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Sample records for nanowire interface effect

  1. Strain analysis of nanowire interfaces in multiscale composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Zhou, Zhi; Spears, John H.; Shankwitz, Timothy J.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the reinforcement-matrix interface of fiber reinforced polymers has been modified through grafting nanostructures - particularly carbon nanotubes and ZnO nanowires - on to the fiber surface. This type of interface engineering has made a great impact on the development of multiscale composites that have high stiffness, interfacial strength, toughness, and vibrational damping - qualities that are mutually exclusive to a degree in most raw materials. Although the efficacy of such nanostructured interfaces has been established, the reinforcement mechanisms of these multiscale composites have not been explored. Here, strain transfer across a nanowire interphase is studied in order to gain a heightened understanding of the working principles of physical interface modification and the formation of a functional gradient. This problem is studied using a functionally graded piezoelectric interface composed of vertically aligned lead zirconate titanate nanowires, as their piezoelectric properties can be utilized to precisely control the strain on one side of the interface. The displacement and strain across the nanowire interface is captured using digital image correlation. It is demonstrated that the material gradient created through nanowires cause a smooth strain transfer from reinforcement phase into matrix phase that eliminates the stress concentration between these phases, which have highly mismatched elasticity.

  2. Interface effects on elastic behavior of a screw dislocation around double nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Fang, Qihong; Liu, Youwen

    2014-01-01

    The elastic behavior of a screw dislocation around double nanowires (NWs) is addressed with taking into account the interface stress effect in controlling mechanical response of nanoscale structures. The stress boundary conditions at the interface of the NWs are modified by incorporating surface/interface stress. The analytic solution of complex functions of the right NW, the infinite matrix and the left NW are obtained by applying the complex variable method. The equilibrium positions and the image force acting on the dislocation of a screw dislocation near one of the NWs are discussed in detail and compared with those obtained within the classical theory of elasticity. It is shown that the NWs possess a significant local softening or hardening at the interface, which can change the nature of the equilibrium positions for the dislocation. The radius ratio between NWs has profound effects on the equilibrium position. Additionally, the soft NW with the positive interface stress inhibits the dislocation motion to enhance its own structural stability.

  3. Bismuth nanowire growth under low deposition rate and its ohmic contact free of interface damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High quality bismuth (Bi nanowire and its ohmic contact free of interface damage are quite desired for its research and application. In this paper, we propose one new way to prepare high-quality single crystal Bi nanowires at a low deposition rate, by magnetron sputtering method without the assistance of template or catalyst. The slow deposition growth mechanism of Bi nanowire is successfully explained by an anisotropic corner crossing effect, which is very different from existing explanations. A novel approach free of interface damage to ohmic contact of Bi nanowire is proposed and its good electrical conductivity is confirmed by I-V characteristic measurement. Our method provides a quick and convenient way to produce high-quality Bi nanowires and construct ohmic contact for desirable devices.

  4. Cell membrane conformation at vertical nanowire array interface revealed by fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthing, Trine; Bonde, Sara; Rostgaard, Katrine R; Martinez, Karen L; Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Sørensen, Claus B; Nygård, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The perspectives offered by vertical arrays of nanowires for biosensing applications in living cells depend on the access of individual nanowires to the cell interior. Recent results on electrical access and molecular delivery suggest that direct access is not always obtained. Here, we present a generic approach to directly visualize the membrane conformation of living cells interfaced with nanowire arrays, with single nanowire resolution. The method combines confocal z-stack imaging with an optimized cell membrane labelling strategy which was applied to HEK293 cells interfaced with 2–11 μm long and 3–7 μm spaced nanowires with various surface coatings (bare, aminosilane-coated or polyethyleneimine-coated indium arsenide). We demonstrate that, for all commonly used nanowire lengths, spacings and surface coatings, nanowires generally remain enclosed in a membrane compartment, and are thereby not in direct contact with the cell interior. (paper)

  5. Interface studies of N2 plasma-treated ZnSnO nanowire transistors using low-frequency noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongmin; Janes, David B; Kim, Hwansoo; Ju, Sanghyun

    2013-01-01

    Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of nanowires, the quality of nanowire–insulator interfaces as well as the nanowire surface characteristics significantly influence the electrical characteristics of nanowire transistors (NWTs). To improve the electrical characteristics by doping or post-processing, it is important to evaluate the interface characteristics and stability of NWTs. In this study, we have synthesized ZnSnO (ZTO) nanowires using the chemical vapor deposition method, characterized the composition of ZTO nanowires using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and fabricated ZTO NWTs. We have characterized the current–voltage characteristics and low-frequency noise of ZTO NWTs in order to investigate the effects of interface states on subthreshold slope (SS) and the noise before and after N 2 plasma treatments. The as-fabricated device exhibited a SS of 0.29 V/dec and Hooge parameter of ∼1.20 × 10 −2 . Upon N 2 plasma treatment with N 2 gas flow rate of 40 sccm (20 sccm), the SS improved to 0.12 V/dec (0.21 V/dec) and the Hooge parameter decreased to ∼4.99 × 10 −3 (8.14 × 10 −3 ). The interface trap densities inferred from both SS and low-frequency noise decrease upon plasma treatment, with the highest flow rate yielding the smallest trap density. These results demonstrate that the N 2 plasma treatment decreases the interface trap states and defects on ZTO nanowires, thereby enabling the fabrication of high-quality nanowire interfaces. (paper)

  6. Ledge-flow-controlled catalyst interface dynamics during Si nanowire growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, S; Sharma, R; Wirth, CT

    2008-01-01

    understanding of the role of commonly used catalysts and specifically of their interface dynamics1, 2. Although catalytic chemical vapour deposition of nanowires below the eutectic temperature has been demonstrated in many semiconductor–catalyst systems3, 4, 5, 6, growth from solid catalysts is still disputed...... as a comparative benchmark. The dominant coherent Pd silicide/Si growth interface subsequently advances by lateral propagation of ledges, driven by catalytic dissociation of disilane and coupled Pd and Si diffusion. Our results establish an atomistic framework for nanowire assembly from solid catalysts, relevant...

  7. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.

  8. Ballistic Spin Field Effect Transistor Based on Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osintsev, Dmitri; Sverdlov, Viktor; Stanojevic, Zlatan; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the properties of ballistic spin field-effect transistors build on silicon nanowires. An accurate description of the conduction band based on the k . p} model is necessary in thin and narrow silicon nanostructures. The subband effective mass and subband splitting dependence on the nanowire dimensions is analyzed and used in the transport calculations. The spin transistor is formed by sandwiching the nanowire between two ferromagnetic metallic contacts. Delta-function barriers at the interfaces between the contacts and the silicon channel are introduced. The major contribution to the electric field-dependent spin-orbit interaction in confined silicon systems is due to the interface-induced inversion asymmetry which is of the Dresselhaus type. We study the current and conductance through the system for the contacts being in parallel and anti-parallel configurations. Differences between the [100] and [110] orientated structures are investigated in details. This work is supported by the European Research Council through the grant #247056 MOSILSPIN.

  9. Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Arrays of Diameter-Tunable PS-b-P2VP Nanowires at the Air/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingjuan; Yu, Xiaoli; Lee, Yong-Ill; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2016-11-15

    Composite thin films with well-defined and parallel nanowires were fabricated from the binary blends of a diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) and several homopolystyrenes (h-PSs) at the air/liquid interface through a facile technique, which involves solution self-assembly, interface adsorption, and further self-organization processes. It was confirmed that the nanowires that appeared at the air/water interface came from the cylindrical micelles formed in solution. Interestingly, the diameters of the nanowires are uniform and can be tuned precisely from 45 to 247 nm by incorporating the h-PS molecules into the micellar core. This parallel alignment of the nanowires has potential applications in optical devices and enables the nanowires to be used as templates to prepare functional nanostructures. The extent to which h-PS molecules with different molecular weights are able to influence the diameter control of the nanowires was also systematically investigated.

  10. Nanoparticle Stability in Axial InAs-InP Nanowire Heterostructures with Atomically Sharp Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannier, Valentina; Rossi, Francesca; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Ercolani, Daniele; Battiato, Sergio; Sorba, Lucia

    2018-01-10

    The possibility to expand the range of material combinations in defect-free heterostructures is one of the main motivations for the great interest in semiconductor nanowires. However, most axial nanowire heterostructures suffer from interface compositional gradients and kink formation, as a consequence of nanoparticle-nanowire interactions during the metal-assisted growth. Understanding such interactions and how they affect the growth mode is fundamental to achieve a full control over the morphology and the properties of nanowire heterostructures for device applications. Here we demonstrate that the sole parameter affecting the growth mode (straight or kinked) of InP segments on InAs nanowire stems by the Au-assisted method is the nanoparticle composition. Indeed, straight InAs-InP nanowire heterostructures are obtained only when the In/Au ratio in the nanoparticles is low, typically smaller than 1.5. For higher In content, the InP segments tend to kink. Tailoring the In/Au ratio by the precursor fluxes at a fixed growth temperature enables us to obtain straight and radius-uniform InAs-InP nanowire heterostructures (single and double) with atomically sharp interfaces. We present a model that is capable of describing all the experimentally observed phenomena: straight growth versus kinking, the stationary nanoparticle compositions in pure InAs and InAs-InP nanowires, the crystal phase trends, and the interfacial abruptness. By taking into account different nanowire/nanoparticle interfacial configurations (forming wetting or nonwetting monolayers in vertical or tapered geometry), our generalized model provides the conditions of nanoparticle stability and abrupt heterointerfaces for a rich variety of growth scenarios. Therefore, our results provide a powerful tool for obtaining high quality InAs-InP nanowire heterostructures with well-controlled properties and can be extended to other material combinations based on the group V interchange.

  11. Interface bond relaxation on the thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weifeng; He, Yan; Ouyang, Gang, E-mail: gangouy@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications(SICQEA), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Sun, Changqing [School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-01-15

    The thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires (CSNWs) is investigated on the basis of atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and continuum mechanics. An analytical model is developed to clarify the interface bond relaxation of Si/Ge CSNWs. It is found that the thermal conductivity of Si core can be modulated through covering with Ge epitaxial layers. The change of thermal conductivity in Si/Ge CSNWs should be attributed to the surface relaxation and interface mismatch between inner Si nanowire and outer Ge epitaxial layer. Our results are in well agreement with the experimental measurements and simulations, suggesting that the presented method provides a fundamental insight of the thermal conductivity of CSNWs from the atomistic origin.

  12. Alignment control and atomically-scaled heteroepitaxial interface study of GaN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyun; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xinglai; Labbé, Christophe; Portier, Xavier; An, Vladimir; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-20

    Well-aligned GaN nanowires are promising candidates for building high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of well-aligned GaN nanowires on a [0001]-oriented sapphire substrate in a simple catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition process and their alignment control. It is found that the ammonia flux plays a key role in dominating the initial nucleation of GaN nanocrystals and their orientation. Typically, significant improvement of the GaN nanowire alignment can be realized at a low NH 3 flow rate. X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies further verified the preferential orientation of GaN nanowires along the [0001] direction. The growth mechanism of GaN nanowire arrays is also well studied based on cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization and it is observed that GaN nanowires have good epitaxial growth on the sapphire substrate following the crystallographic relationship between (0001) GaN ∥(0001) sapphire and (101[combining macron]0) GaN ∥(112[combining macron]0) sapphire . Most importantly, periodic misfit dislocations are also experimentally observed in the interface region due to the large lattice mismatch between the GaN nanowire and the sapphire substrate, and the formation of such dislocations will favor the release of structural strain in GaN nanowires. HRTEM analysis also finds the existence of "type I" stacking faults and voids inside the GaN nanowires. Optical investigation suggests that the GaN nanowire arrays have strong emission in the UV range, suggesting their crystalline nature and chemical purity. The achievement of aligned GaN nanowires will further promote the wide applications of GaN nanostructures toward diverse high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices including nano-LEDs, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors etc.

  13. Local Peltier-effect-induced reversible metal–insulator transition in VO2 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Hidefumi; Kanki, Teruo; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    We report anomalous resistance leaps and drops in VO 2 nanowires with operating current density and direction, showing reversible and nonvolatile switching. This event is associated with the metal–insulator phase transition (MIT) of local nanodomains with coexistence states of metallic and insulating phases induced by thermoelectric cooling and heating effects. Because the interface of metal and insulator domains has much different Peltier coefficient, it is possible that a significant Peltier effect would be a source of the local MIT. This operation can be realized by one-dimensional domain configuration in VO 2 nanowires because one straight current path through the electronic domain-interface enables theoretical control of thermoelectric effects. This result will open a new method of reversible control of electronic states in correlated electron materials.

  14. Atomic-Resolution Spectrum Imaging of Semiconductor Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Reza R; Hage, Fredrik S; Lehmann, Sebastian; Ramasse, Quentin M; Dick, Kimberly A

    2018-03-14

    Over the past decade, III-V heterostructure nanowires have attracted a surge of attention for their application in novel semiconductor devices such as tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs). The functionality of such devices critically depends on the specific atomic arrangement at the semiconductor heterointerfaces. However, most of the currently available characterization techniques lack sufficient spatial resolution to provide local information on the atomic structure and composition of these interfaces. Atomic-resolution spectrum imaging by means of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is a powerful technique with the potential to resolve structure and chemical composition with sub-angstrom spatial resolution and to provide localized information about the physical properties of the material at the atomic scale. Here, we demonstrate the use of atomic-resolution EELS to understand the interface atomic arrangement in three-dimensional heterostructures in semiconductor nanowires. We observed that the radial interfaces of GaSb-InAs heterostructure nanowires are atomically abrupt, while the axial interface in contrast consists of an interfacial region where intermixing of the two compounds occurs over an extended spatial region. The local atomic configuration affects the band alignment at the interface and, hence, the charge transport properties of devices such as GaSb-InAs nanowire TFETs. STEM-EELS thus represents a very promising technique for understanding nanowire physical properties, such as differing electrical behavior across the radial and axial heterointerfaces of GaSb-InAs nanowires for TFET applications.

  15. Local Peltier-effect-induced reversible metal–insulator transition in VO{sub 2} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Hidefumi; Kanki, Teruo, E-mail: kanki@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: h-tanaka@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Hidekazu, E-mail: kanki@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: h-tanaka@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We report anomalous resistance leaps and drops in VO{sub 2} nanowires with operating current density and direction, showing reversible and nonvolatile switching. This event is associated with the metal–insulator phase transition (MIT) of local nanodomains with coexistence states of metallic and insulating phases induced by thermoelectric cooling and heating effects. Because the interface of metal and insulator domains has much different Peltier coefficient, it is possible that a significant Peltier effect would be a source of the local MIT. This operation can be realized by one-dimensional domain configuration in VO{sub 2} nanowires because one straight current path through the electronic domain-interface enables theoretical control of thermoelectric effects. This result will open a new method of reversible control of electronic states in correlated electron materials.

  16. Modeling nanowire and double-gate junctionless field-effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Jazaeri, Farzan

    2018-01-01

    The first book on the topic, this is a comprehensive introduction to the modeling and design of junctionless field effect transistors (FETs). Beginning with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the technology, the authors also provide a thorough overview of published analytical models for double-gate and nanowire configurations, before offering a general introduction to the EPFL charge-based model of junctionless FETs. Important features are introduced gradually, including nanowire versus double-gate equivalence, technological design space, junctionless FET performances, short channel effects, transcapacitances, asymmetric operation, thermal noise, interface traps, and the junction FET. Additional features compatible with biosensor applications are also discussed. This is a valuable resource for students and researchers looking to understand more about this new and fast developing field.

  17. Quantum transport in nanowire-based hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenel, Haci Yusuf

    2013-05-08

    We have studied the low-temperature transport properties of nanowires contacted by a normal metal as well as by superconducting electrodes. As a consequence of quantum coherence, we have demonstrated the electron interference effect in different aspects. The mesoscopic phase coherent transport properties were studied by contacting the semiconductor InAs and InSb nanowires with normal metal electrodes. Moreover, we explored the interaction of the microscopic quantum coherence of the nanowires with the macroscopic quantum coherence of the superconductors. In superconducting Nb contacted InAs nanowire junctions, we have investigated the effect of temperature, magnetic field and electric field on the supercurrent. Owing to relatively high critical temperature of superconducting Nb (T{sub c} ∝ 9 K), we have observed the supercurrent up to 4 K for highly doped nanowire-based junctions, while for low doped nanowire-based junctions a full control of the supercurrent was achieved. Due to low transversal dimension of the nanowires, we have found a monotonous decay of the critical current in magnetic field dependent measurements. The experimental results were analyzed within narrow junction model which has been developed recently. At high bias voltages, we have observed subharmonic energy gap structures as a consequence of multiple Andreev reflection. Some of the nanowires were etched, such that the superconducting Nb electrodes are connected to both ends of the nanowire rather than covering the surface of the nanowire. As a result of well defined nanowire-superconductor interfaces, we have examined quasiparticle interference effect in magnetotransport measurements. Furthermore, we have developed a new junction geometry, such that one of the superconducting Nb electrodes is replaced by a superconducting Al. Owing to the smaller critical magnetic field of superconducting Al (B{sub c} ∝ 15-50,mT), compared to superconducting Nb (B{sub c} ∝ 3 T), we were able to studied

  18. Substrate and Mg doping effects in GaAs nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Kannappan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mg doping of GaAs nanowires has been established as a viable alternative to Be doping in order to achieve p-type electrical conductivity. Although reports on the optical properties are available, few reports exist about the physical properties of intermediate-to-high Mg doping in GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE on GaAs(111B and Si(111 substrates. In this work, we address this topic and present further understanding on the fundamental aspects. As the Mg doping was increased, structural and optical investigations revealed: i a lower influence of the polytypic nature of the GaAs nanowires on their electronic structure; ii a considerable reduction of the density of vertical nanowires, which is almost null for growth on Si(111; iii the occurrence of a higher WZ phase fraction, in particular for growth on Si(111; iv an increase of the activation energy to release the less bound carrier in the radiative state from nanowires grown on GaAs(111B; and v a higher influence of defects on the activation of nonradiative de-excitation channels in the case of nanowires only grown on Si(111. Back-gate field effect transistors were fabricated with individual nanowires and the p-type electrical conductivity was measured with free hole concentration ranging from 2.7 × 1016 cm−3 to 1.4 × 1017 cm−3. The estimated electrical mobility was in the range ≈0.3–39 cm2/Vs and the dominant scattering mechanism is ascribed to the WZ/ZB interfaces. Electrical and optical measurements showed a lower influence of the polytypic structure of the nanowires on their electronic structure. The involvement of Mg in one of the radiative transitions observed for growth on the Si(111 substrate is suggested.

  19. Structure, interface abruptness and strain relaxation in self-assisted grown InAs/GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigeri, Cesare, E-mail: frigeri@imem.cnr.it [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parma (Italy); Scarpellini, David [L–NESS and Dept. Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Department of Industrial Engineering University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Fedorov, Alexey [LNESS and CNR-IFN, Como (Italy); Bietti, Sergio; Somaschini, Claudio [L–NESS and Dept. Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Grillo, Vincenzo [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parma (Italy); CNR-S3-NANO Center, Modena (Italy); Esposito, Luca; Salvalaglio, Marco; Marzegalli, Anna; Montalenti, Francesco [L–NESS and Dept. Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Sanguinetti, Stefano [L–NESS and Dept. Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); LNESS and CNR-IFN, Como (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We study 2 critical issues (interface abruptness and strain release) in InAs/GaAs NWs. • Structural and chemical interface sharpness ≤1.5 nm, better than in previous reports. • Simultaneous elastic and plastic relaxation is shown that agrees with FEM simulations. • Structural, chemical and strain release investigations were performed by STEM. • New MBE self-seeded method whereby InAs is grown by splitting In and As depositions. - Abstract: The structure, interface abruptness and strain relaxation in InAs/GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the Ga self-catalysed mode on (111) Si have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The nanowires had the zincblende phase. The InAs/GaAs interface was atomically and chemically sharp with a width around 1.5 nm, i.e. significantly smaller than previously reported values. This was achieved by the consumption of the Ga droplet and formation of a flat top facet of the GaAs followed by the growth of InAs by splitting the depositions of In and As. Both elastic and plastic strain relaxation took place simultaneously. Experimental TEM results about strain relaxation very well agree with linear elasticity theory calculations by the finite element methods.

  20. Structure, interface abruptness and strain relaxation in self-assisted grown InAs/GaAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigeri, Cesare; Scarpellini, David; Fedorov, Alexey; Bietti, Sergio; Somaschini, Claudio; Grillo, Vincenzo; Esposito, Luca; Salvalaglio, Marco; Marzegalli, Anna; Montalenti, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study 2 critical issues (interface abruptness and strain release) in InAs/GaAs NWs. • Structural and chemical interface sharpness ≤1.5 nm, better than in previous reports. • Simultaneous elastic and plastic relaxation is shown that agrees with FEM simulations. • Structural, chemical and strain release investigations were performed by STEM. • New MBE self-seeded method whereby InAs is grown by splitting In and As depositions. - Abstract: The structure, interface abruptness and strain relaxation in InAs/GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the Ga self-catalysed mode on (111) Si have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The nanowires had the zincblende phase. The InAs/GaAs interface was atomically and chemically sharp with a width around 1.5 nm, i.e. significantly smaller than previously reported values. This was achieved by the consumption of the Ga droplet and formation of a flat top facet of the GaAs followed by the growth of InAs by splitting the depositions of In and As. Both elastic and plastic strain relaxation took place simultaneously. Experimental TEM results about strain relaxation very well agree with linear elasticity theory calculations by the finite element methods.

  1. Mapping the Coulomb Environment in Interference-Quenched Ballistic Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutstein, D; Lynall, D; Nair, S V; Savelyev, I; Blumin, M; Ercolani, D; Ruda, H E

    2018-01-10

    The conductance of semiconductor nanowires is strongly dependent on their electrostatic history because of the overwhelming influence of charged surface and interface states on electron confinement and scattering. We show that InAs nanowire field-effect transistor devices can be conditioned to suppress resonances that obscure quantized conduction thereby revealing as many as six sub-bands in the conductance spectra as the Fermi-level is swept across the sub-band energies. The energy level spectra extracted from conductance, coupled with detailed modeling shows the significance of the interface state charge distribution revealing the Coulomb landscape of the nanowire device. Inclusion of self-consistent Coulomb potentials, the measured geometrical shape of the nanowire, the gate geometry and nonparabolicity of the conduction band provide a quantitative and accurate description of the confinement potential and resulting energy level structure. Surfaces of the nanowire terminated by HfO 2 are shown to have their interface donor density reduced by a factor of 30 signifying the passivating role played by HfO 2 .

  2. Enhanced ionized impurity scattering in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Seok-Hee; Shin, Mincheol

    2013-06-01

    The electronic resistivity in silicon nanowires is investigated by taking into account scattering as well as the donor deactivation from the dielectric mismatch. The effects of poorly screened dopant atoms from the dielectric mismatch and variable carrier density in nanowires are found to play a crucial role in determining the nanowire resistivity. Using Green's function method within the self-consistent Born approximation, it is shown that donor deactivation and ionized impurity scattering combined with the charged interface traps successfully to explain the increase in the resistivity of Si nanowires while reducing the radius, measured by Björk et al. [Nature Nanotech. 4, 103 (2009)].

  3. Effects of ZnO nanowire synthesis parameters on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Juneui; Myoung, Jihyun; Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr

    2012-06-30

    Determination of the effects of ZnO nanowires on the efficiency of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is important. In this study, we determined the effects of different OH{sup -} precursors, concentrations, the ratio of zinc nitrate to hexamethylene tetramine (HMT), and the hydrothermal synthesis temperature on the physical, crystal, and optical properties of ZnO nanowires and investigated the performance of the resulting DSSCs. We observed that ZnO nanowires synthesized using an equimolar ratio of HMT to zinc nitrate yielded a DSSC with high incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE), cell efficiency, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), and fill factor (FF), and low ZnO-dye-electrolyte interface resistance due to an increased amount of dye and a decreased density of defects. Furthermore, ZnO nanowires made using optimal concentrations and ratios of zinc nitrate to HMT had a high surface area and low defect density. All the photovoltaic performance parameters of DSSCs assessed such as IPCE, cell efficiency, J{sub sc}, open circuit potential (V{sub oc}), and FF increased with synthesis temperature, which was related to a decrease in the resistance at the ZnO-dye-electrolyte interface. We attributed these results to an increased amount of dye facilitated by a large nanowire surface area and fast electron transfer because of the improved crystalline structure of the ZnO nanowires and their low defect density. By optimizing the ZnO nanowires, we increased DSSC efficiency to 0.26% using ZnO nanowires synthesized with 25 mM of both zinc nitrate and HMT at 90 Degree-Sign C, while only a 0.02% increase in efficiency was obtained when NH{sub 4}OH was used as OH{sup -} precursor. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation of synthesis parameters with ZnO nanowires' properties and DSSC performance Black

  4. Enhancement in red emission at room temperature from europium doped ZnO nanowires by 1,10 phenanthroline-europium interface induced resonant excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Dhara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that europium doped ZnO nanowires after surface modification with organic ligand, 1,10 phenanthroline (phen leads to strong red emission at 613 nm which is a characteristic emission from the atomic levels of Eu3+. Surface modification with phen leads to formation of phenanthroline-europium interface on the surface of the nanowires due to attachment of Eu3+ ions. After an optimized surface modification with phen, intensity of both the UV emission (band edge and red emission improved by two orders of magnitude at room temperature. We observed multiple energy transfer pathways to the energy levels of Eu3+ ions through the phenanthroline-europium interface, which found to be very effective to the significant enhancement of emission from the dopant Eu3+. This study shows a new insight in to the energy transfer process from phen to the europium doped ZnO system.

  5. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Heitzinger, Clemens; Vacic, Aleksandar; Reed, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-05-03

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Schottky barrier measurements on individual GaAs nanowires by X-ray photoemission microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mario, Lorenzo [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Turchini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.turchini@cnr.it [ISM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Zamborlini, Giovanni; Feyer, Vitaly [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tian, Lin [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Schneider, Claus M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Rubini, Silvia [IOM-CNR, TASC Laboratory, Basovizza 34149, Trieste (Italy); Martelli, Faustino, E-mail: faustino.martelli@cnr.it [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The Schottky barrier at the interface between Cu and GaAs nanowires was measured. • Individual nanowires were investigated by X-ray Photoemission Microscopy. • The Schottky barrier at different positions along the nanowire was evaluated. - Abstract: We present measurements of the Schottky barrier height on individual GaAs nanowires by means of x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM). Values of 0.73 and 0.51 eV, averaged over the entire wires, were measured on Cu-covered n-doped and p-doped GaAs nanowires, respectively, in agreement with results obtained on bulk material. Our measurements show that XPEEM can become a feasible and reliable investigation tool of interface formation at the nanoscale and pave the way towards the study of size-dependent effects on semiconductor-based structures.

  8. Gold nanowires and the effect of impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Frederico

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMetal nanowires and in particular gold nanowires have received a great deal of attention in the past few years. Experiments on gold nanowires have prompted theory and simulation to help answer questions posed by these studies. Here we present results of computer simulations for the formation, evolution and breaking of very thin Au nanowires. We also discuss the influence of contaminants, such as atoms and small molecules, and their effect on the structural and mechanical properties of these nanowires.

  9. Surface roughness induced electron mobility degradation in InAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengyun; Yip, Sen Po; Han, Ning; Fok, KitWa; Lin, Hao; Hou, Jared J; Dong, Guofa; Hung, Tak Fu; Chan, K S; Ho, Johnny C

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of the surface roughness dependent electron mobility in InAs nanowires grown by the nickel-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method. These nanowires have good crystallinity, well-controlled surface morphology without any surface coating or tapering and an excellent peak field-effect mobility up to 15 000 cm 2 V −1 s −1 when configured into back-gated field-effect nanowire transistors. Detailed electrical characterizations reveal that the electron mobility degrades monotonically with increasing surface roughness and diameter scaling, while low-temperature measurements further decouple the effects of surface/interface traps and phonon scattering, highlighting the dominant impact of surface roughness scattering on the electron mobility for miniaturized and surface disordered nanowires. All these factors suggest that careful consideration of nanowire geometries and surface condition is required for designing devices with optimal performance. (paper)

  10. Spin-wave propagation spectrum in magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-xiong; Wang, Meng-ning; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Xia, Qing-lin [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Spin-wave propagation in periodic magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires is studied by micromagnetic simulation. Spin wave scattering at the interface of two magnetization segments causes a spin-wave band structure, which can be effectively tuned by changing either the magnetization modulation level or the period of the cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal. The bandgap width is oscillating with either the period or magnetization modulation due to the oscillating variation of the spin wave transmission coefficient through the interface of the two magnetization segments. Analytical calculation based on band theory is used to account for the micromagnetic simulation results. - Highlights: • A magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal is proposed. • Propagating characteristics of spin waves in such magnonic crystal are studied. • Spin-wave spectra can be manipulated by changing modulation level and period.

  11. Giant exchange bias and its angular dependence in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandha, Kinjal; Chaudhary, Rakesh P.; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Koymen, Ali R.; Liu, J. Ping, E-mail: pliu@uta.edu

    2017-07-12

    The exchange-bias field (H{sub EB}) and its angular dependence are systematically investigated in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies (∼15 nm in diameter and ∼200 nm in length) consisting of single-crystalline Co core and polycrystalline CoO shell. Giant exchange-bias field (H{sub EB}) up to 2.4 kOe is observed below a blocking temperature (T{sub EB} ∼150 K) in the aligned Co/CoO nanowire assemblies. It is also found that there is an angular dependence between the H{sub EB} and the applied magnetization direction. The H{sub EB} showed a peak at 30° between the applied field and the nanowire aligned direction, which may be attributed to the noncollinear spin orientations at the interface between the ferromagnetic core and the antiferromagnetic shell. This behavior is quantitatively supported by an analytical calculation based on Stoner–Wohlfarth model. This study underlines the importance of the competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. - Highlights: • Giant exchange bias is observed in oriented Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies. • Study of angular and temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. • Effect of misaligned spins in FM/AFM interface on angular dependence of exchange bias. • We explain the analytical model that accounts for experimental results.

  12. Giant exchange bias and its angular dependence in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandha, Kinjal; Chaudhary, Rakesh P.; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Koymen, Ali R.; Liu, J. Ping

    2017-01-01

    The exchange-bias field (H EB ) and its angular dependence are systematically investigated in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies (∼15 nm in diameter and ∼200 nm in length) consisting of single-crystalline Co core and polycrystalline CoO shell. Giant exchange-bias field (H EB ) up to 2.4 kOe is observed below a blocking temperature (T EB ∼150 K) in the aligned Co/CoO nanowire assemblies. It is also found that there is an angular dependence between the H EB and the applied magnetization direction. The H EB showed a peak at 30° between the applied field and the nanowire aligned direction, which may be attributed to the noncollinear spin orientations at the interface between the ferromagnetic core and the antiferromagnetic shell. This behavior is quantitatively supported by an analytical calculation based on Stoner–Wohlfarth model. This study underlines the importance of the competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. - Highlights: • Giant exchange bias is observed in oriented Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies. • Study of angular and temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. • Effect of misaligned spins in FM/AFM interface on angular dependence of exchange bias. • We explain the analytical model that accounts for experimental results.

  13. X-ray diffraction from single GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas

    2012-11-12

    In recent years, developments in X-ray focussing optics have allowed to produce highly intense, coherent X-ray beams with spot sizes in the range of 100 nm and below. Together with the development of new experimental stations, X-ray diffraction techniques can now be applied to study single nanometer-sized objects. In the present work, X-ray diffraction is applied to study different aspects of the epitaxial growth of GaAs nanowires. Besides conventional diffraction methods, which employ X-ray beams with dimensions of several tens of {mu}m, special emphasis lies on the use of nanodiffraction methods which allow to study single nanowires in their as-grown state without further preparation. In particular, coherent X-ray diffraction is applied to measure simultaneously the 3-dimensional shape and lattice parameters of GaAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. It is observed that due to a high density of zinc-blende rotational twins within the nanowires, their lattice parameter deviates systematically from the bulk zinc-blende phase. In a second step, the initial stage in the growth of GaAs nanowires on Si (1 1 1) surfaces is studied. This nanowires, obtained by Ga-assisted growth in molecular beam epitaxy, grow predominantly in the cubic zinc-blende structure, but contain inclusions of the hexagonal wurtzite phase close to their bottom interface. Using nanodiffraction methods, the position of the different structural units along the growth axis is determined. Because the GaAs lattice is 4% larger than silicon, these nanowires release their lattice mismatch by the inclusion of dislocations at the interface. Whereas NWs with diameters below 50 nm are free of strain, a rough interface structure in nanowires with diameters above 100 nm prevents a complete plastic relaxation, leading to a residual strain at the interface that decays elastically along the growth direction. Finally, measurements on GaAs-core/InAs-shell nanowire heterostructures are presented

  14. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibegovic, Sasa; Car, Diana; Zhang, Hao; Balk, Stijn C.; Logan, John A.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Cassidy, Maja C.; Schmits, Rudi; Xu, Di; Wang, Guanzhong; Krogstrup, Peter; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; Zuo, Kun; Vos, Yoram; Shen, Jie; Bouman, Daniël; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Pennachio, Daniel; Lee, Joon Sue; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a superconductor. To exploit the potential of non-Abelian anyons—which are key elements of topological quantum computing—fully, they need to be exchanged in a well-controlled braiding operation. Essential hardware for braiding is a network of crystalline nanowires coupled to superconducting islands. Here we demonstrate a technique for generic bottom-up synthesis of complex quantum devices with a special focus on nanowire networks with a predefined number of superconducting islands. Structural analysis confirms the high crystalline quality of the nanowire junctions, as well as an epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor interface. Quantum transport measurements of nanowire ‘hashtags’ reveal Aharonov-Bohm and weak-antilocalization effects, indicating a phase-coherent system with strong spin-orbit coupling. In addition, a proximity-induced hard superconducting gap (with vanishing sub-gap conductance) is demonstrated in these hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowires, highlighting the successful materials development necessary for a first braiding experiment. Our approach opens up new avenues for the realization of epitaxial three-dimensional quantum architectures which have the potential to become key components of various quantum devices.

  15. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H.; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, highly curved but intact nuclear membranes are observed, showing no direct contact between the nanowires and the DNA. The nanowires possibly induce cellular stress and high respiration rates, which trigger the formation of ROS, which in turn results in DNA......Nanowires are commonly used as tools for interfacing living cells, acting as biomolecule-delivery vectors or electrodes. It is generally assumed that the small size of the nanowires ensures a minimal cellular perturbation, yet the effects of nanowires on cell migration and proliferation remain...... largely unknown. Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays is investigated, and it is shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration. Using focused ion...

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of thermal conductivities of superlattice nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Juekuan(杨决宽); CHEN; Yunfei(陈云飞); YAN; Jingping(颜景平)

    2003-01-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate heat transfer in superlattice nanowires. Results show that for fixed period length superlattice nanowires, the ratio of the total interfacial thermal resistance to the total thermal resistance and the effective thermal conductivities are invariant with the changes in interface numbers. Increasing the period length leads to an increase in the average interfacial thermal resistance, which indicates that the interfacial thermal resistance depends not only on the materials that constitute the alternating segments of superlattice nanowires, but also on the lattice strain throughout the segments. The modification of the lattice structure due to the lattice mismatch should be taken into account in the acoustic mismatch model. Simulation results also demonstrated the size confinement effect on the thermal conductivities for low dimensional structures, i.e. the thermal conductivities and the interfacial thermal resistance increase as the nanowire cross-sectional area increases.

  17. A photonic nanowire trumpet for interfacing a quantum dot and a Gaussian free-space mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient coupling between a localized quantum emitter and a well defined optical channel represents a powerful route to realize single-photon sources and spin-photon interfaces. The tailored fiber-like photonic nanowire embedding a single quantum dot has recently demonstrated an appealing...... potential. However, the device requires a delicate, sharp needle-like taper with performance sensitive to minute geometrical details. To overcome this limitation we demonstrate the photonic trumpet, exploiting an opposite tapering strategy. The trumpet features a strongly Gaussian far-field emission...

  18. Dimensional effects in semiconductor nanowires; Dimensionseffekte in Halbleiternanodraehten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stichtenoth, Daniel

    2008-06-23

    Nanomaterials show new physical properties, which are determined by their size and morphology. These new properties can be ascribed to the higher surface to volume ratio, to quantum size effects or to a form anisotropy. They may enable new technologies. The nanowires studied in this work have a diameter of 4 to 400 nm and a length up to 100 {mu}m. The semiconductor material used is mainly zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc sulfide (ZnS) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). All nanowires were synthesized according to the vapor liquid solid mechanism, which was originally postulated for the growth of silicon whiskers. Respective modifications for the growth of compound semiconductor nanowires are discussed. Detailed luminescence studies on ZnO nanowires with different diameters show pronounced size effects which can be attributed to the origins given above. Similar to bulk material, a tuning of the material properties is often essential for a further functionalization of the nanowires. This is typical realized by doping the source material. It becomes apparent, that a controlled doping of nanowires during the growth process is not successful. Here an alternative method is chosen: the doping after the growth by ion implantation. However, the doping by ion implantation goes always along with the creation of crystal defects. The defects have to be annihilated in order to reach an activation of th introduced dopants. At high ion fluences and ion masses the sputtering of surface atoms becomes more important. This results in a characteristic change in the morphology of the nanowires. In detail, the doping of ZnO and ZnS nanowires with color centers (manganese and rare earth elements) is demonstrated. Especially, the intra 3d luminescence of manganese implanted ZnS nanostructures shows a strong dependence of the nanowire diameter and morphology. This dependence can be described by expanding Foersters model (which describes an energy transfer to the color centers) by a dimensional parameter

  19. Template-based fabrication of nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zuxin; Liu Haidong; Schultz, Isabel; Wu Wenhao; Naugle, D G; Lyuksyutov, I

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication and structure characterization of ordered nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are reported. Arrays of TiO 2 nanotubes were first deposited into the pores of AAO membranes by a sol-gel technique. Co nanowires were then electrochemically deposited into the TiO 2 nanotubes to form the nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed a high nanowire filling factor and a clean interface between the Co nanowire and the TiO 2 nanotube. Application of these hybrids to the fabrication of ordered nanowire arrays with highly controllable geometric parameters is discussed

  20. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Feng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed.

  1. Optimization of nanowire DNA sensor sensitivity using self-consistent simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, S; Vasicek, M; Bulyha, A; Heitzinger, C

    2011-01-01

    In order to facilitate the rational design and the characterization of nanowire field-effect sensors, we have developed a model based on self-consistent charge-transport equations combined with interface conditions for the description of the biofunctionalized surface layer at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. Crucial processes at the interface, such as the screening of the partial charges of the DNA strands and the influence of the angle of the DNA strands with respect to the nanowire, are computed by a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm for charged molecules at interfaces. In order to investigate the sensing mechanism of the device, we have computed the current-voltage characteristics, the electrostatic potential and the concentrations of electrons and holes. Very good agreement with measurements has been found and optimal device parameters have been identified. Our approach provides the capability to study the device sensitivity, which is of fundamental importance for reliable sensing. © IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Optimization of nanowire DNA sensor sensitivity using self-consistent simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, S

    2011-09-26

    In order to facilitate the rational design and the characterization of nanowire field-effect sensors, we have developed a model based on self-consistent charge-transport equations combined with interface conditions for the description of the biofunctionalized surface layer at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. Crucial processes at the interface, such as the screening of the partial charges of the DNA strands and the influence of the angle of the DNA strands with respect to the nanowire, are computed by a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm for charged molecules at interfaces. In order to investigate the sensing mechanism of the device, we have computed the current-voltage characteristics, the electrostatic potential and the concentrations of electrons and holes. Very good agreement with measurements has been found and optimal device parameters have been identified. Our approach provides the capability to study the device sensitivity, which is of fundamental importance for reliable sensing. © IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Two-dimensional nanowires on homoepitaxial interfaces: Atomic-scale mechanism of breakdown and disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailov, Michail; Ranguelov, Bogdan

    2018-03-01

    We present a model for hole-mediated spontaneous breakdown of ahomoepitaxial two-dimensional (2D) flat nanowire based exclusively on random, thermally-activated motion of atoms. The model suggests a consecutive three-step mechanism driving the rupture and complete disintegration of the nanowire on a crystalline surface. The breakdown scenario includes: (i) local narrowing of a part of the stripe to a monatomic chain, (ii) formation of a recoverable single vacancy or a 2D vacancy cluster that causes temporary nanowire rupture, (iii) formation of a non-recoverable 2D hole leading to permanent nanowire breakdown. These successive events in the temporal evolution of the nanowire morphology bring the nanowire stripe into an irreversible unstable state, leading to a dramatic change in its peculiar physical properties and conductivity. The atomistic simulations also reveal a strong increase of the nanowire lifetime with an enlargement of its width and open up a way for a fine atomic-scale control of the nanowire lifetime and structural, morphological and thermodynamic stability.

  4. Significant reduction of thermal conductivity in Si/Ge core-shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming; Giapis, Konstantinos P; Goicochea, Javier V; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2011-02-09

    We report on the effect of germanium (Ge) coatings on the thermal transport properties of silicon (Si) nanowires using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that a simple deposition of a Ge shell of only 1 to 2 unit cells in thickness on a single crystalline Si nanowire can lead to a dramatic 75% decrease in thermal conductivity at room temperature compared to an uncoated Si nanowire. By analyzing the vibrational density states of phonons and the participation ratio of each specific mode, we demonstrate that the reduction in the thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowire stems from the depression and localization of long-wavelength phonon modes at the Si/Ge interface and of high frequency nonpropagating diffusive modes.

  5. Dynamics of charge at water-to-semiconductor interface: Case study of wet [0 0 1] anatase TiO{sub 2} nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shuping [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion (United States); College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Balasanthiran, Choumini [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion (United States); Tretiak, Sergei [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hoefelmeyer, James D. [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion (United States); Kilina, Svetlana V. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58108 (United States); Kilin, Dmitri S., E-mail: Dmitri.Kilin@usd.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58108 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Highlights: • Dynamics of photoexcitations is computed for TiO{sub 2} nanowires in aqueous environment. • Aqueous TiO{sub 2} nanowires gain brighter but short-lived optical transitions. • Relaxation of electrons (holes) is 2 (4) times faster in water than in vacuum. • Calculated and experimental absorption/emission spectra correlate well. - Abstract: The behavior of water molecules on the surfaces of the TiO{sub 2} nanowire grown in [0 0 1] direction has been investigated by combining theoretical calculations and experiments. Calculated UV–visible absorption spectra reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra. Computations predict that a photoexcitation followed by a sequence of relaxation events results in photoluminescence across the gap. TiO{sub 2} nanowires in vacuum and aqueous environment exhibit different dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers. In water, computed relaxation of electrons (holes) is approximately 2 (4) times faster compared with vacuum environment. Faster relaxation of holes vs. electrons and specific spatial localization of holes result to formation of long lived charge transfer excitation with positive charge at the surface of the nanowire. Comparison of relaxation process in TiO{sub 2}/water interfaces focusing on different surfaces and nanostructures has potential in identifying structural characteristics of TiO{sub 2} materials important for efficient photo-electrochemical water splitting.

  6. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices. PMID:28681843

  7. Carrier gas effects on aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Yue; Hainey, Mel Jr; Won, Dongjin; Weng, Xiaojun; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Redwing, Joan M

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowire growth under low-pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions requires higher reactor pressures than gold-catalyzed growth, but the reasons for this difference are not well understood. In this study, the effects of reactor pressure and hydrogen partial pressure on silicon nanowire growth using an aluminum catalyst were studied by growing nanowires in hydrogen and hydrogen/nitrogen carrier gas mixtures at different total reactor pressures. Nanowires grown in the nitrogen/hydrogen mixture have faceted catalyst droplet tips, minimal evidence of aluminum diffusion from the tip down the nanowire sidewalls, and significant vapor–solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. In comparison, wires grown in pure hydrogen show less well-defined tips, evidence of aluminum diffusion down the nanowire sidewalls at increasing reactor pressures and reduced vapor–solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. The results are explained in terms of a model wherein the hydrogen partial pressure plays a critical role in aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth by controlling hydrogen termination of the silicon nanowire sidewalls. For a given reactor pressure, increased hydrogen partial pressures increase the extent of hydrogen termination of the sidewalls which suppresses SiH_4 adsorption thereby reducing vapor–solid deposition of silicon but increases the surface diffusion length of aluminum. Conversely, lower hydrogen partial pressures reduce the hydrogen termination and also increase the extent of SiH_4 gas phase decomposition, shifting the nanowire growth window to lower growth temperatures and silane partial pressures. (paper)

  8. Diameter Dependence of Planar Defects in InP Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhang, Minghuan; Han, Zhenlian; Yip, SenPo; Shen, Lifan; Han, Ning; Pun, Edwin Y B; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-09-12

    In this work, extensive characterization and complementary theoretical analysis have been carried out on Au-catalyzed InP nanowires in order to understand the planar defect formation as a function of nanowire diameter. From the detailed transmission electron microscopic measurements, the density of stacking faults and twin defects are found to monotonically decrease as the nanowire diameter is decreased to 10 nm, and the chemical analysis clearly indicates the drastic impact of In catalytic supersaturation in Au nanoparticles on the minimized planar defect formation in miniaturized nanowires. Specifically, during the chemical vapor deposition of InP nanowires, a significant amount of planar defects is created when the catalyst seed sizes are increased with the lower degree of In supersaturation as dictated by the Gibbs-Thomson effect, and an insufficient In diffusion (or Au-rich enhancement) would lead to a reduced and non-uniform In precipitation at the NW growing interface. The results presented here provide an insight into the fabrication of "bottom-up" InP NWs with minimized defect concentration which are suitable for various device applications.

  9. Effects of surface atomistic modification on mechanical properties of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Yuanjie; Wang, Gang-Feng; Gu, Yuantong; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulations of surface modification effect of Au nanowires. • Surface modification can greatly affect the mechanical properties of nanowires. • Core–shell model is used to elucidate the effect of residual surface stress. - Abstract: Modulation of the physical and mechanical properties of nanowires is a challenging issue for their technological applications. In this paper, we investigate the effects of surface modification on the mechanical properties of gold nanowires by performing molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that by modifying a small density of silver atoms to the surface of a gold nanowire, the residual surface stress state can be altered, rendering a great improvement of its plastic yield strength. This finding is in good agreement with experimental measurements. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed by a core–shell nanowire model. The results are helpful for the design and optimization of advanced nanomaterial with superior mechanical properties

  10. Charging effects and surface potential variations of Cu-based nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, D., E-mail: daniela.gomes@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Calmeiro, T.R.; Nandy, S.; Pinto, J.V.; Pimentel, A.; Barquinha, P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, PB 124 Blindern, NO-0314, Oslo (Norway); CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal); Walmsley, J.C. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Materials and Nanotechnology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7034 Trondheim (Norway); Fortunato, E., E-mail: emf@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Martins, R., E-mail: rm@uninova.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-29

    The present work reports charging effects and surface potential variations in pure copper, cuprous oxide and cupric oxide nanowires observed by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The copper nanowires were produced by wet synthesis, oxidation into cuprous oxide nanowires was achieved through microwave irradiation and cupric oxide nanowires were obtained via furnace annealing in atmospheric conditions. Structural characterization of the nanowires was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. During the EFM experiments the electrostatic field of the positive probe charged negatively the Cu-based nanowires, which in turn polarized the SiO{sub 2} dielectric substrate. Both the probe/nanowire capacitance as well as the substrate polarization increased with the applied bias. Cu{sub 2}O and CuO nanowires behaved distinctively during the EFM measurements in accordance with their band gap energies. The work functions (WF) of the Cu-based nanowires, obtained by KPFM measurements, yielded WF{sub CuO} > WF{sub Cu} > WF{sub Cu{sub 2O}}. - Highlights: • Charge distribution study in Cu, Cu{sub 2}O and CuO nanowires through electrostatic force microscopy • Structural/surface defect role on the charge distribution along the Cu nanowires • Determination of the nanowire work functions by Kelvin probe force microscopy • Three types of nanowires give a broad idea of charge behavior on Cu based-nanowires.

  11. Polarity driven simultaneous growth of free-standing and lateral GaAsP epitaxial nanowires on GaAs (001) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wen; Xu, Hongyi; Guo, Yanan; Gao, Qiang; Hoe Tan, Hark; Jagadish, Chennupati; Zou, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous growth of 〈111〉 B free-standing and ±[110] lateral GaAsP epitaxial nanowires on GaAs (001) substrates were observed and investigated by electron microscopy and crystallographic analysis. It was found that the growth of both free-standing and lateral ternary nanowires via Au catalysts was driven by the fact that Au catalysts prefer to maintain low-energy (111) B interfaces with surrounding GaAs(P) materials: in the case of free-standing nanowires, Au catalysts maintain (111) B interfaces with their underlying GaAsP nanowires; while in the case of lateral nanowires, each Au catalyst remain their side (111) B interfaces with the surrounding GaAs(P) material during the lateral nanowire growth

  12. Surface saturation effect on mechanical and optical properties of ZnO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yazdani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this work, on the basis of density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA we optimized the electronic structure of the unsaturated and hydrogen saturated ZnO nanowires with [0001] orientation. Studying the effects of a uniaxial strain on the nanowires, we calculated the Young’s modulus and the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the nanowires. Furthermore, the effect of this uniaxial strain on the imaginary part of dielectric function of the nanowires was investigated.

  13. Effect of size on fracture and tensile manipulation of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenying; Dai, Yanfeng; Zhao, Jianwei; Li, Qianjin; Zhang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The fracture of metallic nanowires has attracted much attention owing to its reliability of application in nanoelectromechanical system. In this paper, we studied the fracture of [100] single-crystal gold nanowire subjected to uniaxial tension. The statistical breaking position distributions showed that the size effects had dominated the deformation and fracture of nanowires, and the quasi-static tensile deformations are insensitive to the styles of tensile rates. Furthermore, it was observed that the small-sized nanowire broke in the middle with disordered crystalline structure; for the middle-sized nanowire, although slippage plane had maintained the lattice degree, the fracture also happened in the middle due to symmetric tension; for the large-sized nanowire, the slippage was destroyed by symmetric tension, which induced the broken neck at one end of the nanowire. When the nanowire width is less than 5a (“a” means lattice constant, 0.408 nm for gold), the mechanical strength is relatively strong with obvious uncertainty, which can be attributed to the surface atom effect; when the width is larger than 5a, the influence of size on the mechanical property is more obvious at the constant strain rate than that at the absolute rate. Finally, the mechanical strength of the nanowire decreases with the size increasing

  14. Hydrothermal Growth and Application of ZnO Nanowire Films with ZnO and TiO2Buffer Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the effects of the seed layers prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating methods on the morphology and density of ZnO nanowire arrays, thus on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The nanowire films with the thick ZnO buffer layer (~0.8–1 μm thick can improve the open circuit voltage of the DSSCs through suppressing carrier recombination, however, and cause the decrease of dye loading absorbed on ZnO nanowires. In order to further investigate the effect of TiO2buffer layer on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs, compared with the ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs without a compact TiO2buffer layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and open circuit voltage of the ZnO DSSCs with the compact TiO2layer (~50 nm thick were improved by 3.9–12.5 and 2.4–41.7%, respectively. This can be attributed to the introduction of the compact TiO2layer prepared by sputtering method, which effectively suppressed carrier recombination occurring across both the film–electrolyte interface and the substrate–electrolyte interface.

  15. Improving the electrical contact at a Pt/TiO2 nanowire interface by selective application of focused femtosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Songling; Lin, Luchan; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Peng, Peng; Wu, Aiping; Duley, Walter W.; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we show that tightly focused femtosecond laser irradiation is effective in improving nanojoining of an oxide nanowire (NW) (TiO2) to a metal electrode (Pt), and how this process can be used to modify contact states. Enhanced chemical bondings are created due to localized plasmonically enhanced optical absorption at the Pt/TiO2 interface as confirmed by finite element simulations of the localized field distribution during irradiation. Nano Auger electron spectroscopy shows that the resulting heterojunction is depleted in oxygen, suggesting that a TiO2-x layer is formed between the Pt electrode and the TiO2 NW. The presence of this redox layer at the metal/oxide interface plays an important role in decreasing the Schottky barrier height and in facilitating chemical bonding. After laser irradiation at the cathode for 10 s at a fluence of 5.02 mJ cm-2, the Pt/TiO2 NW/Pt structure displays different electrical properties under forward and reverse bias voltage, respectively. The creation of this asymmetric electrical characteristic shows the way in which modification of the electronic interface by laser engineering can replace the electroforming process in resistive switching devices and how it can be used to control contact states in a metal/oxide interface.

  16. Modulated Magnetic Nanowires for Controlling Domain Wall Motion: Toward 3D Magnetic Memories

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Lopatin, Sergei; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Cylindrical magnetic nanowires are attractive materials for next generation data storage devices owing to the theoretically achievable high domain wall velocity and their efficient fabrication in highly dense arrays. In order to obtain control over domain wall motion, reliable and well-defined pinning sites are required. Here, we show that modulated nanowires consisting of alternating nickel and cobalt sections facilitate efficient domain wall pinning at the interfaces of those sections. By combining electron holography with micromagnetic simulations, the pinning effect can be explained by the interaction of the stray fields generated at the interface and the domain wall. Utilizing a modified differential phase contrast imaging, we visualized the pinned domain wall with a high resolution, revealing its three-dimensional vortex structure with the previously predicted Bloch point at its center. These findings suggest the potential of modulated nanowires for the development of high-density, three-dimensional data storage devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. Modulated Magnetic Nanowires for Controlling Domain Wall Motion: Toward 3D Magnetic Memories

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-05-03

    Cylindrical magnetic nanowires are attractive materials for next generation data storage devices owing to the theoretically achievable high domain wall velocity and their efficient fabrication in highly dense arrays. In order to obtain control over domain wall motion, reliable and well-defined pinning sites are required. Here, we show that modulated nanowires consisting of alternating nickel and cobalt sections facilitate efficient domain wall pinning at the interfaces of those sections. By combining electron holography with micromagnetic simulations, the pinning effect can be explained by the interaction of the stray fields generated at the interface and the domain wall. Utilizing a modified differential phase contrast imaging, we visualized the pinned domain wall with a high resolution, revealing its three-dimensional vortex structure with the previously predicted Bloch point at its center. These findings suggest the potential of modulated nanowires for the development of high-density, three-dimensional data storage devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  18. Surface/Interface Carrier-Transport Modulation for Constructing Photon-Alternative Ultraviolet Detectors Based on Self-Bending-Assembled ZnO Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Zhou, Lianqun; Tang, Yuguo; Li, Lin; Zhang, Zhiqi; Yang, Hongbo; Ma, Hanbin; Nathan, Arokia; Zhao, Dongxu

    2017-09-13

    Surface/interface charge-carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport modulation are especially important in the construction of photodetectors with high efficiency in the field of nanoscience. In the paper, a kind of ultraviolet (UV) detector is designed based on ZnO nanostructures considering photon-trapping, surface plasmonic resonance (SPR), piezophototronic effects, interface carrier-trapping/transport control, and collection. Through carefully optimized surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, a designed device with detectivity as high as 1.69 × 10 16 /1.71 × 10 16 cm·Hz 1/2 /W irradiating with 380 nm photons under ultralow bias of 0.2 V is realized by alternating nanoparticle/nanowire active layers, respectively, and the designed UV photodetectors show fast and slow recovery processes of 0.27 and 4.52 ms, respectively, which well-satisfy practical needs. Further, it is observed that UV photodetection could be performed within an alternative response by varying correlated key parameters, through efficient surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, spectrally resolved photoresponse of the detector revealing controlled detection in the UV region based on the ZnO nanomaterial, photodetection allowed or limited by varying the active layers, irradiation distance from one of the electrodes, standing states, or electric field. The detailed carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport processes are well illustrated to explain charge-carrier dynamics contributing to the photoresponse behavior.

