetrical alkynes.

  20. Influence of 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonic acid on microstructure & hardness in electrodeposited Ni-layers

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Møller, Per; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the additive 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonic acid on the microstructure and hardness of electrodeposited nickel layers was investigated. The microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy; the Vickers hardness was measured in cross sections. The additive wa...

  1. Naphthalene degradation in seawater by UV irradiation: The effects of fluence rate, salinity, temperature and initial concentration

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; Zheng, Jisi; Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The removal of naphthalene follows first order kinetics in seawater. • Irradiance and temperature are the most influential factors. • An increase in irradiance can linearly promote photodegradation. • High salinity suppresses the photodegradation of naphthalene. - Abstract: A large amount of oil pollution at sea is produced by the operational discharge of oily wastewater. The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from such sources using UV irradiation has become attractive, yet the photolysis mechanism in seawater has remained unclear. This study examines the photodegradation kinetics of naphthalene in natural seawater through a full factorial design of experiments (DOE). The effects of fluence rate, salinity, temperature and initial concentration are investigated. Results show that fluence rate, temperature and the interaction between temperature and initial concentration are the most influential factors. An increase in fluence rate can linearly promote the photodegradation process. Salinity increasingly impedes the removal of naphthalene because of the existence of free-radical scavengers and photon competitors. The results will help understand the photolysis mechanism of PAHs and develop more effective methods for treating oily seawater generated from offshore industries

  2. Studies on Dyeing Performance of Novel Acid Azo Dyes and Mordent Acid Azo Dyes Based on 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone

    Bharat C. Dixit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel acid azo and mordent acid azo dyes have been prepared by the coupling of diazo solution of different aminonaphthol sulphonic acids and aromatic amino acids with 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. The resultant dyes were characterized by elemental analysis as well as IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The UV-visible spectral data have also been discussed in terms of structure property relationship. The dyeing assessments of all the dyes were evaluated on wool and silk textile fibers. The dyeing of chrome pretreated wool and silk have also been monitored. The result shows that better hue was obtained on mordented fiber. Results of bactericidal studies of chrome pretreated fibers revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against bacteria is fairly good. Dyeing on wool and silk fibers resulted in yellowish pink to reddish brown colourations having excellent light fastness and washing fastness.

  3. Poly[μ2-aqua-aqua-μ5-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonato-strontium

    Shan Gao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the polymeric title compound, [Sr(C10H6O6S2(H2O2]n, the naphthalene-2,7-disulfonate dianion uses one –SO3 unit to bind to two SrII cations and the other –SO3 unit to bind to three SrII cations; of the two coordinated water molecules, one is monodentate to one SrII cation, whereas the other bridges two SrII cations. The μ5-bridging mode of the dianon and the μ2-bridging mode of the water molecule generate a polymeric three-dimensional network which is consolidated by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The SrII cation exists in an undefined eight-coordinate environment.

  4. Sawdust Ash as Powder Material for Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Naphthalene Sulfonate

    Augustine U. Elinwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests are carried out to determine the fluidity of Ashaka Portland cement paste and its compatibility with sawdust ash (SDA as powder material for self-compacting cement (SCC mixtures. Results of the investigation showed that saturation was achieved at w/c ratios of 0.4 and 0.42, at dosages of naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizers of 3.5% and 2%, respectively. The optimum replacement level for the SCC mixture was 10 wt.% of cement by SDA and 2% of the superplasticizer dosage. The achieved spread and flow time were 26 cm and 8 seconds and are within the specified range of 24 cm to 26 cm and 7 to 11 seconds, respectively. Statistical inference showed that the mix, w/c, and the interaction between the mix and w/c ratio are significant.

  5. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4-4′-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2′-biphenyl (CBP) host show the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.5% and Commission Internationale d\\'Énclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.07). Hybrid white devices using fluorescent blue emitting layer with 1 and a phosphorescent orange emitting layer based on an iridium-complex show the peak external quantum efficiency above 10% and CIE coordinates of (0.31, 0.37). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Partitioning of naphthalene, methylnaphthalenes and biphenyl between wastewater treatment sludges and water

    Southworth, G.R.; Keller, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Partition coefficients (K/sub p/) describing the partitioning of naphthalene, methylnaphthalenes and biphenyl between organic-rich wastes and water were determined using 14 C-tracer techniques as well as high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the wastes and their aqueous extracts. Results of the two procedures were in good agreement. The concentrations of the specific organics in the wastes were not good predictors of concentrations in aqueous extracts, since K/sub p/ varied among the materials tested. Predictions of k/sub p/ based on organic carbon content of the sludges were well below observed values. Oil content of the wastes and oil-water partition coefficients appeared to be important factors in determining K/sub p/. 11 references, 5 tables

  7. 1-[(4-Bromophenyl(morpholin-4-ylmethyl]naphthalen-2-ol

    Qun Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H20BrNO2, was obtained via a one-pot synthesis from the reaction of 4-bromobenzaldehyde, 2-naphthol and morpholine. In the asymmetric unit, there are four molecules with similar structures. The morpholine ring adopts a chair conformation, and the hydroxy group links with the morpholine via an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond. The bromophenyl ring is approximately perpendicular to the mean pane of the naphthalene system at dihedral angles of 76.7 (3, 81.4 (3, 79.7 (3 and 84.5 (3° in the four independent molecules. Weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed in the crystal.

  8. 1-Benzyl-3-[3-(naphthalen-2-yloxypropyl]imidazolium hexafluorophosphate

    Kun Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C23H23N2O+·PF6−, the PF6− anion is highly disordered (occupancy ratios of 0.35:0.35:0.3, 0.7:0.15:0.15, 0.7:0.3 and 0.35:0.35:0.15:0.15 with the four F atoms in the equatorial plane rotating about the axial F—P—F bond. The mean plane of the imidazole ring makes dihedral angles of 82.44 (17 and 14.39 (16°, respectively, with the mean planes of the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...F hydrogen bonds. In addition, π–π [centroid–centroid distances = 3.7271 (19–3.8895 (17 Å] and C—H...π interactions are observed.

  9. Photoelectrochemical studies of dye-sensitized solar cells using organic dyes

    Marinado, Tannia

    2009-10-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) is a promising efficient low-cost molecular photovoltaic device. One of the key components in DSCs is the dye, as it is responsible for the capture of sunlight. State-of-the-art DSC devices, based on ruthenium dyes, show record efficiencies of 10-12 %. During the last decade, metal-free organic dyes have been extensively explored as sensitizers for DSC application. The use of organic dyes is particularly attractive as it enables easy structural modifications, due to fairly short synthetic routes and reduced material cost. Novel dye should in addition to the light-harvesting properties also be compatible with the DSC components. In this thesis, a series of new organic dyes are investigated, both when integrated in the DSC device and as individual components. The evaluation methods consisted of different electrochemical and photoelectrochemical techniques. Whereas the light-harvesting properties of the dyes were fairly easily improved, the behavior of the dye integrated in the DSC showed less predictable photovoltaic results. The dye series studied in Papers II and IV revealed that their dye energetics limited vital electron-transfer processes, the dye regeneration (Paper II) and injection quantum yield (Paper IV). Further, in Papers III-VI, it was observed that different dye structures seemed to alter the interfacial electron recombination with the electrolyte. In addition to the dye structure sterics, some organic dyes appear to enhance the interfacial recombination, possibly due to specific dye-redox acceptor interaction (Paper V). The impact of dye sterical modifications versus the use of coadsorbent was explored in Paper VI. The dye layer properties in the presence and absence of various coadsorbents were further investigated in Paper VII. The core of this thesis is the identification of the processes and properties limiting the performance of the DSC device, aiming at an overall understanding of the compatibility between the

  10. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or ethylene glycol was useful solvent for dye laser.

  11. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or Ethylene Glycol was useful solvent for dye laser. (author)

  12. BODIPYs for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Klfout, Hafsah; Stewart, Adam; Elkhalifa, Mahmoud; He, Hongshan

    2017-11-22

    BODIPY, abbreviation of boron-dipyrromethene, is one class of robust organic molecules that has been used widely in bioimaging, sensing, and logic gate design. Recently, BODIPY dyes have been explored for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Studies demonstrate their potential as light absorbers for the conversion of solar energy to electricity. However, their photovoltaic performance is inferior to many other dyes, including porphyrin dyes. In this review, several synthetic strategies of BODIPY dyes for DSCs and their further functionalization are described. The photophysical properties of dye molecules and their photovoltaic performances in DSCs are summarized. We aim to provide readers a clear picture of the field and expect to shed light on the next generation of BODIPY dyes for their applications in solar energy conversion.

  13. Influence of styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes

    Nizomov, Negmat; Barakaeva, Mubaro; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Rahimov, Sherzod I.; Khakimova, Dilorom P.; Khodjayev, Gayrat; Yashchuk, Valeriy N.

    2008-08-01

    It was studied the influence of F, Sbt, Sil, Sbo monomer and homodimer Dst-5, Dst-10, Dbt-5, Dbt-10, Dil-10, Dbo-10 styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes of white rats. It was shown that the homodimer styryl dyes Dst-5, Dbt-5 and Dbo-10 decrease the erythrocytes quantity by 1.5-2 times more as compared with monomer dyes Sbt and Sbo. The main cause of dyes different action is the different oxidation degree of intracellular hemoglobin evoked by these dyes. It was established that the observed effects was connected with different penetration of these dyes through membrane of erythrocytes and with interaction of these dyes with albumin localized in membranes of cells.

  14. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  15. Octane-Assisted Reverse Micellar Dyeing of Cotton with Reactive Dyes

    Alan Yiu-lun Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the computer colour matching (CCM of cotton fabrics dyed with reactive dye using the octane-assisted reverse micellar approach. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour quality and compare the accuracy between CCM forecasting and simulated dyeing produced by conventional water-based dyeing and octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing. First, the calibration of dyeing databases for both dyeing methods was established. Standard samples were dyed with known dye concentrations. Computer colour matching was conducted by using the colour difference formula of International Commission on Illumination (CIE L*a*b*. Experimental results revealed that the predicted concentrations were nearly the same as the expected known concentrations for both dyeing methods. This indicates that octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system can achieve colour matching as good as the conventional water-based dyeing system. In addition, when comparing the colour produced by the conventional water-based dyeing system and the octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system, the colour difference (ΔE is ≤1, which indicates that the reverse micellar dyeing system could be applied for industrial dyeing with CCM.

  16. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.

  18. Degradation reaction of Diazo reactive black 5 dye with copper (II) sulfate catalyst in thermolysis treatment.

    Lau, Yen-Yie; Wong, Yee-Shian; Ang, Tze-Zhang; Ong, Soon-An; Lutpi, Nabilah Aminah; Ho, Li-Ngee

    2018-03-01

    The theme of present research demonstrates performance of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO 4 ) as catalyst in thermolysis process to treat reactive black 5 (RB 5) dye. During thermolysis without presence of catalyst, heat was converted to thermal energy to break the enthalpy of chemical structure bonding and only 31.62% of color removal. With CuSO 4 support as auxiliary agent, the thermally cleaved molecular structure was further destabilized and reacted with CuSO 4 . Copper ions functioned to delocalize the coordination of π of the lone paired electron in azo bond, C=C bond of the sp 2 carbon to form C-C of the sp 3 amorphous carbon in benzene and naphthalene. Further, the radicals of unpaired electrons were stabilized and RB 5 was thermally decomposed to methyl group. Zeta potential measurement was carried out to analyze the mechanism of RB 5 degradation and measurement at 0 mV verified the critical chemical concentration (CCC) (0.7 g/L copper (II) sulfate), as the maximum 92.30% color removal. The presence of copper (II) sulfate catalyst has remarkably increase the RB 5 dye degradation as the degradation rate constant without catalyst, k 1 is 6.5224 whereas the degradation rate constant with catalyst, k 2 is 25.6810. This revealed the correlation of conversion of thermal energy from heat to break the chemical bond strength, subsequent fragmentation of RB 5 dye molecular mediated by copper (II) sulfate catalyst. The novel framework on thermolysis degradation of molecular structure of RB 5 with respect to the bond enthalpy and interfacial intermediates decomposition with catalyst reaction were determined.

  19. Biochemical study of some environmental pollutants dyes Part II: disperse dyes

    Shakra, S.; Ahmed, F.A.; Fetyan, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    This work was aimed to develop a method for removal of the dyes color from the textile wastewater that is well be much less costly than the other chemical or physical methods used. It therefore included: 1. Preparation of three disperses dyes. 2. Isolation of dyes degradable microorganisms from wastewater effluents and soil after adding 200 ppm of each dye individually. 3. Decolorisation and biodegradation of the dyes in liquid culture of the isolated bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis). 4. Identification of the probable byproducts by different instruments. 5. Toxicity assessment of the dyes and their biodegraded products

  20. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing behavior of heterocyclic acid dyes and mordent acid dyes on wool and silk fabrics

    Patel Hitendra M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic acid and mordent acid dyes were synthesized by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2- butyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzoylbenzofuran. The resulting heterocyclic acid dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR spectral studies and UV- visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the heterocyclic acid dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness.

  1. Fate of Colored Smoke Dyes

    1992-01-01

    4.13] have been applied to their estimation. This approach has the advantages of sensitivity and of not requiring high purity and known structures...Chrom absorbance detector, and an Alltech Econosil C-18 (10 micrometer) column (4.6 mm X 25 cm with guard column). The mobile phase, HPLC-grade methanol...water partition coefficient or vice versa. The HPLC method is of similar precision and has the advantage that known structure and purity of the dye are

  2. Broad band exciplex dye lasers

    Dienes, A.; Shank, C.V.; Trozzolo, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The disclosure is concerned with exciplex dye lasers, i.e., lasers in which the emitting species is a complex formed only from a constituent in an electronically excited state. Noting that an exciplex laser, favorable from the standpoint of broad tunability, results from a broad shift in the peak emission wavelength for the exciplex relative to the unreacted species, a desirable class resulting in such broad shift is described. Preferred classes of laser media utilizing specified resonant molecules are set forth. (auth)

  3. Dataset on analysis of dyeing property of natural dye from Thespesia populnea bark on different fabrics

    Kuchekar Mohini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural dyes separated from plants are of gaining interest as substitutes for synthetic dyes in food and cosmetics. Thespesia populnea (T. populnea is widely grown plant and used in the treatment of various diseases. This study was aimed to separate natural dye from T. populnea bark and analysis of its dyeing property on different fabrics. In this investigation pharmacognostic study was carried out. The pharmacognostic study includes morphological study, microscopical examination, proximate analysis along with the phytochemical study. The dyeing of different fabric was done with a natural dye extracted from T. populnea bark. The fabrics like cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa were dye with plant extract. The various evaluation parameters were studied. It includes effect of washing with water, effect of soap, effect of sunlight, effect of alum, effect of Cupric sulphate, microscopical study of fabrics and visual analysis of dyeing by common people were studied. In results, natural dye isolated from T. populnea bark could be used for dyeing fabrics with good fastness properties. The studies reveals that, the dyeing property of fabrics after washing with water and soap, exposed to sunlight does not get affected. It was observed that cotton and tarakasa stains better as compared with other fabrics. It was concluded that the ethanolic extract having good dyeing property. Keywords: Plant, Thespesia populnea, Bark, Natural dye, Fabrics

  4. FRET Sensor for Erythrosine Dye Based on Organic Nanoparticles: Application to Analysis of Food Stuff.

    Mahajan, Prasad G; Bhopate, Dhanaji P; Kolekar, Govind B; Patil, Shivajirao R

    2016-07-01

    An aqueous suspension of fluorescent nanoparticles (PHNNPs) of naphthol based fluorescent organic compound 1-[(Z)-(2-phenylhydrazinylidene) methyl] naphthalene -2-ol (PHN) were prepared using reprecipitation method shows bathochromically shifted aggregation induced enhanced emission (AIEE) in the spectral region where erythrosine (ETS) food dye absorbs strongly. The average size of 72.6 nm of aqueous suspension of PHNNPs obtained by Dynamic light scattering results shows a narrow particle size distribution. The negative zeta potential of nano probe (-22.6 mV) responsible to adsorb oppositely charged analyte on its surface and further permit to bind nano probe and analyte within the close distance proximity required for efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to take place from donor (PHNNPs) to acceptor (ETS). Systematic FRET experiments performed by measuring fluorescence quenching of PHNNPs with successive addition of ETS solution exploited the use of the PHNNPs as a novel nano probe for the detection of ETS in aqueous solution with extremely lower limit of detection equal to 3.6 nM (3.1 ng/mL). The estimation of photo kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as quenching rate constant, enthalpy change (∆H), Gibbs free energy change (∆G) and entropy change (∆S) was obtained by the quenching results obtained at different constant temperatures which were found to fit the well-known Stern-Volmer relation. The mechanism of binding and fluorescence quenching of PHNNPs by ETS food dye is proposed on the basis of results obtained in photophysical studies, thermodynamic parameter, energy transfer efficiency, critical energy transfer distance (R0) and distance of approach between donor-acceptor molecules (r). The proposed FRET method based on fluorescence quenching of PHNNPs was successfully applied to develop an analytical method for estimation of ETS from food stuffs without interference of other complex ingredients. Graphical Abstract A

  5. Synthesis and characterization of reactive dye-cassava mesocarp ...

    The synthesis of triazine based reactive dyes was carried out. The resultant dyes were characterized by thin layers chromatography, molecular weight, infrared and ultra- violet spectroscopy, and used in dyeing cassava mesocarp to produce dye modified cellulosic substrates. The dyed substrates were tested for dye fixation, ...

  6. Dye removal from textile wastewater using bioadsorbent

    Gardazi, S.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Textile industries throughout the world produce huge quantities of dyes and pigments annually. Effluents from textile industries are dye wastewater, and disposal of these wastes to freshwater bodies causes damage to the environment. Among the treatment technologies, adsorption is an attractive and viable option, provided that the sorbent is inexpensive and readily available for use. In this study, a typical basic dye, methylene blue, in wastewater was treated using Melia azedarach sawdust. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount and particle size were investigated on the removal efficiency of adsorbent for methylene blue. Complete removal of the dye were attained at higher adsorbent dose of 3 g/L with 50 mg/L initial dye concentration. The maximum adsorption was at 240 minutes, whereas more than 90% removal with 105 meu m particle size of 1 g/L adsorbent for same initial dye concentration. The experimental data best fits with 2 Langmuir adsorption isotherm (R= 0.991). (author)

  7. Biological wastewater treatment of azo dyes

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1988-09-01

    EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, undertook a study to determine the fate of specific water soluble azo dye compounds in the activated sludge process (ASP). The study was approached by dosing the feed to the pilot ASP systems with various water soluble azo dyes and by monitoring each dye compound through the system, analyzing both liquid and sludge samples. The fate of the parent dye compound was assessed via mass balance calculations. These data could determine if the compound was removed by adsorption, apparent biodegradation, or not removed at all. The paper presents results for 18 dye compounds tested from June 1985 through August 1987. The study was conducted at EPAs Test and Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The objective of this study was to determine the partitioning of water soluble azo dyes in the ASP.

  8. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Hardin, Brianâ E.; Moon, Soo-Jin; Baranoff, Etienne; Nà ¼ esch, Frank; McGehee, Michaelâ D.; Grà ¤ tzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammadâ K.

    2009-01-01

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture

  9. Time dependent – density functional theory characterization of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Hilal, Rifaat; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Osman, Osman I.; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    We aim at providing better insight into the parameters that govern the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-injection processes in dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD

  10. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Hardin, Brian E.; Hoke, Eric T.; Baranoff, Etienne; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K.; Torres, Tomas; McGehee, Michael D.; Grä tzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse

  11. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    Hardin, Brian E.; Hoke, Eric T.; Armstrong, Paul B.; Yum, Jun-Ho; Comte, Pascal; Torres, Tomá s; Fré chet, Jean M. J.; Nazeeruddin, Md Khaja; Grä tzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near

  12. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  13. Kinetics of naphthalene metabolism in target and non-target tissues of rodents and in nasal and airway microsomes from the Rhesus monkey

    Buckpitt, Alan, E-mail: arbuckpitt@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Morin, Dexter [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Murphy, Shannon; Edwards, Patricia; Van Winkle, Laura [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Center for Health and the Environment, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 United States (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Naphthalene produces species and cell selective injury to respiratory tract epithelial cells of rodents. In these studies we determined the apparent K{sub m}, V{sub max}, and catalytic efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) for naphthalene metabolism in microsomal preparations from subcompartments of the respiratory tract of rodents and non-human primates. In tissues with high substrate turnover, major metabolites were derived directly from naphthalene oxide with smaller amounts from conjugates of diol epoxide, diepoxide, and 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones. In some tissues, different enzymes with dissimilar K{sub m} and V{sub max} appeared to metabolize naphthalene. The rank order of V{sub max} (rat olfactory epithelium > mouse olfactory epithelium > murine airways ≫ rat airways) correlated well with tissue susceptibility to naphthalene. The V{sub max} in monkey alveolar subcompartment was 2% that in rat nasal olfactory epithelium. Rates of metabolism in nasal compartments of the monkey were low. The catalytic efficiencies of microsomes from known susceptible tissues/subcompartments are 10 and 250 fold higher than in rat airway and monkey alveolar subcompartments, respectively. Although the strong correlations between catalytic efficiencies and tissue susceptibility suggest that non-human primate tissues are unlikely to generate metabolites at a rate sufficient to produce cellular injury, other studies showing high levels of formation of protein adducts support the need for additional studies. - Highlights: • Naphthalene is metabolized with high catalytic efficiency in susceptible tissue. • Naphthalene is metabolized at low catalytic efficiency in non-susceptible tissue. • Respiratory tissues of the non human primate metabolize naphthalene slowly.

  14. Acute damage by naphthalene triggers expression of the neuroendocrine marker PGP9.5 in airway epithelial cells

    Poulsen, T.T.; Naizhen, X.; Linnoila, R.I.

    2008-01-01

    Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP9.5) is highly expressed in nervous tissue. Recently PGP9.5 expression has been found to be upregulated in the pulmonary epithelium of smokers and in non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting that it also plays a role in carcinogen-inflicted lung epithelial injury...... neuroendocrine markers was found in the non-neuroendocrine epithelial cells after naphthalene exposure. In contrast, immunostaining for the cell cycle regulator p27(Kip1), which has previously been associated with PGP9.5 in lung cancer cells, revealed transient downregulation of p27(Kip1) in naphthalene exposed...... and further strengthens the accumulating evidence of PGP9.5 as a central player in lung epithelial damage and early carcinogenesis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/26...

