WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanowire hydrogen sensors

  1. Polyaniline nanowires-gold nanoparticles hybrid network based chemiresistive hydrogen sulfide sensor

    Shirsat, Mahendra D.; Bangar, Mangesh A.; Deshusses, Marc A.; Myung, Nosang V.; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2009-02-01

    We report a sensitive, selective, and fast responding room temperature chemiresistive sensor for hydrogen sulfide detection and quantification using polyaniline nanowires-gold nanoparticles hybrid network. The sensor was fabricated by facile electrochemical technique. Initially, polyaniline nanowires with a diameter of 250-320 nm bridging the gap between a pair of microfabricated gold electrodes were synthesized using templateless electrochemical polymerization using a two step galvanostatic technique. Polyaniline nanowires were then electrochemically functionalized with gold nanoparticles using cyclic voltammetry technique. These chemiresistive sensors show an excellent limit of detection (0.1 ppb), wide dynamic range (0.1-100 ppb), and very good selectivity and reproducibility.

  2. Hydrogen sensor

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  3. Nanowire sensor, sensor array, and method for making the same

    Yun, Minhee (Inventor); Myung, Nosang (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard (Inventor); Homer, Margie (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar (Inventor); Choi, Daniel (Inventor); Goddard, William (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nanowire sensor and method for forming the same. More specifically, the nanowire sensor comprises at least one nanowire formed on a substrate, with a sensor receptor disposed on a surface of the nanowire, thereby forming a receptor-coated nanowire. The nanowire sensor can be arranged as a sensor sub-unit comprising a plurality of homogeneously receptor-coated nanowires. A plurality of sensor subunits can be formed to collectively comprise a nanowire sensor array. Each sensor subunit in the nanowire sensor array can be formed to sense a different stimulus, allowing a user to sense a plurality of stimuli. Additionally, each sensor subunit can be formed to sense the same stimuli through different aspects of the stimulus. The sensor array is fabricated through a variety of techniques, such as by creating nanopores on a substrate and electrodepositing nanowires within the nanopores.

  4. A novel nonenzymatic amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor based on CuO@Cu2O nanowires embedded into poly(vinyl alcohol).

    Chirizzi, Daniela; Guascito, Maria Rachele; Filippo, Emanuela; Tepore, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    A new, very simple, rapid and inexpensive nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection is proposed. It is based on the immobilization of cupric/cuprous oxide core shell nanowires (CuO@Cu2O-NWs) in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix directly drop casted on a glassy carbon electrode surface to make a CuO@Cu2O core shell like NWs PVA embedded (CuO@Cu2O-NWs/PVA) sensor. CuO nanowires with mean diameters of 120-170nm and length in the range 2-5μm were grown by a simple catalyst-free thermal oxidation process based on resistive heating of pure copper wires at ambient conditions. The oxidation process of the copper wire surface led to the formation of a three layered structure: a thick Cu2O bottom layer, a CuO thin intermediate layer and CuO nanowires. CuO nanowires were carefully scratched from Cu2O layer with a sharp knife, dispersed into ethanol and sonicated. Then, the NWs were embedded in PVA matrix. The morphological and spectroscopic characterization of synthesized CuO-NWs and CuO@Cu2O-NWs/PVA were performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction pattern (SAD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Moreover a complete electrochemical characterization of these new CuO@Cu2O-NWs/PVA modified glassy carbon electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Cronoamperometry (CA) in phosphate buffer (pH=7; I=0.2) to investigate the sensing properties of this material against H2O2. The electrochemical performances of proposed sensors as high sensitivity, fast response, reproducibility and selectivity make them suitable for the quantitative determination of hydrogen peroxide substrate in batch analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Corrosion detection of nanowires by magnetic sensors

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Amara, Selma; Ivanov, Iurii; Blanco, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments related to a corrosion detection device for detecting corrosive environments. A corrosion detection device comprises a magnetic sensor and at least one magnetic nanowire disposed on the magnetic sensor. The magnetic sensor is configured to detect corrosion of the one or more magnetic nanowires based at least in part on a magnetic field of the one or more magnetic nanowires.

  6. Corrosion detection of nanowires by magnetic sensors

    Kosel, Jürgen

    2017-10-05

    Disclosed are various embodiments related to a corrosion detection device for detecting corrosive environments. A corrosion detection device comprises a magnetic sensor and at least one magnetic nanowire disposed on the magnetic sensor. The magnetic sensor is configured to detect corrosion of the one or more magnetic nanowires based at least in part on a magnetic field of the one or more magnetic nanowires.

  7. Methanol, ethanol and hydrogen sensing using metal oxide and metal (TiO(2)-Pt) composite nanoclusters on GaN nanowires: a new route towards tailoring the selectivity of nanowire/nanocluster chemical sensors.

    Aluri, Geetha S; Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V; Oleshko, Vladimir P; Bertness, Kris A; Sanford, Norman A; Mulpuri, Rao V

    2012-05-04

    We demonstrate a new method for tailoring the selectivity of chemical sensors using semiconductor nanowires (NWs) decorated with metal and metal oxide multicomponent nanoclusters (NCs). Here we present the change of selectivity of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanocluster-coated gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire sensor devices on the addition of platinum (Pt) nanoclusters. The hybrid sensor devices were developed by fabricating two-terminal devices using individual GaN NWs followed by the deposition of TiO(2) and/or Pt nanoclusters (NCs) using the sputtering technique. This paper present the sensing characteristics of GaN/(TiO(2)-Pt) nanowire-nanocluster (NWNC) hybrids and GaN/(Pt) NWNC hybrids, and compare their selectivity with that of the previously reported GaN/TiO(2) sensors. The GaN/TiO(2) NWNC hybrids showed remarkable selectivity to benzene and related aromatic compounds, with no measurable response for other analytes. Addition of Pt NCs to GaN/TiO(2) sensors dramatically altered their sensing behavior, making them sensitive only to methanol, ethanol and hydrogen, but not to any other chemicals we tested. The GaN/(TiO(2)-Pt) hybrids were able to detect ethanol and methanol concentrations as low as 100 nmol mol(-1) (ppb) in air in approximately 100 s, and hydrogen concentrations from 1 µmol mol(-1) (ppm) to 1% in nitrogen in less than 60 s. However, GaN/Pt NWNC hybrids showed limited sensitivity only towards hydrogen and not towards any alcohols. All these hybrid sensors worked at room temperature and are photomodulated, i.e. they responded to analytes only in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. We propose a qualitative explanation based on the heat of adsorption, ionization energy and solvent polarity to explain the observed selectivity of the different hybrids. These results are significant from the standpoint of applications requiring room-temperature hydrogen sensing and sensitive alcohol monitoring. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential for

  8. Nanowire-based gas sensors

    Chen, X.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gas sensors fabricated with nanowires as the detecting elements are powerful due to their many improved characteristics such as high surface-to-volume ratios, ultrasensitivity, higher selectivity, low power consumption, and fast response. This paper gives an overview on the recent process of the

  9. Methanol, ethanol and hydrogen sensing using metal oxide and metal (TiO2–Pt) composite nanoclusters on GaN nanowires: a new route towards tailoring the selectivity of nanowire/nanocluster chemical sensors

    Aluri, Geetha S; Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V; Oleshko, Vladimir P; Bertness, Kris A; Sanford, Norman A; Mulpuri, Rao V

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method for tailoring the selectivity of chemical sensors using semiconductor nanowires (NWs) decorated with metal and metal oxide multicomponent nanoclusters (NCs). Here we present the change of selectivity of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanocluster-coated gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire sensor devices on the addition of platinum (Pt) nanoclusters. The hybrid sensor devices were developed by fabricating two-terminal devices using individual GaN NWs followed by the deposition of TiO 2 and/or Pt nanoclusters (NCs) using the sputtering technique. This paper present the sensing characteristics of GaN/(TiO 2 –Pt) nanowire–nanocluster (NWNC) hybrids and GaN/(Pt) NWNC hybrids, and compare their selectivity with that of the previously reported GaN/TiO 2 sensors. The GaN/TiO 2 NWNC hybrids showed remarkable selectivity to benzene and related aromatic compounds, with no measurable response for other analytes. Addition of Pt NCs to GaN/TiO 2 sensors dramatically altered their sensing behavior, making them sensitive only to methanol, ethanol and hydrogen, but not to any other chemicals we tested. The GaN/(TiO 2 –Pt) hybrids were able to detect ethanol and methanol concentrations as low as 100 nmol mol −1 (ppb) in air in approximately 100 s, and hydrogen concentrations from 1 µmol mol −1 (ppm) to 1% in nitrogen in less than 60 s. However, GaN/Pt NWNC hybrids showed limited sensitivity only towards hydrogen and not towards any alcohols. All these hybrid sensors worked at room temperature and are photomodulated, i.e. they responded to analytes only in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. We propose a qualitative explanation based on the heat of adsorption, ionization energy and solvent polarity to explain the observed selectivity of the different hybrids. These results are significant from the standpoint of applications requiring room-temperature hydrogen sensing and sensitive alcohol monitoring. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential

  10. Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor

    I. Pavlovsky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hydrogen sensor based on palladium (Pd nanoparticle networks is described in the article. Made by Applied Nanotech Inc. sensor has a fast response time, in the range of seconds, which is increased at 80 °C due to higher hydrogen diffusion rates into the palladium lattice. The low detection limit of the sensor is 10 ppm of H2, and the high limit is 40,000 ppm. This is 100% of a lowest flammability level of hydrogen. This range of sensitivities complies with the requirements that one would expect for a reliable hydrogen sensor.

  11. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  12. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  13. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  14. Functionalised zinc oxide nanowire gas sensors: Enhanced NO(2) gas sensor response by chemical modification of nanowire surfaces.

    Waclawik, Eric R; Chang, Jin; Ponzoni, Andrea; Concina, Isabella; Zappa, Dario; Comini, Elisabetta; Motta, Nunzio; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Surface coating with an organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) can enhance surface reactions or the absorption of specific gases and hence improve the response of a metal oxide (MOx) sensor toward particular target gases in the environment. In this study the effect of an adsorbed organic layer on the dynamic response of zinc oxide nanowire gas sensors was investigated. The effect of ZnO surface functionalisation by two different organic molecules, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THMA) and dodecanethiol (DT), was studied. The response towards ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide was investigated for three sensor configurations, namely pure ZnO nanowires, organic-coated ZnO nanowires and ZnO nanowires covered with a sparse layer of organic-coated ZnO nanoparticles. Exposure of the nanowire sensors to the oxidising gas NO(2) produced a significant and reproducible response. ZnO and THMA-coated ZnO nanowire sensors both readily detected NO(2) down to a concentration in the very low ppm range. Notably, the THMA-coated nanowires consistently displayed a small, enhanced response to NO(2) compared to uncoated ZnO nanowire sensors. At the lower concentration levels tested, ZnO nanowire sensors that were coated with THMA-capped ZnO nanoparticles were found to exhibit the greatest enhanced response. ΔR/R was two times greater than that for the as-prepared ZnO nanowire sensors. It is proposed that the ΔR/R enhancement in this case originates from the changes induced in the depletion-layer width of the ZnO nanoparticles that bridge ZnO nanowires resulting from THMA ligand binding to the surface of the particle coating. The heightened response and selectivity to the NO(2) target are positive results arising from the coating of these ZnO nanowire sensors with organic-SAM-functionalised ZnO nanoparticles.

  15. In situ hydrogenation of molybdenum oxide nanowires for enhanced supercapacitors

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-01-01

    In situ hydrogenation of orthorhombic molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO 3) nanowires has been achieved on a large scale by introducing alcohol during the hydrothermal synthesis for electrochemical energy storage supercapacitor devices. The hydrogenated molybdenum trioxide (H xMoO3) nanowires yield a specific capacitance of 168 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and maintain 108 F g-1 at 10 A g-1, which is 36-fold higher than the capacitance obtained from pristine MoO3 nanowires at the same conditions. The electrochemical devices made with HxMoO3 nanowires exhibit excellent cycling stability by retaining 97% of their capacitance after 3000 cycles due to an enhanced electronic conductivity and increased density of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the MoO3 nanowires. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. CuO-In2O3 Core-Shell Nanowire Based Chemical Gas Sensors

    Xiaoxin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The CuO-In2O3 core-shell nanowire was fabricated by a two-step method. The CuO nanowire core (NWs was firstly grown by the conventional thermal oxidation of Cu meshes at 500°C for 5 hours. Then, the CuO nanowires were immersed into the suspension of amorphous indium hydroxide deposited from the In(AC3 solution by ammonia. The CuO nanowires coated with In(OH3 were subsequently heated at 600°C to form the crystalline CuO-In2O3 core-shell structure, with In2O3 nanocrystals uniformly anchored on the CuO nanowires. The gas sensing properties of the formed CuO-In2O3 core-shell nanowires were investigated by various reducing gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and propane at elevated temperature. The sensors using the CuO-In2O3 nanowires show improved sensing performance to hydrogen and propane but a suppressed response to carbon monoxide, which could be attributed to the enhanced catalytic properties of CuO with the coated porous In2O3 shell and the p-n junction formed at the core-shell interface.

  17. Tuning wettability of hydrogen titanate nanowire mesh by Na+ irradiation

    Das, Pritam; Chatterjee, Shyamal

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen titanate (HT) nanowires have been widely studied for remarkable properties and various potential applications. However, a handful studies are available related to ion beam induced structural changes and influence on wetting behavior of the HT nanowire surface. In this work, we exposed HT nanowires to 5 keV Na+ at an ion fluence of 1×1016 ions.cm-2. Scanning electron microscope shows that at this ion fluence nanowires are bent arbitrarily and they are welded to each other forming an interlinked network structure. Computer simulation shows that ion beam induces defect formation in the nanowires, which plays major role in such structural modifications. An interesting alteration of surface wetting property is observed due to ion irradiation. The hydrophilic pristine surface turns into hydrophobic after ion irradiation.

  18. Surface acoustic wave hydrogen sensor

    Bhethanabotla, Venkat R. (Inventor); Bhansali, Shekhar (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a delay line SAW device fabricated on a lithium niobate substrate and coated with a bilayer of nanocrystalline or other nanomaterials such as nanoparticles or nanowires of palladiumn and metal free pthalocyanine which will respond to hydrogen gas in near real time, at low (room) temperature, without being affected by CO, O.sub.2, CH.sub.4 and other gases, in air ambient or controlled ambient, providing sensitivity to low ppm levels.

  19. Polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor

    Ramesh, C.; Periaswami, G.; Mathews, C.K.; Shankar, P.

    1993-01-01

    A polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor has been developed for measuring hydrogen in argon. Polyvinyl alcohol-phosphoric acid serves as the solid electrolyte for proton conduction. The electrolyte is sandwiched between two palladium films. Short circuit current between the film at room temperature is measured and is found to be linearly dependant on hydrogen concentration in argon to which one side of the film is exposed. The other side is exposed to air. The response time of the sensor is found to be improved on application of a D.C. potential of 200 mV in series. The sensitivity of the sensor is in ppm range. This may be sufficient for monitoring cover gas hydrogen in FBTR. Work is underway to improve the long-term stability of the sensor. (author)

  20. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Ping Feng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed.

  1. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    Zhiyang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2 among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  2. Accelerating Palladium Nanowire H2 Sensors Using Engineered Nanofiltration.

    Koo, Won-Tae; Qiao, Shaopeng; Ogata, Alana F; Jha, Gaurav; Jang, Ji-Soo; Chen, Vivian T; Kim, Il-Doo; Penner, Reginald M

    2017-09-26

    The oxygen, O 2 , in air interferes with the detection of H 2 by palladium (Pd)-based H 2 sensors, including Pd nanowires (NWs), depressing the sensitivity and retarding the response/recovery speed in air-relative to N 2 or Ar. Here, we describe the preparation of H 2 sensors in which a nanofiltration layer consisting of a Zn metal-organic framework (MOF) is assembled onto Pd NWs. Polyhedron particles of Zn-based zeolite imidazole framework (ZIF-8) were synthesized on lithographically patterned Pd NWs, leading to the creation of ZIF-8/Pd NW bilayered H 2 sensors. The ZIF-8 filter has many micropores (0.34 nm for gas diffusion) which allows for the predominant penetration of hydrogen molecules with a kinetic diameter of 0.289 nm, whereas relatively larger gas molecules including oxygen (0.345 nm) and nitrogen (0.364 nm) in air are effectively screened, resulting in superior hydrogen sensing properties. Very importantly, the Pd NWs filtered by ZIF-8 membrane (Pd NWs@ZIF-8) reduced the H 2 response amplitude slightly (ΔR/R 0 = 3.5% to 1% of H 2 versus 5.9% for Pd NWs) and showed 20-fold faster recovery (7 s to 1% of H 2 ) and response (10 s to 1% of H 2 ) speed compared to that of pristine Pd NWs (164 s for response and 229 s for recovery to 1% of H 2 ). These outstanding results, which are mainly attributed to the molecular sieving and acceleration effect of ZIF-8 covered on Pd NWs, rank highest in H 2 sensing speed among room-temperature Pd-based H 2 sensors.

  3. Novel fabrication method of conductive polymer nanowires for sensor applications

    Christiansen, Nikolaj Ormstrup; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Castillo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a new, quiek and low cost fabrication of PEDOT:TsO nanowires using self-assembled peptide nanotubes as a masking material. The peptide nanotubes show a remarkably stability during reactive ion etching and can be dissolved in water afterwards. We have shown that the imp...... that the impedance of the nanowire is changing with backgating the wire, this gives promising possibility for application as a sensor....

  4. A Nose for Hydrogen Gas: Fast, Sensitive H2 Sensors Using Electrodeposited Nanomaterials.

    Penner, Reginald M

    2017-08-15

    Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) is odorless and flammable at concentrations above 4% (v/v) in air. Sensors capable of detecting it rapidly at lower concentrations are needed to "sniff" for leaked H 2 wherever it is used. Electrical H 2 sensors are attractive because of their simplicity and low cost: Such sensors consist of a metal (usually palladium, Pd) resistor. Exposure to H 2 causes a resistance increase, as Pd metal is converted into more resistive palladium hydride (PdH x ). Sensors based upon Pd alloy films, developed in the early 1990s, were both too slow and too insensitive to meet the requirements of H 2 safety sensing. In this Account, we describe the development of H 2 sensors that are based upon electrodeposited nanomaterials. This story begins with the rise to prominence of nanowire-based sensors in 2001 and our demonstration that year of the first nanowire-based H 2 sensor. The Pd nanowires used in these experiments were prepared by electrodepositing Pd at linear step-edge defects on a graphite electrode surface. In 2005, lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) provided the capability to pattern single Pd nanowires on dielectrics using electrodeposition. LPNE also provided control over the nanowire thickness (±1 nm) and width (±10-15%). Using single Pd nanowires, it was demonstrated in 2010 that smaller nanowires responded more rapidly to H 2 exposure. Heating the nanowire using Joule self-heating (2010) also dramatically accelerated sensor response and recovery, leading to the conclusion that thermally activated H 2 chemisorption and desorption of H 2 were rate-limiting steps in sensor response to and recovery from H 2 exposure. Platinum (Pt) nanowires, studied in 2012, showed an inverted resistance response to H 2 exposure, that is, the resistance of Pt nanowires decreased instead of increased upon H 2 exposure. H 2 dissociatively chemisorbs at a Pt surface to form Pt-H, but in contrast to Pd, it stays on the Pt surface. Pt nanowires

  5. Hydrogen Leak Detection Sensor Database

    Baker, Barton D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the characteristics of the Hydrogen Sensor database. The database is the result of NASA's continuing interest in and improvement of its ability to detect and assess gas leaks in space applications. The database specifics and a snapshot of an entry in the database are reviewed. Attempts were made to determine the applicability of each of the 65 sensors for ground and/or vehicle use.

  6. Fast humidity sensors based on CeO2 nanowires

    Fu, X Q; Wang, C; Yu, H C; Wang, Y G; Wang, T H

    2007-01-01

    Fast humidity sensors are reported that are based on CeO 2 nanowires synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Both the response and recovery time are about 3 s, and are independent of the humidity. The sensitivity increases gradually as the humidity increases, and is up to 85 at 97% RH. The resistance decreases exponentially with increasing humidity, implying ion-type conductivity as the humidity sensing mechanism. A model based on the morphology and surface energy of the nanowires is given to explain these results further. Our experimental results indicate a pathway to improving the performance of humidity sensors

  7. Optical Fiber Grating Hydrogen Sensors: A Review.

    Dai, Jixiang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Gaopeng; Xiang, Feng; Qin, Yuhuan; Wang, Min; Yang, Minghong

    2017-03-12

    In terms of hydrogen sensing and detection, optical fiber hydrogen sensors have been a research issue due to their intrinsic safety and good anti-electromagnetic interference. Among these sensors, hydrogen sensors consisting of fiber grating coated with sensitive materials have attracted intensive research interests due to their good reliability and distributed measurements. This review paper mainly focuses on optical fiber hydrogen sensors associated with fiber gratings and various materials. Their configurations and sensing performances proposed by different groups worldwide are reviewed, compared and discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the challenges for fiber grating hydrogen sensors are also addressed.

  8. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A

  9. A facile fluorescent sensor based on silicon nanowires for dithionite

    Cao, Xingxing; Mu, Lixuan; Chen, Min; She, Guangwei

    2018-05-01

    A facile and novel fluorescent sensor for dithionite has been constructed by simultaneously immobilizing dansyl group (fluorescence molecule) and dabsyl group (quencher and recognizing group) on the silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and SiNW arrays surface. This sensor for dithionite exhibited high selectivity and a good relationship of linearity between fluorescence intensities and dithionite concentrations from 0.1 to 1 mM. This approach is straightforward and does not require complicated synthesis, which can be extended to develop other sensors with similar rationale.

  10. Supersensitive, Fast-Response Nanowire Sensors by Using Schottky Contacts

    Hu, Youfan

    2010-05-31

    A Schottky barrier can be formed at the interface between a metal electrode and a semiconductor. The current passing through the metal-semiconductor contact is mainly controlled by the barrier height and barrier width. In conventional nanodevices, Schottky contacts are usually avoided in order to enhance the contribution made by the nanowires or nanotubes to the detected signal. We present a key idea of using the Schottky contact to achieve supersensitive and fast response nanowire-based nanosensors. We have illustrated this idea on several platforms: UV sensors, biosensors, and gas sensors. The gigantic enhancement in sensitivity of up to 5 orders of magnitude shows that an effective usage of the Schottky contact can be very beneficial to the sensitivity of nanosensors. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A Sentinel Sensor Network for Hydrogen Sensing

    Andrew J. Mason

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network is presented for in-situ monitoring of atmospheric hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen sensor network consists of multiple sensor nodes, equipped with titania nanotube hydrogen sensors, distributed throughout the area of interest; each node is both sensor, and data-relay station that enables extended wide area monitoring without a consequent increase of node power and thus node size. The hydrogen sensor is fabricated from a sheet of highly ordered titania nanotubes, made by anodization of a titanium thick film, to which platinum electrodes are connected. The electrical resistance of the hydrogen sensor varies from 245 Ω at 500 ppm hydrogen, to 10.23 kΩ at 0 ppm hydrogen (pure nitrogen environment. The measured resistance is converted to voltage, 0.049 V at 500 ppm to 2.046 V at 0 ppm, by interface circuitry. The microcontroller of the sensor node digitizes the voltage and transmits the digital information, using intermediate nodes as relays, to a host node that downloads measurement data to a computer for display. This paper describes the design and operation of the sensor network, the titania nanotube hydrogen sensors with an apparent low level resolution of approximately 0.05 ppm, and their integration in one widely useful device.

  12. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A novel top-down fabrication technique was presented for single-crystal Si-NW fabrication realized with conventional microfabrication technique. High quality triangular Si-NWs were made with high wafer-s...

  13. A Review on the Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Composed of Nanowires as Sensing Material

    Shen-Ming Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of nanowires for electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reviewed in this article. Next generation sensor platforms will require significant improvements in sensitivity, specificity and parallelism in order to meet the future needs in variety of fields. Sensors made of nanowires exploit some fundamental nanoscopic effect in order to meet these requirements. Nanowires are new materials, which have the characteristic of low weight with extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal and multifunctional properties. The advantages such as size scale, aspect ratio and other properties of nanowires are especially apparent in the use of electrical sensors such as electrochemical sensors and in the use of field-effect transistors. The preparation methods of nanowires and their properties are discussed along with their advantages towards electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Some key results from each article are summarized, relating the concept and mechanism behind each sensor, with experimental conditions as well as their behavior at different conditions.

  14. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  15. SAW Humidity Sensor Sensitivity Enhancement via Electrospraying of Silver Nanowires

    Farid Sayar Irani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we investigated the influence of the surface coatings of silver nanowires on the sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW humidity sensors. Silver nanowires, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP, which is a hydrophilic capping agent, were chemically synthesized, with an average length of 15 µm and an average diameter of 60 nm. Humidity sensors, with 433 MHz frequency dual-port resonator Rayleigh-SAW devices, were coated by silver nanowires (AgNWs using the electrospray coating method. It was demonstrated that increasing thickness of coated AgNW on the surfaces of SAW devices results in increased sensitivity. The highest frequency shift (262 kHz in these SAW devices was obtained with an injection of 0.5 mL of the AgNW solution with a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL at an injection rate of 1 mL/h. It also showed the highest humidity sensitivity among the other prepared SAW devices.

  16. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    Li,; Dongmei, [Boulder, CO; Medlin, J William [Boulder, CO; McDaniel, Anthony H [Livermore, CA; Bastasz, Robert J [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  17. Development of a nanowire based titanium needle probe sensor for glucose monitoring

    Deshpande, Devesh C.

    glucose monitoring. The working electrode of the sensor comprised of vertically aligned, free standing Au nanowires to utilize the advantages of nanostructures. The sensor was fabricated on biocompatible titanium substrate using Micro/Nano fabrication processes such as Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), Electron Beam Evaporation, Lithography, aligned nanowire growth and wet and plasma etching. Arrays of free-standing nanowires were grown at room temperature and pressure using a novel template based growth process. After fabrication of the sensor, immobilization of an enzyme was carried out on the sensing electrode to ensure selectivity of the sensor to glucose. This was achieved by using self-assembled thiol monolayers and entrapment in a conducting polymer matrix. Glucose oxidase was used for this purpose, which catalyzed the conversion of glucose to gluconic acid, producing hydrogen peroxide in the process. Amperometry was used for glucose detection, in which a constant voltage was applied to the sensor. This potential oxidized the hydrogen peroxide and produced changes in the current which were correlated to the glucose concentration. This dissertation will address the importance of continuous glucose monitoring, current technology and problems faced, the design and fabrication of the sensor and electrochemical sensing to detect glucose levels in solution. Finally, the problems encountered during the process will be discussed and the future work will be detailed.

  18. Hydrogen sensing method with a quartz sensor

    Suzuki, A.; Kurokawa, A.; Nonaka, H.

    2006-01-01

    The stability for hydrogen leakage detection was improved by impedance measurement with a quartz sensor (Q-sensor) instead of pressure measurement with a quartz friction pressure gauge (Q-gauge) previously used. Degree of the experimental fluctuation of the impedance from the Q-sensor and of the pressure from the Q-gauge was 0.06 and 0.2 % of each output, thus showing that the Q-sensor measurement was more stable than that by the Q-gauge. Estimated minimum detection limit for hydrogen by the Q-sensor impedance measurement is also improved compared to the Q-gauge pressure measurement. Low hydrogen concentration experiment presented that the Q-sensor impedance measurement detects the 0.05 vol.% hydrogen in air at atmospheric pressure more sensitively than the Q-gauge pressure measurement. It was proved that the Q-sensor impedance measurement was more sensitive and stable as a hydrogen leakage detection method than the Q-gauge pressure measurement. (authors)

  19. Sensitivity of Pressure Sensors Enhanced by Doping Silver Nanowires

    Baozhang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a highly sensitive flexible pressure sensor based on a piezopolymer and silver nanowires (AgNWs composite. The composite nanofiber webs are made by electrospinning mixed solutions of poly(inylidene fluoride (PVDF and Ag NWs in a cosolvent mixture of dimethyl formamide and acetone. The diameter of the fibers ranges from 200 nm to 500 nm, as demonstrated by SEM images. FTIR and XRD results reveal that doping Ag NWs into PVDF greatly enhances the content of β phase in PVDF. This β phase increase can be attributed to interactions between the Ag NWs and the PVDF matrix, which forces the polymer chains to be embedded into the β phase crystalline. The sensitivity of the pressure sensors agrees well with the FTIR and XRD characteristics. In our experiments, the measured sensitivity reached up to 30 pC/N for the nanofiber webs containing 1.5 wt% Ag NWs, which is close to that of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene [P(VDF-TrFE, (77/23]. This study may provide a new method of fabricating high performance flexible sensors at relatively low cost compared with sensors based on [P(VDF-TrFE, (77/23].

  20. V-groove SnO2 nanowire sensors: fabrication and Pt-nanoparticle decoration

    Sun, Gun-Joo; Choi, Sun-Woo; Jung, Sung-Hyun; Katoch, Akash; Kim, Sang Sub

    2013-01-01

    Networked SnO 2 nanowire sensors were achieved using the selective growth of SnO 2 nanowires and their tangling ability, particularly on on-chip V-groove structures, in an effort to overcome the disadvantages imposed on the conventional trench-structured SnO 2 nanowire sensors. The sensing performance of the V-groove-structured SnO 2 nanowire sensors was highly dependent on the geometrical dimension of the groove, being superior to those of their conventional trench-structured counterparts. Pt nanoparticles were decorated on the surface of the networked SnO 2 nanowires via γ-ray radiolysis to enhance the sensing performances of the V-groove sensors whose V-groove widths had been optimized. The V-groove-structured Pt-nanoparticle-decorated SnO 2 nanowire sensors exhibited outstanding and reliable sensing capabilities towards toluene and nitrogen dioxide gases, indicating their potential for use as a platform for chemical gas sensors. (paper)

  1. Flexible Piezoelectric-Induced Pressure Sensors for Static Measurements Based on Nanowires/Graphene Heterostructures.

    Chen, Zefeng; Wang, Zhao; Li, Xinming; Lin, Yuxuan; Luo, Ningqi; Long, Mingzhu; Zhao, Ni; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2017-05-23

    The piezoelectric effect is widely applied in pressure sensors for the detection of dynamic signals. However, these piezoelectric-induced pressure sensors have challenges in measuring static signals that are based on the transient flow of electrons in an external load as driven by the piezopotential arisen from dynamic stress. Here, we present a pressure sensor with nanowires/graphene heterostructures for static measurements based on the synergistic mechanisms between strain-induced polarization charges in piezoelectric nanowires and the caused change of carrier scattering in graphene. Compared to the conventional piezoelectric nanowire or graphene pressure sensors, this sensor is capable of measuring static pressures with a sensitivity of up to 9.4 × 10 -3 kPa -1 and a fast response time down to 5-7 ms. This demonstration of pressure sensors shows great potential in the applications of electronic skin and wearable devices.