  19. Timoshenko beam model for buckling of piezoelectric nanowires with surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanowires under distributed transverse loading, within the framework of the Timoshenko beam theory, and in the presence of surface effects. Analytical relations are given for the critical force of axial buckling of nanowires by accounting for the effects of surface elasticity, residual surface tension, and transverse shear deformation. Through an example, it is shown that the critical electric potential of buckling depends on both the surface stresses and piezoelectricity. This study may be helpful in the characterization of the mechanical properties of nanowires and in the calibration of the nanowire-based force sensors. PMID:22453063

  20. Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced UV/Visible Photodetector Based on Fully Wide Band Gap Type-II ZnO/ZnS Core/Shell Nanowire Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Satish C; Wang, Kai; Ding, Yong; Marmon, Jason K; Bhatt, Manish; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Weilie; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-06-23

    A high-performance broad band UV/visible photodetector has been successfully fabricated on a fully wide bandgap ZnO/ZnS type-II heterojunction core/shell nanowire array. The device can detect photons with energies significantly smaller (2.2 eV) than the band gap of ZnO (3.2 eV) and ZnS (3.7 eV), which is mainly attributed to spatially indirect type-II transition facilitated by the abrupt interface between the ZnO core and ZnS shell. The performance of the device was further enhanced through the piezo-phototronic effect induced lowering of the barrier height to allow charge carrier transport across the ZnO/ZnS interface, resulting in three orders of relative responsivity change measured at three different excitation wavelengths (385, 465, and 520 nm). This work demonstrates a prototype UV/visible photodetector based on the truly wide band gap semiconducting 3D core/shell nanowire array with enhanced performance through the piezo-phototronic effect.

  1. Temperature dependent current transport of Pd/ZnO nanowire Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, R. N.; Bhattacharyya, S. R.; Jana, P.

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire based Schottky barrier diodes are fabricated by depositing Pd metal contact on top of vertically well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays. A vertical array of ZnO nanowires on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates is synthesized by hybrid wet chemical route. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement confirm the formation of stoichiometric well-aligned hexagonal (h-ZnO) nanowire arrays with wurtzite structure. Temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements on palladium-ZnO (Pd/ZnO) nanowire Schottky junctions in the temperature range 303-383 K exhibit excellent rectifying character. From these nonlinear I-V plots, different electrical parameters of diode-like reverse saturation current, barrier height and ideality factor are determined as a function of temperature assuming pure thermionic emission model. The ideality factor is found to decrease while the barrier height increases with the increase in temperature. The series resistance values calculated from Cheung’s functions also show temperature dependency. Such behavior can be attributed to the presence of defects that traps carriers, and barrier height inhomogeneity at the interface of the barrier junction. After barrier height inhomogeneity correction, considering a Gaussian distributed barrier height fluctuation across the Pd/ZnO interface, the estimated values of mean barrier height and modified Richardson constant are more closely matched to the theoretically predicted value for Pd/ZnO Schottky barrier diodes. The variation of density of interface states as a function of interface state energy is also calculated.

  2. Superheating of Ag nanowires studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Wenshi; Ling Guangkong; Hong Lin; Li Hong; Liang Minghe

    2008-01-01

    The melting process of Ag nanowires was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at the atomic level. It is indicated that the Ag nanowires with Ni coating can be superheated depending on their radius and size. Also, in this paper the mechanism of superheating was analyzed and ascribed to the epitaxial Ag/Ni interface suppressing the nucleation and growth of melt. For the analysis, a thermodynamic model was constructed to describe the superheating mechanism of the Ni-coated Ag nanowires by considering the Ag/Ni interface free energy. We showed that the nucleation and growth of the Ag melt phase are both suppressed by the low energy Ag/Ni interfaces in Ni-coated Ag wires and the suppression of melt growth is crucial and plays a major role in the process of melting. The thermodynamic analysis gave a quantitative relation of superheating with the Ag wire radius and the contact angle of melting. The superheating decreased with Ag wire radius and also depended on the Ag/Ni interfacial condition. The results of the thermodynamic model were consistent with those of the MD simulations

  3. Polymer-electrolyte-gated nanowire synaptic transistors for neuromorphic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Can; Sun, Jia; Gou, Guangyang; Kong, Ling-An; Qian, Chuan; Dai, Guozhang; Yang, Junliang; Guo, Guang-hua

    2017-09-01

    Polymer-electrolytes are formed by dissolving a salt in polymer instead of water, the conducting mechanism involves the segmental motion-assisted diffusion of ion in the polymer matrix. Here, we report on the fabrication of tin oxide (SnO2) nanowire synaptic transistors using polymer-electrolyte gating. A thin layer of poly(ethylene oxide) and lithium perchlorate (PEO/LiClO4) was deposited on top of the devices, which was used to boost device performances. A voltage spike applied on the in-plane gate attracts ions toward the polymer-electrolyte/SnO2 nanowire interface and the ions are gradually returned after the pulse is removed, which can induce a dynamic excitatory postsynaptic current in the nanowire channel. The SnO2 synaptic transistors exhibit the behavior of short-term plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation and self-adaptation, which is related to the electric double-effect regulation. In addition, the synaptic logic functions and the logical function transformation are also discussed. Such single SnO2 nanowire-based synaptic transistors are of great importance for future neuromorphic devices.

  4. Emergent ferromagnetism in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires: Towards oxide spinterfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, G. Z.; Wang, D. D.; Cheng, C.-J.; He, M.; Li, S.; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    We report that room-temperature ferromagnetism emerges at the interface formed between ZnO nanowire core and Al2O3 shell although both constituents show mainly diamagnetism. The interface-based ferromagnetism can be further enhanced by annealing the ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires and activating the formation of ZnAl2O4 phase as a result of interfacial solid-state reaction. High-temperature measurements indicate that the magnetic order is thermally stable up to 750 K. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the annealing-induced jagged interfaces, and the extensive structural defects appear to be relevant to the emergent magnetism. Our study suggests that tailoring the spinterfaces in nanostructure-harnessed wide-band-gap oxides is an effective route towards engineered nanoscale architecture with enhanced magnetic properties.

  5. Emergent ferromagnetism in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires: Towards oxide spinterfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, G. Z.

    2013-07-08

    We report that room-temperature ferromagnetism emerges at the interface formed between ZnO nanowire core and Al2O3 shell although both constituents show mainly diamagnetism. The interface-based ferromagnetism can be further enhanced by annealing the ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires and activating the formation of ZnAl2O4 phase as a result of interfacial solid-state reaction. High-temperature measurements indicate that the magnetic order is thermally stable up to 750 K. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the annealing-induced jagged interfaces, and the extensive structural defects appear to be relevant to the emergent magnetism. Our study suggests that tailoring the spinterfaces in nanostructure-harnessed wide-band-gap oxides is an effective route towards engineered nanoscale architecture with enhanced magnetic properties.

  6. Highly effective field-effect mobility amorphous InGaZnO TFT mediated by directional silver nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Chuan; Lai, Yi-Chun; Lai, Chih-Chung; Wu, Bing-Shu; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Yu, Peichen; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Tsai, Chuang-Chuang

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we demonstrate sputtered amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) with a record high effective field-effect mobility of 174 cm(2)/V s by incorporating silver nanowire (AgNW) arrays to channel electron transport. Compared to the reference counterpart without nanowires, the over 5-fold enhancement in the effective field-effect mobility exhibits clear dependence on the orientation as well as the surface coverage ratio of silver nanowires. Detailed material and device analyses reveal that during the room-temperature IGZO sputtering indium and oxygen diffuse into the nanowire matrix while the nanowire morphology and good contact between IGZO and nanowires are maintained. The unchanged morphology and good interfacial contact lead to high mobility and air-ambient-stable characteristics up to 3 months. Neither hysteresis nor degraded bias stress reliability is observed. The proposed AgNW-mediated a-IGZO TFTs are promising for development of large-scale, flexible, transparent electronics.

  7. Surface effects on static bending of nanowires based on non-local elasticity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The surface elasticity and non-local elasticity effects on the elastic behavior of statically bent nanowires are investigated in the present investigation. Explicit solutions are presented to evaluate the surface stress and non-local elasticity effects with various boundary conditions. Compared with the classical Euler beam, a nanowire with surface stress and/or non-local elasticity can be either stiffer or less stiff, depending on the boundary conditions. The concept of surface non-local elasticity was proposed and its physical interpretation discussed to explain the combined effect of surface elasticity and non-local elasticity. The effect of the nanowire size on its elastic bending behavior was investigated. The results obtained herein are helpful to characterize mechanical properties of nanowires and aid nanowire-based devices design.

  8. Strong Schottky barrier reduction at Au-catalyst/GaAs-nanowire interfaces by electric dipole formation and Fermi-level unpinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyatin, Dmitry B; Jain, Vishal; Nebol'sin, Valery A; Trägårdh, Johanna; Messing, Maria E; Wagner, Jakob B; Persson, Olof; Timm, Rainer; Mikkelsen, Anders; Maximov, Ivan; Samuelson, Lars; Pettersson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale contacts between metals and semiconductors are critical for further downscaling of electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, realizing nanocontacts poses significant challenges since conventional approaches to achieve ohmic contacts through Schottky barrier suppression are often inadequate. Here we report the realization and characterization of low n-type Schottky barriers (~0.35 eV) formed at epitaxial contacts between Au-In alloy catalytic particles and GaAs-nanowires. In comparison to previous studies, our detailed characterization, employing selective electrical contacts defined by high-precision electron beam lithography, reveals the barrier to occur directly and solely at the abrupt interface between the catalyst and nanowire. We attribute this lowest-to-date-reported Schottky barrier to a reduced density of pinning states (~10(17) m(-2)) and the formation of an electric dipole layer at the epitaxial contacts. The insight into the physical mechanisms behind the observed low-energy Schottky barrier may guide future efforts to engineer abrupt nanoscale electrical contacts with tailored electrical properties.

  9. Dense Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Composites as High Performance Thermal Interface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barako, Michael T; Isaacson, Scott G; Lian, Feifei; Pop, Eric; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Goodson, Kenneth E; Tice, Jesse

    2017-12-06

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are essential for managing heat in modern electronics, and nanocomposite TIMs can offer critical improvements. Here, we demonstrate thermally conductive, mechanically compliant TIMs based on dense, vertically aligned copper nanowires (CuNWs) embedded into polymer matrices. We evaluate the thermal and mechanical characteristics of 20-25% dense CuNW arrays with and without polydimethylsiloxane infiltration. The thermal resistance achieved is below 5 mm 2 K W -1 , over an order of magnitude lower than commercial heat sink compounds. Nanoindentation reveals that the nonlinear deformation mechanics of this TIM are influenced by both the CuNW morphology and the polymer matrix. We also implement a flip-chip bonding protocol to directly attach CuNW composites to copper surfaces, as required in many thermal architectures. Thus, we demonstrate a rational design strategy for nanocomposite TIMs that simultaneously retain the high thermal conductivity of aligned CuNWs and the mechanical compliance of a polymer.

  10. Piezo-Phototronic Matrix via a Nanowire Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN, demonstrate multiproperty coupling effects toward various aspects of mechanical, electrical, and optical excitation. In particular, the three-way coupling among semiconducting, photoexcitation, and piezoelectric characteristics in wurtzite-structured semiconductors is established as a new field, which was first coined as piezo-phototronics by Wang in 2010. The piezo-phototronic effect can controllably modulate the charge-carrier generation, separation, transport, and/or recombination in optical-electronic processes by modifying the band structure at the metal-semiconductor or semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction/interface. Here, the progress made in using the piezo-phototronic effect for enhancing photodetectors, pressure sensors, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells is reviewed. In comparison with previous works on a single piezoelectric semiconducting nanowire, piezo-phototronic nanodevices built using nanowire arrays provide a promising platform for fabricating integrated optoelectronics with the realization of high-spatial-resolution imaging and fast responsivity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Crystallinity, Surface Morphology, and Photoelectrochemical Effects in Conical InP and InN Nanowires Grown on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2016-08-24

    The growth conditions of two types of indium-based III-V nanowires, InP and InN, are tailored such that instead of yielding conventional wire-type morphologies, single-crystal conical structures are formed with an enlarged diameter either near the base or near the tip. By using indium droplets as a growth catalyst, combined with an excess indium supply during growth, "ice cream cone" type structures are formed with a nanowire "cone" and an indium-based "ice cream" droplet on top for both InP and InN. Surface polycrystallinity and annihilation of the catalyst tip of the conical InP nanowires are observed when the indium supply is turned off during the growth process. This growth design technique is extended to create single-crystal InN nanowires with the same morphology. Conical InN nanowires with an enlarged base are obtained through the use of an excess combined Au-In growth catalyst. Electrochemical studies of the InP nanowires on silicon demonstrate a reduction photocurrent as a proof of photovolatic behavior and provide insight as to how the observed surface polycrystallinity and the resulting interface affect these device-level properties. Additionally, a photovoltage is induced in both types of conical InN nanowires on silicon, which is not replicated in epitaxial InN thin films.

  12. Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ternary Metal Oxide Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenyong [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Tang, Jinke [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahnovsky, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Pikal, Jon M [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Chien, TeYu [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-11-03

    In Phase I of this project we investigate quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on ternary metal oxide nanowires and study the physical and chemical mechanisms that govern device operation. Our research has the following five objectives: (1) synthesis of ternary metal oxide nanowires, (2) synthesis of QDs and exploration of non-solution based QD deposition methods, (3) physical and electro-optical characterizations of fabricated solar devices, (4) device modeling and first-principle theoretical study of transport physics, and (5) investigation of long-term stability issues of QD sensitized solar cells. In Phase II of this project our first major research goal is to investigate magnetically doped quantum dots and related spin polarization effect, which could improve light absorption and suppress electron relaxation in the QDs. We will utilize both physical and chemical methods to synthesize these doped QDs. We will also study magnetically modified nanowires and introduce spin-polarized transport into QDSSCs, and inspect its impact on forward electron injection and back electron transfer processes. Our second goal is to study novel solid-state electrolytes for QDSSCs. Specifically, we will inspect a new type of polymer electrolytes based on a modified polysulfide redox couple, and examine the effect of their electrical properties on QDSSC performance. These solid-state electrolytes could also be used as filler materials for in situ sample fracturing in STM and enable cross-sectional interface examination of QD/nanowire structures. Our third research goal is to examine the interfacial properties such as energy level alignment at QD/nanowire interfaces using the newly developed Cross-sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy technique for non-cleavable materials. This technique allows a direct probing of band structures and alignment at device interfaces, which could generate important insight into the mechanisms that govern QDSSC operation

  13. Magneto-transport measurements of domain wall propagation in individual multi segmented cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan; Vidal, Enrique Vilanova; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetotransport measurements were performed on multisegmented Co/Ni nanowires fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition. Individual nanowires were isolated and electrodes patterned to study their magnetization reversal process. The magnetoresistance reversal curve of the multisegmented nanowire exhibits a step in the switching field. Micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization reversal process are in agreement with the experimental findings and attribute the step at the switching field to the pinning of a domain wall at the interface of the Co/Ni nanowire.

  14. Magneto-transport measurements of domain wall propagation in individual multi segmented cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2016-03-01

    Magnetotransport measurements were performed on multisegmented Co/Ni nanowires fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition. Individual nanowires were isolated and electrodes patterned to study their magnetization reversal process. The magnetoresistance reversal curve of the multisegmented nanowire exhibits a step in the switching field. Micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization reversal process are in agreement with the experimental findings and attribute the step at the switching field to the pinning of a domain wall at the interface of the Co/Ni nanowire.

  15. Effects of piezoelectric potential on the transport characteristics of metal-ZnO nanowire-metal field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhiyuan

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of piezoelectric potential in a ZnO nanowire on the transport characteristics of the nanowire based field effect transistor through numerical calculations and experimental observations. Under different straining conditions including stretching, compressing, twisting, and their combination, a piezoelectric potential is created throughout the nanowire to modulatealternate the transport property of the metal-ZnO nanowire contacts, resulting in a switch between symmetric and asymmetric contacts at the two ends, or even turning an Ohmic contact type into a diode. The commonly observed natural rectifying behavior of the as-fabricated ZnO nanowire can be attributed to the strain that was unpurposely created in the nanowire during device fabrication and material handling. This work provides further evidence on piezopotential governed electronic transport and devices, e.g., piezotronics.

  16. Magnetoimpedance effects in a CoNiFe nanowire array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, S., E-mail: selcuk.atalay@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu University, Science and Arts Faculty, Physics Department, Malatya (Turkey); Kaya, H.; Atalay, F.E.; Aydogmus, E. [Inonu University, Science and Arts Faculty, Physics Department, Malatya (Turkey)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ► CoNiFe nanowires were produced by electrodeposition method. ► Magnetoimpedance effect of nanowires arrays were investigated. ► Single peak behaviour was observed in the magnetoimpedance curve. ► Nanowire arrays exhibit uniaxial magnetic anisotropy along the wire axis. -- Abstract: This report describes the growth of CoNiFe nanowires into highly ordered porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) templates by DC electrodeposition at a pH value of 2.6. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that the wires have diameters of approximately 270–290 nm and a length of 25 μm. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that the composition of the nanowires is Co{sub 12}Ni{sub 64}Fe{sub 24}. Electrical contacts were created on both sides of the nanowire array, and their magnetoimpedance (MI) properties were investigated. The impedance value was initially 1.2 ohm at low frequency and increased to approximately 1000 ohm for a 33-MHz driving current frequency under no applied magnetic field. All the MI curves exhibited single peak behaviour due to the high shape anisotropy. The maximum MI change at the 33-MHz driving current frequency was 2.72%. The maximum resistance change was 5.4% at 33 MHz.

  17. Current Controlled Magnetization Switching in Cylindrical Nanowires for High-Density 3D Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2018-04-18

    A next-generation memory device utilizing a three-dimensional nanowire system requires the reliable control of domain wall motion. In this letter, domain walls are studied in cylindrical nanowires consisting of alternating segments of cobalt and nickel. The material interfaces acting as domain wall pinning sites, are utilized in combination with current pulses, to control the position of the domain wall, which is monitored using magnetoresistance measurements. Magnetic force microscopy results further confirm the occurrence of current assisted domain wall depinning. Data bits are therefore shifted along the nanowire by sequentially pinning and depinning a domain wall between successive interfaces, a requirement necessary for race-track type memory devices. We demonstrate that the direction, amplitude and duration of the applied current pulses determine the propagation of the domain wall across pinning sites. These results demonstrate a multi-bit cylindrical nanowire device, utilizing current assisted data manipulation. The prospect of sequential pinning and depinning in these nanowires allows the bit density to increase by several Tbs, depending on the number of segments within these nanowires.

  18. Current Controlled Magnetization Switching in Cylindrical Nanowires for High-Density 3D Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan; Corte-Leó n, Hector; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Lopatin, Sergei; Moreno, Julian A.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Salimath, Akshaykumar; Manchon, Aurelien; Kazakova, Olga; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2018-01-01

    A next-generation memory device utilizing a three-dimensional nanowire system requires the reliable control of domain wall motion. In this letter, domain walls are studied in cylindrical nanowires consisting of alternating segments of cobalt and nickel. The material interfaces acting as domain wall pinning sites, are utilized in combination with current pulses, to control the position of the domain wall, which is monitored using magnetoresistance measurements. Magnetic force microscopy results further confirm the occurrence of current assisted domain wall depinning. Data bits are therefore shifted along the nanowire by sequentially pinning and depinning a domain wall between successive interfaces, a requirement necessary for race-track type memory devices. We demonstrate that the direction, amplitude and duration of the applied current pulses determine the propagation of the domain wall across pinning sites. These results demonstrate a multi-bit cylindrical nanowire device, utilizing current assisted data manipulation. The prospect of sequential pinning and depinning in these nanowires allows the bit density to increase by several Tbs, depending on the number of segments within these nanowires.

  19. Threshold Switching Induced by Controllable Fragmentation in Silver Nanowire Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tao; Pan, Ying; Du, Haiwei; Qu, Bo; Yi, Jiabao; Chu, Dewei

    2018-01-24

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have been widely studied because of a great potential in various electronic devices. However, nanowires usually undergo a fragmentation process at elevated temperatures due to the Rayleigh instability that is a result of reduction of surface/interface energy. In this case, the nanowires become completely insulating due to the formation of randomly distributed Ag particles with a large distance and further applications are hindered. Herein, we demonstrate a novel concept based on the combination of ultraviolet/ozone irradiation and a low-temperature annealing process to effectively utilize and control the fragmentation behavior to realize the resistive switching performances. In contrast to the conventional fragmentation, the designed Ag/AgO x interface facilitates a unique morphology of short nanorod-like segments or chains of tiny Ag nanoparticles with a very small spacing distance, providing conduction paths for achieving the tunneling process between the isolated fragments under the electric field. On the basis of this specific morphology, the Ag NW network has a tunable resistance and shows volatile threshold switching characteristics with a high selectivity, which is the ON/OFF current ratio in selector devices. Our concept exploits a new function of Ag NW network, i.e., resistive switching, which can be developed by designing a controllable fragmentation.

  20. Friction and shear strength at the nanowire-substrate interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Qin, Qingquan; Gu, Yi; Wang, Zhonglin

    2009-11-28

    The friction and shear strength of nanowire (NW)-substrate interfaces critically influences the electrical/mechanical performance and life time of NW-based nanodevices. Yet, very few reports on this subject are available in the literature because of the experimental challenges involved and, more specifically no studies have been reported to investigate the configuration of individual NW tip in contact with a substrate. In this letter, using a new experimental method, we report the friction measurement between a NW tip and a substrate for the first time. The measurement was based on NW buckling in situ inside a scanning electron microscope. The coefficients of friction between silver NW and gold substrate and between ZnO NW and gold substrate were found to be 0.09-0.12 and 0.10-0.15, respectively. The adhesion between a NW and the substrate modified the true contact area, which affected the interfacial shear strength. Continuum mechanics calculation found that interfacial shear strengths between silver NW and gold substrate and between ZnO NW and gold substrate were 134-139 MPa and 78.9-95.3 MPa, respectively. This method can be applied to measure friction parameters of other NW-substrate systems. Our results on interfacial friction and shear strength could have implication on the AFM three-point bending tests used for nanomechanical characterisation.

  1. Silicon nanowires nanogenerator based on the piezoelectricity of alpha-quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kui; Lin, Haiyang; Cai, Qian; Zhao, Yi; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Hu, Fei; Shao, Mingwang

    2013-12-21

    Silicon nanowires are important semiconductor with core/shell structure. In this work, the piezoelectric material alpha-quartz was grown in the interface of silicon nanowires by thermal treatment at 600 °C for 0.5 h. These nanowires were employed as starting materials to fabricate piezoelectric nanogenerators, which could convert kinetic energy into electrical one, exhibiting an output voltage of 36.5 V and a response current of 1.4 μA under a free-falling object of 300 g at a height of 30 cm.

  2. PVP存在下液液界面生长法制备硒纳米线%Preparation of Selenium Nanowires by Liquid-liquid Interface Growth in the Presence of Polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜义; 张娟; 刘明珠; 朱俊杰; 陈洪渊

    2005-01-01

    Nanowires of trigonal selenium were synthesized in large-scale by two step processes: reaction in homogeneous solution and growth at liquid-liquid interface. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used as a soft template in the synthesis.

  3. Direct observation of single-charge-detection capability of nanowire field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J; Savelyev, I G; Blumin, M; Nair, S V; Ruda, H E

    2010-10-01

    A single localized charge can quench the luminescence of a semiconductor nanowire, but relatively little is known about the effect of single charges on the conductance of the nanowire. In one-dimensional nanostructures embedded in a material with a low dielectric permittivity, the Coulomb interaction and excitonic binding energy are much larger than the corresponding values when embedded in a material with the same dielectric permittivity. The stronger Coulomb interaction is also predicted to limit the carrier mobility in nanowires. Here, we experimentally isolate and study the effect of individual localized electrons on carrier transport in InAs nanowire field-effect transistors, and extract the equivalent charge sensitivity. In the low carrier density regime, the electrostatic potential produced by one electron can create an insulating weak link in an otherwise conducting nanowire field-effect transistor, modulating its conductance by as much as 4,200% at 31 K. The equivalent charge sensitivity, 4 × 10(-5) e Hz(-1/2) at 25 K and 6 × 10(-5) e Hz(-1/2) at 198 K, is orders of magnitude better than conventional field-effect transistors and nanoelectromechanical systems, and is just a factor of 20-30 away from the record sensitivity for state-of-the-art single-electron transistors operating below 4 K (ref. 8). This work demonstrates the feasibility of nanowire-based single-electron memories and illustrates a physical process of potential relevance for high performance chemical sensors. The charge-state-detection capability we demonstrate also makes the nanowire field-effect transistor a promising host system for impurities (which may be introduced intentionally or unintentionally) with potentially long spin lifetimes, because such transistors offer more sensitive spin-to-charge conversion readout than schemes based on conventional field-effect transistors.

  4. Effects of chirality and surface stresses on the bending and buckling of chiral nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Shimada, Takahiro; Kitamura, Takayuki; Wang, Gang-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Due to their superior optical, elastic and electrical properties, chiral nanowires have many applications as sensors, probes, and building blocks of nanoelectromechanical systems. In this paper, we develop a refined Euler–Bernoulli beam model for chiral nanowires with surface effects and material chirality incorporated. This refined model is employed to investigate the bending and buckling of chiral nanowires. It is found that surface effects and material chirality significantly affect the elastic behaviour of chiral nanowires. This study is helpful not only for understanding the size-dependent behaviour of chiral nanowires, but also for characterizing their mechanical properties. (paper)

  5. Nanowire Growth for Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jeppe Vilstrup

    Solar cells commercial success is based on an efficiency/cost calculation. Nanowire solar cells is one of the foremost candidates to implement third generation photo voltaics, which are both very efficient and cheap to produce. This thesis is about our progress towards commercial nanowire solar...... cells. Resonance effects between the light and nanowire causes an inherent concentration of the sunlight into the nanowires, and means that a sparse array of nanowires (less than 5% of the area) can absorb all the incoming light. The resonance effects, as well as a graded index of refraction, also traps...... the light. The concentration and light trapping means that single junction nanowire solar cells have a higher theoretical maximum efficiency than equivalent planar solar cells. We have demonstrated the built-in light concentration of nanowires, by growing, contacting and characterizing a solar cell...

  6. Mechanical behavior enhancement of ZnO nanowire by embedding different nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vazinishayan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we employed commercial finite element modeling (FEM software package ABAQUS to analyze mechanical properties of ZnO nanowire before and after embedding with different kinds of nanowires, having different materials and cross-section models such as Au (circular, Ag (pentagonal and Si (rectangular using three point bending technique. The length and diameter of the ZnO nanowire were measured to be 12,280 nm and 103.2 nm, respectively. In addition, Au, Ag and Si nanowires were considered to have the length of 12,280 nm and the diameter of 27 nm. It was found that after embedding Si nanowire with rectangular cross-section into the ZnO nanowire, the distribution of Von Misses stresses criterion, displacement and strain were decreased than the other nanowires embedded. The highest stiffness, the elastic deformation and the high strength against brittle failure have been made by Si nanowire comparison to the Au and Ag nanowires, respectively. Keywords: Nanowires, Material effects, Mechanical properties, Brittle failure

  7. Extinction properties of metallic nanowires: Quantum diffraction and retardation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-09

    The standard Mie theory for the extinction of electromagnetic radiation by a metal cylinder that is irradiated by a normally incident plane wave is extended to the case of a metallic nanowire, where two quantum longitudinal waves are excited. The modification of the Mie theory due to quantum diffraction effects is included by employing the quantum hydrodynamic approximation and applying the appropriate quantum additional boundary conditions. The extinction properties of the system and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard local and nonlocal models are shown. Also, as an example the validity of the nonretarded approximation in the quantum nonlocal optical response of a sodium nanowire is discussed. - Highlights: • Extinction properties of metallic nanowires in the presence of quantum diffraction and retardation effects are studied. • The differences of new results with previous findings based on the standard local and nonlocal models are shown. • The validity of the nonretarded approximation in the quantum nonlocal optical response of a sodium nanowire is discussed.

  8. Influence factors of the inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance in the stacked nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongxu; Huang, Congliang; Zhong, Jinxin; Lin, Zizhen

    2018-05-01

    The inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance is important for tuning the thermal conductivity of a nanocomposite for thermoelectric applications. In this paper, the stacked copper nanowires are applied for studying the thermal contact resistance. The stacked copper nanowires are firstly made by the cold-pressing method, and then the nanowire stacks are treated by sintering treatment. With the effect of the volumetric fraction of nanowires in the stack and the influence of the sintering-temperature on the thermal contact resistance discussed, results show that: The thermal conductivity of the 150-nm copper nanowires can be enlarged almost 2 times with the volumetric fraction increased from 32 to 56% because of the enlarged contact-area and contact number of a copper nanowire. When the sintering temperature increases from 293 to 673 K, the thermal conductivity of the stacked 300-nm nanowires could be enlarged almost 2.5 times by the sintering treatment, because of the improved lattice property of the contact zone. In conclusion, application of a high volumetric fraction or/and a sintering-treatment are effectivity to tune the inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance, and thus to tailor the thermal conductivity of a nanowire network or stack.

  9. Electronic transport in narrow-gap semiconductor nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemers, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Throughout this work the electronic transport properties of InAs, InN, and GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires have been analyzed. This includes the analysis of specific resistivity at room temperature and low temperatures as well as the breakdown of resistivity by a contribution of mobility and carrier concentration using gate measurements. While the InN nanowires showed homogeneous transport properties, there was a large statistical spread in the properties of InAs nanowires. Differing crystal structures and the surface conditions are identified to be the main reasons for the statistical spread. Both quantities of influence have been pointed out by comparing the transport parameters before and after a surface treatment (electron irradiation and long time ambient air exposure), and by comparing the transport parameters of wires grown by different growth methods which exhibit different kinds of crystal structure. In particular, the temperature dependence of the conductivity revealed different activation energies in nanowires with differing crystal structures. An explanation has been suggested in terms of stacking fault induced potential barriers. A field-effect measurement setup has been utilized to determine the nanowire mobility and carrier concentration. Even though this method is widely used for nanowires, it is subject to a serious disadvantage concerning the influence of surface and interface states on the measurements. As an alternative method which does not suffer from this drawback, Hall measurements have been successfully performed on InAs nanowires for the first time. These measurements became possible because of the utilization of a new electron beam lithographic procedure with an alignment accuracy in the 5 nm range. Carrier concentration values could be determined and compared to the ones obtained from conventional field-effect measurements. The results of the Hall measurements revealed a methodical overestimation of the carrier concentrations obtained

  10. Electronic transport in narrow-gap semiconductor nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloemers, Christian

    2012-10-19

    Throughout this work the electronic transport properties of InAs, InN, and GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires have been analyzed. This includes the analysis of specific resistivity at room temperature and low temperatures as well as the breakdown of resistivity by a contribution of mobility and carrier concentration using gate measurements. While the InN nanowires showed homogeneous transport properties, there was a large statistical spread in the properties of InAs nanowires. Differing crystal structures and the surface conditions are identified to be the main reasons for the statistical spread. Both quantities of influence have been pointed out by comparing the transport parameters before and after a surface treatment (electron irradiation and long time ambient air exposure), and by comparing the transport parameters of wires grown by different growth methods which exhibit different kinds of crystal structure. In particular, the temperature dependence of the conductivity revealed different activation energies in nanowires with differing crystal structures. An explanation has been suggested in terms of stacking fault induced potential barriers. A field-effect measurement setup has been utilized to determine the nanowire mobility and carrier concentration. Even though this method is widely used for nanowires, it is subject to a serious disadvantage concerning the influence of surface and interface states on the measurements. As an alternative method which does not suffer from this drawback, Hall measurements have been successfully performed on InAs nanowires for the first time. These measurements became possible because of the utilization of a new electron beam lithographic procedure with an alignment accuracy in the 5 nm range. Carrier concentration values could be determined and compared to the ones obtained from conventional field-effect measurements. The results of the Hall measurements revealed a methodical overestimation of the carrier concentrations obtained

  11. Spin-Orbit Torques in Co/Pd Multilayer Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Jamali, Mahdi; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Qiu, Xuepeng; Loong, Li Ming; Manchon, Aurelien; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2013-01-01

    Current induced spin-orbit torques have been studied in ferromagnetic nanowires made of 20 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using Hall voltage and lock-in measurements, it is found that upon injection of an electric current both in-plane (Slonczewski-like) and perpendicular (fieldlike) torques build up in the nanowire. The torque efficiencies are found to be as large as 1.17 and 5 kOe at 108  A/cm2 for the in-plane and perpendicular components, respectively, which is surprisingly comparable to previous studies in ultrathin (∼1  nm) magnetic bilayers. We show that this result cannot be explained solely by spin Hall effect induced torque at the outer interfaces, indicating a probable contribution of the bulk of the Co/Pd multilayer.

  12. Spin-Orbit Torques in Co/Pd Multilayer Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Jamali, Mahdi

    2013-12-09

    Current induced spin-orbit torques have been studied in ferromagnetic nanowires made of 20 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using Hall voltage and lock-in measurements, it is found that upon injection of an electric current both in-plane (Slonczewski-like) and perpendicular (fieldlike) torques build up in the nanowire. The torque efficiencies are found to be as large as 1.17 and 5 kOe at 108  A/cm2 for the in-plane and perpendicular components, respectively, which is surprisingly comparable to previous studies in ultrathin (∼1  nm) magnetic bilayers. We show that this result cannot be explained solely by spin Hall effect induced torque at the outer interfaces, indicating a probable contribution of the bulk of the Co/Pd multilayer.

  13. Oxidative fabrication of patterned, large, non-flaking CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumm, F; Sikorski, P

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple and fast approach to fabricate large, non-flaking arrays of CuO nanowires by oxidizing thin copper substrates in air. Oxidative CuO nanowire growth is commonly accompanied by oxide layer flaking due to stress at the copper-copper oxide interface. Using thin substrates is shown to prevent this flaking by introducing favourable material thickness ratios in the samples after oxidation. Additionally, thin foils allow larger scale topographic patterns to be transferred from an underlying mould to realize non-flat, nanowire-decorated surfaces. Further patterning is possible by electrodeposition of a nickel layer, which restricts nanowire growth to specific areas of the sample.

  14. Effects of piezoelectric potential on the transport characteristics of metal-ZnO nanowire-metal field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Hao, Yue; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of piezoelectric potential in a ZnO nanowire on the transport characteristics of the nanowire based field effect transistor through numerical calculations and experimental observations. Under different straining

  15. Effect of field deposition and pore size on Co/Cu barcode nanowires by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ji Ung; Wu, J.-H.; Min, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ju Hun; Liu, H.-L.; Kim, Young Keun

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the effect of an external magnetic field applied during electrodeposition of Co/Cu barcode nanowires in anodic aluminum oxide nanotemplates. The magnetic properties of the barcode nanowires were greatly enhanced for 50 nm pore diameter regardless of segment aspect ratio, but field deposition has little effect on the 200 nm nanowires. The magnetic improvement is correlated with a structural change, attributed to field modification of the growth habit of the barcode nanowires. A mechanism of growth subject to geometric confinement is proposed

  16. Effect of field deposition and pore size on Co/Cu barcode nanowires by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ji Ung; Wu, Jun-Hua; Min, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ju Hun; Liu, Hong-Ling; Kim, Young Keun

    2007-03-01

    We have studied the effect of an external magnetic field applied during electrodeposition of Co/Cu barcode nanowires in anodic aluminum oxide nanotemplates. The magnetic properties of the barcode nanowires were greatly enhanced for 50 nm pore diameter regardless of segment aspect ratio, but field deposition has little effect on the 200 nm nanowires. The magnetic improvement is correlated with a structural change, attributed to field modification of the growth habit of the barcode nanowires. A mechanism of growth subject to geometric confinement is proposed.

  17. Tunable field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires coated with varied thickness of lanthanum boride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C.X.; Li, Y.F.; Chen, Jun; Deng, S.Z.; Xu, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanum boride (LaB x ) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on ZnO nanowire arrays by electron beam evaporation. Field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires show close dependence on LaB x coating thickness. The turn-on field increases with increasing LaB x coating thickness from 10 nm to 50 nm. The observed phenomena were explained by a model that the tunneling at ZnO/LaB x interface dominates the emission process. - Highlights: ► Coating thickness dependence of field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires was observed from LaB x coated ZnO nanowires. ► More stable field emission was observed from ZnO nanowires with LaB x coating. ► A model was proposed that the tunneling at ZnO/LaB x interface dominates the emission process

  18. Modulation of thermal conductivity in kinked silicon nanowires: phonon interchanging and pinching effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Yang, Nuo; Wang, Bing-Shen; Rabczuk, Timon

    2013-04-10

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the reduction of the thermal conductivity by kinks in silicon nanowires. The reduction percentage can be as high as 70% at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the reduction is also calculated. By calculating phonon polarization vectors, two mechanisms are found to be responsible for the reduced thermal conductivity: (1) the interchanging effect between the longitudinal and transverse phonon modes and (2) the pinching effect, that is, a new type of localization, for the twisting and transverse phonon modes in the kinked silicon nanowires. Our work demonstrates that the phonon interchanging and pinching effects, induced by kinking, are brand-new and effective ways in modulating heat transfer in nanowires, which enables the kinked silicon nanowires to be a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  19. Effect of orientation on deformation behavior of Fe nanowires: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, G.; Srinivasan, V. S.; Choudhary, B. K.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the effect of crystal orientation on tensile deformation behaviour of single crystal BCC Fe nanowires at 10 K. Two nanowires with an initial orientation of /{100} and /{111} have been chosen for this study. The simulation results show that the deformation mechanisms varied with crystal orientation. The nanowire with an initial orientation of /{100} deforms predominantly by twinning mechanism, whereas the nanowire oriented in /{111}, deforms by dislocation plasticity. In addition, the single crystal oriented in /{111} shows higher strength and elastic modulus than /{100} oriented nanowire.

  20. Effect of growth temperature on photoluminescence and piezoelectric characteristics of ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Walter [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Fang, T.-H. [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Institute of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fang.tehua@msa.hinet.net; Ji, L.-W.; Lee, C.-C. [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

    2009-02-25

    ZnO nanowire arrays were synthesized on Au-coated silicon (1 0 0) substrates by using vapour-liquid-solid process in this work. The effect of growth temperatures on the crystal structure and the surface morphology of ZnO nanowires were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The absorption and optical characteristics of the nanowires were examined by Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence, respectively. The photoluminescence results exhibited ZnO nanowires had an ultraviolet and blue emission at 383 and 492 nm. Then a nanogenerator with ZnO nanowire arrays was fabricated and demonstrated Schottky-like current-voltage characteristics.

  1. Modeling of surface stress effects on bending behavior of nanowires: Incremental deformation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, F.; Huang, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    The surface stress effects on bending behavior of nanowires have recently attracted a lot of attention. In this letter, the incremental deformation theory is first applied to study the surface stress effects upon the bending behavior of the nanowires. Different from other linear continuum approaches, the local geometrical nonlinearity of the Lagrangian strain is considered, therefore, the contribution of the surface stresses is naturally derived by applying the Hamilton's principle, and influence of the surface stresses along all surfaces of the nanowires is captured. It is first shown that the surface stresses along all surfaces have contribution not only on the effective Young's modulus of the nanowires but also on the loading term in the governing equation. The predictions of the effective Young's modulus and the resonance shift of the nanowires from the current method are compared with those from the experimental measurement and other existing approaches. The difference with other models is discussed. Finally, based on the current theory, the resonant shift predictions by using both the modified Euler-Bernoulli beam and the modified Timoshenko beam theories of the nanowires are investigated and compared. It is noticed that the higher vibration modes are less sensitive to the surface stresses than the lower vibration modes.

  2. Phase-field model of vapor-liquid-solid nanowire growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Karma, Alain

    2018-03-01

    We present a multiphase-field model to describe quantitatively nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The free-energy functional of this model depends on three nonconserved order parameters that distinguish the vapor, liquid, and solid phases and describe the energetic properties of various interfaces, including arbitrary forms of anisotropic γ plots for the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces. The evolution equations for those order parameters describe basic kinetic processes including the rapid (quasi-instantaneous) equilibration of the liquid catalyst to a droplet shape with constant mean curvature, the slow incorporation of growth atoms at the droplet surface, and crystallization within the droplet. The standard constraint that the sum of the phase fields equals unity and the conservation of the number of catalyst atoms, which relates the catalyst volume to the concentration of growth atoms inside the droplet, are handled via separate Lagrange multipliers. An analysis of the model is presented that rigorously maps the phase-field equations to a desired set of sharp-interface equations for the evolution of the phase boundaries under the constraint of force balance at three-phase junctions (triple points) given by the Young-Herring relation that includes torque term related to the anisotropy of the solid-liquid and solid-vapor interface excess free energies. Numerical examples of growth in two dimensions are presented for the simplest case of vanishing crystalline anisotropy and the more realistic case of a solid-liquid γ plot with cusped minima corresponding to two sets of (10 ) and (11 ) facets. The simulations reproduce many of the salient features of nanowire growth observed experimentally, including growth normal to the substrate with tapering of the side walls, transitions between different growth orientations, and crawling growth along the substrate. They also reproduce different observed relationships between the nanowire growth

  3. Field effect transistors and phototransistors based upon p-type solution-processed PbS nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Paul; Hou, Bo; Pak, Sangyeon; Inn Sohn, Jung; Morris, Stephen; Cha, SeungNam; Kim, Jong Min

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of solution processed highly crystalline p-type PbS nanowires via the oriented attachment of nanoparticles. The analysis of single nanowire field effect transistor (FET) devices revealed a hole conduction behaviour with average mobilities greater than 30 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than that reported to date for p-type PbS colloidal nanowires. We have investigated the response of the FETs to near-infrared light excitation and show herein that the nanowires exhibited gate-dependent photo-conductivities, enabling us to tune the device performances. The responsivity was found to be greater than 104 A W-1 together with a detectivity of 1013 Jones, which benefits from a photogating effect occurring at negative gate voltages. These encouraging detection parameters are accompanied by relatively short switching times of 15 ms at positive gate voltages, resulting from a combination of the standard photoconduction and the high crystallinity of the nanowires. Collectively, these results indicate that solution-processed PbS nanowires are promising nanomaterials for infrared photodetectors as well as p-type nanowire FETs.

  4. Impedance analysis of PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells with different ZnO nanowire lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Takahashi, Akihiro; Wang, Haibin; Takahira, Kazuya; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been markedly improved by optimizing the surface passivation and device structure, and details of device physics are now under investigation. In this study, we investigated the resistance and capacitance components at the ZnO/PbS-QD interface and inside a PbS-QD layer by measuring the impedance spectrum while the interface area was controlled by changing the ZnO nanowire length. By evaluating the dependence of optical intensity and DC bias voltage on the ZnO nanowire length, only the capacitance was observed to be influenced by the interface area, and this indicates that photoinduced carriers are generated at the surface of PbS-QD. In addition, since the capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the QD, the interface area can be evaluated from the capacitance. Finally, photovoltaic performance was observed to increase with increasing ZnO nanowire length owing to the large interface area, and this result is in good agreement with the capacitance measurement.

  5. Self-assembled epitaxial NiSi2 nanowires on Si(001) by reactive deposition epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Chen, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Self-assembled epitaxial NiSi 2 nanowires have been fabricated on Si(001) by reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE). The RDE method promoted nanowire growth since it provides deposited atoms sufficient kinetic energy for movement on the Si surface during the growth of silicide islands. The twin-related interface between NiSi 2 and Si is directly related to the nanowire formation since it breaks the symmetry of the surface and leads to the asymmetric growth. The temperature of RDE was found to greatly influence the formation of nanowires. By RDE at 750 deg. C, a high density of NiSi 2 nanowires was formed with an average aspect ratio of 30

  6. ON current enhancement of nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Kohei; Hashimoto, Shuichiro; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Asada, Shuhei; Xu, Taiyu; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Watanabe, Takanobu

    2016-04-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors (NW-SBTFETs) are promising structures for high performance devices. In this study, we fabricated NW-SBTFETs to investigate the effect of nanowire structure on the device characteristics. The NW-SBTFETs were operated with a backgate bias, and the experimental results demonstrate that the ON current density is enhanced by narrowing the width of the nanowire. We confirmed using the Fowler-Nordheim plot that the drain current in the ON state mainly comprises the quantum tunneling component through the Schottky barrier. Comparison with a technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation revealed that the enhancement is attributed to the electric field concentration at the corners of cross-section of the NW. The study findings suggest an effective approach to securing the ON current by Schottky barrier width modulation.

  7. Supersensitive, Fast-Response Nanowire Sensors by Using Schottky Contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Youfan

    2010-05-31

    A Schottky barrier can be formed at the interface between a metal electrode and a semiconductor. The current passing through the metal-semiconductor contact is mainly controlled by the barrier height and barrier width. In conventional nanodevices, Schottky contacts are usually avoided in order to enhance the contribution made by the nanowires or nanotubes to the detected signal. We present a key idea of using the Schottky contact to achieve supersensitive and fast response nanowire-based nanosensors. We have illustrated this idea on several platforms: UV sensors, biosensors, and gas sensors. The gigantic enhancement in sensitivity of up to 5 orders of magnitude shows that an effective usage of the Schottky contact can be very beneficial to the sensitivity of nanosensors. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. In Situ TEM Creation of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Sardar Bilal

    Integration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as active components in devices requires that desired mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces can be established between the nanoscale geometry of the SiNW and the microscale architecture of the device. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM),...

  9. Analysis of an anti-reflecting nanowire transparent electrode for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhexin; Wang, Ken Xingze; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-03-01

    Transparent electrodes are an important component in many optoelectronic devices, especially solar cells. In this paper, we investigate a nanowire transparent electrode that also functions as an anti-reflection coating for silicon solar cells, taking into account the practical constraints that the electrode is typically encapsulated and needs to be in electric contact with the semiconductor. Numerical simulations show that the electrode can provide near-perfect broadband anti-reflection over much of the frequency range above the silicon band gap for both polarizations while keeping the sheet resistance sufficiently low. To provide insights into the physics mechanism of this broadband anti-reflection, we introduce a generalized Fabry-Perot model, which captures the effects of the higher order diffraction channels as well as the modification of the reflection coefficient of the interface introduced by the nanowires. This model is validated using frequency-domain electromagnetic simulations. Our work here provides design guidelines for nanowire transparent electrode in a device configuration that is relevant for solar cell applications.

  10. Size-effects in indium gallium arsenide nanowire field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zota, Cezar B., E-mail: cezar.zota@eit.lth.se; Lind, E. [Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Lund University, Lund 22101 (Sweden)

    2016-08-08

    We fabricate and analyze InGaAs nanowire MOSFETs with channel widths down to 18 nm. Low-temperature measurements reveal quantized conductance due to subband splitting, a characteristic of 1D systems. We relate these features to device performance at room-temperature. In particular, the threshold voltage versus nanowire width is explained by direct observation of quantization of the first sub-band, i.e., band gap widening. An analytical effective mass quantum well model is able to describe the observed band structure. The results reveal a compromise between reliability, i.e., V{sub T} variability, and on-current, through the mean free path, in the choice of the channel material.

  11. Understanding the true shape of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nian; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Joyce, Hannah J; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2014-10-08

    With increasing interest in nanowire-based devices, a thorough understanding of the nanowire shape is required to gain tight control of the quality of nanowire heterostructures and improve the performance of related devices. We present a systematic study of the sidewalls of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires by investigating the faceting process from the beginning with vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) nucleation, followed by the simultaneous radial growth on the sidewalls, and to the end with sidewall transformation during annealing. The VLS nucleation interface of our GaAs nanowires is revealed by examining cross sections of the nanowire, where the nanowire exhibits a Reuleaux triangular shape with three curved surfaces along {112}A. These curved surfaces are not thermodynamically stable and adopt {112}A facets during radial growth. We observe clear differences in radial growth rate between the ⟨112⟩A and ⟨112⟩B directions with {112}B facets forming due to the slower radial growth rate along ⟨112⟩B directions. These sidewalls transform to {110} facets after high temperature (>500 °C) annealing. A nucleation model is proposed to explain the origin of the Reuleaux triangular shape of the nanowires, and the sidewall evolution is explained by surface kinetic and thermodynamic limitations.

  12. Heat transfer across the interface between nanoscale solids and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun; Fan, Wen; Cao, Jinbo; Ryu, Sang-Gil; Ji, Jie; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Wu, Junqiao

    2011-12-27

    When solid materials and devices scale down in size, heat transfer from the active region to the gas environment becomes increasingly significant. We show that the heat transfer coefficient across the solid-gas interface behaves very differently when the size of the solid is reduced to the nanoscale, such as that of a single nanowire. Unlike for macroscopic solids, the coefficient is strongly pressure dependent above ∼10 Torr, and at lower pressures it is much higher than predictions of the kinetic gas theory. The heat transfer coefficient was measured between a single, free-standing VO(2) nanowire and surrounding air using laser thermography, where the temperature distribution along the VO(2) nanowire was determined by imaging its domain structure of metal-insulator phase transition. The one-dimensional domain structure along the nanowire results from the balance between heat generation by the focused laser and heat dissipation to the substrate as well as to the surrounding gas, and thus serves as a nanoscale power-meter and thermometer. We quantified the heat loss rate across the nanowire-air interface, and found that it dominates over all other heat dissipation channels for small-diameter nanowires near ambient pressure. As the heat transfer across the solid-gas interface is nearly independent of the chemical identity of the solid, the results reveal a general scaling relationship for gaseous heat dissipation from nanostructures of all solid materials, which is applicable to nanoscale electronic and thermal devices exposed to gaseous environments.

  13. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anandan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.

  14. Selective-area vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalacu, Dan; Kam, Alicia; Guy Austing, D; Wu Xiaohua; Lapointe, Jean; Aers, Geof C; Poole, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between the conventional non-selective vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires and a novel selective-area growth process where the Au-seeded InP nanowires grow exclusively in the openings of a SiO 2 mask on an InP substrate. This new process allows the precise positioning and diameter control of the nanowires required for future advanced device fabrication. The growth temperature range is found to be extended for the selective-area growth technique due to removal of the competition between material incorporation at the Au/nanowire interface and the substrate. A model describing the growth mechanism is presented which successfully accounts for the nanoparticle size-dependent and time-dependent growth rate. The dominant indium collection process is found to be the scattering of the group III source material from the SiO 2 mask and subsequent capture by the nanowire, a process that had previously been ignored for selective-area growth by chemical beam epitaxy.

  15. Selective-area vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalacu, Dan; Kam, Alicia; Guy Austing, D; Wu Xiaohua; Lapointe, Jean; Aers, Geof C; Poole, Philip J, E-mail: dan.dalacu@nrc-cnrc.gc.c [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2009-09-30

    A comparison is made between the conventional non-selective vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires and a novel selective-area growth process where the Au-seeded InP nanowires grow exclusively in the openings of a SiO{sub 2} mask on an InP substrate. This new process allows the precise positioning and diameter control of the nanowires required for future advanced device fabrication. The growth temperature range is found to be extended for the selective-area growth technique due to removal of the competition between material incorporation at the Au/nanowire interface and the substrate. A model describing the growth mechanism is presented which successfully accounts for the nanoparticle size-dependent and time-dependent growth rate. The dominant indium collection process is found to be the scattering of the group III source material from the SiO{sub 2} mask and subsequent capture by the nanowire, a process that had previously been ignored for selective-area growth by chemical beam epitaxy.

  16. Gate Modulation of Graphene-ZnO Nanowire Schottky Diode

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ren; You, Xu-Chen; Fu, Xue-Wen; Lin, Fang; Meng, Jie; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-semiconductor interface is important for the applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we report the modulation of the electric transport properties of graphene/ZnO nanowire Schottky diode by gate voltage (Vg). The ideality factor of the graphene/ZnO nanowire Schottky diode is ~1.7, and the Schottky barrier height is ~0.28?eV without external Vg. The Schottky barrier height is sensitive to Vg due to the variation of Fermi level of graphene. The barrier height increa...

  17. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin-Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  18. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  19. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal, E-mail: ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafii-Tabar, Hashem [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  20. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  1. A III-V nanowire channel on silicon for high-performance vertical transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Fukui, Takashi

    2012-08-09

    Silicon transistors are expected to have new gate architectures, channel materials and switching mechanisms in ten years' time. The trend in transistor scaling has already led to a change in gate structure from two dimensions to three, used in fin field-effect transistors, to avoid problems inherent in miniaturization such as high off-state leakage current and the short-channel effect. At present, planar and fin architectures using III-V materials, specifically InGaAs, are being explored as alternative fast channels on silicon because of their high electron mobility and high-quality interface with gate dielectrics. The idea of surrounding-gate transistors, in which the gate is wrapped around a nanowire channel to provide the best possible electrostatic gate control, using InGaAs channels on silicon, however, has been less well investigated because of difficulties in integrating free-standing InGaAs nanostructures on silicon. Here we report the position-controlled growth of vertical InGaAs nanowires on silicon without any buffering technique and demonstrate surrounding-gate transistors using InGaAs nanowires and InGaAs/InP/InAlAs/InGaAs core-multishell nanowires as channels. Surrounding-gate transistors using core-multishell nanowire channels with a six-sided, high-electron-mobility transistor structure greatly enhance the on-state current and transconductance while keeping good gate controllability. These devices provide a route to making vertically oriented transistors for the next generation of field-effect transistors and may be useful as building blocks for wireless networks on silicon platforms.

  2. Nanowire field effect transistors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Nanowire Field Effect Transistor: Basic Principles and Applications” places an emphasis on the application aspects of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET). Device physics and electronics are discussed in a compact manner, together with the p-n junction diode and MOSFET, the former as an essential element in NWFET and the latter as a general background of the FET. During this discussion, the photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LD, DRAM, flash EEPROM and sensors are highlighted to pave the way for similar applications of NWFET. Modeling is discussed in close analogy and comparison with MOSFETs. Contributors focus on processing, electrostatic discharge (ESD) and application of NWFET. This includes coverage of solar and memory cells, biological and chemical sensors, displays and atomic scale light emitting diodes. Appropriate for scientists and engineers interested in acquiring a working knowledge of NWFET as well as graduate students specializing in this subject.

  3. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  4. Fabrication of large-scale one-dimensional Au nanochain and nanowire networks by interfacial self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Minhua; Li Yongjun; Xie Zhaoxiong; Liu Cai; Yeung, Edward S.

    2010-01-01

    By utilizing the strong capillary attraction between interfacial nanoparticles, large-scale one-dimensional Au nanochain networks were fabricated at the n-butanol/water interface, and could be conveniently transferred onto hydrophilic substrates. Furthermore, the length of the nanochains could be adjusted simply by controlling the density of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) at the n-butanol/water interface. Surprisingly, the resultant Au nanochains could further transform into smooth nanowires by increasing the aging time, forming a nanowire network. Combined characterization by HRTEM and UV-vis spectroscopy indicates that the formation of Au nanochains stemmed from a stochastic assembly of interfacial AuNPs due to strong capillary attraction, and the evolution of nanochains to nanowires follows an Ostwald ripening mechanism rather than an oriented attachment. This method could be utilized to fabricate large-area nanochain or nanowire networks more uniformly on solid substrates than that of evaporating a solution of nanochain colloid, since it eliminates the three-dimensional aggregation behavior.

  5. Nanowire size dependence on sensitivity of silicon nanowire field-effect transistor-based pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryoongbin; Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Sihyun; Kim, Sangwan; Mo, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of nanowire size on the current sensitivity of silicon nanowire (SiNW) ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). The changes in on-current (I on) and resistance according to pH were measured in fabricated SiNW ISFETs of various lengths and widths. As a result, it was revealed that the sensitivity expressed as relative I on change improves as the width decreases. Through technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation analysis, the width dependence on the relative I on change can be explained by the observation that the target molecules located at the edge region along the channel width have a stronger effect on the sensitivity as the SiNW width is reduced. Additionally, the length dependence on the sensitivity can be understood in terms of the resistance ratio of the fixed parasitic resistance, including source/drain resistance, to the varying channel resistance as a function of channel length.