  15. Feasibility of scaffold production using Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy and naphthalene as space holder

    Pinto, Persio Mozart; Komorizono, Amanda Akemy; Antonini, Leonardo; Rodrigues Junior, Durval, E-mail: persiomozart@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The tissue engineering has as goal the repairing of bone defects, usually using a synthetic structure with pores in three dimensions, named scaffold. The structure of the scaffolds present interconnected pores, with controlled porosity, according to the process used to produce the scaffold. The present work has as main objective the processing of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy (percentages in weight) using the powder metallurgy technique named space-holder, to obtain porous scaffolds for osseointegration. Firstly, elementary powders of Ti, Nb, and Zr were weighted to obtain the composition 74wt.%Ti+13wt.%Nb+13wt.%Zr, such that 3.5g was direct mixed with naphthalene, named 'control' condition, and 3.5g was milled in a SPEX mill for 8h (sample MA8h), using grinding midia of tungsten carbide and isopropyl alcohol as process controlling agent. Both powders, in 'control' and MA8h conditions, were mixed with naphthalene powder (50% in volume and particle size in the range from 500μm to 1mm) for 30 minutes. The powders mixed with naftalen were pressed to obtain green bodies and sintered at 1000°C for 1h in vacuum better than 5 x 10{sup -5} mbar. The sintered samples were characterized using XRD, He picnometry, optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, and microhardness test. From the XRD results, it could be found the presence of titanium α and β phases, also present in the SEM-EDX analyses. The SEM analyses also showed, in the samples, the presence of widmantäten microstructure and a structure of pores, with size in the range from 300μm to 1mm. The observed pores were also interconnected and were connected to the surface. From the results of He picnometry and microscopy, it could be observed that the samples presented porosity in the range from 30% to 50% in volume. It could be concluded that it is possible to obtain scaffolds of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy using the techniques developed in the present work. (author)

  16. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  17. In situ, real-time catabolic gene expression: Extraction and characterization of naphthalene dioxygenase mRNA transcripts from groundwater

    Wilson, M.S.; Bakermans, C.; Madsen, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors developed procedures for isolating and characterizing in situ-transcribed mRNA from groundwater microorganisms catabolizing naphthalene at a coal tar waste-contaminated site. Groundwater was pumped through 0.22-microm-pore-size filters, which were then frozen to dry ice-ethanol. RNA was extracted from the frozen filters by boiling sodium dodecyl sulfate lysis and acidic phenol-chloroform extraction. Transcript characterization was performed with a series of PCR primers designed to amplify nahAc homologs. Several primer pairs were found to amplify nahAc homologs representing the entire diversity of the naphthalene-degrading genes. The environmental RNA extract was reverse transcribed, and the resultant mixture of cDNAs was amplified by PCR. A digoxigenin-labeled probe mixture was produced by PCR amplification of groundwater cDNA. This probe mixture hybridized under stringent conditions with the corresponding PCR products from naphthalene-degrading bacteria carrying a variety of nahAc homologs, indicating that diverse dioxygenase transcripts had been retrieved from groundwater. Diluted and undiluted cDNA preparations were independently amplified, and 28 of the resulting PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparisons revealed two major groups related to the dioxygenase genes ndoB and dntAc, previously cloned from Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4 and Burkholderia sp. strain DNT, respectively. A distinctive subgroup of sequences was found only in experiments performed with the undiluted cDNA preparation. To the authors' knowledge, these results are the first to directly document in situ transcription of genes encoding naphthalene catabolism at a contaminated site by indigenous microorganisms. The retrieved sequences represent greater diversity than has been detected at the study site by culture-based approaches

  18. PBTK modeling demonstrates contribution of dermal and inhalation exposure components to end-exhaled breath concentrations of naphthalene.

    Kim, David; Andersen, Melvin E; Chao, Yi-Chun E; Egeghy, Peter P; Rappaport, Stephen M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2007-06-01

    Dermal and inhalation exposure to jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) have been measured in a few occupational exposure studies. However, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between external exposures and end-exhaled air concentrations has not been described for occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Our goal was to construct a physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model that quantitatively describes the relative contribution of dermal and inhalation exposures to the end-exhaled air concentrations of naphthalene among U.S. Air Force personnel. The PBTK model comprised five compartments representing the stratum corneum, viable epidermis, blood, fat, and other tissues. The parameters were optimized using exclusively human exposure and biological monitoring data. The optimized values of parameters for naphthalene were a) permeability coefficient for the stratum corneum 6.8 x 10(-5) cm/hr, b) permeability coefficient for the viable epidermis 3.0 x 10(-3) cm/hr, c) fat:blood partition coefficient 25.6, and d) other tissue:blood partition coefficient 5.2. The skin permeability coefficient was comparable to the values estimated from in vitro studies. Based on simulations of workers' exposures to JP-8 during aircraft fuel-cell maintenance operations, the median relative contribution of dermal exposure to the end-exhaled breath concentration of naphthalene was 4% (10th percentile 1% and 90th percentile 11%). PBTK modeling allowed contributions of the end-exhaled air concentration of naphthalene to be partitioned between dermal and inhalation routes of exposure. Further study of inter- and intraindividual variations in exposure assessment is required to better characterize the toxicokinetic behavior of JP-8 components after occupational and/or environmental exposures.

  19. Naphthalene bisimides asymmetrically and symmetrically N-substituted with triarylamine - comparison of spectroscopic, electrochemical, electronic and self-assembly properties

    Rybakiewicz, R.; Zapala, J.; Djurado, D.; Nowakowski, R.; Toman, Petr; Pfleger, Jiří; Verilhac, J.-M.; Zagorska, M.; Pron, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2013), s. 1578-1587 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280; GA MŠk 7E10040 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247745 - FlexNet Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : naphthalene bisimides * density functional theory * electrochemistry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.198, year: 2013

  20. Theoretical study of the oxidation mechanisms of naphthalene initiated by hydroxyl radicals: the OH-addition pathway.

    Shiroudi, Abolfazl; Deleuze, Michael S; Canneaux, Sébastien

    2014-07-03

    The oxidation mechanisms of naphthalene by OH radicals under inert (He) conditions have been studied using density functional theory along with various exchange-correlation functionals. Comparison has been made with benchmark CBS-QB3 theoretical results. Kinetic rate constants were correspondingly estimated by means of transition state theory and statistical Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory. Comparison with experiment confirms that, on the OH-addition reaction pathway leading to 1-naphthol, the first bimolecular reaction step has an effective negative activation energy around -1.5 kcal mol(-1), whereas this step is characterized by an activation energy around 1 kcal mol(-1) on the OH-addition reaction pathway leading to 2-naphthol. Effective rate constants have been calculated according to a steady state analysis upon a two-step model reaction mechanism. In line with experiment, the correspondingly obtained branching ratios indicate that, at temperatures lower than 410 K, the most abundant product resulting from the oxidation of naphthalene by OH radicals must be 1-naphthol. The regioselectivity of the OH(•)-addition onto naphthalene decreases with increasing temperatures and decreasing pressures. Because of slightly positive or even negative activation energies, the RRKM calculations demonstrate that the transition state approximation breaks down at ambient pressure (1 bar) for the first bimolecular reaction steps. Overwhelmingly high pressures, larger than 10(5) bar, would be required for restoring to some extent (within ∼5% accuracy) the validity of this approximation for all the reaction channels that are involved in the OH-addition pathway. Analysis of the computed structures, bond orders, and free energy profiles demonstrate that all reaction steps involved in the oxidation of naphthalene by OH radicals satisfy Leffler-Hammond's principle. Nucleus independent chemical shift indices and natural bond orbital analysis also show that the computed

  1. Simultaneous determination of naphthalene and anthraquinone derivatives in Rumex nepalensis Spreng. roots by HPLC: comparison of different extraction methods and validation.

    Gautam, Raju; Srivastava, Amit; Jachak, Sanjay M

    2011-01-01

    Rumex nepalensis contains mainly anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives. Although HPLC methods have been reported for the analysis of anthraquinones, neither a phytochemical analysis of Rumex species nor the simultaneous determination of anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives in other samples has been reported so far. To develop and validate a HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives in R. nepalensis roots. Anthraquinones and naphthalenes were extracted from R. nepalensis roots by three methods (reflux, ultrasonication and pressurized liquid extraction) using methanol. Separation was achieved on an RP C₁₈ column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.05% orthophosphoric acid in water (solvent A) and methanol (solvent B) using a UV detector (254 nm). Small differences were observed in the contents of anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives extracted by the three methods. Chrysophanol-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and nepodin were detected as major constituents. The method showed a good linearity (r² > 0.9992), high precision (RSD anthraquinones and naphthalenes in R. nepalensis and other Rumex species for both quality control as well as routine analytical purposes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  3. Micro-Cavity Fluidic Dye Laser

    Helbo, Bjarne; Kristensen, Anders; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2003-01-01

    We have successfully designed, fabricated and characterized a micro-cavity fluidic dye laser with metallic mirrors, which can be integrated with polymer based lab-on-a-chip microsystems without further processing steps. A simple rate-equation model is used to predict the average pumping power...... threshold for lasing as function of cavity-mirror reflectance, laser dye concentration and cavity length. The laser device is characterized using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol. Lasing is observed, and the influence of dye concentration is investigated....

  4. Ultrasonic assisted dyeing: dyeing of acrylic fabrics C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200%.

    Kamel, M M; Helmy, H M; Mashaly, H M; Kafafy, H H

    2010-01-01

    The dyeing of acrylic fabrics using C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200% has been studied with both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effect of dye concentration, dye bath pH, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with both techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic than with conventional heating. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were studied. X-ray and Scanning Electron Microscope SEM were carried out on dyed samples using both methods of dyeing to find out an explanation for the better dyeability of acrylic fabrics with (US) method. Dyeing kinetics of acrylic fabrics using C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200% using conventional and ultrasonic conditions were compared. The time/dye-uptake isotherms are revealing the enhanced dye-uptake in the second phase of dyeing. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time of dyeing and standard affinity and ultrasonic efficiency have been calculated and discussed.

  5. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Hardin, Brian E.; Yum, Jun-Ho; Hoke, Eric T.; Jun, Young Chul; Péchy, Peter; Torres, Tomás; Brongersma, Mark L.; Nazeeruddin, Md. Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3

  6. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  7. Acid-base indicator properties of dyes from local plants I: Dyes from ...

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Acid-base indicator properties of dyes from local plants I: Dyes from Basella alba. (Indian spinach) and ... solution, which change colour immediately after the equivalence point has .... The pH ranges over which the dyes change colour were ...

  8. Carbon-coated boron using low-cost naphthalene for substantial enhancement of Jc in MgB2 superconductor

    Ranot, Mahipal; Shinde, K. P.; Oh, Y. S.; Kang, S. H.; Jang, S. H.; Hwang, D. Y.; Chung, K. C. [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Carbon coating approach is used to prepare carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} bulk samples using low-cost naphthalene (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}) as a carbon source. The coating of carbon (C) on boron (B) powders was achieved by direct pyrolysis of naphthalene at 120 degrees C and then the C-coated B powders were mixed well with appropriate amount of Mg by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there is a noticeable shift in (100) and (110) Bragg reflections towards higher angles, while no shift was observed in (002) reflections for MgB2 doped with carbon. As compared to un-doped MgB{sub 2}, a systematic enhancement in Jc(H) properties with increasing carbon doping level was observed for naphthalene-derived C-doped MgB{sub 2} samples. The substantial enhancement in Jc is most likely due to the incorporation of C into MgB{sub 2} lattice and the reduction in crystallite size, as evidenced by the increase in the FWHM values for doped samples.

  9. Photoinduced toxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, and naphthalene) to the duckweed Lemna gibba L. G-3

    Ren, L.; Huang, X.D.; McConkey, B.J.; Dixon, D.G.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors recently demonstrated that light dramatically enhances the hazards of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), anthracene, phenanthrene, and benzo[a]pyrene, to the duckweed Lemna gibba L. G-3 (X.-D. Huang, D. G. Dixon, and B. M. Greenberg, 1993, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 12, 1067-1077). To extend this research, growth and chlorosis were used as end points to assess the photoinduced toxicity of three additional PAHs, fluoranthene, pyrene, and naphthalene, to L. gibba in the presence of simulated solar radiation (a light source with a UV-B: UV-A:visible light ratio equivalent to that of sunlight). The phytotoxicity of these three PAHs was photoactivated, with ultraviolet radiation being the only spectral region that enhanced the harmful effects of the chemicals. Dose-response curves based on chemical concentration and light intensity revealed that the order of phytotoxic strength was fluoranthene > pyrene > naphthalene. To explore whether photomodification (in addition to photosensitization) of fluoranthene, pyrene, and naphthalene could contribute to photoinduced toxicity, the chemicals were irradiated prior to (as opposed to simultaneously with) application to the plans. The rates of photomodification of the three PAHs were rapid enough for the photooxidized compounds to contribute to toxicity, and the photomodified PAHs were more toxic than the parent compounds. As well, toxicity could be correlated to photomodification; impacts increased in parallel with the extent of photomodification

  10. Dynamic quantum crystallography: lattice-dynamical models refined against diffraction data. II. Applications to L-alanine, naphthalene and xylitol.

    Hoser, Anna A; Madsen, Anders Ø

    2017-03-01

    In the first paper of this series [Hoser & Madsen (2016). Acta Cryst. A72, 206-214], a new approach was introduced which enables the refinement of frequencies of normal modes obtained from ab initio periodic computations against single-crystal diffraction data. In this contribution, the performance of this approach is tested by refinement against data in the temperature range from 23 to 205 K on the molecular crystals of L-alanine, naphthalene and xylitol. The models, which are lattice-dynamical models derived at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone, are able to describe the atomic vibrations of L-alanine and naphthalene to a level where the residual densities are similar to those obtained from the independent atom model. For the more flexible molecule xylitol, larger deviations are found. Hydrogen ADPs (anisotropic displacement parameters) derived from the models are in similar or better agreement with neutron diffraction results than ADPs obtained by other procedures. The heat capacity calculated after normal mode refinement for naphthalene is in reasonable agreement with the heat capacity obtained from calorimetric measurements (to less than 1 cal mol -1  K -1 below 300 K), with deviations at higher temperatures indicating anharmonicity. Standard uncertainties and correlation of the refined parameters have been derived based on a Monte Carlo procedure. The uncertainties are quite small and probably underestimated.

  11. Optimization of the synthesis of SAPO-11 for the methylation of naphthalene with methanol by varying templates and template content

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Liangfu; Xiang, Hongwei; Guo, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    SAPO-11 zeolites were successfully synthesized by using three different templates (diethylamine (DEA), di-n-propylamine (DPA) and di-isopropylamine (DIPA)) and varying DPA contents (nDPA/Al 2 O 3 = 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0) under hydrothermal conditions. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N 2 adsorption-desorption, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH 3 -TPD) and 29 Si magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The samples were also evaluated towards the methylation of naphthalene with methanol to produce 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene (2,6-DMN). XRD results indicated that the directing effect of the different templates for AEL (Aluminophosphate-ELeven) structure decreased in the order DPA > DEA > DIPA and the most suitable DPA content was nDPA/Al 2 O 3 = 1.2. N 2 adsorption-desorption results showed that SAPO-11(DPA,1.2) exhibited the broadest pore size distribution, the highest BET specific surface area and the largest pore volume among all the SAPO-11 samples. SAPO-11(DPA,1.2) exhibited high catalytic performances in the methylation of naphthalene due to its high crystallinity, high external surface and broad pore size distribution. The pore structure of SAPO-11 zeolite, rather than its acidity, played an important role in achieving high catalytic performances in the methylation of naphthalene with methanol. (author)

  12. Aerobic decolourization of two reactive azo dyes under varying ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Azo dyes generally resist aerobic microbial degra- dation, only organisms with specialized azo dye reducing enzymes were found to degrade azo dyes under fully aerobic ... textile mill, in sterile plastic bottles. Isolation of ...

  13. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Chinese forest soil: Will combustion become a major source?

    Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Zheng, Qian; Pan, Suhong; Luo, Chunling; Zhu, Haolin; Nizzetto, Luca; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    We collected O- and A-horizon soil samples in 26 Chinese mountainous forests to investigate the content, spatial pattern, and potential sources of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Spatial patterns were influenced mainly by the approximation to sources and soil organic contents. High concentrations often occurred close to populated or industrialized areas. Combustion-related activities contributed to PCN pollution. Relatively high proportions of CN-73 in northern China may be attributed to coke consumption, while CN-51 could be an indicator of biomass burning in Southwest China. There are evidences that PCNs may largely derived from unintentional production. If uncontrolled, UP-PCN (unintentionally produced PCNs) emissions could increase with industrial development. The abnormally high concentrations at Gongga and Changbai Mountains appear to be associated with the high efficient of forest filter of atmospheric contaminants at these densely forested sites. We question whether this is caused by ecotones between forests, and raise additional questions for future analyses. - Highlights: • PCNs were measured in the O- and A-horizon soil of Chinese mountainous forests. • SOC and source emissions are mainly responsible for PCN pollution. • Thermal processes may contribute to PCN pollution on a regional scale. • CN-73 could be an indicator of coke consumption in northern China. - Combustion-related activities may contributed to a major part of PCN pollution in Chinese background soil

  14. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in urban soils: analysis, concentrations, and relation to other persistent organic pollutants

    Krauss, Martin; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Some of the first data on polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in soils are presented from a rural-urban-industrial gradient. - We determined the concentrations of 35 PCNs, 12 PCBs, and 20 PAHs in 49 urban topsoils under different land use (house garden, roadside grassland, alluvial grassland, park areas, industrial sites, agricultural sites) and in nine rural topsoils. The sums of concentrations of 35 PCNs (Σ35 PCNs) were -1 in urban soils and -1 in rural soils. The PCN, PCB, and PAH concentrations were highest at industrial sites and in house gardens. While rural soils receive PCNs, PCBs, and PAHs by common atmospheric deposition, there are site-specific sources of PCNs, PCBs, and PAHs for urban soils such as deposition of contaminated technogenic materials. The PCN, PCB, and PAH concentrations decreased from the central urban to the rural area. In the same order the contribution of lower chlorinated PCNs and PCBs increased because they are more volatile and subject to increased atmospheric transport. The PCNs 52+60, and 73 were more abundant in soil samples than in Halowax mixtures, indicating that combustion contributed to the PCN contamination of the soils

  15. Synthesis and photophysical properties of a series of cyclopenta[b]naphthalene solvatochromic fluorophores.

    Benedetti, Erica; Kocsis, Laura S; Brummond, Kay M

    2012-08-01

    The synthesis and photophysical properties of a series of naphthalene-containing solvatochromic fluorophores are described within. These novel fluorophores are prepared using a microwave-assisted dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction of styrene, followed by a palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reaction to install an electron donating amine group. The new fluorophores are structurally related to Prodan. Photophysical properties of the new fluorophores were studied and intriguing solvatochromic behavior was observed. For most of these fluorophores, high quantum yields (60-99%) were observed in methylene chloride in addition to large Stokes shifts (95-226 nm) in this same solvent. As the solvent polarity increased, so did the observed Stokes shift with one derivative displaying a Stokes shift of ~300 nm in ethanol. All fluorophore emission maxima, and nearly all absorption maxima were significantly red-shifted when compared to Prodan. Shifting the absorption and emission maxima of a fluorophore into the visible region increases its utility in biological applications. Moreover, the cyclopentane portion of the fluorophore structure provides an attachment point for biomolecules that will minimize disruptions of the photophysical properties.

  16. SOA formation from photooxidation of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes with m-xylene and surrogate mixtures

    Chen, Chia-Li; Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Cocker, David R.

    2018-05-01

    SOA formation is not well predicted in current models in urban area. The interaction among multiple anthropogenic volatile organic compounds is essential for the SOA formation in the complex urban atmosphere. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, and 2-methylnaphthalene as well as individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mixed with m-xylene or an atmospheric surrogate mixture was explored in the UCR CE-CERT environmental chamber under urban relevant low NOx and extremely low NOx (H2O2) conditions. Addition of m-xylene suppressed SOA formation from the individual PAH precursor. A similar suppression effect on SOA formation was observed during the surrogate mixture photooxidation suggesting the importance of gas-phase chemical reactivity to SOA formation. The SOA growth rate for different PAH-m-xylene mixtures was strongly correlated with initial [HO2]/[RO2] ratio but negatively correlated with initial m-xylene/NO ratio. Decreasing SOA formation was observed for increasing m-xylene/PAHs ratios and increasing initial m-xylene/NO ratio. The SOA chemical composition characteristics such as f44 versus f43, H/C ratio, O/C ratio, and the oxidation state of the carbon OSbarc were consistent with a continuously aging with the SOA exhibiting characteristics of both individual precursors. SOA formation from PAHs was also suppressed within an atmospheric surrogate mixture compared to the SOA formed from individual PAHs, indicating that atmospheric reactivity directly influences SOA formation from PAHs.

  17. Vapor pressures, thermodynamic stability, and fluorescence properties of three 2,6-alkyl naphthalenes.

    Santos, Ana Filipa L O M; Oliveira, Juliana A S A; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D M C; Monte, Manuel J S

    2016-03-01

    This work reports the experimental determination of relevant thermodynamic properties and the characterization of luminescence properties of the following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): 2,6-diethylnaphthalene, 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene and 2,6-di-tert-butylnaphthalene. The standard (p(o) = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion, ΔcHm(o), of the three compounds were determined using static bomb combustion calorimetry. The vapor pressures of the crystalline phase of 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene and 2,6-di-tert-butylnaphthalene were measured at different temperatures using the Knudsen effusion method and the vapor pressures of both liquid and crystalline phases of 2,6-diethylnaphthalene were measured by means of a static method. The temperatures and the molar enthalpies of fusion of the three compounds were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The gas-phase molar heat capacities and absolute entropies of the three 2,6-dialkylnaphthalenes studied were determined computationally. The thermodynamic stability of the compounds in both the crystalline and gaseous phases was evaluated by the determination of the Gibbs energies of formation and compared with the ones reported in the literature for 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene. From fluorescence spectroscopy measurements, the optical properties of the compounds studied and of naphthalene were evaluated in solution and in the solid state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCNs) behavior in the thermal destruction process of wastes containing PCNs

    Noma, Y.; Sakai, Shin-ichi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Giraud, R. [DuPont Engineering Technology Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) can compose a mixture of up to 75 congeners and eight CN homologue groups. The large-scale manufacture of PCNs and their main use from 1910 to 1980 as popular industrial compounds become a main source of environmental pollution. The production and use of PCNs were phased out in the US and Europe in the 1980s due to their toxicity and environmental persistence. Although PCNs were also banned for import and manufacture from the year 1979 in Japan, PCN wax was accidentally imported during 1998-2000 to manufacture Neoprene FB polymer, which is a special grade of synthetic rubber product. Rubber belts (FB belts) were made from Neoprene FB and used for the domestic market during 1999-2001. Large efforts recalled all FB polymer as well as finished products containing FB polymer from distribution channels. Most of the remaining finished products in the marketplace will probably be incinerated as wastes after usage in the near future. Therefore, testing was conducted using the thermal testing plant equipment in order to evaluate the emissions from thermal destruction of FB belts containing PCNs, determining TEQ emissions, studying PCNs behavior, considering the mixture effect of FB belts co-incinerated with municipal solid waste (MSW) and examining the effect of two-stage combustion and post-combustion controls. Material balances were analyzed to grasp input and output of PCNs and the destruction behaviors are examined by congener specific analysis of PCNs.

  19. Regiospecific and stereoselective hydroxylation of 1-indanone and 2-indanone by naphthalene dioxygenase and toluene dioxygenase.

    Resnick, S M; Torok, D S; Lee, K; Brand, J M; Gibson, D T

    1994-09-01

    The biotransformation of 1-indanone and 2-indanone to hydroxyindanones was examined with bacterial strains expressing naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) and toluene dioxygenase (TDO) as well as with purified enzyme components. Pseudomonas sp. strain 9816/11 cells, expressing NDO, oxidized 1-indanone to a mixture of 3-hydroxy-1-indanone (91%) and 2-hydroxy-1-indanone (9%). The (R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone was formed in 62% enantiomeric excess (ee) (R:S, 81:19), while the 2-hydroxy-1-indanone was racemic. The same cells also formed 2-hydroxy-1-indanone from 2-indanone. Purified NDO components oxidized 1-indanone and 2-indanone to the same products produced by strain 9816/11. P. putida F39/D cells, expressing TDO, oxidized 2-indanone to (S)-2-hydroxy-1-indanone of 76% ee (R:S, 12:88) but did not oxidize 1-indanone efficiently. Purified TDO components also oxidized 2-indanone to (S)-2-hydroxy-1-indanone of 90% ee (R:S, 5:95) and failed to oxidize 1-indanone. Oxidation of 1- and 2-indanone in the presence of [18O]oxygen indicated that the hydroxyindanones were formed by the incorporation of a single atom of molecular oxygen (monooxygenation) rather than by the dioxygenation of enol tautomers of the ketone substrates. As alternatives to chemical synthesis, these biotransformations represent direct routes to 3-hydroxy-1-indanone and 2-hydroxy-1-indanone as the major products from 1-indanone and 2-indanone, respectively.