  2. Improved fuel-cell-type hydrogen sensor

    Rudek, F. P.; Rutkowski, M. D.

    1968-01-01

    Modified hydrogen sensor replaces oxygen cathode with a cathode consisting of a sealed paste of gold hydroxide and a pure gold current collector. The net reaction which occurs during cell operation is the reduction of the gold hydroxide to gold and water, with a half-cell potential of 1.4 volts.

  3. Long-Term Stability of Oxide Nanowire Sensors via Heavily Doped Oxide Contact.

    Zeng, Hao; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhang, Guozhu; He, Yong; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2017-12-22

    Long-term stability of a chemical sensor is an essential quality for long-term collection of data related to exhaled breath, environmental air, and other sources in the Internet of things (IoT) era. Although an oxide nanowire sensor has shown great potential as a chemical sensor, the long-term stability of sensitivity has not been realized yet due to electrical degradation under harsh sensing conditions. Here, we report a rational concept to accomplish long-term electrical stability of metal oxide nanowire sensors via introduction of a heavily doped metal oxide contact layer. Antimony-doped SnO 2 (ATO) contacts on SnO 2 nanowires show much more stable and lower electrical contact resistance than conventional Ti contacts for high temperature (200 °C) conditions, which are required to operate chemical sensors. The stable and low contact resistance of ATO was confirmed for at least 1960 h under 200 °C in open air. This heavily doped oxide contact enables us to realize the long-term stability of SnO 2 nanowire sensors while maintaining the sensitivity for both NO 2 gas and light (photo) detections. The applicability of our method is confirmed for sensors on a flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. Since the proposed fundamental concept can be applied to various oxide nanostructures, it will give a foundation for designing long-term stable oxide nanomaterial-based IoT sensors.

  4. Potential of silicon nanowires structures as nanoscale piezoresistors in mechanical sensors

    Messina, M; Njuguna, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a single square millimeter 3-axial accelerometer for bio-mechanics measurements that exploit the potential of silicon nanowires structures as nanoscale piezoresistors. The main requirements of this application are miniaturization and high measurement accuracy. Nanowires as nanoscale piezoresistive devices have been chosen as sensing element, due to their high sensitivity and miniaturization achievable. By exploiting the electro-mechanical features of nanowires as nanoscale piezoresistors, the nominal sensor sensitivity is overall boosted by more than 30 times. This approach allows significant higher accuracy and resolution with smaller sensing element in comparison with conventional devices without the need of signal amplification.

  5. Importance of the Debye screening length on nanowire field effect transistor sensors.

    Stern, Eric; Wagner, Robin; Sigworth, Fred J; Breaker, Ronald; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2007-11-01

    Nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) can serve as ultrasensitive detectors for label-free reagents. The NW-FET sensing mechanism assumes a controlled modification in the local channel electric field created by the binding of charged molecules to the nanowire surface. Careful control of the solution Debye length is critical for unambiguous selective detection of macromolecules. Here we show the appropriate conditions under which the selective binding of macromolecules is accurately sensed with NW-FET sensors.

  6. A highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced and conventional dielectrophoresis.

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Ho, Kai-Siang; Yang, Chin-Tien; Wang, Jung-Hao; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-06-02

    The number and position of assembled nanowires cannot be controlled using most nanowire sensor assembling methods. In this paper, we demonstrate a high-yield, highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) and conventional dielectrophoresis (DEP). With the ODEP platform, optical images can be used as virtual electrodes to locally turn on a non-contact DEP force and manipulate a micron- or nano-scale substance suspended in fluid. Nanowires were first moved next to the previously deposited metal electrodes using optical images and, then, were attracted to and arranged in the gap between two electrodes through DEP forces generated by switching on alternating current signals to the metal electrodes. A single nanowire can be assembled within 24 seconds using this approach. In addition, the number of nanowires in a single nanowire sensor can be controlled, and the assembly of a single nanowire on each of the adjacent electrodes can also be achieved. The electrical properties of the assembled nanowires were characterized by IV curve measurement. Additionally, the contact resistance between the nanowires and electrodes and the stickiness between the nanowires and substrates were further investigated in this study.

  7. Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid

    Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Mortensen, Asger; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers....

  8. Nanowire field-effect transistors for gas sensor applications

    Constantinou, Marios

    Sensing BTEX (Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Xylene) pollutants is of utmost importance to reduce health risk and ensure public safety. The lack of sensitivity and selectivity of the current gas sensors and the limited number of available technologies in the field of BTEX-sensing raises the demand for the development of high-performance gas sensors for BTEX applications. The scope of this thesis is the fabrication and characterisation of high-quality field-effect transistors (FETs), with functionalised silicon nanowires (SiNWs), for the selective sensing of benzene vs. other BTEX gases. This research addresses three main challenges in SiNW FET-sensor device development: i) controllable and reproducible assembly of high-quality SiNWs for FET sensor devices using the method of dielectrophoresis (DEP), ii) almost complete elimination of harmful hysteresis effect in the SiNW FET current-voltage characteristics induced by surface states using DMF solvent, iii) selective sensing of benzene with up to ppb range of sensitivity using calix[4]arene-derivatives. It is experimentally demonstrated that frequency-controlled DEP is a powerful tool for the selection and collection of semiconducting SiNWs with advanced electrical and morphological properties, from a poly-disperse as-synthesised NWs. The DEP assembly method also leads to a controllable and reproducible fabrication of high-quality NW-based FETs. The results highlight the superiority of DEP, performed at high signal frequencies (5-20 MHz) to selectively assemble only high-quality NWs which can respond to such high DEP frequencies. The SiNW FETs, with NWs collected at high DEP frequencies, have high mobility (≈50 cm2 V-1 s-1), low sub-threshold-swing (≈1.26 V/decade), high on-current (up to 3 mA) and high on/off ratio (106-107). The DEP NW selection is also demonstrated using an industrially scalable method, to allow establishing of NW response characteristics to different DEP frequencies in a very short time

  9. Highly sensitive wearable strain sensor based on silver nanowires and nanoparticles

    Shengbo, Sang; Lihua, Liu; Aoqun, Jian; Qianqian, Duan; Jianlong, Ji; Qiang, Zhang; Wendong, Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Here, we propose a highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensor based on silver nanoparticles and nanowires (Ag NPs and NWs), advancing the rapid development of electronic skin. To improve the sensitivity of strain sensors based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs), Ag NPs and NWs were added to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an aid filler. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) increase the conductive paths for electrons, leading to the low resistance of the resulting sensor (14.9 Ω). The strain sensor based on Ag NPs and NWs showed strong piezoresistivity with a tunable gauge factor (GF) at 3766, and a change in resistance as the strain linearly increased from 0% to 28.1%. The high GF demonstrates the irreplaceable role of Ag NPs in the sensor. Moreover, the applicability of our high-performance strain sensor has been demonstrated by its ability to sense movements caused by human talking, finger bending, wrist raising and walking.

  10. A wearable and highly sensitive pressure sensor with ultrathin gold nanowires

    Gong, Shu; Schwalb, Willem; Wang, Yongwei; Chen, Yi; Tang, Yue; Si, Jye; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cheng, Wenlong

    2014-02-01

    Ultrathin gold nanowires are mechanically flexible yet robust, which are novel building blocks with potential applications in future wearable optoelectronic devices. Here we report an efficient, low-cost fabrication strategy to construct a highly sensitive, flexible pressure sensor by sandwiching ultrathin gold nanowire-impregnated tissue paper between two thin polydimethylsiloxane sheets. The entire device fabrication process is scalable, enabling facile large-area integration and patterning for mapping spatial pressure distribution. Our gold nanowires-based pressure sensors can be operated at a battery voltage of 1.5 V with low energy consumption (1.14 kPa-1) and high stability (>50,000 loading-unloading cycles). In addition, our sensor can resolve pressing, bending, torsional forces and acoustic vibrations. The superior sensing properties in conjunction with mechanical flexibility and robustness enabled real-time monitoring of blood pulses as well as detection of small vibration forces from music.

  11. Electrospun ZnO Nanowires as Gas Sensors for Ethanol Detection

    Huang Po-Jung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanowires were produced using an electrospinning method and used in gas sensors for the detection of ethanol at 220 °C. This electrospinning technique allows the direct placement of ZnO nanowires during their synthesis to bridge the sensor electrodes. An excellent sensitivity of nearly 90% was obtained at a low ethanol concentration of 10 ppm, and the rest obtained at higher ethanol concentrations, up to 600 ppm, all equal to or greater than 90%.

  12. Wearable multifunctional sensors using printed stretchable conductors made of silver nanowires

    Yao, Shanshan; Zhu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to achieve highly sensitive and wearable sensors that can simultaneously detect multiple stimuli such as stretch, pressure, temperature or touch. Here we develop highly stretchable multifunctional sensors that can detect strain (up to 50%), pressure (up to ~1.2 MPa) and finger touch with high sensitivity, fast response time (~40 ms) and good pressure mapping function. The reported sensors utilize the capacitive sensing mechanism, where silver nanowires are used as electrodes (conductors) and Ecoflex is used as a dielectric. The silver nanowire electrodes are screen printed. Our sensors have been demonstrated for several wearable applications including monitoring thumb movement, sensing the strain of the knee joint in patellar reflex (knee-jerk) and other human motions such as walking, running and jumping from squatting, illustrating the potential utilities of such sensors in robotic systems, prosthetics, healthcare and flexible touch panels.Considerable efforts have been made to achieve highly sensitive and wearable sensors that can simultaneously detect multiple stimuli such as stretch, pressure, temperature or touch. Here we develop highly stretchable multifunctional sensors that can detect strain (up to 50%), pressure (up to ~1.2 MPa) and finger touch with high sensitivity, fast response time (~40 ms) and good pressure mapping function. The reported sensors utilize the capacitive sensing mechanism, where silver nanowires are used as electrodes (conductors) and Ecoflex is used as a dielectric. The silver nanowire electrodes are screen printed. Our sensors have been demonstrated for several wearable applications including monitoring thumb movement, sensing the strain of the knee joint in patellar reflex (knee-jerk) and other human motions such as walking, running and jumping from squatting, illustrating the potential utilities of such sensors in robotic systems, prosthetics, healthcare and flexible touch panels. Electronic

  13. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices

    Jenshan Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO2 and C2H4 using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application.

  14. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices.

    Anderson, Travis; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Kang, Byoung Sam; Wang, Hung-Ta; Chang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Jenshan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO(2) and C(2)H(4) using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application.

  15. Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2006-01-01

    The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

  16. Mechanical transfer of ZnO nanowires for a flexible and conformal piezotronic strain sensor

    Jenkins, Kory; Yang, Rusen

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a truly conformal and flexible piezotronic strain sensor using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. Well-aligned, vertical ZnO nanowires are grown by chemical vapor deposition on a silicon wafer with a hydrothermally grown ZnO seed layer. The nanowires are infiltrated with polydimethylsiloxane and mechanically transferred from the silicon substrate. Plasma etching exposes the top surface of the nanowires before deposition of a gold (Au) top electrode. The bottom electrode is formed by silver paint which also adheres the sensor to the measured structure. To demonstrate the sensor’s ability to conform to complex surfaces, a stepped shaft with a shoulder fillet is used. The sensor is attached to the shoulder fillet of the stepped shaft, conforming to both the circumference of the shaft, and the radius of the fillet. A periodic bending displacement is applied to the end of the shaft. The strain induces a piezoelectric potential in the ZnO nanowires which controls the barrier height and conductivity at the gold/ZnO interface, by what is known as the piezotronic effect. The conductivity change is measured for periodically applied strains. The nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) response of the device is due to the Schottky contact between the ZnO nanowires and gold electrode. The geometry of the stepped shaft corresponds to a known stress concentration factor, and the strain experienced by the shaft is estimated with a COMSOL FEA study. The conformal nature of the strain sensor makes it suitable for structural monitoring applications involving complex geometries and stress concentrators.

  17. Coaxial-structured ZnO/silicon nanowires extended-gate field-effect transistor as pH sensor

    Li, Hung-Hsien; Yang, Chi-En; Kei, Chi-Chung; Su, Chung-Yi; Dai, Wei-Syuan; Tseng, Jung-Kuei; Yang, Po-Yu; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2013-01-01

    An extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) of coaxial-structured ZnO/silicon nanowires as pH sensor was demonstrated in this paper. The oriented 1-μm-long silicon nanowires with the diameter of about 50 nm were vertically synthesized by the electroless metal deposition method at room temperature and were sequentially capped with the ZnO films using atomic layer deposition at 50 °C. The transfer characteristics (I DS –V REF ) of such ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor exhibited the sensitivity and linearity of 46.25 mV/pH and 0.9902, respectively for the different pH solutions (pH 1–pH 13). In contrast to the ZnO thin-film ones, the ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor achieved much better sensitivity and superior linearity. It was attributed to a high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanowire structures, reflecting a larger effective sensing area. The output voltage and time characteristics were also measured to indicate good reliability and durability for the ZnO/silicon nanowires sensor. Furthermore, the hysteresis was 9.74 mV after the solution was changed as pH 7 → pH 3 → pH 7 → pH 11 → pH 7. - Highlights: ► Coaxial-structured ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET was demonstrated as pH sensor. ► EMD and ALD methods were proposed to fabricate ZnO/silicon nanowires. ► ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor achieved better sensitivity and linearity. ► ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor had good reliability and durability

  18. Hysteresis-free nanoplasmonic pd-au alloy hydrogen sensors

    Wadell, Carl; Nugroho, Ferry Anggoro Ardy; Lidström, Emil

    2015-01-01

    hydrogen sensors. By increasing the amount of Au in the alloy nanoparticles up to 25 atom %, we are able to suppress the hysteresis between hydrogen absorption and desorption, thereby increasing the sensor accuracy to below 5% throughout the investigated 1 mbar to 1 bar hydrogen pressure range. Furthermore......, we observe an 8-fold absolute sensitivity enhancement at low hydrogen pressures compared to sensors made of pure Pd, and an improved sensor response time to below one second within the 0-40 mbar pressure range, that is, below the flammability limit, by engineering the nanoparticle size....

  19. Low-frequency noise characterization of single CuO nanowire gas sensor devices

    Steinhauer, S.; Köck, A.; Gspan, C.; Grogger, W.; Vandamme, L.K.J.; Pogany, D.

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency noise properties of single CuO nanowire devices were investigated under gas sensor operation conditions in dry and humid synthetic air at 350¿°C. A 1/f noise spectrum was found with the normalized power spectral density of current fluctuations typically a factor of 2 higher for humid

  20. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Heitzinger, Clemens; Vacic, Aleksandar; Reed, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-05-03

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Synergistical Innerconnect Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanowires/Wrinkled Graphene Film.

    Liu, Weijie; Liu, Nishuang; Yue, Yang; Rao, Jiangyu; Cheng, Feng; Su, Jun; Liu, Zhitian; Gao, Yihua

    2018-04-01

    Piezoresistive sensor is a promising pressure sensor due to its attractive advantages including uncomplicated signal collection, simple manufacture, economical and practical characteristics. Here, a flexible and highly sensitive pressure sensor based on wrinkled graphene film (WGF)/innerconnected polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanowires/interdigital electrodes is fabricated. Due to the synergistic effect between WGF and innerconnected PVA nanowires, the as-prepared pressure sensor realizes a high sensitivity of 28.34 kPa -1 . In addition, the device is able to discern lightweight rice about 22.4 mg (≈2.24 Pa) and shows excellent durability and reliability after 6000 repeated loading and unloading cycles. What is more, the device can detect subtle pulse beat and monitor various human movement behaviors in real-time. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Highly sensitive work function hydrogen gas sensor based on PdNPs/SiO2/Si structure at room temperature

    G. Behzadi pour

    Full Text Available In this study, fabrication of highly sensitive PdNPs/SiO2/Si hydrogen gas sensor using experimental and theoretical methods has been investigated. Using chemical method the PdNPs are synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The average size of PdNPs is 11 nm. The thickness of the oxide film was 20 nm and the surface of oxide film analyzed using Atomic-force microscopy (AFM. The C-V curve for the PdNPs/SiO2/Si hydrogen gas sensor in 1% hydrogen concentration and at the room temperature has been reported. The response time and recovery time for 1% hydrogen concentration at room temperature were 1.2 s and 10 s respectively. The response (R% for PdNPs/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor was 96%. The PdNPs/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor showed very fast response and recovery times compared to SWCNTs/PdNPs, graphene/PdNPs, nanorod/PdNPs and nanowire/PdNPs hydrogen gas sensors. Keywords: Sensitive, Oxide film, Capacitive, Resistance

  4. Low temperature preparation of Ag-doped ZnO nanowire arrays for sensor and light-emitting diode applications

    Lupan, O.; Viana, B.; Cretu, V.; Postica, V.; Adelung, R.; Pauporté, T.

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal doped-oxide semiconductor nanostructures are important to achieve enhanced and new properties for advanced applications. We describe the low temperature preparation of ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod (NW/NR) arrays by electrodeposition at 90 °C. The NWs have been characterized by SEM, EDX, transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integration of Ag in the crystal is shown. Single nanowire/nanorod of ZnO:Ag was integrated in a nanosensor structure leading to new and enhanced properties. The ultraviolet (UV) response of the nanosensor was investigated at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that ZnO:Ag (0.75 μM) nanosensor possesses faster response/recovery time and better response to UV light than those reported in literature. The sensor structure has been also shown to give a fast response for the hydrogen detection with improved performances compared to pristine ZnO NWs. ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod arrays electrochemically grown on p-type GaN single crystal layer is also shown to act as light emitter in LED structures. The emission wavelength is red-shifted compared to pristine ZnO NW array. At low Ag concentration a single UV-blue emission is found whereas at higher concentration of dopant the emission is broadened and extends up to the red wavelength range. Our study indicates that high quality ZnO:Ag NW/NR prepared at low temperature by electrodeposition can serve as building nanomaterials for new sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) structures with low-power consumption.

  5. Analysis of nanowire transistor based nitrogen dioxide gas sensor – A simulation study

    Gaurav Saxena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensors sensitivity, selectivity and stability has always been a prime design concern for gas sensors designers. Modeling and simulation of gas sensors aids the designers in improving their performance. In this paper, different routes for the modeling and simulation of a semiconducting gas sensor is presented. Subsequently, by employing one of the route, the response of Zinc Oxide nanowire transistor towards nitrogen dioxide ambient is simulated. In addition to the sensing mechanism, simulation study of gas species desorption by applying a recovery voltage is also presented.

  6. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    Ouyang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihua College, Huaihua 418008 (China); Yu, G., E-mail: yuganghnu@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. {yields} Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. {yields} Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. {yields} Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm{sup -3} KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  7. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    Ouyang, Y.J.; Yu, G.; Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. → Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. → Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. → Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm -3 KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  8. A novel gaseous pinacolyl alcohol sensor utilizing cataluminescence on alumina nanowires prepared by supercritical fluid drying.

    Yu, Chao; Liu, Guohong; Zuo, Boli; Tang, Yongjun; Zhang, Tian

    2008-06-23

    A cataluminescence (CTL) sensor using Al2O3 nanowires as the sensing material was developed for the determination of trace pinacolyl alcohol in air samples based on the catalytic chemiluminescence (CL) of pinacolyl alcohol on Al2O3 nanowires. Eight catalysts were examined and the CL intensity on Al2O3 nanowires prepared by supercritical fluid drying was the strongest. This novel CL sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity to gaseous pinacolyl alcohol at optimal temperature of 340 degrees C. Quantitative analysis was performed at a wavelength of 460 nm. The linear range of CTL intensity versus concentration of gaseous pinacolyl alcohol was 0.09 x 10(-6) to 2.56 x 10(-6) g mL(-1) (r=0.9983, n=6) with a detection limit (3 sigma) of 0.0053 x 10(-6) g mL(-1). None or only very low levels of interference were observed while the foreign substances such as water vapor, ethanol, ammonia, chloroform, benzene, nitrogen dioxide, methylbenzene, hydrochloric acid, methanol and butanol were passing through the sensor. The response time of the sensor is less than 100 s, and the sensor had a long lifetime more than 60 h. The sensor would be potentially applied to analysis of the nerve agents such as Soman.

  9. Optical hydrogen sensors based on metal-hydrides

    Slaman, M.; Westerwaal, R.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.

    2012-06-01

    For many hydrogen related applications it is preferred to use optical hydrogen sensors above electrical systems. Optical sensors reduce the risk of ignition by spark formation and are less sensitive to electrical interference. Currently palladium and palladium alloys are used for most hydrogen sensors since they are well known for their hydrogen dissociation and absorption properties at relatively low temperatures. The disadvantages of palladium in sensors are the low optical response upon hydrogen loading, the cross sensitivity for oxygen and carbon, the limited detection range and the formation of micro-cracks after some hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles. In contrast to Pd, we find that the use of magnesium or rear earth bases metal-hydrides in optical hydrogen sensors allow tuning of the detection levels over a broad pressure range, while maintaining a high optical response. We demonstrate a stable detection layer for detecting hydrogen below 10% of the lower explosion limit in an oxygen rich environment. This detection layer is deposited at the bare end of a glass fiber as a micro-mirror and is covered with a thin layer of palladium. The palladium layer promotes the hydrogen uptake at room temperature and acts as a hydrogen selective membrane. To protect the sensor for a long time in air a final layer of a hydrophobic fluorine based coating is applied. Such a sensor can be used for example as safety detector in automotive applications. We find that this type of fiber optic hydrogen sensor is also suitable for hydrogen detection in liquids. As example we demonstrate a sensor for detecting a broad range of concentrations in transformer oil. Such a sensor can signal a warning when sparks inside a high voltage power transformer decompose the transformer oil over a long period.

  10. Chip-to-chip SnO2 nanowire network sensors for room temperature H2 detection

    Köck, A.; Brunet, E.; Mutinati, G. C.; Maier, T.; Steinhauer, S.

    2012-06-01

    The employment of nanowires is a very powerful strategy to improve gas sensor performance. We demonstrate a gas sensor device, which is based on silicon chip-to-chip synthesis of ultralong tin oxide (SnO2) nanowires. The sensor device employs an interconnected SnO2 nanowire network configuration, which exhibits a huge surface-to-volume ratio and provides full access of the target gas to the nanowires. The chip-to-chip SnO2 nanowire device is able to detect a H2 concentration of only 20 ppm in synthetic air with ~ 60% relative humidity at room temperature. At an operating temperature of 300°C a concentration of 50 ppm H2 results in a sensitivity of 5%. At this elevated temperature the sensor shows a linear response in a concentration range between 10 ppm and 100 ppm H2. The SnO2-nanowire fabrication procedure based on spray pyrolysis and subsequent annealing is performed at atmospheric pressure, requires no vacuum and allows upscale of the substrate to a wafer size. 3D-integration with CMOS chips is proposed as viable way for practical realization of smart nanowire based gas sensor devices for the consumer market.

  11. Co3O4 nanowires as efficient catalyst precursor for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis

    Wei, Lei; Cao, Xurong; Ma, Maixia; Lu, Yanhong; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Suling; Wang, Qian

    Hydrogen generation from the catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride has many advantages, and therefore, significant research has been undertaken on the development of highly efficient catalysts for this purpose. In our present work, Co3O4 nanowires were successfully synthesized as catalyst precursor by employing SBA-15 as a hard template. For material characterization, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and N2 adsorption isotherms were employed, respectively. To measure the catalyst activity, typical water-displacement method was carried out. Using a reaction solution comprising 10wt.% NaBH4 and 2wt.% NaOH, the hydrogen generation rate (HGR) was observed to be as high as 7.74L min-1 g-1 at 25∘C in the presence of Co3O4 nanowires, which is significantly higher than that of CoB nanoparticles and commercial Co3O4 powder. Apparent activation energy was calculated to be 50.9kJ mol-1. After recycling the Co3O4 nanowires six times, HGR was decreased to be 72.6% of the initial level.

  12. Hydrogen Safety Sensor Performance and Use Gap Analysis: Preprint

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Hannah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Cebolla, Rafael O. [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Bonato, Christian [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Moretto, Pietro [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands

    2017-11-15

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as an important technology for facilitating the safe implementation of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and there are numerous reports of a sensor alarm successfully preventing a potentially serious event. However, gaps in sensor metrological specifications, as well as in their performance for some applications, exist.The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technology Office published a short list of critical gaps in the 2007 and 2012 multiyear project plans; more detailed gap analyses were independently performed by the JRC and NREL. There have been, however, some significant advances in sensor technologies since these assessments, including the commercial availability of hydrogen sensors with fast response times (t90 less than 1 s, which had been an elusive DOE target since 2007), improved robustness to chemical poisons, improved selectivity, and improved lifetime and stability. These improvements, however, have not been universal and typically pertain to select platforms or models. Moreover, as hydrogen markets grow and new applications are being explored, more demands will be imposed on sensor performance. The hydrogen sensor laboratories at NREL and JRC are currently updating the hydrogen safety sensor gap analysis through direct interaction with international stakeholders in the hydrogen community, especially end-users. NREL and the JRC are currently organizing a series of workshops (in Europe and the U.S.) with sensor developers, end-users, and other stakeholders in 2017 to identify technology gaps and to develop a path forward to address them. One workshop is scheduled for May 10 in Brussels, Belgium at the Headquarters of the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking. A second workshop is planned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, CO, USA. This presentation will review improvements in sensor technologies in the past 5 to 10 years, identify gaps in sensor performance and use requirements, and identify

  13. Palladium coated fibre Bragg grating based hydrogen sensor

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Kishore, S.; Elumalai, V.; Krishnan, R.; Babu Rao, C.; Dash, Sitaram; Murali, N.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of steam generator leaks in fast nuclear reactors is carried out by monitoring hydrogen in argon cover-gas. Hydrogen released during sodium cleaning of fast reactor components is required to be monitored. Hydrogen sensors with good sensitivity, stability and response time are required for all the above applications. We report a new type of hydrogen sensor with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) coated with palladium thin film which is used to detect the leak of hydrogen gas in the Steam Generator (SG) module of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). If water leaks into sodium, it results in sodium-water reaction. In this reaction hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are formed. Due to the explosive risk of hydrogen system, hydrogen sensors are of great interest in this case. It is known that hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air once its concentration exceeds beyond the explosion limit of four percent. The advantages of FBG based hydrogen sensor over the other hydrogen sensors are its inherent property of safety from sparking, immunity to ambient electromagnetic interference. The sensing mechanism in this device is based on mechanical strain that is induced in the palladium coating when it absorbs hydrogen. This process physically stretches the grating and causes the grating period and grating's refractive index, to change. The Bragg wavelength shift is directly proportional to the strain induced and can be directly related to the percentage of hydrogen exposure. The online monitoring of palladium thin film coating on FBG is carried out and recorded the wavelength change and strain induced on the FBG. A hydrogen sensor set up have been fabricated which consists of SS vessel of capacity 10 litres, provided with pressure gauge, Argon filling line with a valve, Hydrogen injection line with flange, a vent line with valve and Hydrogen sensor fixing point. The Palladium coated FBG based Hydrogen sensor is tested in this experimental facility in the exposure of hydrogen in

  14. Sensitive Capacitive-type Hydrogen Sensor Based on Ni Thin Film in Different Hydrogen Concentrations.

    Pour, Ghobad Behzadi; Aval, Leila Fekri; Eslami, Shahnaz

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen sensors are micro/nano-structure that are used to locate hydrogen leaks. They are considered to have fast response/recovery time and long lifetime as compared to conventional gas sensors. In this paper, fabrication of sensitive capacitive-type hydrogen gas sensor based on Ni thin film has been investigated. The C-V curves of the sensor in different hydrogen concentrations have been reported. Dry oxidation was done in thermal chemical vapor deposition furnace (TCVD). For oxidation time of 5 min, the oxide thickness was 15 nm and for oxidation time 10 min, it was 20 nm. The Ni thin film as a catalytic metal was deposited on the oxide film using electron gun deposition. Two MOS sensors were compared with different oxide film thickness and different hydrogen concentrations. The highest response of the two MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 87.5% and 65.4% respectively. The fast response times for MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 8 s and 21 s, respectively. By increasing the hydrogen concentration from 1% to 4%, the response time for MOS sensor (20nm oxide thickness), was decreased from 28s to 21s. The recovery time was inversely increased from 237s to 360s. The experimental results showed that the MOS sensor based on Ni thin film had a quick response and a high sensitivity.

  15. Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors.

    McAlpine, Michael C; Ahmad, Habib; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R

    2007-05-01

    The development of a robust method for integrating high-performance semiconductors on flexible plastics could enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications. One area of vital relevance is chemical and biological sensing, which if implemented on biocompatible substrates, could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable monitoring systems. Semiconducting nanowires (and nanotubes) are particularly sensitive chemical sensors because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. Here, we present a scalable and parallel process for transferring hundreds of pre-aligned silicon nanowires onto plastic to yield highly ordered films for low-power sensor chips. The nanowires are excellent field-effect transistors, and, as sensors, exhibit parts-per-billion sensitivity to NO2, a hazardous pollutant. We also use SiO2 surface chemistries to construct a 'nano-electronic nose' library, which can distinguish acetone and hexane vapours via distributed responses. The excellent sensing performance coupled with bendable plastic could open up opportunities in portable, wearable or even implantable sensors.

  16. Local sensor based on nanowire field effect transistor from inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator

    Presnov, Denis E.; Bozhev, Ivan V.; Miakonkikh, Andrew V.; Simakin, Sergey G.; Trifonov, Artem S.; Krupenin, Vladimir A.

    2018-02-01

    We present the original method for fabricating a sensitive field/charge sensor based on field effect transistor (FET) with a nanowire channel that uses CMOS-compatible processes only. A FET with a kink-like silicon nanowire channel was fabricated from the inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator wafer very close (˜100 nm) to the extremely sharp corner of a silicon chip forming local probe. The single e-beam lithographic process with a shadow deposition technique, followed by separate two reactive ion etching processes, was used to define the narrow semiconductor nanowire channel. The sensors charge sensitivity was evaluated to be in the range of 0.1-0.2 e /√{Hz } from the analysis of their transport and noise characteristics. The proposed method provides a good opportunity for the relatively simple manufacture of a local field sensor for measuring the electrical field distribution, potential profiles, and charge dynamics for a wide range of mesoscopic objects. Diagnostic systems and devices based on such sensors can be used in various fields of physics, chemistry, material science, biology, electronics, medicine, etc.