  6. Plasmonic engineering of metal-oxide nanowire heterojunctions in integrated nanowire rectification units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Luchan; Zhou, Y. Norman, E-mail: liulei@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei, E-mail: liulei@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Duley, Walt W. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-05-16

    We show that irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses can produce robust nanowire heterojunctions in coupled non-wetting metal-oxide Ag-TiO{sub 2} structures. Simulations indicate that joining arises from the effect of strong plasmonic localization in the region of the junction. Strong electric field effects occur in both Ag and TiO{sub 2} resulting in the modification of both surfaces and an increase in wettability of TiO{sub 2}, facilitating the interconnection of Ag and TiO{sub 2} nanowires. Irradiation leads to the creation of a thin layer of highly defected TiO{sub 2} in the contact region between the Ag and TiO{sub 2} nanowires. The presence of this layer allows the formation of a heterojunction and offers the possibility of engineering the electronic characteristics of interfacial structures. Rectifying junctions with single and bipolar properties have been generated in Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanowire circuits incorporating asymmetrical and symmetrical interfacial structures, respectively. This fabrication technique should be applicable for the interconnection of other heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire components and demonstrates that femtosecond laser irradiation enables interfacial engineering for electronic applications of integrated nanowire structures.

  7. Plasmonic engineering of metal-oxide nanowire heterojunctions in integrated nanowire rectification units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Luchan; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Duley, Walt W.; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2016-05-01

    We show that irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses can produce robust nanowire heterojunctions in coupled non-wetting metal-oxide Ag-TiO2 structures. Simulations indicate that joining arises from the effect of strong plasmonic localization in the region of the junction. Strong electric field effects occur in both Ag and TiO2 resulting in the modification of both surfaces and an increase in wettability of TiO2, facilitating the interconnection of Ag and TiO2 nanowires. Irradiation leads to the creation of a thin layer of highly defected TiO2 in the contact region between the Ag and TiO2 nanowires. The presence of this layer allows the formation of a heterojunction and offers the possibility of engineering the electronic characteristics of interfacial structures. Rectifying junctions with single and bipolar properties have been generated in Ag-TiO2 nanowire circuits incorporating asymmetrical and symmetrical interfacial structures, respectively. This fabrication technique should be applicable for the interconnection of other heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire components and demonstrates that femtosecond laser irradiation enables interfacial engineering for electronic applications of integrated nanowire structures.

  8. Broad spectral photocurrent enhancement in Au-decorated CdSe nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Ritun; Greullet, Fanny; George, Chandramohan; Baranov, Dmitry; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Krahne, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures promise improved photoconductive performance due to plasmonic properties of the metal portions and intrinsic electric fields at the metal-semiconductor interface that possibly enhance charge separation. Here we report gold decorated CdSe nanowires as a novel functional material and investigate the influence of gold decoration on the lateral facets on the photoconductive properties. Gold decorated nanowires show typically an at least ten-fold higher photocurrent as compared to their bare counterparts. Interestingly, the photocurrent enhancement is wavelength independent, although the plasmon resonance related to the gold particles appears in the absorption spectra. Our experiments show that light scattering and Schottky fields associated with the metal-semiconductor interface are at the origin of the photocurrent enhancement. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K. M., E-mail: mrkongara@boisestate.edu; Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Padture, Nitin P. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120 K and a room temperature coercive field of 90 Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  10. Optoelectrical modeling of solar cells based on c-Si/a-Si:H nanowire array: focus on the electrical transport in between the nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levtchenko, Alexandra; Le Gall, Sylvain; Lachaume, Raphaël; Michallon, Jérôme; Collin, Stéphane; Alvarez, José; Djebbour, Zakaria; Kleider, Jean-Paul

    2018-06-01

    By coupling optical and electrical modeling, we have investigated the photovoltaic performances of p-i-n radial nanowires array based on crystalline p-type silicon (c-Si) core/hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shell. By varying either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or back contact work function we can separate and highlight the contribution to the cell’s performance of the nanowires themselves (the radial cell) from the interspace between the nanowires (the planar cell). We show that the build-in potential (V bi) in the radial and planar cells strongly depends on the doping of c-Si core and the work function of the back contact respectively. Consequently, the solar cell’s performance is degraded if either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or/and the work function of the back contact is too low. By inserting a thin (p) a-Si:H layer between both core/absorber and back contact/absorber, the performance of the solar cell can be improved by partly fixing the V bi at both interfaces due to strong electrostatic screening effect. Depositing such a buffer layer playing the role of an electrostatic screen for charge carriers is a suggested way of enhancing the performance of solar cells based on radial p-i-n or n-i-p nanowire array.

  11. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  12. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors combining dielectrophoresis and hot-pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y-K; Chau-N H, Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) were fabricated combining the dielectrophoresis (DEP) and the hot-pressing methods. DEP was used to position both ends of the nanowires on top of the source and the drain electrodes, respectively. Hot-pressing of nanowires on the electrodes was then employed to ensure good contacts between the nanowires and the electrodes. The good device performance achieved with our method of fabrication indicates that DEP combined with hot-pressing has the potential to be applied to the fabrication of flexible electronics on a roll-to-roll basis.

  13. Ingestion of gallium phosphide nanowires has no adverse effect on Drosophila tissue function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolfsson, Karl; Hammarin, Greger; Prinz, Christelle N; Schneider, Martina; Häcker, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles have been under increasing scrutiny in recent years. High aspect ratio nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires have raised safety concerns due to their geometrical similarity to asbestos fibers. III–V epitaxial semiconductor nanowires are expected to be utilized in devices such as LEDs and solar cells and will thus be available to the public. In addition, clean-room staff fabricating and characterizing the nanowires are at risk of exposure, emphasizing the importance of investigating their possible toxicity. Here we investigated the effects of gallium phosphide nanowires on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila larvae and/or adults were exposed to gallium phosphide nanowires by ingestion with food. The toxicity and tissue interaction of the nanowires was evaluated by investigating tissue distribution, activation of immune response, genome-wide gene expression, life span, fecundity and somatic mutation rates. Our results show that gallium phosphide nanowires applied through the diet are not taken up into Drosophila tissues, do not elicit a measurable immune response or changes in genome-wide gene expression and do not significantly affect life span or somatic mutation rate. (paper)

  14. Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardy, Melissa Anne

    Se nanowires allowed their thermoelectric properties to be controllably tuned by increasing their carrier concentration or hole mobility. After optimal annealing, single PbSe nanowires exhibited a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.12 at 300 K. In addition, using a field-effect gated device, the Seebeck coefficient of single PbSe nanowires could be tuned from 64 to 193 muV˙K-1. This direct electrical field control of the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient suggests a powerful strategy for optimizing ZT in thermoelectric devices and these results represent the first demonstration of field-effect modulation of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a single semiconductor nanowire. This novel strategy for thermoelectric property modulation could prove especially important in optimizing the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors where reproducible doping is difficult to achieve. Recent theoretical work has shown large enhancements in ZT for single-crystal nanowires containing nanoscale interfaces along their lengths. M2O3(ZnO) n ( M = In, Ga, Fe) superlattice nanowires were synthesized via a novel solid-state diffusion approach to investigate this possible enhancement. Using atomic resolution Z-contrast STEM imaging a detailed structural analysis was performed on In2-xGaxO3(ZnO) n nanowires, leading to the discovery that octahedral inclusions within the superlattice structure are likely generated through a defect-assisted process. Single-nanowire thermal and electrical measurements on In2-x GaxO3(ZnO)n reveal a simultaneous improvement in all contributing factors to the thermoelectric figure of merit, giving an order of magnitude enhancement over similar bulk materials at room temperature. This is the first report of enhancement of all three thermoelectric parameters (Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal resistivity) for a nanowire system. Photoelectrochemical water splitting is another exciting renewable energy application that can

  15. Controlled synthesis of uniform ultrafine CuO nanowires as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Tao Weizhe; Zhao Mingshu; Xu Minwei; Yang Shengchun; Sun Zhanbo; Wang Liqun; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The ultrafine CuO nanowires were controlled synthesized by a simple solution route. → CuO nanowires exhibit high capacity, superior cyclability and improved rate capability. → Voltage-capacity curves show larger extra reversible reactions at low potentials in CuO nanowires. → CV curves show lower over-potential in CuO nanowires. - Abstract: A simple solution route is used to synthesize ultrafine Cu(OH) 2 nanowires by restraining the morphology transformation of early formed 1D nanostructure. The obtained ultrafine nanowires can be well preserved at a low temperature structure transformation in solid state. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the ultrafine CuO nanowires exhibit high reversible capacity, superior cycling performance and improved rate capability. The improved electrochemical properties of CuO nanowires are ascribed to their ultrafine size which lead to the reduced over-potential, extra reversible reactions at low potentials and improved interface performance between the electrode and electrolyte.

  16. An innovative large scale integration of silicon nanowire-based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legallais, M.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Mouis, M.; Salem, B.; Robin, E.; Chenevier, P.; Ternon, C.

    2018-05-01

    Since the early 2000s, silicon nanowire field effect transistors are emerging as ultrasensitive biosensors while offering label-free, portable and rapid detection. Nevertheless, their large scale production remains an ongoing challenge due to time consuming, complex and costly technology. In order to bypass these issues, we report here on the first integration of silicon nanowire networks, called nanonet, into long channel field effect transistors using standard microelectronic process. A special attention is paid to the silicidation of the contacts which involved a large number of SiNWs. The electrical characteristics of these FETs constituted by randomly oriented silicon nanowires are also studied. Compatible integration on the back-end of CMOS readout and promising electrical performances open new opportunities for sensing applications.

  17. CMOS-compatible fabrication of top-gated field-effect transistor silicon nanowire-based biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginet, Patrick; Akiyama, Sho; Takama, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Kim, Beomjoon

    2011-01-01

    Field-effect transistor (FET) nanowire-based biosensors are very promising tools for medical diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce a simple method to fabricate FET silicon nanowires using only standard microelectromechanical system (MEMS) processes. The key steps of our fabrication process were a local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) and anisotropic KOH etchings that enabled us to reduce the width of the initial silicon structures from 10 µm to 170 nm. To turn the nanowires into a FET, a top-gate electrode was patterned in gold next to them in order to apply the gate voltage directly through the investigated liquid environment. An electrical characterization demonstrated the p-type behaviour of the nanowires. Preliminary chemical sensing tested the sensitivity to pH of our device. The effect of the binding of streptavidin on biotinylated nanowires was monitored in order to evaluate their biosensing ability. In this way, streptavidin was detected down to a 100 ng mL −1 concentration in phosphate buffered saline by applying a gate voltage less than 1.2 V. The use of a top-gate electrode enabled the detection of biological species with only very low voltages that were compatible with future handheld-requiring applications. We thus demonstrated the potential of our devices and their fabrication as a solution for the mass production of efficient and reliable FET nanowire-based biological sensors

  18. Coaxial-structured ZnO/silicon nanowires extended-gate field-effect transistor as pH sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hung-Hsien; Yang, Chi-En; Kei, Chi-Chung; Su, Chung-Yi; Dai, Wei-Syuan; Tseng, Jung-Kuei; Yang, Po-Yu; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2013-01-01

    An extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) of coaxial-structured ZnO/silicon nanowires as pH sensor was demonstrated in this paper. The oriented 1-μm-long silicon nanowires with the diameter of about 50 nm were vertically synthesized by the electroless metal deposition method at room temperature and were sequentially capped with the ZnO films using atomic layer deposition at 50 °C. The transfer characteristics (I DS –V REF ) of such ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor exhibited the sensitivity and linearity of 46.25 mV/pH and 0.9902, respectively for the different pH solutions (pH 1–pH 13). In contrast to the ZnO thin-film ones, the ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor achieved much better sensitivity and superior linearity. It was attributed to a high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanowire structures, reflecting a larger effective sensing area. The output voltage and time characteristics were also measured to indicate good reliability and durability for the ZnO/silicon nanowires sensor. Furthermore, the hysteresis was 9.74 mV after the solution was changed as pH 7 → pH 3 → pH 7 → pH 11 → pH 7. - Highlights: ► Coaxial-structured ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET was demonstrated as pH sensor. ► EMD and ALD methods were proposed to fabricate ZnO/silicon nanowires. ► ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor achieved better sensitivity and linearity. ► ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor had good reliability and durability

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics of Silicon Nanowire Resonator Considering Nonlocal Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2017-12-01

    In this work, nonlinear dynamics of silicon nanowire resonator considering nonlocal effect has been investigated. For the first time, dynamical parameters (e.g., resonant frequency, Duffing coefficient, and the damping ratio) that directly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the nanostructure have been derived. Subsequently, by calculating their response with the varied nonlocal coefficient, it is unveiled that the nonlocal effect makes more obvious impacts at the starting range (from zero to a small value), while the impact of nonlocal effect becomes weaker when the nonlocal term reaches to a certain threshold value. Furthermore, to characterize the role played by nonlocal effect in exerting influence on nonlinear behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos (typical phenomena in nonlinear dynamics of nanoscale devices), we have calculated the Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagram with and without nonlocal effect, and results shows the nonlocal effect causes the most significant effect as the device is at resonance. This work advances the development of nanowire resonators that are working beyond linear regime.

  20. Photo-assisted hysteresis of electronic transport for ZnO nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qianqian; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Zhonghua; Zhu, Shunming; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zheng, Youdou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, ZnO nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) have received renewed interest due to their extraordinary low dimensionality and high sensitivity to external chemical environments and illumination conditions. These prominent properties have promising potential in nanoscale chemical and photo-sensors. In this article, we have fabricated ZnO nanowire FETs and have found hysteresis behavior in their transfer characteristics. The mechanism and dynamics of the hysteresis phenomena have been investigated in detail by varying the sweeping rate and range of the gate bias with and without light irradiation. Significantly, light irradiation is of great importance on charge trapping by regulating adsorption and desorption of oxygen at the interface of ZnO/SiO2. Carriers excited by light irradiation can dramatically promote trapping/detrapping processes. With the assistance of light illumination, we have demonstrated a photon-assisted nonvolatile memory which employs the ZnO nanowire FET. The device exhibits reliable programming/erasing operations and a large on/off ratio. The proposed proto-type memory has thus provided a possible novel path for creating a memory functionality to other low-dimensional material systems.

  1. Strain at a semiconductor nanowire-substrate interface studied using geometric phase analysis, convergent beam electron diffraction and nanobeam diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have been studied using electron microscopy since the early days of nanowire growth, e.g. [1]. A common approach for analysing nanowires using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) involves removing them from their substrate and subsequently transferring them onto carbon...... with CBED and NBED [4,5] have shown a high degree of consistency. Strain has previously only been measured in nanowires removed from their substrate [6], or only using GPA [7]. The sample used for the present investigation was an InP nanowire grown on a Si substrate using metal organic vapor phase...

  2. Gibbs–Thomson Effect in Planar Nanowires: Orientation and Doping Modulated Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde; Chen, Renjie; Yu, Xuechao; Wang, Qijie; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxy-enabled bottom-up synthesis of self-assembled planar nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism is an emerging and promising approach toward large-scale direct integration of nanowire-based devices without postgrowth alignment. Here, by examining large assemblies of indium tin oxide nanowires on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate, we demonstrate for the first time that the growth dynamics of planar nanowires follows a modified version of the Gibbs-Thomson mechanism, which has been known for the past decades to govern the correlations between thermodynamic supersaturation, growth speed, and nanowire morphology. Furthermore, the substrate orientation strongly influences the growth characteristics of epitaxial planar nanowires as opposed to impact at only the initial nucleation stage in the growth of vertical nanowires. The rich nanowire morphology can be described by a surface-energy-dependent growth model within the Gibbs-Thomson framework, which is further modulated by the tin doping concentration. Our experiments also reveal that the cutoff nanowire diameter depends on the substrate orientation and decreases with increasing tin doping concentration. These results enable a deeper understanding and control over the growth of planar nanowires, and the insights will help advance the fabrication of self-assembled nanowire devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  3. Gibbs–Thomson Effect in Planar Nanowires: Orientation and Doping Modulated Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde

    2016-06-02

    Epitaxy-enabled bottom-up synthesis of self-assembled planar nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism is an emerging and promising approach toward large-scale direct integration of nanowire-based devices without postgrowth alignment. Here, by examining large assemblies of indium tin oxide nanowires on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate, we demonstrate for the first time that the growth dynamics of planar nanowires follows a modified version of the Gibbs-Thomson mechanism, which has been known for the past decades to govern the correlations between thermodynamic supersaturation, growth speed, and nanowire morphology. Furthermore, the substrate orientation strongly influences the growth characteristics of epitaxial planar nanowires as opposed to impact at only the initial nucleation stage in the growth of vertical nanowires. The rich nanowire morphology can be described by a surface-energy-dependent growth model within the Gibbs-Thomson framework, which is further modulated by the tin doping concentration. Our experiments also reveal that the cutoff nanowire diameter depends on the substrate orientation and decreases with increasing tin doping concentration. These results enable a deeper understanding and control over the growth of planar nanowires, and the insights will help advance the fabrication of self-assembled nanowire devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  4. Growth, structure and phase transitions of epitaxial nanowires of III-V semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glas, F; Patriarche, G; Harmand, J C

    2010-01-01

    We review and illustrate the impact of TEM on the study of nanowires of non-nitride III-V semiconductors, with particular emphasis on the understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of their formation assisted by nano-sized catalyst particles. Besides providing basic information about the morphology of the nanowires and their growth rate as a function of diameter, TEM offers insights into the peculiar crystalline structure that they adopt. We discuss the formation of the unusual wurtzite hexagonal crystalline phase and that of planar stacking defects in these nanowires and show that they are kinetically controlled. We also demonstrate the transformation of wurtzite into cubic sphalerite upon epitaxial burying of the nanowires. Nanowires are particularly interesting in that they allow the fabrication of precisely positioned quantum dots with well-defined geometries. In this respect, we discuss the formation of strained quantum-size inclusions in nanowires, their critical dimensions and the kinetic and thermodynamic factors governing the changes of the crystalline structure that sometimes occur around a hetero-interface.

  5. Interactions of Cells with Magnetic Nanowires and Micro Needles

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.

    2017-12-01

    The use of nanowires, nano and micro needles in biomedical applications has markedly increased in the past years, mainly due to attractive properties such as biocompatibility and simple fabrication. Specifically, these structures have shown promise in applications including cell separation, tumor cell capture, intracellular delivery, cell therapy, cancer treatment and as cell growth scaffolds. The work proposed here aims to study two platforms for different applications: a vertical magnetic nanowire array for mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and a micro needle platform for intracellular delivery. First, a thorough evaluation of the cytotoxicity of nanowires was done in order to understand how a biological system interacts with high aspect ratio structures. Nanowires were fabricated through pulsed electrodeposition and characterized by electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Studies of biocompatibility, cell death, cell membrane integrity, nanowire internalization and intracellular dissolution were all performed in order to characterize the cell response. Results showed a variable biocompatibility depending on nanowire concentration and incubation time, with cell death resulting from an apoptotic pathway arising after internalization. A vertical array of nanowires was then used as a scaffold for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Using fluorescence and electron microscopy, the interactions between the dense array of nanowires and the cells were analyzed, as well as the biocompatibility of the array and its effects on cell differentiation. A magnetic field was additionally applied on the substrate to observe a possible differentiation. Stem cells grown on this scaffold showed a cytoskeleton and focal adhesion reorganization, and later expressed the osteogenic marker osteopontin. The application of a magnetic field counteracted this outcome. Lastly, a micro needle platform was fabricated

  6. Fulde-Ferrell state in superconducting core/shell nanowires: role of the orbital effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Marek; Wójcik, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The orbital effect on the Fulde-Ferrell (FF) phase is investigated in superconducting core/shell nanowires subjected to the axial magnetic field. Confinement in the radial direction results in quantization of the electron motion with energies determined by the radial j and orbital m quantum numbers. In the external magnetic field, the twofold degeneracy with respect to the orbital magnetic quantum number m is lifted which leads to the Fermi wave vector mismatch between the paired electrons, (k, j, m, \\uparrow) ≤ftrightarrow (-k, j, -m, \\downarrow) . This mismatch is transferred to the nonzero total momentum of the Cooper pairs, which results in a formation of the FF phase occurring sequentially with increasing magnetic field. By changing the nanowire radius R and the superconducting shell thickness d, we discuss the role of the orbital effect in the FF phase formation in both the nanowire-like (R/d \\ll 1 ) and nanofilm-like (R/d \\gg 1 ) regime. We have found that the irregular pattern of the FF phase which appears for the case of the nanowire-like regime, for the nanofilm-like geometry evolves towards the regular distribution in which the FF phase stability regions emerge periodically between the BCS states. The transition between these two different phase diagrams is explained as resulting from the orbital effect and the multigap character of superconductivity in the core/shell nanowires.

  7. Co/Au multisegmented nanowires: a 3D array of magnetostatically coupled nanopillars

    KAUST Repository

    Bran, C.; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vazquez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Arrays of multisegmented Co/Au nanowires with designed segment lengths and diameters have been prepared by electrodeposition into aluminum oxide templates. The high quality of the Co/Au interface and the crystallographic structure of Co segments have determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show larger coercivity and squareness of multisegmented nanowires as compared to single segment Co nanowires. The complementary micromagnetic simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results, confirming that the magnetic behavior is defined mainly by magnetostatic coupling between different segments. The proposed structure constitutes an innovative route towards a 3D array of synchronized magnetic nano-oscillators with large potential in nanoelectronics.

  8. Co/Au multisegmented nanowires: a 3D array of magnetostatically coupled nanopillars

    KAUST Repository

    Bran, C.

    2017-01-31

    Arrays of multisegmented Co/Au nanowires with designed segment lengths and diameters have been prepared by electrodeposition into aluminum oxide templates. The high quality of the Co/Au interface and the crystallographic structure of Co segments have determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show larger coercivity and squareness of multisegmented nanowires as compared to single segment Co nanowires. The complementary micromagnetic simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results, confirming that the magnetic behavior is defined mainly by magnetostatic coupling between different segments. The proposed structure constitutes an innovative route towards a 3D array of synchronized magnetic nano-oscillators with large potential in nanoelectronics.

  9. Purcell effect for finite-length metal-coated and metal nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin V.; Willatzen, Morten; Bordo, Vladimir G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the modification (enhancement and suppression) of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole emitter in two configurations: inside a finite-length semiconductor nanowire surrounded by bulk metal and in the vicinity of a finite metal nanowire. Our analysis is based on a first......-principle approach, which is reduced to a seminumeric one in the limit of large nanowire aspect ratios. The numerical calculations are carried out for an emitter in a GaAs nanowire embedded in Ag or Au and for that nearby an Ag or Au nanowire in vacuum or dielectric. We consider in detail the Purcell and β factors...

  10. Quantum optics with nanowires (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiller, Val

    2017-02-01

    Nanowires offer new opportunities for nanoscale quantum optics; the quantum dot geometry in semiconducting nanowires as well as the material composition and environment can be engineered with unprecedented freedom to improve the light extraction efficiency. Quantum dots in nanowires are shown to be efficient single photon sources, in addition because of the very small fine structure splitting, we demonstrate the generation of entangled pairs of photons from a nanowire. By doping a nanowire and making ohmic contacts on both sides, a nanowire light emitting diode can be obtained with a single quantum dot as the active region. Under forward bias, this will act as an electrically pumped source of single photons. Under reverse bias, an avalanche effect can multiply photocurrent and enables the detection of single photons. Another type of nanowire under study in our group is superconducting nanowires for single photon detection, reaching efficiencies, time resolution and dark counts beyond currently available detectors. We will discuss our first attempts at combining semiconducting nanowire based single photon emitters and superconducting nanowire single photon detectors on a chip to realize integrated quantum circuits.

  11. Bending and tensile deformation of metallic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Matthew T; Leach, Austin M; Gall, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Using molecular statics simulations and the embedded atom method, a technique for bending silver nanowires and calculating Young's modulus via continuum mechanics has been developed. The measured Young's modulus values extracted from bending simulations were compared with modulus values calculated from uniaxial tension simulations for a range of nanowire sizes, orientations and geometries. Depending on axial orientation, the nanowires exhibit stiffening or softening under tension and bending as size decreases. Bending simulations typically result in a greater variation of Young's modulus values with nanowire size compared with tensile deformation, which indicates a loading-method-dependent size effect on elastic properties at sub-5 nm wire diameters. Since the axial stress is maximized at the lateral surfaces in bending, the loading-method-dependent size effect is postulated to be primarily a result of differences in nanowire surface and core elastic modulus. The divergence of Young's modulus from the bulk modulus in these simulations occurs at sizes below the range in which experiments have demonstrated a size scale effect on elastic properties of metallic nanowires. This difference indicates that other factors beyond native metallic surface properties play a role in experimentally observed nanowire elastic modulus size effects

  12. Silicon nanowire field-effect transistors for the detection of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madler, Carsten

    In this dissertation I present results on our efforts to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of silicon nanowire ion-sensitive field-effect transistors for the detection of biomarkers, as well as a novel method for wireless power transfer based on metamaterial rectennas for their potential use as implantable sensors. The sensing scheme is based on changes in the conductance of the semiconducting nanowires upon binding of charged entities to the surface, which induces a field-effect. Monitoring the differential conductance thus provides information of the selective binding of biological molecules of interest to previously covalently linked counterparts on the nanowire surface. In order to improve on the performance of the nanowire sensing, we devised and fabricated a nanowire Wheatstone bridge, which allows canceling out of signal drift due to thermal fluctuations and dynamics of fluid flow. We showed that balancing the bridge significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Further, we demonstrated the sensing of novel melanoma biomarker TROY at clinically relevant concentrations and distinguished it from nonspecific binding by comparing the reaction kinetics. For increased sensitivity, an amplification method was employed using an enzyme which catalyzes a signal-generating reaction by changing the redox potential of a redox pair. In addition, we investigated the electric double layer, which forms around charges in an electrolytic solution. It causes electrostatic screening of the proteins of interest, which puts a fundamental limitation on the biomarker detection in solutions with high salt concentrations, such as blood. We solved the coupled Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations for the electrolyte under influence of an oscillating electric field and discovered oscillations of the counterion concentration at a characteristic frequency. In addition to exploring different methods for improved sensing capabilities, we studied an innovative method to supply power

  13. Thermoelectric effects in disordered branched nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piriatinskiy, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    We shall develop formalism of thermal and electrical transport in Si1 - x Gex and BiTe nanowires. The key feature of those nanowires is the possibility of dendrimer type branching. The branching tree can be of size comparable to the short wavelength of phonons and by far smaller than the long wavelength of conducting electrons. Hence it is expected that the branching may suppress thermal and let alone electrical conductance. We demonstrate that the morphology of branches strongly affects the electronic conductance. The effect is important to the class of materials known as thermoelectrics. The small size of the branching region makes large temperature and electrical gradients. On the other hand the smallness of the region would allow the electrical transport being ballistic. As usual for the mesoscopic systems we have to solve macroscopic (temperature) and microscopic ((electric potential, current)) equations self-consistently. Electronic conductance is studied via NEGF formalism on the irreducible electron transfer graph. We also investigate the figure of merit ZT as a measure of the suppressed electron conductance.

  14. Effect of diameter of metal nanowires on pool boiling heat transfer with FC-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar G., Udaya; S., Suresh; M. R., Thansekhar; Babu P., Dinesh

    2017-11-01

    Effect of varying diameter of metal nanowires on pool boiling heat transfer performance is presented in this study. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) of four different diameters (∼35 nm, ∼70 nm, ∼130 nm and ∼200 nm) were grown directly on copper specimen using template-based electrodeposition technique. Both critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient (h) were found to be improved in surfaces with nanowires as compared to the bare copper surface. Moreover, both the parameters were found to increase with increasing diameter of the nanowires. The percentage increases observed in CHF for the samples with nanowires were 38.37%, 40.16%, 48.48% and 45.57% whereas the percentage increase in the heat transfer coefficient were 86.36%, 95.45%, 184.1% and 131.82% respectively as compared to the bare copper surface. Important reasons believed for this enhancement were improvement in micron scale cavity density and cavity size which arises as a result of the coagulation and grouping of nanowires during the drying process. In addition to this, superhydrophilic nature, capillary effect, and enhanced bubble dynamics parameters (bubble frequency, bubble departure diameter, and nucleation site density) were found to be the concurring mechanisms responsible for this enhancement in heat transfer performance. Qualitative bubble dynamics analysis was done for the surfaces involved and the visual observations are provided to support the results presented and discussed.

  15. Nanoengineered Interfaces, Coatings, and Structures by Plasma Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Krasimir; Ramiasa, Melanie Macgregor

    2017-12-15

    Nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoneedles, nanosheets, nanowires, nanopillars: the variety of nanostructured interfaces that can be created and modified using plasma processes is virtually endless.[...].

  16. CuO-In2O3 Core-Shell Nanowire Based Chemical Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The CuO-In2O3 core-shell nanowire was fabricated by a two-step method. The CuO nanowire core (NWs was firstly grown by the conventional thermal oxidation of Cu meshes at 500°C for 5 hours. Then, the CuO nanowires were immersed into the suspension of amorphous indium hydroxide deposited from the In(AC3 solution by ammonia. The CuO nanowires coated with In(OH3 were subsequently heated at 600°C to form the crystalline CuO-In2O3 core-shell structure, with In2O3 nanocrystals uniformly anchored on the CuO nanowires. The gas sensing properties of the formed CuO-In2O3 core-shell nanowires were investigated by various reducing gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and propane at elevated temperature. The sensors using the CuO-In2O3 nanowires show improved sensing performance to hydrogen and propane but a suppressed response to carbon monoxide, which could be attributed to the enhanced catalytic properties of CuO with the coated porous In2O3 shell and the p-n junction formed at the core-shell interface.

  17. Tracking Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A.J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in silicon (Si nanowires (NWs and NW heterostructures is very important due to their many nanophotonic and nanoelectronics applications. Here, we describe the first measurements of ultrafast carrier dynamics and diffusion in single heterostructured Si nanowires, obtained using ultrafast optical microscopy. By isolating individual nanowires, we avoid complications resulting from the broad size and alignment distribution in nanowire ensembles, allowing us to directly probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in these quasi-one-dimensional systems. Spatially-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy demonstrates the influence of surface-mediated mechanisms on carrier dynamics in a single NW, while polarization-resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy reveals a clear anisotropy in carrier lifetimes measured parallel and perpendicular to the NW axis, due to density-dependent Auger recombination. Furthermore, separating the pump and probe spots along the NW axis enabled us to track space and time dependent carrier diffusion in radial and axial NW heterostructures. These results enable us to reveal the influence of radial and axial interfaces on carrier dynamics and charge transport in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems, which can then be used to tailor carrier relaxation in a single nanowire heterostructure for a given application.

  18. Effect of the nanowire diameter on the linearity of the response of GaN-based heterostructured nanowire photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Maria; Polaczyński, Jakub; Ajay, Akhil; Kalita, Dipankar; Luong, Minh Anh; Lähnemann, Jonas; Gayral, Bruno; den Hertog, Martien I.; Monroy, Eva

    2018-06-01

    Nanowire photodetectors are investigated because of their compatibility with flexible electronics, or for the implementation of on-chip optical interconnects. Such devices are characterized by ultrahigh photocurrent gain, but their photoresponse scales sublinearly with the optical power. Here, we present a study of single-nanowire photodetectors displaying a linear response to ultraviolet illumination. Their structure consists of a GaN nanowire incorporating an AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructure, which generates an internal electric field. The activity of the heterostructure is confirmed by the rectifying behavior of the current–voltage characteristics in the dark, as well as by the asymmetry of the photoresponse in magnitude and linearity. Under reverse bias (negative bias on the GaN cap segment), the detectors behave linearly with the impinging optical power when the nanowire diameter is below a certain threshold (≈80 nm), which corresponds to the total depletion of the nanowire stem due to the Fermi level pinning at the sidewalls. In the case of nanowires that are only partially depleted, their nonlinearity is explained by a nonlinear variation of the diameter of their central conducting channel under illumination.

  19. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors by roll-transfer printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Kuei; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-05-01

    A method with the potential to fabricate large-area nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) was demonstrated in this study. Using a high-speed roller (20-80 cm min-1), transfer printing was successfully employed to transfer vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on a donor substrate to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp and then print the ordered ZnO nanowire arrays on the received substrate for the fabrication of NW-FETs. ZnO NW-FETs fabricated by this method exhibit high performances with a threshold voltage of around 0.25 V, a current on/off ratio as high as 105, a subthreshold slope of 360 mV/dec, and a field-effect mobility of around 90 cm2 V-1 s-1. The excellent device characteristics suggest that the roll-transfer printing technique, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll (R2R) process and operated in atmosphere, has a good potential for the high-speed fabrication of large-area nanowire transistors for flexible devices and flat panel displays.

  20. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors by roll-transfer printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y-K; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-01-01

    A method with the potential to fabricate large-area nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) was demonstrated in this study. Using a high-speed roller (20-80 cm min -1 ), transfer printing was successfully employed to transfer vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on a donor substrate to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp and then print the ordered ZnO nanowire arrays on the received substrate for the fabrication of NW-FETs. ZnO NW-FETs fabricated by this method exhibit high performances with a threshold voltage of around 0.25 V, a current on/off ratio as high as 10 5 , a subthreshold slope of 360 mV/dec, and a field-effect mobility of around 90 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The excellent device characteristics suggest that the roll-transfer printing technique, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll (R2R) process and operated in atmosphere, has a good potential for the high-speed fabrication of large-area nanowire transistors for flexible devices and flat panel displays.

  1. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors by roll-transfer printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y-K; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hong@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2009-05-13

    A method with the potential to fabricate large-area nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) was demonstrated in this study. Using a high-speed roller (20-80 cm min{sup -1}), transfer printing was successfully employed to transfer vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on a donor substrate to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp and then print the ordered ZnO nanowire arrays on the received substrate for the fabrication of NW-FETs. ZnO NW-FETs fabricated by this method exhibit high performances with a threshold voltage of around 0.25 V, a current on/off ratio as high as 10{sup 5}, a subthreshold slope of 360 mV/dec, and a field-effect mobility of around 90 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The excellent device characteristics suggest that the roll-transfer printing technique, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll (R2R) process and operated in atmosphere, has a good potential for the high-speed fabrication of large-area nanowire transistors for flexible devices and flat panel displays.

  2. Effect of stacking faults on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of hcp Co-based nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kha, Tuan Mai; Schoenstein, Frédéric; Zighem, Fatih [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM-UPR3407), CNRS-Université Paris XIII, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Villetaneuse (France); Nowak, Sophie [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, CNRS UMR 7086, 15 rue J.-A. de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Leridon, Brigitte [LPEM, ESPCI Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Jouini, Noureddine [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM-UPR3407), CNRS-Université Paris XIII, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Villetaneuse (France); Mercone, Silvana, E-mail: silvana.mercone@univ-paris13.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM-UPR3407), CNRS-Université Paris XIII, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Villetaneuse (France)

    2017-01-15

    Replacing materials based on rare-earth elements in current permanent magnets is a real scientific, economic and environmental challenge. Ferromagnetic 3d transition metals seem an apt direction to go in this field, due to their high residual magnetization and thermal stability. In order to improve their coercive behavior, nanostructured magnets based on the assembly of high-aspect-ratio nanoparticles (i.e. cobalt based nanorods and nanowires) have recently been proposed. In these, the nanoparticle morphology itself drives the magnetization reversal mechanism. This purely geometrical effect seems to obscure the effects of structural defects, although it is clear that high magnetocrystalline energy is required to maintain a stable orientation of the magnetic moment inside the nanoparticles. We present here an experimental study whose aim is to distinguish the role of the stacking faults from the effects of shape and morphology on the magnetization reversal mechanism in cobalt-based nanowires. Coercive field results have been obtained on Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} nanowires synthesized by a polyol process. Through accurate control of shape and morphology, it was possible to discard the effects of shape and thus to highlight the influence of crystal defects on the magnetism of Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} nanowires. A micromagnetic study, consistent with the experimental analyses, is also presented. The results discussed in this work clearly show that even if the morphological characteristics are conducive to a high coercive field, the presence of numerous stacking faults has the opposite effect and leads to materials with a significantly lower coercive field than expected, which is not suitable for permanent magnet applications. - Highlights: • Optimization of the nanowires magnetic properties for permanent magnet applications. • Magnetization reversal mechanism study as function of the shape, structural and chemical homogeneity. • Effect of stacking faults on the coercive

  3. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang

    2009-07-15

    catalyzed germanium nanowires, a small process window has been determined where high aspect-ratio nanowires show single crystalline structure. Compositional analysis has been performed via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to monitor the presence of indium and bismuth in the nanowires. Both catalysts could be identified, validating their role as catalysts. A combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy characterization on single core-shell nanowires gives clear evidence of finite-size effects on the electron-phonon coupling, as well as the presence of strain. Field effect transistors were fabricated using gold, bismuth and indium catalyzed germanium nanowires. Initial room-temperature and temperature dependent transport measurements on gold and bismuth catalyzed nanowires show field effects. Indium catalyzed germanium nanowires show insulating behavior. (orig.)

  4. Piezoresistive effect in top-down fabricated silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Richter, Jacob; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated silicon test chips to investigate the piezoresistive properties of both crystalline and polycrystalline nanowires using a top-down approach, in order to comply with conventional fabrication techniques. The test chip consists of 5 silicon nanowires and a reference...

  5. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Diaz, D; Merino, C; Velázquez, M M

    2015-11-11

    Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  6. Numerical analysis of band tails in nanowires and their effects on the performance of tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takahisa; Uchida, Ken

    2018-06-01

    Band tails in heavily doped semiconductors are one of the important parameters that determine transfer characteristics of tunneling field-effect transistors. In this study, doping concentration and doing profile dependences of band tails in heavily doped Si nanowires were analyzed by a nonequilibrium Green function method. From the calculated band tails, transfer characteristics of nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors were numerically analyzed by Wentzel–Kramer–Brillouin approximation with exponential barriers. The calculated transfer characteristics demonstrate that the band tails induced by dopants degrade the subthreshold slopes of Si nanowires from 5 to 56 mV/dec in the worst case. On the other hand, surface doping leads to a high drain current while maintaining a small subthreshold slope.

  7. Effective antireflection properties of porous silicon nanowires for photovoltaic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching method on the n-Si substrate. The presence of nano-pores with pore size ranging between 10-50nm in SiNWs was confirmed by electron tomography (ET) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The PSiNWs give strong photoluminescence peak at red wavelength. Ultra-low reflectance of <5% span over wavelength 250 nm to 1050 nm has been measured. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been employed to model the optical reflectance for both Si wafer and PSiNWs. Our calculation results are in agreement with the measured reflectance from nanowires length of 6 µm and 60% porosity. The low reflectance is attributed to the effective graded index of PSiNWs and enhancement of multiple optical scattering from the pores and nanowires. PSiNW structures with low surface reflectance can potentially serve as an antireflection layer for Si-based photovoltaic devices.

  8. Optical haze of randomly arranged silver nanowire transparent conductive films with wide range of nanowire diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marus

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the diameter of randomly arranged silver nanowires on the optical haze of silver nanowire transparent conductive films was studied. Proposed simulation model behaved similarly with the experimental results, and was used to theoretically study the optical haze of silver nanowires with diameters in the broad range from 30 nm and above. Our results show that a thickening of silver nanowires from 30 to 100 nm results in the increase of the optical haze up to 8 times, while from 100 to 500 nm the optical haze increases only up to 1.38. Moreover, silver nanowires with diameter of 500 nm possess up to 5% lower optical haze and 5% higher transmittance than 100 nm thick silver nanowires for the same 10-100 Ohm/sq sheet resistance range. Further thickening of AgNWs can match the low haze of 30 nm thick AgNWs, but at higher transmittance. The results obtained from this work allow deeper analysis of the silver nanowire transparent conductive films from the perspective of the diameter of nanowires for various optoelectronic devices.

  9. Long Silver Nanowires Synthesis by Pulsed Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Batevandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires were pulse electrodeposited into nanopore anodic alumina oxide templates. The effects of continuous and pulse electrodeposition waveform on the microstructure properties of the nanowire arrays were studied. It is seen that the microstructure of nanowire is depend to pulse condition. The off time duration of pulse waveform enables to control the growth direction of Ag nanowires.

  10. Molecular Beam Epitaxy-Grown InGaN Nanowires and Nanomushrooms for Solid State Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Gasim, Anwar A.

    2012-05-01

    InGaN is a promising semiconductor for solid state lighting thanks to its bandgap which spans the entire visible regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. InGaN is grown heteroepitaxially due to the absence of a native substrate; however, this results in a strained film and a high dislocation density—two effects that have been associated with efficiency droop, which is the disastrous drop in efficiency of a light-emitting diode (LED) as the input current increases. Heteroepitaxially grown nanowires have recently attracted great interest due to their property of eliminating the detrimental effects of the lattice mismatch and the corollary efficiency droop. In this study, InGaN nanowires were grown on a low-cost Si (111) substrate via molecular beam epitaxy. Unique nanostructures, taking the form of mushrooms, have been observed in localized regions on the samples. These nanomushrooms consist of a nanowire body with a wide cap on top. Photoluminescence characterization revealed that the nanowires emit violet-blue, whilst the nanomushrooms emit a broad yellow-orange-red luminescence. The simultaneous emission from the nanowires and nanomushrooms forms white light. Structural characterization of a single nanomushroom via transmission electron microscopy revealed a simultaneous increase in indium and decrease in gallium at the interface between the body and the cap. Furthermore, the cap itself was found to be indium-rich, confirming it as the source of the longer wavelength yellow-orange-red luminescence. It is believed that the nanomushroom cap formed as a consequence of the saturation of growth on the c-plane of the nanowire. It is proposed that the formation of an indium droplet on the tip of the nanowire saturated growth on the c-plane, forcing the indium and gallium adatoms to incorporate on the sidewall m-planes instead, but only at the nanowire tip. This resulted in the formation of a mushroom-like cap on the tip. How and why the indium droplets formed is not

  11. Effective immobilization of DNA for development of polypyrrole nanowires based biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Thi Luyen; Chu, Thi Xuan, E-mail: xuan@itims.edu.vn; Huynh, Dang Chinh; Pham, Duc Thanh; Luu, Thi Hoai Thuong; Mai, Anh Tuan, E-mail: tuan.maianh@hust.edu.vn

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Effective technique to immobilize probe DNA to the conducting polymer Polypyrrole nanowires (PPy NWs). • The PPy-NWs were electrochemically synthesized on the surface of the Pt electrodes using gelatin as the soft mold. • The DNA probe sequences were immobilized easily on the PPy NWs/Pt electrode using the adsorption method. • The DNA sensor has a low detection limit. - Abstract: This paper reports an easy technique for immobilization of the DNA to the conducting polymer polypyrrole nanowires (PPy NWs). The nanowires were electrochemically synthesized on the surface of working electrode in the presence of gelatin as a soft mold. The structure of obtained PPy NWs was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The DNA strands were directly immobilized on the PPy NWs. The amino groups at the up-end of the PPy nanowires facilitate the linkage with the phosphate groups of the probe DNA. The DNA immobilization and hybridization were characterized by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The initial results show that the sensor responses to 10 pM of DNA sequence in the solution.

  12. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Diaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  13. Functionalised zinc oxide nanowire gas sensors: Enhanced NO(2) gas sensor response by chemical modification of nanowire surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waclawik, Eric R; Chang, Jin; Ponzoni, Andrea; Concina, Isabella; Zappa, Dario; Comini, Elisabetta; Motta, Nunzio; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Surface coating with an organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) can enhance surface reactions or the absorption of specific gases and hence improve the response of a metal oxide (MOx) sensor toward particular target gases in the environment. In this study the effect of an adsorbed organic layer on the dynamic response of zinc oxide nanowire gas sensors was investigated. The effect of ZnO surface functionalisation by two different organic molecules, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THMA) and dodecanethiol (DT), was studied. The response towards ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide was investigated for three sensor configurations, namely pure ZnO nanowires, organic-coated ZnO nanowires and ZnO nanowires covered with a sparse layer of organic-coated ZnO nanoparticles. Exposure of the nanowire sensors to the oxidising gas NO(2) produced a significant and reproducible response. ZnO and THMA-coated ZnO nanowire sensors both readily detected NO(2) down to a concentration in the very low ppm range. Notably, the THMA-coated nanowires consistently displayed a small, enhanced response to NO(2) compared to uncoated ZnO nanowire sensors. At the lower concentration levels tested, ZnO nanowire sensors that were coated with THMA-capped ZnO nanoparticles were found to exhibit the greatest enhanced response. ΔR/R was two times greater than that for the as-prepared ZnO nanowire sensors. It is proposed that the ΔR/R enhancement in this case originates from the changes induced in the depletion-layer width of the ZnO nanoparticles that bridge ZnO nanowires resulting from THMA ligand binding to the surface of the particle coating. The heightened response and selectivity to the NO(2) target are positive results arising from the coating of these ZnO nanowire sensors with organic-SAM-functionalised ZnO nanoparticles.

  14. Radiation Effects in III-V Nanowire Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    fabrication of an in-plane nanowire (NW) GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field- effect transistor (MOSFET) by focused -ion beam (FIB) etching and chemical...8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-94 Radiation Effects in III-V...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY

  15. Effect of e-beam dose on the fractional density of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowire growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeung Hun, E-mail: jeunghunpark@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gambin, Vincent [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Kodambaka, Suneel, E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Using Au/GaAs as a model system, the effect of initial catalyst patterning conditions on the growth of nanowire was studied. Resulting morphologies and fractional surface densities are determined as a function of e-beam dose, dot size, and inter-dot spacing using scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The majority of resulting nanowires grow randomly oriented with respect to the substrate. The nanowires are tapered with narrow tops, wider bases, and catalysts at the wire tips — characteristics of vapor–liquid–solid process. The base diameters of the wires are larger than the dot size, which is likely due to the non-catalyzed vapor–solid deposition along the sidewalls. The higher dose rate used in pattering leads to the formation of higher aspect ratio nanowires with narrower bases. The fractional surface density is found to increase linearly with the clearing dose and the critical dose for nanowire growth increases with decreasing catalyst pattern size and spacing. At a given dose, the fractional density increases with increasing Au dot size and with decreasing inter-dot spacing. Our results may provide new insights into the role of catalyst preparing conditions on the high density, wafer-scale growth of nanowires. - Highlights: • Initial Au catalyst layers are prepared using electron beam lithography. • GaAs nanowires are grown on GaAs(111)B using molecular beam epitaxy. • Effect of dose, size and spacing of Au dots on morphology and density is studied. • Density of nanowires is controlled by changing exposed dose on Au catalyst.

  16. pH-Dependent Toxicity of High Aspect Ratio ZnO Nanowires in Macrophages Due to Intracellular Dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    H. Müller, Karin

    2010-11-23

    High-aspect ratio ZnO nanowires have become one of the most promising products in the nanosciences within the past few years with a multitude of applications at the interface of optics and electronics. The interaction of zinc with cells and organisms is complex, with both deficiency and excess causing severe effects. The emerging significance of zinc for many cellular processes makes it imperative to investigate the biological safety of ZnO nanowires in order to guarantee their safe economic exploitation. In this study, ZnO nanowires were found to be toxic to human monocyte macrophages (HMMs) at similar concentrations as ZnCl2. Confocal microscopy on live cells confirmed a rise in intracellular Zn2+ concentrations prior to cell death. In vitro, ZnO nanowires dissolved very rapidly in a simulated body fluid of lysosomal pH, whereas they were comparatively stable at extracellular pH. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a rapid macrophage uptake of ZnO nanowire aggregates by phagocytosis. Nanowire dissolution occurred within membrane-bound compartments, triggered by the acidic pH of the lysosomes. ZnO nanowire dissolution was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Deposition of electron-dense material throughout the ZnO nanowire structures observed by TEM could indicate adsorption of cellular components onto the wires or localized zinc-induced protein precipitation. Our study demonstrates that ZnO nanowire toxicity in HMMs is due to pH-triggered, intracellular release of ionic Zn2+ rather than the high-aspect nature of the wires. Cell death had features of necrosis as well as apoptosis, with mitochondria displaying severe structural changes. The implications of these findings for the application of ZnO nanowires are discussed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Electron Transport Properties of Ge nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrath, Tobias; Khondaker, Saiful I.; Yao, Zhen; Korgel, Brian A.

    2003-03-01

    Electron Transport Properties of Ge nanowires Tobias Hanrath*, Saiful I. Khondaker, Zhen Yao, Brian A. Korgel* *Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Physics, Texas Materials Institute, and Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1062 e-mail: korgel@mail.che.utexas.edu Germanium (Ge) nanowires with diameters ranging from 6 to 50 nm and several micrometer in length were grown via a supercritical fluid-liquid-solid synthesis. Parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was employed to study the band structure and electron density in the Ge nanowires. The observed increase in plasmon peak energy and peak width with decreasing nanowire diameter is attributed to quantum confinement effects. For electrical characterization, Ge nanowires were deposited onto a patterned Si/SiO2 substrate. E-beam lithography was then used to form electrode contacts to individual nanowires. The influence of nanowire diameter, surface chemistry and crystallographic defects on electron transport properties were investigated and the comparison of Ge nanowire conductivity with respect to bulk, intrinsic Ge will be presented.

  18. Electrodeposition of rhenium-tin nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naor-Pomerantz, Adi; Eliaz, Noam; Gileadi, Eliezer

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rhenium-tin nanowires were formed electrochemically, without using a template. → The nanowires consisted of a crystalline-Sn-core/amorphous-Re-shell structure. → The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated. → A mechanism is suggested for the formation of the core/shell structure. → The nanowires may be attractive for a variety of applications. - Abstract: Rhenium (Re) is a refractory metal which exhibits an extraordinary combination of properties. Thus, nanowires and other nanostructures of Re-alloys may possess unique properties resulting from both Re chemistry and the nanometer scale, and become attractive for a variety of applications, such as in catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and microelectronics. Rhenium-tin coatings, consisting of nanowires with a core/shell structure, were electrodeposited on copper substrates under galvanostatic or potentiostatic conditions. The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated, and the chemistry and structure of the coatings were studied by a variety of analytical tools. A Re-content as high as 77 at.% or a Faradaic efficiency as high as 46% were attained. Ranges of Sn-to-Re in the plating bath, applied current density and applied potential, within which the nanowires could be formed, were determined. A mechanism was suggested, according to which Sn nanowires were first grown on top of Sn micro-particles, and then the Sn nanowires reduced the perrhenate chemically, thus forming a core made of crystalline Sn-rich phase, and a shell made of amorphous Re-rich phase. The absence of mutual solubility of Re and Sn may be the driving force for this phase separation.

  19. Are Nanotube Architectures More Advantageous Than Nanowire Architectures For Field Effect Transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-06-27

    Decade long research in 1D nanowire field effect transistors (FET) shows although it has ultra-low off-state leakage current and a single device uses a very small area, its drive current generation per device is extremely low. Thus it requires arrays of nanowires to be integrated together to achieve appreciable amount of current necessary for high performance computation causing an area penalty and compromised functionality. Here we show that a FET with a nanotube architecture and core-shell gate stacks is capable of achieving the desirable leakage characteristics of the nanowire FET while generating a much larger drive current with area efficiency. The core-shell gate stacks of silicon nanotube FETs tighten the electrostatic control and enable volume inversion mode operation leading to improved short channel behavior and enhanced performance. Our comparative study is based on semi-classical transport models with quantum confinement effects which offers new opportunity for future generation high performance computation.

  20. Mechanical transfer of ZnO nanowires for a flexible and conformal piezotronic strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kory; Yang, Rusen

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a truly conformal and flexible piezotronic strain sensor using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. Well-aligned, vertical ZnO nanowires are grown by chemical vapor deposition on a silicon wafer with a hydrothermally grown ZnO seed layer. The nanowires are infiltrated with polydimethylsiloxane and mechanically transferred from the silicon substrate. Plasma etching exposes the top surface of the nanowires before deposition of a gold (Au) top electrode. The bottom electrode is formed by silver paint which also adheres the sensor to the measured structure. To demonstrate the sensor’s ability to conform to complex surfaces, a stepped shaft with a shoulder fillet is used. The sensor is attached to the shoulder fillet of the stepped shaft, conforming to both the circumference of the shaft, and the radius of the fillet. A periodic bending displacement is applied to the end of the shaft. The strain induces a piezoelectric potential in the ZnO nanowires which controls the barrier height and conductivity at the gold/ZnO interface, by what is known as the piezotronic effect. The conductivity change is measured for periodically applied strains. The nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) response of the device is due to the Schottky contact between the ZnO nanowires and gold electrode. The geometry of the stepped shaft corresponds to a known stress concentration factor, and the strain experienced by the shaft is estimated with a COMSOL FEA study. The conformal nature of the strain sensor makes it suitable for structural monitoring applications involving complex geometries and stress concentrators.

  1. New Insights into the Origins of Sb-Induced Effects on Self-Catalyzed GaAsSb Nanowire Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dingding; Dheeraj, Dasa L; Jin, Chengjun; Nilsen, Julie S; Huh, Junghwan; Reinertsen, Johannes F; Munshi, A Mazid; Gustafsson, Anders; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Weman, Helge; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove

    2016-02-10

    Ternary semiconductor nanowire arrays enable scalable fabrication of nano-optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgap. However, the lack of insight into the effects of the incorporation of Vy element results in lack of control on the growth of ternary III-V(1-y)Vy nanowires and hinders the development of high-performance nanowire devices based on such ternaries. Here, we report on the origins of Sb-induced effects affecting the morphology and crystal structure of self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowire arrays. The nanowire growth by molecular beam epitaxy is changed both kinetically and thermodynamically by the introduction of Sb. An anomalous decrease of the axial growth rate with increased Sb2 flux is found to be due to both the indirect kinetic influence via the Ga adatom diffusion induced catalyst geometry evolution and the direct composition modulation. From the fundamental growth analyses and the crystal phase evolution mechanism proposed in this Letter, the phase transition/stability in catalyst-assisted ternary III-V-V nanowire growth can be well explained. Wavelength tunability with good homogeneity of the optical emission from the self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowire arrays with high crystal phase purity is demonstrated by only adjusting the Sb2 flux.

  2. Electromagnetic field enhancement effects in group IV semiconductor nanowires. A Raman spectroscopy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pura, J. L.; Anaya, J.; Souto, J.; Prieto, A. C.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, T.; Periwal, P.; Baron, T.; Jiménez, J.

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are the building blocks of future nanoelectronic devices. Furthermore, their large refractive index and reduced dimension make them suitable for nanophotonics. The study of the interaction between nanowires and visible light reveals resonances that promise light absorption/scattering engineering for photonic applications. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used as a characterization tool for semiconductor nanowires. The light/nanowire interaction can be experimentally assessed through the micro-Raman spectra of individual nanowires. As compared to both metallic and dielectric nanowires, semiconductor nanowires add additional tools for photon engineering. In particular, one can grow heterostructured nanowires, both axial and radial, and also one could modulate the doping level and the surface condition among other factors than can affect the light/NW interaction. We present herein a study of the optical response of group IV semiconductor nanowires to visible photons. The study is experimentally carried out through micro-Raman spectroscopy of different group IV nanowires, both homogeneous and axially heterostructured (SiGe/Si). The results are analyzed in terms of the electromagnetic modelling of the light/nanowire interaction using finite element methods. The presence of axial heterostructures is shown to produce electromagnetic resonances promising new photon engineering capabilities of semiconductor nanowires.

  3. Importance of the Debye screening length on nanowire field effect transistor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Eric; Wagner, Robin; Sigworth, Fred J; Breaker, Ronald; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2007-11-01

    Nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) can serve as ultrasensitive detectors for label-free reagents. The NW-FET sensing mechanism assumes a controlled modification in the local channel electric field created by the binding of charged molecules to the nanowire surface. Careful control of the solution Debye length is critical for unambiguous selective detection of macromolecules. Here we show the appropriate conditions under which the selective binding of macromolecules is accurately sensed with NW-FET sensors.