  20. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  1. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  2. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO2. In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization.

  3. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO 2 . In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO 2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO 2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO 2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO 2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO 2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO 2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization. (paper)

  4. Theoretical study of indoline dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Ham, Ho Wan; Kim, Young Sik

    2010-01-01

    Indoline dye sensitizers were designed and studied theoretically to increase molar extinction coefficients in the visible to near infrared region for solar-cell devices. To gain insight into dye sensitizers' structural, electronic, and optical properties, DFT/TDDFT calculations were performed on a series of dye sensitizers derived from the D149. The good agreement between the experimental and TDDFT calculated absorption spectra of the D149 sensitizer allowed us to provide a detailed assessment of the main spectral features of a series of dye sensitizers. Increase in the conjugation length resulted in a more red-shifted spectral response and less positive oxidation potential than that of the D149. The dye with the dimethylfluorene group showed stronger absorption bands due to a large dipole moment. The calculated dipoles for the dye series correlate well with the observed strong absorption bands of the electronic spectra. These results provided useful clues for the molecular engineering of efficient organic dye sensitizers.

  5. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers

    Grossmann, Tobias; Schleede, Simone; Hauser, Mario

    2010-01-01

    element simulations confirm that lasing occurs in whispering gallery modes which corresponds well to the measured multimode laser-emission. The effect of dye concentration on lasing threshold and lasing wavelength is investigated and can be explained using a standard dye laser model....

  7. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Harold S. Freeman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Photofrin® was first approved in the 1990s as a sensitizer for use in treating cancer via photodynamic therapy (PDT. Since then a wide variety of dye sensitizers have been developed and a few have been approved for PDT treatment of skin and organ cancers and skin diseases such as acne vulgaris. Porphyrinoid derivatives and precursors have been the most successful in producing requisite singlet oxygen, with Photofrin® still remaining the most efficient sensitizer (quantum yield = 0.89 and having broad food and drug administration (FDA approval for treatment of multiple cancer types. Other porphyrinoid compounds that have received approval from US FDA and regulatory authorities in other countries include benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, meta-tetra(hydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC, N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6, and precursors to endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX: 1,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, hexaminolevulinate (HAL. Although no non-porphyrin sensitizer has been approved for PDT applications, a small number of anthraquinone, phenothiazine, xanthene, cyanine, and curcuminoid sensitizers are under consideration and some are being evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on the nature of PDT, dye sensitizers that have been approved for use in PDT, and compounds that have entered or completed clinical trials as PDT sensitizers.

  8. Tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback dye lasers

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback (DFB) dye lasers. The lasers rely on light-confinement in a nano-structured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels constitutes a third order Bragg grating DFB laser resonator with a central phase-shift. The lasers...... are operated by filling the DFB laser resonator with a dye solution by capillary action and optical pumping with a frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser. The low reflection order of the DFB laser resonator yields low out-of-plane scattering losses as well as a large free spectral range (FSR), and low threshold...... fluences down to similar to 7 mu J/mm2 are observed. The large FSR facilitates wavelength tuning over the full gain spectrum of the chosen laser dye and we demonstrate 45 nm tunability using a single laser dye by changing the grating period and dye solution refractive index. The lasers are straight...

  9. Gas-phase naphthalene concentration data recovery in ambient air and its relevance as a tracer of sources of volatile organic compounds

    Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Navazo, Marino; de Blas, Maite; Durana, Nieves; Alonso, Lucio; Iza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Despite the toxicity of naphthalene and the fact that it is a precursor of atmospheric photooxidants and secondary aerosol, studies on ambient gas-phase naphthalene are generally scarce. Moreover, as far as we are concerned, this is the first published one using long-term hourly ambient gas-phase naphthalene concentrations. In this work, it has been also demonstrated the usefulness of ambient gas-phase naphthalene to identify major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in complex scenarios. Initially, in order to identify main benzene emission sources, hourly ambient measurements of 60 VOC were taken during a complete year together with meteorological data in an urban/industrial area. Later, due to the observed co-linearity of some of the emissions, a procedure was developed to recover naphthalene concentration data from recorded chromatograms to use it as a tracer of the combustion and distillation of petroleum products. The characteristic retention time of this compound was determined comparing previous GC-MS and GC-FID simultaneous analysis by means of relative retention times, and its concentration was calculated by using relative response factors. The obtained naphthalene concentrations correlated fairly well with ethene (r = 0.86) and benzene (r = 0.92). Besides, the analysis of daily time series showed that these compounds followed a similar pattern, very different from that of other VOC, with minimum concentrations at day-time. This, together with the results from the assessment of the meteorological dependence pointed out a coke oven as the major naphthalene and benzene emitting sources in the study area.

  10. Exploiting the efficacy of Lysinibacillus sp. RGS for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes, textile effluent and bioreactor studies.

    Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kim, Dong S

    2015-01-01

    Complete decolorization and detoxification of Reactive Orange 4 within 5 h (pH 6.6, at 30°C) by isolated Lysinibacillus sp. RGS was observed. Significant reduction in TOC (93%) and COD (90%) was indicative of conversion of complex dye into simple products, which were identified as naphthalene moieties by various analytical techniques (HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS). Supplementation of agricultural waste extract considered as better option to make the process cost effective. Oxido-reductive enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation mechanism. Finally Loofa immobilized Lysinibacillus sp. cells in a fixed-bed bioreactor showed significant decolorization with reduction in TOC (51 and 64%) and COD (54 and 66%) for synthetic and textile effluent at 30 and 35 mL h(-1) feeding rate, respectively. The degraded metabolites showed non-toxic nature revealed by phytotoxicity and photosynthetic pigments content study for Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo. In addition nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing microbes were less affected in treated wastewater and thus the treated effluent can be used for the irrigation purpose. This work could be useful for the development of efficient and ecofriendly technologies to reduce dye content in the wastewater to permissible levels at affordable cost.

  11. Gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of atmospheric polychlorinated naphthalenes

    Li, Fang [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jin, Jing [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Xiaoli [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Xueli; Li, Yun; Shah, Syed Mazhar [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Chen, Jiping, E-mail: chenjp@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric PCNs were detected by isotope-dilution GC–MS/MS. • The pollution levels of PCNs covering from mono- to octa-CNs were investigated comprehensively in air samples. • The dioxin-like toxicity and human exposure levels of PCNs in air samples were estimated. - Abstract: Atmospheric polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) ranging from mono-CNs to octa-CNs were detected using isotope-dilution gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). The developed instrumental method was successfully applied to the determination of PCNs in technical products. It was observed that there were significant differences in concentrations, homologue profiles, chlorinated contents and total toxic equivalents (∑TEQs) of PCNs for four Halowax products. Subsequently, the validation of the analytical method was evaluated for the determination of PCNs in air samples in terms of method detection limit (MDL), recovery and matrix effect. The results demonstrated that this method could provide satisfactory sensitivity and adequate selectivity with lower cost. It was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the levels, composition patterns, ∑TEQs, and daily intake exposure of PCNs in indoor and outdoor air samples. Concentrations and ∑TEQs of PCNs in air samples ranged 47.7–832.7 pg m{sup −3} and 1.31–5.99 fg m{sup −3}, respectively, and the predominant homologues were di- and tri-CNs in the gas phase. The results indicated that this analytical method was useful for the accurate and specific evaluation of dioxin-like toxicity and human exposure levels of PCNs in the atmosphere.

  12. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment.

    Aravind, Priyadharshini; Selvaraj, Hosimin; Ferro, Sergio; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2016-11-15

    A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO2-RuO2-TiO2 anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC-MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanism of azo dye degradation in Advanced Oxidation Processes: Degradation of Sulfanilic Acid Azochromotrop and its parent compounds in aqueous solution by ionizing radiation

    Palfi, Tamas; Wojnarovits, Laszlo; Takacs, Erzsebet

    2011-01-01

    Mechanistic studies were made on hydroxyl radical and hydrated electron reaction with Sulfanilic Acid Azochromotrop (SPADNS) as model azo dye in dilute aqueous solution. SPADNS contains 4,5-dihydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid part and 4-sulfophenylazo group. To establish the details of the reaction mechanism the reactions of two simpler molecules without 4-sulfophenylazo part were also studied: one of them contained one (in position 4, II), the other two (in positions 4 and 5, III) -OH groups. Hydroxyl radicals react with these molecules with radical addition to the naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid part. The adduct hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical decays in radical-radical reactions, or undergoes a (pH dependent) water elimination to yield naphthoxy radical. The radical decay takes place on the ms timescale. Degradation efficiencies are 0.6-0.8. Hydrated electron in the case of the two simpler molecules reacts with the rings, while in the case of dye with the azo bond. Electron scavenging is followed by protonation, this reaction in the case of II and III yields cyclohexadienyl, while with the dye hydrazo radical. The efficiency of degradation with II and III is 0.2-0.6, while for SPADNS it is close to 1.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of mixed dye: Natural and synthetic organic dye

    Richhariya, Geetam; Kumar, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Mixed dye from hibiscus sabdariffa and eosin Y was employed in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Nanostructured mesoporous film was prepared from the titanium dioxide (TiO2). The energy conversion efficiency of hibiscus, eosin Y and mixed dye was obtained as 0.41%, 1.53% and 2.02% respectively. Mixed DSSC has shown improvement in the performance of the cell as compared to hibiscus and eosin Y dye due to addition of synthetic organic dye. This illustrates the effect of synthetic organic dyes in performance enhancement of natural dyes. It has been credited to the improved absorption of light mainly in higher energy state (λ = 440-560 nm) when two dyes were employed simultaneously as was obvious from the absorption spectra of dyes adsorbed onto TiO2 electrode. The cell with TiO2 electrode sensitized by mixed dye gives short circuit current density (Jsc) = 4.01 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.67 V, fill factor (FF) = 0.60 and energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.02%.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Photochemistry of triarylmethane dyes bound to proteins

    Indig, Guilherme L.

    1996-04-01

    Triarylmethanes represent a class of cationic dyes whose potential as photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy of neoplastic diseases has never been comprehensively evaluated. Here, the laser-induced photodecomposition of three triarylmethane dyes, crystal violet, ethyl violet, and malachite green, non-covalently bound to bovine serum albumin (a model biological target) was investigated. Upon laser excitation at 532 nm, the bleaching of the corresponding dye-protein molecular complexes follows spectroscopic patterns that suggest the formation of reduced forms of the dyes as major reaction photoproducts. That implies that an electron or hydrogen atom transfer from the protein to the dye's moiety within the guest-host complex is the first step of the photobleaching process. Since the availability of dissolved molecular oxygen was not identified as a limiting factor for the phototransformations to occur, these dyes can be seen as potential phototherapeutic agents for use in hypoxic areas of tumors. These triarylmethane dyes strongly absorb at relatively long wavelengths (absorption maximum around 600 nm; (epsilon) max approximately equals 105 M-1 cm-1), and only minor changes in their absorption characteristics are observed upon binding to the protein. However the binding event leads to a remarkable increase in their fluorescence quantum yield and photoreactivity.

  17. Naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in the fish samples from the Bangsai river of Bangladesh by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, was detected and quantified in the selected varieties of fishes collected from the Bangsai river, one of the contaminated rivers located at Savar near the Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ, Bangladesh, during the period October 2009. Naphthalene, a carcinogenic compound, was analyzed by GC–MS as it was in the mixture of dichloromethane–hexane (1:1 crude extract of the flesh of fish samples collected from the aforesaid river. A suitable and reliable procedure for the extraction of naphthalene from the fish sample has been developed. A multi-layer clean-up (silica gel column was used, followed by glass fiber filter (GFF paper to eliminate the interfering organic compounds as well as the lipids and fat. It was observed that PAHs deposition on the samples takes place in different morphological parts of the biological materials. The PAH, naphthalene, was found in almost all of the fish samples and the concentration of which was in the range 0.030–1.004 μg/g. Recovery studies with fortified samples indicated that the recovery efficiency for naphthalene was about 79.14%. This concentration is within the range of values reported for other comparable regions of the world.

  18. Luminescent properties and structure of multicomponent naphthalene-{beta}-cyclodextrin complexes. 1. Effect of adding third parties, o-carborane or/and adamantane

    Nazarov, Valery B. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Moscow region, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Avakyan, Vitaly G., E-mail: avak@photonics.ru [Photochemistry Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119421 Moscow, Novatorov 7a (Russian Federation); Rudyak, Vladimir Y.; Alfimov, Michail V. [Photochemistry Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119421 Moscow, Novatorov 7a (Russian Federation); Vershinnikova, Tatiana G. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Moscow region, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Luminescence spectra of water solution of {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) inclusion complexes with naphthalene have been studied in the presence of carcass compounds (CC), adamantane and ocarborane, added in solution as the third parties. It was observed that the CC structure completely determines luminescence type displayed by the three-component complex. Adding adamantane to the solution leads to the disappearance of the spontaneous excimer fluorescence observed usually along with a monomer fluorescence of naphthalene and the appearance of the long lived phosphorescence at room temperature. At the same time, introducing o-carborane in solution of {beta}-CD inclusion complexes with naphthalene results in the dramatic growth of intensity of the excimer band at the expense of lowering intensity of monomer fluorescence. These phenomena were explained using results of the quantum-chemical calculation of the structure and complexation energies at the semi-empirical PM3 and DFT levels of theory. - Highlights: > Structure of carcass compounds determines luminescence types for naphthalene - betaCD complex. > Adding o-carborane leads to the growth of excimer fluorescence at low naphthalene concentrations. > Adding adamantane leads to the room temperature phosphorescence without deoxygenation.

  19. Ultrasound enhanced activation of peroxydisulfate by activated carbon fiber for decolorization of azo dye.

    Huang, Tianyin; Zhang, Ke; Qian, Yajie; Fang, Cong; Chen, Jiabin

    2018-02-20

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) has become an emerging activator for peroxydisulfate (PDS) to generate sulfate radical (SO 4 •- ). However, the relative low activation efficiency and poor contaminant mineralization limited its widespread application. Herein, ultrasound (US) was introduced to the ACF activated PDS system, and the synergistic effect of US and ACF in PDS activation and the enhancement of contaminant mineralization were investigated. The synergistic effect of US and ACF was observed in the PDS activation to decolorize orange G (OG). The decolorization efficiency increased with increasing ACF loading and US power, and PDS/OG ratio from 1 to 40. The activation energy was determined to be 24.065 kJ/mol. The radical-induced decolorization of OG took place on the surface of ACF, and both SO 4 •- and hydroxyl radical ( • OH) contributed to OG decolorization. The azo bond and naphthalene ring on OG were destructed to other aromatic intermediates and finally mineralized to CO 2 and H 2 O. The introduction of US in the ACF/PDS system significantly enhanced the mineralization of OG. The combination of US and PDS was highly efficient to activate PDS to decolorize azo dyes. Moreover, the introduction of US remarkably improved the contaminant mineralization.

  20. Optimization of the synthesis of SAPO-11 for the methylation of naphthalene with methanol by varying templates and template content

    Wang, Xiaoxiao [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Liangfu; Xiang, Hongwei, E-mail: zw7234@sxicc.ac.cn, E-mail: lfzhao@sxicc.ac.cn [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China); Guo, Shaoqing [Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2013-07-15

    SAPO-11 zeolites were successfully synthesized by using three different templates (diethylamine (DEA), di-n-propylamine (DPA) and di-isopropylamine (DIPA)) and varying DPA contents (nDPA/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0) under hydrothermal conditions. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3} -TPD) and {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The samples were also evaluated towards the methylation of naphthalene with methanol to produce 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene (2,6-DMN). XRD results indicated that the directing effect of the different templates for AEL (Aluminophosphate-ELeven) structure decreased in the order DPA > DEA > DIPA and the most suitable DPA content was nDPA/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 1.2. N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption results showed that SAPO-11(DPA,1.2) exhibited the broadest pore size distribution, the highest BET specific surface area and the largest pore volume among all the SAPO-11 samples. SAPO-11(DPA,1.2) exhibited high catalytic performances in the methylation of naphthalene due to its high crystallinity, high external surface and broad pore size distribution. The pore structure of SAPO-11 zeolite, rather than its acidity, played an important role in achieving high catalytic performances in the methylation of naphthalene with methanol. (author)

  1. A mechanistic study on the reaction pathways leading to benzene and naphthalene in cellulose vapor phase cracking

    Norinaga, Koyo; Yang, Huamei; Tanaka, Ryota; Appari, Srinivas; Iwanaga, Keita; Takashima, Yuka; Kudo, Shinji; Shoji, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    The reaction pathways leading to aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and naphthalene in gas-phase reactions of multi-component mixtures derived from cellulose fast pyrolysis were studied both experimentally and numerically. A two-stage tubular reactor was used for evaluating the reaction kinetics of secondary vapor phase cracking of the nascent pyrolysates at temperature ranging from 400 to 900 °C, residence time from 0.2 to 4.3 s, and at 241 kPa. The products of alkyne and diene were identified from the primary pyrolysis of cellulose even at low temperature range 500–600 °C. These products include acetylene, propyne, propadiene, vinylacetylene, and cyclopentadiene. Experiments were also numerically validated by a detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of more than 8000 elementary step-like reactions with over 500 chemical species. Acceptable capabilities of the kinetic model in predicting concentration profiles of the products enabled us to assess reaction pathways leading to benzene and naphthalene via the alkyne and diene from primary pyrolysates of cellulose. C 3 alkyne and diene are primary precursors of benzene at 650 °C, while combination of ethylene and vinylacetylene produces benzene dominantly at 850 °C. Cyclopentadiene is a prominent precursor of naphthalene. Combination of acetylene with propyne or allyl radical leads to the formation of cyclopentadiene. Furan and acrolein are likely important alkyne precursors in cellulose pyrolysis at low temperature, whereas dehydrogenations of olefins are major route to alkyne at high temperatures. - Highlights: • Analytical pyrolysis experiments provided data for kinetic modeling. • Detailed chemical kinetic model was used and evaluated. • Alkyne and diene were important intermediates for aromatic hydrocarbon formation. • Reaction pathways leading to aromatic hydrocarbons were proposed

  2. Petroleum compounds in the marine food web: short-term experiments on the fate of naphthalene in Calanus

    Corner, E D.S.; Harris, R P; Kilvington, C C; O' Hara, S C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Adult female Calanus helgolandicus Claus immersed for 24 h in sea-water solutions of (1-/sup 14/C)naphthalene accumulated a detectable quantity (3.6 pg/animal) from concentrations as low as 0.10 ..mu..g/l. Feeding experiments using barnacle nauplii or diatoms as foods showed that the dietary route of entry was more important quantitatively than direct uptake from solution in that in order to ensure that the same quantity of radioactivity in the animals was attained by the two routes the level of hydrocarbon in solution had always to be far greater than that present as particulate food. Relevant to these observations was the further finding that after naphthalene had been accumulated directly from solution in sea water depuration was rapid and only a small fraction, less than 5 percent, of the original radioactivity could be detected after 10 days; by contrast, when the hydrocarbon was taken up by way of the food depuration was much slower, so that at the end of 10 days about a third of the original level of radioactivity still remained in the animals. Short-term experiments in which Calanus were fed on labelled diets for 24 h under bacteria-free conditions showed that at the end of this period over 90 percent of the radioactivity in the animals was present as unchanged naphthalene. However, more than two thirds of that released by the animals was in some form other than the hydrocarbon, a finding consistent with the view that Calanus is able to metabolize it.

  3. Exciplex emission and photoinduced energy transfer as a function of cavity dimension in naphthalene-linked aza-crown ethers

    Roy, Mailrayee Basu; Samanta, Subhodip; Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2004-01-01

    We report here the photophysical properties of two derivatives of N-(β-methylnaphthalene) aza-crown systems having different cavity dimensions. The aza-crown moiety is attached to β-position of naphthalene moiety by one >CH 2 unit in both the derivatives. The cavity size is found to have a pronounced effect on exciplex formation as well as energy transfer in the systems at room temperature and low temperature, respectively. Both the systems exhibit photoinduced electron transfer (PET) which is evident from their weaker fluorescence emission and their quenched singlet lifetimes as compared to that of free naphthalene. The systems also show a solvent sensitive red shifted broad structureless emission which is assigned to exciplex formation. The ratio of quantum yields of exciplex to monomer emission (phi (cursive,open) Greek Exp /phi (cursive,open) Greek M ) is lower in the smaller aza-crown (L1) as compared to that in the larger aza-crown (L2) implying a different geometry of the two systems in the excited state. Semi-emperical calculations performed on the systems also corroborate the different geometry of the two systems. Complexation of alkali metals, rare earth ions and protons by the aza-crown moiety results in enhancement of fluorescence emission due to blocking of PET. In the presence of protons, L1 exhibits a new emission due to excimer formation which has not been observed in L2 under similar conditions. The rare earth ion complexes of L1 and L2 at low temperature exhibit energy transfer from the lowest triplet state of naphthalene to the rare earth ion states, the extent of energy transfer being greater in the larger aza-crown (L2) as compared to that in smaller aza-crown system (L1)

  4. Urinary Naphthol as a Biomarker of Exposure: Results from an Oral Exposure to Carbaryl and Workers Occupationally Exposed to Naphthalene

    Craig Sams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary naphthol is an established human biomarker used for assessing both occupational and environmental exposure. However, 1-naphthol is a metabolite of the insecticide carbaryl while both the 1- and 2-isomers are metabolites of naphthalene. Thus, urinary 1-naphthol levels will reflect combined exposure to both substances, particularly at environmental levels. The interpretation of biomarkers is aided by knowledge of levels following well-characterised exposure scenarios. This study reports urinary 1-naphthol levels in five volunteers administered an oral dose of carbaryl at the acceptable daily intake (ADI, 0.008 mg/kg. The elimination half-life was 3.6 h and the mean 1-naphthol level in 24 h total urine collections, normalised for a 70 kg individual, was 37.4 µmol/mol creatinine (range 21.3–84.3. Peak levels in spot-urine samples were around 200 µmol/mol creatinine. For comparison, 327 post-shift urine samples obtained from 90 individual workers exposed occupationally to naphthalene had 1-naphthol levels from below the limit of detection (naphthalene in these populations is well controlled.

  5. Bleaching and diffusion dynamics in optofluidic dye lasers

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Asger

    2007-01-01

    The authors have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in optofluidic dye lasers where the liquid laser dye in a microfluidic channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. They find that for microfluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules...

  6. Supramolecular hair dyes: a new application of cocrystallization

    Delori, Amit; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the first report of hair dyes of various colors formed by cocrystallization. Unlike the most popular oxidative hair dye (OHD) products, these dyes are NH3 free and do not require H2O2 as a color developer. The importance of these new hair dyes products is further enhanced...

  7. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  8. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 5. Rhodamines.