  17. Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors

    McAlpine, Michael C.; Ahmad, Habib; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R.

    2007-05-01

    The development of a robust method for integrating high-performance semiconductors on flexible plastics could enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications. One area of vital relevance is chemical and biological sensing, which if implemented on biocompatible substrates, could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable monitoring systems. Semiconducting nanowires (and nanotubes) are particularly sensitive chemical sensors because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. Here, we present a scalable and parallel process for transferring hundreds of pre-aligned silicon nanowires onto plastic to yield highly ordered films for low-power sensor chips. The nanowires are excellent field-effect transistors, and, as sensors, exhibit parts-per-billion sensitivity to NO2, a hazardous pollutant. We also use SiO2 surface chemistries to construct a `nano-electronic nose' library, which can distinguish acetone and hexane vapours via distributed responses. The excellent sensing performance coupled with bendable plastic could open up opportunities in portable, wearable or even implantable sensors.

  18. Synthesis of the cactus-like silicon nanowires/tungsten oxide nanowires composite for room-temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensor

    Zhang, Weiyi, E-mail: zhangweiyi@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Hu, Ming [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Xing; Wei, Yulong; Li, Na [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Qin, Yuxiang, E-mail: qinyuxiang@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-09-15

    In the present work, the tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanowires functionalized silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with cactus-like structure has been successfully synthesized for room-temperature NO{sub 2} detection. The novel nanocomposite was fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) and thermal annealing of tungsten film. The WO{sub 3} nanowires were evenly distributed from the upper to the lower part of the SiNWs, indicating excellent uniformity which is conducive to adsorption and desorption of gas molecules. The gas-sensing properties have been examined by measuring the resistance change towards 0.25–5 ppm NO{sub 2} gas. At room temperature, which is the optimum working temperature, the SiNWs/WO{sub 3} nanowires composite showed two-times higher NO{sub 2} response than that of the bare SiNWs at 2 ppm NO{sub 2}. On the contrary, the responses of composite sensors to high concentrations of other reducing gases were very low, indicating excellent selectivity. Simultaneously, the composite sensors exhibited good sensing repeatability and stability. The enhancement in gas sensing properties may be attributed to the change in width of the space charge region, which is similar to the behavior of p-n junctions under forward bias, in the high-density p-n heterojunction structure formed between SiNWs and WO{sub 3} nanowires. - Highlights: • SiNWs/WO{sub 3} nanowires composite with cactus-like structure is synthesized. • The morphology of WO{sub 3} nanowires depends on the thermal annealing temperature. • The nanocomposite sensor exhibit better gas response than that of bare SiNWs. • The gas sensing mechanism is discussed using p-n heterojunction theory.

  19. Zinc oxide nanowire-poly(methyl methacrylate) dielectric layers for polymer capacitive pressure sensors.

    Chen, Yan-Sheng; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Tseng, Pin-Yen; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Polymer capacitive pressure sensors based on a dielectric composite layer of zinc oxide nanowire and poly(methyl methacrylate) show pressure sensitivity in the range of 2.63 × 10(-3) to 9.95 × 10(-3) cm(2) gf(-1). This represents an increase of capacitance change by as much as a factor of 23 over pristine polymer devices. An ultralight load of only 10 mg (corresponding to an applied pressure of ∼0.01 gf cm(-2)) can be clearly recognized, demonstrating remarkable characteristics of these nanowire-polymer capacitive pressure sensors. In addition, optical transmittance of the dielectric composite layer is approximately 90% in the visible wavelength region. Their low processing temperature, transparency, and flexible dielectric film makes them a highly promising means for flexible touching and pressure-sensing applications.

  20. Silicon nanowire structures as high-sensitive pH-sensors

    Belostotskaya, S O; Chuyko, O V; Kuznetsov, A E; Kuznetsov, E V; Rybachek, E N

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive elements for pH-sensors created on silicon nanostructures were researched. Silicon nanostructures have been used as ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) for the measurement of solution pH. Silicon nanostructures have been fabricated by 'top-down' approach and have been studied as pH sensitive elements. Nanowires have the higher sensitivity. It was shown, that sensitive element, which is made of 'one-dimensional' silicon nanostructure have bigger pH-sensitivity as compared with 'two-dimensional' structure. Integrated element formed from two p- and n-type nanowire ISFET ('inverter') can be used as high sensitivity sensor for local relative change [H+] concentration in very small volume.

  1. Wearable, wireless gas sensors using highly stretchable and transparent structures of nanowires and graphene

    Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, So-Yun; Cheong, Woon Hyung; Park, Kyeongmin; Song, Joo Hyeb; Namgoong, Gyeongho; Kim, Jae Joon; Heo, Jaeyeong; Bien, Franklin; Park, Jang-Ung

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a highly stretchable, transparent gas sensor based on silver nanowire-graphene hybrid nanostructures. Due to its superb mechanical and optical characteristics, the fabricated sensor demonstrates outstanding and stable performances even under extreme mechanical deformation (stable until 20% of strain). The integration of a Bluetooth system or an inductive antenna enables the wireless operation of the sensor. In addition, the mechanical robustness of the materials allows the device to be transferred onto various nonplanar substrates, including a watch, a bicycle light, and the leaves of live plants, thereby achieving next-generation sensing electronics for the `Internet of Things' area.Herein, we report the fabrication of a highly stretchable, transparent gas sensor based on silver nanowire-graphene hybrid nanostructures. Due to its superb mechanical and optical characteristics, the fabricated sensor demonstrates outstanding and stable performances even under extreme mechanical deformation (stable until 20% of strain). The integration of a Bluetooth system or an inductive antenna enables the wireless operation of the sensor. In addition, the mechanical robustness of the materials allows the device to be transferred onto various nonplanar substrates, including a watch, a bicycle light, and the leaves of live plants, thereby achieving next-generation sensing electronics for the `Internet of Things' area. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01468b

  2. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  3. Flexible Nanowire Cluster as a Wearable Colorimetric Humidity Sensor.

    Wei, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Li, Qiuyu; Xue, Jiancai; Di Falco, Andrea; Yang, Zhongjian; Zhou, Jianhua; Wang, Xuehua

    2017-07-01

    Wearable plasmonic devices combine the advantages of high flexibility, ultrathinness, light weight, and excellent integration with the optical benefits mediated by plasmon-enhanced electric fields. However, two obstacles severely hinder further developments and applications of a wearable plasmonic device. One is the lack of efficient approach to obtaining devices with robust antimotion-interference property, i.e., the devices can work independently on the morphology changes of their working structures caused by arbitrary wearing conditions. The other issue is to seek a facile and high-throughput fabrication method to satisfy the financial requirement of industrialization. In order to overcome these two challenges, a functional flexible film of nanowire cluster is developed, which can be easily fabricated by taking the advantages of both conventional electrochemical and sputtering methods. Such flexible plasmonic films can be made into wearable devices that work independently on shape changes induced by various wearing conditions (such as bending, twisting and stretching). Furthermore, due to plasmonic advantages of color controlling and high sensitivity to environment changes, the flexible film of nanowire cluster can be used to fabricate wearable items (such as bracelet, clothes, bag, or even commercial markers), with the ability of wireless visualization for humidity sensing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electrochemical hydrogen isotope sensor based on solid electrolytes

    Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor of hydrogen isotopes based on solid electrolytes for determining the hydrogen isotope ratios and/or total hydrogen pressures in gases has been developed. This paper describes the methodology of the hydrogen isotope sensing together with experimental results. When hydrogen isotope gases are introduced to an electrochemical cell using a proton-conducting electrolyte (hydrogen isotope cell), the electromotive force (EMF) of the cell agrees with that theoretically estimated. The EMF signals can be used for the determination of the hydrogen isotope ratio in gases if the total hydrogen pressure is predetermined. By supplementary use of an oxide ion conductor cell, both the ratio and total pressure of the hydrogen isotopes can be simultaneously determined. (author)

  5. Development of a hydrogen permeation sensor for future tritium applications

    Llivina, L.; Colominas, S.; Abellà, J., E-mail: sergi.colominas@iqs.es

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Designing and testing of a hydrogen permeation sensor. • Palladium and α-iron have been used as a hydrogen permeation materials in the sensor. • The experiments performed using both membranes showed that the operation of the sensors in the equilibrium mode required at least several hours to reach the hydrogen equilibrium pressure. - Abstract: Tritium monitoring in lithium–lead eutectic is of great importance for the performance of liquid blankets in fusion reactors. In addition, tritium measurements will be required in order to proof tritium self-sufficiency in liquid metal breeding systems. On-line hydrogen (isotopes) sensors must be design and tested in order to accomplish these goals. In this work, an experimental set up was designed in order to test the permeation hydrogen sensors at 500 °C. This experimental set-up allowed working with controlled environments (different hydrogen partial pressures) and the temperature was measured using a thermocouple connected to a temperature controller that regulated an electrical heater. In a first set of experiments, a hydrogen sensor was constructed using an α-iron capsule as an active hydrogen area. The sensor was mounted and tested in the experimental set up. In a second set of experiments the α-iron capsule was replaced by a welded thin palladium disk in order to minimize the death volume. The experiments performed using both membranes (α-iron and palladium) showed that the operation of the sensors in the equilibrium mode required at least several hours to reach the hydrogen equilibrium pressure.

  6. Hydrogen Sensors Boost Hybrids; Today's Models Losing Gas?

    2005-01-01

    Advanced chemical sensors are used in aeronautic and space applications to provide safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. In order to fully do their jobs, these sensors must be able to operate in a range of environments. NASA has developed sensor technologies addressing these needs with the intent of improving safety, optimizing combustion efficiencies, and controlling emissions. On the ground, the chemical sensors were developed by NASA engineers to detect potential hydrogen leaks during Space Shuttle launch operations. The Space Shuttle uses a combination of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel for its main engines. Liquid hydrogen is pumped to the external tank from a storage tank located several hundred feet away. Any hydrogen leak could potentially result in a hydrogen fire, which is invisible to the naked eye. It is important to detect the presence of a hydrogen fire in order to prevent a major accident. In the air, the same hydrogen-leak dangers are present. Stress and temperature changes can cause tiny cracks or holes to form in the tubes that line the Space Shuttle s main engine nozzle. Such defects could allow the hydrogen that is pumped through the nozzle during firing to escape. Responding to the challenges associated with pinpointing hydrogen leaks, NASA endeavored to improve propellant leak-detection capabilities during assembly, pre-launch operations, and flight. The objective was to reduce the operational cost of assembling and maintaining hydrogen delivery systems with automated detection systems. In particular, efforts have been focused on developing an automated hydrogen leak-detection system using multiple, networked hydrogen sensors that are operable in harsh conditions.

  7. Titanium dioxide nanowire sensor array integration on CMOS platform using deterministic assembly.

    Gall, Oren Z; Zhong, Xiahua; Schulman, Daniel S; Kang, Myungkoo; Razavieh, Ali; Mayer, Theresa S

    2017-06-30

    Nanosensor arrays have recently received significant attention due to their utility in a wide range of applications, including gas sensing, fuel cells, internet of things, and portable health monitoring systems. Less attention has been given to the production of sensor platforms in the μW range for ultra-low power applications. Here, we discuss how to scale the nanosensor energy demand by developing a process for integration of nanowire sensing arrays on a monolithic CMOS chip. This work demonstrates an off-chip nanowire fabrication method; subsequently nanowires link to a fused SiO 2 substrate using electric-field assisted directed assembly. The nanowire resistances shown in this work have the highest resistance uniformity reported to date of 18%, which enables a practical roadmap towards the coupling of nanosensors to CMOS circuits and signal processing systems. The article also presents the utility of optimizing annealing conditions of the off-chip metal-oxides prior to CMOS integration to avoid limitations of thermal budget and process incompatibility. In the context of the platform demonstrated here, directed assembly is a powerful tool that can realize highly uniform, cross-reactive arrays of different types of metal-oxide nanosensors suited for gas discrimination and signal processing systems.

  8. Skin inspired fractal strain sensors using a copper nanowire and graphite microflake hybrid conductive network.

    Jason, Naveen N; Wang, Stephen J; Bhanushali, Sushrut; Cheng, Wenlong

    2016-09-22

    This work demonstrates a facile "paint-on" approach to fabricate highly stretchable and highly sensitive strain sensors by combining one-dimensional copper nanowire networks with two-dimensional graphite microflakes. This paint-on approach allows for the fabrication of electronic skin (e-skin) patches which can directly replicate with high fidelity the human skin surface they are on, regardless of the topological complexity. This leads to high accuracy for detecting biometric signals for applications in personalised wearable sensors. The copper nanowires contribute to high stretchability and the graphite flakes offer high sensitivity, and their hybrid coating offers the advantages of both. To understand the topological effects on the sensing performance, we utilized fractal shaped elastomeric substrates and systematically compared their stretchability and sensitivity. We could achieve a high stretchability of up to 600% and a maximum gauge factor of 3000. Our simple yet efficient paint-on approach enabled facile fine-tuning of sensitivity/stretchability simply by adjusting ratios of 1D vs. 2D materials in the hybrid coating, and the topological structural designs. This capability leads to a wide range of biomedical sensors demonstrated here, including pulse sensors, prosthetic hands, and a wireless ankle motion sensor.

  9. Construction of MoS2/Si nanowire array heterojunction for ultrahigh-sensitivity gas sensor

    Wu, Di; Lou, Zhenhua; Wang, Yuange; Xu, Tingting; Shi, Zhifeng; Xu, Junmin; Tian, Yongtao; Li, Xinjian

    2017-10-01

    Few-layer MoS2 thin films were synthesized by a two-step thermal decomposition process. In addition, MoS2/Si nanowire array (SiNWA) heterojunctions exhibiting excellent gas sensing properties were constructed and investigated. Further analysis reveals that such MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction devices are highly sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) gas under reverse voltages at room temperature (RT). The gas sensor demonstrated a minimum detection limit of 10 ppb, which represents the lowest value obtained for MoS2-based sensors, as well as an ultrahigh response of 3518% (50 ppm NO, ˜50% RH), with good repeatability and selectivity of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction. The sensing mechanisms were also discussed. The performance of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction gas sensors is superior to previous results, revealing that they have great potential in applications relating to highly sensitive gas sensors.

  10. Optimization of nanowire DNA sensor sensitivity using self-consistent simulation

    Baumgartner, S; Vasicek, M; Bulyha, A; Heitzinger, C

    2011-01-01

    In order to facilitate the rational design and the characterization of nanowire field-effect sensors, we have developed a model based on self-consistent charge-transport equations combined with interface conditions for the description of the biofunctionalized surface layer at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. Crucial processes at the interface, such as the screening of the partial charges of the DNA strands and the influence of the angle of the DNA strands with respect to the nanowire, are computed by a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm for charged molecules at interfaces. In order to investigate the sensing mechanism of the device, we have computed the current-voltage characteristics, the electrostatic potential and the concentrations of electrons and holes. Very good agreement with measurements has been found and optimal device parameters have been identified. Our approach provides the capability to study the device sensitivity, which is of fundamental importance for reliable sensing. © IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Optimization of nanowire DNA sensor sensitivity using self-consistent simulation

    Baumgartner, S

    2011-09-26

    In order to facilitate the rational design and the characterization of nanowire field-effect sensors, we have developed a model based on self-consistent charge-transport equations combined with interface conditions for the description of the biofunctionalized surface layer at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. Crucial processes at the interface, such as the screening of the partial charges of the DNA strands and the influence of the angle of the DNA strands with respect to the nanowire, are computed by a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm for charged molecules at interfaces. In order to investigate the sensing mechanism of the device, we have computed the current-voltage characteristics, the electrostatic potential and the concentrations of electrons and holes. Very good agreement with measurements has been found and optimal device parameters have been identified. Our approach provides the capability to study the device sensitivity, which is of fundamental importance for reliable sensing. © IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of a hydrogen sensor for nuclear reactor containment monitoring

    Hoffheins, B.S.; McKnight, T.E.; Lauf, R.J.; Smith, R.R.; James, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of hydrogen concentration in containment atmospheres in nuclear plants is a key safety capability. Current technologies require extensive sampling systems and subsequent maintenance and calibration costs can be very expensive. A new hydrogen sensor has been developed that is small and potentially inexpensive to install and maintain. Its size and low power requirement make it suitable in distributed systems for pinpointing hydrogen buildup. This paper will address the first phase of a testing program conducted to evaluate this sensor for operation in reactor containments

  13. Fabrication of a P3HT-ZnO Nanowires Gas Sensor Detecting Ammonia Gas

    Chin-Guo Kuo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an organic-inorganic semiconductor gas sensor was fabricated to detect ammonia gas. An inorganic semiconductor was a zinc oxide (ZnO nanowire array produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD while an organic material was a p-type semiconductor, poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. P3HT was suitable for the gas sensing application due to its high hole mobility, good stability, and good electrical conductivity. In this work, P3HT was coated on the zinc oxide nanowires by the spin coating to form an organic-inorganic heterogeneous interface of the gas sensor for detecting ammonia gas. The thicknesses of the P3HT were around 462 nm, 397 nm, and 277 nm when the speeds of the spin coating were 4000 rpm, 5000 rpm, and 6000 rpm, respectively. The electrical properties and sensing characteristics of the gas sensing device at room temperature were evaluated by Hall effect measurement and the sensitivity of detecting ammonia gas. The results of Hall effect measurement for the P3HT-ZnO nanowires semiconductor with 462 nm P3HT film showed that the carrier concentration and the mobility were 2.7 × 1019 cm−3 and 24.7 cm2∙V−1∙s−1 respectively. The gas sensing device prepared by the P3HT-ZnO nanowires semiconductor had better sensitivity than the device composed of the ZnO film and P3HT film. Additionally, this gas sensing device could reach a maximum sensitivity around 11.58 per ppm.

  14. Methanol sensor for integration with GaP nanowire photocathode

    Novák, J.; Laurenčíková, A.; Hasenohrl, S.; Eliáš, P.; Kováč, J.

    2017-05-01

    We proposed a new type of the methanol concentration sensor that may be integrated directly to the GaP nanostructured photocathode. Necessary attribute for this design is the possibility to make it compatible with p-type of semiconductor. This condition follows from the fact that photocathodes for the CO2 splitting are exclusively prepared from p-type of semiconductors. Design of methanol sensor emanates from this principle. On the GaP substrate is deposited thin Pt supporting layer (100-200 nm thick).This layer is covered by 500 nm thick Nafion membrane that serves as proton filter. On the top of Nafion layer is deposited top Pt contact layer covered by thin nanostructured Pt layer layer with various thickness (0.5 -5 nm). This nanostructured Pt is formed into small islands. It serves as an absorption layer for methanol. Sensor detection properties were estimated from monitoring of I-V characteristics. They were measured in dark and under various methanol concentrations. Dark current values are in order 10-9 A, and this current increases up to order of microamps for methanol of concentration more than 95%.These measurements proved high sensitivity of the GaP compatible sensor structure. Methanol sensors were realized in form of narrow stripe on the side of the photocathode.

  15. Dissolved hydrogen and oxygen sensors using semiconductor devices

    Hara, Nobuyoshi; Sugimoto, Katsuhisa

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of DH and DO in aqueous solution are the factors that determine the equilibrium potential of hydrogen and oxygen electrode reactions, respectively, and are the quantities which directly related to the rates of hydrogen generation type and oxygen consumption type corrosion reactions, therefore, they have the important meaning in the electrochemistry of corrosion. In the hydrogen injection into BWR cooling water, the concentration of hydrogen must be controlled strictly, accordingly DH and DO sensors and electrochemical potential sensors are required. For the chemical sensors used in reactor cooling water, the perfectly solid state sensors made of high corrosion resistance materials, which are small size and withstand high temperature and high pressure, must be developed. The structure and the characteristics of the semiconductor devices used as gas sensors, and the principles of DH and DO sensors are described. If the idea of porous or discontinuous membrane gate is developed, the ion sensor of solid structure with one-body reference electrode may be made. (K.I.)

  16. Nanowire Chemical/Biological Sensors: Status and a Roadmap for the Future.

    Fennell, John F; Liu, Sophie F; Azzarelli, Joseph M; Weis, Jonathan G; Rochat, Sébastien; Mirica, Katherine A; Ravnsbæk, Jens B; Swager, Timothy M

    2016-01-22

    Chemiresistive sensors are becoming increasingly important as they offer an inexpensive option to conventional analytical instrumentation, they can be readily integrated into electronic devices, and they have low power requirements. Nanowires (NWs) are a major theme in chemosensor development. High surface area, interwire junctions, and restricted conduction pathways give intrinsically high sensitivity and new mechanisms to transduce the binding or action of analytes. This Review details the status of NW chemosensors with selected examples from the literature. We begin by proposing a principle for understanding electrical transport and transduction mechanisms in NW sensors. Next, we offer the reader a review of device performance parameters. Then, we consider the different NW types followed by a summary of NW assembly and different device platform architectures. Subsequently, we discuss NW functionalization strategies. Finally, we propose future developments in NW sensing to address selectivity, sensor drift, sensitivity, response analysis, and emerging applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Field effect-gas sensor for hydrogen

    Plihal, M [Siemens A.G., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Forschungslaboratorium

    1977-01-01

    MIS diodes with palladium gate can be used to detect and to measure quantitatively the hydrogen concentration in gas mixtures. The dependence of the differential capacitance of these diodes on the partial pressure of hydrogen in nitrogen, oxygen and air is investigated. A theoretical model is developed which gives satisfactory agreement with most of the experimental results.

  18. On-chip growth of semiconductor metal oxide nanowires for gas sensors: A review

    Chu Manh Hung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor metal oxide nanowires (SMO-NWs show great potential for novel gas sensor applications because of their distinct properties, such as a high surface area to volume aspect ratio, high crystallinity and perfect pathway for electron transfer (length of NW. SMO-NW sensors can be configured as resistors or field-effect transistors for gas detection and different configurations, such as a single NW, multiple NWs, and networked NW films, have been established. Surface-functionalizing NWs with catalyst elements and self-heating NWs provide additional advantages for highly selective and low-power consumption gas sensors. However, an appropriate design of SMO-NWs is of practical importance in enhancing the gas-sensing performance of SMO-NW sensors. The on-chip growth of SMO-NWs possesses many advantages which can thus be effectively used for the large-scale fabrication of SMO-NW sensors with improved gas response and stability. This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the on-chip fabrication of SnO2, ZnO, WO3, CuO, and other SMO-NW sensors. It also discusses a variety of promising approaches that help advance the on-chip fabrication of SMO-NW-based gas sensors and other NW-based devices.

  19. Rhodium Nanoparticle-mesoporous Silicon Nanowire Nanohybrids for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection with High Selectivity

    Song, Zhiqian; Chang, Hucheng; Zhu, Weiqin; Xu, Chenlong; Feng, Xinjian

    2015-01-01

    Developing nanostructured electrocatalysts, with low overpotential, high selectivity and activity has fundamental and technical importance in many fields. We report here rhodium nanoparticle and mesoporous silicon nanowire (RhNP@mSiNW) hybrids for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection with high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. By employing electrodes that loaded with RhNP@mSiNW nanohybrids, interference caused from both many electroactive substances and dissolved oxygen were eliminated by electrochemical assaying at an optimal potential of +75 mV. Furthermore, the electrodes exhibited a high detection sensitivity of 0.53 μA/mM and fast response (< 5 s). This high-performance nanohybrid electrocatalyst has great potential for future practical application in various oxidase-base biosensors. PMID:25588953

  20. Heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire micro-sensor array for gas sensing

    DeMeo, Dante; E Vandervelde, Thomas; MacNaughton, Sam; Sonkusale, Sameer; Wang, Zhilong; Zhang, Xinjie

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium oxide, manganese oxide, tungsten oxide, and nickel oxide nanowires were investigated for their applicability as chemiresistive gas sensors. Nanowires have excellent surface-to-volume ratios which yield higher sensitivities than bulk materials. Sensing elements consisting of these materials were assembled in an array to create an electronic nose platform. Dielectrophoresis was used to position the nanomaterials onto a microfabricated array of electrodes, which was subsequently mounted onto a leadless chip carrier and printed circuit board for rapid testing. Samples were tested in an enclosed chamber with vapors of acetone, isopropanol, methanol, and aqueous ammonia. The change in resistance of each assembly was measured. Responses varied between nanowire compositions, each demonstrating unique and repeatable responses to different gases; this enabled direct detection of the gases from the ensemble response. Sensitivities were calculated based on the fractional resistance change in a saturated environment and ranged from 6 × 10 −4 to 2 × 10 −5 %change ppm −1 . (papers)

  1. Hydrogen activated axial inter-conversion in SiC nanowires

    Ruemmeli, Mark H.; Adebimpe, David B.; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa; Gemming, Thomas; Ayala, Paola; Ioannides, Nicholas; Pichler, Thomas; Huczko, Andrzej; Cudzilo, Stanislaw; Knupfer, Martin; Buechner, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    A facile low pressure annealing route using NH 3 as a hydrogen source for the structural and chemical modification of SiC nanowires (SiCNWs) is presented. The developed route transforms SiCNWs into tubular SiC nanostructures while coaxial SiO 2 /SiCNWs reverse their sheath/core structure. Our findings suggest a decomposition process induced via the preferential substitution of silicon by hydrogen and via the difference in diffusion rates of available atomic species, which leads to axial structural rearrangement. In addition to these effects, the procedure improves the crystallinity of the samples. The process could be exploited as a viable route to manipulate a variety of nanostructures and films for doping and etching and structural manipulation. - Graphical abstract: SiC and SiO 2 /SiCNWs are shown to be structurally modified through a hydrogen activated replacement route which can even lead to the axial inter-conversion of species. The process could be exploited as a viable route to manipulate a variety of nanostructures and films for doping and etching and structural manipulation

  2. Transparent and stretchable strain sensors based on metal nanowire microgrids for human motion monitoring

    Cho, Ji Hwan; Ha, Sung-Hun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2018-04-01

    Optical transparency is increasingly considered as one of the most important characteristics required in advanced stretchable strain sensors for application in body-attachable systems. In this paper, we present an entirely solution-processed fabrication route to highly transparent and stretchable resistive strain sensors based on silver nanowire microgrids (AgNW-MGs). The AgNW-MG strain sensors are readily prepared by patterning the AgNWs on a stretchable substrate into a MG geometry via a mesh-template-assisted contact-transfer printing. The MG has a unique architecture comprising the AgNWs and can be stretched to ɛ = 35%, with high gauge factors of ˜6.9 for ɛ = 0%-30% and ˜41.1 for ɛ = 30%-35%. The sensor also shows a high optical transmittance of 77.1% ± 1.5% (at 550 nm) and stably maintains the remarkable optical performance even at high strains. In addition, the sensor responses are found to be highly reversible with negligible hysteresis and are reliable even under repetitive stretching-releasing cycles (1000 cycles at ɛ = 10%). The practicality of the AgNW-MG strain sensor is confirmed by successfully monitoring a wide range of human motions in real time after firmly laminating the device onto various body parts.

  3. Passive Wireless Hydrogen Sensors Using Orthogonal Frequency Coded Acoustic Wave Devices, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors for NASA application to distributed wireless hydrogen leak...

  4. Porous palladium coated conducting polymer nanoparticles for ultrasensitive hydrogen sensors

    Lee, Jun Seop; Kim, Sung Gun; Cho, Sunghun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen leak detection and surveillance sensor systems are needed; additionally, the ability to maintain uniformity through repetitive hydrogen sensing is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we detail the fabrication of porous palladium coated conducting polymer (3-carboxylate polypyrrole) nanoparticles (Pd@CPPys) to detect hydrogen gas. The Pd@CPPys are produced by means of facile alkyl functionalization and chemical reduction of a pristine 3-carboxylate polypyrrole nanoparticle-contained palladium precursor (PdCl2) solution. The resulting Pd@CPPy-based sensor electrode exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity (0.1 ppm) and stability toward hydrogen gas at room temperature due to the palladium sensing layer.Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen leak detection and surveillance sensor systems are needed; additionally, the ability to maintain uniformity through repetitive hydrogen sensing is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we detail the fabrication of porous palladium coated conducting polymer (3-carboxylate polypyrrole) nanoparticles (Pd@CPPys) to detect hydrogen gas. The Pd@CPPys are produced by means of facile alkyl functionalization and chemical reduction of a pristine 3-carboxylate polypyrrole nanoparticle-contained palladium precursor (PdCl2) solution. The resulting Pd@CPPy-based sensor electrode exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity (0.1 ppm

  5. Triboelectric Hydrogen Gas Sensor with Pd Functionalized Surface

    Sung-Ho Shin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Palladium (Pd-based hydrogen (H2 gas sensors have been widely investigated thanks to its fast reaction and high sensitivity to hydrogen. Various sensing mechanisms have been adopted for H2 gas sensors; however, all the sensors must be powered through an external battery. We report here an H2 gas sensor that can detect H2 by measuring the output voltages generated during contact electrification between two friction surfaces. When the H2 sensor, composed of Pd-coated ITO (indium tin oxide and PET (polyethylene Terephthalate film, is exposed to H2, its output voltage is varied in proportion to H2 concentration because the work function (WF of Pd-coated surface changes, altering triboelectric charging behavior. Specifically, the output voltage of the sensor is gradually increased as exposing H2 concentration increases. Reproducible and sensitive sensor response was observed up 1% H2 exposure. The approach introduced here can easily be adopted to development of triboelectric gas sensors detecting other gas species.