  4. Piezoelectric effect in InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires grown on silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufriev, Roman; Chauvin, Nicolas; Bru-Chevallier, Catherine; Khmissi, Hammadi; Naji, Khalid; Gendry, Michel; Patriarche, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    We report on the evidence of a strain-induced piezoelectric field in wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires. This electric field, caused by the lattice mismatch between InAs and InP, results in the quantum confined Stark effect and, as a consequence, affects the optical properties of the nanowire heterostructure. It is shown that the piezoelectric field can be screened by photogenerated carriers or removed by increasing temperature. Moreover, a dependence of the piezoelectric field on the quantum rod diameter is observed in agreement with simulations of wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowire heterostructures

  5. Mechanical behavior enhancement of ZnO nanowire by embedding different nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Yang, Shuming; Lambada, Dasaradha Rao; Wang, Yiming

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we employed commercial finite element modeling (FEM) software package ABAQUS to analyze mechanical properties of ZnO nanowire before and after embedding with different kinds of nanowires, having different materials and cross-section models such as Au (circular), Ag (pentagonal) and Si (rectangular) using three point bending technique. The length and diameter of the ZnO nanowire were measured to be 12,280 nm and 103.2 nm, respectively. In addition, Au, Ag and Si nanowires were considered to have the length of 12,280 nm and the diameter of 27 nm. It was found that after embedding Si nanowire with rectangular cross-section into the ZnO nanowire, the distribution of Von Misses stresses criterion, displacement and strain were decreased than the other nanowires embedded. The highest stiffness, the elastic deformation and the high strength against brittle failure have been made by Si nanowire comparison to the Au and Ag nanowires, respectively.

  6. Magnetic drug delivery with FePd nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pondman, Kirsten M.; Bunt, Nathan D. [Neuro Imaging, MIRA Institute, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Maijenburg, A. Wouter [Inorganic Material Science, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Wezel, Richard J.A. van [Biomedical Signals and Systems, MIRA, Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Kishore, Uday [Centre for Infection, Immunity and Disease Mechanisms, Biosciences, Brunel University, London (United Kingdom); Abelmann, Leon [Transducer Science and Technology group, MESA+ Institute for nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Elshof, Johan E. ten [Inorganic Material Science, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Haken, Bennie ten, E-mail: b.tenhaken@utwente.nl [Neuro Imaging, MIRA Institute, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic drug delivery is a promising method to target a drug to a diseased area while reducing negative side effects caused by systemic administration of drugs. In magnetic drug delivery a therapeutic agent is coupled to a magnetic nanoparticle. The particles are injected and at the target location withdrawn from blood flow by a magnetic field. In this study a FePd nanowire is developed with optimised properties for magnetic targeting. The nanowires have a high magnetic moment to reduce the field gradient needed to capture them with a magnet. The dimensions and the materials of the nanowire and coating are such that they are dispersable in aqueous media, non-cytotoxic, easily phagocytosed and not complement activating. This is established in several in-vitro tests with macrophage and endothelial cell lines. Along with the nanowires a magnet is designed, optimised for capture of the nanowires from the blood flow in the hind leg of a rat. The system is used in a pilot scale in-vivo experiment. No negative side effects from injection of the nanowires were found within the limited time span of the experiment. In this first pilot experiment no nanowires were found to be targeted by the magnet, or in the liver, kidneys or spleen, most likely the particles were removed during the fixation procedure. - Highlights: • Description of the magnetic properties of nanowires. • Design and characterisation of a biocompatible FePd nanowire. • In-vitro cytotoxicity analysis and immune system responses. • In-vivo magnetic drug delivery using the developed nanowires.

  7. High-resolution TEM characterization of ZnO core-shell nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divitini, G; Ducati, C [Department of Materials Science, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Plank, N O V; Welland, M E [Nanoscience Centre, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, CB3 0FF (United Kingdom); Snaith, H J, E-mail: gd322@cam.ac.u [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Recently ZnO nanowire films have been used in very promising and inexpensive dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). It was found that the performance of the devices can be enhanced by functionalising the nanowires with a thin metal oxide coating. This nm-scale shell is believed to tailor the electronic structure of the nanowire, and help the absorption of the dye. Core-shell ZnO nanowire structures are synthesised at low temperature (below 120{sup 0}C) by consecutive hydrothermal growth steps. Different materials are investigated for the coating, including Mg, Al, Cs and Zr oxides. High resolution TEM is used to characterise the quality of both the nanowire core and the shell, and to monitor the thickness and the degree of crystallisation of the oxide coating. The interface between the nanowire core and the outer shell is investigated in order to understand the adhesion of the coating, and give valuable feedback for the synthesis process. Nanowire films are packaged into dye-sensitised solar cell prototypes; samples coated with ZrO{sub 2} and MgO show the largest enhancement in the photocurrent and open-circuit voltage and look very promising for further improvement.

  8. Orientation-controlled synthesis and magnetism of single crystalline Co nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Gui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Qing; Wang, Ling-Ling; Zou, B.S.; Pan, Anlian

    2012-01-01

    Orientation control and the magnetic properties of single crystalline Co nanowires fabricated by electrodeposition have been systematically investigated. It is found that the orientation of Co nanowires can be effectively controlled by varying either the current density or the pore diameter of AAO templates. Lower current density or small diameter is favorable for forming the (1 0 0) texture, while higher current values or larger diameter leads to the emergence and enhancement of (1 1 0) texture of Co nanowires. The mechanism for the manipulated growth characterization is discussed in detail. The orientation of Co nanowires has a significant influence on the magnetic properties, resulting from the competition between the magneto-crystalline and shape anisotropy of Co nanowires. This work offers a simple method to manipulate the orientation and magnetic properties of nanowires for future applications. - Highlights: ► Single crystalline Co nanowires have successfully been grown by DC electrodeposition. ► Orientation controlling and its effect on magnetism of Co nanowires were investigated. ► The orientation of Co nanowires can be effectively controlled by varying current density. ► The crystalline orientation of Co nanowires has significant influence on the magnetic properties.

  9. Growth and characterisation of group-III nitride-based nanowires for devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijers, R J

    2007-08-30

    One of the main goals of this thesis was to get more insight into the mechanisms driving the growth of nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The influence of the group-III and group-V flux as well as the substrate temperature T{sub sub} has been studied leading to the conclusion that the III-V ratio determines the growth mode. Ga desorption limits the temperature range to grow GaN nanowires and dissociation of InN is the limiting factor for InN nanowire growth. A reduction of the surface diffusivity on polar surfaces under N-rich conditions explains the anisotropic growth. Growth kinetics of the nanowires show that there are two important contributions to the growth. The first is growth by direct impingement and its contribution is independent of the nanowire diameter. The second contribution comes from atoms, which absorb on the substrate or wire sidewalls and diffuse along the sidewalls to the top of the wire, which acts as an effective sink for the adatoms due to a reduced surface mobility on the polar top of the wires. This diffusion channel, which is enhanced at higher T{sub sub}, becomes more significant for smaller wire diameters, because its contribution scales like 1/d. Experiments with an interruption of the growth and sharp interfaces in TEM images of heterostructures show that the suggestion in literature of a droplet-mediated PA-MBE nitride growth has to be discarded. Despite a thin amorphous silicon nitride wetting layer on the substrate surface, both GaN and InN nanowires grow in the wurtzite structure and epitaxially in a one-to-one relation to the Si(111) substrate surface. There is no evidence for cubic phases. TEM images and optical studies display a high crystalline and optical quality of GaN and InN nanowires. The substrate induces some strain in the bottom part of the nanowires, especially in InN due to the lower T{sub sub} than for GaN, which is released without the formation of dislocations. Only some stacking

  10. Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonho; Thompson-Flagg, Rebecca; Ekerdt, John G.; Shih, C.-K.

    2008-01-01

    Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of Si nanowires is reported. Using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, we show that the flower consists of an Au/SiO x core-shell structure. Moreover, the growth of flower starts at the interface between the gold catalyst and the silicon nanowire, presumably by enhanced oxidation at this interface. The pattern formation can be classified as dense branching morphology (DBM). It is the first observation of DBM in a spherical geometry and at the nanoscale. The analysis of the average branching distance of this pattern shows that the pattern is most likely formed during the growth process, not the cooling process, and that the curvature of the gold droplet plays a crucial role in the frequency of branching

  11. Effect of temperature and geometric parameters on elastic properties of tungsten nanowire: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sourav, E-mail: ssaha09@me.buet.ac.bd; Mojumder, Satyajit; Mahboob, Monon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, M. Zahabul [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Tungsten is a promising material and has potential use as battery anode. Tungsten nanowires are gaining attention from researchers all over the world for this wide field of application. In this paper, we investigated effect of temperature and geometric parameters (diameter and aspect ratio) on elastic properties of Tungsten nanowire. Aspect ratios (length to diameter ratio) considered are 8:1, 10:1, and 12:1 while diameter of the nanowire is varied from 1-4 nm. For 2 nm diameter sample (aspect ratio 10:1), temperature is varied (10 K ~ 1500 K) to observe elastic behavior of Tungsten nanowire under uniaxial tensile loading. EAM potential is used for molecular dynamic simulation. We applied constant strain rate of 10{sup 9} s{sup −1} to deform the nanowire. Elastic behavior is expressed through stress vs. strain plot. We also investigated the fracture mechanism of tungsten nanowire and radial distribution function. Investigation suggests peculiar behavior of Tungsten nanowire in nano-scale with double peaks in stress vs. strain diagram. Necking before final fracture suggests that actual elastic behavior of the material is successfully captured through atomistic modeling.

  12. Gate Modulation of Graphene-ZnO Nanowire Schottky Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; You, Xu-Chen; Fu, Xue-Wen; Lin, Fang; Meng, Jie; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min

    2015-05-06

    Graphene-semiconductor interface is important for the applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we report the modulation of the electric transport properties of graphene/ZnO nanowire Schottky diode by gate voltage (Vg). The ideality factor of the graphene/ZnO nanowire Schottky diode is ~1.7, and the Schottky barrier height is ~0.28 eV without external Vg. The Schottky barrier height is sensitive to Vg due to the variation of Fermi level of graphene. The barrier height increases quickly with sweeping Vg towards the negative value, while decreases slowly towards the positive Vg. Our results are helpful to understand the fundamental mechanism of the electric transport in graphene-semiconductor Schottky diode.

  13. Downsizing of single crystalline high aspect ratio tungsten nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkovic, Srdjan; Drensler, Stefanie; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2015-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic NiAl-W alloys offers an intuitive method to produce tungsten nanowires. Through the use of two different methods, the well-established Bridgman method and a newer type floating zone method, the direct influence of process parameters, like the withdrawal rate and the temperature gradient, onto the sample microstructure were studied. The sharp temperature gradient, built up using a four mirror system focusing the light emitted by halogen lamps inside the optical floating zone furnace allows producing nanowires with a diameter as small as 75 nm. Differences in the solid/liquid interface morphology depending on the solidification method used are discussed. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. An effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering template based on a Ag nanocluster-ZnO nanowire array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, S; Zhang, X; Loh, K P; Fan, H M; Sow, C H; Cheng, C-L; Foo, Y L

    2009-01-01

    An effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) template based on a 3D hybrid Ag nanocluster (NC)-decorated ZnO nanowire array was fabricated through a simple process of depositing Ag NCs on ZnO nanowire arrays. The effects of particle size and excitation energy on the Raman scattering in these hybrid systems have been investigated using rhodamine 6G as a standard analyte. The results indicate that the hybrid nanosystem with 150 nm Ag NCs produces a larger SERS enhancement factor of 3.2 x 10 8 , which is much higher than that of 10 nm Ag NCs (6.0 x 10 6 ) under 532 nm excitation energy. The hybrid nanowire arrays were further applied to obtain SERS spectra of the two-photon absorption (TPA) chromophore T7. Finite-difference time-domain simulations reveal the presence of an enhanced field associated with inter-wire plasmon coupling of the 150 nm Ag NCs on adjacent ZnO nanowires; such a field was absent in the case of the 10 nm Ag NC-coated ZnO nanowire. Such hybrid nanosystems could be used as SERS substrates more effectively than assembled Ag NC film due to the enhanced light-scattering local field and the inter-wire plasmon-enhanced electromagnetic field.

  15. Analysis of effect of nanoporous alumina substrate coated with polypyrrole nanowire on cell morphology based on AFM topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Waleed Ahmed; Yea, Cheol-Heon; Jung, Mi; Kim, Hyuncheol; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2010-05-01

    In this study, in situ electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole nanowires with nanoporous alumina template was described. The formation of highly ordered porous alumina substrate was demonstrated with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed that polypyrrole (PP) nanowires were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole. HeLa cancer cells and HMCF normal cells were immobilized on the polypyrrole nanowires/nanoporous alumina substrates to determine the effects of the substrate on the cell morphology, adhesion and proliferation as well as the biocompatibility of the substrate. Cell adhesion and proliferation were characterized using a standard MTT assay. The effects of the polypyrrole nanowires/nanoporous alumina substrate on the cell morphology were studied by AFM. The nanoporous alumina coated with polypyrrole nanowires was found to exhibit better cell adhesion and proliferation than polystyrene petridish, aluminum foil, 1st anodized and uncoated 2nd anodized alumina substrate. This study showed the potential of the polypyrrole nanowires/nanoporous alumina substrate as biocompatibility electroactive polymer substrate for both healthy and cancer cell cultures applications.

  16. Vertical Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors with Nanoscale Gate-All-Around

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfi, Youssouf; Larrieu, Guilhem

    2016-04-01

    Nanowires are considered building blocks for the ultimate scaling of MOS transistors, capable of pushing devices until the most extreme boundaries of miniaturization thanks to their physical and geometrical properties. In particular, nanowires' suitability for forming a gate-all-around (GAA) configuration confers to the device an optimum electrostatic control of the gate over the conduction channel and then a better immunity against the short channel effects (SCE). In this letter, a large-scale process of GAA vertical silicon nanowire (VNW) MOSFETs is presented. A top-down approach is adopted for the realization of VNWs with an optimum reproducibility followed by thin layer engineering at nanoscale. Good overall electrical performances were obtained, with excellent electrostatic behavior (a subthreshold slope (SS) of 95 mV/dec and a drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 25 mV/V) for a 15-nm gate length. Finally, a first demonstration of dual integration of n-type and p-type VNW transistors for the realization of CMOS inverter is proposed.

  17. A force sensor using nanowire arrays to understand biofilm formation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasana K.; Cavalli, Alessandro; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Murillo, Duber M.; Souza, Alessandra A.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Cotta, Monica A.

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the cellular signaling and function at the nano-bio interface can pave the way towards developing next-generation smart diagnostic tools. From this perspective, limited reports detail so far the cellular and subcellular forces exerted by bacterial cells during the interaction with abiotic materials. Nanowire arrays with high aspect ratio have been used to detect such small forces. In this regard, live force measurements were performed ex-vivo during the interaction of Xylella fastidiosa bacterial cells with InP nanowire arrays. The influence of nanowire array topography and surface chemistry on the response and motion of bacterial cells was studied in detail. The nanowire arrays were also functionalized with different cell adhesive promoters, such as amines and XadA1, an afimbrial protein of X.fastidiosa. By employing the well-defined InP nanowire arrays platform, and single cell confocal imaging system, we were able to trace the bacterial growth pattern, and show that their initial attachment locations are strongly influenced by the surface chemistry and nanoscale surface topography. In addition, we measure the cellular forces down to few nanonewton range using these nanowire arrays. In case of nanowire functionalized with XadA1, the force exerted by vertically and horizontally attached single bacteria on the nanowire is in average 14% and 26% higher than for the pristine array, respectively. These results provide an excellent basis for live-cell force measurements as well as unravel the range of forces involved during the early stages of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

  18. Fabrication of Si/ZnS radial nanowire heterojunction arrays for white light emitting devices on Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Ajit K; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Manna, Santanu; Ray, Samit K

    2014-09-10

    Well-separated Si/ZnS radial nanowire heterojunction-based light-emitting devices have been fabricated on large-area substrates by depositing n-ZnS film on p-type nanoporous Si nanowire templates. Vertically oriented porous Si nanowires on p-Si substrates have been grown by metal-assisted chemical etching catalyzed using Au nanoparticles. Isolated Si nanowires with needle-shaped arrays have been made by KOH treatment before ZnS deposition. Electrically driven efficient white light emission from radial heterojunction arrays has been achieved under a low forward bias condition. The observed white light emission is attributed to blue and green emission from the defect-related radiative transition of ZnS and Si/ZnS interface, respectively, while the red arises from the porous surface of the Si nanowire core. The observed white light emission from the Si/ZnS nanowire heterojunction could open up the new possibility to integrate Si-based optical sources on a large scale.

  19. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2 among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  20. All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect transistor devices: Effects of surface preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masood, M.N.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Etching/hydrogen termination of All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect (SiNW-FET) devices developed by conventional photolithography and plane dependent wet etchings is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and

  1. Piezo-phototronic Boolean logic and computation using photon and strain dual-gated nanowire transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruomeng; Wu, Wenzhuo; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhaona; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-02-04

    Using polarization charges created at the metal-cadmium sulfide interface under strain to gate/modulate electrical transport and optoelectronic processes of charge carriers, the piezo-phototronic effect is applied to process mechanical and optical stimuli into electronic controlling signals. The cascade nanowire networks are demonstrated for achieving logic gates, binary computations, and gated D latches to store information carried by these stimuli. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The ITO-capped WO3 nanowires biosensor based on field-effect transistor in label-free protein sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariati, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of ITO-capped WO 3 nanowires associated with their bio-sensing properties in field-effect transistor diagnostics basis as a biosensor has been reported. The bio-sensing property for manipulated nanowires elucidated that the grown nanostructures were very sensitive to protein. The ITO-capped WO 3 nanowires biosensor showed an intensive bio-sensing activity against reliable protein. Polylysine strongly charged bio-molecule was applied as model system to demonstrate the implementation of materialized biosensor. The employed sensing mechanism was 'label-free' and depended on bio-molecule's intrinsic charge. For nanowires synthesis, the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism was used. Nanowires were beyond a few hundred nanometers in lengths and around 15-20 nm in diameter, while the globe cap's size on the nanowires was around 15-25 nm. The indium tin oxide (ITO) played as catalyst in nanofabrication for WO 3 nanowires growth and had outstanding role in bio-sensing especially for bio-molecule adherence. In applied electric field presence, the fabricated device showed the great potential to enhance medical diagnostics. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do; Tahereh Fanaei Sheikholeslami; Hassan Azarkish

    2016-01-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method fo...

  4. Size-effect features on the magnetothermopower of bismuth nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrea, E.; Nicorici, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In this work we have studied the magnetic field dependence of the thermopower (TEP) and resistance of glass-coated Bi wires with diameter (d) from 100 nm to at 1.5 μm below 80 K. Nanowires have anomalously large values of the thermopower (+100 μV K.1) and relatively high effective resistivities, but their frequencies of SdH oscillations remain those of bulk Bi. The TEP stays positive in longitudinal magnetic fields up to 15 T, where the surface scattering of charge carriers is negligible. Our analysis shows that the anomalous thermopower has a diffusion origin and is a consequence of the microstructure rather than the result of the strong scattering of electrons by the wire walls. The intensities of field at which the size-effect features appear on the magnetothermopower curves correspond to a value at which the diameter of the hole cyclotron orbit equals d. Size-effect features were observed only for set of nanowires with d = 100-350 nm, where diffusion TEP is dominant. The contribution of the phonon-drag effect was observed in a wire with diameter larger than 400 nm and becomes dominant at diameter of 1 μm. (authors)

  5. Ionic screening effect on low-frequency drain current fluctuations in liquid-gated nanowire FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ming-Pei; Vire, Eric; Montès, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The ionic screening effect plays an important role in determining the fundamental surface properties within liquid–semiconductor interfaces. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of low-frequency drain current noise in liquid-gated nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) to obtain physical insight into the effect of ionic screening on low-frequency current fluctuation. When the NW FET was operated close to the gate voltage corresponding to the maximum transconductance, the magnitude of the low-frequency noise for the NW exposed to a low-ionic-strength buffer (0.001 M) was approximately 70% greater than that when exposed to a high-ionic-strength buffer (0.1 M). We propose a noise model, considering the charge coupling efficiency associated with the screening competition between the electrolyte buffer and the NW, to describe the ionic screening effect on the low-frequency drain current noise in liquid-gated NW FET systems. This report not only provides a physical understanding of the ionic screening effect behind the low-frequency current noise in liquid-gated FETs but also offers useful information for developing the technology of NW FETs with liquid-gated architectures for application in bioelectronics, nanosensors, and hybrid nanoelectronics. (paper)

  6. Core-shell magnetic nanowires fabrication and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalska-Szostko, B., E-mail: kalska@uwb.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland); Klekotka, U.; Satuła, D. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • New approach for nanowires modification are presented. • Physical and chemical characterization of the nanowires are shown. • Properties modulations as an effect of the surface layer composition are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, a new way of the preparation of core-shell magnetic nanowires has been proposed. For the modification Fe nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide matrixes, in first step. In second, by wetting chemical deposition, shell layers of Ag, Au or Cu were obtained. Resultant core-shell nanowires structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray. Whereas magnetic properties by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  7. Contact planarization of ensemble nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2011-06-01

    The viability of four organic polymers (S1808, SC200, SU8 and Cyclotene) as filling materials to achieve planarization of ensemble nanowire arrays is reported. Analysis of the porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability of each filling material was performed. Sonication was used as an effective method to remove the tops of the nanowires (NWs) to achieve complete planarization. Ensemble nanowire devices were fully fabricated and I-V measurements confirmed that Cyclotene effectively planarizes the NWs while still serving the role as an insulating layer between the top and bottom contacts. These processes and analysis can be easily implemented into future characterization and fabrication of ensemble NWs for optoelectronic device applications.

  8. High-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires for effective microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo; Sai, Tianqi; Xia, Long; Yu, Yuanlie; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-01-01

    In the current report, we have demonstrated that the high-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires can be achieved through the introduction of trace of water vapor during the chemical vapor deposition process. The yield of the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires is dramatically improved due to the introduction of water vapor. The SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires exhibit an excellent microwave absorption property in the frequency range of 2.0–18.0GHz with a very low weight percentage of 0.50wt.% in the absorbers. A minimum reflection loss value of −32.72dB (>99.99% attenuation) at 13.84GHz has been observed with the absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Moreover, the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires based absorber can reach an effective absorption bandwidth (<−10dB) of 5.32GHz with the absorber thickness of 3.5mm. Furthermore, a possible absorption mechanism is also proposed in detail for such effective attenuation of microwave which can be attributed to the dielectric loss and magnetic loss of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires.

  9. High-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires for effective microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo

    2017-02-21

    In the current report, we have demonstrated that the high-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires can be achieved through the introduction of trace of water vapor during the chemical vapor deposition process. The yield of the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires is dramatically improved due to the introduction of water vapor. The SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires exhibit an excellent microwave absorption property in the frequency range of 2.0–18.0GHz with a very low weight percentage of 0.50wt.% in the absorbers. A minimum reflection loss value of −32.72dB (>99.99% attenuation) at 13.84GHz has been observed with the absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Moreover, the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires based absorber can reach an effective absorption bandwidth (<−10dB) of 5.32GHz with the absorber thickness of 3.5mm. Furthermore, a possible absorption mechanism is also proposed in detail for such effective attenuation of microwave which can be attributed to the dielectric loss and magnetic loss of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires.

  10. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs nanowires and their sustainability for optoelectronic applications. Comparing Au- and self-assisted growth methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Steffen

    2011-09-28

    In this work the synthesis of GaAs nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is investigated. A comparison between Au- and self-assisted VLS growth is at the centre of this thesis. While the Au-assisted method is established as a versatile tool for nanowire growth, the recently developed self-assisted variation results from the exchange of Au by Ga droplets and thus eliminates any possibility of Au incorporation. By both methods, we achieve nanowires with epitaxial alignment to the Si(111) substrates. Caused by differences during nanowire nucleation, a parasitic planar layer grows between the nanowires by the Au-assisted method, but can be avoided by the self-assisted method. Au-assisted nanowires grow predominantly in the metastable wurtzite crystal structure, while their self-assisted counterparts have the zincblende structure. All GaAs nanowires are fully relaxed and the strain arising from the lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si of 4.1 % is accommodated by misfit dislocations at the interface. Self-assisted GaAs nanowires are generally found to have vertical and non-polar side facets, while tilted and polar nanofacets were described for Au-assisted GaAs nanowires. We employ VLS nucleation theory to understand the effect of the droplet material on the lateral facets. Optoelectronic applications require long minority carrier lifetimes at room temperature. We fabricate GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell nanowires and analyse them by transient photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results are 2.5 ns for the self-assisted nanowires as well as 9 ps for the Au-assisted nanowires. By temperature-dependent PL measurements we find a characteristic activation energy of 77 meV that is present only in the Au-assisted nanowires. We conclude that most likely Au is incorporated from the droplets into the GaAs nanowires and acts as a deep, non-radiative recombination centre.

  11. Synthesis of Oxidation-Resistant Cupronickel Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Nanowire Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmall, Aaron [Duke University; Nguyen, Minh [Duke University; Wiley, Benjamin J [Duke University

    2012-01-01

    Nanowires of copper can be coated from liquids to create flexible, transparent conducting films that can potentially replace the dominant transparent conductor, indium tin oxide, in displays, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and electrochromic windows. One issue with these nanowire films is that copper is prone to oxidation. It was hypothesized that the resistance to oxidation could be improved by coating copper nanowires with nickel. This work demonstrates a method for synthesizing copper nanowires with nickel shells as well as the properties of cupronickel nanowires in transparent conducting films. Time- and temperature-dependent sheet resistance measurements indicate that the sheet resistance of copper and silver nanowire films will double after 3 and 36 months at room temperature, respectively. In contrast, the sheet resistance of cupronickel nanowires containing 20 mol % nickel will double in about 400 years. Coating copper nanowires to a ratio of 2:1 Cu:Ni gave them a neutral gray color, making them more suitable for use in displays and electrochromic windows. These properties, and the fact that copper and nickel are 1000 times more abundant than indium or silver, make cupronickel nanowires a promising alternative for the sustainable, efficient production of transparent conductors.

  12. Effect of Growth Parameters on SnO2 Nanowires Growth by Electron Beam Evaporation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Kumar, R.; Manjula, Y.; Narasimha Rao, K.

    2018-02-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) nanowires were synthesized via catalyst assisted VLS growth mechanism by the electron beam evaporation method at a growth temperature of 450 °C. The effects of growth parameters such as evaporation rate of Tin, catalyst film thickness, and different types of substrates on the growth of SnO2 nanowires were studied. Nanowires (NWs) growth was completely seized at higher tin evaporation rates due to the inability of the catalyst particle to initiate the NWs growth. Nanowires diameters were able to tune with catalyst film thickness. Nanowires growth was completely absent at higher catalyst film thickness due to agglomeration of the catalyst film. Optimum growth parameters for SnO2 NWs were presented. Nanocomposites such as Zinc oxide - SnO2, Graphene oxide sheets- SnO2 and Graphene nanosheets-SnO2 were able to synthesize at a lower substrate temperature of 450 °C. These nanocompsoites will be useful in enhancing the capacity of Li-ion batteries, the gas sensing response and also useful in increasing the photo catalytic activity.

  13. Nanowires and nanobelts, v.2 nanowires and nanobelts of functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires, nanobelts, nanoribbons, nanorods ..., are a new class of quasi-one-dimensional materials that have been attracting a great research interest in the last few years. These non-carbon based materials have been demonstrated to exhibit superior electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties, and can be used as fundamental building blocks for nano-scale science and technology, ranging from chemical and biological sensors, field effect transistors to logic circuits. Nanocircuits built using semiconductor nanowires demonstrated were declared a ""breakthrough in science"" by Science

  14. The ITO-capped WO{sub 3} nanowires biosensor based on field-effect transistor in label-free protein sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati, Mohsen [Sharif University of Technology, Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The fabrication of ITO-capped WO{sub 3} nanowires associated with their bio-sensing properties in field-effect transistor diagnostics basis as a biosensor has been reported. The bio-sensing property for manipulated nanowires elucidated that the grown nanostructures were very sensitive to protein. The ITO-capped WO{sub 3} nanowires biosensor showed an intensive bio-sensing activity against reliable protein. Polylysine strongly charged bio-molecule was applied as model system to demonstrate the implementation of materialized biosensor. The employed sensing mechanism was 'label-free' and depended on bio-molecule's intrinsic charge. For nanowires synthesis, the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism was used. Nanowires were beyond a few hundred nanometers in lengths and around 15-20 nm in diameter, while the globe cap's size on the nanowires was around 15-25 nm. The indium tin oxide (ITO) played as catalyst in nanofabrication for WO{sub 3} nanowires growth and had outstanding role in bio-sensing especially for bio-molecule adherence. In applied electric field presence, the fabricated device showed the great potential to enhance medical diagnostics. (orig.)

  15. Cu-Ni nanowire-based TiO{sub 2} hybrid for the dynamic photodegradation of acetaldehyde gas pollutant under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shuying [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xxfshcn@163.com [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Sheng-Chieh [College of Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Tong, Shengrui [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lu, Guanhong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Pui, David Y.H. [College of Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Sun, Jing [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2017-06-30

    Graphical abstract: One-dimensional Cu-Ni bimetallic nanowires were introduced into TiO{sub 2}-based matrix to enhance their photocatalysis efficiency and expand their light absorption range. - Highlights: • Cu-Ni nanowire-based TiO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst. • One-dimensional electron pathways and surface plasmon resonance effects. • Dynamic photodegradation of acetaldehyde gas pollutant. - Abstract: One-dimensional bimetallic nanowires were introduced into TiO{sub 2}-based matrix to enhance their photocatalysis efficiency and expand their light absorption range in this work. Recently, metal nanowires have attracted many attention in photocatalyst research fields because of their favorable electronic transmission properties and especially in the aspect of surface plasmon resonance effects. Moreover, Cu-Ni bimetallic nanowires (Cu-Ni NWs) have shown better chemical stability than ordinary monometallic nanowires in our recent works. Interestingly, it has been found that Ni sleeves of the bimetallic nanowires also can modify the Schottky barrier of interface between TiO{sub 2} and metallic conductor, so that be beneficial to the separation of photogenerated carriers in the Cu-Ni/TiO{sub 2} network topology. Hence, a novel heterostructured photocatalyst composed of Cu-Ni NWs and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) was fabricated by one-step hydrolysis approach to explore its photocatalytic performance. TEM and EDX mapping images of this TiO{sub 2} NPs @Cu-Ni NWs (TCN) hybrid displayed that Cu-Ni NWs were wrapped by compact TiO{sub 2} layer and retained the one-dimensional structure in matrix. In experiments, the photocatalytic performance of the TCN nanocomposite was significantly enhanced comparing to pure TiO{sub 2}. Acetaldehyde, as a common gas pollutant in the environment, was employed to evaluate the photodegradation efficiency of a series of TCN nanocomposites under continuous feeding. The TCN exhibited excellent potodegradation performance, where the

  16. Effects of Be doping on InP nanowire growth mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, R. J.; Gibson, S. J.; LaPierre, R. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Dubrovskii, V. G. [St. Petersburg Academic University, Khlopina 8/3, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute RAS, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-24

    Be-doped InP nanowires were grown by the gold-assisted vapour-liquid-solid mechanism in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. The InP nanowire length versus diameter [L(D)] dependence revealed an unexpected transition with increasing Be dopant concentration. At Be dopant concentration below {approx}10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, nanowires exhibited the usual inverse L(D) relationship, indicating a diffusion-limited growth regime. However, as dopant concentration increased, the nanowire growth rate was suppressed for small diameters, resulting in an unusual L(D) dependence that increased before saturating in height at about 400 nm. The cause of this may be a change in the droplet chemical potential, introducing a barrier to island nucleation. We propose a model accounting for the limitations of diffusion length and monolayer nucleation to explain this behaviour.

  17. Reversal modes in asymmetric Ni nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, B.; Pereira, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J., E-mail: jescrigm@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile)

    2012-11-15

    We have investigated the evolution of the magnetization reversal mechanism in asymmetric Ni nanowires as a function of their geometry. Circular nanowires are found to reverse their magnetization by the propagation of a vortex domain wall, while in very asymmetric nanowires the reversal is driven by the propagation of a transverse domain wall. The effect of shape asymmetry of the wire on coercivity and remanence is also studied. Angular dependence of the remanence and coercivity is also addressed. Tailoring the magnetization reversal mechanism in asymmetric nanowires can be useful for magnetic logic and race-track memory, both of which are based on the displacement of magnetic domain walls. Finally, an alternative method to detect the presence of magnetic drops is proposed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asymmetry strongly modifies the magnetic behavior of a wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very asymmetric nanowires reverse their magnetization by a transverse domain wall. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alternative method to detect the presence of magnetic drops is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tailoring the reversal mode in asymmetric nanowires can be useful for potential applications.

  18. A ZnO nanowire-based photo-inverter with pulse-induced fast recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Young Tack; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Ha, Ryong; Choi, Heon-Jin; Im, Seongil

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate a fast response photo-inverter comprised of one transparent gated ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) and one opaque FET respectively as the driver and load. Under ultraviolet (UV) light the transfer curve of the transparent gate FET shifts to the negative side and so does the voltage transfer curve (VTC) of the inverter. After termination of UV exposure the recovery of photo-induced current takes a long time in general. This persistent photoconductivity (PPC) is due to hole trapping on the surface of ZnO NWs. Here, we used a positive voltage short pulse after UV exposure, for the first time resolving the PPC issue in nanowire-based photo-detectors by accumulating electrons at the ZnO/dielectric interface. We found that a pulse duration as small as 200 ns was sufficient to reach a full recovery to the dark state from the UV induced state, realizing a fast UV detector with a voltage output.

  19. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Nanowire based Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazian, Talin

    This research project is focused on a new strategy for the creation of nanowire based semiconductor devices. The main goal is to understand and optimize the electrical and optical properties of two types of nanoscale devices; in first type lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) method has been utilized to fabricate nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET) and second type involved the development of light emitting semiconductor nanowire arrays (NWLED). Field effect transistors (NWFETs) have been prepared from arrays of polycrystalline cadmium selenide (pc-CdSe) nanowires using a back gate configuration. pc-CdSe nanowires were fabricated using the lithographically patterned nanowire electrode- position (LPNE) process on SiO2 /Si substrates. After electrodeposition, pc-CdSe nanowires were thermally annealed at 300 °C x 4 h either with or without exposure to CdCl 2 in methanol a grain growth promoter. The influence of CdCl2 treatment was to increase the mean grain diameter as determined by X-ray diffraction pattern and to convert the crystal structure from cubic to wurtzite. Transfer characteristics showed an increase of the field effect mobility (mu eff) by an order of magnitude and increase of the Ion/I off ratio by a factor of 3-4. Light emitting devices (NW-LED) based on lithographically patterned pc-CdSe nanowire arrays have been investigated. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of CdSe nanowires under various biases exhibited broad emission spectra centered at 750 nm close to the band gap of CdSe (1.7eV). To enhance the intensity of the emitted light and the external quantum efficiency (EQE), the distance between the contacts were reduced from 5 mum to less than 1 mum which increased the efficiency by an order of magnitude. Also, increasing the annealing temperature of nanowires from 300 °C x4 h to 450 This research project is focused on a new strategy for the creation of nanowire based semiconductor devices. The main goal is to understand

  20. The tunable bistable and multistable memory effect in polymer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Atikur; Sanyal, Milan K

    2008-01-01

    Tunable bistable and multistable resistance switching in conducting polymer nanowires has been reported. These wires show reproducible switching transition under several READ-WRITE-ERASE cycles. The switching is observed at low temperature and the ON/OFF resistance ratio for the voltage biased switching transition was found to be more than 10 3 . Current biased measurements show lower ON/OFF ratio and some of the nanowires exhibit a multistable switching transition in current biased measurements. The threshold voltage for switching and the ON/OFF resistance ratio can be tuned by changing doping concentration of the nanowires

  1. Fabrication of a P3HT-ZnO Nanowires Gas Sensor Detecting Ammonia Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Guo Kuo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an organic-inorganic semiconductor gas sensor was fabricated to detect ammonia gas. An inorganic semiconductor was a zinc oxide (ZnO nanowire array produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD while an organic material was a p-type semiconductor, poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. P3HT was suitable for the gas sensing application due to its high hole mobility, good stability, and good electrical conductivity. In this work, P3HT was coated on the zinc oxide nanowires by the spin coating to form an organic-inorganic heterogeneous interface of the gas sensor for detecting ammonia gas. The thicknesses of the P3HT were around 462 nm, 397 nm, and 277 nm when the speeds of the spin coating were 4000 rpm, 5000 rpm, and 6000 rpm, respectively. The electrical properties and sensing characteristics of the gas sensing device at room temperature were evaluated by Hall effect measurement and the sensitivity of detecting ammonia gas. The results of Hall effect measurement for the P3HT-ZnO nanowires semiconductor with 462 nm P3HT film showed that the carrier concentration and the mobility were 2.7 × 1019 cm−3 and 24.7 cm2∙V−1∙s−1 respectively. The gas sensing device prepared by the P3HT-ZnO nanowires semiconductor had better sensitivity than the device composed of the ZnO film and P3HT film. Additionally, this gas sensing device could reach a maximum sensitivity around 11.58 per ppm.

  2. Effect of surface oxide on the melting behavior of lead-free solder nanowires and nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fan; Rajathurai, Karunaharan; Cui, Qingzhou; Zhou, Guangwen; NkengforAcha, Irene; Gu Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free nanosolders have shown promise in nanowire and nanoelectronics assembly. Among various important parameters, melting is the most fundamental property affecting the assembly process. Here we report that the melting behavior of tin and tin/silver nanowires and nanorods can be significantly affected by the surface oxide of nanosolders. By controlling the nanosolder reflow atmosphere using a flux, the surface oxide of the nanowires/nanorods can be effectively removed and complete nanosolder melting can be achieved. The complete melting of the nanosolders leads to the formation of nanoscale to microscale spherical solder balls, followed by Ostwald ripening phenomenon. The contact angle of the microscale solder balls formed on Si substrate was measured by direct electron microscopic imaging. These results provide new insights into micro- and nanoscale phase transition and liquid droplet coalescence from nanowires/nanorods to spheroids, and are relevant to nanoscale assembly and smaller ball grid array formation.

  3. Electrodeposited highly-ordered manganese oxide nanowire arrays for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haifeng; Lu, Bingqiang; Wei, Shuiqiang; Bao, Mi; Wen, Yanxuan; Wang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    Large arrays of well-aligned Mn oxide nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition using anodic aluminum oxide templates. The sizes of nanowires were tuned by varying the electrotype solution involved and the MnO2 nanowires with 10 μm in length were obtained in a neutral KMnO4 bath for 1 h. MnO2 nanowire arrays grown on conductor substance save the tedious electrode-making process, and electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the MnO2 nanowire arrays electrode has good capacitive behavior. Due to the limited mass transportation in narrow spacing, the spacing effects between the neighbor nanowires have show great influence to the electrochemical performance.

  4. Biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for DNA sensory applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for the attachment of DNA target molecules on the nanowire surface. With the organosilane glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane acting as a bifunctional linker, amino-modified capture molecule oligonucleotides have been immobilized on the nanowire surface. The dye-marked DNA molecules were detected via fluorescence microscopy, and our results reveal a successful attachment of DNA capture molecules onto the nanowire surface. The electrical field effect induced by the negatively charged attached DNA molecules should be able to control the electrical properties of the nanowires and gives way to a ZnO nanowire-based biosensing device.

  5. Auger Recombination in III-Nitride Nanowires and Its Effect on Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Heo, Junseok

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the Auger recombination coefficients in defect-free InGaN nanowires (NW) and InGaN/GaN dot-in-nanowire (DNW) samples grown on (001) silicon by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires have a density of ∼1×1011 cm-2 and exhibit photoluminescence emission peak at λ ∼ 500 nm. The Auger coefficients as a function of excitation power have been derived from excitation dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements over a wide range of optical excitation power density. The values of C0, defined as the Auger coefficient at low excitation, are 6.1 × 10-32 and 4.1×10-33 cm6·s-1 in the NW and DNW samples, respectively, which are in reasonably good agreement with theoretical predictions for InGaN alloy semiconductors. Light-emitting diodes made with the NW and DNW samples exhibit no efficiency droop up to an injection current density of 400 A/cm 2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Auger Recombination in III-Nitride Nanowires and Its Effect on Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Wei

    2011-04-13

    We have measured the Auger recombination coefficients in defect-free InGaN nanowires (NW) and InGaN/GaN dot-in-nanowire (DNW) samples grown on (001) silicon by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires have a density of ∼1×1011 cm-2 and exhibit photoluminescence emission peak at λ ∼ 500 nm. The Auger coefficients as a function of excitation power have been derived from excitation dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements over a wide range of optical excitation power density. The values of C0, defined as the Auger coefficient at low excitation, are 6.1 × 10-32 and 4.1×10-33 cm6·s-1 in the NW and DNW samples, respectively, which are in reasonably good agreement with theoretical predictions for InGaN alloy semiconductors. Light-emitting diodes made with the NW and DNW samples exhibit no efficiency droop up to an injection current density of 400 A/cm 2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan; Heo, Junseok; Bayraktaroglu, Adrian; Guo, Wei; Ng, Tien Khee; Phillips, Jamie; Ooi, Boon S.; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2012-01-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non

  8. Vibration of Piezoelectric Nanowires Including Surface Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, surface and piezoelectric effects on the vibration behavior of nanowires (NWs are investigated by using a Timoshenko beam model. The electric field equations and the governing equations of motion for the piezoelectric NWs are derived with the consideration of surface effects. By the exact solution of the governing equations, an expression for the natural frequencies of NWs with simply-supported boundary conditions is obtained. The effects of piezoelectricity and surface effects on the vibrational behavior of Timoshenko NWs are graphically illustrated. A comparison is also made between the predictions of Timoshenko beam model and those of its Euler-Bernoulli counterpart. Additionally, the present results are validated through comparison with the available data in the literature.

  9. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW, is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark condition and the solar cell I-V characteristics are obtained under incident of the standardized light of AM1.5. The results for the two mentioned Schottky solar cell samples are compared and discussed. An improvement in short circuit current and efficiency of Schottky solar cell is found when Si nanowires are employed.

  10. Geometrical and band-structure effects on phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional germanium nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Mori, S.; Morioka, N.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-01-01

    We calculated the phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional [001], [110], [111], and [112]-oriented germanium nanowires, and the hole transport characteristics were investigated. A tight-binding approximation was used for holes, and phonons were described by a valence force field model. Then, scattering probability of holes by phonons was calculated taking account of hole-phonon interaction atomistically, and the linearized Boltzmann's transport equation was solved to calculate the hole mobility at low longitudinal field. The dependence of the hole mobility on nanowire geometry was analyzed in terms of the valence band structure of germanium nanowires, and it was found that the dependence was qualitatively reproduced by considering an average effective mass and the density of states of holes. The calculation revealed that [110] germanium nanowires with large height along the [001] direction show high hole mobility. Germanium nanowires with this geometry are also expected to exhibit high electron mobility in our previous work, and thus they are promising for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications

  11. Unlocking the Origin of Superior Performance of a Si-Ge Core-Shell Nanowire Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Jaishi, Meghnath; Pati, Ranjit

    2016-07-13

    The sustained advancement in semiconducting core-shell nanowire technology has unlocked a tantalizing route for making next generation field effect transistor (FET). Understanding how to control carrier mobility of these nanowire channels by applying a gate field is the key to developing a high performance FET. Herein, we have identified the switching mechanism responsible for the superior performance of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FET over its homogeneous Si counterpart. A quantum transport approach is used to investigate the gate-field modulated switching behavior in electronic current for ultranarrow Si and Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FETs. Our calculations reveal that for the ON state, the gate-field induced transverse localization of the wave function restricts the carrier transport to the outer (shell) layer with the pz orbitals providing the pathway for tunneling of electrons in the channels. The higher ON state current in the Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET is attributed to the pz orbitals that are distributed over the entire channel; in the case of Si nanowire, the participating pz orbital is restricted to a few Si atoms in the channel resulting in a smaller tunneling current. Within the gate bias range considered here, the transconductance is found to be substantially higher in the case of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET than in a Si nanowire FET, which suggests a much higher mobility in the Si-Ge nanowire device.

  12. Magnetic Nanowires as Materials for Cancer Cell Destruction

    KAUST Repository

    Contreras, Maria F.

    2015-12-01

    Current cancer therapies are highly cytotoxic and their delivery to exclusively the affected site is poorly controlled, resulting in unavoidable and often severe side effects. In an effort to overcome such issues, magnetic nanoparticles have been recently gaining relevance in the areas of biomedical applications and therapeutics, opening pathways to alternative methods. This led to the concept of magnetic particle hyperthermia in which magnetic nano beads are heated by a high power magnetic field. The increase in temperature kills the cancer cells, which are more susceptible to heat in comparison to healthy cells. In this dissertation, the possibility to kill cancer cells with magnetic nanowires is evaluated. The idea is to exploit a magnetomechanical effect, where nanowires cause cancer cell death through vibrating in a low power magnetic field. Specifically, the magnetic nanowires effects to cells in culture and their ability to induce cancer cell death, when combined with an alternating magnetic field, was investigated. Nickel and iron nanowires of 35 nm diameter and 1 to 5 μm long were synthesized by electrodeposition into nanoporous alumina templates, which were prepared using a two-step anodization process on highly pure aluminum substrates. For the cytotoxicity studies, the nanowires were added to cancer cells in culture, varying the incubation time and the concentration. The cell-nanowire interaction was thoroughly studied at the cellular level (mitochondrial metabolic activity, cell membrane integrity and, apoptosis/necrosis assay), and optical level (transmission electron and confocal microscopy). Furthermore, to investigate their therapeutic potential, an alternating magnetic field was applied varying its intensity and frequency. After the magnetic field application, cells health was measured at the mitochondrial activity level. Cytotoxicity results shed light onto the cellular tolerance to the nanowires, which helped in establishing the appropriate

  13. Comparing Hall Effect and Field Effect Measurements on the Same Single Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Olof; Otnes, Gaute; Borgström, Magnus T; Björk, Mikael; Samuelson, Lars; Storm, Kristian

    2016-01-13

    We compare and discuss the two most commonly used electrical characterization techniques for nanowires (NWs). In a novel single-NW device, we combine Hall effect and back-gated and top-gated field effect measurements and quantify the carrier concentrations in a series of sulfur-doped InP NWs. The carrier concentrations from Hall effect and field effect measurements are found to correlate well when using the analysis methods described in this work. This shows that NWs can be accurately characterized with available electrical methods, an important result toward better understanding of semiconductor NW doping.

  14. Functionalised Silver Nanowire Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, Piers; Ilie, Adelina

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline silver nanowires 60-100 nm in diameter and tens of micrometres in length have been fabricated using a low temperature, solution synthesis technique. We explore the potential of this method to produce functional nanowire structures using two different strategies to attach active molecules to the nanowires: adsorption and displacement. Initially, as-produced silver nanowires capped with a uniaxial-growth-inducing polymer layer were functionalised by solution adsorption of a semiconducting conjugated polymer to generate fluorescent nanowire structures. The influence of nanowire surface chemistry was investigated by displacing the capping polymer with an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer, followed by solution adsorption functionalisation. The success of molecular attachment was monitored by electron microscopy, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy. We examined how the optical properties of such adsorbed molecules are affected by the metallic nanowires, and observed transfer of excitation energy between dye molecules mediated by surface plasmons propagating on the nanowires. Non-contact dynamic force microscopy measurements were used to map the work-function of individual wires, revealing inhomogeneity of the polymer surface coverage

  15. Effects of cross-section on mechanical properties of Au nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Yang, Shuming, E-mail: shuming.yang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Duongthipthewa, Anchalee; Wang, Yiming [State Key Laboratory for manufacturing system engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this paper is study of the effects of multiple cross-section of Au nanowire on mechanical properties. Different cross-section models of Au nanowires including circular, hexagonal, pentagonal and rectangular were simulated by finite element modeling using ABAQUS. In this study, the bending technique was applied so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition. The cross-sections had the length of 400 nm and the diameter of 40 nm, except the circular cross-section while the rest of the cross-sections had an equivalent diameter. Von Misses stresses distribution were used to define the stress distribution in the cross-section under loading condition, and elastic deformation was analyzed by the beam theory. The results disclosed that the circular and the rectangular models had highest and lowest strengths against plastic deformation, respectively.

  16. Topological insulator nanowires and nanowire hetero-junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haiming; Zhao, Lukas; Wade, Travis; Konczykowski, Marcin; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2014-03-01

    The existing topological insulator materials (TIs) continue to present a number of challenges to complete understanding of the physics of topological spin-helical Dirac surface conduction channels, owing to a relatively large charge conduction in the bulk. One way to reduce the bulk contribution and to increase surface-to-volume ratio is by nanostructuring. Here we report on the synthesis and characterization of Sb2Te3, Bi2Te3 nanowires and nanotubes and Sb2Te3/Bi2Te3 heterojunctions electrochemically grown in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with varied (from 50 to 150 nm) pore diameters. Stoichiometric rigid polycrystalline nanowires with controllable cross-sections were obtained using cell voltages in the 30 - 150 mV range. Transport measurements in up to 14 T magnetic fields applied along the nanowires show Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) quantum oscillations with periods corresponding to the nanowire diameters. All nanowires were found to exhibit sharp weak anti-localization (WAL) cusps, a characteristic signature of TIs. In addition to A-B oscillations, new quantization plateaus in magnetoresistance (MR) at low fields (< 0 . 7T) were observed. The analysis of MR as well as I - V characteristics of heterojunctions will be presented. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-1122594, NSF-DMR-1312483-MWN, and DOD-W911NF-13-1-0159.

  17. Nanowire structures and electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, Alexey; Remeika, Mikas

    2010-07-06

    The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive segments and conductance constricting segments of a nanowire, such as metallic, superconducting or semiconducting nanowire. The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive nanowire segments and conductance constricting nanowire segments having accurately selected phases including crystalline and amorphous states, compositions, morphologies and physical dimensions, including selected cross sectional dimensions, shapes and lengths along the length of a nanowire. Further, the present invention provides methods of processing nanowires capable of patterning a nanowire to form a plurality of conductance constricting segments having selected positions along the length of a nanowire, including conductance constricting segments having reduced cross sectional dimensions and conductance constricting segments comprising one or more insulating materials such as metal oxides.

  18. A finite element analysis of the effects of geometrical shape on the elastic properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garuma Abdisa Denu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of geometrical shape of diamond nanowire on its mechanical properties. Finite element modeling using COMSOL Multiphysics software is used to simulate various diamond nanowire with circular, square, rectangular, hexagonal and triangular cross-sections. A bending test under concentrated load applied at one of the free ends is simulated using FEM. The force response of the nanowire under different loading is studied for the various cross-sections. The dimensions of each cross-section is chosen so that material properties such as Young’s modulus can be kept constant for comparison in all the cross-sections. It is found out that the bending capability of a triangular nanowire is higher compared to other cross-sections due to its lowest second moment. Circular and hexagonal cross-section show highest stiffness. The study of mechanical property of diamond nanowires is useful for optimal nanomechanical designs where the effect of cross-section has to be taken into account.

  19. CoFe Layers Thickness and Annealing Effect on the Magnetic Behavior of the CoFe/Cu Multilayer Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires were electrodeposited into anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization method, using the single-bath technique. Nanowires with 30 nm diameter and the definite lengths were obtained. The effect of CoFe layers thickness and annealing on the magnetic behavior of the multilayer nanowires was investigated. The layers thickness was controlled through the pulses numbers: 200, 260, 310,360 and 410 pulses were used to deposit the CoFe layers, while 300 pulse for the Cu layers. A certain increase in coercivity and squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires observed with increasing the CoFe layer thickness and annealing improved the coercivity and decrease squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires. First order reversal curves after annealed showed amount domains with soft magnetic phase, it also shows decreasing spreading of distribution function along the Hu axis after annealed

  20. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...... atomic force microscopy and from polarized far-field optical microscopy for various prototypical molecules are reproduced by electrostatic and Monte Carlo calculations. Based on the crystal structure, predictions on the growth habit from other conjugated molecules become in reach....

  1. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  2. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  3. TiO2 nanowire-templated hierarchical nanowire network as water-repelling coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Tian; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Xiao, Shuai; Yang, Chengduan; Chen, Meiwan; Tao, Jun; Shieh, Han-ping; Yang, Bo-ru; Liu, Chuan; Xie, Xi

    2017-12-01

    Extraordinary water-repelling properties of superhydrophobic surfaces make them novel candidates for a great variety of potential applications. A general approach to achieve superhydrophobicity requires low-energy coating on the surface and roughness on nano- and micrometre scale. However, typical construction of superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-nano structure through top-down fabrication is restricted by sophisticated fabrication techniques and limited choices of substrate materials. Micro-nanoscale topographies templated by conventional microparticles through surface coating may produce large variations in roughness and uncontrollable defects, resulting in poorly controlled surface morphology and wettability. In this work, micro-nanoscale hierarchical nanowire network was fabricated to construct self-cleaning coating using one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires as microscale templates. Hierarchical structure with homogeneous morphology was achieved by branching ZnO nanowires on the TiO2 nanowire backbones through hydrothermal reaction. The hierarchical nanowire network displayed homogeneous micro/nano-topography, in contrast to hierarchical structure templated by traditional microparticles. This hierarchical nanowire network film exhibited high repellency to both water and cell culture medium after functionalization with fluorinated organic molecules. The hierarchical structure templated by TiO2 nanowire coating significantly increased the surface superhydrophobicity compared to vertical ZnO nanowires with nanotopography alone. Our results demonstrated a promising strategy of using nanowires as microscale templates for the rational design of hierarchical coatings with desired superhydrophobicity that can also be applied to various substrate materials.

  4. Ultra-thin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets wrapped silicon nanowire array for improved chemical stability and enhanced photoresponse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Beibei; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie, E-mail: quanxie@dlut.edu.cn; Chen, Shuo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, as an oxygen free and metal free protective material for Si, was proposed. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets wrapped Si nanowire array was synthesized. • SiNW/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibited enhancement of photoelectrochemical stability and photocurrent. - Abstract: In order to inhibit the oxidation of Si materials in aqueous solution, Si nanowire array was wrapped by ultra-thin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets via an electrophoresis process. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets were evenly distributed on the surface of Si nanowire array. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that Si nanowire array/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets were composed of Si (4 0 0 crystal plane) and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (0 0 2 and 1 0 0 crystal planes). The cyclic voltammetry curves revealed that the corrosion of Si nanowire array was restrained under the protection of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets. Furthermore, the photocurrent density of Si nanowire array/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets increased by nearly 3 times compared to that of bare Si nanowire array due to the effective charge separation caused by the built-in electric field at the interface. This work will facilitate the applications of Si materials in aqueous solution, such as solar energy harvest and photocatalytic pollution control.