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-01-01

    Rhodamines were first produced in the late 19(th) century, when they constituted a new class of synthetic dyes. These compounds since have been used to color many things including cosmetics, inks, textiles, and in some countries, food products. Certain rhodamine dyes also have been used to stain biological specimens and currently are widely used as fluorescent probes for mitochondria in living cells. The early history and current biological applications are sketched briefly and an account of the ambiguities, complications and confusions concerning dye identification and nomenclature are discussed.

  9. Simulations of longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier

    Takehisa, Kiwamu; Takemori, Satoshi

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of a copper laser pumped dye laser amplifier and new designs of the longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier are presented. The simulations take the consideration of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The new designs utilize a center-hole reflector instead of a dichroic mirror. The simulation results indicate that the poor spatial overlap between the pump beam and the dye beam in the transverse pumping not only reduces the laser output power, but also generates ASE strongly. The results also indicate that the longitudinal pumping is as efficient as the transverse pumping. (author)

  10. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The growth of bacteria cells in naphthalene and ethanol-bearing systems in the presence of cadmium

    Gomes, D. S.; Benzaquem, J.; Rogrigues Augusto, C.; Barboza, E.; Gomes Ferreira Leite, S.

    2003-05-01

    The present work is aimed to show thé effects of cadmium in thé growth oftwo bacteria species in the presenceof'llilplltlalele solubilized in ethanol. The Pseudomonas putida culture and 116, isolated from gasoline soil contaminated with ability to biosurfactant production, were able to growth in naphthalene ethanol until 20 ppm concentration. When a cadmium solution was added ofthis naphthaiene médium we detected a largest bacterial growth with 0.18 ppm of cadmium. We also detected um adaptation period in the growth on the 1.8 and 18 ppm oftthe metal once the final protein concentrations was almost the same in all cxperimental conditions.

  12. Methyl (2Z-2-{[N-(2-formylphenyl-4-methylbenzenesulfonamido]methyl}-3-(naphthalen-1-ylprop-2-enoate

    R. Madhanraj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C29H25NO5S, the sulfonyl-bound benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 42.1 (1 and 48.5 (1°, respectively, with the formyl-substituted benzene ring and the naphthalene residue. In the crystal, pairs of C—H...O interactions lead to the formation of R22(10 inversion dimers, which are linked by further C—H...O interactions into supramolecular tapes running along [100]. The crystal packing is further stabilized by C—H...π interactions.

  13. Stereospecific oxidation of (R)- and (S)-1-indanol by naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4.

    Lee, K; Resnick, S M; Gibson, D T

    1997-01-01

    A recombinant Escherichia coli strain which expresses naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 oxidized (S)-1-indanol to trans-(1S,3S)-indan-1,3-diol (95.5%) and (R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone (4.5%). The same cells oxidized (R)-1-indanol to cis-1,3-indandiol (71%), (R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone (18.2%), and cis-1,2,3-indantriol (10.8%). Purified NDO oxidized (S)-1-indenol to both syn- and anti-2,3-dihydroxy-1-indanol.

  14. Stereospecific oxidation of (R)- and (S)-1-indanol by naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4.

    Lee, K; Resnick, S M; Gibson, D T

    1997-05-01

    A recombinant Escherichia coli strain which expresses naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 oxidized (S)-1-indanol to trans-(1S,3S)-indan-1,3-diol (95.5%) and (R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone (4.5%). The same cells oxidized (R)-1-indanol to cis-1,3-indandiol (71%), (R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone (18.2%), and cis-1,2,3-indantriol (10.8%). Purified NDO oxidized (S)-1-indenol to both syn- and anti-2,3-dihydroxy-1-indanol.

  15. Electronic absorption spectroscopy of matrix-isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations. I - The naphthalene cation (C10H8/+/)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    The ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared absorption spectra of naphthalene (C10H8) and its radical ion (C10H8/+/), formed by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, were measured in argon and neon matrices at 4.2 K. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed together with the physical and chemical conditions governing ion production in the solid phase. The absorption coefficients were calculated for the ion and found lower than previous values, presumably due to the low polarizability of the neon matrix.

  16. 1,4-Bis(5-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl)naphthalene, a small molecule, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular Lens epithelium-derived growth factor.

    Gu, Wan-gang; Ip, Denis Tsz-Ming; Liu, Si-jie; Chan, Joseph H; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Yong-tang; Wan, David Chi-Cheong

    2014-04-25

    Translocation of viral integrase (IN) into the nucleus is a critical precondition of integration during the life cycle of HIV, a causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS). As the first discovered cellular factor to interact with IN, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) plays an important role in the process of integration. Disruption of the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction has provided a great interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that one small molecular compound, 1,4-bis(5-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl)naphthalene(Compound 15), potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution at 1 μM. The putative binding mode of Compound 15 was constructed by a molecular docking simulation to provide structural insights into the ligand-binding mechanism. Compound 15 suppressed viral replication by measuring p24 antigen production in HIV-1IIIB acute infected C8166 cells with EC50 value of 11.19 μM. Compound 15 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. DFT Studies on the electronic structures of indoline dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    JIE XU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of indoline dyes with promising efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were studied using the density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31g (d level. The ground-state geometries, electronic structures and absorption spectra of these dyes are reported. The calculated results indicate that the energy levels of the HOMOs and LUMOs of these dyes are advantageous for electron injection. Their intense and broad absorption bands as well as favorable excited-state energy levels are key factor for their outstanding efficiencies in DSSCs.

  18. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash –SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties. - Highlights: ► The optimum absorbed dose obtained for surface modification of cotton (RC) is 8 kGy. ► Irradiation has enhanced antioxidant, anti bacterial and hemolytic activities. ► Optimum dyeing conditions are 60 min dyeing time and 8 g/L salt concentration. ► At optimum conditions, color strength and fastness properties are enhanced.

  19. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  1. Preconcentration of uranium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum and vanadium with oxine supported on microcrystalline naphthalene and their determinations by ICP-AES

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Vijay; Nandakishore, S.S.; Bangroo, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    As an effective technique for separation and preconcentration of trace elements, solid-liquid extraction with microcrystalline naphthalene has received great attention in recent years. The application of the adsorption of the metal complexes on microcrystalline naphthalene has greatly enhanced the utility of solid-liquid extraction in trace analysis. A survey of the literature revealed that single element detection techniques such as spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, and polarography were mostly combined with this separation method. However, multi-element simultaneous detection techniques, like ICP-AES and ICP-MS were seldom used as the detectors in this solid-liquid extraction method. The aim of this work was to attempt to adopt the reagent oxine for the separation and subsequent determination of U, Th, Zr, Ti, Mo and V by ICP-AES, after adsorption of their oxinate complexes on microcrystalline naphthalene

  2. Effects of Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Carbaryl on Fruit Thinning in ‘Kinnow’ Mandarin Trees

    Golnar Safaei-Nejad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several fruit trees including some cultivars of citrus tend to develop irregular bearing. Fruit thinning has been used for hundreds of years to manipulate blooming and crop load to improve the alternate bearing process. Frequently, combination sprays of two or more chemical thinners are used in various fruit trees and the thinning responses were additive and more effective than individual compounds. In this study, we investigated the effects of Naphthalene acetic acid and carbaryl alone and in combination in thinning of ‘Kinnow’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco trees. Some characteristics such as fruit weight, diameter and volume, total soluble solid (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA, vitamin C and peel thickness were measured prior to harvest for 2010 and 2011 as a complete randomized block design with 13 treatments and four replications. Results showed that the application of NAA and carbaryl alone in June drop stage of fruit growth increased fruit thinning percentage, TSS of fruit juice, fruit weight, volume, diameter and length. These chemical thinners improved fruit size significantly by increasing the leaf/fruit ratio. Combination sprays could not effectively thin fruits than individual chemicals and thus had no effect on fruit size. Fruit characteristics such as TA, ascorbic acid, TSS/TA ratio and peel thickness were not affected by our treatments.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso

  3. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  4. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward.

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-07-15

    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  5. Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes

    Christian Dollendorf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethylphenylamino-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2, blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyloxyphenylaminoanthraquinone (6 and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethylaminoanthraquinone (12, as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-ylaminoanthraquinone (15 were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants.

  6. Computer control of pulsed tunable dye lasers

    Thattey, S.S.; Dongare, A.S.; Suri, B.M.; Nair, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    Pulsed tunable dye lasers are being used extensively for spectroscopic and photo-chemical experiments, and a system for acquisition and spectral analysis of a volume of data generated will be quite useful. The development of a system for wavelength tuning and control of tunable dye lasers and an acquisition system for spectral data generated in experiments with these lasers are described. With this system, it is possible to control the tuning of three lasers, and acquire data in four channels, simultaneously. It is possible to arrive at the desired dye laser wavelength with a reproducibility of ± 0.012 cm -1 , which is within the absorption width (atomic interaction) caused by pulsed dye lasers of linewidth 0.08 cm -1 . The spectroscopic data generated can be analyzed for spectral identification within absolute accuracy ± 0.012 cm -1 . (author). 6 refs., 11 figs

  7. Green dyeing process of modified cotton fibres using natural dyes extracted from Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. leaves.

    Baaka, Noureddine; Mahfoudhi, Adel; Haddar, Wafa; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Mighri, Zine

    2017-01-01

    This research work involves an eco-friendly dyeing process of modified cotton with the aqueous extract of Tamarix aphylla leaves. During this process, the dyeing step was carried out on modified cotton by several cationising agents in order to improve its dyeability. The influence of the main dyeing conditions (dye bath pH, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, salt addition) on the performances of this dyeing process were studied. The dyeing performances of this process were appreciated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the fastness properties of the dyed samples. The effect of mordant type with different mordanting methods on dyeing quality was also studied. The results showed that mordanting gave deeper shades and enhanced fastness properties. In addition, environmental indicators (BOD 5 , COD and COD/BOD 5 ) were used to describe potential improvements in the biodegradability of the dyebath wastewater. Further, HPLC was used to identify the major phenolic compounds in the extracted dye.

  8. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2010-02-11

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  9. Interactive effects of naphthalene treatment and the onset of vitellogenesis on energy metabolism in liver and gonad, and plasma steroid hormones of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Tintos, Adrián; Gesto, Manuel; Alvarez, Rosa; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess in female fish the possible interaction between treatment with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) like naphthalene and the onset of vitellogenesis. In a first experiment, female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at stages 2-3 (previtellogenesis) or 4 (early vitellogenesis) were intraperitoneally injected (2 microl g(-1)) with vegetable oil alone (control) or containing naphthalene (50 mg kg(-1)) to be sampled 3 h later. A second experiment was similarly designed but using fish intraperitoneally implanted (10 microl g(-1)) with slow-release coconut oil implants alone (control) or containing 50 mg naphthalene kg(-1) body mass that were sampled 3 days after injection. On each sampling time, plasma levels of cortisol and 17beta-estradiol, and several metabolic parameters in plasma, liver and gonad were assessed. In controls, early vitellogenic fish compared with previtellogenic fish displayed changes that in some cases are confirmatory of previous studies whereas in other cases provide new information in plasma (increased amino acid levels), liver (decreased capacity for exporting glucose and reduced amino acid levels) and gonad (decreased amino acid levels). Naphthalene treatment produced in previtellogenic fish decreased 17beta-estradiol levels in plasma, increased plasma glucose or decreased liver gluconeogenic capacity whereas no major effects were noticed on parameters involved in lipid, amino acid and lactate metabolism. Differential effects of naphthalene treatment were noticed in early vitellogenic fish such as decreased 17beta-estradiol and glucose levels in plasma, increased hexokinase and glucokinase and lack of changes in fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase activities in liver, and a lower decrease of amino acid levels in gonad. Those alterations produced by naphthalene treatment resulted in a decreased capacity for covering the energy demand of vitellogenesis in liver and gonad that could contribute to a delay and

  10. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students.

  11. Stability of the elderberry dye in vodkas

    Pizlo, A.; Jankowska, D.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of light, pH, strength of vodkas and by-products on Sambucus nigra pigments stability was tested in this paper. The elderberry dye was unstable in vodkas during light action in general. It was stated that low strength of vodkas and high pH effected an increase of the vodkas colour stability. The presence of vitamin C caused discolouring effect on elderberry dye but chockeberry distillate effected an increase of the vodkas colour stability

  12. Decolorization of six synthetic dyes by fungi

    Hartikainen, E. Samuel; Miettinen, Otto; Hatakka, Annele; Kähkönen, Mika A.

    2016-01-01

    To find out ability of fourteen basidiomycetes and four ascomycetes strains to grow in the presence of synthetic colour dyes and to degrade them, fungi were cultivated on the malt agar plates containing 0.5 g kg-1 dye, either Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Brilliant Yellow GL, Remazol Brilliant Orange 3 R, Reactive Blue 4, Remazol Brilliant Red F3B or Reactive Black 5. Fungi representing basidiomycetes were Phlebia radiata (FBCC 43), Tremella encephala (FBCC 1145), Dichomitus squalens (FBC...

  13. Radiolysis of anthraquinone dyes in aqueous solutions

    Vysotskaya, N.A.; Bortun, L.N.; Ogurtsov, N.A.; Migdalovich, E.A.; Revina, A.A.; Volodko, V.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii)

    1986-01-01

    The commercial anthraquinone dyes (Dark Blue, Light Blue, Green) in aqueous solutions were shown to be decoloured and degrade under the action of ionizing radiation. The degree of decolouration and degradation of aromatic rings was found to increase in presence of oxygen. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to play the key role in the degradation of the dyes under irradiation. The radiolysis intermediate products were studied using the pulse radiolysis technique. (author)

  14. Treatment of dyeing drainage by radiation

    Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    Decolorization of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage by radiation treatment. Artifical dyeing drainage was prepared from water, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts, and artificial sewage, from water, peptone, broth, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts. The above mentioned sample liquors of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage were exposed to γ-radiation of 5 kCi of 60 Co source by aerating through a ball filter. Absorption spectra, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were determined after irradiation to evaluate radiation treatment effect. With the experimental data obtained, it was clarified that absorbance, COD and TOC was decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. Decoloring was made effectively and about 95 % of bleaching ratio was obtained at 5 kGy of radiation. COD was decreased also by irradiation rather slower decreasing rate than that of decolorization, and TOC decrease was very slow at the initial stage of radiation but 40 % of TOC was decomposed by 10 kGy radiation. Dye of chemically stable structure was found more resistant to radiation decolorization. Decomposition efficiency was found less for dyes in the artificial sewage but secondary treated sewage showed no adverse effect. With the obtained understandings, a tentative scheme was planned for the radiation decolorization of dyeing drainage after aeration treatment. (Takagi, S.)

  15. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria.

    Dellamatrice, Priscila Maria; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de; Fiore, Marli Fátima; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Nearly Perfect Triplet-Triplet Energy Transfer from Wannier Excitons to Naphthalene in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Quantum-Well Materials

    Ema, K.; Inomata, M.; Kato, Y.; Kunugita, H.; Era, M.

    2008-06-01

    We report the observation of extremely efficient energy transfer (greater than 99%) in an organic-inorganic hybrid quantum-well structure consisting of perovskite-type lead bromide well layers and naphthalene-linked ammonium barrier layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements confirm that the transfer is triplet-triplet Dexter-type energy transfer from Wannier excitons in the inorganic well to the triplet state of naphthalene molecules in the organic barrier. Using measurements in the 10 300 K temperature range, we also investigated the temperature dependence of the energy transfer.

  17. Direct measurements of the enthalpy of solution of solid solute in supercritical fluids: study on the CO2-naphthalene system.

    Zhang, X; Han, B; Zhang, J; Li, H; He, J; Yan, H

    2001-10-01

    A setup for a calorimeter for simultaneously measuring the solubility and the solution enthalpy of solid solutes in supercritical fluids (SCFs) has been established. The enthalpy of solution of naphthalene in supercritical CO2 was measured at 308.15 K in the pressure range from 8.0-11.0 MPa. It was found that the enthalpy of solution (deltaH) was negative in the pressure range from 8.0 to 9.5 MPa, and the absolute value decreased with increasing pressure. In this pressure range, the dissolution of the solute was enthalpy driven. However, the deltaH became positive at pressures higher than 9.5 MPa, and the dissolution was entropy driven. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to analyze the local structural environment of the solvated naphthalene molecules in supercritical CO2 under the experimental conditions for the calorimetric measurements. By combining the enthalpy data and the simulation results, it can be deduced that the energy level of CO2 in the high compressible region is higher than that at higher pressures, which results in the large negative enthalpy of solution and the larger degree of solvent-solute clustering in the high compressible region.

  18. Thermogravimetric study of thermal decontamination of soils polluted by hexachlorobenzene, 4-chlorobiphenyl, naphthalene, or n-decane.

    Risoul, V; Pichon, C; Trouvé, G; Peters, W A; Gilot, P; Prado, G

    1999-02-15

    To determine decontamination behavior as affected by temperature, shallow beds of a clay-rich, a calcerous, and a sedimentary soil, artificially polluted with hexachlorobenzene, 4-chlorobiphenyl, naphthalene, or n-decane, were separately heated at 5 degrees C min-1 in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Temperatures for deep cleaning of the calcerous and the sedimentary soil increased with increasing boiling point (bp) of the aromatic contaminants, but removal efficiencies still approached 100% well below the bp. Decontamination rates were therefore modelled according to a pollutant evaporation-diffusion transport model. For the calcerous and sedimentary soils, this model reasonably correlated removal of roughly the first 2/3 of the naphthalene, but gave only fair predictions for hexachlorobenzene and 4-chlorobiphenyl. It was necessary to heat the clay soil above the aromatics bp to achieve high decontamination efficiencies. Weight loss data imply that for temperatures from near ambient to as much as 150 degrees C, interactions of each aromatic with the clay soil, or its decomposition products, result in lower net volatilization of the contaminated vs. neat clay. A similar effect was observed in heating calcerous soil polluted with hexachlorobenzene from near ambient to about 140 degrees C. Decontamination mechanisms remain to be established, although the higher temperatures needed to remove aromatics from the clay may reflect a more prominent role for surface desorption than evaporation. This would be consistent with our estimates that the clay can accommodate all of the initial pollutant loadings within a single surface monolayer, whereas the calcerous and sedimentary soils cannot.

  19. Effects of methoxy and formyl substituents on the energetics and reactivity of α-naphthalenes: a calorimetric and computational study.

    Silva, Ana L R; Freitas, Vera L S; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D M C

    2014-07-01

    A combined experimental and computational study was developed to evaluate and understand the energetics and reactivity of formyl and methoxy α-naphthalene derivatives. Static bomb combustion calorimetry and the Calvet microcalorimetry were the experimental techniques used to determine the standard (p(o)=0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the liquid phase, ΔfHm(o)(l), and of vaporization, Δl(g)Hm(o), at T=298.15K, respectively, of the two liquid naphthalene derivatives. Those experimental values were used to derive the values of the experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase, ΔfHm(o)(g), of 1-methoxynaphthalene, (-3.0 ± 3.1)kJmol(-1), and of 1-formylnaphthalene, (36.3 ± 4.1)kJ mol(-1). High-level quantum chemical calculations at the composite G3(MP2)//B3LYP level were performed to estimate the values of the ΔfHm(o)(g) of the two compounds studied resulting in values in very good agreement with experimental ones. Natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations were also performed to determine more about the structure and reactivity of this class of compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Liquid-solid extraction of uranium (VI) with TOPO - molten naphthalene and determination by laser fluorimetry in geological samples

    Kumar, Sanjay; Krishnakumar, M.; Patwardhan, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective and efficient method for separation of uranium using tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO)-molten naphthalene as solid phase extractant and its determination by laser fluorimetry in geological samples (rock, soil, sediment) was developed. Under optimum conditions, using 50 mg TOPO and 100 mg naphthalene, 50 - 5000 ng of uranium in 10 ml sample solution (3% (v/v) HNO 3 ) could be extracted quantitatively. The extracted uranium was stripped using tetra sodium pyrophosphate (5% (v/v) solution, pH adjusted to 7.0 with H 3 PO 4 ) and determined by laser fluorimetry. The influence of different acid concentrations, the amount of solid phase extractant, sample volumes, different stripping reagents, their volumes and effect of foreign ions on the extraction and determination of uranium (VI) were investigated. Synthetic samples of varying concentration as regards uranium were prepared and analysed. Recoveries ranging from 90% to 105% were obtained. The method was validated by analyzing four certified reference materials namely, BL-5, DH-1a, SY-2, SY-3 and the values obtained for uranium agreed well with the certified values. The method was also applied to the determination of uranium in geological samples (rock, soil and sediment) by laser fluorimetry and the results obtained compared favorably with those obtained from the pellet fluorimetry method. Following the proposed method, determination limit for uranium was found to be 1 μg/g with RSD ± 10%. (author)

  1. Simultaneous preconcentration of Cu, Fe and Pb as methylthymol blue complexes on naphthalene adsorbent and flame atomic absorption determination

    Pourreza, Nahid; Hoveizavi, Reza

    2005-01-01

    A simultaneous preconcentration method was developed for determination of trace amounts of Cu, Fe and Pb by atomic absorption spectrometry. The method is based on the retention of their methylthymol blue complexes by naphthalene methyltrioctyl ammonium chloride adsorbent in a column. The adsorbed metal complexes were eluted from the column with nitric acid and Cu, Fe and Pb were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Several parameters such as pH of the sample solution, ligand concentration, volume of the sample and the amount of methyltrioctyl ammonium chloride loaded on naphthalene were evaluated. The effect of diverse ions on the preconcentration was also investigated. A preconcentration factor of up to 100 or more can easily be achieved depending on the volume of the sample taken. The calibration graphs were obtained in the range of 5-40, 10-100 and 10-200 ng ml -1 for Cu, Fe and Pb in the initial solution, respectively, when using 500 ml of the solution. The detection limit based on three standard deviations of the blank was 0.54, 3.1, and 4.5 ng ml -1 for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of 0.62-1.4% for Cu, 1.9-3.4% for Fe and 1.0-2.2% for Pb were obtained. The method was applied to the determination of Cu, Fe and Pb in river and wastewater samples

  2. Naphthalene-based fluorescent probes for glutathione and their applications in living cells and patients with sepsis

    Li, Jun; Kwon, Younghee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Lim, Chang Su; Lee, Dayoung; Yue, Yongkang; Yoon, Jisoo; Kim, Gyoungmi; Nam, Sang-Jip; Chung, Youn Wook; Kim, Hwan Myung; Yin, Caixia; Ryu, Ji-Hwan; Yoon, Juyoung

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Among the biothiols-related diseases, sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection and can result in severe oxidative stress and damage to multiple organs. In this study, we aimed to develop a fluorescence chemosensor that can both detect GSH and further predict sepsis. Methods: In this study, two new naphthalene dialdehyde compounds containing different functional groups were synthesized, and the sensing abilities of these compounds towards biothiols and its applications for prediction of sepsis were investigated. Results: Our study revealed that the newly developed probe 6-methoxynaphthalene-2, 3-dicarbaldehyde (MNDA) has two-photon is capable of detecting GSH in live cells with two-photon microscopy (TPM) under the excitation at a wavelength of 900 nm. Furthermore, two GSH detection probes naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and 6-fluoronaphthalene-2,3-dicarbaldehyde (FNDA) not only can detect GSH in living cells, but also showed clinical significance for the diagnosis and prediction of mortality in patients with sepsis. Conclusions: These results open up a promising direction for further medical diagnostic techniques. PMID:29507630

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium (III) and rhodium (III) with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone monoxime after extraction into molten naphthalene

    Wasey, A.; Bansal, R.K.; Puri, B.K.; Satake, Masatada.