  6. Hydrogenated CoOx nanowire@Ni(OH)2 nanosheet core-shell nanostructures for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Zhu, Jianxiao; Huang, Lei; Xiao, Yuxiu; Shen, Leo; Chen, Qi; Shi, Wangzhou

    2014-05-01

    We report a facile strategy to prepare 3D core-shell nanowire heterostructures with microporous hydrogenated CoOx (H-CoOx) nanowires as the conducting scaffold to support Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. Benefiting from the H-CoOx nanowire core to provide the effective pathway for charge transport and the core-shell heterostructures with synergistic effects, the H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowire electrode achieved the specific capacitance of 2196 F g-1 (areal capacitance of 5.73 F cm-2), which is approximately a 1.4-fold enhancement compared with the Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowires. An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device was fabricated by using H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 nanowires as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide @Fe3O4 nanocomposites as the negative electrode. The ASCs achieved high energy density (~45.3 W h kg-1 at 1010 W kg-1), high power density (~7080 W kg-1 at 23.4 W h kg-1) and high cycling stability. Furthermore, after charging for ~1 min, one such 22 cm2 ASC device demonstrated to be able to drive a small windmill (0.8 V, 0.1 W) for 20 min. Two such ASCs connected in series can power up a seven-color LED (3.2 V) efficiently.We report a facile strategy to prepare 3D core-shell nanowire heterostructures with microporous hydrogenated CoOx (H-CoOx) nanowires as the conducting scaffold to support Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. Benefiting from the H-CoOx nanowire core to provide the effective pathway for charge transport and the core-shell heterostructures with synergistic effects, the H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowire electrode achieved the specific capacitance of 2196 F g-1 (areal capacitance of 5.73 F cm-2), which is approximately a 1.4-fold enhancement compared with the Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowires. An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device was fabricated by using H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 nanowires as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide @Fe3O4 nanocomposites as the negative electrode. The ASCs achieved high energy density (~45.3 W h kg-1 at

  7. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    Ganesh E. Patil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2 thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT. The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, ethanol vapors (C2H5OH, NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 and O2. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensor response as a function of various controlling factors like operating temperature, operating voltages (1 V, 5 V, 10 V 15 V, 20 V and 25 V and concentration of gases. The sensor response measurement showed that the SnO2 has maximum response to hydrogen. Furthermore; the SnO2 based sensor exhibited fast response and good recovery towards hydrogen at temperature 150 oC. The result of response towards H2 reveals that SnO2 thin film prepared by SPT would be a suitable material for the fabrication of the hydrogen sensor.

  8. Microfiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensor base on co-sputtered Pd/Ni composite film

    Wang, Gaopeng; Yang, Minghong; Dai, Jixiang; Cheng, Cheng; Yuan, Yinqian

    2015-07-01

    A novel hydrogen sensor based on Pd/Ni co-sputtered coating on micro fiber Bragg grating (MFBG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The microfiber is stretched uniformly and the Bragg grating is directly inscribed on the microfiber without hydrogen loading using 193 nm ArF excimer laser and a phase mask. Palladium and nickel coatings are co-sputtered on the micro fiber Bragg grating for hydrogen sensing. The MFBG hydrogen sensors are characterized concerning their response to the hydrogen, ambient temperature and ambient refractive index, respectively. The performance of the proposed MFBG hydrogen sensor is obviously enhanced, especially when compared to standard FBG hydrogen sensors.

  9. Overview of the U.S. DOE Hydrogen Safety, Codes and Standards Program. Part 4: Hydrogen Sensors; Preprint

    Buttner, William J.; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Brosha, Eric; Mukundan, Rangachary; James, C. Will; Keller, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as a critical element in the safety design for any hydrogen system. In this role, sensors can perform several important functions including indication of unintended hydrogen releases, activation of mitigation strategies to preclude the development of dangerous situations, activation of alarm systems and communication to first responders, and to initiate system shutdown. The functionality of hydrogen sensors in this capacity is decoupled from the system being monitored, thereby providing an independent safety component that is not affected by the system itself. The importance of hydrogen sensors has been recognized by DOE and by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Safety and Codes Standards (SCS) program in particular, which has for several years supported hydrogen safety sensor research and development. The SCS hydrogen sensor programs are currently led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current SCS sensor program encompasses the full range of issues related to safety sensors, including development of advance sensor platforms with exemplary performance, development of sensor-related code and standards, outreach to stakeholders on the role sensors play in facilitating deployment, technology evaluation, and support on the proper selection and use of sensors.

  10. An electrochemical sensor for monitoring oxygen or hydrogen in water

    Leitai Yang; Morris, D.R.; Lister, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been done on a simple electrochemical sensor which shows promise as a cheap, robust instrument for measuring dissolved oxygen or hydrogen in water. The sensor is based upon the solid-state electrolyte ''Nafion'' (trade name of perfluorinated sulphonic acid, manufactured by DuPont Inc.). The Nafion was dissolved in a mixture of aliphatic alcohols, made into a slurry with platinum black, and applied to a ∼1 cm-square electrode made of stainless steel gauze. The potential of the electrode was measured relative to a standard calomel electrode (SCE) in acid solutions at room temperature through which mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen or hydrogen and nitrogen were bubbled. The sensor was responsive to the equilibrating gas with good reproducibility. A similar sensor without the Nafion was not at all sensitive to changes in oxygen concentration. The voltage response of the sensor showed non-Nernstian behaviour, which suggests that the electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface are complex. Further testing of the sensor is required to verify its sensitivity and responsiveness in typical reactor coolant chemistries and to demonstrate its durability over a range of temperatures. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  11. An electrochemical sensor for monitoring oxygen or hydrogen in water

    Yang, Leitai; Morris, D R; Lister, D H [University of New Brunswick, Fredericton (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Preliminary studies have been done on a simple electrochemical sensor which shows promise as a cheap, robust instrument for measuring dissolved oxygen or hydrogen in water. The sensor is based upon the solid-state electrolyte ``Nafion`` (trade name of perfluorinated sulphonic acid, manufactured by DuPont Inc.). The Nafion was dissolved in a mixture of aliphatic alcohols, made into a slurry with platinum black, and applied to a {approx}1 cm-square electrode made of stainless steel gauze. The potential of the electrode was measured relative to a standard calomel electrode (SCE) in acid solutions at room temperature through which mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen or hydrogen and nitrogen were bubbled. The sensor was responsive to the equilibrating gas with good reproducibility. A similar sensor without the Nafion was not at all sensitive to changes in oxygen concentration. The voltage response of the sensor showed non-Nernstian behaviour, which suggests that the electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface are complex. Further testing of the sensor is required to verify its sensitivity and responsiveness in typical reactor coolant chemistries and to demonstrate its durability over a range of temperatures. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab.

  12. Improvements in purification of silver nanowires by decantation and fabrication of flexible transparent electrodes. Application to capacitive touch sensors

    Mayousse, Céline; Celle, Caroline; Moreau, Eléonore; Carella, Alexandre; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Mainguet, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Transparent flexible electrodes made of metallic nanowires, and in particular silver nanowires (AgNWs), appear as an extremely promising alternative to transparent conductive oxides for future optoelectronic devices. Though significant progresses have been made the last few years, there is still some room for improvement regarding the synthesis of high quality silver nanowire solutions and fabrication process of high performance electrodes. We show that the commonly used purification process can be greatly simplified through decantation. Using this process it is possible to fabricate flexible electrodes by spray coating with sheet resistance lower than 25 Ω sq −1 at 90% transparency in the visible spectrum. These electrodes were used to fabricate an operative transparent flexible touch screen. To our knowledge this is the first reported AgNW based touch sensor relying on capacitive technology. (paper)

  13. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    Wang, Boyi [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Zhu, Yong, E-mail: y.zhu@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Dao, Dzung Viet [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2017-06-15

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  14. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    Wang, Boyi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  15. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    S, Honey; S, Naseem; A, Ishaq; M, Maaza; M T, Bhatti; D, Wan

    2016-01-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H + ) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H +  ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H + ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H +  ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H +  ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H +  ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H +  ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. (paper)

  16. Hydrogen Treatment for Superparamagnetic VO2 Nanowires with Large Room-Temperature Magnetoresistance.

    Li, Zejun; Guo, Yuqiao; Hu, Zhenpeng; Su, Jihu; Zhao, Jiyin; Wu, Junchi; Wu, Jiajing; Zhao, Yingcheng; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-07-04

    One-dimensional (1D) transition metal oxide (TMO) nanostructures are actively pursued in spintronic devices owing to their nontrivial d electron magnetism and confined electron transport pathways. However, for TMOs, the realization of 1D structures with long-range magnetic order to achieve a sensitive magnetoelectric response near room temperature has been a longstanding challenge. Herein, we exploit a chemical hydric effect to regulate the spin structure of 1D V-V atomic chains in monoclinic VO2 nanowires. Hydrogen treatment introduced V(3+) (3d(2) ) ions into the 1D zigzag V-V chains, triggering the formation of ferromagnetically coupled V(3+) -V(4+) dimers to produce 1D superparamagnetic chains and achieve large room-temperature negative magnetoresistance (-23.9 %, 300 K, 0.5 T). This approach offers new opportunities to regulate the spin structure of 1D nanostructures to control the intrinsic magnetoelectric properties of spintronic materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Photoconductivity, pH Sensitivity, Noise, and Channel Length Effects in Si Nanowire FET Sensors

    Gasparyan, Ferdinand; Zadorozhnyi, Ihor; Khondkaryan, Hrant; Arakelyan, Armen; Vitusevich, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanowire (NW) field-effect transistor (FET) sensors of various lengths were fabricated. Transport properties of Si NW FET sensors were investigated involving noise spectroscopy and current-voltage (I-V) characterization. The static I-V dependencies demonstrate the high quality of fabricated silicon FETs without leakage current. Transport and noise properties of NW FET structures were investigated under different light illumination conditions, as well as in sensor configuration in an aqueous solution with different pH values. Furthermore, we studied channel length effects on the photoconductivity, noise, and pH sensitivity. The magnitude of the channel current is approximately inversely proportional to the length of the current channel, and the pH sensitivity increases with the increase of channel length approaching the Nernst limit value of 59.5 mV/pH. We demonstrate that dominant 1/f-noise can be screened by the generation-recombination plateau at certain pH of the solution or external optical excitation. The characteristic frequency of the generation-recombination noise component decreases with increasing of illumination power. Moreover, it is shown that the measured value of the slope of 1/f-noise spectral density dependence on the current channel length is 2.7 which is close to the theoretically predicted value of 3.

  18. Hydrogen and Methane Response of Pd Gate MOS Sensor

    Preeti Pandey

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensor based on Pd/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor was fabricated on p type (1-6 ΩCm Si with thermal oxide layer of thickness about 33Ǻ. Sensor properties of the MOS structure were studied towards hydrogen (500- 3500 ppm in air and methane gas (1000-2500 ppm in air at room temperature and 140˚C respectively. The response of the sensor was measured as shift in C-V curve of the MOS structure. The sensitivity of the sensor towards the hydrogen (73 % at 0.03 V bias was better than methane (19.1 % at 0.68 V bias. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy and AFM image of the metal film show the porous structure which believed to be facilitating the catalytic oxidation of the insulator surface and higher gas response. High sensitivity of the sensor can be attributed to the change of interface state density on exposure of gases along with the formation of dipole layer.

  19. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    Liess, Martin [Rhein Main University of Applied Sciences, Rüsselsheim, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-03-24

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  20. Design and development of an optical fiber sensor for hydrogen detection

    Perrotton, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen detection is an environmental priority. Numerous hydrogen sensors have been developed, but none of them meet the industry requirements. Optical fiber sensors, electrically isolated, are excellent candidates for operating in explosive environments. Our goal is to develop an intrinsic optical fiber sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance. In this thesis, we study two optical fiber hydrogen sensors. The first sensor, based on amplitude modulation, consists of a thin Pd layer deposited on the multimode fiber core, after removing the optical cladding. The second design, based on wavelength modulation, consists of replacing the single Pd layer by a Au/SiO 2 /Pd multilayer stack. We demonstrate in this thesis that plasmonic sensors may be a solution to develop fast and reliable fiber hydrogen sensors. Finally, we study Mg alloys as hydrogen sensitive material in order to improve the detection range of hydrogen sensors. (author)

  1. Low-Temperature Rapid Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire UV Sensor Array by Laser-Induced Local Hydrothermal Growth

    Sukjoon Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate ZnO nanowire based UV sensor by laser-induced hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire. By inducing a localized temperature rise using focused laser, ZnO nanowire array at ~15 μm size consists of individual nanowires with ~8 μm length and 200~400 nm diameter is readily synthesized on gold electrode within 30 min at the desired position. The laser-induced growth process is consecutively applied on two different points to bridge the micron gap between the electrodes. The resultant photoconductive ZnO NW interconnections display 2~3 orders increase in the current upon the UV exposure at a fixed voltage bias. It is also confirmed that the amount of photocurrent can be easily adjusted by changing the number of ZnO NW array junctions. The device exhibits clear response to the repeated UV illumination, suggesting that this process can be usefully applied for the facile fabrication of low-cost UV sensor array.

  2. Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO2-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants

    Aluri, Geetha S; Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V; Oleshko, Vladimir P; Bertness, Kris A; Sanford, Norman A; Rao, Mulpuri V

    2011-01-01

    Nanowire-nanocluster hybrid chemical sensors were realized by functionalizing gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoclusters for selectively sensing benzene and other related aromatic compounds. Hybrid sensor devices were developed by fabricating two-terminal devices using individual GaN NWs followed by the deposition of TiO 2 nanoclusters using RF magnetron sputtering. The sensor fabrication process employed standard microfabrication techniques. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy using energy-dispersive x-ray and electron energy-loss spectroscopies confirmed the presence of the anatase phase in TiO 2 clusters after post-deposition anneal at 700 deg. C. A change of current was observed for these hybrid sensors when exposed to the vapors of aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and chlorobenzene mixed with air) under UV excitation, while they had no response to non-aromatic organic compounds such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, chloroform, acetone and 1,3-hexadiene. The sensitivity range for the noted aromatic compounds except chlorobenzene were from 1% down to 50 parts per billion (ppb) at room temperature. By combining the enhanced catalytic properties of the TiO 2 nanoclusters with the sensitive transduction capability of the nanowires, an ultra-sensitive and selective chemical sensing architecture is demonstrated. We have proposed a mechanism that could qualitatively explain the observed sensing behavior.

  3. High sensitivity hydrogen sensors based on GaN

    Yatskiv, Roman; Grym, Jan; Žďánský, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), s. 1661-1663 ISSN 1610-1642. [16th International Semiconducting and Insulating Materials Conference (SIMC-XVI). Stockholm, 19.06.2011-23.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10021 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Pt nanoparticles * Graphite based Schottky diodes * Hydrogen sensor * GaN Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  4. A Transflective Nano-Wire Grid Polarizer Based Fiber-Optic Sensor

    Yan-Qing Lu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A transflective nano-wire grid polarizer is fabricated on a single mode fiber tip by focused ion beam machining. In contrast to conventional absorptive in-line polarizers, the wire grids reflect TE-mode, while transmitting TM-mode light so that no light power is discarded. A reflection contrast of 13.7 dB and a transmission contrast of 4.9 dB are achieved in the 1,550 nm telecom band using a 200-nm wire grid fiber polarizer. With the help of an optic circulator, the polarization states of both the transmissive and reflective lights in the fiber may be monitored simultaneously. A kind of robust fiber optic sensor is thus proposed that could withstand light power variations. To verify the idea, a fiber pressure sensor with the sensitivity of 0.24 rad/N is demonstrated. The corresponding stress-optic coefficient of the fiber is measured. In addition to pressure sensing, this technology could be applied in detecting any polarization state change induced by magnetic fields, electric currents and so on.

  5. Design of Highly Selective Gas Sensors via Physicochemical Modification of Oxide Nanowires: Overview

    Hyung-Sik Woo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the enhancement of gas sensing properties, and specifically the improvement of gas selectivity of metal oxide semiconductor nanowire (NW networks grown by chemical vapor deposition and thermal evaporation, are reviewed. Highly crystalline NWs grown by vapor-phase routes have various advantages, and thus have been applied in the field of gas sensors over the years. In particular, n-type NWs such as SnO2, ZnO, and In2O3 are widely studied because of their simple synthetic preparation and high gas response. However, due to their usually high responses to C2H5OH and NO2, the selective detection of other harmful and toxic gases using oxide NWs remains a challenging issue. Various strategies—such as doping/loading of noble metals, decorating/doping of catalytic metal oxides, and the formation of core–shell structures—have been explored to enhance gas selectivity and sensitivity, and are discussed herein. Additional methods such as the transformation of n-type into p-type NWs and the formation of catalyst-doped hierarchical structures by branch growth have also proven to be promising for the enhancement of gas selectivity. Accordingly, the physicochemical modification of oxide NWs via various methods provides new strategies to achieve the selective detection of a specific gas, and after further investigations, this approach could pave a new way in the field of NW-based semiconductor-type gas sensors.

  6. Summary and Findings from the NREL/DOE Hydrogen Sensor Workshop (June 8, 2011)

    Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.; Post, M.; Rivkin, C.

    2012-07-01

    On June 8, 2011, DOE/NREL hosted a hydrogen sensor workshop attended by nearly forty participants from private organizations, government facilities, and academic institutions . The workshop participants represented a cross section of stakeholders in the hydrogen community, including sensor developers, end users, site safety officials, and code and standards developers. The goals of the workshop were to identify critical applications for the emerging hydrogen infrastructure that require or would benefit from hydrogen sensors, to assign performance specifications for sensor deployed in each application, and to identify shortcomings or deficiencies (i.e., technical gaps) in the ability of current sensor technology to meet the assigned performance requirements.

  7. Proton conducting ceramics for potentiometric hydrogen sensors for molten metals

    Borland, H.; Llivina, L.; Colominas, S.; Abellà, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.edu

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis and chemical characterization of proton conductor ceramics. • Qualification of ceramics for hydrogen sensors in molten lithium–lead. • Ceramics have well-defined grains with a wide distribution of sizes. • Good agreement with predictions obtained with BaZrY, BaCeZrY and SrFeCo ceramics. -- Abstract: Tritium monitoring in lithium–lead eutectic (Pb–15.7Li) is of great importance for the performance of liquid blankets in fusion reactors. Also, tritium measurements will be required in order to proof tritium self-sufficiency in liquid metal breeding systems. On-line hydrogen (isotopes) sensors must be design and tested in order to accomplish these goals. Potentiometric hydrogen sensors for molten lithium–lead eutectic have been designed at the Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS) at Barcelona and are under development and qualification. The probes are based on the use of solid state electrolytes and works as proton exchange membranes (PEM). In this work the following compounds: BaZr{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−α}, Sr(Ce{sub 0.6}-Zr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−α} and Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 1.8}Co{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been synthesized in order to be tested as PEM H-probes. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements at 500 °C have been performed at a fixed hydrogen concentration. The sensors constructed using the proton conductor elements BaZr{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} and Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 1.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 7−δ} exhibited stable output potential and its value was close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation (deviation around 60 mV). In contrast, the sensor constructed using the proton conductor element Sr(Ce{sub 0.6}–Zr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} showed a deviation higher than 100 mV between experimental an theoretical data.

  8. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Low Energy Hydrogen Sensors

    Jürgen Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The North-east German Lowlands is a region with one of the highest forest fire risks in Europe. In order to keep damage levels as low as possible, it is important to have an effective early warning system. Such a system is being developed on the basis of a hydrogen sensor, which makes it possible to detect a smouldering forest fire before the development of open flames. The prototype hydrogen sensor produced at the Humboldt University Berlin has a metal/ solid electrolyte/insulator/ semiconductor (MEIS structure, which allows cost-effective production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarchic working unit could be installed in the forest. Field trials have shown that it is possible to identify a forest fire in its early stages when hydrogen concentrations are still low. A significant change in the signal due to a fire was measured at a distance of about 100m. In view of the potential impacts of climate change, the innovative pre-ignition warning system is an important early diagnosis and monitoring module for the protection of the forests.

  9. The development of a solid-state hydrogen sensor for rocket engine leakage detection

    Liu, Chung-Chiun

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogen propellant leakage poses significant operational problems in the rocket propulsion industry as well as for space exploratory applications. Vigorous efforts have been devoted to minimizing hydrogen leakage in assembly, test, and launch operations related to hydrogen propellant. The objective has been to reduce the operational cost of assembling and maintaining hydrogen delivery systems. Specifically, efforts have been made to develop a hydrogen leak detection system for point-contact measurement. Under the auspices of Lewis Research Center, the Electronics Design Center at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, has undertaken the development of a point-contact hydrogen gas sensor with potential applications to the hydrogen propellant industry. We envision a sensor array consisting of numbers of discrete hydrogen sensors that can be located in potential leak sites. Silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining techniques are used in the fabrication of these sensor prototypes. Evaluations of the sensor are carried out in-house at Case Western Reserve University as well as at Lewis Research Center and GenCorp Aerojet, Sacramento, California. The hydrogen gas sensor is not only applicable in a hydrogen propulsion system, but also usable in many other civilian and industrial settings. This includes vehicles or facility use, or in the production of hydrogen gas. Dual space and commercial uses of these point-contacted hydrogen sensors are feasible and will directly meet the needs and objectives of NASA as well as various industrial segments.

  10. The development of a solid-state hydrogen sensor for rocket engine leakage detection

    Liu, Chung-Chiun

    Hydrogen propellant leakage poses significant operational problems in the rocket propulsion industry as well as for space exploratory applications. Vigorous efforts have been devoted to minimizing hydrogen leakage in assembly, test, and launch operations related to hydrogen propellant. The objective has been to reduce the operational cost of assembling and maintaining hydrogen delivery systems. Specifically, efforts have been made to develop a hydrogen leak detection system for point-contact measurement. Under the auspices of Lewis Research Center, the Electronics Design Center at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, has undertaken the development of a point-contact hydrogen gas sensor with potential applications to the hydrogen propellant industry. We envision a sensor array consisting of numbers of discrete hydrogen sensors that can be located in potential leak sites. Silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining techniques are used in the fabrication of these sensor prototypes. Evaluations of the sensor are carried out in-house at Case Western Reserve University as well as at Lewis Research Center and GenCorp Aerojet, Sacramento, California. The hydrogen gas sensor is not only applicable in a hydrogen propulsion system, but also usable in many other civilian and industrial settings. This includes vehicles or facility use, or in the production of hydrogen gas. Dual space and commercial uses of these point-contacted hydrogen sensors are feasible and will directly meet the needs and objectives of NASA as well as various industrial segments.

  11. Highly improved sensibility and selectivity ethanol sensor of mesoporous Fe-doped NiO nanowires

    Li, X. Q.; Wei, J. Q.; Xu, J. C.; Jin, H. X.; Jin, D. F.; Peng, X. L.; Hong, B.; Li, J.; Yang, Y. T.; Ge, H. L.; Wang, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, nickel oxides (NiO) and iron (Fe)-doped NiO nanowires (NWs) with the various doping content (from 1 to 9 at%) were synthesized by using SBA-15 templates with the nanocasting method. All samples were synthesized in the same conditions and exhibited the same mesoporous-structures, uniform diameter, and defects. Mesoporous-structures with high surface area created more active sites for the adsorption of oxygen on the surface of all samples, resulting in the smaller surface resistance in air. The impurity energy levels from the donor Fe-doping provided electrons to neutralize the holes of p-type Fe-doped NiO NWs, which greatly enhanced the total resistance. The comparative gas-sensing study between NiO NWs and Fe-doped NiO NWs indicated that the high-valence donor Fe-doping obviously improved the ethanol sensitivity and selectivity for Fe-doped NiO NWs. And Ni0.94Fe0.06O1.03 NWs sensor presented the highest sensitivity of 14.30 toward ethanol gas at 320 °C for the high-valence metal-doping.

  12. Conducting properties of nearly depleted ZnO nanowire UV sensors fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    García Núñez, C; García Marín, A; Piqueras, J; Pau, J L; Nanterne, P; Kung, P

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) with different radii (r NW ) have been aligned between pre-patterned electrodes using dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the fabrication of high gain UV sensors. The DEP conditions (voltage amplitude and frequency) and electrode material, geometry and size were optimized to enhance the efficiency during the DEP process. To understand the alignment mechanism of the ZnO NWs, the dielectrophoretic force (F DEP ) was analyzed as a function of the DEP conditions and NW dimensions. These studies showed that the DEP alignment process tends to trap NWs with a smaller radius. The effects of NW size on device performance were analyzed by means of I–V measurements in darkness and under illumination (200 nm NW decreases due to the reduction of the conduction volume, until saturation is reached for r NW 8 A W −1 (measured at 5 V and λ NW , presenting a clear blue-shift for NWs with a lower radius (r NW 2 reduces the dynamic range of the photoresponse due to a strong increase of the dark current. (paper)

  13. Nanowire size dependence on sensitivity of silicon nanowire field-effect transistor-based pH sensor

    Lee, Ryoongbin; Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Sihyun; Kim, Sangwan; Mo, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of nanowire size on the current sensitivity of silicon nanowire (SiNW) ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). The changes in on-current (I on) and resistance according to pH were measured in fabricated SiNW ISFETs of various lengths and widths. As a result, it was revealed that the sensitivity expressed as relative I on change improves as the width decreases. Through technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation analysis, the width dependence on the relative I on change can be explained by the observation that the target molecules located at the edge region along the channel width have a stronger effect on the sensitivity as the SiNW width is reduced. Additionally, the length dependence on the sensitivity can be understood in terms of the resistance ratio of the fixed parasitic resistance, including source/drain resistance, to the varying channel resistance as a function of channel length.

  14. Optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect

    Li, Yina; Zhao, Chunliu; Xu, Ben; Wang, Dongning; Yang, Minghong

    2018-05-01

    An optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect has been proposed and achieved. The proposed sensor, which total length is ∼594 μm, is composed of a segment of large mode area fiber (LMAF) and a segment of hollow-core fiber (HCF). The proposed sensor is coated with the Pt-loaded WO3/SiO2 powder which will result in the increase of local temperature of the sensor head when exposed to hydrogen atmosphere. Thus the hydrogen sensor can be achieved by monitoring the change of resonant envelope wavelength. The hydrogen sensitivity is -1.04 nm/% within the range of 0 % -2.4 % which is greatly improved because of the vernier effect. The response time is ∼80 s. Due to its compact configuration, the proposed sensor provides a feasible and miniature structure to achieve detection of hydrogen.

  15. ZnO based nanowires grown by chemical vapour deposition for selective hydrogenation of acetylene alcohols

    Protasova, L.N.; Rebrov, E.; Choy, K.L.; Pung, S.Y.; Engels, V.; Cabaj, M.; Wheatley, A.E.H.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) with a length of 1.5–10 µm and a mean diameter of ca. 150 nm were grown by chemical vapour deposition onto a c-oriented ZnO seed layer which was deposited by atomic layer deposition on Si substrates. The substrates were then spin-coated with an ethanol solution

  16. Room temperature, ppb-level NO2 gas sensing of multiple-networked ZnSe nanowire sensors under UV illumination

    Sunghoon Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the gas sensing properties of ZnSe are few, presumably because of the decomposition and oxidation of ZnSe at high temperatures. In this study, ZnSe nanowires were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of ZnSe powders and the sensing performance of multiple-networked ZnSe nanowire sensors toward NO2 gas was examined. The results showed that ZnSe might be a promising gas sensor material if it is used at room temperature. The response of the ZnSe nanowires to 50 ppb–5 ppm NO2 at room temperature under dark and UV illumination conditions were 101–102% and 113–234%, respectively. The responses of the ZnSe nanowires to 5 ppm NO2 increased from 102 to 234% with increasing UV illumination intensity from 0 to 1.2 mW/cm2. The response of the ZnSe nanowires was stronger than or comparable to that of typical metal oxide semiconductors reported in the literature, which require higher NO2 concentrations and operate at higher temperatures. The origin of the enhanced response of the ZnSe nanowires towards NO2 under UV illumination is also discussed.

  17. The self-activation and synergy of amorphous Re nanoparticle – Si nanowire composites for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Yang, Lulu; Lu, Shunkai; Wang, Hui; Shao, Qi; Liao, Fan; Shao, Mingwang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Amorphous Re nanoparticle modified Si nanowire nanocomposites were prepared. • An interesting self-activation phenomenon was observed in HER process. • Re/SiNW showed synergy in HER process. • The optimal mass ratio of Re: Si was determined to be 31.1: 68.9. - Abstract: Amorphous rhenium nanoparticles modified silicon nanowires were prepared via reducing Re ion by Si−H bonds, which were employed to electrocatalysize the hydrogen evolution reaction because amorphous structure may have excellent catalytic activity. It is interesting that an obvious self-activation for Re/Si catalysts was observed with the current density enhanced by 2.2 times its previous value at 400 mV after a 3,000 s of continuous cyclic voltammetry scanning, and the catalytic performance remained steady thereafter. The optimal electrocatalytic performance was found with the Re: Si mass ratio of 31.1: 68.9, resulting in a Tafel slope of 81 mV·dec −1 and overpotential of 100 mV at current density of 10 mA·cm −2 .

  18. Pd thin films on flexible substrate for hydrogen sensor

    Öztürk, Sadullah [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf University, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Kılınç, Necmettin, E-mail: nkilinc@nigde.edu.tr [Nigde University, Mechatronics Engineering Department, 51245 Nigde (Turkey); Nigde University, Nanotechnology Application and Research Center, 51245 Nigde (Turkey)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, palladium (Pd) thin films were prepared via RF sputtering method with various thicknesses (6 nm, 20 nm and 60 nm) on both a flexible substrate and a hard substrate. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) sensing properties of Pd films on flexible substrate have been investigated depending on temperatures (25–100 °C) and H{sub 2} concentrations (600 ppm – 10%). The effect of H{sub 2} on structural properties of the films was also studied. The films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. It is found that whole Pd films on hard substrate show permanent structural deformation after exposed to 10% H{sub 2} for 30 min. But, this H{sub 2} exposure does not causes any structural deformation for 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate and 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2} concentration without any structural deformation. On the other hand, Pd film sensors that have the thicknesses 20 nm and 60 nm on flexible substrate are irreversible for higher H{sub 2} concentration (>2%) with film deformation. The sensor response of 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate increased with increasing H{sub 2} concentration up 4% and then saturated. The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature. - Highlights: • Pd thin films fabricated by RF sputtering on both flexible and hard substrates. • Structural deformation observed for films on hard substrate after exposing 10% H{sub 2}. • 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2}. • H{sub 2} sensing properties of film on flexible substrate investigated depending on temperature and concentration. • The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature.

  19. Atomistic simulations of the structures of Pd-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles and nanowires

    Yun, Kayoung; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Lee, Jaegab; Kim, Jiyoung; Nam, Ho-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoalloys such as nanoparticles and nanowires are attracting significant attention due to their vast potential applications such as in catalysis and nanoelectronics. Notably, Pd-Pt nanoparticles/nanowires are being widely recognized as catalysts and hydrogen sensors. Compared to unary systems, alloys present more structural complexity with various compositional configurations. Therefore, it is important to understand energetically preferred atomic structures of bimetallic nanoallo...