  5. Surface Passivation of GaN Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadhan, Purushothaman; Fu, Hui-Chun; Priante, Davide; Retamal, Jose Ramon Duran; Zhao, Chao; Ebaid, Mohamed; Ng, Tien Khee; Ajia, Idirs; Mitra, Somak; Roqan, Iman S; Ooi, Boon S; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-03-08

    Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultralarge surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this work, we address the issue of surface states in GaN nanowire photoelectrodes by employing a simple and low-cost surface treatment method, which utilizes an organic thiol compound (i.e., 1,2-ethanedithiol). The surface-treated photocathode showed an enhanced photocurrent density of -31 mA/cm 2 at -0.2 V versus RHE with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 18.3%, whereas untreated nanowires yielded only 8.1% efficiency. Furthermore, the surface passivation provides enhanced photoelectrochemical stability as surface-treated nanowires retained ∼80% of their initial photocurrent value and produced 8000 μmol of gas molecules over 55 h at acidic conditions (pH ∼ 0), whereas the untreated nanowires demonstrated only passivation of nanostructured photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  6. Effects of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Lambada, Dasaradha Rao; Yang, Shuming; Zhang, Guofeng; Cheng, Biyao; Woldu, Yonas Tesfaye; Shafique, Shareen; Wang, Yiming; Anastase, Ndahimana

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the influences of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire (NW) before and after embedding ZnS nanowire into the ZnO nanowire, respectively. For this work, commercial finite element modeling (FEM) software package ABAQUS and three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods were utilized to analyze the nonlinear mechanical behavior and optical properties of the sample, respectively. Likewise, in this structure a single focused Gaussian beam with wavelength of 633 nm was used as source. The dimensions of ZnO nanowire were defined to be 12280 nm in length and 103.2 nm in diameter with hexagonal cross-section. In order to investigate mechanical properties, three-point bending technique was adopted so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition and then the physical deformation model was imported into FDTD solutions to study optical properties of ZnO nanowire under mechanical strain. Moreover, it was found that increase in the strain due to the external load induced changes in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, respectively.

  7. Effects of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vazinishayan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the influences of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire (NW before and after embedding ZnS nanowire into the ZnO nanowire, respectively. For this work, commercial finite element modeling (FEM software package ABAQUS and three-dimensional (3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD methods were utilized to analyze the nonlinear mechanical behavior and optical properties of the sample, respectively. Likewise, in this structure a single focused Gaussian beam with wavelength of 633 nm was used as source. The dimensions of ZnO nanowire were defined to be 12280 nm in length and 103.2 nm in diameter with hexagonal cross-section. In order to investigate mechanical properties, three-point bending technique was adopted so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition and then the physical deformation model was imported into FDTD solutions to study optical properties of ZnO nanowire under mechanical strain. Moreover, it was found that increase in the strain due to the external load induced changes in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, respectively.

  8. Atomistic simulations of the yielding of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Jiankuai; Gall, Ken; Dunn, Martin L.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    We performed atomistic simulations to study the effect of free surfaces on the yielding of gold nanowires. Tensile surface stresses on the surfaces of the nanowires cause them to contract along the length with respect to the bulk face-centered cubic lattice and induce compressive stress in the interior. When the cross-sectional area of a nanowire is less than 2.45 nm x 2.45 nm, the wire yields under its surface stresses. Under external forces and surface stresses, nanowires yield via the nucleation and propagation of the {1 1 1} partial dislocations. The magnitudes of the tensile and compressive yield stress of nanowires increase and decrease, respectively, with a decrease of the wire width. The magnitude of the tensile yield stress is much larger than that of the compressive yield stress for small nanowires, while for small nanowires, tensile and compressive yield stresses have similar magnitudes. The critical resolved shear stress (RSS) by external forces depends on wire width, orientation and loading condition (tension vs. compression). However, the critical RSS in the interior of the nanowires, which is exerted by both the external force and the surface-stress-induced compressive stress, does not change significantly with wire width for same orientation and same loading condition, and can thus serve as a 'local' criterion. This local criterion is invoked to explain the observed size dependence of yield behavior and tensile/compressive yield stress asymmetry, considering surface stress effects and different slip systems active in tensile and compressive yielding

  9. Multi-segmented Magnetic Nanowires Fabrication and Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Garcia, Julian

    2016-04-28

    In this work, nickel-gold multi-segmented magnetic nanowires were grown by electrodeposition in anodized alumina templates. The templates were fabricated by a two step anodization process of aluminum disks in an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. In this process, ordered pores grew in an alumina oxide layer at the exposed aluminum area. Each disk was electropolished before the anodization process and the features at its surface were characterized to assess the effect on the pore ordering. Nickel Watts and gold cyanide electrolyte baths were prepared to electrodeposit pure nickel and gold in the templates. Both solutions response to a range of externally applied voltages was characterized and a threshold voltage above which deposition occurs is reported. Single nanowires were isolated by chemically dissolving the template and dispersed in ethanol. Devices were fabricated with these isolated nanowires in which gold contacts were deposited to measure the resistance. A current pulse setup was implemented in a magnetoresistance system allowing to send current pulses with amplitude as low as 2nA and 50μs width. Magneto resistance measurement were carried out on the single nanowires devices and the effect of current pulses was studied. It was found that distinct resistance states can be achieved by applying a determined current pulse at a constant applied field and that the initial state can be recovered by removing excess charge from the nanowire. Finally, the effect of annealing the nanowires in an air atmosphere at 150°C for 24 hours is studied showing that the nickel sections oxidize and the gold sections remain unchanged.

  10. Multi-segmented Magnetic Nanowires Fabrication and Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Garcia, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, nickel-gold multi-segmented magnetic nanowires were grown by electrodeposition in anodized alumina templates. The templates were fabricated by a two step anodization process of aluminum disks in an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. In this process, ordered pores grew in an alumina oxide layer at the exposed aluminum area. Each disk was electropolished before the anodization process and the features at its surface were characterized to assess the effect on the pore ordering. Nickel Watts and gold cyanide electrolyte baths were prepared to electrodeposit pure nickel and gold in the templates. Both solutions response to a range of externally applied voltages was characterized and a threshold voltage above which deposition occurs is reported. Single nanowires were isolated by chemically dissolving the template and dispersed in ethanol. Devices were fabricated with these isolated nanowires in which gold contacts were deposited to measure the resistance. A current pulse setup was implemented in a magnetoresistance system allowing to send current pulses with amplitude as low as 2nA and 50μs width. Magneto resistance measurement were carried out on the single nanowires devices and the effect of current pulses was studied. It was found that distinct resistance states can be achieved by applying a determined current pulse at a constant applied field and that the initial state can be recovered by removing excess charge from the nanowire. Finally, the effect of annealing the nanowires in an air atmosphere at 150°C for 24 hours is studied showing that the nickel sections oxidize and the gold sections remain unchanged.

  11. Novel Size and Surface Oxide Effects in Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-09-14

    With its high specific capacity, silicon is a promising anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries, but volume expansion and fracture during lithium reaction have prevented implementation. Si nanostructures have shown resistance to fracture during cycling, but the critical effects of nanostructure size and native surface oxide on volume expansion and cycling performance are not understood. Here, we use an ex situ transmission electron microscopy technique to observe the same Si nanowires before and after lithiation and have discovered the impacts of size and surface oxide on volume expansion. For nanowires with native SiO2, the surface oxide can suppress the volume expansion during lithiation for nanowires with diameters <∼50 nm. Finite element modeling shows that the oxide layer can induce compressive hydrostatic stress that could act to limit the extent of lithiation. The understanding developed herein of how volume expansion and extent of lithiation can depend on nanomaterial structure is important for the improvement of Si-based anodes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. DFT study of anisotropy effects on the electronic properties of diamond nanowires with nitrogen-vacancy center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Jesús Ramírez; Baños, Alejandro Trejo; Durán, Álvaro Miranda; Quiroz, Eliel Carvajal; Irisson, Miguel Cruz

    2017-09-26

    In the development of quantum computing and communications, improvements in materials capable of single photon emission are of great importance. Advances in single photon emission have been achieved experimentally by introducing nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers on diamond nanostructures. However, theoretical modeling of the anisotropic effects on the electronic properties of these materials is almost nonexistent. In this study, the electronic band structure and density of states of diamond nanowires with N-V defects were analyzed through first principles approach using the density functional theory and the supercell scheme. The nanowires were modeled on two growth directions [001] and [111]. All surface dangling bonds were passivated with hydrogen (H) atoms. The results show that the N-V introduces multiple trap states within the energy band gap of the diamond nanowire. The energy difference between these states is influenced by the growth direction of the nanowires, which could contribute to the emission of photons with different wavelengths. The presence of these trap states could reduce the recombination rate between the conduction and the valence band, thus favoring the single photon emission. Graphical abstract Diamond nanowires with nitrogen-vacancy centerᅟ.

  13. The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, J D; Hernandez-Ramirez, F; Jimenez-Diaz, R; Manzanares, M; Andreu, T; Cirera, A; Romano-Rodriguez, A; Morante, J R

    2008-01-01

    The responses of individual ZnO nanowires to UV light demonstrate that the persistent photoconductivity (PPC) state is directly related to the electron-hole separation near the surface. Our results demonstrate that the electrical transport in these nanomaterials is influenced by the surface in two different ways. On the one hand, the effective mobility and the density of free carriers are determined by recombination mechanisms assisted by the oxidizing molecules in air. This phenomenon can also be blocked by surface passivation. On the other hand, the surface built-in potential separates the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and accumulates holes at the surface. After illumination, the charge separation makes the electron-hole recombination difficult and originates PPC. This effect is quickly reverted after increasing either the probing current (self-heating by Joule dissipation) or the oxygen content in air (favouring the surface recombination mechanisms). The model for PPC in individual nanowires presented here illustrates the intrinsic potential of metal oxide nanowires to develop optoelectronic devices or optochemical sensors with better and new performances.

  14. Effects of Precursor-Substrate Distances on the Growth of GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN nanowires were synthesized through the Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD method using Ga2O3/GaN mixtures as gallium sources, and precursor-substrate distances were investigated as the important factor for the growth of GaN nanowires. The microstructure, composition, and photoluminescence property were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectra. The results showed that single crystalline GaN nanowires with the diameter of about 90 nm and the length up to tens of micrometers had been grown thickly across Si (100 substrates with uniform density. Moreover, the variations of the GaN nanowire morphology, density, and size were largely attributed to substrate positions which would influence Ga precursor density in the carrier gas, the saturation degree of gaseous reactants, and the catalyst activity, respectively, in the fabrication of GaN nanowires by the vapour liquid solid mechanism.

  15. High performance Si nanowire field-effect-transistors based on a CMOS inverter with tunable threshold voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Whang, Dongmok; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-05-21

    We successfully fabricated nanowire-based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (NWCMOS) inverter devices by utilizing n- and p-type Si nanowire field-effect-transistors (NWFETs) via a low-temperature fabrication processing technique. We demonstrate that NWCMOS inverter devices can be operated at less than 1 V, a significantly lower voltage than that of typical thin-film based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) inverter devices. This low-voltage operation was accomplished by controlling the threshold voltage of the n-type Si NWFETs through effective management of the nanowire (NW) doping concentration, while realizing high voltage gain (>10) and ultra-low static power dissipation (≤3 pW) for high-performance digital inverter devices. This result offers a viable means of fabricating high-performance, low-operation voltage, and high-density digital logic circuits using a low-temperature fabrication processing technique suitable for next-generation flexible electronics.

  16. Guided Growth of Horizontal p-Type ZnTe Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge toward large-scale integration of nanowires is the control over their alignment and position. A possible solution to this challenge is the guided growth process, which enables the synthesis of well-aligned horizontal nanowires that grow according to specific epitaxial or graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate. However, the guided growth of horizontal nanowires was demonstrated for a limited number of materials, most of which exhibit unintentional n-type behavior. Here we demonstrate the vapor–liquid–solid growth of guided horizontal ZnTe nanowires and nanowalls displaying p-type behavior on four different planes of sapphire. The growth directions of the nanowires are determined by epitaxial relations between the nanowires and the substrate or by a graphoepitaxial effect that guides their growth along nanogrooves or nanosteps along the surface. We characterized the crystallographic orientations and elemental composition of the nanowires using transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The optoelectronic and electronic properties of the nanowires were studied by fabricating photodetectors and top-gate thin film transistors. These measurements showed that the guided ZnTe nanowires are p-type semiconductors and are photoconductive in the visible range. The guided growth of horizontal p-type nanowires opens up the possibility of parallel nanowire integration into functional systems with a variety of potential applications not available by other means. PMID:27885331

  17. Piezoresistance of top-down suspended Si nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koumela, A; Mercier, D; Dupre, C; Jourdan, G; Marcoux, C; Ollier, E; Duraffourg, L; Purcell, S T

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the gauge factor of suspended, top-down silicon nanowires are presented. The nanowires are fabricated with a CMOS compatible process and with doping concentrations ranging from 2 x 10 20 down to 5 x 10 17 cm -3 . The extracted gauge factors are compared with results on identical non-suspended nanowires and with state-of-the-art results. An increase of the gauge factor after suspension is demonstrated. For the low doped nanowires a value of 235 is measured. Particular attention was paid throughout the experiments to distinguishing real resistance change due to strain modulation from resistance fluctuations due to charge trapping. Furthermore, a numerical model correlating surface charge density with the gauge factor is presented. Comparison of the simulations with experimental measurements shows the validity of this approach. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the piezoresistive effect in Si nanowires.

  18. Radial Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes in the (AlxGa1-x)yIn1-yP Material System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alexander; Yazdi, Sadegh; Nowzari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    layer for emission and AlGaInP as charge carrier barriers. The different layers were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to ensure lattice-matched radial structures. Furthermore, we evaluated the material composition and heterojunction interface sharpness by scanning transmission electron microscopy energy......Nanowires have the potential to play an important role for next-generation light-emitting diodes. In this work, we present a growth scheme for radial nanowire quantum-well structures in the AlGaInP material system using a GaInP nanowire core as a template for radial growth with GaInP as the active...... dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electro-optical properties were investigated by injection luminescence measurements. The presented results can be a valuable track toward radial nanowire light-emitting diodes in the AlGaInP material system in the red/orange/yellow color spectrum....

  19. GIDL analysis of the process variation effect in gate-all-around nanowire FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shinkeun; Seo, Youngsoo; Lee, Jangkyu; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) is analyzed on gate-all-around (GAA) Nanowire FET (NW FET) with ellipse-shaped channel induced by process variation effect (PVE). The fabrication process of nanowire can lead to change the shape of channel cross section from circle to ellipse. The effect of distorted channel shape is investigated and verified by technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation in terms of the GIDL current. The simulation results demonstrate that the components of GIDL current are two mechanisms of longitudinal band-to-band tunneling (L-BTBT) at body/drain junction and transverse band-to-band tunneling (T-BTBT) at gate/drain junction. These two mechanisms are investigated on channel radius (rnw) and aspect ratio of ellipse-shape respectively and together.

  20. Ultra-thin graphene edges at the nanowire tips: a cascade cold cathode with two-stage field amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Uday N; Majumder, Tapas Pal; Maiti, Soumen; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

    2011-01-01

    A multistage field emitter based on graphene-linked ZnO nanowire array is realized by means of spin-coating a graphene dispersion (reduced graphene oxide) over a nanostructured platform followed by plasma modification. Spin-coating leads to interlinking of graphene sheets between the neighboring nanowires whereas plasma etching in the subsequent step generates numerous ultra-sharp graphene edges at the nanowire tips. The inherent tendency of graphene to lay flat over a plane substrate can easily be bypassed through the currently presented nanostructure platform based technique. The turn-on and threshold field significantly downshifted compared to the individual components in the cascade emitter. Through the facile electron transfer from nanowires to graphene due to band bending at the ZnO–graphene interface together with multistage geometrical field enhancement at both the nanowire and graphene edges remain behind this enriched field emission from the composite cold cathode. This strategy will open up a new direction to integrate the functionalities of both the graphene array and several other inorganic nanostructure array for practical electronic devices.

  1. The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed. PMID:24059343

  2. Understanding the vapor-liquid-solid growth and composition of ternary III-V nanowires and nanowire heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Based on the recent achievements in vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis, characterization and modeling of ternary III-V nanowires and axial heterostructures within such nanowires, we try to understand the major trends in their compositional evolution from a general theoretical perspective. Clearly, the VLS growth of ternary materials is much more complex than in standard vapor-solid epitaxy techniques, and even maintaining the necessary control over the composition of steady-state ternary nanowires is far from straightforward. On the other hand, VLS nanowires offer otherwise unattainable material combinations without introducing structural defects and hence are very promising for next-generation optoelectronic devices, in particular those integrated with a silicon electronic platform. In this review, we consider two main problems. First, we show how and by means of which parameters the steady-state composition of Au-catalyzed or self-catalyzed ternary III-V nanowires can be tuned to a desired value and why it is generally different from the vapor composition. Second, we present some experimental data and modeling results for the interfacial abruptness across axial nanowire heterostructures, both in Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed VLS growth methods. Refined modeling allows us to formulate some general growth recipes for suppressing the unwanted reservoir effect in the droplet and sharpening the nanowire heterojunctions. We consider and refine two approaches developed to date, namely the regular crystallization model for a liquid alloy with a critical size of only one III-V pair at high supersaturations or classical binary nucleation theory with a macroscopic critical nucleus at modest supersaturations.

  3. Electronic structure effects on stability and quantum conductance in 2D gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashid, Vikas; Shah, Vaishali; Salunke, H. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the stability and conductivity of unsupported, two-dimensional infinite gold nanowires using ab initio density functional theory (DFT). Two-dimensional ribbon-like nanowires with 1–5 rows of gold atoms in the non-periodic direction and with different possible structures have been considered. The nanowires with >2 rows of atoms exhibit dimerization, similar to finite wires, along the non-periodic direction. Our results show that in these zero thickness nanowires, the parallelogram motif is the most stable. A comparison between parallelogram- and rectangular-shaped nanowires of increasing width indicates that zero thickness (111) oriented wires have a higher stability over (100). A detailed analysis of the electronic structure, reveals that the (111) oriented structures show increased delocalization of s and p electrons in addition to a stronger delocalization of the d electrons and hence are the most stable. The density of states show that the nanowires are metallic and conducting except for the double zigzag structure, which is semiconducting. Conductance calculations show transmission for a wide range of energies in all the stable nanowires with more than two rows of atoms. The conductance channels are not purely s and have strong contributions from the d levels, and weak contributions from the p levels.

  4. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel; Papadakis, Stergios J.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  5. Enhancement of thermoelectric figure-of-merit in laterally-coupled nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yiqun; Shi, Yi; Pu, Lin; Wang, Junzhuan; Pan, Lijia; Zheng, Youdou

    2011-01-01

    A high ZT value is predicted in laterally-coupled nanowire arrays. The quantum confinement and coupling of electrons are considered in the framework of effective-mass envelope-function theory. The boundary scattering on phonons is also taken into account. The thermoelectric properties benefit from the large Seebeck coefficient and dramatically reduced lattice thermal conductivity, as well as the preserved electronic conductivity in the minibands of the coupling nanowires. The enhancement of ZT to more than 10-fold is achieved in the n-type Si nanowires/Ge host material. Results suggest that the laterally-coupled nanowire arrays can be designed for high-performance thermoelectric devices. -- Highlights: → A high ZT value is predicted in the lateral-coupling nanowire arrays. → The lattice thermal conductivity is dramatically reduced in the lateral direction of nanowire arrays. → The electron transport is preserved in the lateral direction due to the coupling effect. → The ZT value is largely enhanced as the nanowire volume fraction exceeds some critical point.

  6. Precise Placement of Metallic Nanowires on a Substrate by Localized Electric Fields and Inter-Nanowire Electrostatic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Hyeok Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Placing nanowires at the predetermined locations on a substrate represents one of the significant hurdles to be tackled for realization of heterogeneous nanowire systems. Here, we demonstrate spatially-controlled assembly of a single nanowire at the photolithographically recessed region at the electrode gap with high integration yield (~90%. Two popular routes, such as protruding electrode tips and recessed wells, for spatially-controlled nanowire alignment, are compared to investigate long-range dielectrophoretic nanowire attraction and short-range nanowire-nanowire electrostatic interaction for determining the final alignment of attracted nanowires. Furthermore, the post-assembly process has been developed and tested to make a robust electrical contact to the assembled nanowires, which removes any misaligned ones and connects the nanowires to the underlying electrodes of circuit.

  7. Effect of zinc doping on the bandgap and photoluminescence of Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Trinh Thi; Huong, Vu Hoang; Tham, Vu Thi; Long, Nguyen Ngoc

    2018-03-01

    This study was focused on the effect of Zn2+ dopant concentration on the absorption edge and photoluminescence of anatase TiO2 nanowires synthesized by hydrothermal technique. For the undoped anatase TiO2 nanowires, the indirect band gap of 3.26 eV and the direct band gap of 3.58 eV are assigned to the indirect Γ3 → X1b and direct X2b → X1b transitions, respectively. The Zn2+-doping makes the absorption edge of TiO2:Zn2+ nanowires shift towards the lower energy side (red shift). On the other hand, the replacing Ti4+ ions with Zn2+ ions creates oxygen vacancies (VO) and shallow defects associated with VO. Just these defects are responsible for the enhanced luminescence of Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanowires.

  8. Fabricating a silicon nanowire by using the proximity effect in electron beam lithography for investigation of the Coulomb blockade effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangao; Fang Zhonghui; Chen Kunji; Xu Jun; Huang Xinfan

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to fabricate a silicon nanowire relying on the proximity effect in electron beam lithography with a low acceleration voltage system by designing the exposure patterns with a rhombus sandwiched between two symmetric wedges. The reproducibility is investigated by changing the number of rhombuses. A device with a silicon nanowire is constructed on a highly doped silicon-on-insulator wafer to measure the electronic transport characteristics. Significant nonlinear behavior of current-voltage curves is observed at up to 150 K. The dependence of current on the drain voltage and back-gate voltage shows Coulomb blockade oscillations at 5.4 K, revealing a Coulomb island naturally formed in the nanowire. The mechanism of formation of the Coulomb island is discussed.

  9. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 o C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  10. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shibin [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China); Chang, Xueting [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong (China); Li, Zhenjiang, E-mail: zjli126@126.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 {sup o}C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  11. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A

  12. Anomalies in the transverse magnetoresistance of bismuth nanowires in the quantum low-dimensional limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, A.A.; Konopko, L.A.; Tsurkan, A.K.; Botnari, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We report here anomalies observed at low temperatures in the transverse magnetoresistance of single Bi nanowires. Bi wires in glass capillary were prepared by liquid phase casting technique with diameters up to 45 nm. The Bi wire are single crystals, with their axis oriented in the bisectrix trigonal plane, about 19 degrees from bisectrix axis. For the first time it was found that the field dependence of transverse magnetoresistance (TMR), R(H) at I perpendicular H in Bi wires with d 0 at T<5K. Effect has been observed at low temperatures in Bi nanowires, with diameter around the critical diameter, at the semimetal-to-semiconductor transition (SMSCT) due to size quantization effect. To interpret these anomalous an accurate model of parabolic potentials taken into account the anisotropy of effective mass of current carriers have been used. The electrical conductivity of quantum Bi wires in the homogeneous magnetic field, directed perpendicular to axis of quantum wire is calculated using the Cubo formula taking into account the scattering process carrier on the interface roughest and phonons. The experimental results confirm the existence of the semimetal-semiconductor phase transition seen in the transverse magnetoresistance.

  13. Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie-Yun

    2018-06-01

    Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires is studied. Based on the excitonic theory, the numerical method to calculate the photoconductivity spectrum in the nanowires is developed, which can simulate optical pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy measurements on real nanowires and thereby calculate the typical photoconductivity spectrum. With the help of the energetic structure deduced from the calculated linear absorption spectrum, the numerically observed shift of the resonant peak in the photoconductivity spectrum is found to result from the dominant exciton transition between excited or continuum states to the ground state, and the quantitative analysis is in good agreement with the quantum plasmon model. Besides, the dependence of the photoconductivity on the polarization of the terahertz field is also discussed. The numerical method and supporting theoretical analysis provide a new tool for experimentalists to understand the terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires at low temperatures or for nanowires subjected to below bandgap photoexcitation, where excitonic effects dominate.

  14. High mobility ZnO nanowires for terahertz detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huiqiang; Peng, Rufang; Chu, Shijin; Chu, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    An oxide nanowire material was utilized for terahertz detection purpose. High quality ZnO nanowires were synthesized and field-effect transistors were fabricated. Electrical transport measurements demonstrated the nanowire with good transfer characteristics and fairly high electron mobility. It is shown that ZnO nanowires can be used as building blocks for the realization of terahertz detectors based on a one-dimensional plasmon detection configuration. Clear terahertz wave (∼0.3 THz) induced photovoltages were obtained at room temperature with varying incidence intensities. Further analysis showed that the terahertz photoresponse is closely related to the high electron mobility of the ZnO nanowire sample, which suggests that oxide nanoelectronics may find useful terahertz applications.

  15. Effects of Etching Time and NaOH Concentration on the Production of Alumina Nanowires Using Porous Anodic Alumina Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghpour-Motlagh, M.; Mokhtari-Zonouzi, K.; Aghajani, H.; Kakroudi, M. Ghassemi

    2014-06-01

    In this work, two-step anodizing of commercial aluminum foil in acid oxalic solution was applied for producing alumina film. Then the anodic alumina film was etched in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution resulting dense and aligned alumina nanowires. This procedure leads to splitting of alumina nanotubes. Subsequently nanowires are produced. The effects of NaOH solution concentration (0.2-1 mol/L) and etching time (60-300 s) at constant temperature on characteristic of nanotubes and produced nanowires were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The results show that an increase in NaOH solution concentration increases the rate of nanowires production and in turn the manipulation process will be more specific.

  16. Patchy silica-coated silver nanowires as SERS substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Murphy, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    We report a class of core–shell nanomaterials that can be used as efficient surface-enhancement Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. The core consists of silver nanowires, prepared through a chemical reduction process, that are used to capture 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), a model analyte. The shell was prepared through a modified Stöber method and consists of patchy or full silica coats. The formation of silica coats was monitored via transmission electron microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, and phase-analysis light-scattering for measuring effective surface charge. Surprisingly, the patchy silica-coated silver nanowires are better SERS substrate than silver nanowires; nanomolar concentration of 4-MBA can be detected. In addition, “nano-matryoshka” configurations were used to quantitate/explore the effect of the electromagnetic field at the tips of the nanowire (“hot spots”) in the Raman scattering experiment.

  17. Patchy silica-coated silver nanowires as SERS substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Murphy, Catherine J.

    2013-05-08

    We report a class of core-shell nanomaterials that can be used as efficient surface-enhancement Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. The core consists of silver nanowires, prepared through a chemical reduction process, that are used to capture 4- mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), a model analyte. The shell was prepared through a modified Stöber method and consists of patchy or full silica coats. The formation of silica coats was monitored via transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and phase-analysis light scattering for measuring effective surface charge. Surprisingly, the patchy silica coated silver nanowires are better SERS substrate than silver nanowires; nanomolar concentration of 4-MBA can be detected. In addition, “nano-matryoshka” configurations were used to quantitate/explore the effect of the electromagnetic field at the tips of the nanowire (“hot spots”) in the Raman scattering experiment.

  18. Simulation study of dielectrophoretic assembly of nanowire between electrode pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Quan, E-mail: taq3@pitt.edu; Lan, Fei; Jiang, Minlin [University of Pittsburgh, The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States); Wei, Fanan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation (China); Li, Guangyong, E-mail: gul6@pitt.edu [University of Pittsburgh, The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) of rod-shaped nanostructures is attractive because of its exceptional capability to fabricate nanowire-based electronic devices. This efficient manipulation method, however, has a common side effect of assembling a certain number of nanowires at undesired positions. It is therefore essential to understand the underlying physics of DEP of nanowires in order to better guide the assembly. In this work, we propose theoretical methods to characterize the dielectrophoretic force and torque as well as the hydrodynamic drag force and torque on the nanowire (typical length: 10 μm). The trajectory of the nanowire is then simulated based on rigid body dynamics. The nanowire is predicted to either bridge the electrodes or attach on the surface of one electrode. A neighborhood in which the nanowire is more likely to bridge electrodes is found, which is conducive to successful assembly. The simulation study in this work provides us not only a better understanding of the underlying physics but also practical guidance on nanowire assembly by DEP.

  19. Photoelectric properties and charge dynamics in ZnO nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} and ZnO nanowires/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangyang, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn; Wang, Shun; Gu, Yuzong, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn [Institue of Microsystems Physics and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei [The Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of MOE, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-12-28

    ZnO nanowires arrays were preformed in a horizontal double-tube system. Two types of heterostructures (ZnO nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} and ZnO nanowires/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}) and three-dimensional solar cells were fabricated with ZnO nanowires arrays as working electrode, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} as buffer layer, and Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} as inorganic dye and hole collector. It is suggested that two types of heterostructures have the similar absorption properties with single Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}. However, the results of steady state and electric field-induced surface photovoltage indicate that ZnO nanowires/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} exhibits the higher photovoltaic response than ZnO nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}. Using the transient surface photovoltage spectroscopy, we further studied the separation and transport mechanism of photogenerated charges. Furthermore, Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO cells presents the better performance than Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}/ZnO cells and the highest efficiencies are about 6.4% and 5.2%, respectively. It is suggested that direct paths, interface barrier, built-in electric field, and double energy level matchings between conduction bands (Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnO) have obvious effect on the separation of photogenerated charges. Then we discussed the synthetic action on the charge dynamics from these factors.

  20. Effect of atomic layer deposition temperature on the performance of top-down ZnO nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the performance of top-down ZnO nanowire transistors. Electrical characteristics are presented for 10-μm ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and for deposition temperatures in the range 120°C to 210°C. Well-behaved transistor output characteristics are obtained for all deposition temperatures. It is shown that the maximum field-effect mobility occurs for an ALD temperature of 190°C. This maximum field-effect mobility corresponds with a maximum Hall effect bulk mobility and with a ZnO film that is stoichiometric. The optimized transistors have a field-effect mobility of 10 cm2/V.s, which is approximately ten times higher than can typically be achieved in thin-film amorphous silicon transistors. Furthermore, simulations indicate that the drain current and field-effect mobility extraction are limited by the contact resistance. When the effects of contact resistance are de-embedded, a field-effect mobility of 129 cm2/V.s is obtained. This excellent result demonstrates the promise of top-down ZnO nanowire technology for a wide variety of applications such as high-performance thin-film electronics, flexible electronics, and biosensing. PMID:25276107

  1. Enhancing Photoresponsivity of Self-Aligned MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors by Piezo-Phototronic Effect from GaN Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Yang, Xiaonian; Gao, Guoyun; Yang, Zhenyu; Liu, Haitao; Li, Qiang; Lou, Zheng; Shen, Guozhen; Liao, Lei; Pan, Caofeng; Lin Wang, Zhong

    2016-08-23

    We report high-performance self-aligned MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) with enhanced photoresponsivity by the piezo-phototronic effect. The FETs are fabricated based on monolayer MoS2 with a piezoelectric GaN nanowire (NW) as the local gate, and a self-aligned process is employed to define the source/drain electrodes. The fabrication method allows the preservation of the intrinsic property of MoS2 and suppresses the scattering center density in the MoS2/GaN interface, which results in high electrical and photoelectric performances. MoS2 FETs with channel lengths of ∼200 nm have been fabricated with a small subthreshold slope of 64 mV/dec. The photoresponsivity is 443.3 A·W(-1), with a fast response and recovery time of ∼5 ms under 550 nm light illumination. When strain is introduced into the GaN NW, the photoresponsivity is further enhanced to 734.5 A·W(-1) and maintains consistent response and recovery time, which is comparable with that of the mechanical exfoliation of MoS2 transistors. The approach presented here opens an avenue to high-performance top-gated piezo-enhanced MoS2 photodetectors.

  2. From nanodiamond to nanowires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, A.; Materials Science Division

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication and characterization of semiconductor and metallic nanowires are proving very successful in meeting the high expectations of nanotechnologists. Although the nanoscience surrounding sp{sup 3} bonded carbon nanotubes has continued to flourish over recent years the successful synthesis of the sp{sup 3} analogue, diamond nanowires, has been limited. This prompts questions as to whether diamond nanowires are fundamentally unstable. By applying knowledge obtained from examining the structural transformations in nanodiamond, a framework for analyzing the structure and stability of diamond nanowires may be established. One possible framework will be discussed here, supported by results of ab initio density functional theory calculations used to study the structural relaxation of nanodiamond and diamond nanowires. The results show that the structural stability and electronic properties of diamond nanowires are dependent on the surface morphology, crystallographic direction of the principal axis, and the degree of surface hydrogenation.

  3. The Role of Surface Passivation in Controlling Ge Nanowire Faceting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamalski, A D; Tersoff, J; Kodambaka, S; Zakharov, D N; Ross, F M; Stach, E A

    2015-12-09

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. These results illustrate the essential roles of the precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, ⟨111⟩-oriented nanowires.

  4. Tunable, flexible antireflection layer of ZnO nanowires embedded in PDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Yi, Dong Kee; Paik, Ungyu

    2010-05-18

    In this article, we report the fabrication of ordered hybrid structures composed of ZnO nanowires and a polymeric matrix with a polymer precursor infiltrating the nanowire arrays. The antireflective properties of the resulting ZnO nanowire-embedded polydimethylsiloxane composite (ZPC) were investigated at various ZnO nanowire lengths and ZPC bending angles. Interestingly, we found that whereas the antireflective properties showed a strong dependence on the length of the embedded ZnO nanowires in PDMS, the bending of ZPC has little effect on the antireflective properties.

  5. Ambient template synthesis of multiferroic MnWO4 nanowires and nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hongjun; Yiu Yuen; Aronson, M.C.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2008-01-01

    The current report describes the systematic synthesis of polycrystalline, multiferroic MnWO 4 nanowires and nanowire arrays with controllable chemical composition and morphology, using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. We were able to synthesize nanowires measuring 55±10, 100±20, and 260±40 nm in diameter, respectively, with lengths ranging in the microns. Extensive characterization of as-prepared samples has been performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Magnetic behavior in these systems was also probed. - Graphical abstract: Systematic synthesis of crystalline, multiferroic MnWO4 nanowires and nanowire arrays with controllable chemical composition and morphology, using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions

  6. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  7. Effects of ZnS layer on the performance improvement of the photosensitive ZnO nanowire arrays solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Hafiz Muhammad Asif [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Gao, Yanping; Xing, Yonglei [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Kong, Ling Bing, E-mail: ELBKong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-08-01

    The impact of ZnS layer as an interface modification on the photosensitive ZnO nanowire arrays solar cells was studied. CdS, CdSe and ZnS were deposited on ZnO nanowire arrays by SILAR method. When a ZnS layer was deposited, the quantum dot barrier was indirectly become in contact with the electrolyte, which thus restrained the flow of electrons. The CdS sensitized solar cells has an efficiency of 0.55% with the deposition of the ZnS(3) layer, that is, with a deposition of three times, whereas the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells has an efficiency of 2.03% with the deposition of the ZnS(1) layer. It was also noted that as the thickness of the of ZnS layer was increased, V{sub oc}, I{sub sc} and efficiencies of both the solar cells were first increased and then decreased. In addition, the CdS/N719 solar cells has an efficiency of 0.75% with the deposition of the ZnS(2) layer. - Highlights: • The impact of ZnS layer on the photosensitive ZnO nanowire solar cells was studied. • ZnS layer restrained the flow of electrons to the electrolyte. • CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells have higher efficiency than CdS solar cells. • When ZnS layer was increased, V{sub oc} and I{sub sc} firstly increased and then decreased.

  8. Elastic properties and electron transport in InAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migunov, Vadim

    2013-02-22

    The electron transport and elastic properties of InAs nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition on InAs (001) substrate were studied experimentally, in-situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A TEM holder allowing the measurement of a nanoforce while simultaneous imaging nanowire bending was used. Diffraction images from local areas of the wire were recorded to correlate elastic properties with the atomic structure of the nanowires. Another TEM holder allowing the application of electrical bias between the nanowire and an apex of a metallic needle while simultaneous imaging the nanowire in TEM or performing electron holography was used to detect mechanical vibrations in mechanical study or holographical observation of the nanowire inner potential in the electron transport studies. The combination of the scanning probe methods with TEM allows to correlate the measured electric and elastic properties of the nanowires with direct identification of their atomic structure. It was found that the nanowires have different atomic structures and different stacking fault defect densities that impacts critically on the elastic properties and electric transport. The unique methods, that were applied in this work, allowed to obtain dependencies of resistivity and Young's modulus of left angle 111 right angle -oriented InAs nanowires on defect density and diameter. It was found that the higher is the defect density the higher are the resistivity and the Young's modulus. Regarding the resistivity, it was deduced that the stacking faults increase the scattering of the electrons in the nanowire. These findings are consistent with the literature, however, the effect described by the other groups is not so pronounced. This difference can be attributed to the significant incompleteness of the physical models used for the data analysis. Regarding the elastic modulus, there are several mechanisms affecting the elasticity of the nanowires discussed in the thesis. It

  9. Effects of polymer surface energy on morphology and properties of silver nanowire fabricated via nanoimprint and E-beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Hwang, Soon Hyoung; Jeon, Sohee; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Jihye; Choi, Dae-Geun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Park, Sang-Hu; Jeong, Jun-Ho

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that use of different nanoimprint resins as a polymer pattern has a significant effect on the morphology of silver (Ag) nanowires deposited via an E-beam evaporator. RM-311 and Ormo-stamp resins are chosen as a polymer pattern to form a line with dimensions of width (100 nm) × space (100 nm) × height (120 nm) by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Their contact angles are then measured to evaluate their surface energies. In order to compare the properties of the Ag nanowires deposited on the various polymer patterns with different surface energies, hydrophobic surface treatment of the polymer pattern surface is implemented using self-assembled monolayers. In addition, gold and aluminum nanowires are fabricated for comparison with the Ag nanowires, with the differences in the nanowire morphologies being determined by the different atomic properties. The monocrystalline and polycrystalline structures of the various Ag nanowire formations are observed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the melting temperatures and optical properties of four kinds of Ag nanowire morphologies deposited on various polymer patterns are evaluated using a hot plate and an ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometer, respectively. The results indicate that the morphology of the Ag nanowire determines the melting temperature and the transmission. We believe that these findings will greatly aid the development of NIL, along with physical evaporation and chemical deposition techniques, and will be widely employed in optics, biology, and surface wettability applications.

  10. Investigation on the effect of atomic defects on the breaking behaviors of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fenying; Sun Wei; Wang Hongbo; Zhao Jianwei; Kiguchi, Manabu; Sun Changqing

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties and breaking behaviors of the [100]-oriented single-crystal gold nanowires containing a set of defect ratios have been studied at different temperatures using molecular dynamics simulations. The size of the nanowire is 10a × 10a × 30a (a stands for lattice constant, 0.408 nm for gold). The mechanical strengths of the nanowires decrease with the increasing temperature. However, the defects that enhance the local thermal energy have improved the nanowire mechanical strength under a wide range of temperature. Comparing to the single-crystal nanowire, the existence of the atomic defects extends the elastic deformation showing a larger yield strain. By summarizing 300 samples at each temperature, the statistical breaking position distribution shows that the nanowire breaking behavior is sensitive to the atomic defects when the defect ratio is 5 % at 100 K, whereas the ratio is 1 % when temperatures are 300 and 500 K.

  11. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P

    2010-01-01

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  12. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  13. Tuning electronic properties of In2O3 nanowires by doping control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, B.; Li, C.; Zhang, D.; Tang, D.; Zhou, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present two effective routes to tune the electronic properties of single-crystalline In 2 O 3 nanowires by controlling the doping. The first method involves using different O 2 concentrations during the synthesis. Lightly (heavily) doped nanowires were produced by using high (low) O 2 concentrations, respectively, as revealed by the conductances and threshold voltages of nanowire-based field-effect transistors. Our second method exploits post-synthesis baking, as baking heavily doped nanowires in ambient air led to suppressed conduction and a positive shift of the threshold voltage, whereas baking lightly doped nanowires in vacuum displayed the opposite behavior. Our approaches offer viable ways to tune the electronic properties of many nonstoichiometric metal oxide systems such as In 2 O 3 , SnO 2 , and ZnO nanowires for various applications

  14. Surface Passivation of GaN Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Varadhan, Purushothaman; Fu, Hui-chun; Priante, Davide; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Zhao, Chao; Ebaid, Mohamed; Ng, Tien Khee; Ajia, Idris A.; Mitra, Somak; Roqan, Iman S.; Ooi, Boon S.; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultralarge surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this work, we address the issue of surface states in GaN nanowire photoelectrodes by employing a simple and low-cost surface treatment method, which utilizes an organic thiol compound (i.e., 1,2-ethanedithiol). The surface-treated photocathode showed an enhanced photocurrent density of −31 mA/cm at −0.2 V versus RHE with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 18.3%, whereas untreated nanowires yielded only 8.1% efficiency. Furthermore, the surface passivation provides enhanced photoelectrochemical stability as surface-treated nanowires retained ∼80% of their initial photocurrent value and produced 8000 μmol of gas molecules over 55 h at acidic conditions (pH ∼ 0), whereas the untreated nanowires demonstrated only <4 h of photoelectrochemical stability. These findings shed new light on the importance of surface passivation of nanostructured photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  15. Surface Passivation of GaN Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Varadhan, Purushothaman

    2017-02-08

    Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultralarge surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this work, we address the issue of surface states in GaN nanowire photoelectrodes by employing a simple and low-cost surface treatment method, which utilizes an organic thiol compound (i.e., 1,2-ethanedithiol). The surface-treated photocathode showed an enhanced photocurrent density of −31 mA/cm at −0.2 V versus RHE with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 18.3%, whereas untreated nanowires yielded only 8.1% efficiency. Furthermore, the surface passivation provides enhanced photoelectrochemical stability as surface-treated nanowires retained ∼80% of their initial photocurrent value and produced 8000 μmol of gas molecules over 55 h at acidic conditions (pH ∼ 0), whereas the untreated nanowires demonstrated only <4 h of photoelectrochemical stability. These findings shed new light on the importance of surface passivation of nanostructured photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  16. Understanding InP Nanowire Array Solar Cell Performance by Nanoprobe-Enabled Single Nanowire Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otnes, Gaute; Barrigón, Enrique; Sundvall, Christian; Svensson, K Erik; Heurlin, Magnus; Siefer, Gerald; Samuelson, Lars; Åberg, Ingvar; Borgström, Magnus T

    2018-05-09

    III-V solar cells in the nanowire geometry might hold significant synthesis-cost and device-design advantages as compared to thin films and have shown impressive performance improvements in recent years. To continue this development there is a need for characterization techniques giving quick and reliable feedback for growth development. Further, characterization techniques which can improve understanding of the link between nanowire growth conditions, subsequent processing, and solar cell performance are desired. Here, we present the use of a nanoprobe system inside a scanning electron microscope to efficiently contact single nanowires and characterize them in terms of key parameters for solar cell performance. Specifically, we study single as-grown InP nanowires and use electron beam induced current characterization to understand the charge carrier collection properties, and dark current-voltage characteristics to understand the diode recombination characteristics. By correlating the single nanowire measurements to performance of fully processed nanowire array solar cells, we identify how the performance limiting parameters are related to growth and/or processing conditions. We use this understanding to achieve a more than 7-fold improvement in efficiency of our InP nanowire solar cells, grown from a different seed particle pattern than previously reported from our group. The best cell shows a certified efficiency of 15.0%; the highest reported value for a bottom-up synthesized InP nanowire solar cell. We believe the presented approach have significant potential to speed-up the development of nanowire solar cells, as well as other nanowire-based electronic/optoelectronic devices.

  17. The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M; Sivakov, V; Andrä, G; Geiger, R; Schreiber, J; Hoffmann, S; Michler, J; Milenin, A P; Werner, P; Christiansen, S H

    2007-01-01

    We show that hemispherical gold droplets on top of silicon nanowires when grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, can produce a significant enhancement of Raman scattered signals. Signal enhancement for a few or even just single gold droplets is demonstrated by analyzing the enhanced Raman signature of malachite green molecules. For this experiment, trenches (approximately 800 nm wide) were etched in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer along crystallographic directions that constitute sidewalls ({110} surfaces) suitable for the growth of silicon nanowires in directions with the intention that the gold droplets on the silicon nanowires can meet somewhere in the trench when growth time is carefully selected. Another way to realize gold nanostructures in close vicinity is to attach a silicon nanowire with a gold droplet onto an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and to bring this tip toward another gold-coated AFM tip where malachite green molecules were deposited prior to the measurements. In both experiments, signal enhancement of characteristic Raman bands of malachite green molecules was observed. This indicates that silicon nanowires with gold droplets atop can act as efficient probes for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). In our article, we show that a nanowire TERS probe can be fabricated by welding nanowires with gold droplets to AFM tips in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). TERS tips made from nanowires could improve the spatial resolution of Raman spectroscopy so that measurements on the nanometer scale are possible.

  18. 'Blocking' effects in magnetic resonance? The ferromagnetic nanowires case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, C.A.; De Biasi, E.; Zysler, R.D.; Vassallo Brigneti, E.; Vazquez, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present magnetic resonance results obtained at L, X, and Q bands (1.2, 9.4 and 34GHz, respectively) on ferromagnetic nanowires with a hysteresis cycle characterized by a remanent magnetization M r /M s ∼0.92 and a coercive field H c =1.0kOe. The hysteretic response of the ferromagnetic resonance spectra is discussed in terms of independent contributions of the nanowires aligned along and opposite to the applied field. We will discuss the implications of this study on the magnetic resonance in nanoparticles and other systems with large anisotropy

  19. Rapid Transition of the Hole Rashba Effect from Strong Field Dependence to Saturation in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Zunger, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

  20. Zn-dopant dependent defect evolution in GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Liu, Baodan; Wang, Yujia; Zhuang, Hao; Liu, Qingyun; Yuan, Fang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, doping on the defect evolution, including stacking fault, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure with good crystallinity. Several kinds of twin boundaries, including (101&cmb.macr;3), (101&cmb.macr;1) and (202&cmb.macr;1), as well as Type I stacking faults (...ABABC&cmb.b.line;BCB...), are observed in the nanowires. The increasing Zn doping level (GaN nanowires. At high Zn doping level (3-5 at%), meta-stable cubic zinc blende (ZB) domains are generated in the WZ GaN nanowires. The WZ/ZB phase boundary (...ABABAC&cmb.b.line;BA...) can be identified as Type II stacking faults. The density of stacking faults (both Type I and Type II) increases with increasing the Zn doping levels, which in turn leads to a rough-surface morphology in the GaN nanowires. First-principles calculations reveal that Zn doping will reduce the formation energy of both Type I and Type II stacking faults, favoring their nucleation in GaN nanowires. An understanding of the effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution provides an important method to control the microstructure and the electrical properties of p-type GaN nanowires.Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, doping on the defect evolution, including stacking fault, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure with good crystallinity. Several kinds of twin boundaries, including (101&cmb.macr;3), (101&cmb.macr;1) and (202&cmb.macr;1), as well as Type I stacking faults (...ABABC&cmb.b.line;BCB...), are observed in the nanowires. The increasing Zn doping level (GaN nanowires. At high Zn doping level (3-5 at%), meta

  1. Hybrid nanocomposites based on conducting polymer and silicon nanowires for photovoltaic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehata, Nadia; Ltaief, Adnen; Ilahi, Bouraoui; Salem, Bassem; Bouazizi, Abdelaziz; Maaref, Hassen; Baron, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites based on a nanoscale combination of organic and inorganic semiconductors are a promising way to enhance the performance of solar cells through a higher aspect ratio of the interface and the good processability of polymers. Nanocomposites are based on a heterojunction network between poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyhexyl-oxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) as an organic electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as an inorganic electron acceptor. Nanowires (NWs) seem to be a promising material for this purpose, as they provide a large surface area for contact with the polymer and a designated conducting pathway whilst their volume is low. In this paper, silicon nanowires are introduced by mixing them into the polymer matrix. Hybrid nanocomposites films were deposited onto ITO substrate by spin coating method. Optical properties and photocurrent response were investigated. Charge transfer between the polymer and SiNWs has been demonstrated through photoluminescence measurements. The photocurrent density of ITO/MEH-PPV:SiNWs/Al structures have been obtained by J–V characteristics. The J sc value is about 0.39 µA/cm 2 . - Highlights: • SiNWs synthesis by Vapor–Liquid–Solid (VLS) mechanism. • SiNWs contribution to absorption spectra enhancement of MEH-PPV:SiNWs nanocomposites. • Decrease of PL intensity of MEH-PPV by addition of SiNWs. • Charge transfer process was taken place. • ITO/MEH-PPV:SiNWs/Al structure shows a photovoltaic effect, with a FF of 0.32

  2. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  3. Sensing Responses Based on Transfer Characteristics of InAs Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Igor; Blumin, Marina; Wang, Shiliang; Ruda, Harry E.

    2017-01-01

    Nanowire-based field-effect transistors (FETs) have demonstrated considerable promise for a new generation of chemical and biological sensors. Indium arsenide (InAs), by virtue of its high electron mobility and intrinsic surface accumulation layer of electrons, holds properties beneficial for creating high performance sensors that can be used in applications such as point-of-care testing for patients diagnosed with chronic diseases. Here, we propose devices based on a parallel configuration of InAs nanowires and investigate sensor responses from measurements of conductance over time and FET characteristics. The devices were tested in controlled concentrations of vapour containing acetic acid, 2-butanone and methanol. After adsorption of analyte molecules, trends in the transient current and transfer curves are correlated with the nature of the surface interaction. Specifically, we observed proportionality between acetic acid concentration and relative conductance change, off current and surface charge density extracted from subthreshold behaviour. We suggest the origin of the sensing response to acetic acid as a two-part, reversible acid-base and redox reaction between acetic acid, InAs and its native oxide that forms slow, donor-like states at the nanowire surface. We further describe a simple model that is able to distinguish the occurrence of physical versus chemical adsorption by comparing the values of the extracted surface charge density. These studies demonstrate that InAs nanowires can produce a multitude of sensor responses for the purpose of developing next generation, multi-dimensional sensor applications. PMID:28714903

  4. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project...

  5. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project...

  6. Review on Raman scattering in semiconductor nanowires: I. theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Raman scattering is a nondestructive technique that is able to supply information on the crystal and electronic structures, strain, temperature, phonon-phonon, and electron-phonon interaction. In the particular case of semiconductor nanowires, Raman scattering provides additional information related to surfaces. Although correct, a theoretical approach to analyze the surface optical modes loses critical information when retardation is neglected. A comparison of the retarded and unretarded approaches clarifies the role of the electric and magnetic polarization in the Raman selection rules. Since most III-V compounds growing in the zincblende phase change their crystal structure to wurtzite when growing as nanowires, the polariton description will be particularized for these two important crystal phases. Confined phonons exist in cylindrical nanowires and couple with longitudinal and transverse modes due to the presence of the nanowire's surface. This coupling vanishes in the case of rotational symmetry. The boundary conditions of the electromagnetic fields on small-size nanowires (antenna effect) have a dramatic effect on the polarization properties of a Raman spectrum.

  7. High capacitance density MIS capacitor using Si nanowires by MACE and ALD alumina dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontis, I.; Nassiopoulou, A. G., E-mail: A.Nassiopoulou@inn.demokritos.gr [INN, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou and Neapoleos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece); Botzakaki, M. A.; Georga, S. N. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26 504 Rion (Greece)

    2016-06-28

    High capacitance density three-dimensional (3D) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors using Si nanowires (SiNWs) by metal-assisted chemical etching and atomic-layer-deposited alumina dielectric film were fabricated and electrically characterized. A chemical treatment was used to remove structural defects from the nanowire surface, in order to reduce the density of interface traps at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiNW interface. SiNWs with two different lengths, namely, 1.3 μm and 2.4 μm, were studied. A four-fold capacitance density increase compared to a planar reference capacitor was achieved with the 1.3 μm SiNWs. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs this increase was ×7, reaching a value of 4.1 μF/cm{sup 2}. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that, following a two-cycle chemical treatment, frequency dispersion at accumulation regime and flat-band voltage shift disappeared in the case of the 1.3 μm SiNWs, which is indicative of effective removal of structural defects at the SiNW surface. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs, frequency dispersion at accumulation persisted even after the two-step chemical treatment. This is attributed to a porous Si layer at the SiNW tops, which is not effectively removed by the chemical treatment. The electrical losses of MIS capacitors in both cases of SiNW lengths were studied and will be discussed.

  8. High capacitance density MIS capacitor using Si nanowires by MACE and ALD alumina dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontis, I.; Nassiopoulou, A. G.; Botzakaki, M. A.; Georga, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    High capacitance density three-dimensional (3D) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors using Si nanowires (SiNWs) by metal-assisted chemical etching and atomic-layer-deposited alumina dielectric film were fabricated and electrically characterized. A chemical treatment was used to remove structural defects from the nanowire surface, in order to reduce the density of interface traps at the Al_2O_3/SiNW interface. SiNWs with two different lengths, namely, 1.3 μm and 2.4 μm, were studied. A four-fold capacitance density increase compared to a planar reference capacitor was achieved with the 1.3 μm SiNWs. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs this increase was ×7, reaching a value of 4.1 μF/cm"2. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that, following a two-cycle chemical treatment, frequency dispersion at accumulation regime and flat-band voltage shift disappeared in the case of the 1.3 μm SiNWs, which is indicative of effective removal of structural defects at the SiNW surface. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs, frequency dispersion at accumulation persisted even after the two-step chemical treatment. This is attributed to a porous Si layer at the SiNW tops, which is not effectively removed by the chemical treatment. The electrical losses of MIS capacitors in both cases of SiNW lengths were studied and will be discussed.

  9. Facile synthesis of porous Pt botryoidal nanowires and their electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhongyuan; Zhou, Haihui; Chen, Zhongxue; Zeng, Fanyan; Chen, Liang; Luo, Wucheng; Kuang, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous Pt nanowires were synthesized by combination of soft and hard templets. • Te nanowires were used as the hard templet and reductant. • The Pt nanowires are composed of many small Pt nanoparticles and pores. • The Pt nanowires have very good electrochemical activity and stability. - Abstract: Long and porous Pt botryoidal nanowires (Pt BNWs) were facilely synthesized by combination of soft and hard templates accompanying chemical reduction of ascorbic acid and replacement of Te nanowires. This bis-template and bis-reductant method is proved to be an effective way to prepare nanowires with special structure. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the as-prepared product is botryoidal nanowires with diameter of 20–30 nm and length of several micrometers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the Pt botryoidal nanowires are composed of many small Pt nanoparticles (about 3 nm in diameter), which is just like that many grapes grow on the branch. These small nanoparticles make Pt nanowires have botryoidal and porous structure. Moreover, the diameter of Pt BNWs can be adjusted by changing the dosage of Pt precursor, polyvinylpyrrolidone and L-ascorbic acid. The electrocatalytic performance of Pt botryoidal nanowires is studied, which shows that the as-prepared Pt botryoidal nanowires have not only high activity but also good stability for oxygen reduction reaction

  10. Effect of the template-assisted electrodeposition parameters on the structure and magnetic properties of Co nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kac, Malgorzata, E-mail: malgorzata.kac@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Zarzycki, Arkadiusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Kac, Slawomir [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kopec, Marek; Perzanowski, Marcin; Dutkiewicz, Erazm M.; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Maximenko, Alexey; Marszalek, Marta [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic properties of Co nanowires in polycarbonate membranes were studied. • Electrodeposition stages were illustrated by SEM images. • Electrolyte and membrane parameters were optimized for Co nanowire fabrication. • Low temperature and potential favored nanowires with high coercivity and squareness. - Abstract: We studied the magnetic properties of Co nanowires electrodeposited in polycarbonate membranes as a function of the electrodeposition and template parameters. We showed the response of the current as a function of time, for nanowires prepared in various conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that nanowires have polycrystalline hcp structure with small addition of fcc phase. Magnetic properties analyzed by SQUID measurements suggest that easy axis of magnetization follows the nanowire axis with coercivity increasing with a decrease of nanowire diameter and length. The largest coercivity, equal to 850 Oe, was obtained for nanowires with the diameter of 30 nm and the length of 1.5 μm. We find the coercivity to be insensitive to pH value. Low electrodeposition temperature, low cathodic potential, and medium pH are the synthesis parameters most beneficial for large coercivity and/or magnetic anisotropy with easy axis along nanowires.