    1983-01-01

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone monoxime has been used as a reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium(III) and rhodium(III) after extraction into molten naphthalene. The extracted mixture of the metal complex and naphthalene was dissolved in chloroform and ruthenium and rhodium were determined spectrophotometrically. Beer's law holds in the concentration range of 0.2-4.1 μg/cm 3 for ruthenium and 0.3-5.3 μg/cm 3 for rhodium in 10 cm 3 of the final solution. The molar absorptivities and Sandell sensitivities are calculated to be 9.70 x 10 3 l mol -1 cm -1 and 0.01 μg/cmsup(2 ) (660 nm) for ruthenium and 1.13 x 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 and 0.009 μg/cm 2 (410 nm) for rhodium respectively. Aliquots containing 2.0 μg of ruthenium and 4.1 μg of rhodium give mean absorbances of 0.192 and 0.451 with standard deviations of 0.0017 and 0.0039, respectively. Interference of various ions has been studied and the method has been applied to the determination of ruthenium and rhodium in various synthetic mixtures. This procedure is also applied to the simultaneous determination of ruthenium and rhodium present together in a solution. (author)

  4. Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: Implications for a commercial azo dye mixture

    Vacchi, Francine Inforcato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil); Ormond, Alexandra B.; Freeman, Harold S. [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); Zocolo, Guilherme Juliao; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Umbuzeiro, Gisela, E-mail: giselau@ft.unicamp.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC-ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous solutions of Disperse Red 1 were treated with chlorine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorination products of Disperse Red 1 were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daphnia and Salmonella/microsome were employed for eco/genotoxicity testing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorinated dye was more mutagenic

  5. Optical properties of natural dyes on the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) performance

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study reported several natural dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This study aims was to determine the effect of optical absorption properties of natural dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The sandwich structure of DSSC consist of TiO 2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, natural dyes as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The natural dyes used in this experiment were extracted from dragon fruit anthocyanin, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and red cabbage anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solutions and the adsorption of the dye on the surface of TiO 2 were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the quantum efficiency versus wavelength was characterized using incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) measurement system, and the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. UV-Vis characteristic curves showed that wavelength absorption of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 - 580 nm, anthocyanin of mangosteen peels was 400 - 480 nm, and anthocyanin of dragon fruit was 400 - 650 nm. Absorption spectra of the dye adsorption on the surface of TiO 2 which was resulted in the highest absorbance of red cabbage anthocyanin. IPCE characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted quantum efficiency of 0.058%; 0.047%; and 0.043%, respectively at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. I-V characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted efficiency of 0.054%; 0.042%; and 0.024%, respectively. (paper)

  6. Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: Implications for a commercial azo dye mixture

    Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre; Ormond, Alexandra B.; Freeman, Harold S.; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC–ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. -- Highlights: ► Aqueous solutions of Disperse Red 1 were treated with chlorine. ► The chlorination products of Disperse Red 1 were identified using LC–ESI-MS/MS. ► Daphnia and Salmonella/microsome were employed for eco/genotoxicity testing. ► The chlorinated dye was more mutagenic than the dye itself. ► Chlorination should be avoided in effluents containing azo-dyes.

  7. Rehydrating dye sensitized solar cells

    Christian Hellert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are silicon free, simply producible solar cells. Longevity, however, is a longstanding problem for DSSCs. Due to liquid electrolytes being commonly used, evaporation of the electrolyte causes a dramatic drop in electric output as cells continue to be used unmaintained. Stopping evaporation has been tried in different ways in the past, albeit with differing degrees of success. In a recent project, a different route was chosen, exploring ways of revitalizing DSSCs after varying periods of usage. For this, we focused on rehydration of the cells using distilled water as well as the electrolyte contained in the cells. The results show a significant influence of these rehydration procedures on the solar cell efficiency. In possible applications of DSSCs in tents etc., morning dew may thus be used for rehydration of solar cells. Refillable DSSCs can also be used in tropical climates or specific types of farms and greenhouses where high humidity serves the purpose of rehydrating DSSCs.

  8. Extension lifetime for dye-sensitized solar cells through multiple dye adsorption/desorption process

    Chiang, Yi-Fang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Shen, Po-Shen; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we propose a novel concept of extending the lifetime of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and reducing the costs of re-conditioning DSCs by recycling the FTO/TiO2 substrates. The photovoltaic performances of DSCs using substrates with various cycles of dye uptake and rinse off history are tested. The results show that dye adsorption and Voc are significantly increased under multiple dye adsorption/desorption process and resulted in the improvement of power conversion efficiency. Moreover, the dyeing kinetics is faster after multiple recycling processes, which is favorable for the industrial application. With surface analysis and charge transport characteristics, we also demonstrate the optimal functionality of TiO2/dye interface for the improved Voc and efficiency. The results confirm that the improved performances are due to increased dye loading and dense packing of dye molecules. Our results are beneficial for the understanding on the extension of DSCs lifetime after long-term operation in the application of DSC modules. This approach may also be applied in the replacement of newly synthesized photosensitizes to the active cells.

  9. DYEING COTTON WITH EISENIA BICYCLIS AS NATURAL DYE USING DIFFERENT BIOMORDANTS

    BONET Mª Ángeles

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes are known for their use in coloring of food substrate, leather as well as natural protein fibers like wool, silk and cotton as major areas of application since pre-historic times. Nowadays, there has been revival of the growing interest on the application of natural dyes on natural fibers due to worldwide environmental consciousness. Some researchers focus their studies on the improvement of these dyes using mordants. Most works use metallic mordants like aluminum or iron are used, but some of them are hazardous. In this work we used a biomordant to solve environmental problems caused by metallic mordants. The effects of chitosan weight molecular in mordanting on the dyeing characteristics and the UV protection property were examined in this study. Chitosan mordanted Eisenia Bicyclis dyed cotton showed better dyeing characteristic and higher UV protection property compared with undyed cotton fabric. To analyze the differences of the dyeing, reflection spectrophotometer was used, evaluating the results of CIELAB color difference values and the strength color (in terms of K/S value. We conclude that the type of chitosan used affect the dyeing efficiency and the UV protection, showing different behavior between dye sample using chitosan with low or medium molecular weight.

  10. Organic dye for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Schmidt-Mende, L.; Bach, U.; Humphry-Baker, R.; Ito, S.; Graetzel, M. [Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (ISIC), Laboratoire de Photonique et Interfaces (LPI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Horiuchi, T.; Miura, H. [Technology Research Laboratory, Corporate Research Center, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited, 46, Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Uchida, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2005-04-04

    The feasibility of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells as a low-cost alternative to amorphous silicon cells is demonstrated. Such a cell with a record efficiency of over 4 % under simulated sunlight is reported, made possible by using a new organic metal-free indoline dye as the sensitizer with high absorption coefficient. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    Shahid Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of degrading Remazol Black-B azo dye efficientlywere screened through experimentation on modified mineral salt medium. Isolate SS1 (collected from wastewater ofSupreme Textile Industry was able to completely remove the Remazol Black-B dye from the liquid medium in 18 h.Further, the isolate showed the best performance at the dye concentration of 100 mg L-1 medium (pH 7 and attemperature 35oC. Similarly, yeast extract proved to be the best carbon source for decolorization purpose. Theresults imply that the isolate SS1 could be used for the removal of the reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  12. Synthesized TiO{sub 2}/ZSM-5 composites used for the photocatalytic degradation of azo dye: Intermediates, reaction pathway, mechanism and bio-toxicity

    Zhou, Kefu; Hu, Xin-Yan [College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chen, Bor-Yann; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jiajie; Lin, Yu-Jung [College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chang, Chang-Tang, E-mail: ctchang73222@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The major photo-catalytic degradation pathway of azo-dye was elaborated according to the identification of by-products from GC–MS and IC analysis. • Comparative assessment on characteristics of abiotic and biotic dye decolorization was analyzed. • EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to determine the main active oxidative species in the system. • The toxicity effects of degradation intermediates of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) on the cellular respiratory activity were assessed. - Abstract: In this study, a one-step solid dispersion method was used to synthesize titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) composites with substantially reduced time and energy consumption. A degradation efficiency of more than 95% was achieved within 10 min using 50% PTZ (synthesized TiO{sub 2}/ZSM-5 composites with TiO{sub 2} contents of 50 wt% loaded on ZSM-5) at pH 7 and 25 °C. The possible degradation pathway of azo-dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and ion chromatography (IC). The bonds between the N atoms and naphthalene groups are likely attacked first and cleaved by hydroxyl radicals, ultimately resulting in the decolorization and mineralization of the azo dye. A comparative assessment of the characteristics of abiotic and biotic dye decolorization was completed. In addition, the toxicity effects of the degradation intermediates of azo-dye RB5 on cellular respiratory activity were analyzed. The bio-toxicity results showed that the decay rate constants of CO{sub 2} production from the azo-dye RB5 samples at different degradation times increased initially and subsequently decreased, indicating that intermediates of higher toxicity could adhere to the catalyst surface and gradually destroyed by further photocatalytic oxidation. Additionally, EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to detect the main active oxidative species in the system

  13. Bioremediation of coractive blue dye by using Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the textile dye wastewater

    Sunar, N. M.; Mon, Z. K.; Rahim, N. A.; Leman, A. M.; Airish, N. A. M.; Khalid, A.; Ali, R.; Zaidi, E.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater released from the textile industry contains variety substances, mainly dyes that contains a high concentration of color and organic. In this study the potential for bacterial decolorization of coractive blue dye was examined that isolated from textile wastewater. The optimum conditions were determined for pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dye. The bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas spp. The selected bacterium shows high decolorization in static condition at an optimum of pH 7.0. The Pseudomonas spp. could decolorize coractive blue dye by 70% within 24 h under static condition, with the optimum of pH 7.0. Decolorization was confirmed by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. This present study suggests the potential of Pseudomonas spp. as an approach in sustainable bioremediation that provide an efficient method for decolorizing coractive blue dye.

  14. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment

    Aravind, Priyadharshini; Selvaraj, Hosimin; Ferro, Sergio; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Firstly, the mediated electro-oxidation allows rapid discoloration of the effluent. • Cost effective sunlight-mediated removal of bio-toxic active chlorine species. • Electrochemical pretreatment enhances the biodegradability of textile wastewater. • About 90% COD removal was achieved by a subsequent biodegradation. • By-products from degradation of dyes have shown to be ecofriendly and non-toxic. - Abstract: A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO_2-RuO_2-TiO_2 anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100 min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144 h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC–MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater.

  15. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment

    Aravind, Priyadharshini, E-mail: priya.bdu07@gmail.com [Corrosion and Materials Protection Division (CMPD), CSIR—Central electrochemical research institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Selvaraj, Hosimin [Corrosion and Materials Protection Division (CMPD), CSIR—Central electrochemical research institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Ferro, Sergio [Ecas4 Australia, Unit 8, 1 London Road, Mile End, South Australia 5031 (Australia); Sundaram, Maruthamuthu [Corrosion and Materials Protection Division (CMPD), CSIR—Central electrochemical research institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630 003 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Firstly, the mediated electro-oxidation allows rapid discoloration of the effluent. • Cost effective sunlight-mediated removal of bio-toxic active chlorine species. • Electrochemical pretreatment enhances the biodegradability of textile wastewater. • About 90% COD removal was achieved by a subsequent biodegradation. • By-products from degradation of dyes have shown to be ecofriendly and non-toxic. - Abstract: A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100 min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144 h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC–MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater.

  16. Chromed Leather Dyeing Peculiarities when Deliming with Peracetic Acid

    Kęstutis BELEŠKA; Virgilijus VALEIKA; Justa ŠIRVAITYTĖ; Violeta VALEIKIENĖ

    2013-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the influence of deliming with peracetic acid on leather dyeing kinetics. Hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 and hydrophilic C.I. Acid Red 423 dyes were used. Sorption of dye depends on hydrophobicity/hydrophility of dye and dyeing temperature. Equilibrium of process is reached faster using hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 at 45 ºC. However, both control and experimental leather fibres adsorb more hydrophilic dye C.I. Acid Red 423 and this fact does not depend on...

  17. The effect of dendrimer on cotton dyeability with direct dyes

    Khakzar Bafrooei F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of cotton fabric with poly(propylene imine dendrimer enhanced its colour strength using C.I. Direct Red 81 and C.I. Direct Blue 78. Application of this dendrimer and the direct dye simultaneously on cotton fabric by the exhaust and the continuous dyeing method were studied; slight improvements in the dyeing results were obtained. Pretreatment of the cotton fabric with dendrimer in an emulsion form using the pad-dry method followed by continuous dyeing markedly increased the colour strength. In addition, level dyeing was obtained, and no negative effects on the fastness properties of the dyes used were observed.

  18. Diffusion dynamics in micro-fluidic dye lasers

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in opto-fluidic dye lasers, where the liquid laser dye in a channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. Our studies suggest that for micro-fluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules alone....... By relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment, our observation potentially allows for a significant simplification of opto-fluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip micro-fluidic pumping...

  19. Unraveling the electronic structures of low-valent naphthalene and anthracene iron complexes: X-ray, spectroscopic, and density functional theory studies

    Schnoeckelborg, E.M.; Khusniyarov, M.M.; de Bruin, B.; Hartl, F.; Langer, T.; Eul, M.; Schulz, S.; Poettgen, R.; Wolf, R.

    2012-01-01

    Naphthalene and anthracene transition metalates are potent reagents, but their electronic structures have remained poorly explored. A study of four Cp*-substituted iron complexes (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) now gives rare insight into the bonding features of such species. The highly oxygen-

  20. Positive photocatalysis of a Diels-Alder reaction by quenching of excited naphthalene-indole charge-transfer complex with cyclohexadiene.

    Gonzalez-Béjar, María; Stiriba, Salah-Eddine; Miranda, Miguel A; Pérez-Prieto, Julia

    2007-02-01

    [reaction: see text] Naphthalene photo-catalyzes formation of cyclohexadiene-indole cycloadducts in a wavelength-dependent process. Steady-state irradiation and time-resolved fluorescence studies agree well with NP-InH ground-state charge transfer (CT) complexes as the key species responsible for the photo-catalyzed process.

  1. Hydrogenation of naphthalene on NiMo- Ni- and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic modelling

    Monteiro-Gezork, Ana Cristina Alves; Winterbottom, John Mike [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Natividad, Reyna [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon Esq. Tollocan, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico, Mexico CP 50120 (Mexico)

    2008-01-30

    The importance of the hydrodearomatisation (HDA) is increasing together with tightening legislation of fuel quality and exhaust emissions. The present study focuses on hydrogenation (HYD) kinetics of the model aromatic compound naphthalene, found in typical diesel fraction, in n-hexadecane over a NiMo (nickel molybdenum), Ni (nickel) and Ru (ruthenium) supported on trilobe alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) catalysts. Kinetic reaction expressions based on the mechanistic Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model were derived and tested by regressing the experimental data that translated the effect of both naphthalene and hydrogen concentration at a constant temperature (523.15 and 573.15 K over the NiMo catalyst and at 373.15 K over the Ni and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts) on the initial reaction rate. The L-H equation, giving an adequate fit to the experimental data with physically meaningful parameters, suggested a competitive adsorption between hydrogen and naphthalene over the presulphided NiMo catalyst and a non-competitive adsorption between these two reactants over the prereduced Ni and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. In addition, the adsorption constant values indicated that the prereduced Ru catalyst was a much more active catalyst towards naphthalene HYD than the prereduced Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or the presulphided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. (author)

  2. Measurements of the phase behavior of ternary systems of interest to the GAS process: III. The system CO2 + toluene plus naphthalene

    Breure, B.; Kordikowski, A.; Wilmes, B; Peters, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Systems consisting of a supercritical gas, an organic solvent and an organic solute are of interest for the gas-antisolvent (GAS) process. In this work the phase behavior of the ternary system carbon dioxide + toluene + naphthalene was studied in a Cailletet apparatus over the temperature range

  3. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  4. Novel leads from Heliotropium ovalifolium, 4,7,8-trimethoxy-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid and 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-naphthalene-2-carbaldehyde show specific IL-6 inhibitory activity in THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes.

    Kulkarni-Almeida, Asha; Suthar, Ashish; Goswami, Hitesh; Vishwakarma, Ram; Chauhan, Vijay Singh; Balakrishnan, Arun; Sharma, Somesh

    2008-12-01

    From our screening program, we identified the anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts of Heliotropium ovalifolium in its ability to inhibit specific cytokines. The H. ovalifolium extract was found to be moderately active with an IC(50) equaling 10 microg/ml for inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a human monocytic cell line. Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with implications in the regulation of the immune response, inflammation and hematopoiesis. This prompted us to examine and identify the active molecules that are responsible for the bioactivity in THP-1 cells. Bioassay guided fractionation identified two compounds 4,7,8-trimethoxy-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid and 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-naphthalene-2-carbaldehyde with an IC(50) of 2.4 and 2.0 microM for IL-6 inhibition and an IC(50) of 15.6 and 7.0 microM for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibition in THP-1 cells. The protein expression data were supported by the inhibitory effect on mRNA gene expression. The compounds isolated from H. ovalifolium were also non-toxic in human peripheral blood monocytes from normal donors and the activity profile was similar to that obtained on THP-1 cells. Thus, we believe that these scaffolds may be of interest to develop leads for treating rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and other inflammatory disorders. However, more detailed investigations need to be carried out to explain the efficacy of these compounds as drugs.

  5. Chromed Leather Dyeing Peculiarities when Deliming with Peracetic Acid

    Kęstutis BELEŠKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to investigate the influence of deliming with peracetic acid on leather dyeing kinetics. Hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 and hydrophilic C.I. Acid Red 423 dyes were used. Sorption of dye depends on hydrophobicity/hydrophility of dye and dyeing temperature. Equilibrium of process is reached faster using hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 at 45 ºC. However, both control and experimental leather fibres adsorb more hydrophilic dye C.I. Acid Red 423 and this fact does not depend on temperature. The diffusion coefficient of dye C.I. Acid Red 423 calculated according to Weisz model is higher when dyeing conventional leather. The change of deliming method has influence on chromed leather dyeing but this influence is not significant. The adsorption ability of control leather fibres at 30 ºC and 45 ºC is higher using both dyes as compared to the dyeing the experimental one. The increase of dyeing temperature increases the adsorption ability independently on the sort of leather fibres. Such dependence of the adsorption ability on the temperature shows that hydrophobic action and van der Waals forces prevail between dye and fibres during dyeing process. The Gibbs energy changes show that adsorption of both dyes by leather fibres independently on their sort is a spontaneous process. The affinity of both dyes to conventional leather fibres is higher comparing with experimental one. The change of enthalpy is positive in all cases, and it means that the driving force of the dyeing is the change of entropy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4431

  6. Radiation Degradation of some Commercial Dyes in Wastewater

    Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel-Aal, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation Kinetic due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of some commercial dyes, (Reactive Blue Brilliant, Reactive Yellow and Basic Blue 9 Dye (Methylene Blue 2 B), was studied. Factors affecting radiolysis of the dye such as dye concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and ph of the solutions were studied. The effects of different additives such as nitrogen oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite on the degradation process were investigated. The effect of irradiation dose on the different dye solutions at various concentrations, showed that the Reactive Yellow G. was very sensitive to gamma radiation. The effect of the ph of the dye solutions proved to very according type of the dye. Synergistic treatment of the dye solutions by irradiation and conventional method showed that saturation of the dye solutions with nitrogen did not enhance the radiation degradation of the dyes, while addition of oxygen resulted in a remarkable enhancement of the degradation of the dyes. Also, the addition of sodium hypochlorite (5%) and the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide resulted in more radiation degradation, Also, adsorption of the dyes onto Ga and some ion exchangers showed that Ga has the highest adsorption capacity. Radiation degradation of the toxic dye pollutants and their removal from wastewater down to concentrations not exceeding the maximum permissible concentration (Mpc) according to international standards, proved to be better than conventional methods of purification alone

  7. 6-Substituted 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids: synthesis and structure-activity studies in a novel class of human 5alpha reductase inhibitors.

    Baston, Eckhard; Salem, Ola I A; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2002-10-01

    Novel 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids were synthesized and evaluated for 5alpha reductase inhibitory activity. This enzyme exists in two isoforms and is a pharmacological target for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, male pattern baldness and acne. In the present study non-steroidal compounds capable of mimicking the transition state of the steroidal substrates were prepared. The synthetic strategy for the preparation of compounds 1-6 consisted of triflation followed by subsequent Heck-type carboxylation or methoxy carbonylation for 6-phenyl-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-2(1H)-one 1c. A Negishi-type coupling reaction between 6-(trifluoro-methanesulfonyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester 7b and various aryl bromides led, after further transformations, to 6-substituted 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids 7-15. In a similar way the corresponding naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids 16 and 17 were obtained. The DU 145 cell line and prostate homogenates served as enzyme sources for the human type 1 and type 2 isozymes, whereas ventral prostate was employed to evaluate rat isozyme inhibitory potency. The most active inhibitors identified in this study were 6-[4-(N,N-dicyclohexylaminocarbonyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (3) (IC50 = 0.09 microM, rat type 1), 6-[3-(N,N-dicyclohexylaminocarbonyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (13) (IC50 = 0.75 microM, human type 2; IC50 = 0.81 microM, human type 1) and 6-[4-(N,N-diisopropylamino-carbonyl)phenyl]naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (16) (IC50 = 0.2 microM, human type 2). The latter compound was shown to deactivate the enzyme in an uncompetitive manner (Ki = 90 nM; Km, Testosterone = 0.8-1.0 microM) similar to the steroidal inhibitor Epristeride. Select inhibitors (13 and 16) were tested in vivo using testosterone propionate-treated, juvenile, orchiectomized SD-rats. None of the compounds was active at a dose of 25 mg/kg. This result might in part be

  8. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Ren, Ting

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD-dye

  9. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD-dye

  10. Effect of Mixing Dyes and Solvent in Electrolyte Toward Characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dyes as The Sensitizer

    Puspitasari, Nurrisma; Nurul Amalia, Silviyanti S.; Yudoyono, Gatut; Endarko

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) using natural dyes (chlorophyll, curcumin from turmeric extract, and anthocyanin from mangosteen extract) have been successfully fabricated for determining the effect of variation natural dyes, mixing dyes and acetonitrile in electrolyte toward characterization of DSSC. DSSC consists of five parts namely ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) as a substrate; TiO2 as semiconductor materials; natural dyes as an electron donor; electrolyte as electron transfer; and carbon as a catalyst that can convert light energy into electric energy. Two types of gel electrolyte based on PEG that mixed with liquid electrolyte have utilized for analyzing the lifetime of DSSC. Type I used distilled water as a solvent whilst type II used acetonitrile as a solvent with addition of concentration of KI and iodine. The main purpose of study was to investigate influence of solvent in electrolyte, variation of natural dyes and mixing dyes toward an efficiency that resulted by DSSC. The result showed that electrolyte type II is generally better than type I with efficiency 0,0556 and 0,0456 %, respectively. An efficiency values which resulted from a variation of mixed three natural dyes showed the greatest efficiency compared to mixed two natural dyes and one dye, with an efficiency value can be achieved at 0,0194 % for chlorophyll; 0,111 % for turmeric; 0,0105 % for mangosteen; 0,0244% (mangosteen and chlorophyll); 0,0117 % (turmeric and mangosteen); 0,0158 % (turmeric and chlorophyll); and 0.0566 % (mixed three natural dyes).