  20. Evaluation of magnetic flux distribution from magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] nanowires by magnetic domain scope method using contact-scanning of tunneling magnetoresistive sensor

    Okuda, Mitsunobu, E-mail: okuda.m-ky@nhk.or.jp; Miyamoto, Yasuyoshi; Miyashita, Eiichi; Hayashi, Naoto [NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    Current-driven magnetic domain wall motions in magnetic nanowires have attracted great interests for physical studies and engineering applications. The magnetic force microscope (MFM) is widely used for indirect verification of domain locations in nanowires, where relative magnetic force between the local domains and the MFM probe is used for detection. However, there is an occasional problem that the magnetic moments of MFM probe influenced and/or rotated the magnetic states in the low-moment nanowires. To solve this issue, the “magnetic domain scope for wide area with nano-order resolution (nano-MDS)” method has been proposed recently that could detect the magnetic flux distribution from the specimen directly by scanning of tunneling magnetoresistive field sensor. In this study, magnetic domain structure in nanowires was investigated by both MFM and nano-MDS, and the leakage magnetic flux density from the nanowires was measured quantitatively by nano-MDS. Specimen nanowires consisted from [Co (0.3)/Pd (1.2)]{sub 21}/Ru(3) films (units in nm) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were fabricated onto Si substrates by dual ion beam sputtering and e-beam lithography. The length and the width of the fabricated nanowires are 20 μm and 150 nm. We have succeeded to obtain not only the remanent domain images with the detection of up and down magnetizations as similar as those by MFM but also magnetic flux density distribution from nanowires directly by nano-MDS. The obtained value of maximum leakage magnetic flux by nano-MDS is in good agreement with that of coercivity by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. By changing the protective diamond-like-carbon film thickness on tunneling magnetoresistive sensor, the three-dimensional spatial distribution of leakage magnetic flux could be evaluated.

  1. Special structures and properties of hydrogen nanowire confined in a single walled carbon nanotube at extreme high pressure

    Yueyuan Xia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that hydrogen can be confined in single walled carbon nanotubes to form high density and high pressure H2 molecular lattice, which has peculiar shell and axial structures depending on the density or pressure. The band gap of the confined H2 lattice is sensitive to the pressure. Heating the system at 2000K, the H2 lattice is firstly melted to form H2 molecular liquid, and then some of the H2 molecules dissociate accompanied by drastic molecular and atomic reactions, which have essential effect on the electronic structure of the hydrogen system. The liquid hydrogen system at 2000K is found to be a particular mixed liquid, which consists of H2 molecules, H atoms, and H-H-H trimers. The dissociated H atoms and the trimers in the liquid contribute resonance electron states at the Fermi energy to change the material properties substantially. Rapidly cooling the system from 2000K to 0.01 K, the mixed liquid is frozen to form a mixed solid melt with a clear trend of band gap closure. It indicates that this solid melt may become a superconducting nanowire when it is further compressed.

  2. The ethylene glycol template assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Co3O4 nanowires; structural characterization and their application as glucose non-enzymatic sensor

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z.H.; Liu, X.; Beni, V.; Willander, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethylene glycol assisted Co 3 O 4 nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The grown Co 3 O 4 nanowires were used for sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor. • The proposed glucose sensor shows a wide linear range with fast response. • The Co 3 O 4 modified electrode is a highly specific enzyme-less glucose sensor. - Abstract: In the work reported herein the ethylene glycol template assisted hydrothermal synthesis, onto Au substrate, of thin and highly dense cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) nanowires and their characterization and their application for non-enzymatic glucose sensing are reported. The structure and composition of Co 3 O 4 nanowires have been fully characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized Co 3 O 4 nanowires resulted to have high purity and showed diameter of approximately 10 nm. The prepared Co 3 O 4 nanowires coated gold electrodes were applied to the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. The developed sensor showed high sensitivity (4.58 × 10 1 μA mM −1 cm −2 ), a wide linear range of concentration (1.00 × 10 −4 –1.2 × 10 1 mM) and a detection limit of 2.65 × 10 −5 mM. The developed glucose sensor has also shown to be very stable and selective over interferents such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the proposed fabrication process was shown to be highly reproducible response (over nine electrodes)

  3. The ethylene glycol template assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires; structural characterization and their application as glucose non-enzymatic sensor

    Khun, K., E-mail: kimleang.khun@liu.se [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-60174 Norrköping (Sweden); Ibupoto, Z.H. [Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh Jamshoro (Pakistan); Liu, X. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Beni, V. [Biosensors and Biolelectronics Centre, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Willander, M. [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-60174 Norrköping (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Ethylene glycol assisted Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The grown Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires were used for sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor. • The proposed glucose sensor shows a wide linear range with fast response. • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} modified electrode is a highly specific enzyme-less glucose sensor. - Abstract: In the work reported herein the ethylene glycol template assisted hydrothermal synthesis, onto Au substrate, of thin and highly dense cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanowires and their characterization and their application for non-enzymatic glucose sensing are reported. The structure and composition of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires have been fully characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires resulted to have high purity and showed diameter of approximately 10 nm. The prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires coated gold electrodes were applied to the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. The developed sensor showed high sensitivity (4.58 × 10{sup 1} μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), a wide linear range of concentration (1.00 × 10{sup −4}–1.2 × 10{sup 1} mM) and a detection limit of 2.65 × 10{sup −5} mM. The developed glucose sensor has also shown to be very stable and selective over interferents such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the proposed fabrication process was shown to be highly reproducible response (over nine electrodes)

  4. A force sensor using nanowire arrays to understand biofilm formation (Conference Presentation)

    Sahoo, Prasana K.; Cavalli, Alessandro; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Murillo, Duber M.; Souza, Alessandra A.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Cotta, Monica A.

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the cellular signaling and function at the nano-bio interface can pave the way towards developing next-generation smart diagnostic tools. From this perspective, limited reports detail so far the cellular and subcellular forces exerted by bacterial cells during the interaction with abiotic materials. Nanowire arrays with high aspect ratio have been used to detect such small forces. In this regard, live force measurements were performed ex-vivo during the interaction of Xylella fastidiosa bacterial cells with InP nanowire arrays. The influence of nanowire array topography and surface chemistry on the response and motion of bacterial cells was studied in detail. The nanowire arrays were also functionalized with different cell adhesive promoters, such as amines and XadA1, an afimbrial protein of X.fastidiosa. By employing the well-defined InP nanowire arrays platform, and single cell confocal imaging system, we were able to trace the bacterial growth pattern, and show that their initial attachment locations are strongly influenced by the surface chemistry and nanoscale surface topography. In addition, we measure the cellular forces down to few nanonewton range using these nanowire arrays. In case of nanowire functionalized with XadA1, the force exerted by vertically and horizontally attached single bacteria on the nanowire is in average 14% and 26% higher than for the pristine array, respectively. These results provide an excellent basis for live-cell force measurements as well as unravel the range of forces involved during the early stages of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

  5. M13 Bacteriophage/Silver Nanowire Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor for Sensitive and Selective Pesticide Detection.

    Koh, Eun Hye; Mun, ChaeWon; Kim, ChunTae; Park, Sung-Gyu; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Sun Ho; Dang, Jaejeung; Choo, Jaebum; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kim, Dong-Ho; Jung, Ho Sang

    2018-03-28

    A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor comprising silver nanowires (AgNWs) and genetically engineered M13 bacteriophages expressing a tryptophan-histidine-tryptophan (WHW) peptide sequence (BPWHW) was fabricated by simple mixing of BPWHW and AgNW solutions, followed by vacuum filtration onto a glass-fiber filter paper (GFFP) membrane. The AgNWs stacked on the GFFP formed a high density of SERS-active hot spots at the points of nanowire intersections, and the surface-coated BPWHW functioned as a bioreceptor for selective pesticide detection. The BPWHW-functionalized AgNW (BPWHW/AgNW) sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, confocal scanning fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Raman signal enhancement and the selective pesticide SERS detection properties of the BPWHW/AgNW sensor were investigated in the presence of control substrates such as wild-type M13 bacteriophage-decorated AgNWs (BPWT/AgNW) and undecorated AgNWs (AgNW). The BPWHW/AgNW sensor exhibited a significantly higher capture capability for pesticides, especially paraquat (PQ), than the control SERS substrates, and it also showed a relatively higher selectivity for PQ than for other bipyridylium pesticides such as diquat and difenzoquat. Furthermore, as a field application test, PQ was detected on the surface of PQ-pretreated apple peels, and the results demonstrated the feasibility of using a paper-based SERS substrate for on-site residual pesticide detection. The developed M13 bacteriophage-functionalized AgNW SERS sensor might be applicable for the detection of various pesticides and chemicals through modification of the M13 bacteriophage surface peptide sequence.

  6. Stretchable, Transparent, and Stretch-Unresponsive Capacitive Touch Sensor Array with Selectively Patterned Silver Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes.

    Choi, Tae Young; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Trung, Tran Quang; Nam, Yun Hyoung; Kim, Do-Nyun; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-05-31

    Stretchable and transparent touch sensors are essential input devices for future stretchable transparent electronics. Capacitive touch sensors with a simple structure of only two electrodes and one dielectric are an established technology in current rigid electronics. However, the development of stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensors has been limited due to changes in capacitance resulting from dimensional changes in elastomeric dielectrics and difficulty in obtaining stretchable transparent electrodes that are stable under large strains. Herein, a stretch-unresponsive stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensor array was demonstrated by employing stretchable and transparent electrodes with a simple selective-patterning process and by carefully selecting dielectric and substrate materials with low strain responsivity. A selective-patterning process was used to embed a stretchable and transparent silver nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (AgNWs/rGO) electrode line into a polyurethane (PU) dielectric layer on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate using oxygen plasma treatment. This method provides the ability to directly fabricate thin film electrode lines on elastomeric substrates and can be used in conventional processes employed in stretchable electronics. We used a dielectric (PU) with a Poisson's ratio smaller than that of the substrate (PDMS), which prevented changes in the capacitance resulting from stretching of the sensor. The stretch-unresponsive touch sensing capability of our transparent and stretchable capacitive touch sensor has great potential in wearable electronics and human-machine interfaces.

  7. A New Hydrogen Sensor with Nanostructured Zinc Magnesium Oxide

    Reshma PRAKSHALE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano structured ZnMgO was synthesized by self combustion method using glycine as a fuel. The synthesized microstructure materials were investigated by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, TEM, and E-DAX. Observed results shows the product, is the mixture of ZnMgO, its particle size is about 45-55 nm with loosely agglomerated shape. Electrical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied by AC conductivity measurement. The gas sensing properties were studied towards reducing gases viz. ammonia, hydrogen, acetone, chlorine, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, etc. and it was observed that the nano structured ZnMgO shows high response to hydrogen at 200 °C and no cross sensitivities to other reducing gases. These nanoparticles were good I-V characteristics with ohmic nature. The quick response ( ~10 s and fast recovery (~ 20 s are the main features of these sensors. The effects of nanostructure on the gas sensing performance were studied and discussed.

  8. PALLADIUM DOPED TIN OXIDE BASED HYDROGEN GAS SENSORS FOR SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, Upendra; Nadig, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is considered to be a hazardous gas since it forms a flammable mixture between 4 to 75% by volume in air. Hence, the safety aspects of handling hydrogen are quite important. For this, ideally, highly selective, fast response, small size, hydrogen sensors are needed. Although sensors based on different technologies may be used, thin-film sensors based on palladium (Pd) are preferred due to their compactness and fast response. They detect hydrogen by monitoring the changes to the electrical, mechanical or optical properties of the films. We report the development of Pd-doped tin-oxide based gas sensors prepared on thin ceramic substrates with screen printed platinum (Pt) contacts and integrated nicrome wire heaters. The sensors are tested for their performances using hydrogen-nitrogen gas mixtures to a maximum of 4%H 2 in N 2 . The sensors detect hydrogen and their response times are less than a few seconds. Also, the sensor performance is not altered by the presence of helium in the test gas mixtures. By the above desired performance characteristics, field trials of these sensors have been undertaken. The paper presents the details of the sensor fabrication, electronic circuits, experimental setup for evaluation and the test results.

  9. Hydrogen generation monitoring and mass gain analysis during the steam oxidation for Zircaloy using hydrogen and oxygen sensors

    Fukumoto, Michihisa; Hara, Motoi; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Sakuraba, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 at high temperatures in a flowing Ar-H_2O (saturated at 323 K) mixed gas was investigated using hydrogen and oxygen sensors installed at a gas outlet, and the utility of the gas sensing methods by using both sensors was examined. The generated amount of hydrogen was determined from the hydrogen partial pressure continuously measured by the hydrogen sensor, and the resultant calculated oxygen amount that reacted with the specimen was in close agreement with the mass gain gravimetrically measured after the experiment. This result demonstrated that the hydrogen partial pressure measurement using a hydrogen sensor is an effective method for examining the steam oxidation of this metal as well as monitoring the hydrogen evolution. The advantage of this method is that the oxidation rate of the metal at any time as a differential quantity is able to be obtained, compared to the oxygen amount gravimetrically measured as an integral quantity. When the temperature was periodically changed in the range of 1173 K to 1523 K, highly accurate measurements could be carried out using this gas monitoring method, although reasonable measurements were not gravimetrically performed due to the fluctuating thermo-buoyancy during the experiment. A change of the oxidation rate was clearly detected at a monoclinic tetragonal transition temperature of ZrO_2. From the calculation of the water vapor partial pressure during the thermal equilibrium condition using the hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures, it became clear that a thermal equilibrium state is maintained when the isothermal condition is maintained, but is not when the temperature increases or decreases with time. Based on these results, it was demonstrated that the gas monitoring system using hydrogen and oxygen sensors is very useful for investigating the oxidation process of the Zircaloy in steam. (author)

  10. Current Design of the Flange Type Hydrogen Permeation Sensor in Liquid Breeder

    Lee, E. H.; Jin, H. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, H. G.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, A. Ciampichetti et al. proposed a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor and they theoretically and experimentally evaluated the performance of the sensor made of Nb membrane at test condition of 500 .deg. C. However, the evaluation result showed the measured hydrogen permeation flux in the sensor much lower than the predicted one and they concluded that, the result is due to the formation of an oxide layer on the sensor membrane surface. Three years later, A. Ciampichetti et al. observed that a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor has too long response time to measure hydrogen concentration in liquid breeder. However, they suggested optimizing the sensor geometry with the reduction of the ratio 'total sensor volume/permeation surface' to overcome the low hydrogen permeating flux. For development of the liquid breeding technologies in nuclear fusion, the permeation sensor to measure tritium concentration in liquid metal breeder has been developed. Lee et al. proposed a flange type permeation sensor to dramatically reduce the ratio sensor 'inside volume/permeation surface' and to remove membrane welding during sensor manufacture process. However, the flange type sensor has problem with sealing. In present study, the modified flange sensor design with a metallic C-ring spring gasket is introduced. The modified sensor will be verified and evaluated under high temperature conditions by end of 2015

  11. Current Design of the Flange Type Hydrogen Permeation Sensor in Liquid Breeder

    Lee, E. H.; Jin, H. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, D. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In 2004, A. Ciampichetti et al. proposed a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor and they theoretically and experimentally evaluated the performance of the sensor made of Nb membrane at test condition of 500 .deg. C. However, the evaluation result showed the measured hydrogen permeation flux in the sensor much lower than the predicted one and they concluded that, the result is due to the formation of an oxide layer on the sensor membrane surface. Three years later, A. Ciampichetti et al. observed that a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor has too long response time to measure hydrogen concentration in liquid breeder. However, they suggested optimizing the sensor geometry with the reduction of the ratio 'total sensor volume/permeation surface' to overcome the low hydrogen permeating flux. For development of the liquid breeding technologies in nuclear fusion, the permeation sensor to measure tritium concentration in liquid metal breeder has been developed. Lee et al. proposed a flange type permeation sensor to dramatically reduce the ratio sensor 'inside volume/permeation surface' and to remove membrane welding during sensor manufacture process. However, the flange type sensor has problem with sealing. In present study, the modified flange sensor design with a metallic C-ring spring gasket is introduced. The modified sensor will be verified and evaluated under high temperature conditions by end of 2015.

  12. Pressure-sensitive strain sensor based on a single percolated Ag nanowire layer embedded in colorless polyimide

    Lee, Chan-Jae [Display Materials & Components Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 68 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Sungwoo [Display Materials & Components Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 68 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Display and Nanosystem Laboratory, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Byeong-Kwon [Display and Nanosystem Laboratory, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Woong, E-mail: wyjd@keti.re.kr [Display Materials & Components Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 68 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 463-816 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of an elastomer-free, transparent, pressure-sensitive strain sensor consisting of a specially designed silver nanowire (AgNW) pattern and colorless polyimide (cPI). A percolated AgNW network was patterned with a simple tandem compound circuit, which was then embedded in the surface of the cPI via inverted layer processing. The resulting film-type sensor was highly transparent (~93.5% transmittance at 550 nm) and mechanically stable (capable of resisting 10000 cycles of bending to a 500 µm radius of curvature). We demonstrated that a thin, transparent, and mechanically stable electrode can be produced using a combination of AgNWs and cPI, and used to produce a system sensitive to pressure-induced bending. The capacitance of the AgNW tandem compound electrode pattern grew via fringing, which increased with the pressure-induced bending applied to the surface of the sensor. The sensitivity was four times higher than that of an elastomeric pressure sensor made with the same design. Finally, we demonstrated a skin-like pressure sensor attached to the inside wrist of a human arm. - Highlights: • A thin, transparent pressure sensor was fabricated from AgNWs and cPI. • An AgNW network was patterned with a simple circuit, and then embedded into cPI. • The resulting film-type sensor was highly transparent and mechanically stable. • The sensor sensitivity was 4x higher than that of an elastomeric pressure sensor.

  13. Silver nanowire/polymer composite soft conductive film fabricated by large-area compatible coating for flexible pressure sensor array

    Chen, Sujie; Li, Siying; Peng, Sai; Huang, Yukun; Zhao, Jiaqing; Tang, Wei; Guo, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    Soft conductive films composed of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, a neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS over-coating layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer substrate are fabricated by large area compatible coating processes. The neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS layer is shown to be able to significantly improve the conductivity, stretchability and air stability of the conductive films. The soft conductive films are patterned using a simple maskless patterning approach to fabricate an 8 × 8 flexible pressure sensor array. It is shown that such soft conductive films can help to improve the sensitivity and reduce the signal crosstalk over the pressure sensor array. Project supported by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 16JC1400603).

  14. Ultra-sensitive and selective detection of mercury ion (Hg2+) using free-standing silicon nanowire sensors

    Jin, Yan; Gao, Anran; Jin, Qinghui; Li, Tie; Wang, Yuelin; Zhao, Jianlong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, ultra-sensitive and highly selective Hg2+ detection in aqueous solutions was studied by free-standing silicon nanowire (SiNW) sensors. The all-around surface of SiNW arrays was functionalized with (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane serving as Hg2+ sensitive layer. Due to effective electrostatic control provided by the free-standing structure, a detection limit as low as 1 ppt was obtained. A linear relationship (R 2 = 0.9838) between log(CHg2+ ) and a device current change from 1 ppt to 5 ppm was observed. Furthermore, the developed SiNW sensor exhibited great selectivity for Hg2+ over other heavy metal ions, including Cd2+. Given the extraordinary ability for real-time Hg2+ detection, the small size and low cost of the SiNW device, it is expected to be a potential candidate in field detection of environmentally toxic mercury.

  15. Hydrogen Generation using non-polar coaxial InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structure Formed on Hollow n-GaN Nanowires.

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Mandal, Arjun; Kang, San; Chatterjee, Uddipta; Kim, Jin Soo; Park, Byung-Guon; Kim, Moon-Deock; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2016-08-24

    This article demonstrates for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the merits of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on hollow n-GaN nanowires (NWs) as a plausible alternative for stable photoelectrochemical water splitting and efficient hydrogen generation. These hollow nanowires are achieved by a growth method rather not by conventional etching process. Therefore this approach becomes simplistic yet most effective. We believe relatively low Ga flux during the selective area growth (SAG) aids the hollow nanowire to grow. To compare the optoelectronic properties, simultaneously solid nanowires are also studied. In this present communication, we exhibit that lower thermal conductivity of hollow n-GaN NWs affects the material quality of InGaN/GaN MQWs by limiting In diffusion. As a result of this improvement in material quality and structural properties, photocurrent and photosensitivity are enhanced compared to the structures grown on solid n-GaN NWs. An incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) of around ~33.3% is recorded at 365 nm wavelength for hollow NWs. We believe that multiple reflections of incident light inside the hollow n-GaN NWs assists in producing a larger amount of electron hole pairs in the active region. As a result the rate of hydrogen generation is also increased.

  16. Artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy inference systems as virtual sensors for hydrogen safety prediction

    Karri, Vishy; Ho, Tien [School of Engineering, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-65, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Madsen, Ole [Department of Production, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, DK-9220 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2008-06-15

    Hydrogen is increasingly investigated as an alternative fuel to petroleum products in running internal combustion engines and as powering remote area power systems using generators. The safety issues related to hydrogen gas are further exasperated by expensive instrumentation required to measure the percentage of explosive limits, flow rates and production pressure. This paper investigates the use of model based virtual sensors (rather than expensive physical sensors) in connection with hydrogen production with a Hogen 20 electrolyzer system. The virtual sensors are used to predict relevant hydrogen safety parameters, such as the percentage of lower explosive limit, hydrogen pressure and hydrogen flow rate as a function of different input conditions of power supplied (voltage and current), the feed of de-ionized water and Hogen 20 electrolyzer system parameters. The virtual sensors are developed by means of the application of various Artificial Intelligent techniques. To train and appraise the neural network models as virtual sensors, the Hogen 20 electrolyzer is instrumented with necessary sensors to gather experimental data which together with MATLAB neural networks toolbox and tailor made adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) were used as predictive tools to estimate hydrogen safety parameters. It was shown that using the neural networks hydrogen safety parameters were predicted to less than 3% of percentage average root mean square error. The most accurate prediction was achieved by using ANFIS. (author)

  17. Intramolecularly Hydrogen-Bonded Polypyrroles as Electro-Optical Sensors

    Nicholson, Jesse

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new class of polypyrroles bearing both hydrogen-bond acceptor and hydrogen-donor groups such that the intramolecular hydrogen bonding holds the system planar enhancing conjugation...

  18. Development of a fiber-optic sensor for hydrogen leak detection

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The real and perceived risks of hydrogen fuel use, particularly in passenger vehicles, will require extensive safety precautions including hydrogen leak detection. Conventional hydrogen gas sensors require electrical wiring and may be too expensive for deployment in multiple locations within a vehicle. In this recently initiated project, we are attempting to develop a reversible, thin-film, chemochromic sensor that can be applied to the end of a polymer optical fiber. The presence of hydrogen gas causes the film to become darker. A light beam transmitted from a central instrument in the vehicle along the sensor fibers will be reflected from the ends of the fiber back to individual light detectors. A decrease in the reflected light signal will indicate the presence and concentration of hydrogen in the vicinity of the fiber sensor. The typical thin film sensor consists of a layer of transparent, amorphous tungsten oxide covered by a very thin reflective layer of palladium. When the sensor is exposed to hydrogen, a portion of the hydrogen is dissociated, diffuses through the palladium and reacts with the tungsten oxide to form a blue insertion compound, H{sub X}WO{sub 3}- When the hydrogen gas is no longer present, the hydrogen will diffuse out of the H{sub X}WO{sub 3} and oxidize at the palladium/air interface, restoring the tungsten oxide film and the light signal to normal. The principle of this detection scheme has already been demonstrated by scientists in Japan. However, the design of the sensor has not been optimized for speed of response nor tested for its hydrogen selectivity in the presence of hydrocarbon gases. The challenge of this project is to modify the basic sensor design to achieve the required rapid response and assure sufficient selectivity to avoid false readings.

  19. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  20. Characterization of ceramic materials for electrochemical hydrogen sensors

    Serret, P.; Colominas, S. [Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Reyes, G. [Industrial Engineering Department ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Abella, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.es [Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Accurate and reliable tritium management is of basic importance for the correct operation conditions of the blanket tritium cycle. The Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS) is working in the design and development of tritium sensors, based on proton solid state electrolytes to be used in molten lithium-lead eutectic. Different solid electrolyte proton conductors have been synthesized (Sr{sub 3}CaZr{sub 0.9}Ta{sub 1.1}O{sub 8.55}, SrCe{sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{alpha}}, CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{alpha}}, Ba{sub 3}(Ca{sub 1.18}Nb{sub 1.82})O{sub 9-{alpha}}) in order to be evaluated in a testing apparatus for hydrogen gas. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements have been performed. In all experiments the working temperature was 500 {sup o}C. The sensors constructed using the proton conductor element Sr{sub 3}CaZr{sub 0.9}Ta{sub 1.1}O{sub 8.55} exhibited stable output potential and its value was close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation. When the proton conductor elements SrCe{sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{alpha}} and CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{alpha}} and Ba{sub 3}(Ca{sub 1.18}Nb{sub 1.82})O{sub 9-{alpha}} were used a deviation higher than 100 mV between theoretical and experimental data was obtained.

  1. A Finite Element Model of a MEMS-based Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Sensor

    Walied A. Moussa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication cost, ease of integration and high sensitivity. In this paper a finite element model of a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor is developed using ANSYS12© and tested for hydrogen detection. The sensor consists of a YZ-lithium niobate substrate with interdigital electrodes (IDT patterned on the surface. A thin palladium (Pd film is added on the surface of the sensor due to its high affinity for hydrogen. With increased hydrogen absorption the palladium hydride structure undergoes a phase change due to the formation of the β-phase, which deteriorates the crystal structure. Therefore with increasing hydrogen concentration the stiffness and the density are significantly reduced. The values of the modulus of elasticity and the density at different hydrogen concentrations in palladium are utilized in the finite element model to determine the corresponding SAW sensor response. Results indicate that with increasing the hydrogen concentration the wave velocity decreases and the attenuation of the wave is reduced.

  2. Trace detection of hydrogen peroxide vapor using a carbon-nanotube-based chemical sensor.

    Lu, Yijiang; Meyyappan, M; Li, Jing

    2011-06-20

    The sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide in the vapor phase is achieved using a nanochemical sensor consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes as the sensing material. The interdigitated electrode-based sensor is constructed using a simple and standard microfabrication approach. The test results indicate a sensing capability of 25 ppm and response and recovery times in seconds. The sensor array consisting of 32 sensor elements with variations in sensing materials is capable of discriminating hydrogen peroxide from water and methanol. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Focused ion beam patterning to dielectrophoretically assemble single nanowire based devices

    La Ferrara, V; Massera, E; Francia, G Di; Alfano, B

    2010-01-01

    Direct-write processing is increasingly taking place in nanodevice fabrication. In this work, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), a powerful tool in maskless micromachining, is used for electrode patterning onto a silicon/silicon nitride substrate. Then a single palladium nanowire is assembled between electrodes by means of dielectrophoresis (DEP). The nanowire morphology depends on the electrode pattern when DEP conditions are fixed. FIB/DEP combination overcomes the problem of nanowire electrical contamination due to gallium ion bombardment and the as-grown nanowire retains its basic electrical properties. Single nanowire based devices have been fabricated with this novel approach and have been tested as hydrogen sensors, confirming the reliability of this technology.

  4. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Qiu, Yong; Ouyang, Feng, E-mail: ouyangfh@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • H-titanate nanowires hierarchical architectures (TNH) were prepared by a hydrothermal method. • Calcinations of TNH leads to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions. • The hierarchical architecture offered enhanced light harvesting and large specific surface area. • The 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole. • The products calcined at the optimum conditions (450 °C) exhibited a maximum hydrogenproduction rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions was prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by calcinations. The optimum calcination treatment (450 °C) not only led to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions, but also kept the morphology of 1D nanowire and hierarchical architecture well. The T-450 load 0.5 wt% Pt cocatalysts showed the best photocatalytic hydrogen production activity, with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. The high photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the combined effects of the following three factors: (1) the hierarchical architecture exhibits better light harvesting; (2) the larger specific surface area provides more surface active sites for the photocatalytic reaction; (3) the 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and inhibit their recombination.

  5. A Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire-based double quantum dot with integrated charge sensor

    Hu, Yongjie; Churchill, Hugh; Reilly, David

    2007-01-01

    Coupled electron spins in semiconductor double quantum dots hold promise as the basis for solid-state qubits. To date, most experiments have used III-V materials, in which coherence is limited by hyperfine interactions. Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires seem ideally suited to overcome this limitati...

  6. Improvement of Amperometric Sensor Used for Determination of Nitrate with Polypyrrole Nanowires Modified Electrode

    Shi-chang Wang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole(PPy nanowire modified electrodes were developed by template-freeelectrochemical method based on graphite electrode. The modified electrode wascharacterized by their amperometric response towards nitrate ions. Before reduction ofnitrate ions, electrochemical solid-phase extraction (EC-SPE of nitrate in/on modifiedelectrodes was conducted. It is found that the unusual nanowired structure of polypyrrolelayer (instead of well known cauliflower structure allows us to increase the effectivesurface area of the electrode and subsequently the sensitivity. And the effects ofelectrochemical preparation parameters of PPy nanowire modified electrodes on theircorresponding characters were evaluated. The experimental results show that theelectrochemical preparation parameters of the modified electrodes such as scan rate,polymerization potential, temperature of polymerization solution and polymerization timehave significantly effects on the morphology of PPy nanowires and subsequently effectivesurface area of the electrode and electroreduction current density of nitrate. Thedetermination sensitivity may be varied according to the modification parameters. Under acertain polymerization conditions, the corresponding sensitivity reaches 336.28 mA/M cm2 and the detection limit is 1.52×10-6 M. The proposed method was successfully applied in thedetection of nitrate in the real samples.

  7. Self-assembled diphenylalanine nanowires for cellular studies and sensor applications

    Sasso, Luigi; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Emnéus, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a series of experiments showing that vertical self-assembled diphenylalanine peptide nanowires (PNWs) are a suitable candidate material for cellular biosensing. We grew HeLa and PC12 cells onto PNW modified gold surfaces and observed no hindrance of cell growth caused by ...

  8. Optical Sensors for Hydrogen and Oxygen for Unambiguous Detection in Their Mutual Presence, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase I SBIR project is to develop sensors that can discriminate the presence of combustible gases like oxygen (O2) in hydrogen (H2) or H2 in O2...

  9. Rapid Hydrogen and Methane Sensors for Wireless Leak Detection, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under NASA STTR NNK07EA39C, ASR&D developed passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors that utilize Pd nanocluster films on self-assembled...