  11. InGaN/GaN Nanowire LEDs and Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The large specific surface, and the associated high density of surface states was found to limit the light output power and quantum efficiency of nanowire-array devices, despite their potential for addressing the “green-gap” and efficiency-droop issues. The phonon and carrier confinement in nanowires also led to junction heating, and reduced heat dissipation. In this paper, we will present our studies on effective surface states passivation in InGaN/GaN quantum-disks (Qdisks)-in-nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers grown on silicon (Si), as well as our recent work on nanowires LEDs grown on bulk-metal, a non-conventional substrate.

  12. Static friction between silicon nanowires and elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qingquan; Zhu, Yong

    2011-09-27

    This paper reports the first direct measurements of static friction force and interfacial shear strength between silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). A micromanipulator is used to manipulate and deform the NWs under a high-magnification optical microscope in real time. The static friction force is measured based on "the most-bent state" of the NWs. The static friction and interface shear strength are found to depend on the ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) treatment of PDMS. The shear strength starts at 0.30 MPa without UVO treatment, increases rapidly up to 10.57 MPa at 60 min of treatment and decreases for longer treatment. Water contact angle measurements suggest that the UVO-induced hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion of PDMS surface is responsible for the increase in the static friction, while the hydrophobic recovery effect contributes to the decrease. The static friction between NWs and PDMS is of critical relevance to many device applications of NWs including NW-based flexible/stretchable electronics, NW assembly and nanocomposites (e.g., supercapacitors). Our results will enable quantitative interface design and control for such applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Growth and Characterisation of GaAs/AlGaAs Core-shell Nanowires for Optoelectronic Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nian

    III-V semiconductor nanowires have been investigated as key components for future electronic and optoelectronic devices and systems due to their direct band gap and high electron mobility. Amongst the III-V semiconductors, the planar GaAs material system has been extensively studied and used in industries. Accordingly, GaAs nanowires are the prime candidates for nano-scale devices. However, the electronic performance of GaAs nanowires has yet to match that of state-of-the-art planar GaAs devices. The present deficiency of GaAs nanowires is typically attributed to the large surface-to- volume ratio and the tendency for non-radiative recombination centres to form at the surface. The favoured solution of this problem is by coating GaAs nanowires with AlGaAs shells, which replaces the GaAs surface with GaAs/AlGaAs interface. This thesis presents a systematic study of GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), including understanding the growth, and characterisation of their structural and optical properties. The structures of the nanowires were mainly studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmis- sion electron microscopy (TEM). A procedure of microtomy was developed to prepare the cross-sectional samples for the TEM studies. The optical properties were charac- terised by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Carrier lifetimes were measured by time-resolved PL. The growth of AlGaAs shell was optimised to obtain the best optical properties, e.g. the strongest PL emission and the longest minority carrier lifetimes. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  14. Characterization of core-shell GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire heterostructures using advanced electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambe, M J; Gradecak, S; Allard, L F

    2010-01-01

    To explore the unique properties of the nanoscale, advanced fabrication and characterization techniques are required. Specifically analyses in two orthogonal directions, plan-view and cross-section, were used to prove the core-shell morphology of GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires and determine their cross-section to be hexagonal. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy confirmed the core-shell interface to be defect-free, coherent, and sharp ( 0.9 Ga 0.1 As uniformly along the length of the nanowire. These results demonstrate the power of electron microscopy to aid the development of semiconductor nanotechnology.

  15. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for quantitative interface state characterization of planar and nanostructured semiconductor-dielectric interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Andrew C.; Tang, Kechao; Braun, Michael R.; Zhang, Liangliang; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2017-10-01

    The performance of nanostructured semiconductors is frequently limited by interface defects that trap electronic carriers. In particular, high aspect ratio geometries dramatically increase the difficulty of using typical solid-state electrical measurements (multifrequency capacitance- and conductance-voltage testing) to quantify interface trap densities (D it). We report on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to characterize the energy distribution of interface traps at metal oxide/semiconductor interfaces. This method takes advantage of liquid electrolytes, which provide conformal electrical contacts. Planar Al2O3/p-Si and Al2O3/p-Si0.55Ge0.45 interfaces are used to benchmark the EIS data against results obtained from standard electrical testing methods. We find that the solid state and EIS data agree very well, leading to the extraction of consistent D it energy distributions. Measurements carried out on pyramid-nanostructured p-Si obtained by KOH etching followed by deposition of a 10 nm ALD-Al2O3 demonstrate the application of EIS to trap characterization of a nanostructured dielectric/semiconductor interface. These results show the promise of this methodology to measure interface state densities for a broad range of semiconductor nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofins, and porous structures.

  16. Looking into meta-atoms of plasmonic nanowire metamaterial

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Kuntong

    2014-09-10

    Nanowire-based plasmonic metamaterials exhibit many intriguing properties related to the hyperbolic dispersion, negative refraction, epsilon-near-zero behavior, strong Purcell effect, and nonlinearities. We have experimentally and numerically studied the electromagnetic modes of individual nanowires (meta-atoms) forming the metamaterial. High-resolution, scattering-type near-field optical microscopy has been used to visualize the intensity and phase of the modes. Numerical and analytical modeling of the mode structure is in agreement with the experimental observations and indicates the presence of the nonlocal response associated with cylindrical surface plasmons of nanowires.

  17. Enhanced Optoelectronic Performance of a Passivated Nanowire-Based Device: Key Information from Real-Space Imaging Using 4D Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Jafar Iqbal; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Sun, Jingya; Priante, Davide; Bose, Riya; Shaheen, Basamat; Ng, Tien Khee; Zhao, Chao; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    Managing trap states and understanding their role in ultrafast charge-carrier dynamics, particularly at surface and interfaces, remains a major bottleneck preventing further advancements and commercial exploitation of nanowire (NW)-based devices. A

  18. Effect of diffusion from a lateral surface on the rate of GaN nanowire growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibirev, N. V.; Tchernycheva, M.; Cirlin, G. E.; Patriarche, G.; Harmand, J. C.; Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of the growth of GaN crystalline nanowires on a Si (111) surface with no catalyst is studied experimentally and theoretically. Noncatalytic GaN nanowires were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with AlN inserts, which makes it possible to determine the rate of the vertical growth of nanowires. A model for the formation of GaN nanowires is developed, and an expression for their rate of growth is derived. It is shown that, in the general case, the dependence of the rate of growth on the nanowire diameter has a minimum. The diameter corresponding to the experimentally observed minimum of the rate of growth steadily increases with increasing diffusion flux from the lateral surface.

  19. Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Mortensen, Asger; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers....

  20. UV irradiation assisted growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Bo; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Li, Xiaoping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Temgyuan; Tang, Zirong, E-mail: zirong@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new fabrication process combined a hydrothermal process with UV irradiation from optical fiber is developed. • The growth of ZnO nanowires is efficient in the utilization of UV light. • A novel hybrid structure which integrates ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface is synthesized. • The UV assisted growth of ZnO nanowires shows preferred orientation and better quality. • A mechanism of growing ZnO nanowires under UV irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach was developed for the enhanced growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface. The method combined a hydrothermal process with the efficient UV irradiation from the fiber core, and the effects of UV irradiation on the growth behavior of ZnO nanowires were investigated. The results show that UV irradiation had great effects on the preferred growth orientation and the quality of the ZnO nanowires. The crystallization velocity along the c-axis would increase rapidly with the increase of the irradiation power, while the growth process in the lateral direction was marginally affected by the irradiation. The structure of ZnO nanowires also shows less oxygen vacancy with UV irradiation of higher power. The developed approach is applicable for the efficient growth of nanowires on the fiber surface, and the ZnO nanowires/optical fiber hybrid structures have great potentials for a wide variety of applications such as optical fiber sensors and probes.

  1. Piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanowires: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, K K; Cicero, G; Catellani, A

    2013-11-29

    Nanowires made of materials with non-centrosymmetric crystal structures are expected to be ideal building blocks for self-powered nanodevices due to their piezoelectric properties, yet a controversial explanation of the effective operational mechanisms and size effects still delays their real exploitation. To solve this controversy, we propose a methodology based on DFT calculations of the response of nanostructures to external deformations that allows us to distinguish between the different (bulk and surface) contributions: we apply this scheme to evaluate the piezoelectric properties of ZnO [0001] nanowires, with a diameter up to 2.3 nm. Our results reveal that, while surface and confinement effects are negligible, effective strain energies, and thus the nanowire mechanical response, are dependent on size. Our unified approach allows for a proper definition of piezoelectric coefficients for nanostructures, and explains in a rigorous way the reason why nanowires are found to be more sensitive to mechanical deformation than the corresponding bulk material.

  2. Piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanowires: an ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korir, K K; Cicero, G; Catellani, A

    2013-01-01

    Nanowires made of materials with non-centrosymmetric crystal structures are expected to be ideal building blocks for self-powered nanodevices due to their piezoelectric properties, yet a controversial explanation of the effective operational mechanisms and size effects still delays their real exploitation. To solve this controversy, we propose a methodology based on DFT calculations of the response of nanostructures to external deformations that allows us to distinguish between the different (bulk and surface) contributions: we apply this scheme to evaluate the piezoelectric properties of ZnO [0001] nanowires, with a diameter up to 2.3 nm. Our results reveal that, while surface and confinement effects are negligible, effective strain energies, and thus the nanowire mechanical response, are dependent on size. Our unified approach allows for a proper definition of piezoelectric coefficients for nanostructures, and explains in a rigorous way the reason why nanowires are found to be more sensitive to mechanical deformation than the corresponding bulk material. (paper)

  3. Synthesis and magnetic properties of bundled and dispersed Co3O4 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.B.; Wang, P.F.; Xu, J.C.; Han, Y.B.; Jin, H.X.; Jin, D.F.; Peng, X.L.; Hong, B.; Li, J.; Yang, Y.T.; Gong, J.; Ge, H.L.; Wang, X.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co 3 O 4 nanowires possessed the same diameter and the different interwires distance. • All samples possessed antiferromagnetism and superparamagnetism at high temperature. • The exchange bias effect was observed at low temperature. • The surface spin coupling restrained the surface effect of magnetic nanostructures. - Abstract: The magnetic Co 3 O 4 nanowires were synthesized using the templates of SBA-15, and then the well-dispersed nanowires (D-wires) were separated from the bundled ordered nanowires (B-wires) with the centrifugal technique. TEM images indicated that D-wires were highly dispersed Co 3 O 4 nanowires and B-wires existed in bundles. All samples possessed the antiferromagnetism and superparamagnetism at high temperature. After revealing the intrinsic magnetic properties of Co 3 O 4 nanowires with D-wires, the magnetic behavior of B-wires was discussed in detail, and then the magnetic interaction between neighboring nanowires could be deduced. The exchange bias effect from the body Co 3 O 4 antiferromagnetism and surface ferromagnetism was observed at low temperature. The magnetization of B-wires was higher than that of D-wires, which was attributed to the constraint of the surface spin coupling between the neighboring nanowires to the surface affect of nanostructures.

  4. Study of GaN nanowires converted from β-Ga2O3 and photoconduction in a single nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Sudheer; Chauhan, Neha; Sakthi Kumar, D.; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, R.

    2017-08-01

    The formation of GaN nanowires from β-Ga2O3 nanowires and photoconduction in a fabricated single GaN nanowire device has been studied. Wurtzite phase GaN were formed from monoclinic β-Ga2O3 nanowires with or without catalyst particles at their tips. The formation of faceted nanostructures from catalyst droplets presented on a nanowire tip has been discussed. The nucleation of GaN phases in β-Ga2O3 nanowires and their subsequent growth due to interfacial strain energy has been examined using a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The high quality of the converted GaN nanowire is confirmed by fabricating single nanowire photoconducting devices which showed ultra high responsivity under ultra-violet illumination.

  5. Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, A. R.; Gluschke, J. G.; Jeppesen, Peter Krogstrup

    2017-01-01

    -gates produced using GaAs nanowires with three different Be-doping densities and various AuBe contact processing recipes. We show that contact annealing only brings small improvements for the moderately doped devices under conditions of lower anneal temperature and short anneal time. We only obtain good......GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin–orbit effects, motivating...... our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top...

  6. Brownian motion of tethered nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Sadao; Li, Tongcang; Li, Yimin; Ye, Ziliang; Labno, Anna; Yin, Xiaobo; Alam, Mohammad-Reza; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    Brownian motion of slender particles near a boundary is ubiquitous in biological systems and in nanomaterial assembly, but the complex hydrodynamic interaction in those systems is still poorly understood. Here, we report experimental and computational studies of the Brownian motion of silicon nanowires tethered on a substrate. An optical interference method enabled direct observation of microscopic rotations of the slender bodies in three dimensions with high angular and temporal resolutions. This quantitative observation revealed anisotropic and angle-dependent hydrodynamic wall effects: rotational diffusivity in inclined and azimuth directions follows different power laws as a function of the length, ∼ L(-2.5) and ∼ L(-3), respectively, and is more hindered for smaller inclined angles. In parallel, we developed an implicit simulation technique that takes the complex wire-wall hydrodynamic interactions into account efficiently, the result of which agreed well with the experimentally observed angle-dependent diffusion. The demonstrated techniques provide a platform for studying the microrheology of soft condensed matters, such as colloidal and biological systems near interfaces, and exploring the optimal self-assembly conditions of nanostructures.

  7. Structural stability of characteristic interface for NiTi/Nb Nanowire: First-Principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. F.; Zheng, H. Z.; Shu, X. Y.; Peng, P.

    2016-01-01

    Compared with some other conventional interface models, the interface of NiTi(211)/Nb(220) in NiTiNb metal nanocomposite had been simulated and analyzed carefully. Results show that only several interface models, i.e., NiTi(100)/Nb(100)(Ni⃡Nb), NiTi(110)/Nb(110) and NiTi(211)/Nb(220), can be formed accordingly with their negative formation enthalpy. Therein the cohesive energy Δ E and Griffith rupture work W of NiTi(211)/Nb(220) interface model are the lowest among them. Density of states shows that there exists only one electronic bonding peak for NiTi(211)/Nb(220) interface model at -2.5 eV. Electron density difference of NiTi(211)/ Nb(220) shows that the Nb-Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb-Ni bonding characters seem like so peaceful as a fabric twisting every atom, which is different from conventional metallic bonding performance. Such appearance can be deduced that the metallic bonding between Nb-Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb-Ni in NiTi(211)/Nb(220) may be affected by its nanostructure called nanometer size effect. Thus, our findings open an avenue for detailed and comprehensive studies of nanocomposite.

  8. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  9. Vertical nanowire architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfl-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires and statistics: A statistical process for reading ultradense arrays of nanostructured materials is presented (see image). The experimental realization is achieved through selective nanowire growth using porous alumina templates. The statistical patterning approach is found to provide ri...

  10. Nonuniform Effect of Carrier Separation Efficiency and Light Absorption in Type-II Perovskite Nanowire Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; He, Jialun; Cao, Yiyan; Kong, Lijing; Zheng, Xuanli; Wu, Yaping; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Shuping; Wu, Zhiming; Kang, Junyong

    2017-03-01

    Coaxial structures exhibit great potential for the application of high-efficiency solar cells due to the novel mechanism of radial charge separation. Here, we intensively investigate the nonuniform effect of carrier separation efficiency (CSE) and light absorption in perovskite-based type-II coaxial nanowire solar cells (ZnO/CH3NH3PbI3). Results show that the CSE rapidly decreases along the radial direction in the shell, and the value at the outer side becomes extremely low for the thick shell. Besides, the position of the main light absorption gradually moves to the outer side with the increase of the shell thickness. As a result, the external quantum efficiency shows a positional dependence with a maximal value close to the border of the nanowire. Eventually, in our case, it is found that the maximal power conversion efficiency of the solar cells reduces from 19.5 to 17.9% under the effect of the nonuniformity of CSE and light absorption. This work provides a basis for the design of high-efficiency solar cells, especially type-II nanowire solar cells.

  11. InGaN/GaN Nanowire LEDs and Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Jahangir, Shafat; Frost, Thomas; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    -droop issues. The phonon and carrier confinement in nanowires also led to junction heating, and reduced heat dissipation. In this paper, we will present our studies on effective surface states passivation in InGaN/GaN quantum-disks (Qdisks)-in-nanowire light

  12. Diameter-dependent coloration of silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Mindy S; Qiu Chao; Jiang Chaoyang; Kattumenu, Ramesh; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanowires were synthesized with a green method and characterized with microscopic and diffractometric methods. The correlation between the colors of the nanowires deposited on a solid substrate and their diameters was explored. Silver nanowires that appear similar in color in the optical micrographs have very similar diameters as determined by atomic force microscopy. We have summarized the diameter-dependent coloration for these silver nanowires. An optical interference model was applied to explain such correlation. In addition, microreflectance spectra were obtained from individual nanowires and the observed spectra can be explained with the optical interference theory. This work provides a cheap, quick and simple screening method for studying the diameter distribution of silver nanowires, as well as the diameter variations of individual silver nanowires, without complicated sample preparation.

  13. A Hierarchical Phosphorus Nanobarbed Nanowire Hybrid: Its Structure and Electrochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Jinying; Li, Xin; Xiao, Dingbin; Fu, Chengcheng; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Zhihui; Li, Jun; Cao, Daxian; Niu, Chunming

    2017-06-14

    Nanostructured phosphorus-carbon composites are promising materials for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. A hierarchical phosphorus hybrid, SiC@graphene@P, has been synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of phosphorus on the surfaces of barbed nanowires, where the barbs are vertically grown graphene nanosheets and the cores are SiC nanowires. A temperature-gradient vaporization-condensation method has been used to remove the unhybridized phosphorus particles formed by homogeneous nucleation. The vertically grown barb shaped graphene nanosheets and a high concentration of edge carbon atoms induced a fibrous red phosphorus (f-RP) growth with its {001} planes in parallel to {002} planes of nanographene sheets and led to a strong interpenetrated interface interaction between phosphorus and the surfaces of graphene nanosheets. This hybridization has been demonstrated to significantly enhance the electrochemical performances of phosphorus.

  14. Examination Of Si-Ge Heterostructure Nanowire Growth Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastovjak, A. G.; Neizvestny, I. G.; Shwartz, N. L.

    2011-01-01

    The process of Si-Ge heterostructures formation in nanowires (NWs) grown by vapor-liquid-solid mechanism was investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. Dependences of catalyst drop composition on temperature, flux intensity and nanowire diameter were obtained. Periodical oscillations of drop composition near mean value were observed. Oscillation results from layer-by-layer growth at the drop-whisker interface and necessity of supersaturation onset to start new layer formation. It was demonstrated that it is impossible to grow atomically abrupt axial heterojunctions via classical vapor-liquid-solid mechanism due to gradual change of catalyst drop composition when switching the fluxes. This phenomenon is the main reason of heterojunction blurriness. Junction abruptness was found to be dependent on nanowhisker diameter: in adsorption-induced growth mode abruptness of heterojunction decreases with diameter and in diffusion-induced mode it increases.

  15. Local sensor based on nanowire field effect transistor from inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnov, Denis E.; Bozhev, Ivan V.; Miakonkikh, Andrew V.; Simakin, Sergey G.; Trifonov, Artem S.; Krupenin, Vladimir A.

    2018-02-01

    We present the original method for fabricating a sensitive field/charge sensor based on field effect transistor (FET) with a nanowire channel that uses CMOS-compatible processes only. A FET with a kink-like silicon nanowire channel was fabricated from the inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator wafer very close (˜100 nm) to the extremely sharp corner of a silicon chip forming local probe. The single e-beam lithographic process with a shadow deposition technique, followed by separate two reactive ion etching processes, was used to define the narrow semiconductor nanowire channel. The sensors charge sensitivity was evaluated to be in the range of 0.1-0.2 e /√{Hz } from the analysis of their transport and noise characteristics. The proposed method provides a good opportunity for the relatively simple manufacture of a local field sensor for measuring the electrical field distribution, potential profiles, and charge dynamics for a wide range of mesoscopic objects. Diagnostic systems and devices based on such sensors can be used in various fields of physics, chemistry, material science, biology, electronics, medicine, etc.

  16. In-situ doped junctionless polysilicon nanowires field effect transistors for low-cost biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Zulfiqar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowire (SiNW field effect transistor based biosensors have already been proven to be a promising tool to detect biomolecules. However, the most commonly used fabrication techniques involve expensive Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI wafers, E-beam lithography and ion-implantation steps. In the work presented here, a top down approach to fabricate SiNW junctionless field effect biosensors using novel in-situ doped polysilicon is demonstrated. The p-type polysilicon is grown with an optimum boron concentration that gives a good metal-silicon electrical contact while maintaining the doping level at a low enough level to provide a good sensitivity for the biosensor. The silicon nanowires are patterned using standard photolithography and a wet etch method. The metal contacts are made from magnetron sputtered TiW and e-beam evaporation of gold. The passivation of electrodes has been done by sputtered Si3N4 which is patterned by a lift-off process. The characterization of the critical fabrication steps is done by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS and by statistical analysis of the measurements made on the width of the SiNWs. The electrical characterization of the SiNW in air is done by sweeping the back gate voltage while keeping the source drain potential to a constant value and surface characterization is done by applying liquid gate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS solution. The fabricated SiNWs sensors functionalized with (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES have demonstrated good sensitivity in detecting different pH buffer solutions. Keywords: In-situ doped, Polysilicon nanowire, Field effect transistor, Biosensor

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Mg-Doped GaN Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong-Dong, Zhang; Cheng-Shan, Xue; Hui-Zhao, Zhuang; Ying-Long, Huang; Zou-Ping, Wang; Ying, Wang; Yong-Fu, Guo

    2008-01-01

    Mg-doped GaN nanowires have been synthesized by ammoniating Ga 2 O 3 films doped with Mg under flowing ammonia atmosphere at 850° C. The Mg-doped GaN nanowires are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and photo-luminescence (PL). The results demonstrate that the nanowires are single crystalline with hexagonal wurzite structure. The diameters of the nanowires are 20–30 nm and the lengths are 50–100 μm. The GaN nanowires show three emission bands with well-defined PL peak at 3.45 eV, 3.26 eV, 2.95 eV, respectively. The large distinct blueshift of the bandgap emission can be attributed to the Burstein–Moss effect. The peak at 3.26 eV represents the transition from the conduction-band edge to the acceptor level AM (acceptor Mg). The growth mechanism of crystalline GaN nanowires is discussed briefly. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Decoupling single nanowire mobilities limited by surface scattering and bulk impurity scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanal, D. R.; Levander, A. X.; Wu, J.; Yu, K. M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the isolation of two free carrier scattering mechanisms as a function of radial band bending in InN nanowires via universal mobility analysis, where effective carrier mobility is measured as a function of effective electric field in a nanowire field-effect transistor. Our results show that Coulomb scattering limits effective mobility at most effective fields, while surface roughness scattering only limits mobility under very high internal electric fields. High-energy α particle irradiation is used to vary the ionized donor concentration, and the observed decrease in mobility and increase in donor concentration are compared to Hall effect results of high-quality InN thin films. Our results show that for nanowires with relatively high doping and large diameters, controlling Coulomb scattering from ionized dopants should be given precedence over surface engineering when seeking to maximize nanowire mobility.

  19. Interface effects on effective elastic moduli of nanocrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gangfeng; Feng Xiqiao; Yu Shouwen; Nan Cewen

    2003-01-01

    Interfaces often play a significant role in many physical properties and phenomena of nanocrystalline materials (NcMs). In the present paper, the interface effects on the effective elastic property of NcMs are investigated. First, an atomic potential method is suggested for estimating the effective elastic modulus of an interface phase. Then, the Mori-Tanaka effective field method is employed to determine the overall effective elastic moduli of a nanocrystalline material, which is regarded as a binary composite consisting of a crystal or inclusion phase with regular lattice connected by an amorphous-like interface or matrix phase. Finally, the stiffening effects of strain gradients are examined on the effective elastic property by using the strain gradient theory to analyze a representative unit cell. Our analysis shows two physical mechanisms of interfaces that influence the effective stiffness and other mechanical properties of materials. One is the softening effect due to the distorted atomic structures and the increased atomic spacings in interface regions, and another is the baffling effect due to the existence of boundary layers between the interface phase and the crystalline phase

  20. Non-chemotoxic induction of cancer cell death using magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Contreras, Maria F.; Sougrat, Rachid; Zaher, Amir Omar; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that magnetic nanowires with weak magnetic fields and low frequencies can induce cell death via a mechanism that does not involve heat production. We incubated colon cancer cells with two concentrations (2.4 and 12 μg/mL) of nickel nanowires that were 35 nm in diameter and exposed the cells and nanowires to an alternating magnetic field (0.5 mT and 1 Hz or 1 kHz) for 10 or 30 minutes. This low-power field exerted a force on the magnetic nanowires, causing a mechanical disturbance to the cells. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the nanostructures were internalized into the cells within 1 hour of incubation. Cell viability studies showed that the magnetic field and the nanowires separately had minor deleterious effects on the cells; however, when combined, the magnetic field and nanowires caused the cell viability values to drop by up to 39%, depending on the strength of the magnetic field and the concentration of the nanowires. Cell membrane leakage experiments indicated membrane leakage of 20%, suggesting that cell death mechanisms induced by the nanowires and magnetic field involve some cell membrane rupture. Results suggest that magnetic nanowires can kill cancer cells. The proposed process requires simple and low-cost equipment with exposure to only very weak magnetic fields for short time periods. © 2015 Contreras et al.

  1. Non-chemotoxic induction of cancer cell death using magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Contreras, Maria F.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we show that magnetic nanowires with weak magnetic fields and low frequencies can induce cell death via a mechanism that does not involve heat production. We incubated colon cancer cells with two concentrations (2.4 and 12 μg/mL) of nickel nanowires that were 35 nm in diameter and exposed the cells and nanowires to an alternating magnetic field (0.5 mT and 1 Hz or 1 kHz) for 10 or 30 minutes. This low-power field exerted a force on the magnetic nanowires, causing a mechanical disturbance to the cells. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the nanostructures were internalized into the cells within 1 hour of incubation. Cell viability studies showed that the magnetic field and the nanowires separately had minor deleterious effects on the cells; however, when combined, the magnetic field and nanowires caused the cell viability values to drop by up to 39%, depending on the strength of the magnetic field and the concentration of the nanowires. Cell membrane leakage experiments indicated membrane leakage of 20%, suggesting that cell death mechanisms induced by the nanowires and magnetic field involve some cell membrane rupture. Results suggest that magnetic nanowires can kill cancer cells. The proposed process requires simple and low-cost equipment with exposure to only very weak magnetic fields for short time periods. © 2015 Contreras et al.

  2. InP-InxGa1-xAs core-multi-shell nanowire quantum wells with tunable emission in the 1.3-1.55 μm wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, H A; Ameruddin, A S; Caroff, P; Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Mura, F; Guo, Y; Lysevych, M; Wang, F; Tan, H H; Polimeni, A; Jagadish, C

    2017-09-21

    The usability and tunability of the essential InP-InGaAs material combination in nanowire-based quantum wells (QWs) are assessed. The wurtzite phase core-multi-shell InP-InGaAs-InP nanowire QWs are characterised using cross-section transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The InP-InGaAs direct interface is found to be sharp while the InGaAs-InP inverted interface is more diffused, in agreement with their planar counterpart. Bright emission is observed from the single nanowires containing the QWs at room temperature, with no emission from the InP core or outer barrier. The tunability of the QW emission wavelength in the 1.3-1.55 μm communication wavelength range is demonstrated by varying the QW thickness and in the 1.3 μm range by varying the composition. The experiments are supported by simulation of the emission wavelength of the wurtzite phase InP-InGaAs QWs in the thickness range considered. The radial heterostructure is further extended to design multiple QWs with bright emission, therefore establishing the capability of this material system for nanowire based optical devices for communication applications.

  3. Synthesis of Indium Nanowires by Galvanic Displacement and Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Greg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Single crystalline indium nanowires were prepared on Zn substrate which had been treated in concentrated sulphuric acid by galvanic displacement in the 0.002 mol L−1In2(SO43-0.002 mol L−1SeO2-0.02 mol L−1SDS-0.01 mol L−1citric acid aqueous solution. The typical diameter of indium nanowires is 30 nm and most of the nanowires are over 30 μm in length. XRD, HRTEM, SAED and structural simulation clearly demonstrate that indium nanowires are single-crystalline with the tetragonal structure, the growth direction of the nanowires is along [100] facet. The UV-Vis absorption spectra showed that indium nanowires display typical transverse resonance of SPR properties. The surfactant (SDS and the pretreatment of Zn substrate play an important role in the growth process. The mechanism of indium nanowires growth is the synergic effect of treated Zn substrate (hard template and SDS (soft template.

  4. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  5. Piezotronic Effect in Polarity-Controlled GaN Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenfu; Pu, Xiong; Han, Changbao; Du, Chunhua; Li, Linxuan; Jiang, Chunyan; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Using high-quality and polarity-controlled GaN nanowires (NWs), we studied the piezotronic effect in crystal orientation defined wurtzite structures. By applying a normal compressive force on c-plane GaN NWs with an atomic force microscopy tip, the Schottky barrier between the Pt tip and GaN can be effectively tuned by the piezotronic effect. In contrast, the normal compressive force cannot change the electron transport characteristics in m-plane GaN NWs whose piezoelectric polarization axis is turned in the transverse direction. This observation provided solid evidence for clarifying the difference between the piezotronic effect and the piezoresistive effect. We further demonstrated a high sensitivity of the m-plane GaN piezotronic transistor to collect the transverse force. The integration of c-plane GaN and m-plane GaN indicates an overall response to an external force in any direction.

  6. Temperature Dependence of the Moessbauer Effect on Prussian Blue Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Pingheng; Xue Desheng; Luo Haiqing; Shi Huigang [Lanzhou University, Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE (China)

    2002-09-15

    Highly ordered Prussian blue nanowires with diameter of about 50 nm and length up to 4 {mu}m have been fabricated by an electrodepositing technology with two-step anodizing anodic aluminum oxide films. The Moessbauer spectra taken between 15 and 300 K indicate that the hyperfine parameters decrease as the temperature increases. The temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting, the isomer shift and the spectra area are discussed. A decrease of Debye temperature for Prussian blue nanowires was found with respect to that of Prussian blue bulk.

  7. Highly ordered uniform single-crystal Bi nanowires: fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisrat, Y; Luo, Z P; Davis, D; Lagoudas, D

    2007-01-01

    A mechanical pressure injection technique has been used to fabricate uniform bismuth (Bi) nanowires in the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The AAO template was prepared from general purity aluminum by a two-step anodization followed by heat treatment to achieve highly ordered nanochannels. The nanowires were then fabricated by an injection technique whereby the molten Bi was injected into the AAO template using a hydraulic pressure method. The Bi nanowires prepared by this method were found to be dense and continuous with uniform diameter throughout the length. Electron diffraction experiments using the transmission electron microscope on cross-sectional and free-standing longitudinal Bi nanowires showed that the majority of the individual nanowires were single crystalline, with preferred orientation of growth along the [011] zone axis of the pseudo-cubic structure. The work presented here provides an inexpensive and effective way of fabricating highly ordered single-crystalline Bi nanowires, with uniform size distributions

  8. III-V nanoelectronics and related surface/interface issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The conventional logic gate architecture is not suitable for high-density integration of quantum devices which are non-robust and extremely structure- and charge-sensitive. In this paper, our novel hexagonal binary-decision-diagram (BDD) quantum circuit approach for III-V nanoelectronics is reviewed and related critical surface/interface issues for high-density integration are discussed. First, the basic concept and actual implementation method of our approach are explained, giving examples of novel BDD quantum integrated circuits where nanowire networks are controlled by nanoscale Schottky wrap gates. For high-density integration, growth of embedded sub-10 nm III-V quantum wire networks by selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned substrates is described, including effects of atomic hydrogen irradiation and kinetic control of wire width. The key processing issue lies in understanding and control of nanostructure surfaces/interfaces. Behavior of nanoscale Schottky gates, recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)/scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) studies of surface states, and successful removal of surface states by MBE-grown silicon interface control layer are discussed

  9. Ferromagnetism in Cr-doped passivated AlN nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We apply first principles calculations to predict the effect of Cr doping on the electronic and magnetic properties of passivated AlN nanowires. We compare the energetics of the possible dopant sites and demonstrate the favorable configuration ferromagnetic ordering. The charge density of the pristine passivated AlN nanowires is used to elucidate the bonding character. Spin density maps demonstrate an induced spin polarization for N atoms next to dopant atoms, though most of the magnetism is carried by the Cr atoms. Cr-doped AlN nanowires turn out to be interesting for spintronic devices. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  10. Photovoltaic devices based on quantum dot functionalized nanowire arrays embedded in an organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Patrick; Harris, Nicholas; Shen, Gang; Wilbert, David S.; Baughman, William; Balci, Soner; Dawahre, Nabil; Butler, Lee; Rivera, Elmer; Nikles, David; Kim, Seongsin M.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD) functionalized nanowire arrays are attractive structures for low cost high efficiency solar cells. QDs have the potential for higher quantum efficiency, increased stability and lifetime compared to traditional dyes, as well as the potential for multiple electron generation per photon. Nanowire array scaffolds constitute efficient, low resistance electron transport pathways which minimize the hopping mechanism in the charge transport process of quantum dot solar cells. However, the use of liquid electrolytes as a hole transport medium within such scaffold device structures have led to significant degradation of the QDs. In this work, we first present the synthesis uniform single crystalline ZnO nanowire arrays and their functionalization with InP/ZnS core-shell quantum dots. The structures are characterized using electron microscopy, optical absorption, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Complementing photoluminescence, transmission electron microanalysis is used to reveal the successful QD attachment process and the atomistic interface between the ZnO and the QD. Energy dispersive spectroscopy reveals the co-localized presence of indium, phosphorus, and sulphur, suggestive of the core-shell nature of the QDs. The functionalized nanowire arrays are subsequently embedded in a poly-3(hexylthiophene) hole transport matrix with a high degree of polymer infiltration to complete the device structure prior to measurement.

  11. Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires exhibiting photoactivity across entire UV-visible region for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Ying-Chih; Wang, Gongming; Chang, Kao-Der; Ling, Yichuan; Lin, Yin-Kai; Fitzmorris, Bob C; Liu, Chia-Ming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Zhang, Jin Z; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Li, Yat

    2013-08-14

    Here we demonstrate that the photoactivity of Au-decorated TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation can be effectively enhanced in the entire UV-visible region from 300 to 800 nm by manipulating the shape of the decorated Au nanostructures. The samples were prepared by carefully depositing Au nanoparticles (NPs), Au nanorods (NRs), and a mixture of Au NPs and NRs on the surface of TiO2 nanowire arrays. As compared with bare TiO2, Au NP-decorated TiO2 nanowire electrodes exhibited significantly enhanced photoactivity in both the UV and visible regions. For Au NR-decorated TiO2 electrodes, the photoactivity enhancement was, however, observed in the visible region only, with the largest photocurrent generation achieved at 710 nm. Significantly, TiO2 nanowires deposited with a mixture of Au NPs and NRs showed enhanced photoactivity in the entire UV-visible region. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency measurements indicated that excitation of surface plasmon resonance of Au is responsible for the enhanced photoactivity of Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires. Photovoltage experiment showed that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was attributable to the effective surface passivation of Au NPs. Furthermore, 3D finite-difference time domain simulation was performed to investigate the electrical field amplification at the interface between Au nanostructures and TiO2 upon SPR excitation. The results suggested that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was partially due to the increased optical absorption of TiO2 associated with SPR electrical field amplification. The current study could provide a new paradigm for designing plasmonic metal/semiconductor composite systems to effectively harvest the entire UV-visible light for solar fuel production.

  12. EDITORIAL: Nanowires for energy Nanowires for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPierre, Ray; Sunkara, Mahendra

    2012-05-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology focuses on studies illustrating the application of nanowires for energy including solar cells, efficient lighting and water splitting. Over the next three decades, nanotechnology will make significant contributions towards meeting the increased energy needs of the planet, now known as the TeraWatt challenge. Nanowires in particular are poised to contribute significantly in this development as presented in the review by Hiralal et al [1]. Nanowires exhibit light trapping properties that can act as a broadband anti-reflection coating to enhance the efficiency of solar cells. In this issue, Li et al [2] and Wang et al [3] present the optical properties of silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays. In addition to enhanced optical properties, core-shell nanowires also have the potential for efficient charge carrier collection across the nanowire diameter as presented in the contribution by Yu et al [4] for radial junction a-Si solar cells. Hybrid approaches that combine organic and inorganic materials also have potential for high efficiency photovoltaics. A Si-based hybrid solar cell is presented by Zhang et al [5] with a photoconversion efficiency of over 7%. The quintessential example of hybrid solar cells is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) where an organic absorber (dye) coats an inorganic material (typically a ZnO nanostructure). Herman et al [6] present a method of enhancing the efficiency of a DSSC by increasing the hetero-interfacial area with a unique hierarchical weeping willow ZnO structure. The increased surface area allows for higher dye loading, light harvesting, and reduced charge recombination through direct conduction along the ZnO branches. Another unique ZnO growth method is presented by Calestani et al [7] using a solution-free and catalyst-free approach by pulsed electron deposition (PED). Nanowires can also make more efficient use of electrical power. Light emitting diodes, for example, will eventually become the

  13. Domain wall oscillations induced by spin torque in magnetic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbiaa, R., E-mail: rachid@squ.edu.om [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Muscat (Oman); Chantrell, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-07

    Using micromagnetic simulations, the effects of the non-adiabatic spin torque (β) and the geometry of nanowires on domain wall (DW) dynamics are investigated. For the case of in-plane anisotropy nanowire, it is observed that the type of DW and its dynamics depends on its dimension. For a fixed length, the critical switching current decreases almost exponentially with the width W, while the DW speed becomes faster for larger W. For the case of perpendicular anisotropy nanowire, it was observed that DW dynamics depends strongly on β. For small values of β, oscillations of DW around the center of nanowire were revealed even after the current is switched off. In addition to nanowire geometry and intrinsic material properties, β could provide a way to control DW dynamics.

  14. Silicon Nanowires for All-Optical Signal Processing in Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Silicon (Si), the second most abundant element on earth, has dominated in microelectronics for many decades. It can also be used for photonic devices due to its transparency in the range of optical telecom wavelengths which will enable a platform for a monolithic integration of optics...... and microelectronics. Silicon photonic nanowire waveguides fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates are crucial elements in nano-photonic integrated circuits. The strong light confinement in nanowires induced by high index contrast SOI material enhances the nonlinear effects in the silicon nanowire core...... such as four-wave mixing (FWM) which is an imperative process for optical signal processing. Since the current mature silicon fabrication technology enables a precise dimension control on nanowires, dispersion engineering can be performed by tailoring nanowire dimensions to realize an efficient nonlinear...

  15. Three-dimensional phase-field simulation on the deformation of metallic glass nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.Y.; Zheng, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D phase-field modeling is developed to investigate the deformation of MG nanowires. • The surface defects significantly affect the mechanical properties of nanowires. • Multiple shear bands are initiated from the surfaces of nanowires with D < 50 nm. - Abstract: It is very challenging to investigate the deformation mechanisms in micro- and nano-scale metallic glasses with diameters below several hundred nanometers using the atomistic simulation or the experimental approaches. In this work, we develop the fully three-dimensional phase-field model to bridge this gap and investigate the sample size effects on the deformation behaviors of metallic glass nanowires. The initial deformation defects on the surface are found to significantly affect the mechanical strength and deformation mode of nanowires. The improved ductility of metallic glass nanowires could be related with the multiple shear bands initiated from the nanowire surfaces

  16. Enhancement of short-circuit current density in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells comprising plasmonic silver nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuzhao; Lin, Xiaofeng; Ou, Jiemei; Chen, Xudong, E-mail: cescxd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: stszx@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenyj69@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composite and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education of China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qing, Jian; Zhong, Zhenfeng; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: cescxd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: stszx@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenyj69@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Chen, Yujie, E-mail: cescxd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: stszx@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenyj69@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Hu, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2014-03-24

    We demonstrate that the influence of plasmonic effects based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs) on the characteristics of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The solution-processed Ag NWs are situated at the interface of anode buffer layer and active layer, which could enhance the performance especially the photocurrent of PSCs by scattering, localized surface plasmon resonance, and surface plasmon polaritons. Plasmonic effects are confirmed by the enhancement of extinction spectra, external quantum efficiency, and steady state photoluminescence. Consequently, the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and power conversion efficiency enhance about 24% and 18%, respectively, under AM1.5 illumination when Ag NWs plasmonic nanostructure incorporated into PSCs.

  17. Spatial buckling analysis of current-carrying nanowires in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field accounting for both surface and nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Shahin; Haghshenas, Amin; Hashemian, Mohammad; Eftekhari, S. Ali; Toghraie, Davood

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional buckling behavior of nanowires was investigated based on Eringen's Nonlocal Elasticity Theory. The electric current-carrying nanowires were affected by a longitudinal magnetic field based upon the Lorentz force. The nanowires (NWs) were modeled based on Timoshenko beam theory and the Gurtin-Murdoch's surface elasticity theory. Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method was used to solve the governing equations of the NWs. Two sets of boundary conditions namely simple-simple and clamped-clamped were applied and the obtained results were discussed. Results demonstrated the effect of electric current, magnetic field, small-scale parameter, slenderness ratio, and nanowires diameter on the critical compressive buckling load of nanowires. As a key result, increasing the small-scale parameter decreased the critical load. By the same token, increasing the electric current, magnetic field, and slenderness ratio resulted in a decrease in the critical load. As the slenderness ratio increased, the effect of nonlocal theory decreased. In contrast, by expanding the NWs diameter, the nonlocal effect increased. Moreover, in the present article, the critical values of the magnetic field of strength and slenderness ratio were revealed, and the roles of the magnetic field, slenderness ratio, and NWs diameter on higher buckling loads were discussed.

  18. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated (paper)

  19. Growth and properties of In(Ga)As nanowires on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertenberger, Simon

    2012-01-01

    properties and homogeneous array-like characteristics. High vertical growth yields of 90 % are achieved on substrates patterned either by e-beam lithography (for small scale arrays) or nanoimprint lithography (NIL, for large scale arrays > 5 x 5 mm 2 ). In addition, X-ray rocking curve measurements evidence very low crystal tilt and perfect vertical alignment along the (111) direction with full widths at half maximum (FWHM) as low as 0.6 . Furthermore, systematic investigations of the size scaling behavior as a function of the pitch (interwire distance) highlight the existence of two growth regimes: (i) a competitive growth regime for narrow pitches and (ii) a diffusion-limited regime for wider pitches, where growth is limited by the diffusion length of In adatoms on the SiO 2 surface (∝750 nm at T=480 C). Furthermore, the growth of ternary InGaAs nanowires on sputter-deposited SiO x /Si(111) and NIL-patterned SiO 2 /Si(111) substrates is investigated. Here, composition tuning with Ga contents ranging from 0-60 % was achieved as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, the two different growth strategies are compared yielding a significantly lower FWHM of the 2θ-XRD-peak in the case of NIL-patterned substrates (0.031 ) as compared to self-assembled grown nanowires (0.084 ). This finding is further supported by Raman spectroscopy showing lower longitudinal optical to transversal optical (LO/TO) intensity ratios and lower LO-FWHM for both the InAs-like and GaAs-like LO modes in the case of NIL-patterned nanowire growth. These observations indicate superior composition homogeneity for positioned nanowire growth on patterned substrates. In addition, low-T photoluminescence (PL) measurements are presented showing band gap tuning over a wavelength range of ∝1800-2850 nm where PL peak linewidths are as narrow as ∝30 meV, independent of the Ga content. Finally, the effect of growth parameters on the microstructure are investigated

  20. Growth and properties of In(Ga)As nanowires on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertenberger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    nanowire properties and homogeneous array-like characteristics. High vertical growth yields of 90 % are achieved on substrates patterned either by e-beam lithography (for small scale arrays) or nanoimprint lithography (NIL, for large scale arrays > 5 x 5 mm{sup 2}). In addition, X-ray rocking curve measurements evidence very low crystal tilt and perfect vertical alignment along the (111) direction with full widths at half maximum (FWHM) as low as 0.6 . Furthermore, systematic investigations of the size scaling behavior as a function of the pitch (interwire distance) highlight the existence of two growth regimes: (i) a competitive growth regime for narrow pitches and (ii) a diffusion-limited regime for wider pitches, where growth is limited by the diffusion length of In adatoms on the SiO{sub 2} surface (∝750 nm at T=480 C). Furthermore, the growth of ternary InGaAs nanowires on sputter-deposited SiO{sub x}/Si(111) and NIL-patterned SiO{sub 2}/Si(111) substrates is investigated. Here, composition tuning with Ga contents ranging from 0-60 % was achieved as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, the two different growth strategies are compared yielding a significantly lower FWHM of the 2θ-XRD-peak in the case of NIL-patterned substrates (0.031 ) as compared to self-assembled grown nanowires (0.084 ). This finding is further supported by Raman spectroscopy showing lower longitudinal optical to transversal optical (LO/TO) intensity ratios and lower LO-FWHM for both the InAs-like and GaAs-like LO modes in the case of NIL-patterned nanowire growth. These observations indicate superior composition homogeneity for positioned nanowire growth on patterned substrates. In addition, low-T photoluminescence (PL) measurements are presented showing band gap tuning over a wavelength range of ∝1800-2850 nm where PL peak linewidths are as narrow as ∝30 meV, independent of the Ga content. Finally, the effect of growth parameters on the

  1. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  2. Diamond nanowires: a novel platform for electrochemistry and matrix-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2015-05-27

    Over the last decades, carbon-based nanostructures have generated a huge interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints owing to their physicochemical characteristics, markedly different from their corresponding bulk states. Among these nanostructured materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and more recently graphene and its derivatives, hold a central position. The large amount of work devoted to these materials is driven not only by their unique mechanical and electrical properties, but also by the advances made in synthetic methods to produce these materials in large quantities with reasonably controllable morphologies. While much less studied than CNTs and graphene, diamond nanowires, the diamond analogue of CNTs, hold promise for several important applications. Diamond nanowires display several advantages such as chemical inertness, high mechanical strength, high thermal and electrical conductivity, together with proven biocompatibility and existence of various strategies to functionalize their surface. The unique physicochemical properties of diamond nanowires have generated wide interest for their use as fillers in nanocomposites, as light detectors and emitters, as substrates for nanoelectronic devices, as tips for scanning probe microscopy as well as for sensing applications. In the past few years, studies on boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) focused on increasing their electrochemical active surface area to achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to planar diamond interfaces. The first part of the present review article will cover the promising applications of BDD NWS for label-free sensing. Then, the potential use of diamond nanowires as inorganic substrates for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, a powerful label-free approach for quantification and identification of small compounds, will be discussed.

  3. Diamond Nanowires: A Novel Platform for Electrochemistry and Matrix-Free Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, carbon-based nanostructures have generated a huge interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints owing to their physicochemical characteristics, markedly different from their corresponding bulk states. Among these nanostructured materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and more recently graphene and its derivatives, hold a central position. The large amount of work devoted to these materials is driven not only by their unique mechanical and electrical properties, but also by the advances made in synthetic methods to produce these materials in large quantities with reasonably controllable morphologies. While much less studied than CNTs and graphene, diamond nanowires, the diamond analogue of CNTs, hold promise for several important applications. Diamond nanowires display several advantages such as chemical inertness, high mechanical strength, high thermal and electrical conductivity, together with proven biocompatibility and existence of various strategies to functionalize their surface. The unique physicochemical properties of diamond nanowires have generated wide interest for their use as fillers in nanocomposites, as light detectors and emitters, as substrates for nanoelectronic devices, as tips for scanning probe microscopy as well as for sensing applications. In the past few years, studies on boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs focused on increasing their electrochemical active surface area to achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to planar diamond interfaces. The first part of the present review article will cover the promising applications of BDD NWS for label-free sensing. Then, the potential use of diamond nanowires as inorganic substrates for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, a powerful label-free approach for quantification and identification of small compounds, will be discussed.

  4. Nanowire-decorated microscale metallic electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Antohe, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of metallic nanowire patterns within anodic alumina oxide (AAO) membranes on top of continuous conducting substrates are discussed. The fabrication protocol is based on the realization of nanowire patterns using supported nanoporous alumina templates (SNAT) prepared on top...... of lithographically defined metallic microelectrodes. The anodization of the aluminum permits electroplating only on top of the metallic electrodes, leading to the nanowire patterns having the same shape as the underlying metallic tracks. The variation in the fabricated structures between the patterned and non......-patterned substrates can be interpreted in terms of different behavior during anodization. The improved quality of fabricated nanowire patterns is clearly demonstrated by the SEM imaging and the uniform growth of nanowires inside the alumina template is observed without any significant height variation....

  5. Reactive diffusion and stresses in nanowires or nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, Manuel; Erdélyi, Zoltán; Schmitz, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Heterostructured nanowires are of prime interest in nowadays technology such as field-effect transistors, field emitters, batteries and solar cells. We consider their aging behavior and developed a model focusing on reactive diffusion in core-shell nanowires. A complete set of analytical equations is presented that takes into account thermodynamic driving forces, vacancy distribution, elastic stress and its plastic relaxation. This complete description of the reactive diffusion can be used in finite element simulations to investigate diffusion processes in various geometries. In order to show clearly the interplay between the cylindrical geometry, the reactive diffusion and the stresses developing in the nanowire, we investigate the formation of an intermetallic reaction product in various core-shell geometries. Emphasis is placed on showing how it is possible to control the kinetics of the reaction by applying an axial stress to the nanowires.

  6. Location deterministic biosensing from quantum-dot-nanowire assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao; Kim, Kwanoh; Fan, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with high fluorescent brightness, stability, and tunable sizes, have received considerable interest for imaging, sensing, and delivery of biomolecules. In this research, we demonstrate location deterministic biochemical detection from arrays of QD-nanowire hybrid assemblies. QDs with diameters less than 10 nm are manipulated and precisely positioned on the tips of the assembled Gold (Au) nanowires. The manipulation mechanisms are quantitatively understood as the synergetic effects of dielectrophoretic (DEP) and alternating current electroosmosis (ACEO) due to AC electric fields. The QD-nanowire hybrid sensors operate uniquely by concentrating bioanalytes to QDs on the tips of nanowires before detection, offering much enhanced efficiency and sensitivity, in addition to the position-predictable rationality. This research could result in advances in QD-based biomedical detection and inspires an innovative approach for fabricating various QD-based nanodevices.

  7. Inkjet-printed transparent nanowire thin film features for UV photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shih Pin; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Lien, Der Hsien; He, Jr-Hau; Liao, Ying Chih

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple and effective direct printing method was developed to print patterned nanowire thin films for UV detection. Inks containing silver or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires were first formulated adequately to form stable

  8. Transparent p-type SnO nanowires with unprecedented hole mobility among oxide semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2013-11-25

    p-type tin monoxide (SnO) nanowire field-effect transistors with stable enhancement mode behavior and record performance are demonstrated at 160 °C. The nanowire transistors exhibit the highest field-effect hole mobility (10.83 cm2 V−1 s−1) of any p-type oxide semiconductor processed at similar temperature. Compared to thin film transistors, the SnO nanowire transistors exhibit five times higher mobility and one order of magnitude lower subthreshold swing. The SnO nanowire transistors show three times lower threshold voltages (−1 V) than the best reported SnO thin film transistors and fifteen times smaller than p-type Cu 2O nanowire transistors. Gate dielectric and process temperature are critical to achieving such performance.

  9. Silicon Nanowires for Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting: an Experimental Evaluation on the Trade-off Effects of the Spectral Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekone, Abdoul Karim; Chen, Yu-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chen, Wen-Kai; Liu, Chia-An; Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2016-12-01

    Silicon nanowire possesses great potential as the material for renewable energy harvesting and conversion. The significantly reduced spectral reflectivity of silicon nanowire to visible light makes it even more attractive in solar energy applications. However, the benefit of its use for solar thermal energy harvesting remains to be investigated and has so far not been clearly reported. The purpose of this study is to provide practical information and insight into the performance of silicon nanowires in solar thermal energy conversion systems. Spectral hemispherical reflectivity and transmissivity of the black silicon nanowire array on silicon wafer substrate were measured. It was observed that the reflectivity is lower in the visible range but higher in the infrared range compared to the plain silicon wafer. A drying experiment and a theoretical calculation were carried out to directly evaluate the effects of the trade-off between scattering properties at different wavelengths. It is clearly seen that silicon nanowires can improve the solar thermal energy harnessing. The results showed that a 17.8 % increase in the harvest and utilization of solar thermal energy could be achieved using a silicon nanowire array on silicon substrate as compared to that obtained with a plain silicon wafer.

  10. Long term stability of nanowire nanoelectronics in physiological environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Dai, Xiaochuan; Fu, Tian-Ming; Xie, Chong; Liu, Jia; Lieber, Charles M

    2014-03-12

    Nanowire nanoelectronic devices have been exploited as highly sensitive subcellular resolution detectors for recording extracellular and intracellular signals from cells, as well as from natural and engineered/cyborg tissues, and in this capacity open many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here we demonstrate the capability to take full advantage of the attractive capabilities of nanowire nanoelectronic devices for long term physiological studies by passivating the nanowire elements with ultrathin metal oxide shells. Studies of Si and Si/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) core/shell nanowires in physiological solutions at 37 °C demonstrate long-term stability extending for at least 100 days in samples coated with 10 nm thick Al2O3 shells. In addition, investigations of nanowires configured as field-effect transistors (FETs) demonstrate that the Si/Al2O3 core/shell nanowire FETs exhibit good device performance for at least 4 months in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. The generality of this approach was also tested with in studies of Ge/Si and InAs nanowires, where Ge/Si/Al2O3 and InAs/Al2O3 core/shell materials exhibited stability for at least 100 days in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. In addition, investigations of hafnium oxide-Al2O3 nanolaminated shells indicate the potential to extend nanowire stability well beyond 1 year time scale in vivo. These studies demonstrate that straightforward core/shell nanowire nanoelectronic devices can exhibit the long term stability needed for a range of chronic in vivo studies in animals as well as powerful biomedical implants that could improve monitoring and treatment of disease.

  11. Designing and building nanowires: directed nanocrystal self-assembly into radically branched and zigzag PbS nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fan; Ma Xin; Gerlein, L Felipe; Cloutier, Sylvain G

    2011-01-01

    Lead sulfide nanowires with controllable optoelectronic properties would be promising building blocks for various applications. Here, we report the hot colloidal synthesis of radically branched and zigzag nanowires through self-attachment of star-shaped and octahedral nanocrystals in the presence of multiple surfactants. We obtained high-quality single-crystal nanowires with uniform diameter along the entire length, and the size of the nanowire can be tuned by tailoring the reaction parameters. This slow oriented attachment provides a better understanding of the intricacies of this complex nanocrystal assembly process. Meanwhile, these self-assembled nanowire structures have appealing lateral conformations with narrow side arms or highly faceted edges, where strong quantum confinement can occur. Consequently, the single-crystal nanowire structures exhibit strong photoluminescence in the near-infrared region with a large blue-shift compared to the bulk material.

  12. Platinum boride nanowires: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhanhui; Qiu Lixia; Zhang Jian; Yao Bin; Cui Tian; Guan Weiming; Zheng Weitao; Wang Wenquan; Zhao Xudong; Liu Xiaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Platinum boride nanowires have been synthesized via the direct current arc discharge method. ► XRD, TEM and SAED indicate that the nanowires are single-crystal PtB. ► Two broad photoluminescence emission peaks at about 586 nm and 626 nm have been observed in the PL spectroscopy of PtB nanowires. - Abstract: Platinum boride (PtB) nanowires have been successfully fabricated with direct current arc discharge method using a milled mixture of platinum (Pt) and boron nitride (BN) powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the compositions, morphology, and structures of the samples. The results show that PtB nanowires are 30–50 nm thick and 20–30 μm long. TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns identify that the PtB nanowires are single-crystalline in nature. A growth mechanism based on vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) process is proposed for the formation of nanowires.