  11. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing assessment of novel acid azo dyes and mordent acid azo dyes based on 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone on wool and silk fabrics

    DHIRUBHAI J. DESAI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel acid mono azo and mordent acid mono azo dyes were synthesised by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone. The resulting dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR and UV–visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre-treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness. The results of antibacterial studies of chrome pre-treated fabrics revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis bacteria was fairly good.

  12. Plasma dye coating as straightforward and widely applicable procedure for dye immobilization on polymeric materials.

    De Smet, Lieselot; Vancoillie, Gertjan; Minshall, Peter; Lava, Kathleen; Steyaert, Iline; Schoolaert, Ella; Van De Walle, Elke; Dubruel, Peter; De Clerck, Karen; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2018-03-16

    Here, we introduce a novel concept for the fabrication of colored materials with significantly reduced dye leaching through covalent immobilization of the desired dye using plasma-generated surface radicals. This plasma dye coating (PDC) procedure immobilizes a pre-adsorbed layer of a dye functionalized with a radical sensitive group on the surface through radical addition caused by a short plasma treatment. The non-specific nature of the plasma-generated surface radicals allows for a wide variety of dyes including azobenzenes and sulfonphthaleins, functionalized with radical sensitive groups to avoid significant dye degradation, to be combined with various materials including PP, PE, PA6, cellulose, and PTFE. The wide applicability, low consumption of dye, relatively short procedure time, and the possibility of continuous PDC using an atmospheric plasma reactor make this procedure economically interesting for various applications ranging from simple coloring of a material to the fabrication of chromic sensor fabrics as demonstrated by preparing a range of halochromic materials.

  13. In-situ Decolorization of Residual Dye Effluent in Textile Jet Dyeing Machine by Ozone

    Irfan Ahmed Shaikh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea of decolourization was investigated in which residual dyeing effluent from textile dyeing process was treated using O3 in the same machine where it was generated. The novelty comes from the idea of doing dyeing and treatment simultaneously. At the completion of dyeing process, O3 gas was injected directly into the machine to remove colour and COD from the wastewater. To evaluate the effectiveness of new method, pilot-scale studies were performed, and decolourization of residual dyeing effluents containing C.I. Reactive Orange 7, C.I. Reactive Blue 19, and C.I. Reactive Black 5 was carried out in specially built textile jet dyeing machine. The results showed that almost 100% colour removal and 90% COD reduction were achieved when process conditions such as pH, dye concentration (mg/L, ozone production rate (g/hr, and temperature were optimized. The study concludes that new method has a great potential to eliminate the need of a separate end-of-the-pipe wastewater treatment system, thus offering an on-site and cost-effective solution.

  14. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 6. Malachite green.

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-08-01

    Malachite green was discovered independently by two researchers in Germany in the 19(th) century and found immediate employment as a dye and a pigment. Subsequently, other uses, such as staining biological specimens, emerged. A much later application was the control of fungal and protozoan infections in fish, for which the dye remains popular, although illegal in many countries owing to a variety of toxicity problems. In solution, malachite green can exist as five different species depending on the pH. The location of the positive charge of the colored cation on a carbon atom or a nitrogen atom is still debated. The original names of this dye, and their origins, are briefly surveyed.

  15. Effect of phytoremediation on concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 1998–2014

    Landmeyer, James E.; Effinger, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site near Charleston, South Carolina, USA, have been monitored since the installation of a phytoremediation system of hybrid poplar trees in 1998. Between 2000 and 2014, the concentrations of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene (BT&N) in groundwater in the planted area have decreased. For example, in the monitoring well containing the highest concentrations of BT&N, benzene concentrations decreased from 10,200 µg/L to less than 4000 µg/L, toluene concentrations decreased from 2420 µg/L to less than 20 µg/L, and naphthalene concentrations decreased from 6840 µg/L to less than 3000 µg/L. Concentrations of BT&N in groundwater in all wells were observed to be lower during the summer months relative to the winter months of a particular year during the first few years after installing the phytoremediation system, most likely due to increased transpiration and contaminant uptake by the hybrid poplar trees during the warm summer months; this pathway of uptake by trees was confirmed by the detection of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene in trees during sampling events in 2002, and later in the study in 2012. These data suggest that the phytoremediation system affects the groundwater contaminants on a seasonal basis and, over multiple years, has resulted in a cumulative decrease in dissolved-phase contaminant concentrations in groundwater. The removal of dissolved organic contaminants from the aquifer has resulted in a lower demand on dissolved oxygen supplied by recharge and, as a result, the redox status of the groundwater has changed from anoxic to oxic conditions. This study provides much needed information for water managers and other scientists on the viability of the long-term effectiveness of phytoremediation in decreasing groundwater contaminants and increasing dissolved oxygen at sites contaminated by benzene, toluene, and naphthalene.

  16. Synthesis of N and La co-doped TiO{sub 2}/AC photocatalyst by microwave irradiation for the photocatalytic degradation of naphthalene

    Liu, Dandan; Wu, Zhansheng, E-mail: wuzhans@126.com; Tian, Fei; Ye, Bang-Ce; Tong, Yanbin, E-mail: tongyanbin@sina.com

    2016-08-15

    La and N co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles supported on activated carbon (TiO{sub 2}/AC) were synthesized through a microwave-assisted sol–gel method for the synergistic removal of naphthalene solution by photocatalytic degradation. Results showed that the La and N ions were incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} framework in both the anatase and rutile phases of TiO{sub 2} for single doped and co-doped samples, which narrowed the band gap of TiO{sub 2} from 2.82 to 2.20 eV. The PL spectra of the samples showed a decrease in the recombination centers when N and La were introduced in TiO{sub 2}/AC. The 0.001La-N-TiO{sub 2}/AC photocatalyst exhibited the highest degradation efficiency of 93.5% for naphthalene under visible light within 120 min. This result was attributed to a synergistic effect involving the efficient inhibition of the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes, the increase in surface hydroxyl, surface area, volume pores, and the increase of uptake in the visible light region. In addition, the high apparent rate constant indicated that La and N co-doping result in the increase of photoactivity. This study demonstrated the co-doped TiO{sub 2}/AC is a highly efficient photocatalyst for the removal of naphthalene. The results provided valuable information on the mechanism of naphthalene decomposition. - Highlights: • N, La codoped TiO{sub 2}/AC catalysts were synthesized by microwave-assisted. • N and La doping inhibit the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. • 0.001La-N-TiO{sub 2}/AC obtains photodegradation efficiency of 93.5% for naphthalene. • The photocatalysts possess good photochemical stability and reusability.

  17. Potential of the Trad-MCN assay applied with inflorescences of Tradescantia pallida 'Purpurea' for evaluating air contamination by naphthalene.

    Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Domingos, Marisa

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine clastogenic responses of Tradescantia pallida cv. Purpurea to naphthalene (NAPH) by means of the bioassay Trad-MCN with inflorescences of T. pallida cv. Purpurea and to verify if this assay might be an indicator of the potential risk imposed in a workplace, where solid insecticide containing NAPH is usually applied. The clastogenic potential of NAPH was assessed by using static and dynamic experimental systems. In both systems, increased micronucleus frequencies were observed in inflorescences submitted to increasing concentrations of solid or gaseous NAPH. The evident clastogenicity verified in inflorescences exposed experimentally to 25-50 mg m(-3) of NAPH during 6h points to a narrow threshold of plant sensitivity, indicating risks under lower NAPH levels than the standards established by OSHA and therefore revealing its suitability for biomonitoring purposes. However, the clastogenic risk should be carefully investigated by other monitoring methods if human health is taken into consideration.

  18. Naphthalene Bis(4,8-diamino-1,5-dicarboxyl)amide Building Block for Semiconducting Polymers.

    Eckstein, Brian J; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Manley, Eric F; Fabiano, Simone; Mouat, Aidan R; Chen, Lin X; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2017-10-18

    We report a new naphthalene bis(4,8-diamino-1,5-dicarboxyl)amide (NBA) building block for polymeric semiconductors. Computational modeling suggests that regio-connectivity at the 2,6- or 3,7-NBA positions strongly modulates polymer backbone torsion and, therefore, intramolecular π-conjugation and aggregation. Optical, electrochemical, and X-ray diffraction characterization of 3,7- and 2,6-dithienyl-substituted NBA molecules and corresponding isomeric NBA-bithiophene copolymers P1 and P2, respectively, reveals the key role of regio-connectivity. Charge transport measurements demonstrate that while the twisted 3,7-NDA-based P1 is a poor semiconductor, the planar 2,6-functionalized NBA polymers (P2-P4) exhibit ambipolarity, with μ e and μ h of up to 0.39 and 0.32 cm 2 /(V·s), respectively.

  19. 1-[2-(2-Methoxyphenylaminoethylamino]-3-(naphthalene-1- yloxypropan-2-ol May Be a Promising Anticancer Drug

    Tomoyuki Nishizaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have originally synthesized the naftopidil analogue 1-[2-(2-methoxyphenylaminoethylamino]-3-(naphthalene-1-yloxypropan-2-ol (HUHS 1015 as a new anticancer drug. HUHS1015 induces cell death in a wide variety of human cancer cell lines originated from malignant pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, hepatoma, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and renal cancer. HUHS1015-induced cell death includes necrosis (necroptosis and apoptosis, and the underlying mechanism differs depending upon cancer cell types. HUHS1015 effectively suppresses tumor growth in mice inoculated with NCI-H2052, MKN45, or CW2 cells, with a potential similar to or higher than that of currently used anticancer drugs. Here we show how HUHS1015 might offer brilliant hope for cancer therapy.

  20. Silica Supported Platinum Catalysts for Total Oxidation of the Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Naphthalene: An Investigation of Metal Loading and Calcination Temperature

    David R. Sellick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A range of catalysts comprising of platinum supported on silica, prepared by an impregnation method, have been studied for the total oxidation of naphthalene, which is a representative Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. The influence of platinum loading and calcination temperature on oxidation activity was evaluated. Increasing the platinum loading up to 2.5 wt.% increased the catalyst activity, whilst a 5.0 wt.% catalyst was slightly less active. The catalyst containing the optimum 2.5 wt.% loading was most active after calcination in air at 550 °C. Characterisation by carbon monoxide chemisorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that low platinum dispersion to form large platinum particles, in combination with platinum in metallic and oxidised states was important for high catalyst activity. Catalyst performance improved after initial use in repeat cycles, whilst there was slight deactivation after prolonged time-on-stream.

  1. Efficient in vitro Clonal Propagation of Muscari neglectum Guss. Ex. Ten Using Thidiazuron- α Naphthalene Acetic Acid

    Çiğdem Alev Özel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Muscari neglectum Guss. Ex Ten, is an ornamental, herbaceous perennial plant species that grows in the Mediterranean countries with attractive and scented blue-colored flowers. The plant has low seed output, seed dormancy, low germination and propagation rates. This study aimed to develop a reliable microclonal propagation protocol for M. neglectum using TDZ (Thidiazuron-NAA (α Naphthalene acetic acid to induce bulblets, roots, and acclimatization of the regenerated bulblets. Maximum number of bulblets per explant (8.25±0.05 was noted on MS medium containing 0.0454 µM TDZ-5.37 µM NAA. The bulblets regenerated in each type of culture medium were very vigorous, and acclimatized easily following rooting on a subculture. Here we show that this protocol is a useful clonal micropropagation system for this important ornamental plant.

  2. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  3. Excimer Pumped Pulsed Tunable Dye Laser

    Littman, Michael G.

    1988-06-01

    It has been recently shown and reported for the first time at this meeting, that Excimer pumping of a single-mode, short-cavity, grazing-incidence, longitudinally-pumped pulsed dye laser is feasible. In this paper the key concepts upon which this latest development is based are presented and are in a somewhat unusual form. This manuscript describes five specific dye laser examples. The five examples represent a progression from the simplest type of dye laser to the single-mode version mentioned above. The examples thus serve as a tutorial introduction to potential users of dye lasers. The article is organized into five sections or STEPS, each of which describes a different pulsed dye laser. Since the subtle points about dye lasers are best appreciated only after one actually attempts to build a working model, a PROCEDURES category is included in which details about the construction of the particular form of laser are given. As one reads through this category, think of it as looking over the shoulder of the laser builder. The NOTES category which follows is a brief but essential discussion explaining why various components and procedures are used, as well as how laser performance specifications are obtained. This subsection can he viewed as a discussion with the laser builder concerning the reasons for specific actions and choices made in the assembly of the example laser. The last category contains COMMENTS which provide additional related information pertaining to the example laser that goes beyond the earlier annotated discussion. If you like, these are the narrator's comments. At the end of the article, after the five sequential forms of the laser have been presented, there is a brief summation.

  4. Photophysical and laser characteristics of pyrromethene 567 dye ...

    Narrow-band laser performance of alcohol solutions of pyrromethene 567 ... curves of each dye solution were obtained by scanning the wavelength of the dye ... solutions, using ethanol and methanol solvents, are summarized in table 1.

  5. Novel Tunable Dye Laser for Lidar Detection, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A tunable dye laser for Lidar detection will be fabricated based on the innovative dye-doped Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (HPDLC) technology. The...

  6. Determination of 8 Synthetic Food Dyes by Solid Phase Extraction ...

    Keywords: Synthetic colors, Food, Fruit flavored drinks, Solid phase extraction, RP-HPLC. Tropical Journal of ..... food dyes by thin-layer chromatography-fast atom bombardment ... food dyes in soft drinks containing natural pigments by.

  7. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  8. Optofluidic third order distributed feedback dye laser

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    which has a refractive index lower than that of the polymer. In combination with a third order DFB grating, formed by the array of nanofluidic channels, this yields a low threshold for lasing. The laser is straightforward to integrate on lab-on-a-chip microsystems where coherent, tunable light......This letter describes the design and operation of a polymer-based third order distributed feedback (DFB) microfluidic dye laser. The device relies on light confinement in a nanostructured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels is filled by capillary action with a liquid dye solution...

  9. Dye linked conjugated homopolymers: using conjugated polymer electroluminescence to optically pump porphyrin-dye emission

    Nielsen, K.T.; Spanggaard, H.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2004-01-01

    . Electroluminescent devices of the homopolymer itself and of the zinc-porphyrin containing polymer were prepared and the nature of the electroluminescence was characterized. The homopolymer segments were found to optically pump the emission of the zinc-porphyrin dye moities. The homopolymer exhibits blue......Zinc-porphyrin dye molecules were incorporated into the backbone of a conjugated polymer material by a method, which allowed for the incorporation of only one zinc-porphyrin dye molecule into the backbone of each conjugated polymer molecule. The electronic properties of the homopolymer were...

  10. Design and construction of liquid lasers using organic dyes

    Hariri, Akbar.

    1984-01-01

    Organic dye solution show great promise of obtaining tunable coherent light over the uv, visible and near infrared portion of spectrum. In this paper we describe various pumping schemes of dye molecules. Design, construction and performance of a pulsed dye laser, transversely pumped by a nitrogen laser and wall-ablation flash lamp-pumped dye lasers are the particular examples which are presented in detail

  11. Studies on the use of power ultrasound in leather dyeing.

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2003-03-01

    Uses of power ultrasound for acceleration/performing the chemical as well as physical processes are gaining importance. In conventional leather processing, the diffusion of chemicals through the pores of the skin/hide is achieved by the mechanical agitation caused by the paddle or drumming action. In this work, the use of power ultrasound in the dyeing of leather has been studied with the aim to improve the exhaustion of dye for a given processing time, to reduce the dyeing time and to improve the quality of dyed leather. The effect of power ultrasound in the dyeing of full chrome cow crust leather in a stationary condition is compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound as a control experiment both in a stationary as well as conventional drumming condition. An ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz) was used for the experiments. Actual power dissipated into the system was calculated from the calorimetric measurement. Experiments were carried out with variation in type of dye, amount of dye offer, temperature and time. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the percentage exhaustion of dye due to the presence of ultrasound, when compared to dyeing in absence of ultrasound. Experiments on equilibrium dye uptake carried out with or without ultrasound suggest that ultrasound help to improve the kinetics of leather dyeing. The results indicate that leathers dyed in presence of ultrasound have higher colour values, better dye penetration and fastness properties compared to control leathers. The physical testing results show that strength properties of the dyed leathers are not affected due to the application of ultrasound under the given process conditions. Apparent diffusion coefficient during the initial stage of dyeing process, both in presence and in absence of ultrasound was calculated. The values show that ultrasound helps in improving the apparent diffusion coefficient more for the difficult dyeing conditions such as in the case of metal

  12. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Hoke, Eric T.; Hardin, Brian E.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation

  13. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF DISAZO DYES DERIVED ...

    DJFLEX

    with disazo disperse dyes on synthetic polymer-fibres. (Venkataraman, 1974; Otutu et al., 2008). In this present study, the physico-chemical studies of disazo dyes derived from p-aminophenol recently prepared by our research group is described. We also described the kinetics of the dyes on nylon 6 fibre. In another study.

  14. Decolorization of reactive dyes under batch anaerobic condition by ...

    However, decolorization was lower for the dye of RB 49 than other two dyes in all concentrations despite 72 h incubation period by mixed anaerobic culture. All of the three dyes correlated with 1st order reaction kinetic with respect to decolorization kinetics. The results of the study demonstrated that high decolorization was ...

  15. Dye-sensitized photopolymerization of N,N ...

    Unknown

    and a primary radical derived from the reducing agent. This radical initiates the vinyl polymerization. (scheme 1). In scheme 1, D is the dye, 1D the first excited singlet state, 3D the triplet state, DH. • the semi- quinone dye, DH2 the leuco dye, RH the reducing agent and R. • the initiating radical. Similar schemes. 1D → 3D,.

  16. Integrated and sequential anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of azo dyes

    Tan, N.G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Azo dyes constitute a major class of environmental pollutants accounting for 60 to 70% of all dyes and pigments used. These compounds are characterized by aromatic moieties linked together with azo groups (-N=N-). The release of azo dyes into the environment is a concern due to coloration

  17. Biotreatment of anthraquinone dye Drimarene Blue K 2 RL | Siddiqui ...

    Drimarene Blue (Db) K2RL is a reactive anthraquinone dye, used extensively in textile industry, due to poor adsorbability to textile fiber; it has a higher exhaustion rate in wastewater. The dye is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and resistant to degradation. Decolorization of this dye was studied in two different systems.

  18. Column studies for biosorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on ...

    Biosorption is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement the present dye removal processes from dye wastewaters. Based on the results of batch studies on biosorption of the dyes on powdered fungal biomass, Aspergillus niger, an immobilised fungal biomass was used in column studies for removal of four ...

  19. Complete removal of AHPS synthetic dye from water using new electro-fenton oxidation catalyzed by natural pyrite as heterogeneous catalyst.

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Oturan, Mehmet A; Panizza, Marco; Hamadi, Nawfel Ben; Ammar, Salah

    2015-10-30

    The mineralization of a new azo dye - the (4-amino-3-hydroxy-2-p-tolylazo-naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) (AHPS) - has been studied by a novel electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP), consisting in electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, catalyzed by pyrite as the heterogeneous catalyst - the so-called 'pyrite-EF'. This solid pyrite used as heterogeneous catalyst instead of a soluble iron salt, is the catalyst the system needs for production of hydroxyl radicals. Experiments were performed in an undivided cell equipped with a BDD anode and a commercial carbon felt cathode to electrogenerate in situ H2O2 and regenerate ferrous ions as catalyst. The effects on operating parameters, such as applied current, pyrite concentration and initial dye content, were investigated. AHPS decay and mineralization efficiencies were monitored by HPLC analyses and TOC measurements, respectively. Experimental results showed that AHPS was quickly oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (OH) produced simultaneously both on BDD surface by water discharge and in solution bulk from electrochemically assisted Fenton's reaction with a pseudo-first-order reaction. AHPS solutions with 175 mg L(-1) (100 mg L(-1) initial TOC) content were then almost completely mineralized in 8h. Moreover, the results demonstrated that, under the same conditions, AHPS degradation by pyrite electro-Fenton process was more powerful than the conventional electro-Fenton process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An efficient in vitro shoot regeneration from leaf petiolar explants and ex vitro rooting of Bixa orellana L.- A dye yielding plant.

    Mohammed, Arifullah; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Namsa, Nima D; Ghanta, Rama Gopal

    2015-07-01

    Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) is a multipurpose tree grown for the production of commercially important dyes. In the present study, an efficient, reproducible protocol was developed for direct plant regeneration from in vitro derived petiole explants of Bixa orellana L. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 2-isopentenyl adenine (9.8 μM) and naphthalene acetic acid (10.7 μM) was found to be optimum for production of high frequency of shoot organogenesis. Subculturing of the shoots onto the fresh MS medium containing similar concentrations of 2-iP (9.8 μM) and NAA (10.7 μM) produced elongated shoots. Elongated shoots when placed onto MS medium supplemented with 1.7 μM indole-3-acetic acid and 14.7 μM 2-iP produced optimal rooting. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized and transplanted to the field successfully. Histological investigation revealed the origin of shoot primordia, from sub-epidermal cells of petiole explants. The regeneration protocol developed in this study can be useful for mass in vitro propagation and effective genetic transformation of commercially important edible dye yielding tree species.

  1. Electro-optical and charge injection investigations of the donor-π-acceptor triphenylamine, oligocene–thiophene–pyrimidine and cyanoacetic acid based multifunctional dyes

    Ahmad Irfan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The corner stone of present study is to tune the electro-optical and charge transport properties of donor-bridge-acceptor (D-π-A triphenylamine (TPA derivatives. In the present investigation, an electron deficient moiety (pyrimidine, electron-rich moiety (thiophene and oligocene (benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene and pentacene have been incorporated as π-spacer between the donor TPA unit and cyanoacetic acid acceptor and anchoring group. The elongation of bridge usually affects the energy levels, i.e., higher the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO while lower the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO thus reduces the HOMO–LUMO energy gap. The lowered LUMO energy levels of cyano-{2-[6-(4-diphenylamino-phenyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-tetraceno[2,3-b]thiophen-8-yl}-acetic acid (TPA-PTT4 and cyano-{2-[6-(4-diphenylamino-phenyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-pentaceno[2,3-b]thiophen-9-yl}-acetic acid (TPA-PPT5 dyes revealed that electron injected from dye to semiconductor surface might be auxiliary stable resulting in impediment of quenching. The broken co-planarity between the π-spacer conceiving LUMO and the TPA moiety would help to impede the recombination process. Moreover, it is expected that TPA derivatives with the tetracenothiophene and pentacenothiophene moieties as π-bridge would show better photovoltaic performance due to lowered LUMO energy level, higher electronic coupling constant, light harvesting efficiency and electron injection values.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Gomez-Ortiz, N.M.; Vazquez-Maldonado, I.A.; Azamar-Barrios, J.A.; Oskam, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yuc. 97310 (Mexico); Perez-Espadas, A.R.; Mena-Rejon, G.J. [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica de Investigacion, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yuc. 97150 (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using {sup 1}H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanostructured, mesoporous films and the annatto, bixin, and norbixin as sensitizers. The best results were obtained with bixin-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells with efficiencies of up to 0.53%, illustrating the importance of purification of dyes from natural extracts. (author)

  3. Development auxiliaries for dyeing polyester with disperse dyes at low temperatures

    Carrion-Fite, F. J.; Radei, S.