  10. In-Space Distributed Fiber Optic Hydrogen Leak Sensor, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broadband Photonics Inc. proposes development of a patent-pending distributed fiber optic sensor for in-space hydrogen leak detection. Reliable and fast detection of...

  11. Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    Sangchoel Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5 layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures.

  12. Freeze drying-assisted synthesis of Pt@reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites as excellent hydrogen sensor

    Lu, Xiaojing; Song, Xinjie; Gu, Cuiping; Ren, Haibo; Sun, Yufeng; Huang, Jiarui

    2018-05-01

    Quick and efficient detection of low concentrations of hydrogen remains a challenge because of the stability of hydrogen. A sensor based on reduced oxide graphene functionalized with Pt nanoparticles is successfully fabricated using a freeze-drying method followed by heat treatment. The structure and morphology of the Pt@rGO nanocomposites are well analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared Pt@rGO nanocomposites show excellent hydrogen gas sensing properties at a low working temperature of 50 °C. The sensitivity toward 0.5% hydrogen is 8%. The response and recovery times of the sensor exposed to 0.5% hydrogen are 63 and 104 s, respectively. The gas-sensing mechanism of Pt@rGO sensor is also discussed.

  13. Translating silicon nanowire BioFET sensor-technology to embedded point-of-care medical diagnostics

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Zulfiqar, Azeem; Patou, François

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire and nanoribbon biosensors have shown great promise in the detection of biomarkers at very low concentrations. Their high sensitivity makes them ideal candidates for use in early-stage medical diagnostics and further disease monitoring where low amounts of biomarkers need to be de......Silicon nanowire and nanoribbon biosensors have shown great promise in the detection of biomarkers at very low concentrations. Their high sensitivity makes them ideal candidates for use in early-stage medical diagnostics and further disease monitoring where low amounts of biomarkers need...... to be detected. However, in order to translate this technology from the bench to the bedside, a number of key issues need to be taken into consideration: Integrating nanobiosensors-based technology requires to overcome the difficult tradeoff between imperatives for high device reproducibilty and associated...... rising fabrication costs. Also the translation of nano-scale sensor technology into daily-use point-of-care devices requires acknowledgement of the end-user requirements, making device portability and human-interfacing a focus point in device development. Sample handling or purification for instance...

  14. From nanodiamond to nanowires.

    Barnard, A.; Materials Science Division

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication and characterization of semiconductor and metallic nanowires are proving very successful in meeting the high expectations of nanotechnologists. Although the nanoscience surrounding sp{sup 3} bonded carbon nanotubes has continued to flourish over recent years the successful synthesis of the sp{sup 3} analogue, diamond nanowires, has been limited. This prompts questions as to whether diamond nanowires are fundamentally unstable. By applying knowledge obtained from examining the structural transformations in nanodiamond, a framework for analyzing the structure and stability of diamond nanowires may be established. One possible framework will be discussed here, supported by results of ab initio density functional theory calculations used to study the structural relaxation of nanodiamond and diamond nanowires. The results show that the structural stability and electronic properties of diamond nanowires are dependent on the surface morphology, crystallographic direction of the principal axis, and the degree of surface hydrogenation.

  15. Wireless Hydrogen Smart Sensor Based on Pt/Graphene-Immobilized Radio-Frequency Identification Tag.

    Lee, Jun Seop; Oh, Jungkyun; Jun, Jaemoon; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-08-25

    Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus, appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen-gas leak detection and surveillance systems are needed; additionally, the ability to monitor large areas (e.g., cities) via wireless networks is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we introduce a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based wireless smart-sensor system, composed of a Pt-decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO)-immobilized RFID sensor tag and an RFID-reader antenna-connected network analyzer to detect hydrogen gas. The Pt_rGOs, produced using a simple chemical reduction process, were immobilized on an antenna pattern in the sensor tag through spin coating. The resulting Pt_rGO-based RFID sensor tag exhibited a high sensitivity to hydrogen gas at unprecedentedly low concentrations (1 ppm), with wireless communication between the sensor tag and RFID-reader antenna. The wireless sensor tag demonstrated flexibility and a long lifetime due to the strong immobilization of Pt_rGOs on the substrate and battery-independent operation during hydrogen sensing, respectively.

  16. Development of Sensors and Sensing Technology for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications

    Brosha, E L; Sekhar, P K; Mukundan, R; Williamson, T; Garzon, F H; Woo, L Y; Glass, R R

    2010-01-06

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features. Some of these devices (e.g. yaw sensors for dynamic stability control systems or tire presure warning RF-based devices) may be used on fuel cell vehicles without any modification. However the use of hydrogen as a fuel will dictate the development of completely new technologies for such requirements as the detection of hydrogen leaks, sensors and systems to continuously monitor hydrogen fuel purity and protect the fuel cell stack from poisoning, and for the important, yet often taken for granted, tasks such as determining the state of charge of the hydrogen fuel storage and delivery system. Two such sensors that rely on different transduction mechanisms will be highlighted in this presentation. The first is an electrochemical device for monitoring hydrogen levels in air. The other technology covered in this work, is an acoustic-based approach to determine the state of charge of a hydride storage system.

  17. Functionalized Ga2O3 nanowires as active material in room temperature capacitance-based gas sensors.

    Mazeina, Lena; Perkins, F Keith; Bermudez, Victor M; Arnold, Stephen P; Prokes, S M

    2010-08-17

    We report the first evidence for functionalization of Ga(2)O(3) nanowires (NWs), which have been incorporated as the active material in room temperature capacitance gas-sensing devices. An adsorbed layer of pyruvic acid (PA) was successfully formed on Ga(2)O(3) NWs by simple room temperature vapor transport, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of the adsorbed PA on the surface properties was demonstrated by the change in the response of the NW gas-sensing devices. Results indicate that the adsorption of PA reduced the sensitivity of the Ga(2)O(3) NW device to common hydrocarbons such as nitromethane and acetone while improving the response to triethylamine by an order of magnitude. Taking into account the simplicity of this functionalization together with the ease of producing these capacitance-based gas-sensing devices, this approach represents a viable technique for sensor development.

  18. Microcontroller based instrumentation for heater control circuit of tin oxide based hydrogen sensor

    Premalatha, S.; Krithika, P.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Ramanarayanan, R.R.; Prabhu, E.; Jayaraman, V.; Parthasarathy, R.

    2015-01-01

    A thin film sensor based on tin oxide developed in IGCAR is used to monitor very low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 2 ppm to 80 ppm). The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate and necessary electrical leads are taken out. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350°C. The sensor output (voltage signal) varies with H 2 concentration. In fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium is used as coolant. The sensor is used to detect water/steam leak in secondary sodium circuit. During the start up of the reactor, steam leak into sodium circuit generates hydrogen gas as a product that doesn't dissolve in sodium, but escapes to the surge tank containing argon i.e. in cover gas plenum of sodium circuit. On-line monitoring of hydrogen in cover gas is done to detect an event of water/steam leakage. The focus of this project is on the instrumentation pertaining to the temperature control for the sensor heater. The tin oxide based hydrogen sensor is embedded in a substrate which consists of a platinum heater, essentially a resistor. There is no provision of embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to the physical constraints, without which maintaining a constant heater temperature is a complex task

  19. Improved sensing characteristics of dual-gate transistor sensor using silicon nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography

    Lim, Cheol-Min; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Ki Joong; Oh, Young Kyoung; Shin, Yong-Beom; Cho, Won-Ju

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the construction of a sensitive, stable, and label-free sensor based on a dual-gate field-effect transistor (DG FET), in which uniformly distributed and size-controlled silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays by nanoimprint lithography act as conductor channels. Compared to previous DG FETs with a planar-type silicon channel layer, the constructed SiNW DG FETs exhibited superior electrical properties including a higher capacitive-coupling ratio of 18.0 and a lower off-state leakage current under high-temperature stress. In addition, while the conventional planar single-gate (SG) FET- and planar DG FET-based pH sensors showed the sensitivities of 56.7 mV/pH and 439.3 mV/pH, respectively, the SiNW DG FET-based pH sensors showed not only a higher sensitivity of 984.1 mV/pH, but also a lower drift rate of 0.8% for pH-sensitivity. This demonstrates that the SiNW DG FETs simultaneously achieve high sensitivity and stability, with significant potential for future biosensing applications.

  20. Binding energy and optical properties of an off-center hydrogenic donor impurity in a spherical quantum dot placed at the center of a cylindrical nano-wire

    Safarpour, Gh.; Barati, M.; Zamani, A.; Niknam, E.

    2014-01-01

    The binding energy as well as the linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes of an off-center hydrogenic donor impurity in an InAs spherical quantum dot placed at the center of a GaAs cylindrical nano-wire have been investigated. In this regard, the effective-mass approximation approach is considered and eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions are calculated via the finite element method. The binding energy is plotted as a function of the dot size and impurity position along with optical properties as a function of photon energy. In this study two different directions have been considered for impurity position, along the nano-wire axis and perpendicular to it. It has been found that the binding energy, absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are impressively affected not only by the dot radius but also by the position of the impurity and its direction. Additionally, the optical saturation can be tuned by the direction of the impurity and incident optical intensity. -- Highlights: • We consider spherical quantum dot located at the center of a cylindrical nano-wire. • An off-center hydrogenic donor impurity is considered in the system. • Binding energy is affected by orientation of impurity and its distance from center. • Saturation depends on the orientation of impurity position. • By shifting impurity position, orientation and dot radius blue- and red-shifts appear

  1. Incorporation of tantalum ions enhances the electrocatalytic activity of hexagonal WO3 nanowires for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Xie, Xiang; Mu, Wanjun; Li, Xingliang; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan; Yu, Qianhong; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Kai; Tang, Hui; Luo, Shunzhong

    2014-01-01

    WO 3 has been identified as a promising candidate electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), because it can form a tungsten bronze (HxWO 3 ) which is highly electron and proton conducting. In this paper, we report that the electrocatalytic activity of WO 3 for HER can be enhanced by incorporation of tantalum ions (Ta 5+ ) into the lattice of WO 3 . The most active performance is achieved with the molar ratio of Ta/W being 0.01, which is two times more active than that of undoped WO 3 at an overpotential of -0.52 V. It is shown that incorporation of proper Ta 5+ into WO 3 can induce moderate defects and oxygen vacancies, as well as intercalate a higher amount of protons, which enhance the electron transfer and short the protons diffusion paths. These changes correlated positively with the enhanced catalytic HER activity. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that metal ions-doped WO 3 nanowires are promising electrocatalysts for HER

  2. Hydrogen Sensors Using Nitride-Based Semiconductor Diodes: The Role of Metal/Semiconductor Interfaces

    Yoshihiro Irokawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I review my recent results in investigating hydrogen sensors using nitride-based semiconductor diodes, focusing on the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with the devices. Firstly, effects of interfacial modification in the devices on hydrogen detection sensitivity are discussed. Surface defects of GaN under Schottky electrodes do not play a critical role in hydrogen sensing characteristics. However, dielectric layers inserted in metal/semiconductor interfaces are found to cause dramatic changes in hydrogen sensing performance, implying that chemical selectivity to hydrogen could be realized. The capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristics reveal that the work function change in the Schottky metal is not responsible mechanism for hydrogen sensitivity. The interface between the metal and the semiconductor plays a critical role in the interaction of hydrogen with semiconductor devises. Secondly, low-frequency C-V characterization is employed to investigate the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with diodes. As a result, it is suggested that the formation of a metal/semiconductor interfacial polarization could be attributed to hydrogen-related dipoles. In addition, using low-frequency C-V characterization leads to clear detection of 100 ppm hydrogen even at room temperature where it is hard to detect hydrogen by using conventional current-voltage (I-V characterization, suggesting that low-frequency C-V method would be effective in detecting very low hydrogen concentrations.

  3. SiC Sensors in Extreme Environments: Real-time Hydrogen Monitoring for Energy Plant Applications

    Ghosh, Ruby

    2008-03-01

    Clean, efficient energy production, such as the gasification of coal (syngas), requires physical and chemical sensors for exhaust gas monitoring as well as real-time control of the combustion process. Wide-bandgap semiconducting materials systems can meet the sensing demands in these extreme environments consisting of chemically corrosive gases at high temperature and pressure. We have developed a SiC based micro-sensor for detection of hydrogen containing species with millisecond response at 600 C. The sensor is a Pt-SiO2-SiC device with a dense Pt catalytic sensing film, capable of withstanding months of continuous high temperature operation. The device was characterized in robust sensing module that is compatible with an industrial reactor. We report on the performance of the SiC sensor in a simulated syngas ambient at 370 C containing the common interferants CO2, CH4 and CO [1]. In addition we demonstrate that hours of exposure to >=1000 ppm H2S and 15% water vapor does not degrade the sensor performance. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the hydrogen response of the sensor we have modeled the hydrogen adsorptions kinetics at the internal Pt-SiO2 interface, using both the Tempkin and Langmuir isotherms. Under the conditions appropriate for energy plant applications, the response of our sensor is significantly larger than that obtained from ultra-high vacuum electrochemical sensor measurements at high temperatures. We will discuss the role of morphology, at the nano to micro scale, on the enhanced catalytic activity observed for our Pt sensing films in response to a heated hydrogen gas stream at atmospheric pressure. [1] R. Loloee, B. Chorpening, S. Beers & R. Ghosh, Hydrogen monitoring for power plant applications using SiC sensors, Sens. Actuators B:Chem. (2007), doi:10.1016/j.snb.2007.07.118

  4. Porous Silicon Hydrogen Sensor at Room Temperature: The Effect of Surface Modification and Noble Metal Contacts

    Jayita KANUNGO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon (PS was fabricated by anodization of p-type crystalline silicon of resistivity 2-5 Ω cm. After formation, the PS surface was modified by the solution containing noble metal like Pd. Pd-Ag catalytic contact electrodes were deposited on porous silicon and on p-Silicon to fabricate Pd-Ag/PS/p-Si/Pd-Ag sensor structure to carry out the hydrogen sensing experiments. The Sensor was exposed to 1% hydrogen in nitrogen as carrier gas at room temperature (270C. Pd modified sensor showed minimum fluctuations and consistent performance with 86% response, response time and recovery time of 24 sec and 264 sec respectively. The stability experiments were studied for both unmodified and Pd modified sensor structures for a period of about 24 hours and the modified sensors showed excellent durability with no drift in response behavior.

  5. Palladium Gate All Around - Hetero Dielectric -Tunnel FET based highly sensitive Hydrogen Gas Sensor

    Madan, Jaya; Chaujar, Rishu

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a novel highly sensitive Hetero-Dielectric-Gate All Around Tunneling FET (HD-GAA-TFET) based Hydrogen Gas Sensor, incorporating the advantages of band to band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism. Here, the Palladium supported silicon dioxide is used as a sensing media and sensing relies on the interaction of hydrogen with Palladium-SiO2-Si. The high surface to volume ratio in the case of cylindrical GAA structure enhances the fortuities for surface reactions between H2 gas and Pd, and thus improves the sensitivity and stability of the sensor. Behaviour of the sensor in presence of hydrogen and at elevated temperatures is discussed. The conduction path of the sensor which is dependent on sensors radius has also been varied for the optimized sensitivity and static performance analysis of the sensor where the proposed design exhibits a superior performance in terms of threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, and band to band tunneling rate. Stability of the sensor with respect to temperature affectability has also been studied, and it is found that the device is reasonably stable and highly sensitive over the bearable temperature range. The successful utilization of HD-GAA-TFET in gas sensors may open a new door for the development of novel nanostructure gas sensing devices.

  6. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    An increase in produced hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  7. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2005-01-01

    An increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to the lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  8. Room-temperature solution synthesis of Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowires and their catalytic applications

    Dong Wenjun; Huang Huandi; Zhu Yanjun; Li Xiaoyun; Wang Xuebin; Li Chaorong; Chen Benyong; Wang Ge; Shi Zhan

    2012-01-01

    A simple chemical solution route for the synthesis of large-scale high-quality Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowire at room temperature has been developed. In the synthesis, the protonated amine was intercalated into the molybdenum bronze layers to reduce the electrostatic force of the lamellar structures, and then the Ag nanoparticle functionalized long nanowires could be easily induced by a redox reaction between a molybdenum oxide–amine intermediate and Ag + at room temperature. The intercalation lamellar structures improved the nucleation and growth of the Ag nanoparticles, with the result that uniform Ag nanoparticles occurred on the surface of the MoO 3 nanowire. In this way Ag nanoparticles with average sizes of around 6 nm, and high-purity nanowires with mean diameter of around 50 nm and with typical lengths of several tens to hundreds of micrometers were produced. The heteronanostructured nanowires were intricately and inseparably connected to each other with hydrogen bonds and/or bridge oxygen atoms and packed together, forming a paper-like porous network film. The Ag–MoO 3 nanowire film performs a promoted catalytic property for the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene, and the heteronanostructured nanowire film sensor shows excellent sensing performance to hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. (paper)

  9. Room-temperature solution synthesis of Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowires and their catalytic applications.

    Dong, Wenjun; Huang, Huandi; Zhu, Yanjun; Li, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xuebin; Li, Chaorong; Chen, Benyong; Wang, Ge; Shi, Zhan

    2012-10-26

    A simple chemical solution route for the synthesis of large-scale high-quality Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowire at room temperature has been developed. In the synthesis, the protonated amine was intercalated into the molybdenum bronze layers to reduce the electrostatic force of the lamellar structures, and then the Ag nanoparticle functionalized long nanowires could be easily induced by a redox reaction between a molybdenum oxide-amine intermediate and Ag(+) at room temperature. The intercalation lamellar structures improved the nucleation and growth of the Ag nanoparticles, with the result that uniform Ag nanoparticles occurred on the surface of the MoO(3) nanowire. In this way Ag nanoparticles with average sizes of around 6 nm, and high-purity nanowires with mean diameter of around 50 nm and with typical lengths of several tens to hundreds of micrometers were produced. The heteronanostructured nanowires were intricately and inseparably connected to each other with hydrogen bonds and/or bridge oxygen atoms and packed together, forming a paper-like porous network film. The Ag-MoO(3) nanowire film performs a promoted catalytic property for the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene, and the heteronanostructured nanowire film sensor shows excellent sensing performance to hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature.

  10. Liquid-vapour surface sensors for liquid nitrogen and hydrogen

    Siegwarth, J. D.; Voth, R. O.; Snyder, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper identifies devices to serve as liquid-vapor detectors in zero gravity. The testing in LH2 was done in a sealed glass Dewar system to eliminate any chance of mixing H2 and air. Most of the tests were performed with the leads to the sensor horizontal. Some results of rapid cycle testing of LVDG in LH2 are presented. Findings of rapid-cycle testing of LVDG in LH2 are discussed. The sensor crossed the liquid surface when the position sensor registered 1.9 V, which occurred at about 0.4075 s. The delay time was about 1.5 ms. From the estimated slope of the position sensor curve at 1.9 V, the velocity of the sensor through the liquid surface is over 3 m/s. Results of tests of optical sensors are presented as well.

  11. Efficient room temperature hydrogen sensor based on UV-activated ZnO nano-network

    Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, Rahul; Rajamani, Saravanan; Ranwa, Sapana; Fanetti, Mattia; Valant, Matjaz; Kumar, Mahesh

    2017-09-01

    Room temperature hydrogen sensors were fabricated from Au embedded ZnO nano-networks using a 30 mW GaN ultraviolet LED. The Au-decorated ZnO nano-networks were deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate by a chemical vapour deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum analysis revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and presence of Au. The ZnO nanoparticles were interconnected, forming nano-network structures. Au nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on ZnO surfaces, as confirmed by FESEM imaging. Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) were fabricated on the ZnO nano-networks using optical lithography. Sensor performances were measured with and without UV illumination, at room temperate, with concentrations of hydrogen varying from 5 ppm to 1%. The sensor response was found to be ˜21.5% under UV illumination and 0% without UV at room temperature for low hydrogen concentration of 5 ppm. The UV-photoactivated mode enhanced the adsorption of photo-induced O- and O2- ions, and the d-band electron transition from the Au nanoparticles to ZnO—which increased the chemisorbed reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. The sensor response was also measured at 150 °C (without UV illumination) and found to be ˜18% at 5 ppm. Energy efficient low cost hydrogen sensors can be designed and fabricated with the combination of GaN UV LEDs and ZnO nanostructures.

  12. Development of sensors and sensing technology for hydrogen fuel cell vehicle applications

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sekhar, Praveen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangchary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williamson, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woo, Leta Y [LLNL; Glass, Robert S [LLNL

    2010-01-01

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features.

  13. Development of High Temperature SiC Based Hydrogen/Hydrocarbon Sensors with Bond Pads for Packaging

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liangyu; Biagi-Labiosa, Azlin M.; Ward, Benjamin J.; Lukco, Dorothy; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Lampard, Peter S.; Artale, Michael A.; Hampton, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes efforts towards the transition of existing high temperature hydrogen and hydrocarbon Schottky diode sensor elements to packaged sensor structures that can be integrated into a testing system. Sensor modifications and the technical challenges involved are discussed. Testing of the sensors at 500 C or above is also presented along with plans for future development.

  14. An effective temperature compensation approach for ultrasonic hydrogen sensors

    Tan, Xiaolong; Li, Min; Arsad, Norhana; Wen, Xiaoyan; Lu, Haifei

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen is a kind of promising clean energy resource with a wide application prospect, which will, however, cause a serious security issue upon the leakage of hydrogen gas. The measurement of its concentration is of great significance. In a traditional approach of ultrasonic hydrogen sensing, a temperature drift of 0.1 °C results in a concentration error of about 250 ppm, which is intolerable for trace amount of gas sensing. In order to eliminate the influence brought by temperature drift, we propose a feasible approach named as linear compensation algorithm, which utilizes the linear relationship between the pulse count and temperature to compensate for the pulse count error (ΔN) caused by temperature drift. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach is capable of improving the measurement accuracy and can easily detect sub-100 ppm of hydrogen concentration under variable temperature conditions.

  15. A sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on leaf-like silver

    Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Mingyin; Zhang, Hongfang; Zheng, Jianbin

    2014-01-01

    A novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on leaf-like silver was constructed. The leaf-like silver was synthesized on the surface of L-cysteine (L-cys) by electrodeposition. Scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques were used to characterize the leaf-like silver nanoparticles. The sensor showed high electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. A wide linear range of 2.5–1.5 mM with a low detection limit of 0.7 µM was obtained. Excellent electrocatalytic activity, large surface-to-volume ratio and efficient electron transport properties of leaf-like silver have enabled stable and highly sensitive performance for the non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor. (paper)

  16. A fast response hydrogen sensor with Pd metallic grating onto a fiber's end-face

    Yan, Haitao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Qiu-Ze; Cao, Jingxiao; Han, Dao-Fu; Hao, Hui; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated an integrated hydrogen sensor with Pd metallic grating fabricated on a fiber end-face. The grating consists of three thin metal layers in stacks, Au, WO3 and Pd. The WO3 is used as a waveguide layer between the Pd and Au layer. The Pd layer is etched by using a focused ion beam (FIB) method, forming a Pd metallic grating with period of 450 nm. The sensor is experimentally exposed to hydrogen gas environment. Changing the concentration from 0% to 4% which is the low explosive limit (LEL), the resonant wavelength measured from the reflection experienced 28.10 nm spectral changes in the visible range. The results demonstrated that the sensor is sensitive for hydrogen detection and it has fast response and low temperature effect.

  17. Component design and testing for a miniaturised autonomous sensor based on a nanowire materials platform

    Rajesh Ramaneti; Francois Krummenacher; Fritz Falk; Naser Khosropour; Björn Eisenhawer; Cees van Rijn; Giorgos Fagas; Ran Yu; Adrian M. Ionescu; Ing. Erik Puik; Montserrat Fernández-Bolaños Badia; Nikolay Petkov; Hien Duy Tong; Rik Lafeber; John C De Mello; Olan Lotty; Adrian M. Nightingale; Yordan M. Georgiev; Elizabeth Buitrago; Frank van der Bent; Michael Nolan; Justin D. Holmes; Annett Gawlik; Maher Kayal; Guobin Jia

    2014-01-01

    From Springer description: "We present the design considerations of an autonomous wireless sensor and discuss the fabrication and testing of the various components including the energy harvester, the active sensing devices and the power management and sensor interface circuits. A common materials

  18. A universal approach to electrically connecting nanowire arrays using nanoparticles—application to a novel gas sensor architecture

    Parthangal, Prahalad M.; Cavicchi, Richard E.; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2006-08-01

    We report on a novel, in situ approach toward connecting and electrically contacting vertically aligned nanowire arrays using conductive nanoparticles. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by development of a gas sensing device employing this nano-architecture. Well-aligned, single-crystalline zinc oxide nanowires were grown through a direct thermal evaporation process at 550 °C on gold catalyst layers. Electrical contact to the top of the nanowire array was established by creating a contiguous nanoparticle film through electrostatic attachment of conductive gold nanoparticles exclusively onto the tips of nanowires. A gas sensing device was constructed using such an arrangement and the nanowire assembly was found to be sensitive to both reducing (methanol) and oxidizing (nitrous oxides) gases. This assembly approach is amenable to any nanowire array for which a top contact electrode is needed.

  19. A universal approach to electrically connecting nanowire arrays using nanoparticles-application to a novel gas sensor architecture

    Parthangal, Prahalad M; Cavicchi, Richard E; Zachariah, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    We report on a novel, in situ approach toward connecting and electrically contacting vertically aligned nanowire arrays using conductive nanoparticles. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by development of a gas sensing device employing this nano-architecture. Well-aligned, single-crystalline zinc oxide nanowires were grown through a direct thermal evaporation process at 550 deg. C on gold catalyst layers. Electrical contact to the top of the nanowire array was established by creating a contiguous nanoparticle film through electrostatic attachment of conductive gold nanoparticles exclusively onto the tips of nanowires. A gas sensing device was constructed using such an arrangement and the nanowire assembly was found to be sensitive to both reducing (methanol) and oxidizing (nitrous oxides) gases. This assembly approach is amenable to any nanowire array for which a top contact electrode is needed

  20. Identifying performance gaps in hydrogen safety sensor technology for automotive and stationary applications

    Boon-Brett, L.; Bousek, J.; Black, G.; Moretto, P.; Castello, P.; Huebert, T.; Banach, U.

    2010-01-01

    A market survey has been performed of commercially available hydrogen safety sensors, resulting in a total sample size of 53 sensors from 21 manufacturers. The technical specifications, as provided by the manufacturer, have been collated and are displayed herein as a function of sensor working principle. These specifications comprise measuring range, response and recovery times, ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity, power consumption and lifetime. These are then compared against known performance targets for both automotive and stationary applications in order to establish in how far current technology satisfies current requirements of sensor end users. Gaps in the performance of hydrogen sensing technologies are thus identified and areas recommended for future research and development. (author)

  1. Experimental study of temperature sensor for an ocean-going liquid hydrogen (LH2) carrier

    Nakano, A.; Shimazaki, T.; Sekiya, M.; Shiozawa, H.; Aoyagi, A.; Ohtsuka, K.; Iwakiri, T.; Mikami, Z.; Sato, M.; Kinoshita, K.; Matsuoka, T.; Takayama, Y.; Yamamoto, K.

    2018-04-01

    The prototype temperature sensors for an ocean-going liquid hydrogen (LH2) carrier were manufactured by way of trial. All of the sensors adopted Platinum 1000 (PT-1000) resistance thermometer elements. Various configurations of preproduction temperature sensors were tested in AIST's LH2 test facility. In the experiments, a PT-1000 resistance thermometer, calibrated at the National Metrology Institute of Japan at AIST, was used as the standard thermometer. The temperatures measured by the preproduction sensors were compared with the temperatures measured by the standard thermometer, and the measurement accuracy of the temperature sensors in LH2 was investigated and discussed. It was confirmed that the measurement accuracies of the preproduction temperature sensors were within ±50 mK, which is the required measurement accuracy for a technical demonstration ocean-going LH2 carrier.

  2. High-Sensitivity and Low-Power Flexible Schottky Hydrogen Sensor Based on Silicon Nanomembrane.

    Cho, Minkyu; Yun, Jeonghoon; Kwon, Donguk; Kim, Kyuyoung; Park, Inkyu

    2018-04-18

    High-performance and low-power flexible Schottky diode-based hydrogen sensor was developed. The sensor was fabricated by releasing Si nanomembrane (SiNM) and transferring onto a plastic substrate. After the transfer, palladium (Pd) and aluminum (Al) were selectively deposited as a sensing material and an electrode, respectively. The top-down fabrication process of flexible Pd/SiNM diode H 2 sensor is facile compared to other existing bottom-up fabricated flexible gas sensors while showing excellent H 2 sensitivity (Δ I/ I 0 > 700-0.5% H 2 concentrations) and fast response time (τ 10-90 = 22 s) at room temperature. In addition, selectivity, humidity, and mechanical tests verify that the sensor has excellent reliability and robustness under various environments. The operating power consumption of the sensor is only in the nanowatt range, which indicates its potential applications in low-power portable and wearable electronics.

  3. A sensitive nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on ...

    Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil & Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing. 163318, PR China ... as gas sensor because of its good stability, lower cost and .... controlling the reduction of H2O2. Figure 5 ...

  4. Design of Indium Arsenide nanowire sensors for pH and biological sensing and low temperature transport through p-doped Indium Arsenide nanowires

    Upadhyay, Shivendra

    With the goal of real time electrical detection of chemical and biological species, nanowires have shown great promise with high sensitivity due to their large surface to volume ratio. While the focus of such electrical detection has shifted to one dimensional semiconductor nanostuctures, Silicon...

  5. Gas Phase Fabrication of Pd-Ni Nanoparticle Arrays for Hydrogen Sensor Applications

    Peng Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pd-Ni nanoparticles have been fabricated by gas aggregation process. The formation of Pd-Ni nano-alloys was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. By depositing Pd-Ni nanoparticles on the interdigital electrodes, quantum conductance-based hydrogen sensors were fabricated. The Ni content in the nanoparticle showed an obvious effect on the hydrogen response behavior corresponding to the conductance change of the nanoparticle film. Three typical response regions with different conductance-hydrogen pressure correlations were observed. It was found that the α-β phase transition region of palladium hydride moves to significant higher hydrogen pressure with the addition of nickel element, which greatly enhance the hydrogen sensing performance of the nanoparticle film.