  13. Effects of pH on the crystallographic structure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Shamaila, S.; Sharif, R.; Wali, H.; Naseem, S.; Riaz, S.; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide templates with pore diameter of 40 nm and inter pore separation of 100 nm are prepared by two step anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid solution. These templates are used to fabricate dc-deposited Co nanowires at different pH values of acidic bath. Continuous and densely packed nanowires having length ∼8 µm are observed. The hcp configuration appeared at moderate and high pH whereas both fcc and hcp phases are observed at low pH. However the crystallinity distorted at high pH due to formation of polycrystalline structure of cobalt nanowires. Alignment of easy-axis of nanowires can be tailored by varying pH of solution. - Highlights: • Variation in the structure of dc deposited cobalt nanowires can be obtained by varying pH of acidic bath. • The hcp structure is stable at room temperature with low voltage deposition for electrodeposited Co nanowires. Co with fcc structure, is stable at temperatures above 422 °C or at pH<3 with high potential. • The hcp (100) plane is obtained with pH∼3.5 and (101) is stable at pH∼5.5 due to variation in temperature inside the pores with respect to the pH. • Alignment of easy-axis of nanowires can be tailored by varying pH of solution

  14. Single-crystalline MgAl2O4 spinel nanotubes using a reactive and removable MgO nanowire template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongjin; Knez, Mato; Scholz, Roland; Nielsch, Kornelius; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Goesele, Ulrich; Zacharias, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Using MgO nanowires as a reactive template, we fabricated for the first time single-crystal MgAl 2 O 4 spinel nanotubes through an interfacial solid-state reaction of MgO-Al 2 O 3 core-shell nanowires. Single-crystal MgO nanowires are coated with a conformal thin layer of amorphous Al 2 O 3 via atomic layer deposition. Subsequent annealing at 700 deg. C activates the interfacial reaction between MgO and Al 2 O 3 , transforming the alumina shell into a spinel shell. Finally, after etching away the remaining MgO core in ammonia sulfuric solution, MgAl 2 O 4 spinel nanotubes are obtained. As a transition from conventional planar spinel layers via thin-film interface reactions, our result might open a window for the fabrication of a wide variety of MgO-based spinel one-dimensional nanostructures

  15. Water-vapor-enhanced growth of Ge-GeOx core-shell nanowires and Si1-xGexOy nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T-J; Ko, C-Y; Lin, W-T

    2007-01-01

    The effects of moist Ar on the growth of Ge-GeO x core-shell nanowires (Ge-GeO x NWs) and Si 1-x Ge x O y nanowires (SiGeONWs) on Si substrates without adding a metal catalyst via the carbothermal reduction of GeO 2 powders at 1100 deg. C were studied. No significant nanowires were grown in dry Ar at a flow rate of 100-300 sccm until a bit of water in the range of 0.5-2 ml was loaded into the furnace. More water suppressed the growth of nanowires because of the exhaustion of more graphite powder. The growth of Ge-GeO x NWs and SiGeONWs follows the vapor-solid and vapor-liquid-solid processes, respectively. The present study showed that the water vapor serves as an oxidizer as well as a reducer at 1100 deg. C in enhancing the growth of SiGeONWs and Ge-GeO x NWs, respectively. The growth mechanisms of Ge-GeO x NWs and SiGeONWs are also discussed

  16. Thermoelectric Power Factor Limit of a 1D Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ju; Burke, Adam; Svilans, Artis; Linke, Heiner; Thelander, Claes

    2018-04-01

    In the past decade, there has been significant interest in the potentially advantageous thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) nanowires, but it has been challenging to find high thermoelectric power factors based on 1D effects in practice. Here we point out that there is an upper limit to the thermoelectric power factor of nonballistic 1D nanowires, as a consequence of the recently established quantum bound of thermoelectric power output. We experimentally test this limit in quasiballistic InAs nanowires by extracting the maximum power factor of the first 1D subband through I -V characterization, finding that the measured maximum power factors conform to the theoretical limit. The established limit allows the prediction of the achievable power factor of a specific nanowire material system with 1D electronic transport based on the nanowire dimension and mean free path. The power factor of state-of-the-art semiconductor nanowires with small cross section and high crystal quality can be expected to be highly competitive (on the order of mW /m K2 ) at low temperatures. However, they have no clear advantage over bulk materials at, or above, room temperature.

  17. Recovery Based Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor Detection of Pathogenic Avian Influenza DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Heng; Chu, Chia-Jung; Teng, Kang-Ning; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Chii-Dong; Tsai, Li-Chu; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2012-02-01

    Fast and accurate diagnosis is critical in infectious disease surveillance and management. We proposed a DNA recovery system that can easily be adapted to DNA chip or DNA biosensor for fast identification and confirmation of target DNA. This method was based on the re-hybridization of DNA target with a recovery DNA to free the DNA probe. Functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) was demonstrated to monitor such specific DNA-DNA interaction using high pathogenic strain virus hemagglutinin 1 (H1) DNA of avian influenza (AI) as target. Specific electric changes were observed in real-time for AI virus DNA sensing and device recovery when nanowire surface of SiNW FET was modified with complementary captured DNA probe. The recovery based SiNW FET biosensor can be further developed for fast identification and further confirmation of a variety of influenza virus strains and other infectious diseases.

  18. Non-chemotoxic induction of cancer cell death using magnetic nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras MF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria F Contreras,1 Rachid Sougrat,2 Amir Zaher,3 Timothy Ravasi,1,3 Jürgen Kosel3 1Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, 2Advanced Nanofabrication Imaging and Characterization, 3Division of Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: In this paper, we show that magnetic nanowires with weak magnetic fields and low frequencies can induce cell death via a mechanism that does not involve heat production. We incubated colon cancer cells with two concentrations (2.4 and 12 µg/mL of nickel nanowires that were 35 nm in diameter and exposed the cells and nanowires to an alternating magnetic field (0.5 mT and 1 Hz or 1 kHz for 10 or 30 minutes. This low-power field exerted a force on the magnetic nanowires, causing a mechanical disturbance to the cells. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the nanostructures were internalized into the cells within 1 hour of incubation. Cell viability studies showed that the magnetic field and the nanowires separately had minor deleterious effects on the cells; however, when combined, the magnetic field and nanowires caused the cell viability values to drop by up to 39%, depending on the strength of the magnetic field and the concentration of the nanowires. Cell membrane leakage experiments indicated membrane leakage of 20%, suggesting that cell death mechanisms induced by the nanowires and magnetic field involve some cell membrane rupture. Results suggest that magnetic nanowires can kill cancer cells. The proposed process requires simple and low-cost equipment with exposure to only very weak magnetic fields for short time periods. Keywords: cell death induction, low frequency alternating magnetic field, nanomedicine, nanowire internalization, nickel nanowires

  19. An interface energy density-based theory considering the coherent interface effect in nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin; Chen, Shaohua; Fang, Daining

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the coherent interface effect conveniently and feasibly in nanomaterials, a continuum theory is proposed that is based on the concept of the interface free energy density, which is a dominant factor affecting the mechanical properties of the coherent interface in materials of all scales. The effect of the residual strain caused by self-relaxation and the lattice misfit of nanomaterials, as well as that due to the interface deformation induced by an external load on the interface free energy density is considered. In contrast to the existing theories, the stress discontinuity at the interface is characterized by the interface free energy density through an interface-induced traction. As a result, the interface elastic constant introduced in previous theories, which is not easy to determine precisely, is avoided in the present theory. Only the surface energy density of the bulk materials forming the interface, the relaxation parameter induced by surface relaxation, and the mismatch parameter for forming a coherent interface between the two surfaces are involved. All the related parameters are far easier to determine than the interface elastic constants. The effective bulk and shear moduli of a nanoparticle-reinforced nanocomposite are predicted using the proposed theory. Closed-form solutions are achieved, demonstrating the feasibility and convenience of the proposed model for predicting the interface effect in nanomaterials.

  20. PREFACE: Synthesis and integration of nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, L.

    2006-06-01

    The field of semiconductor nanowires has attracted much attention in recent years, from the areas of basic materials science, advanced characterization and technology, as well as from the perspective of the applications of nanowires. Research on large-sized whiskers and wires had already begun in the 1960s with the pioneering work of Wagner, as well as by other researchers. It was, however, in the early 1990s that Kenji Hiruma at Hitachi Central Research Laboratories in Japan first succeeded in developing methods for the growth of nanowires with dimensions on the scale of 10-100 nm, thereby initiating the field of growth and applications of nanowires, with a strong emphasis on epitaxial nucleation of nanowires on a single-crystalline substrate. Starting from the mid-1990s, the field developed very rapidly with the number of papers on the subject growing from ten per year to several thousand papers on the subject published annually today, although with a rather generous definition of the concept of nanowires. With this rapid development we have seen many new and different approaches to the growth of nanowires, technological advances leading to a more well-controlled formation of nanowires, new innovative methods for the characterization of structures, as well as a wealth of approaches towards the use of nanowires in electronics, photonics and sensor applications. This issue contains contributions from many different laboratories, each adding significant detail to the development of the field of research. The contributions cover issues such as basic growth, advanced characterization and technology, and application of nanowires. I would like to acknowledge the shared responsibilities for this special issue of Nanotechnology on the synthesis and integration of nanowires with my co-Editors, S Tong Lee and M Sunkara, as well as the highly professional support from Dr Nina Couzin, Dr Ian Forbes and the Nanotechnology team from the Institute of Physics Publishing.

  1. Electrospinning synthesis of superconducting BSCCO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Edgar A.; Quintero, Pedro A.; Meisel, Mark W.; Nino, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires 150 nm to 250 nm thick are synthesized using the electrospinning. •Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires are obtained after a heat treatment at 850 °C. •Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires show a T c = 78.7 K consistent with bulk superconductor behavior. -- Abstract: This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x superconducting nanowires. Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires with a T c = 78.7 K are synthesized using the electrospinning process employing sol–gel precursors. A sol–gel methodology is used to obtain a homogeneous PVP solution containing Bi, Sr, Ca, and Cu acetates. Mats of randomly oriented nanowires and aligned nanowires are also collected. After a heat treatment at 850 °C in ambient atmosphere using heating rates of 100 and 400 °C/h, fully crystallized Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires are obtained. The morphology, microstructure, and crystal structure of these nanowires are then examined to reveal a rectangular morphology having typical wire thickness in the range of 150–250 nm, and a wire width between 400 and 600 nm. DC magnetization studies are conducted to investigate the critical transition temperature (T c ) of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires and to compare their magnetic properties to those of bulk Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x powder. The T c for the commercial powder is observed at 78.6 K, and that of the obtained nanowires at 78.7 K. These results point to the superconducting nature of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires, and the potential of the electrospinning process for the synthesis of this superconductor material

  2. Micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2015-05-27

    This chapter reviews micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires and their ordered arrays. It starts with a description of the theoretical background of micromagnetism. The chapter discusses main magnetization reversal modes, domain wall types, and state diagrams in cylindrical nanowires of different types and sizes. The results of the hysteresis process in individual nanowires and nanowire arrays also are presented. Modeling results are compared with experimental ones. The chapter also discusses future trends in nanowire applications in relation to simulations, such as current-driven dynamics, spintronics, and spincaloritronics. The main micromagnetic programs are presented and discussed, together with the corresponding links.

  3. Magnetostatic Interaction in Fe-Co Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elbaile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of Fe-Co alloy nanowires with diameter around 35 nm and several micrometers in length have been synthesized by codepositing Fe and Co into porous anodic alumina. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of the nanowires (hysteresis loops and remanence curves were characterized by SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and VSM, respectively. The XRD patterns indicate that the Fe-Co nanowires present a body-centered cubic (bcc structure and a preferred (110 orientation perpendicular to the template surface. From the hysteresis loops obtained with the magnetic field applied in the axis direction of the nanowires, we can observe that the coercive field slightly decreases when the nanowire length increases. This magnetic behaviour is analyzed considering the shape anisotropy and the dipolar interactions among nanowires.

  4. Controlled surface diffusion in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, W C; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the growth of GaN nanowires by controlling the surface diffusion of Ga species on sapphire in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, Ga has a tendency to adsorb on the substrate surface diffusing to nanowires to contribute to their growth. The significance of surface diffusion on the growth of nanowires is dependent on the environment of the nanowire on the substrate surface as well as the gas phase species and compositions. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, the growth rate is strongly dependent on the surface diffusion of gallium, but the addition of 5% hydrogen in nitrogen plasma instantly diminishes the surface diffusion effect. Gallium desorbs easily from the surface by reaction with hydrogen. On the other hand, under gallium-rich growth conditions, nanowire growth is shown to be dominated by the gas phase deposition, with negligible contribution from surface diffusion. This is the first study reporting the inhibition of surface diffusion effects by hydrogen addition, which can be useful in tailoring the growth and characteristics of nanowires. Without any evidence of direct deposition on the nanowire surface, gallium and nitrogen are shown to dissolve into the catalyst for growing the nanowires at 900 deg. C.

  5. Fully transparent thin-film transistor devices based on SnO2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattoli, Eric N; Wan, Qing; Guo, Wei; Chen, Yanbin; Pan, Xiaoqing; Lu, Wei

    2007-08-01

    We report on studies of field-effect transistor (FET) and transparent thin-film transistor (TFT) devices based on lightly Ta-doped SnO2 nano-wires. The nanowire-based devices exhibit uniform characteristics with average field-effect mobilities exceeding 100 cm2/V x s. Prototype nano-wire-based TFT (NW-TFT) devices on glass substrates showed excellent optical transparency and transistor performance in terms of transconductance, bias voltage range, and on/off ratio. High on-currents and field-effect mobilities were obtained from the NW-TFT devices even at low nanowire coverage. The SnO2 nanowire-based TFT approach offers a number of desirable properties such as low growth cost, high electron mobility, and optical transparency and low operation voltage, and may lead to large-scale applications of transparent electronics on diverse substrates.

  6. Resistance Fluctuations in GaAs Nanowire Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marasović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study on resistance fluctuations in a series of nanowire-based grids. Each grid is made of GaAs nanowires arranged in parallel with metallic contacts crossing all nanowires perpendicularly. Electrical properties of GaAs nanowires known from previous experimental research are used as input parameters in the simulation procedure. Due to the nonhomogeneous doping, the resistivity changes along nanowire. Allowing two possible nanowire orientations (“upwards” or “downwards”, the resulting grid is partially disordered in vertical direction which causes resistance fluctuations. The system is modeled using a two-dimensional random resistor network. Transfer-matrix computation algorithm is used to calculate the total network resistance. It is found that probability density function (PDF of resistance fluctuations for a series of nanowire grids changes from Gaussian behavior towards the Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution when both nanowire orientations are equally represented in the grid.

  7. Longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnototermopower in Bi nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The galvanomagnetic effect of single crystals Bi nanowires have been studied in longitudinal magnetic fields up to 14 T. The influence of diameters, temperature and deformation extension on the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetotermopower (H||I, H||ΔT) of bismuth nanowires is studied. Elastic deformation measurements were conducted at maximum relative elongation 2 %. For the first time have been investigated the magnetotermopower of Bi nanowires with d=45 nm. Essentially non monotonic dependence H max on temperature in longitudinal thermopower in wires with d=45-60 nm is found out. Such difference in behavior of maximum on R(H) and on α(H) in wires with d<100nm says that the behavior of resistance is caused by other mechanism, then thermopower. (author)

  8. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-23

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  9. Global optimization of silicon nanowires for efficient parametric processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Xu, Jing; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a global optimization of silicon nanowires for parametric single-pump mixing. For the first time, the effect of surface roughness-induced loss is included in the analysis, significantly influencing the optimum waveguide dimensions.......We present a global optimization of silicon nanowires for parametric single-pump mixing. For the first time, the effect of surface roughness-induced loss is included in the analysis, significantly influencing the optimum waveguide dimensions....

  10. Catalyst-free fabrication of novel ZnO/CuO core-Shell nanowires heterojunction: Controlled growth, structural and optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Arif; Wahab, Yussof; Muhammad, Rosnita; Tahir, Muhammad; Sakrani, Samsudi

    2018-03-01

    Development of controlled growth and vertically aligned ZnO/CuO core-shell heterojunction nanowires (NWs) with large area by a catalyst free vapor deposition and oxidation approach has been investigated. Structural characterization reveals successful fabrication of a core ZnO nanowire having single crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure along [002] direction and CuO nanostructure shell with thickness (8-10 nm) having polycrystalline monoclinic structure. The optical property analysis suggests that the reflectance spectrum of ZnO/CuO heterostructure nanowires is decreased by 18% in the visible range, which correspondingly shows high absorption in this region as compared to pristine ZnO nanowires. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of core-shell heterojunction nanowires measured by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) shows excellent rectifying behavior, which indicates the characteristics of a good p-n junction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has confirmed the sharp junction interface between the core-shell heterojunction nanowire arrays. The valence band offset and conduction band offset at ZnO/CuO heterointerfaces are measured to be 2.4 ± 0.05 and 0.23 ± 0.005 eV respectively, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and a type-II band alignment structure is found. The results of this study contribute to the development of new advanced device heterostructures for solar energy conversion and optoelectronics applications.

  11. Simulation of Nanowires on Metal Vicinal Surfaces: Effect of Growth Parameters and Energetic Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ajmi B. H.; Blel, Sonia; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-02-01

    Growing one-dimensional metal structures is an important task in the investigation of the electronic and magnetic properties of new devices. We used kinetic Monte-Carlo (kMC) method to simulate the formation of nanowires of several metallic and non-metallic adatoms on Cu and Pt vicinal surfaces. We found that mono-atomic chains form on step-edges due to energetic barriers (the so-called Ehrlich-shwoebel and exchange barriers) on step-edge. Creation of perfect wires is found to depend on growth parameters and binding energies. We measure the filling ratio of nanowires for different chemical species in a wide range of temperature and flux. Perfect wires were obtained at lower deposition rate for all tested adatoms, however we notice different temperature ranges. Our results were compared with experimental ones [Gambardella et al., Surf. Sci.449, 93-103 (2000), PRB 61, 2254-2262, (2000)]. We review the role of impurities in nanostructuring of surfaces [Hamouda et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 035423, (2011)] and discuss the effect of their energetic barriers on the obtained quality of nanowires. Our work provides experimentalists with optimum growth parameters for the creation of a uniform distribution of wires on surfaces.

  12. Effect of electroless etching parameters on the growth and reflection properties of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Baris; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (Si NW) arrays have been fabricated over large areas using an electroless etching (EE) method, which involves etching of silicon wafers in a silver nitrate and hydrofluoric acid based solution. A detailed parametric study determining the relationship between nanowire morphology and time, temperature, solution concentration and starting wafer characteristics (doping type, resistivity, crystallographic orientation) is presented. The as-fabricated Si NW arrays were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a linear dependency of nanowire length to both temperature and time was obtained and the change in the growth rate of Si NWs at increased etching durations was shown. Furthermore, the effects of EE parameters on the optical reflectivity of the Si NWs were investigated in this study. Reflectivity measurements show that the 42.8% reflectivity of the starting silicon wafer drops to 1.3%, recorded for 10 μm long Si NW arrays. The remarkable decrease in optical reflectivity indicates that Si NWs have a great potential to be utilized in radial or coaxial p-n heterojunction solar cells that could provide orthogonal photon absorption and enhanced carrier collection.

  13. Effect of electroless etching parameters on the growth and reflection properties of silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Baris; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2011-04-15

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (Si NW) arrays have been fabricated over large areas using an electroless etching (EE) method, which involves etching of silicon wafers in a silver nitrate and hydrofluoric acid based solution. A detailed parametric study determining the relationship between nanowire morphology and time, temperature, solution concentration and starting wafer characteristics (doping type, resistivity, crystallographic orientation) is presented. The as-fabricated Si NW arrays were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a linear dependency of nanowire length to both temperature and time was obtained and the change in the growth rate of Si NWs at increased etching durations was shown. Furthermore, the effects of EE parameters on the optical reflectivity of the Si NWs were investigated in this study. Reflectivity measurements show that the 42.8% reflectivity of the starting silicon wafer drops to 1.3%, recorded for 10 µm long Si NW arrays. The remarkable decrease in optical reflectivity indicates that Si NWs have a great potential to be utilized in radial or coaxial p-n heterojunction solar cells that could provide orthogonal photon absorption and enhanced carrier collection.

  14. Effect of electroless etching parameters on the growth and reflection properties of silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Baris; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit; Emrah Unalan, Husnu

    2011-04-01

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (Si NW) arrays have been fabricated over large areas using an electroless etching (EE) method, which involves etching of silicon wafers in a silver nitrate and hydrofluoric acid based solution. A detailed parametric study determining the relationship between nanowire morphology and time, temperature, solution concentration and starting wafer characteristics (doping type, resistivity, crystallographic orientation) is presented. The as-fabricated Si NW arrays were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a linear dependency of nanowire length to both temperature and time was obtained and the change in the growth rate of Si NWs at increased etching durations was shown. Furthermore, the effects of EE parameters on the optical reflectivity of the Si NWs were investigated in this study. Reflectivity measurements show that the 42.8% reflectivity of the starting silicon wafer drops to 1.3%, recorded for 10 µm long Si NW arrays. The remarkable decrease in optical reflectivity indicates that Si NWs have a great potential to be utilized in radial or coaxial p-n heterojunction solar cells that could provide orthogonal photon absorption and enhanced carrier collection.

  15. Influence of exchange coupling on current-driven domain wall motion in a nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Takashi; Takahashi, Kota; Murakami, Hiroshi; Sugita, Ryuji

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of exchange stiffness constant on current-driven domain wall motion in nanowires with in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has been investigated using micromagnetic simulation. The critical current density in a nanowire with IMA decreases as the exchange stiffness constant decreases because the domain wall width at the upper edge of the nanowire narrows according to the decrease of the exchange stiffness constant. On the other hand, the critical current density in a nanowire with PMA slightly decreases contrary to that of IMA although the domain wall width reasonably decreases as the exchange stiffness constant decreases. The slight reduction rate of the critical current density is due to the increase of the effective hard-axis anisotropy of PMA nanowire.

  16. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes with SiC nanowire as template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, B.; Song, L.; Huang, X.X.; Wen, G.W.; Xia, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been fabricated using SiC nanowires as template. → SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. → A template self-sacrificing mechanism is responsible for the formation of BNNTs. -- Abstract: A novel template method for the preparation of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using SiC nanowire as template and ammonia borane as precursor is reported. We find out that the SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. The as-prepared products are well characterized by means of complementary analytical techniques. A possible formation mechanism is disclosed. The method developed here paves the way for large scale production of BNNTs.

  17. Single ZnO nanowire-PZT optothermal field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Lu, Meng-Lin; Chen, Ju-Ying; Chen, Yung-Ting; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2012-09-07

    A new type of pyroelectric field effect transistor based on a composite consisting of single zinc oxide nanowire and lead zirconate titanate (ZnO NW-PZT) has been developed. Under infrared (IR) laser illumination, the transconductance of the ZnO NW can be modulated by optothermal gating. The drain current can be increased or decreased by IR illumination depending on the polarization orientation of the Pb(Zr(0.3)Ti(0.7))O(3) (PZT) substrate. Furthermore, by combining the photocurrent behavior in the UV range and the optothermal gating effect in the IR range, the wide spectrum of response of current by light offers a variety of opportunities for nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  18. Perspectives: Nanofibers and nanowires for disordered photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pisignano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As building blocks of microscopically non-homogeneous materials, semiconductor nanowires and polymer nanofibers are emerging component materials for disordered photonics, with unique properties of light emission and scattering. Effects found in assemblies of nanowires and nanofibers include broadband reflection, significant localization of light, strong and collective multiple scattering, enhanced absorption of incident photons, synergistic effects with plasmonic particles, and random lasing. We highlight recent related discoveries, with a focus on material aspects. The control of spatial correlations in complex assemblies during deposition, the coupling of modes with efficient transmission channels provided by nanofiber waveguides, and the embedment of random architectures into individually coded nanowires will allow the potential of these photonic materials to be fully exploited, unconventional physics to be highlighted, and next-generation optical devices to be achieved. The prospects opened by this technology include enhanced random lasing and mode-locking, multi-directionally guided coupling to sensors and receivers, and low-cost encrypting miniatures for encoders and labels.

  19. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.; Peters, Craig; Brongersma, Mark; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  1. Co-percolation to tune conductive behaviour in dynamical metallic nanowire networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, J A; Rocha, C G; O'Callaghan, C; Ferreira, M S; Boland, J J

    2016-11-03

    Nanowire networks act as self-healing smart materials, whose sheet resistance can be tuned via an externally applied voltage stimulus. This memristive response occurs due to modification of junction resistances to form a connectivity path across the lowest barrier junctions in the network. While most network studies have been performed on expensive noble metal nanowires like silver, networks of inexpensive nickel nanowires with a nickel oxide coating can also demonstrate resistive switching, a common feature of metal oxides with filamentary conduction. However, networks made from solely nickel nanowires have high operation voltages which prohibit large-scale material applications. Here we show, using both experiment and simulation, that a heterogeneous network of nickel and silver nanowires allows optimization of the activation voltage, as well as tuning of the conduction behavior to be either resistive switching, memristive, or a combination of both. Small percentages of silver nanowires, below the percolation threshold, induce these changes in electrical behaviour, even for low area coverage and hence very transparent films. Silver nanowires act as current concentrators, amplifying conductivity locally as shown in our computational dynamical activation framework for networks of junctions. These results demonstrate that a heterogeneous nanowire network can act as a cost-effective adaptive material with minimal use of noble metal nanowires, without losing memristive behaviour that is essential for smart sensing and neuromorphic applications.

  2. Production of zinc oxide nanowires power with precisely defined morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičová, Júlia; Remeš, Zdeněk; Chan, Yu-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The interest about zinc oxide is increasing thanks to its unique chemical and physical properties. Our attention has focused on preparation powder of 1D nanostructures of ZnO nanowires with precisely defined morphology include characterization size (length and diameter) and shape controlled in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have compared results of SEM with dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. We have found out that SEM method gives more accurate results. We have proposed transformation process from ZnO nanowires on substrates to ZnO nanowires powder by ultrasound peeling to colloid followed by lyophilization. This method of the mass production of the ZnO nanowires powder has some advantages: simplicity, cost effective, large-scale and environment friendly.

  3. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  4. Lithium effects on the mechanical and electronic properties of germanium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Macías, A.; Salazar, F.; Miranda, A.; Trejo-Baños, A.; Pérez, L. A.; Carvajal, E.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2018-04-01

    Semiconductor nanowire arrays promise rapid development of a new generation of lithium (Li) batteries because they can store more Li atoms than conventional crystals due to their large surface areas. During the charge-discharge process, the electrodes experience internal stresses that fatigue the material and limit the useful life of the battery. The theoretical study of electronic and mechanical properties of lithiated nanowire arrays allows the designing of electrode materials that could improve battery performance. In this work, we present a density functional theory study of the electronic band structure, formation energy, binding energy, and Young’s modulus (Y) of hydrogen passivated germanium nanowires (H-GeNWs) grown along the [111] and [001] crystallographic directions with surface and interstitial Li atoms. The results show that the germanium nanowires (GeNWs) with surface Li atoms maintain their semiconducting behavior but their energy gap size decreases when the Li concentration grows. In contrast, the GeNWs can have semiconductor or metallic behavior depending on the concentration of the interstitial Li atoms. On the other hand, Y is an indicator of the structural changes that GeNWs suffer due to the concentration of Li atoms. For surface Li atoms, Y stays almost constant, whereas for interstitial Li atoms, the Y values indicate important structural changes in the GeNWs.

  5. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2013-12-06

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  6. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Gkionis, Konstantinos; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  7. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  8. X-ray investigation of the interface structure of free standing InAs nanowires grown on GaAs[ anti 1 anti 1 anti 1]{sub B}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Jens; Gottschalch, Volker; Wagner, Gerald [Universitaet Leipzig, Halbleiterchemie, Leipzig (Germany); Pietsch, Ullrich; Davydok, Anton; Biermanns, Andreas [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, Siegen (Germany); Grenzer, Joerg [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The heteroepitaxial growth process of InAs nanowires (NW) on GaAs[ anti 1 anti 1 anti 1]{sub B} substrate was investigated by X-ray grazing-incidence diffraction using synchrotron radiation. For crystal growth we applied the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism via gold seeds. The general sample structure was extracted from various electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction experiments. We found a closed Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x} As graduated alloy layer at the substrate to NW interface which was formed in the initial stage of VLS growth with a Au-Ga-In liquid alloy. With ongoing growth time a transition from this VLS layer growth to the conventional VLS NW growth was observed. The structural properties of both VLS grown crystal types were examined. Furthermore, we discuss the VLS layer growth process. (orig.)

  9. Silicon nanowires as field-effect transducers for biosensor development: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M. Omair; Krull, Ulrich J., E-mail: ulrich.krull@utoronto.ca

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Nanoscale field-effect transducers interrogate surface charge by conductivity changes. • The nanometer dimensions of SiNWs facilitate sensitive detection of biomolecules. • SiNWs can be fabricated by bottom–up or top–down approaches. • Device parameters and solution-phase conditions strongly influence analytical performance. - Abstract: The unique electronic properties and miniaturized dimensions of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attractive for label-free, real-time and sensitive detection of biomolecules. Sensors based on SiNWs operate as field effect transistors (FETs) and can be fabricated either by top–down or bottom–up approaches. Advances in fabrication methods have allowed for the control of physicochemical and electronic properties of SiNWs, providing opportunity for interfacing of SiNW-FET probes with intracellular environments. The Debye screening length is an important consideration that determines the performance and detection limits of SiNW-FET sensors, especially at physiologically relevant conditions of ionic strength (>100 mM). In this review, we discuss the construction and application of SiNW-FET sensors for detection of ions, nucleic acids and protein markers. Advantages and disadvantages of the top–down and bottom–up approaches for synthesis of SiNWs are discussed. An overview of various methods for surface functionalization of SiNWs for immobilization of selective chemistry is provided in the context of impact on the analytical performance of SiNW-FET sensors. In addition to in vitro examples, an overview of the progress of use of SiNW-FET sensors for ex vivo studies is also presented. This review concludes with a discussion of the future prospects of SiNW-FET sensors.

  10. Silicon nanowires as field-effect transducers for biosensor development: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, M. Omair; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoscale field-effect transducers interrogate surface charge by conductivity changes. • The nanometer dimensions of SiNWs facilitate sensitive detection of biomolecules. • SiNWs can be fabricated by bottom–up or top–down approaches. • Device parameters and solution-phase conditions strongly influence analytical performance. - Abstract: The unique electronic properties and miniaturized dimensions of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attractive for label-free, real-time and sensitive detection of biomolecules. Sensors based on SiNWs operate as field effect transistors (FETs) and can be fabricated either by top–down or bottom–up approaches. Advances in fabrication methods have allowed for the control of physicochemical and electronic properties of SiNWs, providing opportunity for interfacing of SiNW-FET probes with intracellular environments. The Debye screening length is an important consideration that determines the performance and detection limits of SiNW-FET sensors, especially at physiologically relevant conditions of ionic strength (>100 mM). In this review, we discuss the construction and application of SiNW-FET sensors for detection of ions, nucleic acids and protein markers. Advantages and disadvantages of the top–down and bottom–up approaches for synthesis of SiNWs are discussed. An overview of various methods for surface functionalization of SiNWs for immobilization of selective chemistry is provided in the context of impact on the analytical performance of SiNW-FET sensors. In addition to in vitro examples, an overview of the progress of use of SiNW-FET sensors for ex vivo studies is also presented. This review concludes with a discussion of the future prospects of SiNW-FET sensors

  11. Electric Conductivity of Phosphorus Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing-Xiang, Zhang; Hui, Li; Xue-Qing, Zhang; Kim-Meow, Liew

    2009-01-01

    We present the structures and electrical transport properties of nanowires made from different strands of phosphorus chains encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. Optimized by density function theory, our results indicate that the conductance spectra reveal an oscillation dependence on the size of wires. It can be seen from the density of states and current-voltage curves that the structure of nanowires affects their properties greatly. Among them, the DNA-like double-helical phosphorus nanowire exhibits the distinct characteristic of an approximately linear I – V relationship and has a higher conductance than others. The transport properties of phosphorus nanowires are highly correlated with their microstructures. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  12. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A novel top-down fabrication technique was presented for single-crystal Si-NW fabrication realized with conventional microfabrication technique. High quality triangular Si-NWs were made with high wafer-s...

  13. IC Compatible Wafer Level Fabrication of Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors for Biosensing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moh, T.S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In biosensing, nano-devices such as Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (SiNW FETs) are promising components/sensors for ultra-high sensitive detection, especially when samples are low in concentration or a limited volume is available. Current processing of SiNW FETs often relies on expensive

  14. Enhanced Flexural Strength of Tellurium Nanowires/epoxy Composites with the Reinforcement Effect of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balguri, Praveen Kumar; Harris Samuel, D. G.; Aditya, D. B.; Vijaya Bhaskar, S.; Thumu, Udayabhaskararao

    2018-02-01

    Investigating the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposite materials has been greatly increased in the last decade. In particular, flexural strength plays a major role in resisting bending and shear loads of a composite material. Here, one dimensional (1D) tellurium nanowires (TeNWs) reinforced epoxy composites have been prepared and the flexural properties of resulted TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are studied. The diameter and length of the TeNWs used to make TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are 21±2.5 nm and 697±87 nm, respectively. Plain and TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Furthermore, significant enhancement in the flexural strength of TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposite is observed in comparison to plain epoxy composite, i.e. flexural strength is increased by 65% with the addition of very little amount of TeNWs content (0.05 wt.%) to epoxy polymer. Structural details of plain and TeNWs/epoxy at micrometer scale were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We believe that our results provide a new type of semiconductor nanowires based high strength epoxy polymer nanocomposites.

  15. Failure mechanisms and electromechanical coupling in semiconducting nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One dimensional nanostructures, like nanowires and nanotubes, are increasingly being researched for the development of next generation devices like logic gates, transistors, and solar cells. In particular, semiconducting nanowires with a nonsymmetric wurtzitic crystal structure, such as zinc oxide (ZnO and gallium nitride (GaN, have drawn immense research interests due to their electromechanical coupling. The designing of the future nanowire-based devices requires component-level characterization of individual nanowires. In this paper, we present a unique experimental set-up to characterize the mechanical and electromechanical behaviour of individual nanowires. Using this set-up and complementary atomistic simulations, mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires and electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires were investigated. In ZnO nanowires, elastic modulus was found to depend on nanowire diameter decreasing from 190 GPa to 140 GPa as the wire diameter increased from 5 nm to 80 nm. Inconsistent failure mechanisms were observed in ZnO nanowires. Experiments revealed a brittle fracture, whereas simulations using a pairwise potential predicted a phase transformation prior to failure. This inconsistency is addressed in detail from an experimental as well as computational perspective. Lastly, in addition to mechanical properties, preliminary results on the electromechanical properties of gallium nitride nanowires are also reported. Initial investigations reveal that the piezoresistive and piezoelectric behaviour of nanowires is different from bulk gallium nitride.

  16. Amorphous SiOx nanowires catalyzed by metallic Ge for optoelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Tianxiao; Chen Zhigang; Wu Yueqin; Lin Jianhui; Zhang Jiuzhan; Fan Yongliang; Yang Xinju; Jiang Zuimin; Zou Jin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Metallic Ge has been demonstrated as an effective catalyst for the growth of SiO x nanowires on Si substrates. → Such a catalyst may avoid catalyst contamination caused by their unconsciousness left in the nanowires. → Two broad peaks centered at 410 nm and 570 nm were observed in photoluminescence spectrum, indicating that such SiO x nanowires have the potential applications in white light-emitting diodes, full-colour display, full-colour indicator and light sources. - Abstract: Amorphous SiO x nanowires, with diameters of ∼20 nm and lengths of tens of μm, were grown from self-organized GeSi quantum dots or GeSi alloy epilayers on Si substrates. The morphologies and yield of these amorphous nanowires depend strongly upon the synthesis temperature. Comparative experiments indicate that the present SiO x nanowires are induced by metallic Ge as catalysts via the solid liquid solid growth mechanism. Two broad peaks centered at 410 nm and 570 nm were observed in photoluminescence spectrum, indicating that such SiO x nanowires have the potential applications in white light-emitting diodes, full-colour display, full-colour indicator and light sources.

  17. Study of spin dynamics and damping on the magnetic nanowire arrays with various nanowire widths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaehun [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, Yuya; Konioshi, Katsunori [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Yoon, Jungbum [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Jinyong [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Miwa, Shinji [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Jung, Myung-Hwa [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul, 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, Yoshishige [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); You, Chun-Yeol, E-mail: cyyou@inha.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the spin dynamics including Gilbert damping in the ferromagnetic nanowire arrays. We have measured the ferromagnetic resonance of ferromagnetic nanowire arrays using vector-network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) and analyzed the results with the micromagnetic simulations. We find excellent agreement between the experimental VNA-FMR spectra and micromagnetic simulations result for various applied magnetic fields. We find that the same tendency of the demagnetization factor for longitudinal and transverse conditions, N{sub z} (N{sub y}) increases (decreases) as increasing the nanowire width in the micromagnetic simulations while N{sub x} is almost zero value in transverse case. We also find that the Gilbert damping constant increases from 0.018 to 0.051 as the increasing nanowire width for the transverse case, while it is almost constant as 0.021 for the longitudinal case. - Highlights: • We investigate the spin dynamic properties in the ferromagnetic nanowire arrays. • The demagnetization factors have similar tendency with the prism geometry results. • The Gilbert damping constant is increased from 0.018 to 0.051 as the increasing nanowire width for the transverse. • The Gilbert damping constant is almost constant as 0.021 for the longitudinal case.

  18. Effects of buffer composition and dilution on nanowire field-effect biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, Noémie; Frederiksen, Rune S; Møller, Thor C; Rieben, Nathalie I; Martinez, Karen L; Upadhyay, Shivendra; Nygård, Jesper; De Vico, Luca; Jensen, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Nanowire-based field-effect transistors (FETs) can be used as ultra-sensitive and label-free biosensors for detecting protein–protein interactions. A way to increase the performance of such sensors is to dilute the sensing buffer drastically. However, we show here that this can have an important effect on the function of the proteins. Moreover, it is demonstrated that this dilution significantly affects the pH stability of the sensing buffer, which consequently impacts the charge of the protein and thus the response and signal-to-noise ratio in the sensing experiments. Three model systems are investigated experimentally to illustrate the impact on ligand–protein and protein–protein interactions. Simulations are performed to illustrate the effect on the performance of the sensors. Combining various parameters, the current study provides a means for evaluating and selecting the most appropriate buffer composition for bioFET measurements. (paper)

  19. Growth dynamics of SiGe nanowires by the Vapour Liquid Solid method and its impact on SiGe/Si axial heterojunction abruptness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pura, Jose Luis; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Jimenez, Juan

    2018-06-05

    The Vapour Liquid Solid (VLS) method is by far the most extended procedure for bottom-up nanowire growth. This method also allows for the manufacture of nanowire axial heterojunctions in a straightforward way. To do this, during the growth process the precursor gases are switched on/off to obtain the desired change in the nanowire composition. Using this technique axially heterostructured nanowires can be grown, which are crucial for the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices. SiGe/Si nanowires are compatible with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, this improves their versatility and the possibility of integration with the current electronic technologies. Abrupt heterointerfaces are fundamental for the development and correct operation of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unfortunately, VLS growth of SiGe/Si heterojunctions does not provide abrupt transitions because of the high solubility of group IV semiconductors in Au, with the corresponding reservoir effect that precludes the growth of sharp interfaces. In this work, we studied the growth dynamics of SiGe/Si heterojunctions based on already developed models for VLS growth. A composition map of the Si-Ge-Au liquid alloy is proposed to better understand the impact of the growing conditions on the nanowire growth process and the heterojunction formation. The solution of our model provides heterojunction profiles in good agreement with experimental measurements. Finally, the in-depth study of the composition map provides a practical approach to reduce drastically the heterojunction abruptness by reducing the Si and Ge concentrations in the catalyst droplet. This converges with previous approaches that use catalysts aiming to reduce the solubility of the atomic species. This analysis opens new paths to reduce the heterojunction abruptness using Au catalysts, but the model can be naturally extended to other catalysts and semiconductors. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  1. Scattering cross section of metal catalyst atoms in silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Rurali, R.; Cartoixa, X.

    2010-01-01

    A common technique to fabricate silicon nanowires is to use metal particles (e.g., Au, Ag, Cu, Al) to catalyze the growth reaction. As a consequence, the fabricated nanowires contain small concentrations of these metals as impurities. In this work we investigate the effect of the metallic impurit...

  2. Plasmonic Nanowires for Wide Wavelength Range Molecular Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2018-05-17

    In this paper, we propose the use of a standing nanowires array, constituted by plasmonic active gold wires grown on iron disks, and partially immersed in a supporting alumina matrix, for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications. The galvanic process was used to fabricate nanowires in pores of anodized alumina template, making this device cost-effective. This fabrication method allows for the selection of size, diameter, and spatial arrangement of nanowires. The proposed device, thanks to a detailed design analysis, demonstrates a broadband plasmonic enhancement effect useful for many standard excitation wavelengths in the visible and NIR. The trigonal pores arrangement gives an efficiency weakly dependent on polarization. The devices, tested with 633 and 830 nm laser lines, show a significant Raman enhancement factor, up to around 6 × 10⁴, with respect to the flat gold surface, used as a reference for the measurements of the investigated molecules.

  3. Vertically aligned nanowires from boron-doped diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nianjun; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Osawa, Eiji; Nebel, Christoph E

    2008-11-01

    Vertically aligned diamond nanowires with controlled geometrical properties like length and distance between wires were fabricated by use of nanodiamond particles as a hard mask and by use of reactive ion etching. The surface structure, electronic properties, and electrochemical functionalization of diamond nanowires were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as electrochemical techniques. AFM and STM experiments show that diamond nanowire etched for 10 s have wire-typed structures with 3-10 nm in length and with typically 11 nm spacing in between. The electrode active area of diamond nanowires is enhanced by a factor of 2. The functionalization of nanowire tips with nitrophenyl molecules is characterized by STM on clean and on nitrophenyl molecule-modified diamond nanowires. Tip-modified diamond nanowires are promising with respect to biosensor applications where controlled biomolecule bonding is required to improve chemical stability and sensing significantly.

  4. Nanowire failure: long = brittle and short = ductile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jhon, Mark H; Gao, Huajian; Srolovitz, David J

    2012-02-08

    Experimental studies of the tensile behavior of metallic nanowires show a wide range of failure modes, ranging from ductile necking to brittle/localized shear failure-often in the same diameter wires. We performed large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of copper nanowires with a range of nanowire lengths and provide unequivocal evidence for a transition in nanowire failure mode with change in nanowire length. Short nanowires fail via a ductile mode with serrated stress-strain curves, while long wires exhibit extreme shear localization and abrupt failure. We developed a simple model for predicting the critical nanowire length for this failure mode transition and showed that it is in excellent agreement with both the simulation results and the extant experimental data. The present results provide a new paradigm for the design of nanoscale mechanical systems that demarcates graceful and catastrophic failure. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Synthesis of silicon nanowires and novel nano-dendrite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Saion; Gao Bo; Zhou, Otto

    2004-01-01

    We report a study on the effects of various parameters on the synthesis of silicon nanowires (5--50 nm in diameter) by pulsed laser ablation. A novel silicon nanodendrite structure is observed by changing some of the growth parameters abruptly. This growth mechanism is explained by a qualitative model. These nanodendrites show a promise of being used as a template in fabricating nanocircuits. Thermal quantum confinement effects were also observed on the silicon nanowires and have been reported

  6. Nanowire surface fastener fabrication on flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toku, Yuhki; Uchida, Keita; Morita, Yasuyuki; Ju, Yang

    2018-07-01

    The market for wearable devices has increased considerably in recent years. In response to this demand, flexible electronic circuit technology has become more important. The conventional bonding technology in electronic assembly depends on high-temperature processes such as reflow soldering, which result in undesired thermal damages and residual stress at a bonding interface. In addition, it exhibits poor compatibility with bendable or stretchable device applications. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement to attach electronic parts on printed circuit boards with good mechanical and electrical properties at room temperature. Nanowire surface fasteners (NSFs) are candidates for resolving these problems. This paper describes the fabrication of an NSF on a flexible substrate, which can be used for room temperature conductive bonding. The template method is used for preparing high-density nanowire arrays. A Cu thin film is layered on the template as the flexible substrate. After etching the template, a Cu NSF is obtained on the Cu film substrate. In addition, the electrical and mechanical properties of the Cu NSF are studied under various fabrication conditions. The Cu NSF exhibits high shear adhesion strength (∼234 N cm‑2) and low contact resistivity (2.2 × 10‑4 Ω cm2).

  7. Diagnosis of phosphorus monolayer doping in silicon based on nanowire electrical characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ray; Ricchio, Alessio; Murphy, Ruaidhrí; Maxwell, Graeme; Murphy, Richard; Piaszenski, Guido; Petkov, Nikolay; Hydes, Alan; O'Connell, Dan; Lyons, Colin; Kennedy, Noel; Sheehan, Brendan; Schmidt, Michael; Crupi, Felice; Holmes, Justin D.; Hurley, Paul K.; Connolly, James; Hatem, Chris; Long, Brenda

    2018-03-01

    The advent of high surface-to-volume ratio devices has necessitated a revised approach to parameter extraction and process evaluation in field-effect transistor technologies. In this work, active doping concentrations are extracted from the electrical analysis of Si nanowire devices with high surface-to-volume ratios. Nanowire resistance and Si resistivity are extracted, by first extracting and subtracting out the contact resistance. Resistivity (ρ) is selected as the benchmark parameter to compare different doping processes with each other. The impacts of nanowire diameter scaling to 10 nm and of nanowire spacing scaling to resistivity and higher dopant activation, with dependencies on the nanowire width greater than on nanowire spacing. Limitations in ADP P monolayer doping with a SiO2 cap are due to the difficulties in dopant incorporation, as it is based on in-diffusion, and P atoms must overcome a potential barrier on the Si surface.

  8. Molecular statics simulations of buckling and yielding of gold nanowires deformed in axial compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W.; Batra, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    We use molecular statics simulations with the embedded atom method potential to delineate yielding (material instability) and buckling (structural instability) in gold nanowires deformed axially in compression. It is found that both local (stacking faults) and global instabilities occur when the gold nanowire yields but only global instabilities occur when the nanowire buckles. Furthermore strong surface effects reorient the lattice structure which significantly increases Young's modulus in the axial direction and cause a nanowire of relatively small slenderness ratio (e.g., 14) to buckle. Upon complete unloading of the nanowires, the average axial stress and the total potential energy revert to their values in the reference configuration for the nanowires that buckled but not for the one that yielded.

  9. Effect of substrate temperature on the microstructural properties of titanium nitride nanowires grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbordzoe, S.; Kotoka, R.; Craven, Eric; Kumar, D.; Wu, F.; Narayan, J.

    2014-01-01

    The current work reports on the growth and microstructural characterization of titanium nitride (TiN) nanowires on single crystal silicon substrates using a pulsed laser deposition method. The physical and microstructural properties of the nanowires were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion properties of the TiN nanowires compared to TiN thin film were evaluated using Direct Current potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nanowires corroded faster than the TiN thin film, because the nanowires have a larger surface area which makes them more reactive in a corrosive environment. It was observed from the FESEM image analyses that as the substrate temperature increases from 600 °C to 800 °C, there was an increase in both diameter (25 nm–50 nm) and length (150 nm–250 nm) of the nanowire growth. There was also an increase in spatial density with an increase of substrate temperature. The TEM results showed that the TiN nanowires grow epitaxially with the silicon substrate via domain matching epitaxy paradigm, despite a large misfit

  10. Cytotoxicity and Effects on Cell Viability of Nickel Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jose E.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles are finding an increased use in biomedical applications and research. Nanobeads are widely used for cell separation, biosensing and cancer therapy, among others. Due to their properties, nanowires (NWs) are gaining

  11. Spatial mapping of exciton lifetimes in single ZnO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reparaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial dependence of the exciton lifetimes in single ZnO nanowires. We have found that the free exciton and bound exciton lifetimes exhibit a maximum at the center of nanowires, while they decrease by 30% towards the tips. This dependence is explained by considering the cavity-like properties of the nanowires in combination with the Purcell effect. We show that the lifetime of the bound-excitons scales with the localization energy to the power of 3/2, which validates the model of Rashba and Gurgenishvili at the nanoscale.

  12. Synthesis of vertical arrays of ultra long ZnO nanowires on noncrystalline substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Bong Jun; Lee, Kyung Moon; Shin, Hae-Young; Kim, Jinwoong; Liu, Jinzhang; Yoon, Seokhyun; Lee, Soonil; Ahn, Y.H.; Park, Ji-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Arrays of vertical ultra-long ZnO nanowires with lengths upto 300 μm. ► Controls of lengths and diameters of vertical arrays of ZnO nanowires on SiO 2 substrates. ► Luminescent and electrical properties of ZnO nanowires prepared with different growth conditions. - Abstract: Vertically aligned arrays of ultralong ZnO nanowires were synthesized on SiO 2 substrates with carbothermal vapor phase transport method with Au seeding layer. High density of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires with lengths from a few to ∼300 μm could be grown by controlling growth conditions. Supply of high concentration of Zn vapor and control of the ratio between Zn vapor and oxygen are found to have the most significant effects on the growth of long ZnO nanowires in the vapor–solid growth mechanism. The nanowires are of high crystalline quality as confirmed by various structural, compositional, and luminescent measurements. Luminescent and electrical properties of ZnO nanowires with different growth conditions were also investigated.

  13. Theoretical modeling of the effect of Casimir attraction on the electrostatic instability of nanowire-fabricated actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, J.; Farrokhabadi, A.; Rach, R.; Abadyan, M.

    2015-04-01

    The presence of the quantum vacuum fluctuations, i.e. the Casimir attraction, can strongly affect the performance of ultra-small actuators. The strength of the Casimir force is significantly influenced by the geometries of interacting bodies. Previous research has exclusively studied the impact of the vacuum fluctuations on the instability of nanoactuators with planar geometries. However, no work has yet considered this phenomenon in actuators fabricated from nanowires/nanotubes with cylindrical geometries. In our present work, the influence of the Casimir attraction on the electrostatic stability of nanoactuators fabricated from cylindrical conductive nanowire/nanotube is investigated. The Dirichlet mode is considered and an asymptotic solution, based on scattering theory, is applied to consider the effect of vacuum fluctuations in the theoretical model. The size-dependent modified couple stress theory is employed to derive the constitutive equation of the actuator. The governing nonlinear equations are solved by two different approaches, i.e. the finite difference method and modified Adomian-Padé method. Various aspects of the problem, i.e. comparison with the van der Waals force regime, the variation of instability parameters, effect of geometry and coupling between the Casimir force and size dependency are discussed. This work is beneficial to determine the impact of Casimir force on nanowire/nanotube-fabricated actuators.

  14. Designing Diameter-Modulated Heterostructure Nanowires of PbTe/Te by Controlled Dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abinash; Kundu, Subhajit; Samantaray, Debadarshini; Kundu, Paromita; Zanaga, Daniele; Bals, Sara; Ravishankar, N

    2017-12-13

    Heterostructures consisting of semiconductors with controlled morphology and interfaces find applications in many fields. A range of axial, radial, and diameter-modulated nanostructures have been synthesized primarily using vapor phase methods. Here, we present a simple wet chemical routine to synthesize heterostructures of PbTe/Te using Te nanowires as templates. A morphology evolution study for the formation of these heterostructures has been performed. On the basis of these control experiments, a pathway for the formation of these nanostructures is proposed. Reduction of a Pb precursor to Pb on Te nanowire templates followed by interdiffusion of Pb/Te leads to the formation of a thin shell of PbTe on the Te wires. Controlled dewetting of the thin shell leads to the formation of cube-shaped PbTe that is periodically arranged on the Te wires. Using control experiments, we show that different reactions parameters like rate of addition of the reducing agent, concentration of Pb precursor and thickness of initial Te nanowire play a critical role in controlling the spacing between the PbTe cubes on the Te wires. Using simple surface energy arguments, we propose a mechanism for the formation of the hybrid. The principles presented are general and can be exploited for the synthesis of other nanoscale heterostructures.

  15. Thermoelectric properties of semiconductor nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piryatinski, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    To examine the thermoelectric (TE) properties of a semiconductor nanowire (NW) network, we propose a theoretical approach mapping the TE network on a two-port network. In contrast to a conventional single-port (i.e., resistor) network model, our model allows for large scale calculations showing convergence of TE figure of merit, ZT, with an increasing number of junctions. Using this model, numerical simulations are performed for the Bi2Te3 branched nanowire (BNW) and Cayley tree NW (CTNW) network. We find that the phonon scattering at the network junctions plays a dominant role in enhancing the network ZT. Specifically, disordered BNW and CTNW demonstrate an order of magnitude higher ZT enhancement compared to their ordered counterparts. Formation of preferential TE pathways in CTNW makes the network effectively behave as its BNW counterpart. We provide formalism for simulating large scale nanowire networks hinged upon experimentally measurable TE parameters of a single T-junction.

  16. Three-dimensional vertical Si nanowire MOS capacitor model structure for the study of electrical versus geometrical Si nanowire characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdakis, E.; Casanova, A.; Larrieu, G.; Nassiopoulou, A. G.

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Si surface nanostructuring is interesting towards increasing the capacitance density of a metal-oxidesemiconductor (MOS) capacitor, while keeping reduced footprint for miniaturization. Si nanowires (SiNWs) can be used in this respect. With the aim of understanding the electrical versus geometrical characteristics of such capacitors, we fabricated and studied a MOS capacitor with highly ordered arrays of vertical Si nanowires of different lengths and thermal silicon oxide dielectric, in comparison to similar flat MOS capacitors. The high homogeneity and ordering of the SiNWs allowed the determination of the single SiNW capacitance and intrinsic series resistance, as well as other electrical characteristics (density of interface states, flat-band voltage and leakage current) in relation to the geometrical characteristics of the SiNWs. The SiNW capacitors demonstrated increased capacitance density compared to the flat case, while maintaining a cutoff frequency above 1 MHz, much higher than in other reports in the literature. Finally, our model system has been shown to constitute an excellent platform for the study of SiNW capacitors with either grown or deposited dielectrics, as for example high-k dielectrics for further increasing the capacitance density. This will be the subject of future work.

  17. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dongliang; Ge Chuannan; Du Youwei

    2009-01-01

    CuO nanowire arrays were prepared by oxidation of copper nanowires embedded in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The AAO was fabricated in an oxalic acid at a constant voltage. Copper nanowires were formed in the nanopores of the AAO membranes in an electrochemical deposition process. The oxidized copper nanowires at different temperatures were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of a CuO phase after calcining at 500 0 C in air for 30 h. A transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the nanowire morphologies. Raman spectra were performed to study the CuO nanowire arrays. After measuring, we found that the current-voltage curve of the CuO nanowires is nonlinear.

  18. DC electrodeposition of NiGa alloy nanowires in AAO template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, K. [Nanomaterials Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanjabi, S., E-mail: sanjabi@modares.ac.ir [Nanomaterials Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alemipour, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    NiGa alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from an acidic sulfate bath into nanoporous anodized alumina oxide (AAO). This template was fabricated by two-step anodizing. The effects of bath composition and current density were explored on the Ga content of electrodeposited nanowires. The Ga content in the deposits was increased by increasing both Ga in the bath composition and electrodepositing current density. The NiGa alloy nanowires were synthesized for Ga content up to 2–4% without significant improving the magnetic properties. Above this threshold Ga clusters were formed and decreased the magnetic properties of the nanowires. For Ga content of the alloy above 30%, the wires were too short and incomplete. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the significant increase of Ga content in the nanowires, changes the FCC crystal structure of Ni to an amorphous phase. It also causes a sizeable increase in the Ga cluster size; these both lead to a significant reduction in the coercivity and the magnetization respectively. - Highlights: • NiGa alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from acidic sulphate baths into nanoporous anodized alumina oxide (AAO) template. • The Ga content was increased by increasing the Ga in the bath composition and electrodeposition current density. • The magnetic parameters such as coercivity and magnetization were not changed for the alloy nanowire with Ga content less than 4%.