    2017-10-01

    High-molecular weight organic compounds known as carriers are widely used to expedite polyester dyeing at atmospheric pressure at 100 °C. However, carriers are usually poorly biodegradable and can partially plasticize fibres. Also, dyeing at temperatures above 100 °C in the absence of a carrier entails using expensive equipment. In this work, we developed an alternative method for dyeing polyester at temperatures below 100 °C that reduces energy expenses, dispenses with the need to invest in new equipment and avoids the undesirable effects of non-biodegradable carriers. The method uses disperse dyes in a microemulsion containing a low proportion of a non-toxic organic solvent and either of two alternative development auxiliaries (coumarin and o-vanillin) that is prepared with the aid of ultrasound.

  4. Electrophoresis-base dye adsorption into titanium dioxide film for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Ratno Nuryadi; Zico Alaia Akbar Junior; Lia Aprilia

    2010-01-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is one of renewable energy sources which has demanded a substitute non renewable energy sources. The most important factor influencing DSSC performance is dye adsorption into semiconductor nano-porous TiO 2 particles. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of dye eosin Y adsorption on DSSC characteristics by an electrophoresis method. As result, Open Circuit Voltage (V oc ) of DSSC increases as the applied voltage of electrophoresis increases. It is also found that the eosin Y absorbance at wavelength of around 500 nm increases when the electrophoresis voltage is increased. These results indicate that electrophoresis process plays an important role in dye adsorption. (author)

  5. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available is the nano- crystalline TiO2dye- sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using simple materials. The production process generates...

  6. Advanced oxidation of acid and reactive dyes

    Arslan-Alaton, I.; Gursoy, B.H.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    M) for 10:hsp sp="0.25" min Fenton treatment at pH 3, resulting in reduced chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal efficiencies; only acetate was detected as a stable dye oxidation end product. During anaerobic digestion, 100, 29% and no inhibition in methane production was observed...

  7. Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Noah M. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and characterization of photochromic dye sensitized solar cells that possess the ability to change color depending on external lighting conditions. This device can be used as a “smart” window shade that tints, collects the sun's energy, and blocks sunlight when the sun shines, and is completely transparent at night.

  8. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

    Jihane Cheriaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila-(CM-4 was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L and malachite green (50 mg/L dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  9. Expeditious, mechanochemical synthesis of BODIPY dyes

    Laramie P. Jameson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BODIPY dyes have been synthesized under solvent-free or essentially solvent-free conditions, within about 5 minutes in an open-to-air setup by using a pestle and mortar, with yields that are comparable to those obtained via traditional routes that typically require reaction times of several hours to days.

  10. Magnetically modified spent grain for dye removal

    Šafařík, Ivo; Horská, Kateřina; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2011), s. 78-80 ISSN 0733-5210 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09052; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Spent grain * Magnetic fluid * Adsorption * Dyes Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.073, year: 2011

  11. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel system that harnesses solar energy is the nano-crystalline TiO dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using...

  12. Holograms made with a pulsed dye laser

    Fernandez-Guasti, M.; Iturbe-Castillo, D.; Silva-Perez, A.; Gil-Villegas, A.; Gonzalez-Torres, H.; Lopez-Guerrero, R.

    1989-01-01

    We report the obtention of holograms with a nitrogen pumped dye laser, whose source is inherently pulsed. We review the advantages and posibilities of holograms of moving objects which are impossible to make with CW lasers. The lasers used in these experiments were designed and built in the quantum optics laboratory at the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. (Author)

  13. Electrochemistry and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2017), s. 88-98 ISSN 2451-9103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * dye-sensitized cells * photoelectrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis)

  14. Pulse radiolysis of anthraquinone dye aqueous solution

    Perkowski, J.; Gebicki, J.L.; Lubis, R.; Mayer, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of argon flushed aqueous solutions of 10 -5 -10 -4 mol dm -3 anthraquinone dye (C.I. Acid Blue 62) gives rise to the transients originated from the reactions of e - aq , OH and H. The rate constants of these reactions are determined. (author)

  15. Nanoimprinted polymer photonic crystal dye lasers

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron; Buss, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Optically pumped polymer photonic crystal band-edge dye lasers are presented. The photonic crystal is a rectangular lattice providing laser feedback as well as an optical resonance for the pump light. The lasers are defined in a thin film of photodefinable Ormocore hybrid polymer, doped...

  16. Traditional Dyeing--An Educational Approach

    Alves, H.; Manhita, A.; Dias, C. Barrocas; Ferreira, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a mini-project developed with 10th grade Portuguese students where, by using an experimental activity involving the use of natural dyes to colour wool, students acquired a better understanding of the concepts and relationship between the colour, the electromagnetic spectrum, and chemical bonding. As demonstrated by the results…

  17. Effect of dye extracting solvents and sensitization time on photovoltaic performance of natural dye sensitized solar cells

    Md. Khalid Hossain

    Full Text Available In this study, natural dye sensitizer based solar cells were successfully fabricated and photovoltaic performance was measured. Sensitizer (turmeric sources, dye extraction process, and photoanode sensitization time of the fabricated cells were analyzed and optimized. Dry turmeric, verdant turmeric, and powder turmeric were used as dye sources. Five distinct types of solvents were used for extraction of natural dye from turmeric. Dyes were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometric analysis. The extracted turmeric dye was used as a sensitizer in the dye sensitized solar cell’s (DSSC photoanode assembly. Nano-crystalline TiO2 was used as a film coating semiconductor material of the photoanode. TiO2 films on ITO glass substrate were prepared by simple doctor blade technique. The influence of the different parameters VOC, JSC, power density, FF, and η% on the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs was analyzed. The best energy conversion performance was obtained for 2 h adsorption time of dye on TiO2 nano-porous surface with ethanol extracted dye from dry turmeric. Keywords: DSSC, Natural dye, TiO2 photoanode, Dye extracting solvent, Dye-adsorption time

  18. Application of natural dyes in textile industry and the treatment of dye solutions using electrolytic techniques

    Abouamer, Karima Massaud

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 25/02/2008. Anodic oxidation of a commercial dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions using an electrochemical cell is reported. Data are provided on the effects of eight different types of supporting electrolytes, concentration of electrolytes, initial dye concentration, current and electrolytic time on the percentage removal of methylene blue. Anodic oxidation was found to be effect...

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea

    Chang, H., E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, H.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Jhongshan N. Rd. Jhongshan District, Taipei City 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.L. [Department of Industrial Design, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.D. [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Jwo, C.S. [Department of Energy and Air-Conditioning Refrigeration Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Lo, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-16

    This study used spinach extract, ipomoea leaf extract and their mixed extracts as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Spinach and ipomoea leaves were first placed separately in ethanol and the chlorophyll of these two kinds of plants was extracted to serve as the natural dyes for using in DSSCs. In addition, the self-developed nanofluid synthesis system prepared a TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 50 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to let the TiO{sub 2} deposit nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11.61 {mu}m. This TiO{sub 2} thin film underwent sintering at 450 {sup o}C to enhance the compactness of thin film. Finally, the sintered TiO{sub 2} thin film was immersed in the natural dye solutions extracted from spinach and ipomoea leaves, completing the production of the anode of DSSC. This study then further inspected the fill factor, photoelectric conversion efficiency and incident photon current efficiency of the encapsulated DSSC. According to the experimental results of current-voltage curve, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by natural dyes from ipomoea leaf extract is 0.318% under extraction temperature of 50 {sup o}C and pH value of extraction fluid at 1.0. This paper also investigated the influence of the temperature in the extraction process of this kind of natural dye and the influence of pH value of the dye solution on the UV-VIS patterns absorption spectra of the prepared natural dye solutions, and the influence of these two factors on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  20. Immobilized laccase mediated dye decolorization and transformation pathway of azo dye acid red 27

    Chhabra, Meenu; Mishra, Saroj; Sreekrishnan, Trichur Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background Laccases have good potential as bioremediating agents and can be used continuously in the immobilized form like many other enzymes. Methods In the present study, laccase from Cyathus bulleri was immobilized by entrapment in Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) beads cross-linked with either nitrate or boric acid. Immobilized laccase was used for dye decolorization in both batch and continuous mode employing a packed bed column. The products of degradation of dye Acid Red 27 were identified by ...

  1. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    Natali Ortiz Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more

  2. Triphenylamine based organic dyes for dye sensitized solar cells: A theoretical approach

    Mohankumar, V.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: ramasamyp@ssn.edu.in [SSN Research Centre, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai-603110, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    The geometry, electronic structure and absorption spectra for newly designed triphenylamine based organic dyes were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with the Becke 3-Parameter-Lee-Yang-parr(B3LYP) functional, where the 6-31G(d,p) basis set was employed. All calculations were performed using the Gaussian 09 software package. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecule. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectrum was simulated by TD-DFT in gas phase. The calculation shows that all of the dyes can potentially be good sensitizers for DSSC. The LUMOs are just above the conduction band of TiO{sub 2} and their HOMOs are under the reduction potential energy of the electrolytes (I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −}) which can facilitate electron transfer from the excited dye to TiO{sub 2} and charge regeneration process after photo oxidation respectively. The simulated absorption spectrum of dyes match with solar spectrum. Frontier molecular orbital results show that among all the three dyes, the “dye 3” can be used as potential sensitizer for DSSC.

  3. Mediator-assisted decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes/dye mixture by Cyathus bulleri laccase.

    Chhabra, Meenu; Mishra, Saroj; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2008-12-01

    Laccase from basidiomycete fungus Cyathus bulleri was evaluated for its ability to decolorize a number of reactive and acidic dyes in the presence of natural and synthetic mediators. The extent of decolorization was monitored at different mediator/dye concentrations and incubation time. Among the synthetic mediators, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was effective at low mediator/dye ratios and resulted in 80-95% decolorization at rates that varied from 226 +/- 4 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for Reactive Orange 1 to 1,333 +/- 15 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for Reactive Red 198. Other synthetic mediators like 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and violuric acid showed both concentration- and time-dependent increases in percent decolorization. Natural mediators like vanillin, on the other hand, were found to be less effective on all the dyes except Reactive Orange 1. Computed rates of decolorization were about twofold lower than that with ABTS. The laccase-ABTS system also led to nearly 80% decolorization for the simulated dye mixture. No clear correlation between laccase activity on the mediator and its ability to decolorize dyes was found, but pH had a significant effect: Optimum pH for decolorization coincided with the optimum pH for mediator oxidation. The treated samples were also evaluated for toxicity in model microbial systems. The laccase-mediator system appears promising for treatment of textile wastewaters.

  4. Photodegradation in multiple-dye luminescent solar concentrators

    Mooney, Alex M.; Warner, Kathryn E.; Fontecchio, Paul J.; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Wittmershaus, Bruce P.

    2013-01-01

    Combining multiple organic dyes to form a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) network is a useful strategy for extending the spectral range of sunlight absorbed by a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC). Excitation transfer out of the higher energy level dyes in the transfer series competes effectively with their photodegradation rates. Improvements in photostability up to a factor of 18 are observed for the first dye in the FRET series. FRET networks are shown to be a viable means of decreasing the rate of photodegradation of organic dyes used in LSCs. This comes at the expense of the final dye in the network; the depository of most of the excitations created by absorbing sunlight. The photostability and performance of an efficient FRET LSC rest heavily on the photostability and fluorescence quantum yield of the final dye. -- Highlights: • Photodegradation kinetics of multiple-dye FRET LSCs are reported. • The FRET network decreased the first dye's photodegradation rate by a factor of 18. • The final dye in the FRET LSC protects other dyes at its own expense. • The final dye must have excellent photostability and fluorescence quantum yield

  5. Uniform silica nanoparticles encapsulating two-photon absorbing fluorescent dye

    Wu Weibing; Liu Chang; Wang Mingliang; Huang Wei; Zhou Shengrui; Jiang Wei; Sun Yueming; Cui Yiping; Xu Chunxinag

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared uniform silica nanoparticles (NPs) doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye by reverse microemulsion method. Obvious solvatochromism on the absorption spectra of dye-doped NPs indicates that solvents can partly penetrate into the silica matrix and then affect the ground and excited state of dye molecules. For dye-doped NP suspensions, both one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence are much stronger and recorded at shorter wavelength compared to those of free dye solutions with comparative overall dye concentration. This behavior is possibly attributed to the restricted twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT), which reduces fluorescence quenching when dye molecules are trapped in the silica matrix. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells with low cytotoxicity. - Graphical abstract: Water-soluble silica NPs doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye were prepared. They were found of enhanced one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence compared to free dye solutions. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells.

  6. Interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Tagliaferro, Roberto; Colonna, Daniele; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2013-02-11

    In this paper we analyze the interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells by varying fabrication parameters such as the thickness of the nano-crystalline TiO(2) layer, the dye loading and the dye type. Both transparency and efficiency show a saturation trend when plotted versus dye loading. By introducing the transparency-efficiency plot, we show that the relation between transparency and efficiency is linear and is almost independent on the TiO(2) thickness for a certain thickness range. On the contrary, the relation between transparency and efficiency depends strongly on the type of the dye. Moreover, we show that co-sensitization techniques can be effectively used to access regions of the transparency-efficiency space that are forbidden for single dye sensitization. The relation found between transparency and efficiency (T&E) can be the general guide for optimization of Dye Solar Cells in building integration applications.

  7. Degradation of naphthalene and fluorene by radiolysis using accelerated electrons; Degradacion de naftaleno y fluoreno por radiolisis empleando electrones acelerados

    Flores de Jesus, I

    2003-07-01

    The volume of the dangerous wastes in global level is causing the poisoning of planet and all of the ecosystems, degrading the life level of millions of humans and causing serious problems in the public health. Since a years ago the volumes of organic effluents generated by the few industry and small populations were so tiny that a natural debugger process in a time and space delimited, acquiring again their natural characteristics and they could be used again. Nowadays these wastes are so numerous and precise in some cases that the capacity of natural purification in the receiving channel is not enough, in addition to the difficulty to treat them in conventional processes, this leads to the decrease in the water's quality making impossible its future use and causing with this a serious ecological problem. This fact has motivated the development of measures that tend to the conservation of the environment and in consequence, the development of debugger technologies with no generation of sub products that often are more dangerous than the originals, due to the previous thing, the treatment by means of radiation of the water is impelled since is a method that allows to degrade or to eliminate in simultaneous form pathogenic microorganisms and organic substances. The radiation by means of electrons beams is a method of advanced treatment who allows to degrade organic compounds, transforming them in compounds with less molecular weight, and in the best of the cases until its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. In the present thesis the objective is the study of naphthalene and fluorene degradation by means of radiation with electron beams, establishing the operating conditions of the accelerator of Pelletron type. This research is supported by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, of a joint way with a series of antecedents in this subject, established in previous research with respect to the treatment of residual waters in a great scale, giving

  8. Degradation of naphthalene and fluorene by radiolysis using accelerated electrons; Degradacion de naftaleno y fluoreno por radiolisis empleando electrones acelerados

    Flores de Jesus, I

    2003-07-01

    The volume of the dangerous wastes in global level is causing the poisoning of planet and all of the ecosystems, degrading the life level of millions of humans and causing serious problems in the public health. Since a years ago the volumes of organic effluents generated by the few industry and small populations were so tiny that a natural debugger process in a time and space delimited, acquiring again their natural characteristics and they could be used again. Nowadays these wastes are so numerous and precise in some cases that the capacity of natural purification in the receiving channel is not enough, in addition to the difficulty to treat them in conventional processes, this leads to the decrease in the water's quality making impossible its future use and causing with this a serious ecological problem. This fact has motivated the development of measures that tend to the conservation of the environment and in consequence, the development of debugger technologies with no generation of sub products that often are more dangerous than the originals, due to the previous thing, the treatment by means of radiation of the water is impelled since is a method that allows to degrade or to eliminate in simultaneous form pathogenic microorganisms and organic substances. The radiation by means of electrons beams is a method of advanced treatment who allows to degrade organic compounds, transforming them in compounds with less molecular weight, and in the best of the cases until its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. In the present thesis the objective is the study of naphthalene and fluorene degradation by means of radiation with electron beams, establishing the operating conditions of the accelerator of Pelletron type. This research is supported by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, of a joint way with a series of antecedents in this subject, established in previous research with respect to the treatment of residual waters in a great scale, giving

  9. Synthesis and dyeing performance of bisazo disperse dyes based on 3-[4-(4-amino-2-chlorophenoxyanilino]phenol

    Rajesh H. Parab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present communication aims to develop bisazo disperse dyes based on 3-[4-(4-amino-2-chlorophenoxyanilino]phenol (DAP both as a coupling component as well as a diazonium salt. Coupling reaction of DAP was carried out with a diazonium salt of 4-aminoacetanilide to yield a monoazo disperse dye, and then it was further used as a diazonium salt and coupled with a different aromatic phenol to synthesize bisazo disperse dyes. All the disperse dyes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR and UV–Visible spectral studies with a view to determine their chemical structure. The dyeing ability of these bisazo disperse dyes has been evaluated in terms of their dyeing behavior and fastness properties on different fabrics.

  10. Crystal structure of 3-methoxy-2-[5-(naphthalen-1-yl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenol

    Dongsoo Koh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H18N2O2, the central pyrazoline ring has an envelope conformation with the atom substituted by the naphthalene ring as the flap. It bridges a benzene ring and a naphthalene ring system which are almost normal to one another, making a dihedral angle of 82.03 (6 °. There is an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond forming an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...π interactions, forming inversion dimers. There are also C—H...π interactions present and the dimers are linked via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons propagating along the a-axis direction.

  11. Synthesis of Hβ (core)/SAPO-11 (shell) Composite Molecular Sieve and its Catalytic Performances in the Methylation of Naphthalene with Methanol

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Liangfu; Guo, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Hβ (core)/SAPO-11 (shell) composite molecular sieve was synthesized by the hydrothermal method in order to combine the advantages of Hβ and SAPO-11 for the methylation of naphthalene with methanol. For comparison, the mechanical mixture was prepared through the blending of Hβ and SAPO-11. The physicochemical properties of Hβ, SAPO-11, the composite and the mechanical mixture were characterized by various characterization methods. The characterization results indicated that Hβ/SAPO-11 composite molecular sieve exhibited a core-shell structure, with the Hβ phase as the core and the SAPO-11 phase as the shell. The pore diameter of the composite was between that of Hβ and SAPO-11. The composite had fewer acid sites than Hβ and mechanical mixture while more acid sites than SAPO-11. The experimental results indicated that the composite exhibited high catalytic performances for the methylation of naphthalene with methanol

  12. Novel Rearrangements in the Reactions Directed Toward Preparation of Spiro-N,N-ketals: Reactions of Naphthalene-1,8-diamine with Ninhydrin and Isatin

    Keiji Kobayashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Spiro-N,N-ketal 5, consisting of a phthaloperine heterocyclic ring and a naphtha[1,8-ef][1,4]diazepine ring, was obtained along with spiro-N,N-ketal 2 via 2,2-condensation in the reaction of ninhydrin with naphthalene-1,8-diamine. Their molecular structures were elucidated by X-ray crystal structural analysis. Aside from these spiro compounds, the diazapleiadiene compound 3 formed by 1,2-condensation and the 1,4-isoquinolinedione compound 4 arising from ring expansion were isolated. When isatin was reacted with naphthalene-1,8-diamine, spiro-N,N-ketal 6 and the two 1H-perimidine-based compounds 7 and 8 were isolated. Compound 8 was revealed to undergo a fast dynamic prototropic tautomerization in solution. Plausible mechanisms of the formation of the products are proposed.

  13. Use of the ultrasonic cavitation in wool dyeing process: Effect of the dye-bath temperature.

    Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Pezzin, A; Rovero, G; Sicardi, S

    2017-03-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of the liquid temperature on the performance of ultrasounds (US) in a dyeing process. The approach was both theoretical and experimental. In the theoretical part the simplified model of a single bubble implosion is used to demonstrate that the "maximum implosion pressure" calculated with the well known Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a single bubble can be correlated with the cavitation intensity experimentally measured with an Ultrasonic Energy Meter (by PPB Megasonics). In particular the model was used to study the influence of the fluid temperature on the cavitation intensity. The "relative" theoretical data calculated from the implosion pressure were satisfactorily correlated with the experimental ones and evidence a zone, between 50 and 60°C, were the cavitation intensity is almost constant and still sufficiently high. Hence an experimental part of wool dyeing was carried out both to validate the previous results and to verify the dyeing quality at low temperatures (40-70°C) in presence of US. A prototype dyeing equipment able to treat textile samples with US system of 600W power, was used. The dyeing performances in the presence and absence of US were verified by measuring ΔE (colour variation), R e,% (reflectance percentage), K/S (colour strength) and colour fastness. The US tests performed in the temperature range of 40-70°C were compared with the conventional wool dyeing at 98°C. The obtained results show that a temperature close to 60°C should be chosen as the recommended US dyeing condition, being a compromise between the cavitation intensity and the kinetics which rules the dyestuff diffusion within the fibres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel diyne-bridged dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Fang, Jing-Kun, E-mail: fjk@njust.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street No. 200, Nanjing, 210094 (China); Sun, Tengxiao [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street No. 200, Nanjing, 210094 (China); Tian, Yi [Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Zhang, Yingjun, E-mail: ZhangYingjun@hec.cn [HEC Pharm Group, HEC R& D Center, Dongguan, 523871 (China); Jin, Chuanfei [HEC Pharm Group, HEC R& D Center, Dongguan, 523871 (China); Xu, Zhimin; Fang, Yu; Hu, Xiangyu; Wang, Haobin [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street No. 200, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Three new metal free organic dyes (FSD101-103) were synthesized to investigate the influence of diyne unit on dye molecules. FSD101 and FSD102 with diyne unit and FSD103 with monoyne unit were applied as sensitizers in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The optical and electrochemical properties, theoretical studies, and photovoltaic parameters of DSSCs sensitized by these dyes were systematically investigated. By replacing the monoyne unit with a diyne unit, FSD101 exhibited broader absorption spectrum, lower IP, higher EA, lower band gap energy, higher oscillator strength, more efficient electron injection ability, broader IPCE response range and higher τ{sub e} in comparison with FSD103. Hence, DSSC sensitized by FSD101 showed higher J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} values, and demonstrated a power conversion efficiency of 3.12%, about 2-fold as that of FSD103 (1.55%). FSD102 showed similar results as FSD101, with a power conversion efficiency of 2.98%, despite a stronger electron withdraw cyanoacrylic acid group was introduced. This may be due to the lower efficiency of the electron injection from dye to TiO{sub 2} and lower τ{sub e} of FSD102 than that of FSD101. These results indicate that the performance of DSSCs can be significantly improved by introducing a diyne unit into this type of organic dyes. - Highlights: • Diyne-bridge was introduced into dye molecules by a transition-metal-free protocol. • Power conversion efficiency grows from 1.55% to 3.12% by replacing monoyne unit with diyne unit. • FSD101 with diyne unit shows the highest electron lifetime resulting in a higher V{sub oc}.

  15. Theoretical study of the oxidation mechanisms of naphthalene initiated by hydroxyl radicals: the O2 addition reaction pathways.