  6. Optimization and validation of highly selective microfluidic integrated silicon nanowire chemical sensor

    Ehfaed, Nuri. A. K. H.; Bathmanathan, Shillan A. L.; Dhahi, Th S.; Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, Uda; Noriman, N. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The study proposed characterization and optimization of silicon nanosensor for specific detection of heavy metal. The sensor was fabricated in-house and conventional photolithography coupled with size reduction via dry etching process in an oxidation furnace. Prior to heavy metal heavy metal detection, the capability to aqueous sample was determined utilizing serial DI water at various. The sensor surface was surface modified with Organofunctional alkoxysilanes (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) to create molecular binding chemistry. This has allowed interaction between heavy metals being measured and the sensor component resulting in increasing the current being measured. Due to its, excellent detection capabilities, this sensor was able to identify different group heavy metal species. The device was further integrated with sub-50 µm for chemical delivery.

  7. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires

    Rodolfo Araneo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews.

  8. Silver Nanowire Embedded Colorless Polyimide Heater for Wearable Chemical Sensors: Improved Reversible Reaction Kinetics of Optically Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Kim, Sang-Joon; Jang, Ji-Soo; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-09-14

    Optically reduced graphene oxide (ORGO) sheets are successfully integrated on silver nanowire (Ag NW)-embedded transparent and flexible substrate. As a heating element, Ag NWs are embedded in a colorless polyimide (CPI) film by covering Ag NW networks using polyamic acid and subsequent imidization. Graphene oxide dispersed aqueous solution is drop-coated on the Ag NW-embedded CPI (Ag NW-CPI) film and directly irradiated by intense pulsed light to obtain ORGO sheets. The heat generation property of Ag NW-CPI film is investigated by applying DC voltage, which demonstrates unprecedentedly reliable and stable characteristics even in dynamic bending condition. To demonstrate the potential application in wearable chemical sensors, NO 2 sensing characteristic of ORGO is investigated with respect to the different heating temperature (22.7-71.7 °C) of Ag NW-CPI film. The result reveals that the ORGO sheets exhibit high sensitivity of 2.69% with reversible response/recovery sensing properties and minimal deviation of baseline resistance of around 1% toward NO 2 molecules when the temperature of Ag NW-CPI film is 71.7 °C. This work first demonstrates the improved reversible NO 2 sensing properties of ORGO sheets on flexible and transparent Ag NW-CPI film assisted by Ag NW heating networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Test Methodologies for Hydrogen Sensor Performance Assessment: Chamber vs. Flow Through Test Apparatus: Preprint

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cebolla, Rafeal O [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Bonato, Christian [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands

    2017-11-06

    Certification of hydrogen sensors to standards often prescribes using large-volume test chambers [1, 2]. However, feedback from stakeholders such as sensor manufacturers and end-users indicate that chamber test methods are often viewed as too slow and expensive for routine assessment. Flow through test methods potentially are an efficient, cost-effective alternative for sensor performance assessment. A large number of sensors can be simultaneously tested, in series or in parallel, with an appropriate flow through test fixture. The recent development of sensors with response times of less than 1s mandates improvements in equipment and methodology to properly capture the performance of this new generation of fast sensors; flow methods are a viable approach for accurate response and recovery time determinations, but there are potential drawbacks. According to ISO 26142 [1], flow through test methods may not properly simulate ambient applications. In chamber test methods, gas transport to the sensor can be dominated by diffusion which is viewed by some users as mimicking deployment in rooms and other confined spaces. Alternatively, in flow through methods, forced flow transports the gas to the sensing element. The advective flow dynamics may induce changes in the sensor behaviour relative to the quasi-quiescent condition that may prevail in chamber test methods. One goal of the current activity in the JRC and NREL sensor laboratories [3, 4] is to develop a validated flow through apparatus and methods for hydrogen sensor performance testing. In addition to minimizing the impact on sensor behaviour induced by differences in flow dynamics, challenges associated with flow through methods include the ability to control environmental parameters (humidity, pressure and temperature) during the test and changes in the test gas composition induced by chemical reactions with upstream sensors. Guidelines on flow through test apparatus design and protocols for the evaluation of

  10. Fully-reversible optical sensor for hydrogen peroxide with fast response.

    Ding, Longjiang; Chen, Siyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yinglu; Wang, Xu-Dong

    2018-05-09

    A fully reversible optical sensor for hydrogen peroxide with fast response is presented. The sensor was fabricated by in-situ growing ultra-small platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) inside the pores of fibrous silica particles (KCC-1). The nanocomposite was then embedded into a hydrogel matrix and form a sensor layer, the immobilized PtNPs can catalytically convert hydrogen peroxide into molecular oxygen, which is measured via luminescent quenching based oxygen sensor underneath. Owing to the high porosity and permeability of KCC-1 and high local concentration of PtNPs, the sensor exhibits fast response (less than 1 min) and full reversibility. The measurement range of the sensor covers 1.0 μM to 10.0 mM, and very small amount of sample is required during measurement (200 μL). Because of its high stability, excellent reversibility and selectivity, and extremely fast response, the sensor could fulfill all industry requirements for real-time measurement, and fill market vacancy.

  11. Demonstration of a Prototype Hydrogen Sensor and Electronics Package - Progress Report 2

    Wu, Amanda S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brosha, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    This is the second progress report on the demonstration of a prototype hydrogen sensor and electronics package. It goes into detail about the five tasks, four of which are already completed as of August 2016, with the final to be completed by January 26, 2017. Then the budget is detailed along with the planned work for May 27, 2016 to July 27, 2016.

  12. Pd/Ag coated fiber Bragg grating sensor for hydrogen monitoring in power transformers.

    Ma, G M; Jiang, J; Li, C R; Song, H T; Luo, Y T; Wang, H B

    2015-04-01

    Compared with conventional DGA (dissolved gas analysis) method for on-line monitoring of power transformers, FBG (fiber Bragg grating) hydrogen sensor represents marked advantages over immunity to electromagnetic field, time-saving, and convenience to defect location. Thus, a novel FBG hydrogen sensor based on Pd/Ag (Palladium/Silver) along with polyimide composite film to measure dissolved hydrogen concentration in large power transformers is proposed in this article. With the help of Pd/Ag composite coating, the enhanced performance on mechanical strength and sensitivity is demonstrated, moreover, the response time and sensitivity influenced by oil temperature are solved by correction lines. Sensitivity measurement and temperature calibration of the specific hydrogen sensor have been done respectively in the lab. And experiment results show a high sensitivity of 0.055 pm/(μl/l) with instant response time about 0.4 h under the typical operating temperature of power transformers, which proves a potential utilization inside power transformers to monitor the health status by detecting the dissolved hydrogen concentration.

  13. Toward a hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath analysis

    Wiedemair, Justyna; van Dorp, Henriëtte; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution a chip-integrated amperometric sensor for the detection of H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is reported. The electrode chip is characterized, and detection of H2O2 in an aqueous phase is shown by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. Variation of conditions

  14. A sensitive nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on ...

    ple, H2O2 is useful for food production, sterilization, clin- ical applications and environmental analyses.1–4 Further, ... and showed a fast response and high sensitivity.9. Gu et al10 have synthesized Cu–. Ni(OH)2 nanocomposites and applied it as the fast and sensitive H2O2 sensor material. Ag nanoparticles were. ∗.

  15. Highly Sensitive and Selective Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using the Mesoporous SnO2 Modified Layers

    Niuzi Xue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is important to improve the sensitivities and selectivities of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS gas sensors when they are used to monitor the state of hydrogen in aerospace industry and electronic field. In this paper, the ordered mesoporous SnO2 (m-SnO2 powders were prepared by sol-gel method, and the morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET. The gas sensors were fabricated using m-SnO2 as the modified layers on the surface of commercial SnO2 (c-SnO2 by screen printing technology, and tested for gas sensing towards ethanol, benzene and hydrogen with operating temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 400 °C. Higher sensitivity was achieved by using the modified m-SnO2 layers on the c-SnO2 gas sensor, and it was found that the S(c/m2 sensor exhibited the highest response (Ra/Rg = 22.2 to 1000 ppm hydrogen at 400 °C. In this paper, the mechanism of the sensitivity and selectivity improvement of the gas sensors is also discussed.

  16. Ferroelectric Zinc Oxide Nanowire Embedded Flexible Sensor for Motion and Temperature Sensing.

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Park, Dae Hoon; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Min Hyung; Nah, Junghyo

    2017-03-22

    We report a simple method to realize multifunctional flexible motion sensor using ferroelectric lithium-doped ZnO-PDMS. The ferroelectric layer enables piezoelectric dynamic sensing and provides additional motion information to more precisely discriminate different motions. The PEDOT:PSS-functionalized AgNWs, working as electrode layers for the piezoelectric sensing layer, resistively detect a change of both movement or temperature. Thus, through the optimal integration of both elements, the sensing limit, accuracy, and functionality can be further expanded. The method introduced here is a simple and effective route to realize a high-performance flexible motion sensor with integrated multifunctionalities.

  17. Determination of hydrogen permeation using metallic sensors of construction similar to bimetallic thermocouples; Determinacao de permeacao de hidrogenio utilizando sensores metalicos de construcao similar a termopares bimetalicos

    Maul, Alexandre M. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia e Processos (PIPE- PRH-24/ANP); Ponte, Haroldo A. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Correa, Luiz A. [Metaldata Tecnologia de Materiais, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)] (in Memoriam)

    2004-07-01

    Crude oils range in consistency from water to tar-like solids, and in color from clear to black. An average crude oil contains about 84 percent carbon, 14 percent hydrogen, 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and less than 1 percent each of nitrogen, oxygen, metals, and salts. Crude oils are generally classified as paraffinic, naphthenic, or aromatic based on the predominant proportion of similar hydrocarbon molecules. Refinery crude base stocks usually consist of mixtures of two or more different crude oils. Many corrosive processes found in machines, equipment and pipes used in the petroleum industry are directly influenced by hydrogen. The structural damages are caused by hydrogen inclusion in metallic structures, generated by acid media that contain free protons (H{sup +}), by chemical processes that lead to the protons formation, by formation of atomic hydrogen (H0) or even by adsorbed gas hydrogen (H2). The structural damages are varied: hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), blistering, stress corrosion cracking (SSC), stress oriented hydrogen induced cracking (SOHIC). The main problem found in practice is how to detect, in a safe, fast and economically viable way, the formation of hydrogen close to a surface subjected to hydrogen permeation. Within this work, we built a cell for hydrogen generation/permeation to study and evaluate a new hydrogen sensor. This new sensor is composed of two parts, each one build with a couple of dissimilar materials, being a sensor couple, for hydrogen flux measurement, and a reference couple, for temperature corrections. In this sensor, the changes in some physical properties are related with the flow of permeated hydrogen. The results using a prototype model showed good agreement with a traditional Devanathan-Stachurski sensor. (author)

  18. Thermo analytic investigation of hydrogen effusion behavior - sensor evaluation and calibration

    Ried, P.; Gaber, M.; Beyer, K.; Mueller, R.; Kipphardt, H.; Kannengiesser, T. [BAM, Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The well established carrier gas analysis (CGA) method was used to test different hydrogen detectors comprising a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and a metal oxide semiconducting (MOx) sensor. The MOx sensor provides high hydrogen sensitivity and selectivity, whereas the TCD exhibits a much shorter response time and a linear hydrogen concentration dependency. Therefore, the TCD was used for quantitative hydrogen concentration measurements above 50 {mu}mol/mol. The respective calibration was made using N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixtures. Furthermore, the hydrogen content and degassing behaviour of titanium hydride (TiH{sub 2-x}) was studied. This material turned out to be a potential candidate for a solid sample calibration. Vacuum hot extraction (VHE) coupled with a mass spectrometer (MS) was then calibrated with TiH{sub 2-x} as transfer standard. The calibration was applied for the evaluation of the hydrogen content of austenitic steel samples (1.4301) and the comparison of CGA-TCD and VHE-MS. (Copyright copyright 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Research on High Sensitive D-Shaped FBG Hydrogen Sensors in Power Transformer Oil.

    Luo, Ying-Ting; Wang, Hong-Bin; Ma, Guo-Ming; Song, Hong-Tu; Li, Chengrong; Jiang, Jun

    2016-10-04

    Dissolved hydrogen is a symbol gas decomposed by power transformer oil for electrical faults such as overheat or partial discharges. A novel D-shaped fiber Bragg grating (D-FBG) sensor is herein proposed and was fabricated with magnetron sputtering to measure the dissolved hydrogen concentration in power transformer oil in this paper. Different from the RI (refractive index)-based effect, D-FBG in this case is sensitive to curvature caused by stress from sensing coating, leading to Bragg wavelength shifts accordingly. The relationship between the D-FBG wavelength shift and dissolved hydrogen concentration in oil was measured experimentally in the laboratory. The detected sensitivity could be as high as 1.96 μL/L at every 1-pm wavelength shift. The results proved that a simple, polished FBG-based hydrogen sensor provides a linear measuring characteristic in the range of low hydrogen concentrations in transformer oil. Moreover, the stable hydrogen sensing performance was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  20. Research on High Sensitive D-Shaped FBG Hydrogen Sensors in Power Transformer Oil

    Ying-Ting Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved hydrogen is a symbol gas decomposed by power transformer oil for electrical faults such as overheat or partial discharges. A novel D-shaped fiber Bragg grating (D-FBG sensor is herein proposed and was fabricated with magnetron sputtering to measure the dissolved hydrogen concentration in power transformer oil in this paper. Different from the RI (refractive index-based effect, D-FBG in this case is sensitive to curvature caused by stress from sensing coating, leading to Bragg wavelength shifts accordingly. The relationship between the D-FBG wavelength shift and dissolved hydrogen concentration in oil was measured experimentally in the laboratory. The detected sensitivity could be as high as 1.96 μL/L at every 1-pm wavelength shift. The results proved that a simple, polished FBG-based hydrogen sensor provides a linear measuring characteristic in the range of low hydrogen concentrations in transformer oil. Moreover, the stable hydrogen sensing performance was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  1. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes with Gold Nanoparticles to Fabricate a Sensor for Hydrogen Peroxide Determination

    Halimeh Rajabzade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive electrode was prepared based on gold nanoparticles/nanotubes/ionic liquid for measurement of Hydrogen peroxide. Gold nanoparticles of 20–25 nm were synthesized on a nanotube carbon paste electrode by cyclic voltammetry technique while the coverage was controlled by applied potential and time. The gold nanoparticles were modified to form a monolayer on CNT, followed by decoration with ionic liquid for determination of hydrogen peroxide. The experimental conditions, applied potential and pH, for hydrogen peroxide monitoring were optimized, and hydrogen peroxide was determined amperometrically at 0.3 V vs. SCE at pH 7.0. Electrocatalytic effects of gold deposited CNT were observed with respect to unmodified one. The sensitivity obtained was 5 times higher for modified one. The presence of Au particles in the matrix of CNTs provides an environment for the enhanced electrocatalytic activities. The sensor has a high sensitivity, quickly response to H2O2 and good stability. The synergistic influence of MWNT, Au particles and IL contributes to the excellent performance for the sensor. The sensor responds to H2O2 in the linear range from 0.02 µM to 0.3 mM. The detection limit was down to 0.4 µM when the signal to noise ratio is 3.

  2. Facile fabrication of a silicon nanowire sensor by two size reduction steps for detection of alpha-fetoprotein biomarker of liver cancer

    Pham, Van Binh; Pham, Xuan ThanhTung; Phan, Thanh Nhat Khoa; Le, Thi Thanh Tuyen; Dang, Mau Chien

    2015-01-01

    We present a facile technique that only uses conventional micro-techniques and two size-reduction steps to fabricate wafer-scale silicon nanowire (SiNW) with widths of 200 nm. Initially, conventional lithography was used to pattern SiNW with 2 μm width. Then the nanowire width was decreased to 200 nm by two size-reduction steps with isotropic wet etching. The fabricated SiNW was further investigated when used with nanowire field-effect sensors. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated SiNW devices were characterized and pH sensitivity was investigated. Then a simple and effective surface modification process was carried out to modify SiNW for subsequent binding of a desired receptor. The complete SiNW-based biosensor was then used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), one of the medically approved biomarkers for liver cancer diagnosis. Electrical measurements showed that the developed SiNW biosensor could detect AFP with concentrations of about 100 ng mL"−"1. This concentration is lower than the necessary AFP concentration for liver cancer diagnosis. (paper)

  3. Facile fabrication of a silicon nanowire sensor by two size reduction steps for detection of alpha-fetoprotein biomarker of liver cancer

    Binh Pham, Van; ThanhTung Pham, Xuan; Nhat Khoa Phan, Thanh; Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Chien Dang, Mau

    2015-12-01

    We present a facile technique that only uses conventional micro-techniques and two size-reduction steps to fabricate wafer-scale silicon nanowire (SiNW) with widths of 200 nm. Initially, conventional lithography was used to pattern SiNW with 2 μm width. Then the nanowire width was decreased to 200 nm by two size-reduction steps with isotropic wet etching. The fabricated SiNW was further investigated when used with nanowire field-effect sensors. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated SiNW devices were characterized and pH sensitivity was investigated. Then a simple and effective surface modification process was carried out to modify SiNW for subsequent binding of a desired receptor. The complete SiNW-based biosensor was then used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), one of the medically approved biomarkers for liver cancer diagnosis. Electrical measurements showed that the developed SiNW biosensor could detect AFP with concentrations of about 100 ng mL-1. This concentration is lower than the necessary AFP concentration for liver cancer diagnosis.

  4. Development of Fe-based superconducting wires for liquid-hydrogen level sensors

    Ishida, S.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Mawatari, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Nakano, A.; Yoshida, Y.

    2017-07-01

    We developed liquid-hydrogen (LH2) level sensors with Ba(Fe1-x Co x )2As2 superconducting wires (Co-Ba122 wires) as their detection elements. We fabricated Co-Ba122 wires with different Co concentrations x by using the powder-in-tube method. The superconducting transition temperatures of the wires were successfully controlled in the range of 20-25 K by changing x from 0.06 to 0.10. The resistance-temperature curves of the wires exhibited sharp superconducting transitions with widths of 0.5-1.0 K. In addition, we performed an operation test of the Co-Ba122 level sensors with LH2. Close correspondence between the output resistance and the actual LH2 level was observed for a sensor equipped with x = 0.09 wire, demonstrating that this sensor can accurately measure LH2 levels.

  5. Note: Durability analysis of optical fiber hydrogen sensor based on Pd-Y alloy film.

    Huang, Peng-cheng; Chen, You-ping; Zhang, Gang; Song, Han; Liu, Yi

    2016-02-01

    The Pd-Y alloy sensing film has an excellent property for hydrogen detection, but just for one month, the sensing film's property decreases seriously. To study the failure of the sensing film, the XPS spectra analysis was used to explore the chemical content of the Pd-Y alloy film, and analysis results demonstrate that the yttrium was oxidized. The paper presented that such an oxidized process was the potential reason of the failure of the sensing film. By understanding the reason of the failure of the sensing film better, we could improve the manufacturing process to enhance the property of hydrogen sensor.

  6. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  7. Development of a rechargeable optical hydrogen peroxide sensor - sensor design and biological application

    Koren, Klaus; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and readout strategy, H2O2 can be measured with high spatial (∼500 μm) and temporal (∼30 s) resolution. The sensor has a broad applicability both in complex environmental and biomedical systems, as demonstrated by (i) H2O2 concentration profile measurements in natural photosynthetic biofilms under light....... Quantifying H2O2 within biological samples is challenging and often not possible. Here we present a quasi-reversible fiber-optic sensor capable of measuring H2O2 concentrations ranging from 1-100 μM within different biological samples. Based on a Prussian blue/white redox cycle and a simple sensor recharging...

  8. Gas sensing properties of zinc stannate (Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}) nanowires prepared by carbon assisted thermal evaporation process

    Tharsika, T., E-mail: tharsika@siswa.um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Akbar, S.A., E-mail: akbar.1@osu.edu [Center for Industrial Sensors and Measurements (CISM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sabri, M.F.M., E-mail: faizul@um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Wong, Y.H., E-mail: yhwong@um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires are grown on Au/alumina substrate by a carbon assisted thermal evaporation process. • Optimum growth conditions for Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires are determined. • Ethanol gas is selectively sensed with high sensitivity. - Abstract: Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires are successfully synthesized by a carbon assisted thermal evaporation process with the help of a gold catalyst under ambient pressure. The as-synthesized nanowires are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The XRD patterns and elemental mapping via TEM–EDS clearly indicate that the nanowires are Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} with face centered spinel structure. HRTEM image confirms that Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires are single crystalline with an interplanar spacing of 0.26 nm, which is ascribed to the d-spacing of (3 1 1) planes of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}. The optimum processing condition and a possible formation mechanism of these Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires are discussed. Additionally, sensor performance of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires based sensor is studied for various test gases such as ethanol, methane and hydrogen. The results reveal that Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires exhibit excellent sensitivity and selectivity toward ethanol with quick response and recovery times. The response of the Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires based sensors to 50 ppm ethanol at an optimum operating temperature of 500 °C is about 21.6 with response and recovery times of about 116 s and 182 s, respectively.

  9. New Nanomaterials and Luminescent Optical Sensors for Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Natalia A. Burmistrova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate methods that can continuously detect low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 have a huge application potential in biological, pharmaceutical, clinical and environmental analysis. Luminescent probes and nanomaterials are used for fabrication of sensors for H2O2 that can be applied for these purposes. In contrast to previous reviews focusing on the chemical design of molecular probes for H2O2, this mini-review highlights the latest luminescent nanoparticular materials and new luminescent optical sensors for H2O2 in terms of the nanomaterial composition and luminescent receptor used in the sensors. The nanomaterial section is subdivided into schemes based on gold nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles with embedded enzymes, probes showing aggregation-induced emission enhancement, quantum dots, lanthanide-based nanoparticles and carbon based nanomaterials, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are ordered according to the type of luminescent receptor used within the sensor membranes. Among them are lanthanide complexes, metal-ligand complexes, oxidic nanoparticles and organic dyes. Further, the optical sensors are confined to those that are capable to monitor the concentration of H2O2 in a sample over time or are reusable. Optical sensors responding to gaseous H2O2 are not covered. All nanomaterials and sensors are characterized with respect to the analytical reaction towards H2O2, limit of detection (LOD, analytical range, electrolyte, pH and response time/incubation time. Applications to real samples are given. Finally, we assess the suitability of the nanomaterials to be used in membrane-based sensors and discuss future trends and perspectives of these sensors in biomedical research.

  10. Development of a Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a Double Saw Resonator System at Room Temperature

    Zainab Yunusa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A double SAW resonator system was developed as a novel method for gas sensing applications. The proposed system was investigated for hydrogen sensing. Commercial Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW resonators with resonance frequencies of 433.92 MHz and 433.42 MHz were employed in the double SAW resonator system configuration. The advantages of using this configuration include its ability for remote measurements, and insensitivity to vibrations and other external disturbances. The sensitive layer is composed of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers which were deposited on pre-patterned platinum metal electrodes fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate. This was mounted into the DSAWR circuit and connected in parallel. The sensor response was measured as the difference between the resonance frequencies of the SAW resonators, which is a measure of the gas concentration. The sensor showed good response towards hydrogen with a minimum detection limit of 1%.

  11. A Robust Fiber Bragg Grating Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using Platinum-Supported Silica Catalyst Film

    Marina Kurohiji; Seiji Ichiriyama; Naoki Yamasaku; Shinji Okazaki; Naoya Kasai; Yusuke Maru; Tadahito Mizutani

    2018-01-01

    A robust fiber Bragg grating (FBG) hydrogen gas sensor for reliable multipoint-leakage monitoring has been developed. The sensing mechanism is based on shifts of center wavelength of the reflection spectra due to temperature change caused by catalytic combustion heat. The sensitive film which consists of platinum-supported silica (Pt/SiO2) catalyst film was obtained using sol-gel method. The precursor solution was composed of hexachloroplatinic acid and commercially available silica precursor...

  12. In-situ growth of ZnO nanowire arrays on the sensing electrode via a facile hydrothermal route for high-performance NO2 sensor

    Chen, Xiangxiang; Shen, Yanbai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Wei, Dezhou; Lu, Rui; Zhu, Lijia; Li, Hansen; Shen, Yansong

    2018-03-01

    ZnO nanowire (ZNW) arrays were in-situ grown on the sensing electrode via a facile hydrothermal route for NO2 sensing application. ZNW arrays were prepared by a seed layer deposition on the surface of the sensing electrode using a dipping process in a Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O ethanol solution followed by a seed growth using a hydrothermal route in the Zn(NO3)2·6H2O-HMTA (C6H12N4) system. The microstructural characterizations of the ZNW arrays by means of XRD, FESEM, TEM, FTIR and XPS showed that ZnO nanowires with the diameters of 80-90 nm and the lengths of 0.6-1 μm had a single crystal hexagonal wurtzite structure. Gas sensing properties demonstrated the response of the sensor based on the ZNW arrays was linearly proportional to the NO2 concentration in the range of 1-30 ppm with good reproducibility and selectivity. The maximum sensor response to NO2 was obtained at an operating temperature of 250 °C. The response and recovery times reduced rapidly with increasing the operating temperature. The growth mechanism and sensing mechanism of the ZNW arrays were discussed in accordance with the deposition of the seed layer and the modulation of the depletion layer, respectively.

  13. A Robust Fiber Bragg Grating Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using Platinum-Supported Silica Catalyst Film

    Marina Kurohiji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust fiber Bragg grating (FBG hydrogen gas sensor for reliable multipoint-leakage monitoring has been developed. The sensing mechanism is based on shifts of center wavelength of the reflection spectra due to temperature change caused by catalytic combustion heat. The sensitive film which consists of platinum-supported silica (Pt/SiO2 catalyst film was obtained using sol-gel method. The precursor solution was composed of hexachloroplatinic acid and commercially available silica precursor solution. The atom ratio of Si : Pt was fixed at 13 : 1. A small amount of this solution was dropped on the substrate and dried at room temperature. After that, the film was calcined at 500°C in air. These procedures were repeated and therefore thick hydrogen-sensitive films were obtained. The catalytic film obtained by 20-time coating on quartz glass substrate showed a temperature change 75 K upon exposure to 3 vol.% H2. For realizing robust sensor device, this catalytic film was deposited and FBG portion was directly fixed on titanium substrate. The sensor device showed good performances enough to detect hydrogen gas in the concentration range below lower explosion limit at room temperature. The enhancement of the sensitivity was attributed to not only catalytic combustion heat but also related thermal strain.

  14. A Hydrogen Ion-Selective Sensor Based on Non-Plasticised Methacrylic-acrylic Membranes

    Musa Ahmad

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A methacrylic-acrylic polymer was synthesised for use as a non-plasticised membrane for hydrogen ion-selective sensor incorporating tridodecylamine as an ionophore. The copolymer consisted of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate monomers in a ratio of 2:8. Characterisation of the copolymer using FTNMR demonstrated that the amount of each monomer incorporated during solution polymerisation was found to be similar to the amount used in the feed before polymerisation. The glass transition temperature of the copolymer determined by differential scanning calorimetry was -30.9 ºC. Potentiometric measurements conducted showed a linear pH response range of 4.3 – 9.6 with the response slope of 56.7 mV/decade. The selectivity of the sensors towards hydrogen ions was similar to other plasticiser based membrane electrodes and the logarithmic selectivity coefficients for discrimination against interference cations is close to –9.7. However, the incorporation of a lipophilic anion as membrane additive is essential in ensuring optimum performance of the hydrogen ion sensor.

  15. The study of hydrogen peroxide level under cisplatin action using genetically encoded sensor hyper

    Belova, A. S.; Orlova, A. G.; Maslennikova, A. V.; Brilkina, A. A.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Antonova, N. O.; Mishina, N. M.; Shakhova, N. M.; Belousov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the work was to study the participation of hydrogen peroxide in reaction of cervical cancer cell line HeLa Kyoto on cisplatin action. Determination of hydrogen peroxide level was performed using genetically encoded fluorescent sensor HyPer2. The dependence of cell viability on cisplatin concentration was determined using MTT assay. Mechanisms of cell death as well as HyPer2 reaction was revealed by flow cytometry after 6-hours of incubation with cisplatin in different concentrations. Cisplatin used in low concentrations had no effect on hydrogen peroxide level in HeLa Kyoto cells. Increase of HyPer2 fluorescence was detected only after exposure with cisplatin in high concentration. The reaction was not the consequence of cell death.

  16. Carrier gas effects on aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth

    Ke, Yue; Hainey, Mel Jr; Won, Dongjin; Weng, Xiaojun; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Redwing, Joan M

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowire growth under low-pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions requires higher reactor pressures than gold-catalyzed growth, but the reasons for this difference are not well understood. In this study, the effects of reactor pressure and hydrogen partial pressure on silicon nanowire growth using an aluminum catalyst were studied by growing nanowires in hydrogen and hydrogen/nitrogen carrier gas mixtures at different total reactor pressures. Nanowires grown in the nitrogen/hydrogen mixture have faceted catalyst droplet tips, minimal evidence of aluminum diffusion from the tip down the nanowire sidewalls, and significant vapor–solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. In comparison, wires grown in pure hydrogen show less well-defined tips, evidence of aluminum diffusion down the nanowire sidewalls at increasing reactor pressures and reduced vapor–solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. The results are explained in terms of a model wherein the hydrogen partial pressure plays a critical role in aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth by controlling hydrogen termination of the silicon nanowire sidewalls. For a given reactor pressure, increased hydrogen partial pressures increase the extent of hydrogen termination of the sidewalls which suppresses SiH_4 adsorption thereby reducing vapor–solid deposition of silicon but increases the surface diffusion length of aluminum. Conversely, lower hydrogen partial pressures reduce the hydrogen termination and also increase the extent of SiH_4 gas phase decomposition, shifting the nanowire growth window to lower growth temperatures and silane partial pressures. (paper)

  17. Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensor Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-05-00158

    Ringer, M.

    2010-01-01

    NREL and Nuclear Filter Technology collaborated to develop a prototype product for a hydrogen threshold sensor that was used to monitor hydrogen production in the transport of nuclear waste transport containers. This application is a core business area for Nuclear Filter Technology and will provide a basis for creating sensor products that are used in other licensed fields of use. Activities included design and construction of prototype product, product testing and debugging, and finalizing a prototype for initial field tests.