  19. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Juneui [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis-Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and the lowest Michaelis-Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  20. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Juneui; Lim, Sangwoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. ► Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. ► Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis–Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 μA cm −2 mM −1 ) and the lowest Michaelis–Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  1. Zinc Oxide Nanowire Interphase for Enhanced Lightweight Polymer Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Henry A.; Brett, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to increase the interfacial strength between aramid fiber and epoxy matrix. This was achieved by functionalizing the aramid fiber followed by growth of a layer of ZnO nanowires on the fiber surface such that when embedded into the polymer, the load transfer and bonding area could be substantially enhanced. The functionalization procedure developed here created functional carboxylic acid surface groups that chemically interact with the ZnO and thus greatly enhance the strength of the interface between the fiber and the ZnO.

  2. Moessbauer study of Fe-Co nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ziyu [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)]. E-mail: chenzy@lzu.edu.cn; Zhan Qingfeng; Xue Desheng; Li Fashen [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zhou Xuezhi; Kunkel, Henry; Williams, Gwyn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, the University of Manitoba (Canada)

    2002-01-28

    Arrays of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} (0.0{<=}x{<=}0.92) nanowires have been prepared by an electrochemical process, co-depositing Fe and Co atoms into the pores of anodic aluminium; their compositions were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscope results show that the nanowires are regularly spaced and uniform in shape with lengths of about 7.5 {mu}m and diameters of 20 nm. The x-ray diffraction indicates a texture in the deposited nanowires. For the composition below 82 at.% cobalt, the nanowires had a body-centred-cubic structure with a [110] preferred orientation. For the 92 at.% cobalt sample, the alloy exhibited a mixture of bcc and face-centred-cubic structure. The room temperature {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra of the arrays of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} nanowires have second and fifth absorption lines of the six-line pattern with almost zero intensity, indicating that the internal magnetic field in the nanowires lies along the long axis of the nanowire. The maximum values of the hyperfine field (B{sub hf} 36.6{+-}0.1 T) and isomer shift (IS=0.06{+-}0.01 mm s-1) occur for 44 at.% cobalt. The variations of the isomer shift and the linewidths with composition indicate that the Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy nanowires around the equiatomic composition are in an atomistic disordered state. (author)

  3. Electrical spin injection and detection in silicon nanowires with axial doping gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Barreda, Jorge L; Keiper, Timothy David; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Peng

    2018-06-13

    The interest in spin transport in nanoscopic semiconductor channels is driven by both the inevitable miniaturization of spintronics devices toward nanoscale and the rich spin-dependent physics the quantum confinement engenders. For such studies, the all-important issue of the ferromagnet/semiconductor (FM/SC) interface becomes even more critical at nanoscale. Here we elucidate the effects of the FM/SC interface on electrical spin injection and detection at nanoscale dimensions, utilizing a unique type of Si nanowires (NWs) with an inherent axial doping gradient. Two-terminal and nonlocal four-terminal lateral spin-valve measurements were performed using different combinations from a series of FM contacts positioned along the same NW. The data are analyzed with a general model of spin accumulation in a normal channel under electrical spin injection from a FM, which reveals a distinct correlation of decreasing spin-valve signal with increasing injector junction resistance. The observation is attributed to the diminishing contribution of the d-electrons in the FM to the injected current spin polarization with increasing Schottky barrier width. The results demonstrate that there is a window of interface parameters for optimal spin injection efficiency and current spin polarization, which provides important design guidelines for nano-spintronic devices with quasi-1D semiconductor channels.

  4. Excellent field emission properties of vertically oriented CuO nanowire films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oriented CuO nanowire films were synthesized on a large scale using simple method of direct heating copper grids in air. The field emission properties of the sample can be enhanced by improving the aspect ratio of the nanowires just through a facile method of controlling the synthesis conditions. Although the density of the nanowires is large enough, the screen effect is not an important factor in this field emission process because few nanowires sticking out above the rest. Benefiting from the unique geometrical and structural features, the CuO nanowire samples show excellent field emission (FE properties. The FE measurements of CuO nanowire films illustrate that the sample synthesized at 500 °C for 8 h has a comparatively low turn-on field of 0.68 V/μm, a low threshold field of 1.1 V/μm, and a large field enhancement factor β of 16782 (a record high value for CuO nanostructures, to the best of our knowledge, indicating that the samples are promising candidates for field emission applications.

  5. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-12-19

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  6. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Ravasi, Timothy; Contreras Gerenas, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  7. Homo- and heteroepitaxial growth behavior of upright InAs nanowires on InAs and GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Jens; Gottschalch, Volker; Paetzelt, Hendrik [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Leipzig, Johannesallee 29, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Wagner, Gerald [Institut fuer Kristallographie und Mineralogie, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Pietsch, Ulrich [Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) acquire recently attraction because of promising new application fields in electronics and optoelectronic. We applied the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with gold seeds in combination with low-pressure metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE) to achieve replicable InAs NW growth with high growth rates. Since the initial alloying of the gold seeds with the substrate material plays a deciding role for the inceptive NW growth, InAs free standing nanowires were grown on GaAs(111)B substrate as well as on InAs/GaAs(111)B quasi-substrate. The influence of the MOVPE parameters will be discussed with respect to NW morphology and real-structure. A special focus will be set on the heteroepitaxial InAs NW growth on GaAs substrates. Gracing-incidence X-ray studies and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed the existence of a thin Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}As graduated alloy layer with embedded crystalline gold alloy particles at the NW substrate interface. The effect of droplet composition on the VLS growth will be presented in a thermodynamic model.

  8. Synthesis of uniform CdS nanowires in high yield and its single nanowire electrical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shancheng; Sun Litao; Qu Peng; Huang Ninping; Song Yinchen; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. Field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the CdS nanowires have diameter of about 26 nm and length up to several micrometres. High resolution TEM (HRTEM) study indicates the single-crystalline nature of CdS nanowires with an oriented growth along the c-axis direction. The optical properties of the products were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra and Raman spectra. The resistivity, electron concentration and electron mobility of single NW are calculated by fitting the symmetric I-V curves measured on single NW by the metal-semiconductor-metal model based on thermionic field emission theory. - Graphical abstract: Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires (NWs) with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. The reaction time is reduced to 2 h, comparing to other synthesis which needed long reaction time up to 12 h. In addition, the as-prepared CdS nanowires have more uniform diameter and high yield. More importantly, the I-V curve of present single CdS nanowire has a good symmetric characteristic as expected by the theory.

  9. Diameter- and current-density-dependent growth orientation of hexagonal CdSe nanowire arrays via electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongyu; Li Xiaohong; Chen Yan; Guo Defeng; Xie Yanwu; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi; Liu Baoting

    2009-01-01

    Controlling the growth orientation of semiconductor nanowire arrays is of vital importance for their applications in the fields of nanodevices. In the present work, hexagonal CdSe nanowire arrays with various preferential growth orientations have been successfully yielded by employing the electrodeposition technique using porous alumina as templates (PATs). We demonstrate by experimental and theoretical efforts that the growth orientation of the CdSe nanowires can be effectively manipulated by varying either the nanopore diameter of the PATs or the deposited current density, which has significant effects on the optical properties of the CdSe nanowires. The present study provides an alternative approach to tuning the growth direction of electrodeposited nanowires and thus is of importance for the fabrication of nanodevices with controlled functional properties.

  10. Diameter- and current-density-dependent growth orientation of hexagonal CdSe nanowire arrays via electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hongyu; Li Xiaohong; Chen Yan; Guo Defeng; Xie Yanwu; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu Baoting, E-mail: xyzh66@ysu.edu.c [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2009-10-21

    Controlling the growth orientation of semiconductor nanowire arrays is of vital importance for their applications in the fields of nanodevices. In the present work, hexagonal CdSe nanowire arrays with various preferential growth orientations have been successfully yielded by employing the electrodeposition technique using porous alumina as templates (PATs). We demonstrate by experimental and theoretical efforts that the growth orientation of the CdSe nanowires can be effectively manipulated by varying either the nanopore diameter of the PATs or the deposited current density, which has significant effects on the optical properties of the CdSe nanowires. The present study provides an alternative approach to tuning the growth direction of electrodeposited nanowires and thus is of importance for the fabrication of nanodevices with controlled functional properties.

  11. Growth and characterization of InGaAs based nanowire-heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treu, Julian Pascal

    2017-01-01

    tunability covering the technologically relevant telecommunication wavelengths. However, given their high surface-to-volume ratio, nanowire structures are especially prone to detrimental surface states, deteriorating in particular radiative efficiencies. Probing surfacestate related Fermi level pinning via detailed photoluminescence spectroscopy, we evaluate the influence of Ga-content on band bending and dominant recombination mechanism by studying as-grown nanowires covered by native oxide in comparison with nanowires free of oxide after wet-chemical treatment. In conjunction with complementary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we identify a cross-over between surface electron accumulation for In-rich InGaAs nanowires to electron depletion for a gallium content between ∼ 20-30%. For stable passivation of deteriorating surface states higher bandgap materials are applied in radial core-shell geometry. Exploiting low surface recombination velocity and existing doping proficiency of InAsP, we establish a hybrid process combining MBE grown InAs core structures surrounded by metal organic vapor deposited (MOCVD) InAsP layers. This directly induces an increase in emission intensity by up to two orders of magnitude that can be related to high interface quality, as further corroborated by detailed TEM analysis of cross-sectional lamella structures. By systematically tuning thickness and phosphorus content we tune core-emission energies via strain-induced peak shifts and elucidate detrimental effects of plastic relaxation upon too high lattice mismatch. Introducing fully latticematched InGaAs-InAlAs heterostructures, such undesired strain accumulation and accompanied defect formation can be avoided, reflected by the absence of any strain-induced spectral shifts in peak emission energy and confirmed by high-resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps (strain ε core < 0.1%). As entirely in-situ based MBE process, exposure to ambient conditions is no longer required, further enhancing

  12. Electrochemical synthesis of CORE-shell magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ovejero, Jesús G.

    2015-04-16

    (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell magnetic nanowires have been synthesized by optimized two-step potentiostatic electrodeposition inside self-assembled nanopores of anodic aluminium templates. The optimal electrochemical parameters (e.g., potential) have been firstly determined for the growth of continuous Au nanotubes at the inner wall of pores. Then, a magnetic core was synthesized inside the Au shells under suitable electrochemical conditions for a wide spectrum of single elements and alloy compositions (e.g., Fe, Ni and CoFe alloys). Novel opportunities offered by such nanowires are discussed particularly the magnetic behavior of (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell nanowires was tested and compared with that of bare TM nanowires. These core-shell nanowires can be released from the template so, opening novel opportunities for biofunctionalization of individual nanowires.

  13. Diameter Tuning of β-Ga2O3 Nanowires Using Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, R

    2017-12-01

    Diameter tuning of [Formula: see text]-Ga 2 O 3 nanowires using chemical vapor deposition technique have been investigated under various experimental conditions. Diameter of root grown [Formula: see text]-Ga 2 O 3 nanowires having monoclinic crystal structure is tuned by varying separation distance between metal source and substrate. Effect of gas flow rate and mixer ratio on the morphology and diameter of nanowires has been studied. Nanowire diameter depends on growth temperature, and it is independent of catalyst nanoparticle size at higher growth temperature (850-900 °C) as compared to lower growth temperature (800 °C). These nanowires show changes in structural strain value with change in diameter. Band-gap of nanowires increases with decrease in the diameter.

  14. Metal-dielectric-CNT nanowires for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Altun, Ali; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2017-10-03

    A sensor with a substrate includes nanowires extending vertically from the substrate, a hafnia coating on the nanowires that provides hafnia coated nanowires, and a noble metal coating on the hafnia coated nanowires. The top of the hafnia and noble metal coated nanowires bent onto one another to create a canopy forest structure. There are numerous randomly arranged holes that let through scattered light. The many points of contact, hot spots, amplify signals. The methods include the steps of providing a Raman spectroscopy substrate, introducing nano crystals to the Raman spectroscopy substrate, growing a forest of nanowires from the nano crystals on the Raman spectroscopy substrate, coating the nanowires with hafnia providing hafnia coated nanowires, and coating the hafnia coated nanowires with a noble metal or other metal.

  15. Design and Characterisation of III-V Semiconductor Nanowire Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Dhruv

    The development of small, power-efficient lasers underpins many of the technologies that we utilise today. Semiconductor nanowires are promising for miniaturising lasers to even smaller dimensions. III-V semiconductors, such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Indium Phosphide (InP), are the most widely used materials for optoelectronic devices and so the development of nanowire lasers based on these materials is expected to have technologically significant outcomes. This PhD dissertation presents a comprehensive study of the design of III-V semiconductor nanowire lasers, with bulk and quantum confined active regions. Based on the design, various III-V semiconductor nanowire lasers are demonstrated, namely, GaAs nanowire lasers, GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum well (MQW) nanowire lasers and InP nanowire lasers. These nanowire lasers are shown to operate at room temperature, have low thresholds, and lase from different transverse modes. The structural and optoelectronic quality of nanowire lasers are characterised via electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques. Lasing is characterised in all these devices by optical pumping. The lasing characteristics are analysed by rate equation modelling and the lasing mode(s) in these devices is characterised by threshold gain modelling, polarisation measurements and Fourier plane imaging. Firstly, GaAs nanowire lasers that operate at room temperature are demonstrated. This is achieved by determining the optimal nanowire diameter to reduce threshold gain and by passivating nanowires to improve their quantum efficiency (QE). High-quality surface passivated GaAs nanowires of suitable diameters are grown. The growth procedure is tailored to improve both QE and structural uniformity of nanowires. Room-temperature lasing is demonstrated from individual nanowires and lasing is characterised to be from TM01 mode by threshold gain modelling. To lower threshold even further, nanowire lasers with GaAs/AlGaAs coaxial multi

  16. Modified field enhancement and extinction by plasmonic nanowire dimers due to nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of nonlocal optical response on the optical properties of metallic nanowires, by numerically implementing the hydrodynamical Drude model for arbitrary nanowire geometries. We first demonstrate the accuracy of our frequency-domain finite-element implementation by benchmarking...... it in a wide frequency range against analytical results for the extinction cross section of a cylindrical plasmonic nanowire. Our main results concern more complex geometries, namely cylindrical and bow-tie nanowire dimers that can strongly enhance optical fields. For both types of dimers we find that nonlocal...

  17. Rapid determination of nanowires electrical properties using a dielectrophoresis-well based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios; Hoettges, Kai F.; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Katz, Michael B.; Davydov, Albert; Rigas, Grigorios-Panagiotis; Stolojan, Vlad; Hughes, Michael P.; Shkunov, Maxim

    2017-03-01

    The use of high quality semiconducting nanomaterials for advanced device applications has been hampered by the unavoidable growth variability of electrical properties of one-dimensional nanomaterials, such as nanowires and nanotubes, thus highlighting the need for the characterization of efficient semiconducting nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate a low-cost, industrially scalable dielectrophoretic (DEP) nanowire assembly method for the rapid analysis of the electrical properties of inorganic single crystalline nanowires, by identifying key features in the DEP frequency response spectrum from 1 kHz to 20 MHz in just 60 s. Nanowires dispersed in anisole were characterized using a three-dimensional DEP chip (3DEP), and the resultant spectrum demonstrated a sharp change in nanowire response to DEP signal in 1-20 MHz frequency range. The 3DEP analysis, directly confirmed by field-effect transistor data, indicates that nanowires of higher quality are collected at high DEP signal frequency range above 10 MHz, whereas lower quality nanowires, with two orders of magnitude lower current per nanowire, are collected at lower DEP signal frequencies. These results show that the 3DEP platform can be used as a very efficient characterization tool of the electrical properties of rod-shaped nanoparticles to enable dielectrophoretic selective deposition of nanomaterials with superior conductivity properties.

  18. Near-thermal limit gating in heavily doped III-V semiconductor nanowires using polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, A. R.; Carrad, D. J.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygârd, J.; Micolich, A. P.

    2018-02-01

    Doping is a common route to reducing nanowire transistor on-resistance but it has limits. A high doping level gives significant loss in gate performance and ultimately complete gate failure. We show that electrolyte gating remains effective even when the Be doping in our GaAs nanowires is so high that traditional metal-oxide gates fail. In this regime we obtain a combination of subthreshold swing and contact resistance that surpasses the best existing p -type nanowire metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Our subthreshold swing of 75 mV/dec is within 25 % of the room-temperature thermal limit and comparable with n -InP and n -GaAs nanowire MOSFETs. Our results open a new path to extending the performance and application of nanowire transistors, and motivate further work on improved solid electrolytes for nanoscale device applications.

  19. Size and temperature dependence of the tensile mechanical properties of zinc blende CdSe nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Bing; Chen, Na; Xie, Yiqun; Ye, Xiang; Gu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The effect of size and temperature on the tensile mechanical properties of zinc blende CdSe nanowires is investigated by all atoms molecular dynamic simulation. We found the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus will decrease as the temperature and size of the nanowire increase. The size and temperature dependence are mainly attributed to surface effect and thermally elongation effect. High reversibility of tensile behavior will make zinc blende CdSe nanowires suitable for building efficient nanodevices.

  20. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via ato...

  1. A sub k{sub B}T/q semimetal nanowire field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, L.; Fagas, G.; Gity, F.; Greer, J. C., E-mail: Jim.Greer@Tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork T12 R5CP (Ireland)

    2016-08-08

    The key challenge for nanoelectronics technologies is to identify the designs that work on molecular length scales, provide reduced power consumption relative to classical field effect transistors (FETs), and that can be readily integrated at low cost. To this end, a FET is introduced that relies on the quantum effects arising for semimetals patterned with critical dimensions below 5 nm, that intrinsically has lower power requirements due to its better than a “Boltzmann tyranny” limited subthreshold swing (SS) relative to classical field effect devices, eliminates the need to form heterojunctions, and mitigates against the requirement for abrupt doping profiles in the formation of nanowire tunnel FETs. This is achieved through using a nanowire comprised of a single semimetal material while providing the equivalent of a heterojunction structure based on shape engineering to avail of the quantum confinement induced semimetal-to-semiconductor transition. Ab initio calculations combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for charge transport reveals tunneling behavior in the OFF state and a resonant conduction mechanism for the ON state. A common limitation to tunnel FET (TFET) designs is related to a low current in the ON state. A discussion relating to the semimetal FET design to overcome this limitation while providing less than 60 meV/dec SS at room temperature is provided.

  2. Photoelectrochemistry of III-V epitaxial layers and nanowires for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Enck, Ryan; Chung, Roy; Kelley, Stephen; Sampath, Anand; Reed, Meredith; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    III-V materials, which exhibit high absorption coefficients and charge carrier mobility, are ideal templates for solar energy conversion applications. This work describes the photoelectrochemistry research in several IIIV/electrolyte junctions as an enabler for device design for solar chemical reactions. By designing lattice-matched epitaxial growth of InGaP and GaP on GaAs and Si, respectively, extended depletion region electrodes achieve photovoltages which provide an additional boost to the underlying substrate photovoltage. The InGaP/GaAs and GaP/Si electrodes drive hydrogen evolution currents under aqueous conditions. By using nanowires of InN and InP under carefully controlled growth conditions, current and capacitance measurements are obtained to reveal the nature of the nanowire-electrolyte interface and how light is translated into photocurrent for InP and a photovoltage in InN. The materials system is expanded into the III-V nitride semiconductors, in which it is shown that varying the morphology of GaN on silicon yields insights to how the interface and light conversion is modulated as a basis for future designs. Current extensions of this work address growth and tuning of the III-V nitride electrodes with doping and polarization engineering for efficient coupling to solar-driven chemical reactions, and rapid-throughput methods for III-V nanomaterials synthesis in this materials space.

  3. Hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires as stable photocatalyst for organic dye degradation under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Judong; Chen, Jianjun; Xin, Lipeng; Wang, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic performance was enhanced by hierarchical nanostructural SiC nanowires due to the increased specific surface areas and efficient incident light scattering. The positive effect of SiO 2 layer growth on the surface of nanowires during the catalytic process on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was attributed to SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies. -- Highlights: • High decolorization rate of methylene blue using hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires was obtained. • The effect of methylene blue with different concentration to catalytic result was investigated. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of degrading methylene blue was explained. • The SiO 2 layer generating on nanowire surface in the catalytic process was analyzed. -- Abstract: 3C-SiC nanowires with hierarchical structure were synthesized by sol–gel carbothermal reduction method. The photocatalytic property of SiC nanowires was investigated. 3C-SiC hierarchical nanowires exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity by accelerating the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution under visible light irradiation. Methylene blue was degraded efficiently after 5 h irradiation over the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity was affected by the initial concentration of the methylene blue solution. Silicon dioxide layer was observed on the surface of nanowires after the catalytic process. The positive effect of SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies and 3C-SiC hierarchical nanostructures on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was discussed. The detailed photocatalytic redox processes were also explained

  4. Geometric effects on surface states in topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Parijat; Kubis, Tillman; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    Bismuth Telluride (BT) is a 3D topological insulator (TI) with surface states that have energy dispersion linear in momentum and forms a Dirac cone at low energy. In this work we investigate the surface properties of a BT nanowire and demonstrate the existence of TI states. We also show how such states vanish under certain geometric conditions. An atomistic model (sp3d5s* TB) is used to compute the energy dispersion in a BT nanowire. Penetration depth of the surface states is estimated by ratio of Fermi velocity and band-gap. BT possesses a tiny band-gap, which creates small localization of surface states and greater penetration in to the bulk. To offset this large spatial penetration, which is undesirable to avoid a direct coupling between surfaces, we expect that bigger cross-sections of BT nanowires would be needed to obtain stable TI states. Our numerical work validates this prediction. Furthermore, geometry of the nanowire is shown to influence the TI states. Using a combined analytical and numerical approach our results reveal that surface roughness impact electronic structure leading to Rashba type splits along z-direction. Cylindrical and square cross-sections are given as illustrative examples.

  5. Insights into the Controllable Chemical Composition of Metal Oxide Nanowires and Graphene Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Anna Patrice

    The design and synthesis of materials that absorb visible light and create fuel to store solar energy is a pursuit that has captivated chemists for decades. In order to take part in solar water splitting, i.e. the production of hydrogen and oxygen gas from water and sunlight, electrode materials must fit specific requirements in terms of their electronic structure. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are both of interest for their ability to produce oxygen from photogenerated holes, but their band gaps are too large to capture a significant portion of the solar spectrum. We address this challenge by modifying the crystal structures of ZnO and TiO 2 to make lower band gap materials. Furthermore, we use nanowires as the synthetic template for these materials because they provide a large semiconductor-liquid interfacial area. ZnO nanowires can be alloyed with In3+, Fe3+ and other trivalent metal ions to form a unique structure with the formula M2O3(ZnO)n, also known as MZO. We synthesize indium zinc oxide (IZO) and indium iron zinc oxide (IFZO) nanowires and study their crystal structure using atomically-resolved transmission electron microscopy (TEM), among other methods. We elucidate a structural model for MZO that resolves inconsistencies in the existing literature, based on the identification of the zigzag layer as an inversion domain boundary. These nanowires are shown to have a lower band gap than ZnO and produce photocurrent under visible light illumination. The solid-state diffusion reaction to form ternary titanates is also studied by TEM. TiO2 nanowires are coated with metal oxides by a variety of deposition methods, and then converted to MTiO3 at high temperatures, where M is a divalent transition metal ion such as Mn 2+, CO2+, or Ni2+. When Co3O 4 particles attached to TiO2 nanowires are annealed for a short time, we observe the formation of a CoO(111)/TiO2 (010) interface. If the nanowires are instead coated with Co(NO3)2 salt and then annealed

  6. Analysis of surface states in ZnO nanowire field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Ye; Yoon, Jongwon; Kim, Hyeongnam; Lee, Takhee; Lu, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The electron transport in ZnO nanowire FETs is space charged limited below a trap temperature. • Metallic contacts to ZnO nanowires exhibit non-linear behavior with a Schottky barrier height of ∼0.35 eV. • The surface state density is in the range of 1.04 × 10 10 –1.24 × 10 10 /cm 2 . • The trap activation energy is ∼0.26 eV. - Abstract: Nanowires (NWs) have attracted considerable interests for scaled electronic and optoelectronic device applications. However, NW based semiconductor devices normally suffer from surface states due to the existence of dangling bonds or surface reconstruction. Because of their large surface-to-volume ratio, surface states in NWs can easily affect the metallic contacts to NWs and electron transport in NW. Here, we present ZnO NW surface analysis by performing current–voltage characterization on ZnO NW Schottky barrier field effect transistors with different metal contacts (Ti, Al, Au) at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature. Our results show that three metal contacts are all Schottky contacts to ZnO NWs due to surface states. Our further study reveals: (a) the surface states related Schottky barrier height (SBH) can be extracted from a back to back Schottky diodes model and the SBH values are in the range of 0.34–0.37 eV for three metal contacts; (b) the trap activation energy determined from the Arrhenius plots of different Schottky metal contacts is in the range of 0.23–0.29 eV, which is oxygen vacancies related; and (c) based on the space-charge-limited model, the surface state density of ZnO NW is in the range of 1.04 × 10 10 –1.24 × 10 10 /cm 2

  7. Gate-tunable Andreev bound states in InSb nanowire Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ning; Li, Sen; Fan, Dingxun; Xu, Hongqi [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Caroff, Philippe [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, P. O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid InSb nanowire-superconductor devices are promising candidates for investigating Majorana modes in solid-state devices and future technologies of topological quantum manipulation. Here, we report low-temperature transport measurements on an individual InSb nanowire quantum dot coupled to superconducting contacts that exhibit an interplay between the Kondo effects and superconductivity. We observed two types of subgap resonance states within the superconducting gap, which can be attributed to gate-tunable Andreev bound states in Coulomb valleys with different Kondo temperatures. The presence of the gate-tunable 0 and pi junction allow us to investigate the fundamental 0- pi transition. Detailed magnetic field and temperature evolution of level spectroscopy demonstrate different behavior of two types of the Andreev bound states. Our results exhibit that the InSb nanowires can provide a promising platform for exploring phase coherence transport and the effect of spin-orbit coupling in semiconductor nanowire-superconductor hybrid device.

  8. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [El Cerrito, CA; Choi, Heonjin [Seoul, KR; Lee, Sangkwon [Daejeon, KR; He, Rongrui [Albany, CA; Zhang, Yanfeng [El Cerrito, CA; Kuykendal, Tevye [Berkeley, CA; Pauzauskie, Peter [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  9. EFFECTS OF INTERFACES ON GAMMA SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, C. E.

    1963-06-15

    A survey is presented of studies of interface effects in gamma shielding problems. These studies are grouped into three types of approaches, viz.: sources at the interface; radiation backscattered from the interface; and radiation transmitted through the interface. A bibliography of 54 references is included. Limitations on the applicability of the results are discussed. (T.F.H.)

  10. Au nanowire junction breakup through surface atom diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigonski, Simon; Jansson, Ville; Vlassov, Sergei; Polyakov, Boris; Baibuz, Ekaterina; Oras, Sven; Aabloo, Alvo; Djurabekova, Flyura; Zadin, Vahur

    2018-01-01

    Metallic nanowires are known to break into shorter fragments due to the Rayleigh instability mechanism. This process is strongly accelerated at elevated temperatures and can completely hinder the functioning of nanowire-based devices like e.g. transparent conductive and flexible coatings. At the same time, arranged gold nanodots have important applications in electrochemical sensors. In this paper we perform a series of annealing experiments of gold and silver nanowires and nanowire junctions at fixed temperatures 473, 673, 873 and 973 K (200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C) during a time period of 10 min. We show that nanowires are especially prone to fragmentation around junctions and crossing points even at comparatively low temperatures. The fragmentation process is highly temperature dependent and the junction region breaks up at a lower temperature than a single nanowire. We develop a gold parametrization for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrate the surface diffusion origin of the nanowire junction fragmentation. We show that nanowire fragmentation starts at the junctions with high reliability and propose that aligning nanowires in a regular grid could be used as a technique for fabricating arrays of nanodots.

  11. Inkjet-printed transparent nanowire thin film features for UV photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shih Pin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple and effective direct printing method was developed to print patterned nanowire thin films for UV detection. Inks containing silver or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires were first formulated adequately to form stable suspension for inkjet printing applications. Sedimentation tests were also carried out to characterize the terminal velocity and dispersion stability of nanowires to avoid potential nozzle clogging problems. The well-dispersed silver nanowire ink was then inkjet printed on PET films to form patterned electrodes. Above the electrodes, another layer of TiO2 nanowires was also printed to create a highly transparent photodetector with >80% visible transmittance. The printed photodetector showed a fairly low dark current of 10-12-10-14 A with a high on/off ratio of 2000 to UV radiation. Under a bias voltage of 2 V, the detector showed fast responses to UV illumination with a rise time of 0.4 s and a recovery time of 0.1 s. More photo currents can also be collected with a larger printed electrode area. In summary, this study shows the feasibility of applying inkjet printing technology to create nanowire thin films with specific patterns, and can be further employed for photoelectric applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  12. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  13. Surface effects on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Peng; Zhang, Rui-Qin

    2018-03-01

    Thermal transport in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) has recently attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications in energy harvesting and generation and thermal management. The adjustment of the thermal conductivity of SiNWs through surface effects is a topic worthy of focus. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress made in this field through theoretical calculations and experiments. We come to the conclusion that surface engineering methods are feasible and effective methods for adjusting nanoscale thermal transport and may foster further advancements in this field. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation ofChina (Grant No. 11504418), China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201706425053), Basic Research Program in Shenzhen, China (Grant No. JCYJ20160229165210666), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2015XKMS075).

  14. Single-step synthesis of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires decorated with TeO{sub 2} nanobeads and their acetone-sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghoon; Kheel, Hyejoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Lee, Chongmu [Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Eon [Inha University, Department of Chemistry, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires decorated with TeO{sub 2} nanobeads were synthesized by a facile single-step thermal evaporation process, and their acetone-gas-sensing properties were examined. The diameters and lengths of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires ranged from 10 to 20 nm and up to 100 μm, respectively, whereas the diameters of the TeO{sub 2} beads ranged from 50 to 200 nm. The TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor showed stronger response to acetone gas than the pristine In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor. The pristine and TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires exhibited sensitivity of ∝10.13 and ∝24.87, respectively, to 200 ppm acetone at 300 C. The decorated nanowire sensor also showed much more rapid response and recovery than the latter. Both sensors showed the strongest response to acetone gas at 300 C, respectively. The mechanism and origin of the enhanced acetone-gas-sensing performance of the TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor compared to the pristine In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor were discussed in detail. The enhanced sensing performance of the TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire is mainly due to the modulation of the potential barrier height at the TeO{sub 2}-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface, high catalytic activity of TeO{sub 2,} and creation of active adsorption sites by incorporation of TeO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  15. Effect of inhomogeneous Schottky barrier height of SnO2 nanowires device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Cleber A.; Bernardo, Eric P.; Leite, Edson R.; Chiquito, Adenilson J.

    2018-05-01

    The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of metal–semiconductor junction (Au–Ni/SnO2/Au–Ni) Schottky barrier in SnO2 nanowires were investigated over a wide temperature range. By using the Schottky–Mott model, the zero bias barrier height Φ B was estimated from I–V characteristics, and it was found to increase with increasing temperature; on the other hand the ideality factor (n) was found to decrease with increasing temperature. The variation in the Schottky barrier and n was attributed to the spatial inhomogeneity of the Schottky barrier height. The experimental I–V characteristics exhibited a Gaussian distribution having mean barrier heights {\\overline{{{Φ }}}}B of 0.30 eV and standard deviation σ s of 60 meV. Additionally, the Richardson modified constant was obtained to be 70 A cm‑2 K‑2, leading to an effective mass of 0.58m 0. Consequently, the temperature dependence of I–V characteristics of the SnO2 nanowire devices can be successfully explained on the Schottky–Mott theory framework taking into account a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights.

  16. Effect of advanced nanowire-based targets in nanosecond laser-matter interaction (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzalone, G., E-mail: Gaetano.Lanzalone@ct.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore,” Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Altana, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D.; Tudisco, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Malferrari, L.; Odorici, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Malandrino, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche and INSTM UdR, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate the effects of innovative nanostructured targets based on Ag nanowires on laser energy absorption in the ns time domain has been carried out at the Laser Energy for Nuclear Science laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania. The tested targets were realized at INFN-Bologna by anodizing aluminium sheets in order to obtain layers of porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of different thicknesses, on which nanowires of various metals are grown by electro-deposition with different heights. Targets were then irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser at different pumping energies. Advanced diagnostic tools were used for characterizing the plasma plume and ion production. As compared with targets of pure Al, a huge enhancement (of almost two order of magnitude) of the X-ray flux emitted by the plasma has been observed when using the nanostructured targets, with a corresponding decrease of the “optical range” signal, pointing out that the energetic content of the laser produced plasma was remarkably increased. This analysis was furthermore confirmed from time-of-flight spectra.

  17. Effect of advanced nanowire-based targets in nanosecond laser-matter interaction (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzalone, G.; Altana, C.; Mascali, D.; Muoio, A.; Malferrari, L.; Odorici, F.; Malandrino, G.; Tudisco, S.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate the effects of innovative nanostructured targets based on Ag nanowires on laser energy absorption in the ns time domain has been carried out at the Laser Energy for Nuclear Science laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania. The tested targets were realized at INFN-Bologna by anodizing aluminium sheets in order to obtain layers of porous Al2O3 of different thicknesses, on which nanowires of various metals are grown by electro-deposition with different heights. Targets were then irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser at different pumping energies. Advanced diagnostic tools were used for characterizing the plasma plume and ion production. As compared with targets of pure Al, a huge enhancement (of almost two order of magnitude) of the X-ray flux emitted by the plasma has been observed when using the nanostructured targets, with a corresponding decrease of the "optical range" signal, pointing out that the energetic content of the laser produced plasma was remarkably increased. This analysis was furthermore confirmed from time-of-flight spectra.

  18. Electrical conductivity measurements of bacterial nanowires from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruthupandy, Muthusamy; Anand, Muthusamy; Beevi, Akbar Sait Hameedha; Priya, Radhakrishnan Jeeva; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular appendages of bacteria (flagella) that transfer electrons to electrodes are called bacterial nanowires. This study focuses on the isolation and separation of nanowires that are attached via Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial culture. The size and roughness of separated nanowires were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The obtained bacterial nanowires indicated a clear image of bacterial nanowires measuring 16 nm in diameter. The formation of bacterial nanowires was confirmed by microscopic studies (AFM and TEM) and the conductivity nature of bacterial nanowire was investigated by electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which are nondestructive voltammetry techniques, suggest that bacterial nanowires could be the source of electrons—which may be used in various applications, for example, microbial fuel cells, biosensors, organic solar cells, and bioelectronic devices. Routine analysis of electron transfer between bacterial nanowires and the electrode was performed, providing insight into the extracellular electron transfer (EET) to the electrode. CV revealed the catalytic electron transferability of bacterial nanowires and electrodes and showed excellent redox activities. CV and EIS studies showed that bacterial nanowires can charge the surface by producing and storing sufficient electrons, behave as a capacitor, and have features consistent with EET. Finally, electrochemical studies confirmed the development of bacterial nanowires with EET. This study suggests that bacterial nanowires can be used to fabricate biomolecular sensors and nanoelectronic devices. (paper)

  19. Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires on ITO seed/glass by thermal evaporation method: Effects of ITO seed layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsultany, Forat H., E-mail: foratusm@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Hassan, Z. [Institute of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    A seed/catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires (ZnO-NWs) on a glass substrate were successfully fabricated using thermal evaporation technique. These nanowires were grown on ITO seed layers of different thicknesses of 25 and 75 nm, which were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Prior to synthesized ITO nanowires, the sputtered ITO seeds were annealed using the continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser at 450 °C in air for 15 min. The effect of seed layer thickness on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of ZnO-NWs were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

  20. Effects of quantum confinement and shape on band gap of core/shell quantum dots and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Faming

    2011-05-01

    A quantum confinement model for nanocrystals developed is extended to study for the optical gap shifts in core/shell quantum dots and nanowires. The chemical bond properties and gap shifts in the InP/ZnS, CdSe/CdS, CdSe/ZnS, and CdTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots are calculated in detail. The calculated band gaps are in excellent agreement with experimental values. The effects of structural taping and twinning on quantum confinement of InP and Si nanowires are elucidated. It is found theoretically that a competition between the positive Kubo energy-gap shift and the negative surface energy shift plays the crucial role in the optical gaps of these nanosystems.

  1. High performance ring oscillators from 10-nm wide silicon nanowire field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruo-Gu; Tham, Douglas; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R.

    2011-01-01

    We explore 10-nm wide Si nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, via the fabrication and testing of SiNW-based ring oscillators. We report on SiNW surface treatments and dielectric annealing, for producing SiNW FETs that exhibit high performance in terms of large on/off-state current ratio (~108), low drain-induced barrier lowering (~30 mV) and low subthreshold swing (~80 mV/decade). The performance of inverter and ring-oscillator circuits fabricated from these nanowire FETs are also explored. The inverter demonstrates the highest voltage gain (~148) reported for a SiNW-based NOT gate, and the ring oscillator exhibits near rail-to-rail oscillation centered at 13.4 MHz. The static and dynamic characteristics of these NW devices indicate that these SiNW-based FET circuits are excellent candidates for various high-performance nanoelectronic applications. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. High performance ring oscillators from 10-nm wide silicon nanowire field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruo-Gu

    2011-06-24

    We explore 10-nm wide Si nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, via the fabrication and testing of SiNW-based ring oscillators. We report on SiNW surface treatments and dielectric annealing, for producing SiNW FETs that exhibit high performance in terms of large on/off-state current ratio (~108), low drain-induced barrier lowering (~30 mV) and low subthreshold swing (~80 mV/decade). The performance of inverter and ring-oscillator circuits fabricated from these nanowire FETs are also explored. The inverter demonstrates the highest voltage gain (~148) reported for a SiNW-based NOT gate, and the ring oscillator exhibits near rail-to-rail oscillation centered at 13.4 MHz. The static and dynamic characteristics of these NW devices indicate that these SiNW-based FET circuits are excellent candidates for various high-performance nanoelectronic applications. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Formation of tungsten oxide nanowires by ion irradiation and vacuum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Dong; Ren, Feng; Wu, Heng-Yi; Qin, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Chang-Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Here we reported the fabrication of tungsten oxide (WO3-x ) nanowires by Ar+ ion irradiation of WO3 thin films followed by annealing in vacuum. The nanowire length increases with increasing irradiation fluence and with decreasing ion energy. We propose that the stress-driven diffusion of the irradiation-induced W interstitial atoms is responsible for the formation of the nanowires. Comparing to the pristine film, the fabricated nanowire film shows a 106-fold enhancement in electrical conductivity, resulting from the high-density irradiation-induced vacancies on the oxygen sublattice. The nanostructure exhibits largely enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect due to the oxygen vacancy. Thus, ion irradiation provides a powerful approach for fabricating and tailoring the surface nanostructures of semiconductors.

  4. Passive high-frequency devices based on superlattice ferromagnetic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, B.; Li, F.; Cimpoesu, D.; Wiley, J.B.; Jung, J.-S.; Stancu, A.; Spinu, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose to tailor the bandwidth of a microwave filter by exploitation of shape anisotropy of nanowires. In order to achieve this control of shape anisotropy, we considered superlattice wires containing varying-sized ferromagnetic regions separated by nonferromagnetic regions. Superlattice wires of Ni and Au with a nominal diameter of 200 nm were grown using standard electrodeposition techniques. The microwave properties were probed using X-band (9.8 GHz) ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments performed at room temperature. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the shape anisotropy on the superlattice nanowire based filter the FMR spectrum of superlattice structure is compared to the FMR spectra of nanowires samples with constant length

  5. Transparent p-type SnO nanowires with unprecedented hole mobility among oxide semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    p-type tin monoxide (SnO) nanowire field-effect transistors with stable enhancement mode behavior and record performance are demonstrated at 160 °C. The nanowire transistors exhibit the highest field-effect hole mobility (10.83 cm2 V−1 s−1) of any p

  6. Effect of traps and defects on high temperature performance of Ge channel junctionless nanowire transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of traps and defects on high temperature performance of p-type germanium-on-insulator (GOI based junctionless nanowire transistors (JNTs at temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 K. Temperature dependence of the main electrical parameters, such as drive current (Ion, leakage current (Ioff, threshold voltage (Vt, transconductance (Gm and subthreshold slope (SS are extracted and compared with the reported results of conventional inversion mode (IM MOSFETs and Si based JNTs. The results show that the high interface trap density (Dit and defects can degrade high temperature reliability of GOI based JNTs significantly, in terms of Ioff, Vt variation, Gm-max and SS values. The Ioff is much more dependent on temperature than Ion and mainly affected by trap-assisted-tunneling (TAT current. The Vt variation with temperature is larger than that for IM MOSFETs and SOI based JNTs, which can be mostly attributed to the high Dit. The high Dit can also induce high SS values. The maximum Gm has a weak dependence on temperature and is significantly influenced by neutral defects scattering. Limiting the Dit and neutral defect densities is critical for the reliability of GOI based JNTs working at high temperatures.

  7. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits

  8. Synthesis and magnetic properties of cobalt-iron/cobalt-ferrite soft/hard magnetic core/shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro Londoño-Calderón, César; Moscoso-Londoño, Oscar; Muraca, Diego; Arzuza, Luis; Carvalho, Peterson; Pirota, Kleber Roberto; Knobel, Marcelo; Pampillo, Laura Gabriela; Martínez-García, Ricardo

    2017-06-01

    A straightforward method for the synthesis of CoFe2.7/CoFe2O4 core/shell nanowires is described. The proposed method starts with a conventional pulsed electrodeposition procedure on alumina nanoporous template. The obtained CoFe2.7 nanowires are released from the template and allowed to oxidize at room conditions over several weeks. The effects of partial oxidation on the structural and magnetic properties were studied by x-ray spectrometry, magnetometry, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the final nanowires are composed of 5 nm iron-cobalt alloy nanoparticles. Releasing the nanowires at room conditions promoted surface oxidation of the nanoparticles and created a CoFe2O4 shell spinel-like structure. The shell avoids internal oxidation and promotes the formation of bi-magnetic soft/hard magnetic core/shell nanowires. The magnetic properties of both the initial single-phase CoFe2.7 nanowires and the final core/shell nanowires, reveal that the changes in the properties from the array are due to the oxidation more than effects associated with released processes (disorder and agglomeration).

  9. Influence of defects and nanoscale strain on the photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe nanocomposite co-sensitized ZnO nanowire solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungeun; Lee, Jeongwon; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Joosun; Kim, Choong-Un; Lee, Man-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CdSe/CdS nanocomposites were coated on ZnO nanowires using solution processes. • In situ CdSe/CdS co-sensitizers resulted in a 3-fold increase in efficiency. • Nano-strain analyses at interfaces and CdS layers were performed. • Drastic decrease of nano-strain in CdSe/CdS was observed. • Relaxed nano-strain was attributed to the increase of efficiency. - Abstract: This paper reports the mechanism of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement in the ZnO nanowires (NW) based solar cells by using CdS/CdSe nanocomposite sensitizers instead of a single CdS quantum-dot (QD) sensitization layer. Two cells with the different type of the sensitization layers were essentially consists of the high-density ZnO nanowire (NW) and a sensitization layer of either CdS-QD or CdS/CdSe nanocomposite, which were produced by an in-situ sequential assembly process of both ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD). Measurement on the PCE revealed that the cell with CdS/CdSe nanocomposite showed a three-fold increase in PCE compared to the one with a CdS-QD layer. While such improvement in PCE appeared to be consistent with the step-wise band alignment mechanism suggested for the type-II heterojunction of CdSe/CdS/ZnO structures, our microstructural analysis of the cell structure yielded results strongly indicating that the reduction of both interface defects and misfit strain in the CdS lattices plays an additional role on the PCE improvement. Analyses on the interface and the CdS crystallinity using high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) combined with the geometric phase analysis (GPA) revealed that the addition of CdSe effectively reduced the lattice strain in the CdS without introducing misfit dislocations at CdS/CdSe interface, probably owing to Se anion diffusion (or exchange) to the defective SILAR CdS layer during the CBD process. Although an entire enhancement in PCE by the addition of CdSe layer seen in our

  10. Anisotropic surface strain in single crystalline cobalt nanowires and its impact on the diameter-dependent Young's modulus

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Xiaohu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and measuring the size-dependent surface strain of nanowires are essential to their applications in various emerging devices. Here, we report on the diameter-dependent surface strain and Young\\'s modulus of single-crystalline Co nanowires investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. Diameter-dependent initial longitudinal elongation of the nanowires is observed and ascribed to the anisotropic surface stress due to the Poisson effect, which serves as the basis for mechanical measurements. As the nanowire diameter decreases, a transition from the "smaller is softer" regime to the "smaller is tougher" regime is observed in the Young\\'s modulus of the nanowires, which is attributed to the competition between the elongation softening and the surface stiffening effects. Our work demonstrates a new nondestructive method capable of measuring the initial surface strain and estimating the Young\\'s modulus of single crystalline nanowires, and provides new insights on the size effect. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Investigation of optical properties of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowires embedded in etched ion-track template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Lu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yao, Huijun, E-mail: Yaohuijun@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Duan, Jinglai; Chen, Yonghui [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lyu, Shuangbao [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Maaz, Khan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mo, Dan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: J.Liu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sun, Youmei; Hou, Mingdong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram of measurement of extinction spectra of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowire arrays embedded in the template after removing the gold/copper substrate. - Highlights: • The optical properties of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowire arrays were first investigated by UV/Vis/NIR spectrometer and it was confirmed that the extinction peaks strongly related to the periodicity of the multilayer nanowire. • The Ni segment was thought as a kind of impurity which can change the surface electron distribution and thereby the extinction peaks of nanowire. • Current work supplied the clear layer thickness information of Cu and Ni in Cu/Ni multilayer nanowire with TEM and EDS line-scan profile analysis. - Abstract: For understanding the interaction between light and noble/magnetism multilayer nanowires, Cu/Ni multilayer nanowires are fabricated by a multi-potential step deposition technique in etched ion-track polycarbonate template. The component and the corresponding layer thickness of multilayer nanowire are confirmed by TEM and EDS line-scan analysis. By tailoring the nanowire diameter, the Cu layer thickness and the periodicity of the nanowire, the extinction spectral of nanowire arrays exhibit an extra sensitivity to the change of structural parameters. The resonance wavelength caused by surface plasmon resonance increases obviously with increasing the nanowire diameter, the Cu layer thickness and the periodicity. The observations in our work can be explained by the “impurity effect” and coupled effect and can also be optimized for developing optical devices based on multilayer nanowires.

  12. Piezo-Phototronic Effect Enhanced Flexible Solar Cells Based on n-ZnO/p-SnS Core-Shell Nanowire Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Laipan; Wang, Longfei; Xue, Fei; Chen, Libo; Fu, Jianqiang; Feng, Xiaolong; Li, Tianfeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    The piezo-phototronic effect is about the enhanced separation, transport, and recombination of the photogenerated carriers using the piezoelectric polarization charges present in piezoelectric-semiconductor materials. Here, it is presented that the piezo-phototronic effect can be effectively applied to improve the relative conversion efficiency of a flexible solar cell based on n-ZnO/p-SnS core-shell nanowire array for 37.3% under a moderate vertical pressure. The performance of the solar cell can be effectively enhanced by a gentle bending of the device, showing its potential for application in curly geometries. This study not only adds further understanding about the concept of increasing solar energy conversion efficiency via piezo-phototronic effect, but also demonstrates the great potential of piezo-phototronic effect in the application of large-scale, flexible, and lightweight nanowire array solar cells.

  13. Piezo‐Phototronic Effect Enhanced Flexible Solar Cells Based on n‐ZnO/p‐SnS Core–Shell Nanowire Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Laipan; Wang, Longfei; Xue, Fei; Chen, Libo; Fu, Jianqiang; Feng, Xiaolong; Li, Tianfeng

    2016-01-01

    The piezo‐phototronic effect is about the enhanced separation, transport, and recombination of the photogenerated carriers using the piezoelectric polarization charges present in piezoelectric‐semiconductor materials. Here, it is presented that the piezo‐phototronic effect can be effectively applied to improve the relative conversion efficiency of a flexible solar cell based on n‐ZnO/p‐SnS core–shell nanowire array for 37.3% under a moderate vertical pressure. The performance of the solar cell can be effectively enhanced by a gentle bending of the device, showing its potential for application in curly geometries. This study not only adds further understanding about the concept of increasing solar energy conversion efficiency via piezo‐phototronic effect, but also demonstrates the great potential of piezo‐phototronic effect in the application of large‐scale, flexible, and lightweight nanowire array solar cells. PMID:28105394

  14. Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijenburg, A. Wouter; Rodijk, Eddy J.B.; Maas, Michiel G.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytically active nanostructures require a large specific surface area with the presence of many catalytically active sites for the oxidation and reduction half reactions, and fast electron (hole) diffusion and charge separation. Nanowires present suitable architectures to meet these requirements. Axially segmented Ag|ZnO and radially segmented (coaxial) TiO2-Ag nanowires with a diameter of 200 nm and a length of 6-20 µm were made by templated electrodeposition within the pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) or anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, respectively. In the photocatalytic experiments, the ZnO and TiO2 phases acted as photoanodes, and Ag as cathode. No external circuit is needed to connect both electrodes, which is a key advantage over conventional photo-electrochemical cells. For making segmented Ag|ZnO nanowires, the Ag salt electrolyte was replaced after formation of the Ag segment to form a ZnO segment attached to the Ag segment. For making coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires, a TiO2 gel was first formed by the electrochemically induced sol-gel method. Drying and thermal annealing of the as-formed TiO2 gel resulted in the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanotubes. A subsequent Ag electrodeposition step inside the TiO2 nanotubes resulted in formation of coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires. Due to the combination of an n-type semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) and a metal (Ag) within the same nanowire, a Schottky barrier was created at the interface between the phases. To demonstrate the photocatalytic activity of these nanowires, the Ag|ZnO nanowires were used in a photocatalytic experiment in which H2 gas was detected upon UV illumination of the nanowires dispersed in a methanol/water mixture. After 17 min of illumination, approximately 0.2 vol% H2 gas was detected from a suspension of ~0.1 g of Ag|ZnO nanowires in a 50 ml 80 vol% aqueous methanol solution. PMID:24837535

  15. Electrical properties of fluorine-doped ZnO nanowires formed by biased plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Doping is an effective method for tuning electrical properties of zinc oxide nanowires, which are used in nanoelectronic devices. Here, ZnO nanowires were prepared by a thermal oxidation method. Fluorine doping was achieved by a biased plasma treatment, with bias voltages of 100, 200, and 300 V. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the nanowires treated at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V featured low crystallinity. When the bias voltage was 300 V, the nanowires showed single crystalline structures. Photoluminescence measurements revealed that concentrations of oxygen and surface defects decreased at high bias voltage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that the F content increased as the bias voltage was increased. The conductivity of the as-grown nanowires was less than 103 S/m; the conductivity of the treated nanowires ranged from 1 × 104-5 × 104, 1 × 104-1 × 105, and 1 × 103-2 × 104 S/m for bias voltage treatments at 100, 200, and 300 V, respectively. The conductivity improvements of nanowires formed at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V, were attributed to F-doping, defects and surface states. The conductivity of nanowires treated at 300 V was attributed to the presence of F ions. Thus, we provide a method of improving electrical properties of ZnO nanowires without altering their crystal structure.

  16. Strain effects on anisotropic magnetoresistance in a nanowire spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md I.; Maksud, M.; Subramanian, A.; Atulasimha, J.; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2016-11-01

    The longitudinal magnetoresistance of a copper nanowire contacted by two cobalt contacts shows broad spin-valve peaks at room temperature. However, when the contacts are slightly heated, the peaks change into troughs which are signature of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Under heating, the differential thermal expansion of the contacts and the substrate generates a small strain in the cobalt contacts which enhances the AMR effect sufficiently to change the peak into a trough. This shows the extreme sensitivity of AMR to strain. The change in the AMR resistivity coefficient due to strain is estimated to be a few m Ω -m/microstrain.

  17. Improved seedless hydrothermal synthesis of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jinghua; Hu Jie; Li Sisi; Zhang Fan; Liu Jun; Shi Jian; Li Xin; Chen Yong; Tian Zhongqun

    2011-01-01

    Seedless hydrothermal synthesis has been improved by introducing an adequate content of ammonia into the nutrient solution, allowing the fabrication of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas on a substrate. The presence of ammonia in the nutrient solution facilitates the high density nucleation of ZnO on the substrate which is critical for the nanowire growth. In order to achieve an optimal growth, the growth conditions have been studied systematically as a function of ammonia content, growth temperature and incubation time. The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) has also been studied but shown to be of no benefit to the nucleation of ZnO. Ultradense and ultralong ZnO nanowires could be obtained under optimal growth conditions, showing no fused structure at the foot of the nanowire arrays. Due to different reaction kinetics, four growth regimes could be attributed, including the first fast growth, equilibrium phase, second fast growth and final erosion. Combining this simple method with optical lithography, ZnO nanowires could be grown selectively on patterned areas. In addition, the as-grown ZnO nanowires could be used for the fabrication of a piezoelectric nanogenerator. Compared to the device of ZnO nanowires made by other methods, a more than twice voltage output has been obtained, thereby proving an improved performance of our growth method.

  18. Electrochemically fabricated polyaniline nanowire-modified electrode for voltammetric detection of DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ningning; Chang Zhu; He Pingang; Fang Yuzhi

    2006-01-01

    A novel and sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on electrochemically fabricated polyaniline nanowire and methylene blue for DNA hybridization detection is presented. Nanowires of conducting polymers were directly synthesized through a three-step electrochemical deposition procedure in an aniline-containing electrolyte solution, by using the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the working electrode. The morphology of the polyaniline films was examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameters of the nanowires range from 80 to 100 nm. The polyaniline nanowires-coated electrode exhibited very good electrochemical conductivity. Oligonucleotides with phosphate groups at the 5' end were covalently linked onto the amino groups of polyaniline nanowires on the electrode. The hybridization events were monitored with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement using methylene blue (MB) as an indicator. The approach described here can effectively discriminate complementary from non-complementary DNA sequence, with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10 -12 mol l -1 of complementary target, suggesting that the polyaniline nanowires hold great promises for sensitive electrochemical biosensor applications

  19. Valence band variation in Si (110) nanowire induced by a covered insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Hua, Xu; Xiao-Yan, Liu; Yu-Hui, He; Gang, Du; Ru-Qi, Han; Jin-Feng, Kang; Chun, Fan; Ai-Dong, Sun

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we investigate strain effects induced by the deposition of gate dielectrics on the valence band structures in Si (110) nanowire via the simulation of strain distribution and the calculation of a generalized 6×6k·p strained valence band. The nanowire is surrounded by the gate dielectric. Our simulation indicates that the strain of the amorphous SiO 2 insulator is negligible without considering temperature factors. On the other hand, the thermal residual strain in a nanowire with amorphous SiO 2 insulator which has negligible lattice misfit strain pushes the valence subbands upwards by chemical vapour deposition and downwards by thermal oxidation treatment. In contrast with the strain of the amorphous SiO 2 insulator, the strain of the HfO 2 gate insulator in Si (110) nanowire pushes the valence subbands upwards remarkably. The thermal residual strain by HfO 2 insulator contributes to the up-shifting tendency. Our simulation results for valence band shifting and warping in Si nanowires can provide useful guidance for further nanowire device design. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  20. Bismuth alloying properties in GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, PO Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon.bup