    Shiroudi, A; Deleuze, M S; Canneaux, S

    2015-05-28

    Atmospheric oxidation of the naphthalene-OH adduct [C10H8OH]˙ (R1) by molecular oxygen in its triplet electronic ground state has been studied using density functional theory along with the B3LYP, ωB97XD, UM05-2x and UM06-2x exchange-correlation functionals. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, the most favourable process is O2 addition at the C2 position in syn mode, followed by O2 addition at the C2 position in anti mode, O2 addition at the C4 position in syn mode, and O2 addition at the C4 position in anti mode, as the second, third and fourth most favourable processes. The syn modes of addition at these positions are thermodynamically favoured over the anti ones by the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl and peroxy substituents. Analysis of the computed structures, bond orders and free energy profiles demonstrate that the reaction steps involved in the oxidation of the naphthalene-OH adduct by O2 satisfy Hammond's principle. Kinetic rate constants and branching ratios under atmospheric pressure and in the fall-off regime have been supplied, using transition state and RRKM theories. By comparison with experiment, these data confirm the relevance of a two-step reaction mechanism. Whatever the addition mode, O2 addition in C4 position is kinetically favoured over O2 addition in C2 position, in contrast with the expectations drawn from thermodynamics and reaction energies. Under a kinetic control of the reaction, and in line with the computed reaction energy barriers, the most efficient process is O2 addition at the C4 position in syn mode, followed by O2 addition at the C2 position in syn mode, O2 addition at the C4 position in anti mode, and O2 addition at the C2 position in anti mode as the second, third and fourth most rapid processes. The computed branching ratios also indicate that the regioselectivity of the reaction decreases with increasing temperatures and decreasing pressures.

  16. Isomerization and self-condensation reactions subsequent the. beta. -decay of tritiated naphthalene in the presence of liquid and gaseous benzene

    Angelini, G.; Keheyan, Y.; Lilla, E.; Perez, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Nucleare)

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated napththylium ions, generated by spontaneous {beta}-decay of (1,4-{sup 3}H) naphthalene, have been allowed to react with benzene molecules in gaseous and liquid phase. The isomeric phenylnaphthalenes and fluoranthene have been found among the reaction products. The differences between the reactivity pattern of naphthylium ion in the two phases can be explained by the different efficiency of collisional stabilization of the excited reaction intermediates. (orig.).

  17. Investigation into the fate of C-14-labelled xenobiotics(naphthalene, phenanthrene, 2,4,5,2 ',4',5 '-hexachlorobiphenyl, octachlorostyrene) in Bermudian corals

    Solbakken, Jan Erik; Knap, A.H.; Sleeter, T.D.; Searle, C.E.; Palmork, Karsten H.

    1983-01-01

    Uptake and elimination of 4 labelled lipid-soluble xenobiotics (naphthalene, phenanthrene, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphen(yPlC B), octachlorostyrene) were studied in 19 anthozoans and 1 hydrozoan common to Bermudian waters. The concentration of radioactiv~ty In the tissues was determined using liquid scintillation counting. All organisms tested took up radioactivity from the water. However, elimination rates were very slow compared to those of other marine organisms. Naphthale...

  18. Abundance of dioxygenase genes similar to Ralstonia sp strain U2 nagAc is correlated with naphthalene concentrations in coal tar-contaminated freshwater sediments

    Dionisi, H.M.; Chewning, C.S.; Morgan, K.H.; Menn, F.M.; Easter, J.P; Sayler, G.S. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology

    2004-07-01

    We designed a real-time PCR assay able to recognize dioxygenase large-subunit gene sequences with more than 90% similarity to the Ralstonia sp. strain U2 nagAc gene (nagAc-like gene sequences) in order to study the importance of organisms carrying these genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that this real-time PCR assay was specific and able to detect a variety of nagAc-like gene sequences. One to 100 ng of contaminated-sediment total DNA in 25-{mu}l reaction mixtures produced an amplification efficiency of 0.97 without evident PCR inhibition. The assay was applied to surficial freshwater sediment samples obtained in or in close proximity to a coal tar-contaminated Superfund site. Naphthalene concentrations in the analyzed samples varied between 0.18 and 106 mg/kg of dry weight sediment. The assay for nagAc-like sequences indicated the presence of (4.1 {+-} 0.7) X 10{sup 3} to (2.9 {+-} 0.3) X 10{sup 5} copies of nagAc-like dioxygenase genes per mug of DNA extracted from sediment samples. These values corresponded to (1.2 {+-} 0.6) X 10{sup 5} to (5.4 {+-} 0.4) X 10{sup 7} copies of this target per g of dry weight sediment when losses of DNA during extraction were taken into account. There was a positive correlation between naphthalene concentrations and nagAc-like gene copies per microgram of DNA = 0.89) and per gram of dry weight sediment = 0.77). These results provide evidence of the ecological significance of organisms carrying nagAc-like genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene.

  19. Performance variation from triphenylamine- to carbazole-triphenylamine-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Yang, Chien-Hsin, E-mail: yangch@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Churng [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tzong-Liu; Shieh, Yeong-Tarng; Chen, Wen-Janq; Liao, Shao-Hong; Sun, Yu-Kuang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} We synthesized an organic dye of carbazole-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid-triphenylamine. {yields} A dye-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using this dye with efficiency of 4.64%. {yields} Carbazole donor in the dye molecule provides electron in increasing efficiency. {yields} Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acids play a key role in increasing efficiency. {yields} AC impedance proves this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Organic dyes have been synthesized which contain an extra-electron donor (carbazole) and electron acceptors (rhodaniline-3-acetic acid) on triphenylamines (TPA). Photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical computational methods have categorized these compounds. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated using these dye molecules as light-harvesting sensitizers. The overall efficiency of sensitized cells has 4.64% relative to a cis-di(thiocyanato)-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl)-4,4'-dicarboxylate ruthenium (II) (N3 dye)-sensitized device (7.83%) fabricated and measured under the same conditions. Carbazole-electron donation in the dye molecules plays a key role in the increased efficiency. Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acid groups appear to help convey the charge transfer from the excited dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}, leading to a higher efficiency of devices using such a dye. Electrochemical impedance supports this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO{sub 2} (e{sup -}). Computations on this dye compound also indicate the larger charge transfer efficiency in the electronically excited state.

  20. Preconcentration of uranium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum and vanadium with oxine supported on microcrystalline naphthalene and their determinations by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Naveen Kumar, P.; Sanjay Kumar; Vijay Kumar; Nandakishore, S.S.; Bangroo, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid method for the determination of uranium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum and vanadium by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after solid-liquid extraction with microcrystalline naphthalene is developed. Analytes were quantitatively adsorbed as their oxinate complexes on naphthalene and determined by ICP-AES after stripping with 2 M HCl. The effect of various experimental parameters such as pH, reagent amounts, naphthalene amount and stripping conditions on the determination of these elements was investigated in detail. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of this method for U (VI), Th (IV), Zr (IV), Ti (IV), Mo (VI) and V (V) were 20.0 ng mL -1 and the relative standard deviations obtained for three replicate determinations at a concentration of 1.0 µg mL -1 were 1.5-3.0%. The proposed method has been applied in the analysis of SY-2, SY-3 and pre-analysed samples for U, Th, Zr, Ti, Mo and V the analytical results are in good agreement with recommended values. (author)

  1. Formation of nitro products from the gas-phase OH radical-initiated reactions of toluene, naphthalene, and biphenyl: effect of NO2 concentration.

    Nishino, Noriko; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    2008-12-15

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are released into the atmosphere principally during incomplete combustion and account for approximately 20% of nonmethane organic compounds in urban air. Reaction with OH radicals is the dominant atmospheric chemical loss process for aromatic hydrocarbons, leading mainly to the formation of an OH-aromatic or OH-PAH adduct which then reacts with O2 and/or NO2. For OH-monocyclic aromatic adducts, reaction with O2 dominates under atmospheric conditions; however, no data are available concerning the relative importance of reactions of OH-PAH adducts with O2 and NO2. We have measured formation yields of 3-nitrotoluene, 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene, and 3-nitrobiphenyl from the OH radical-initiated reactions of toluene, naphthalene, and biphenyl as a function of NO2 concentration. Our data showthatthe OH-aromatic adduct reactions with O2 and NO2 are of equal importance in the atmosphere at NO2 mixing ratios of approximately 3.3 ppmV for toluene, approximately 0.06 ppmV for naphthalene, and approximately 0.6 ppmV for biphenyl. Ambient concentrations of toluene, naphthalene, and biphenyl and their nitrated products measured at a site in the Los Angeles air basin are consistent with our laboratory measurements.

  2. Equatorenes: synthesis and properties of chiral naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and pyrene possessing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-position.

    Yamamoto, Koji; Oyamada, Naohiro; Xia, Sheng; Kobayashi, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Maeda, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Kwon, Eunsang

    2013-11-06

    Chiral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-positions, named equatorenes, were synthesized in optically pure form starting from optically pure 4,5-bis(1-adamantyl)-8-methoxy-1-naphthol. A sequential Diels-Alder reaction of furan and arynes generated from 1,2-bromotriflates provided tricyclic and tetracyclic epoxides, and acid-catalyzed aromatization gave phenanthrol and chrysenol. Deoxygenation reactions involving the hydrogenolysis of triflates gave 1,8-bis(1-adamantyl)naphthalene, 1,10-bis(1-adamantyl)phenanthrene, and 1,12-bis(1-adamantyl)chrysene. 3,4-Bis(1-adamantyl)pyrene was synthesized from phenanthrol by Sonogashira coupling and Pt-catalyzed cyclization. Essentially no racemization occurred during the synthesis. X-ray analysis indicated the distorted naphthalene moiety possessing the peri-diadamantyl groups and the flat structure of the other benzene rings. UV-vis analysis of the equatorenes showed considerable redshifts compared with that of the corresponding achiral arenes. Electrochemical analysis of the naphthalene and pyrene indicated that the distortion decreased the highest occupied molecular orbital stability with no marked effect on the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level, and the origin was discussed on the basis of calculation results.

  3. Considerations of the Effects of Naphthalene Moieties on the Design of Proton-Conductive Poly(arylene ether ketone) Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Wang, Baolong; Hong, Lihua; Li, Yunfeng; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Yuxue; Zhao, Chengji; Na, Hui

    2016-09-14

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketones) (SDN-PAEK-x), consisting of dual naphthalene and flexible sulfoalkyl groups, were prepared via polycondensation, demethylation, and sulfobutylation grafting reaction. Among them, SDN-PAEK-1.94 membrane with the highest ion exchange capacity (IEC = 2.46 mequiv·g(-1)) exhibited the highest proton conductivity, which was 0.147 S· cm(-1) at 25 °C and 0.271 S·cm(-1) at 80 °C, respectively. The introduction of dual naphthalene moieties is expected to achieve much enhanced properties compared to those of sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketones) (SNPAEK-x), consisting of single naphthalene and flexible sulfoalkyl groups. Compared with SNPAEK-1.60 with a similar IEC, SDN-PAEK-1.74 membrane showed higher proton conductivity, higher IEC normalized conductivity, and higher effective proton mobility, although it had lower analytical acid concentration. The SDN-PAEK-x membranes with IECs higher than 1.96 mequiv·g(-1) also exhibited higher proton conductivity than that of recast Nafion membrane. Furthermore, SDN-PAEK-1.94 displayed a better single cell performance with a maximum power density of 60 mW·cm(-2) at 80 °C. Considering its high proton conductivity, excellent single cell performance, good mechanical stabilities, low membrane swelling, and methanol permeability, SDN-PAEK-x membranes are promising candidates as alternative polymer electrolyte membranes to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  4. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1993-11-01

    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  5. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dyeing and printing workers

    Paramasivam Parimalam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers′ and fabric printers′ knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (΁10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.

  6. Organic and Inorganic Dyes in Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films

    Ball, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer films are a versatile functionalization method of surfaces and rely on the alternated adsorption of oppositely charged species. Among such species, charged dyes can also be alternated with oppositely charged polymers, which is challenging from a fundamental point of view, because polyelectrolytes require a minimal number of charges, whereas even monovalent dyes can be incorporated during the alternated adsorption process. We will not only focus on organic dyes but also on their inorganic counterparts and on metal complexes. Such films offer plenty of possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells. In addition, dyes are massively used in the textile industry and in histology to stain textile fibers or tissues. However, the excess of non bound dyes poses serious environmental problems. It is hence of the highest interest to design materials able to adsorb such dyes in an almost irreversible manner. Polyelectrolyte multilayer films, owing to their ion exchange behavior can be useful for such a task allowing for impressive overconcentration of dyes with respect to the dye in solution. The actual state of knowledge of the interactions between charged dyes and adsorbed polyelectrolytes is the focus of this review article.

  7. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  8. Pulse radiolysis of rhodamine dye solutions

    Kucherenko, E.A.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    Applying the method of pulse radiolysis (5 MeV electrons) a study was made on intermediate products of rhodamine B radiolytic transformations in neutral aqueous and ethanol solutions. Rate constants of reactions of esub(aq) and OH with the dye (they are equal to (2.2+-0.3)x10 10 and (2.1+-0.3)x10 10 e/molxs, accordingly) as well as optical and kinetic characteristics of esub(aq), OH and H interaction products were measured. The nature of these products is concluded. It was found that in ethanol solutions the semirecovered form - electroneutral radical of rhodamine B - was the only intermediate product. It arises during the interaction of the dye with esub(s) (k=(9.2+-1.2)x10 9 e/molxs) and α-et hananol radical (k=(1.1+-0.1)x10 8 l/molxs). Properties of this product were investigated

  9. Radiochromic dye film studies for brachytherapy applications

    Martinez-Davalos, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Diaz-Perches, R.; Arzamendi-Perez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Commercial radiochromic dye films have been used in recent years to quantify absorbed dose in several medical applications. In this study we present the characterisation of the GafChromic MD-55-2 dye film, a double sensitive layer film suitable for photon irradiation in brachytherapy applications. Dose measurements were carried out with a low dose rate 137 Cs brachytherapy source, which produces very steep dose gradients in its vicinity, and therefore requires the capability of producing high spatial resolution isodose curves. Quantification of the dose rate in water per unit air kerma strength was obtained using a high-resolution transmission commercial scanner (Agfa DuoScan T1200) with the capability of digitising up to 600 x 1200 pixels per inch using 36 bits per pixel, together with optical density measurements. The Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements compared well in the 0-50 Gy dose interval used in this study. (author)

  10. Synthesis and characterisation of new laser dyes

    Scala-Valero, Claudine

    1997-01-01

    Rhodamines are very efficient laser dyes for the red part of the visible spectrum: their fluorescence quantum efficiencies are about hundred per cent. However, their conversion efficiencies in dye amplifier are about fifty per cent, due to the presence of S n electronic level which is responsible of the re-absorption of a part of photons. In this research thesis, the author aims at trying to move this S n level out of the stimulated emission bandwidth. Models have been developed to propose new structures derived from rhodamines and theoretically possessing the desired properties. The so-recommended molecules have then been synthesised and characterised in terms of absorption and fluorescence spectra, of quantum efficiency, and of fluorescence lifetime. Two modifications are proposed for the rhodamine 6G structure, either by grafting methyl substitutes, or by grafting variously substituted amines. The searched result is obtained with the second modification [fr

  11. Photophysical properties of pyronin dyes in reverse micelles of AOT

    Bayraktutan, Tuğba; Meral, Kadem; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr

    2014-01-15

    The photophysical properties of pyronin B (PyB) and pyronin Y (PyY) in reverse micelles formed with water/sodium bis (2-ethyl-1-hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane were investigated by UV–vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. This study was carried out a wide range of reverse micelle sizes, with hydrodynamic radii ranging from 1.85 to 9.38 nm. Significant photophysical parameters as band shifts, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined to understand how photophysical and spectroscopic features of the dye compounds were affected by the variation of reverse micelle sizes. In this regard, control of reverse micelle size by changing W{sub 0}, the molar ratio of water to surfactant, allowed tuning the photophysical properties of the dyes in organic solvent via reverse micelle. Non-fluorescent H-aggregates of pyronin dyes were observed for the smaller reverse micelles whereas an increase in the reverse micelle size induced an increment in the amount of dye monomers instead of dye aggregates. Thus, the fluorescence intensities of the dyes were improved by increasing W{sub 0} due to the predomination of the fluorescent dye monomers. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yields also increased. The fluorescence lifetimes of the dyes in the reverse micelles were determined by the time-resolved fluorescence decay studies. Evaluation of the fluorescence lifetimes calculated for pyronin dyes in the reverse micelles showed that the size of reverse micelle affected the fluorescence lifetimes of pyronin dyes. -- Highlights: • The photophysical properties of pyronin dyes were examined by spectroscopic techniques. • Optical properties of the dyes were tuned by changing of W{sub 0} values. • The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield values of the dyes in reverse micelles were discussed.

  12. Novel organic dyes based on phenyl-substituted benzimidazole for dye sensitized solar cells

    Saltan, Gözde Murat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Dinçalp, Haluk, E-mail: haluk.dincalp@cbu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Kıran, Merve; Zafer, Ceylan [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Erbaş, Seçil Çelik [Celal Bayar University, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey)

    2015-08-01

    Two new sensitizers derived from benzimidazole core for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were designed and synthesized as D–π–A structures, in which two phenyl-substituted benzimidazole group, a phenyl ring and a cyanoacrylic acid were used as the electron donor, π-conjugated linkage and the electron acceptor, respectively. Effect of methoxy- and N,N-dimetylamino- moieties attached to the phenyl groups of benzimidazole were investigated by means of optical and photovoltaic measurements. The compounds exhibit broad absorption maximum at 387 nm with the tail extending up to 500 nm on TiO{sub 2}-coated thin film. The longer wavelength absorption band around 360 nm and the much longer decay components could be attributed to the existence of charge transfer state of the dyes in solutions. DSSC device fabricated by using methoxy substituted dye (BI5a) as a sensitizer shows much better incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 64% giving cell efficiency of 2.68%. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Long decay times suggest the delayed fluorescence caused by the existence of ICT. • The best solar energy conversion efficiency was obtained for BI5a dye (2.68%). • More fluorescent BI5a dye gives higher photocurrent generation.

  13. Molecular modification of coumarin dyes for more efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    Sanchez-de-Armas, Rocio; San-Miguel, Miguel A.; Oviedo, Jaime; Sanz, Javier Fdez. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2012-05-21

    In this work, new coumarin based dyes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been designed by introducing several substituent groups in different positions of the NKX-2311 structure. Two types of substitutions have been considered: the introduction of three electron-donating groups (-OH, -NH{sub 2}, and -OCH{sub 3}) and two different substituents with steric effect: -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- and -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH-. The electronic absorption spectra (position and width of the first band and absorption threshold) and the position of the LUMO level related to the conduction band have been used as theoretical criteria to evaluate the efficiency of the new dyes. The introduction of a -NH{sub 2} group produces a redshift of the absorption maximum position and the absorption threshold, which could improve the cell efficiency. In contrast, the introduction of -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- does not modify significantly the electronic structure of NKX-2311, but it might prevent aggregation. Finally, -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH- produces important changes both in the electronic spectrum and in the electronic structure of the dye, and it would be expected as an improvement of cell efficiency for these dyes.

  14. Time dependent – density functional theory characterization of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Hilal, Rifaat

    2017-06-19

    We aim at providing better insight into the parameters that govern the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-injection processes in dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations are utilized to study the geometry, electronic structure, electrostatic potential (ESP) and absorption spectrum, for a representative donor-π bridge-acceptor (D–π–A) dye for DSSC. The coplanar geometry of the dye (D1) facilitates strong conjugation and considerable delocalization originating the π CT interaction from donor to acceptor orbitals and the hyper-conjugative interactions involving Rydberg states. A model simulating the adsorption of the dye on the TiO surface is utilized to estimate binding energies. The effect of fluorine substituents in the π-spacer on the quantum efficiency of DSSCs was investigated. Gibb’s free energy values, redox potentials, excited state lifetime, non-linear optical properties (NLO) and driving forces for D1 and its fluorinated derivatives were computed.

  15. Effects of reduction products of ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization of azo dyes

    Liu Guangfei [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang Jing, E-mail: wangjingbio@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China); Lu Hong; Jin Ruofei; Zhou Jiti; Zhang Long [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The mediated effects of reduction products of some ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of reduction products could effectively accelerate dye decolorization by Shigella sp. QRZ-1. The best accelerating effect was obtained with the addition of reduction products of Acid Red 14 (AR14), resulting in an over 3-fold increase in decolorization efficiency of many azo dyes. In sequencing batch reactor experiments, the accelerating effect of reduction products of AR14 was more obvious (1.5-fold) during the startup of the system. When the dye concentration was increased to 500 mg L{sup -1}, the accelerated decolorization efficiency was still maintained around 95%. The presence of AR14 in the feed enhanced the decolorization performance of anaerobic sludge, indicating that the strategy may be beneficial for practical application. 1-Naphthol-2-amino-4-sulfonic acid, which is one of the reduction products of AR14, may function as redox mediator to speed up azo dye biodecolorization.

  16. Effects of reduction products of ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization of azo dyes

    Liu Guangfei; Wang Jing; Lu Hong; Jin Ruofei; Zhou Jiti; Zhang Long

    2009-01-01

    The mediated effects of reduction products of some ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of reduction products could effectively accelerate dye decolorization by Shigella sp. QRZ-1. The best accelerating effect was obtained with the addition of reduction products of Acid Red 14 (AR14), resulting in an over 3-fold increase in decolorization efficiency of many azo dyes. In sequencing batch reactor experiments, the accelerating effect of reduction products of AR14 was more obvious (1.5-fold) during the startup of the system. When the dye concentration was increased to 500 mg L -1 , the accelerated decolorization efficiency was still maintained around 95%. The presence of AR14 in the feed enhanced the decolorization performance of anaerobic sludge, indicating that the strategy may be beneficial for practical application. 1-Naphthol-2-amino-4-sulfonic acid, which is one of the reduction products of AR14, may function as redox mediator to speed up azo dye biodecolorization.

  17. Novel organic dyes based on phenyl-substituted benzimidazole for dye sensitized solar cells

    Saltan, Gözde Murat; Dinçalp, Haluk; Kıran, Merve; Zafer, Ceylan; Erbaş, Seçil Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Two new sensitizers derived from benzimidazole core for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were designed and synthesized as D–π–A structures, in which two phenyl-substituted benzimidazole group, a phenyl ring and a cyanoacrylic acid were used as the electron donor, π-conjugated linkage and the electron acceptor, respectively. Effect of methoxy- and N,N-dimetylamino- moieties attached to the phenyl groups of benzimidazole were investigated by means of optical and photovoltaic measurements. The compounds exhibit broad absorption maximum at 387 nm with the tail extending up to 500 nm on TiO 2 -coated thin film. The longer wavelength absorption band around 360 nm and the much longer decay components could be attributed to the existence of charge transfer state of the dyes in solutions. DSSC device fabricated by using methoxy substituted dye (BI5a) as a sensitizer shows much better incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 64% giving cell efficiency of 2.68%. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Long decay times suggest the delayed fluorescence caused by the existence of ICT. • The best solar energy conversion efficiency was obtained for BI5a dye (2.68%). • More fluorescent BI5a dye gives higher photocurrent generation

  18. Photolysis of rhodamine-WT dye

    Tai, D.Y.; Rathbun, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Photolysis of rhodamine-WT dye under natural sunlight conditions was determined by measuring the loss of fluorescence as a function of time. Rate coefficients at 30?? north latitude ranged from 4.77 x 10-2 day-1 for summer to 3.16 x 10-2 day-1 for winter. Experimental coefficients were in good agreement with values calculated using a laboratory-determined value of the quantum yield.

  19. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  20. Nanostructured dye-sensitized solar cells

    Palma, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    2012/2013 Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent a promising alternative to silicon-based technology. From the first publications about DSSCs in the 90s, they are considered an important breakthrough for achieving high efficiency by using relatively inexpensive and abundant materials. Stability and efficiency are two crucial points in the development of this new class of hybrid photovoltaic devices. Most of the DSSC studies carried out over the past twenty years are based on the o...