  18. Temperature dependent dual hydrogen sensor response of Pd nanoparticle decorated Al doped ZnO surfaces

    Gupta, D.; Barman, P. B.; Hazra, S. K., E-mail: surajithazra@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh-173234 (India); Dutta, D. [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Kumar, M.; Som, T. [SUNAG Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)

    2015-10-28

    Sputter deposited Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films exhibit a dual hydrogen sensing response in the temperature range 40 °C–150 °C after surface modifications with palladium nanoparticles. The unmodified AZO films showed no response in hydrogen in the temperature range 40 °C–150 °C. The operational temperature windows on the low and high temperature sides have been estimated by isolating the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature zone of the sensor device. The gas response pattern was modeled by considering various adsorption isotherms, which revealed the dominance of heterogeneous adsorption characteristics. The Arrhenius adsorption barrier showed dual variation with change in hydrogen gas concentration on either side of the semiconductor-to-metal transition. A detailed analysis of the hydrogen gas response pattern by considering the changes in nano palladium due to hydrogen adsorption, and semiconductor-to-metal transition of nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO layer due to temperature, along with material characterization studies by glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, are presented.

  19. Efficient and rapid microwave-assisted route to synthesize Pt–MnOx hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Kivrak, Hilal; Alal, Orhan; Atbas, Dilan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon supported Pt-MnOx catalyst could be synthesized succesfully by microwave irradiation method. • Carbon supported Pt-MnOx non-enzymatic H 2 O 2 sensor exhibits excellent selectivity, stability, and reproducibility • Carbon supported Pt-MnOx sensor can effectively resist the effect of interferents such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is proposed based on carbon supported Pt-MnO x and Pt nanoparticles, successfully synthesized via microwave irradiation polyol method. The physicochemical properties of the Pt-MnO x and Pt nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical properties of the nanoparticles were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Electrochemical measurements indicate that the oxidation current of H 2 O 2 is linear (R 2 =0.998) to its concentration from 2 μM to 4.0 mM with a detection limit of 0.7 μM (signal/noise = 3). In addition, Pt-MnO x is not affected by ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) which are common interfering species. Meanwhile, this Pt-MnO x non-enzymatic H 2 O 2 sensor exhibits excellent selectivity, stability and reproducibility. Thus, this novel non-enzymatic sensor can be found practical applications in H 2 O 2 detection

  20. Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Sensor Deposited on Integrated Circuit for Radiation Detection

    Despeisse, M; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Moraes, D; Nardulli, A; Powolny, F; Wyrsch, N

    2008-01-01

    Radiation detectors based on the deposition of a 10 to 30 mum thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) sensor directly on top of integrated circuits have been developed. The performance of this detector technology has been assessed for the first time in the context of particle detectors. Three different circuits were designed in a quarter micron CMOS technology for these studies. The so-called TFA (Thin-Film on ASIC) detectors obtained after deposition of a-Si:H sensors on the developed circuits are presented. High internal electric fields (104 to 105 V/cm) can be built in the a-Si:H sensor and overcome the low mobility of electrons and holes in this amorphous material. However, the deposited sensor's leakage current at such fields turns out to be an important parameter which limits the performance of a TFA detector. Its detailed study is presented as well as the detector's pixel segmentation. Signal induction by generated free carrier motion in the a-Si:H sensor has been characterized using a 660 nm pul...

  1. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  2. Thermal detection mechanism of SiC based hydrogen resistive gas sensors

    Fawcett, Timothy J.; Wolan, John T.; Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Reyes, Meralys; Saddow, Stephen E.

    2006-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) resistive hydrogen gas sensors have been fabricated and tested. Planar NiCr contacts were deposited on a thin 3C-SiC epitaxial film grown on thin Si wafers bonded to polycrystalline SiC substrates. At 673K, up to a 51.75±0.04% change in sensor output current and a change in the device temperature of up to 163.1±0.4K were demonstrated in response to 100% H2 in N2. Changes in device temperature are shown to be driven by the transfer of heat from the device to the gas, giving rise to a thermal detection mechanism.

  3. Design Optimization and Fabrication of High-Sensitivity SOI Pressure Sensors with High Signal-to-Noise Ratios Based on Silicon Nanowire Piezoresistors

    Jiahong Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirement of high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR, this study develops and optimizes a piezoresistive pressure sensor by using double silicon nanowire (SiNW as the piezoresistive sensing element. First of all, ANSYS finite element method and voltage noise models are adopted to optimize the sensor size and the sensor output (such as sensitivity, voltage noise and SNR. As a result, the sensor of the released double SiNW has 1.2 times more sensitivity than that of single SiNW sensor, which is consistent with the experimental result. Our result also displays that both the sensitivity and SNR are closely related to the geometry parameters of SiNW and its doping concentration. To achieve high performance, a p-type implantation of 5 × 1018 cm−3 and geometry of 10 µm long SiNW piezoresistor of 1400 nm × 100 nm cross area and 6 µm thick diaphragm of 200 µm × 200 µm are required. Then, the proposed SiNW pressure sensor is fabricated by using the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS lithography process as well as wet-etch release process. This SiNW pressure sensor produces a change in the voltage output when the external pressure is applied. The involved experimental results show that the pressure sensor has a high sensitivity of 495 mV/V·MPa in the range of 0–100 kPa. Nevertheless, the performance of the pressure sensor is influenced by the temperature drift. Finally, for the sake of obtaining accurate and complete information over wide temperature and pressure ranges, the data fusion technique is proposed based on the back-propagation (BP neural network, which is improved by the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The particle swarm optimization–back-propagation (PSO–BP model is implemented in hardware using a 32-bit STMicroelectronics (STM32 microcontroller. The results of calibration and test experiments clearly prove that the PSO–BP neural network can be effectively applied

  4. Effect of liquid gate bias rising time in pH sensors based on Si nanowire ion sensitive field effect transistors

    Jang, Jungkyu; Choi, Sungju; Kim, Jungmok; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Dae Hwan; Mo, Hyun-Sun

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of rising time (TR) of liquid gate bias (VLG) on transient responses in pH sensors based on Si nanowire ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). As TR becomes shorter and pH values decrease, the ISFET current takes a longer time to saturate to the pH-dependent steady-state value. By correlating VLG with the internal gate-to-source voltage of the ISFET, we found that this effect occurs when the drift/diffusion of mobile ions in analytes in response to VLG is delayed. This gives us useful insight on the design of ISFET-based point-of-care circuits and systems, particularly with respect to determining an appropriate rising time for the liquid gate bias.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide sensor: Uniformly decorated silver nanoparticles on polypyrrole for wide detection range

    Nia, Pooria Moozarm; Meng, Woi Pei; Alias, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical method was used for depositing silver nanoparticles and polypyrrole. • Silver nanoparticles (25 nm) were uniformly decorated on electrodeposited polypyrrole. • (Ag(NH 3 ) 2 OH) precursor showed better electrochemical performance than (AgNO 3 ). • The sensor showed superior performance toward H 2 O 2 . - Abstract: Electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared and used as a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) detection. Polypyrrole was fabricated through electrodeposition, while silver nanoparticles were deposited on polypyrrole by the same technique. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the electrodeposited AgNPs were aligned along the PPy uniformly and the mean particle size of AgNPs is around 25 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs-PPy-GCE toward H 2 O 2 was studied using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1–5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.115 μmol l −1 and the second linear section was raised to 120 mM with a correlation factor of 0.256 μmol l −1 (S/N of 3). Moreover, the sensor presented excellent stability, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. These excellent performances make AgNPs-PPy/GCE an ideal nonenzymatic H 2 O 2 sensor.

  6. Printed hydrogen sulfide gas sensor on paper substrate based on polyaniline composite

    Sarfraz, J.; Ihalainen, P.; Määttänen, A.; Peltonen, J.; Lindén, M.

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of a hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) sensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-metal salt (CuCl 2 ) composite is demonstrated. The sensing film was produced by screen printing and spray coating of the sensing material on interdigitated silver electrodes inkjet-printed on a paper substrate. The H 2 S sensing functionality with respect to pH and metal salt concentration was optimized. In addition, the long term stability and humidity effects on the sensor performance were investigated. The printed chemiresistors showed more than five orders of magnitude change in resistance within 20 min of exposure of 15 ppm H 2 S at room temperature. The relatively fast kinetics and large response of the sensor can be explained by the formation of Cu 2 S and subsequent protonation of PANI. In addition, the relatively large roughness and porosity of the paper substrate offers an increased surface sensing area. - Highlights: • pH, salt concentration, film thickness, cross sensitivity • Printed sensor on paper substrate • Commercial polyaniline against special morphologies

  7. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensors based on thin film on ASIC technology

    Despeisse, M; Anelli, G; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Rusack, R; Saramad, S; Wyrsch, N

    2006-01-01

    The performance and limitations of a novel detector technology based on the deposition of a thin-film sensor on top of processed integrated circuits have been studied. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been deposited on top of CMOS circuits developed for these studies and the resulting "thin-film on ASIC" (TFA) detectors are presented. The leakage current of the a-Si:H sensor at high reverse biases turns out to be an important parameter limiting the performance of a TFA detector. Its detailed study and the pixel segmentation of the detector are presented. High internal electric fields (in the order of 10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ V/cm) can be built in the a-Si:H sensor and overcome the low mobility of electrons and holes in a-Si:H. Signal induction by generated carrier motion and speed in the a-Si:H sensor have been studied with a 660 nm pulsed laser on a TFA detector based on an ASIC integrating 5 ns peaking time pre- amplifiers. The measurement set-up also permits to study the depletion of the senso...

  8. Polymer-derived microporous ceramics for membranes and sensors for high temperature hydrogen purification and sensing

    Prasad, Ravi Mohan

    2012-06-11

    The growing interest in the use of hydrogen as main fuel has increased the need for pure hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production and purification. There are several by-products (CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}) associated with the production of hydrogen which might damage the production rate. Therefore, separation of hydrogen from other gases is an important step in the hydrogen production process. If H{sub 2} can be selectively removed from the product side during hydrogen production in membrane reactors, then it would be possible to achieve complete CO conversion in a single-step under high temperature conditions. The main goal of the present work is the high temperature H{sub 2} purification and sensing by applying polymer-derived ceramics. To prove the concept, the microporous SiBCN, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiCN ceramic membranes have been synthesized by the polymer-pyrolysis route and their performance for the hydrogen separation have been evaluated in tubular membranes as well as in planar chemiresistors. The synthesis of amorphous SiBCN ceramics has been realized through pyrolysis of poly(organoborosilazanes) in argon. Multilayered amorphous SiBCN/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes with gradient porosity have been realized and assessed with respect to the thermal stability, pore-size distribution and H{sub 2}/CO permeance. N{sub 2}-adsorption measurement indicates micropores in the range of 0.68-0.73 nm for three-fold SiBCN/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane. SEM characterization of three-fold SiBCN/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane shows the thickness of SiBCN membrane layer is 2.8 {mu}m; gas permeance measurements of the membrane shows H{sub 2}/CO selectivity of about 10.5 and the H{sub 2} permeance of about 1.05 x 10{sup -8} mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}Pa{sup -1}. The observed gas permeation properties point out that the transportation of gas molecules through the membrane is governed by both

  9. Nanowires: properties, applications and synthesis via porous anodic ...

    Moreover, periodic arrays of magnetic nanowires hold high potential for recording media application. Nanowires are also potential candidates for sensor and bio-medical applications. In the present article, the physical and chemical properties of nanowires along with their probable applications in different fields have been ...

  10. Three-dimensional lattice rotation in GaAs nanowire growth on hydrogen-silsesquioxane covered GaAs (001) using molecular beam epitaxy

    Tran, Dat Q.; Pham, Huyen T.; Higashimine, Koichi; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Akabori, Masashi

    2018-05-01

    We report on crystallographic behaviors of inclined GaAs nanowires (NWs) self-crystallized on GaAs (001) substrate. The NWs were grown on hydrogen-silsesquioxane (HSQ) covered substrates using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Commonly, the epitaxial growth of GaAs B (B-polar) NWs is prominently observed on GaAs (001); however, we yielded a remarkable number of epitaxially grown GaAs A (A-polar) NWs in addition to the majorly obtained B-polar NWs. Such NW orientations are always accompanied by a typical inclined angle of 35° from (001) plane. NWs with another inclined angle of 74° were additionally observed and attributed to be -oriented, not in direct epitaxial relation with the substrate. Such 74° NWs' existence is related to first-order three-dimensional (3D) lattice rotation taking place at the very beginning of the growth. It turns out that spatially 60° lattice rotation around directions at GaAs seeds is essentially in charge of A- and B-polar 74° NWs. Transmission electron microscope observations reveal a high density of twinning in the B-polar NWs and twin-free characteristic in the A-polar NWs.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide and glucose concentration measurement using optical fiber grating sensors with corrodible plasmonic nanocoatings.

    Zhang, Xuejun; Wu, Ze; Liu, Fu; Fu, Qiangqiang; Chen, Xiaoyong; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Zhaochuan; Huang, Yunyun; Tang, Yong; Guo, Tuan; Albert, Jacques

    2018-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and glucose concentration measurements using a plasmonic optical fiber sensor. The sensor utilizes a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) written in standard single mode communication fiber. The fiber is over coated with an nm-scale film of silver that supports surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Such a tilted grating SPR structure provides a high density of narrow spectral resonances (Q-factor about 10 5 ) that overlap with the broader absorption band of the surface plasmon waves in the silver film, thereby providing an accurate tool to measure small shifts of the plasmon resonance frequencies. The H 2 O 2 to be detected acts as an oxidant to etch the silver film, which has the effect of gradually decreasing the SPR attenuation. The etching rate of the silver film shows a clear relationship with the H 2 O 2 concentration so that monitoring the progressively increasing attenuation of a selected surface plasmon resonance over a few minutes enables us to measure the H 2 O 2 concentration with a limit of detection of 0.2 μM. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applied to the determination of glucose in human serum for a concentration range from 0 to 12 mM (within the physiological range of 3-8 mM) by monitoring the H 2 O 2 produced by an enzymatic oxidation process. The sensor does not require accurate temperature control because of the inherent temperature insensitivity of TFBG devices referenced to the core mode resonance. A gold mirror coated on the fiber allows the sensor to work in reflection, which will facilitate the integration of the sensor with a hypodermic needle for in vitro measurements. The present study shows that Ag-coated TFBG-SPR can be applied as a promising type of sensing probe for optical detection of H 2 O 2 and glucose detection in human serum.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide and glucose concentration measurement using optical fiber grating sensors with corrodible plasmonic nanocoatings

    Zhang, Xuejun; Wu, Ze; Liu, Fu; Fu, Qiangqiang; Chen, Xiaoyong; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Zhaochuan; Huang, Yunyun; Tang, Yong; Guo, Tuan; Albert, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose concentration measurements using a plasmonic optical fiber sensor. The sensor utilizes a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) written in standard single mode communication fiber. The fiber is over coated with an nm-scale film of silver that supports surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Such a tilted grating SPR structure provides a high density of narrow spectral resonances (Q-factor about 105) that overlap with the broader absorption band of the surface plasmon waves in the silver film, thereby providing an accurate tool to measure small shifts of the plasmon resonance frequencies. The H2O2 to be detected acts as an oxidant to etch the silver film, which has the effect of gradually decreasing the SPR attenuation. The etching rate of the silver film shows a clear relationship with the H2O2 concentration so that monitoring the progressively increasing attenuation of a selected surface plasmon resonance over a few minutes enables us to measure the H2O2 concentration with a limit of detection of 0.2 μM. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applied to the determination of glucose in human serum for a concentration range from 0 to 12 mM (within the physiological range of 3-8 mM) by monitoring the H2O2 produced by an enzymatic oxidation process. The sensor does not require accurate temperature control because of the inherent temperature insensitivity of TFBG devices referenced to the core mode resonance. A gold mirror coated on the fiber allows the sensor to work in reflection, which will facilitate the integration of the sensor with a hypodermic needle for in vitro measurements. The present study shows that Ag-coated TFBG-SPR can be applied as a promising type of sensing probe for optical detection of H2O2 and glucose detection in human serum. PMID:29675315

  13. Preparation of Gas Sensor Based on Polymer Nanocomposite for Qualitative Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Elaheh Ghazizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, a by-product often produced in petrochemical processes, is well known as a dangerous and highly toxic gas to living organisms. The smell of H2S concentration of higher than 100 ppm can cause severe biological condition. Therefore, the detection of this gas is a crucial issue. In this work, nanocomposite porous films of polyurethane/silver (PU/Ag and poly(vinylchloride/silver (PVC/Ag consisting of 7 wt% nanoparticles were fabricated by phase inversion method and studied its qualitative detection capacity for H2S. The results indicated that after exposure to 50 ppm H2S, black points appeared on the surface of the test films within 10 min. However, the color completely disappeared when the films were left in the air for 20 min. Structural characteristics of the nanocomposites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffractometry (XRD and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA to confirm possible interactions which may have formed between the polymers and nanoparticles. According to the results, Ag nanoparticles were well dispersed in PU and PVC matrices giving particle sizes of less than 62 and 76 nm, respectively. The observations revealed that two recommended nanocomposites (PU/Ag and PVC/Ag could be used for detection of hydrogen sulfide at low level concentration. The response of Ag-embedded polymer films toward H2S vapour showed a better detection by PU/Ag compared to PVC/Ag. Therefore, the suggested silver nanoparticle-loaded PU and PVC sensor films are easily portable, simple to use and cost-less compared with other types of hydrogen sulfide sensors.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide sensor: Uniformly decorated silver nanoparticles on polypyrrole for wide detection range

    Nia, Pooria Moozarm; Meng, Woi Pei; Alias, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared and used as a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. Polypyrrole was fabricated through electrodeposition, while silver nanoparticles were deposited on polypyrrole by the same technique. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the electrodeposited AgNPs were aligned along the PPy uniformly and the mean particle size of AgNPs is around 25 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs-PPy-GCE toward H2O2 was studied using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1-5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.115 μmol l-1 and the second linear section was raised to 120 mM with a correlation factor of 0.256 μmol l-1 (S/N of 3). Moreover, the sensor presented excellent stability, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. These excellent performances make AgNPs-PPy/GCE an ideal nonenzymatic H2O2 sensor.

  15. Organic Nanowires

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...... atomic force microscopy and from polarized far-field optical microscopy for various prototypical molecules are reproduced by electrostatic and Monte Carlo calculations. Based on the crystal structure, predictions on the growth habit from other conjugated molecules become in reach....

  16. Detecting Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at Room Temperature Using ZnSnO3/ZnO Nanowire Piezo-Nanogenerator as Self-Powered Gas Sensor.

    Fu, Yongming; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Wang, Penglei; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xinyu

    2015-05-20

    High sensitivity, selectivity, and reliability have been achieved from ZnSnO3/ZnO nanowire (NW) piezo-nanogenerator (NG) as self-powered gas sensor (SPGS) for detecting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at room temperature (RT). After being exposed to 8000 ppm LPG, the output piezo-voltage of ZnSnO3/ZnO NW SPGS under compressive deformation is 0.089 V, much smaller than that in air ambience (0.533 V). The sensitivity of the SPGS against 8000 ppm LPG is up to 83.23, and the low limit of detection is 600 ppm. The SPGS has lower sensitivity against H2S, H2, ethanol, methanol and saturated water vapor than LPG, indicating good selectivity for detecting LPG. After two months, the decline of the sensing performance is less than 6%. Such piezo-LPG sensing at RT can be ascribed to the new piezo-surface coupling effect of ZnSnO3/ZnO nanocomposites. The practical application of the device driven by human motion has also been simply demonstrated. This work provides a novel approach to fabricate RT-LPG sensors and promotes the development of self-powered sensing system.

  17. A Novel MOS Nanowire Gas Sensor Device (S3 and GC-MS-Based Approach for the Characterization of Grated Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese

    Veronica Sberveglieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the originality of a typical Italian Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, it is crucial to define and characterize its quality, ripening period, and geographical origin. Different analytical techniques have been applied aimed at studying the organoleptic and characteristic volatile organic compounds (VOCs profile of this cheese. However, most of the classical methods are time consuming and costly. The aim of this work was to illustrate a new simple, portable, fast, reliable, non-destructive, and economic sensor device S3 based on an array of six metal oxide semiconductor nanowire gas sensors to assess and discriminate the quality ranking of grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese samples and to identify the VOC biomarkers using a headspace SPME-GC-MS. The device could clearly differentiate cheese samples varying in quality and ripening time when the results were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis involving principal component analysis (PCA. Similarly, the volatile constituents of Parmigiano Reggiano identified were consistent with the compounds intimated in the literature. The obtained results show the applicability of an S3 device combined with SPME-GC-MS and sensory evaluation for a fast and high-sensitivity analysis of VOCs in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and for the quality control of this class of cheese.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide sensor: Uniformly decorated silver nanoparticles on polypyrrole for wide detection range

    Nia, Pooria Moozarm, E-mail: pooriamn@yahoo.com; Meng, Woi Pei, E-mail: pmwoi@um.edu.my; Alias, Y., E-mail: yatimah70@um.edu.my

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical method was used for depositing silver nanoparticles and polypyrrole. • Silver nanoparticles (25 nm) were uniformly decorated on electrodeposited polypyrrole. • (Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH) precursor showed better electrochemical performance than (AgNO{sub 3}). • The sensor showed superior performance toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared and used as a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) detection. Polypyrrole was fabricated through electrodeposition, while silver nanoparticles were deposited on polypyrrole by the same technique. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the electrodeposited AgNPs were aligned along the PPy uniformly and the mean particle size of AgNPs is around 25 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs-PPy-GCE toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was studied using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1–5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.115 μmol l{sup −1} and the second linear section was raised to 120 mM with a correlation factor of 0.256 μmol l{sup −1} (S/N of 3). Moreover, the sensor presented excellent stability, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. These excellent performances make AgNPs-PPy/GCE an ideal nonenzymatic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor.

  19. Fiber optic hydrogen gas sensor utilizing surface plasmon resonance and native defects of zinc oxide by palladium

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental study on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based fiber optic hydrogen gas sensor employing a palladium doped zinc oxide nanocomposite (ZnO (1−x) Pd x , 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.85) layer over the silver coated unclad core of the fiber. Palladium doped zinc oxide nanocomposites (ZnO (1−x) Pd x )  are prepared by a chemical route for different composition ratios and their structural, morphological and hydrogen sensing properties are investigated experimentally. The sensing principle involves the absorption of hydrogen gas by ZnO (1−x) Pd x , altering its dielectric function. The change in the dielectric constant is analyzed in terms of the red shift of the resonance wavelength in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. To check the sensing capability of sensing probes fabricated with varying composition ratio (x) of nanocomposite, the SPR curves are recorded typically for 0% H 2 and 4% H 2 in N 2 atmosphere for each fabricated probe. On changing the concentration of hydrogen gas from 0% to 4%, the red shift in the SPR spectrum confirms the change in dielectric constant of ZnO (1−x) Pd x on exposure to hydrogen gas. It is noted that the shift in the SPR spectrum increases monotonically up to a certain fraction of Pd in zinc oxide, beyond which it starts decreasing. SEM images and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that Pd dopant atoms substitutionally incorporated into the ZnO lattice profoundly affect its defect levels; this is responsible for the optimal composition of ZnO (1−x) Pd x to sense the hydrogen gas. The sensor is highly selective to hydrogen gas and possesses high sensitivity. Since optical fiber sensing technology is employed along with the SPR technique, the present sensor is capable of remote sensing and online monitoring of hydrogen gas. (paper)

  20. Fabrication of a novel electrochemical sensor for determination of hydrogen peroxide in different fruit juice samples

    Nasirizadeh, Navid; Shekari, Zahra; Nazari, Ali; Tabatabaee, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    A new hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor is fabricated based on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNT-GCE) and reactive blue 19 (RB). The charge transfer coefficient, α, and the charge transfer rate constant, ks, of RB adsorbed on MWCNT-GCE were calculated and found to be 0.44 ± 0.01 Hz and 1.9 ± 0.05 Hz, respectively. The catalysis of the electroreduction of H2O2 by RB-MWCNT-GCE is described. The RB-MWCNT-GCE shows a dramatic increase in the peak current and a de...

  1. Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor using an electrode modified with iron pentacyanonitrosylferrate nanoparticles

    Razmi, H.; Mohammad-Rezaei, R.

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor was developed for determination of hydrogen peroxide (HP) based on a carbon ceramic electrode modified with iron pentacyanonitrosylferrate (FePCNF). The surface of an iron-doped CCE was derivatized in a solution of PCNF by cycling the electrode potential between -0. 2 and +1. 3 V for about 60 times. The morphology and the composition of the resulting electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared techniques. The electrode displayed excellent response to the electro-oxidation of HP which is linearly related to its concentration in the range from 0. 5 μM to 1300 μM. The detection limit is 0. 4 μM, and the sensitivity is 849 A M -1 cm -2 . The modified electrode was used to determination of HP in hair coloring creams as real samples. (author)

  2. Green synthesis of nanosilver as a sensor for detection of hydrogen peroxide in water.

    Shukla, Vineet K; Yadav, Raghvendra S; Yadav, Poonam; Pandey, Avinash C

    2012-04-30

    Present "green" synthesis is an efficient, easy-going, fast, renewable, inexpensive, eco-friendly and non-toxic approach for nanosilver formation, which offers numerous benefits over physiochemical approaches. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern suggests the formation and crystallinity of nanosilver. The average particle size of silver nanoparticles was 8.25±1.37 nm as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The UV-vis absorption spectrum shows a characteristic absorption peak of silver nanoparticles at 410 nm. FTIR confirms Azadirachtin as reducing and stabilizing agent for nanosilver formation. In addition, the nanosilver modified electrode (Ag/GC) exhibited an excellent electro-catalytic activity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The produced nanosilver is stable and comparable in size. These silver nanoparticles show potential applications in the field of sensors, catalysis, fuel cells and nanodevices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Green synthesis of nanosilver as a sensor for detection of hydrogen peroxide in water

    Shukla, Vineet K.; Yadav, Raghvendra S.; Yadav, Poonam; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Present “green” synthesis is an efficient, easy-going, fast, renewable, inexpensive, eco-friendly and non-toxic approach. ► TEM shows average particle size of 8.25 ± 1.37 nm of synthesized nanosilver, giving UV–vis absorption at 410 nm. ► FTIR confirms Azadirachtin as reducing and stabilizing agent for nanosilver formation (stability up to three months). ► The nanosilver modified electrode (Ag/GC) exhibited an excellent electro-catalytic activity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). ► The recovery percentage of H 2 O 2 in water is 92–105%, which is applicable for sensors and water/waste water plants. - Abstract: Present “green” synthesis is an efficient, easy-going, fast, renewable, inexpensive, eco-friendly and non-toxic approach for nanosilver formation, which offers numerous benefits over physiochemical approaches. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern suggests the formation and crystallinity of nanosilver. The average particle size of silver nanoparticles was 8.25 ± 1.37 nm as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The UV–vis absorption spectrum shows a characteristic absorption peak of silver nanoparticles at 410 nm. FTIR confirms Azadirachtin as reducing and stabilizing agent for nanosilver formation. In addition, the nanosilver modified electrode (Ag/GC) exhibited an excellent electro-catalytic activity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The produced nanosilver is stable and comparable in size. These silver nanoparticles show potential applications in the field of sensors, catalysis, fuel cells and nanodevices.

  4. Green synthesis of nanosilver as a sensor for detection of hydrogen peroxide in water

    Shukla, Vineet K., E-mail: vineet2shukla@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Application Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Yadav, Raghvendra S. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Yadav, Poonam [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present 'green' synthesis is an efficient, easy-going, fast, renewable, inexpensive, eco-friendly and non-toxic approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM shows average particle size of 8.25 {+-} 1.37 nm of synthesized nanosilver, giving UV-vis absorption at 410 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR confirms Azadirachtin as reducing and stabilizing agent for nanosilver formation (stability up to three months). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanosilver modified electrode (Ag/GC) exhibited an excellent electro-catalytic activity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recovery percentage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in water is 92-105%, which is applicable for sensors and water/waste water plants. - Abstract: Present 'green' synthesis is an efficient, easy-going, fast, renewable, inexpensive, eco-friendly and non-toxic approach for nanosilver formation, which offers numerous benefits over physiochemical approaches. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern suggests the formation and crystallinity of nanosilver. The average particle size of silver nanoparticles was 8.25 {+-} 1.37 nm as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The UV-vis absorption spectrum shows a characteristic absorption peak of silver nanoparticles at 410 nm. FTIR confirms Azadirachtin as reducing and stabilizing agent for nanosilver formation. In addition, the nanosilver modified electrode (Ag/GC) exhibited an excellent electro-catalytic activity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The produced nanosilver is stable and comparable in size. These silver nanoparticles show potential applications in the field of sensors, catalysis, fuel cells and nanodevices.

  5. Study and characterization of an integrated circuit-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor for the detection of particles and radiations

    Despeisse, M.

    2006-03-01

    Next generation experiments at the European laboratory of particle physics (CERN) require particle detector alternatives to actual silicon detectors. This thesis presents a novel detector technology, which is based on the deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor on top of an integrated circuit. Performance and limitations of this technology have been assessed for the first time in this thesis in the context of particle detectors. Specific integrated circuits have been designed and the detector segmentation, the interface sensor-chip and the sensor leakage current have been studied in details. The signal induced by the track of an ionizing particle in the sensor has been characterized and results on the signal speed, amplitude and on the sensor resistance to radiation are presented. The results are promising regarding the use of this novel technology for radiation detection, though limitations have been shown for particle physics application. (author)

  6. Copper@carbon coaxial nanowires synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization process from electroplating wastewater and their use as an enzyme-free glucose sensor.

    Zhao, Yuxin; He, Zhaoyang; Yan, Zifeng

    2013-01-21

    In the pursuit of electrocatalysts with great economic and ecological values for non-enzymatic glucose sensors, one-dimensional copper@carbon (Cu@C) core-shell coaxial nanowires (NWs) have been successfully prepared via a simple continuous flow wet-chemistry approach from electroplating wastewater. The as-obtained products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrodes by Cu@C NWs towards glucose oxidation was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. It was found that the as-obtained Cu@C NWs showed good electrochemical properties and could be used as an electrochemical sensor for the detection of glucose molecules. Compared to the other electrodes including the bare Nafion/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and several hot hybrid nanostructures modified GCE, a substantial decrease in the overvoltage of the glucose oxidation was observed at the Cu@C NWs electrodes with oxidation starting at ca. 0.20 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3 M KCl). At an applied potential of 0.65 V, Cu@C NWs electrodes had a high and reproducible sensitivity of 437.8 µA cm(-2) mM(-1) to glucose. Linear responses were obtained with a detection limit of 50 nM. More importantly, the proposed electrode also had good stability, high resistance against poisoning by chloride ion and commonly interfering species. These good analytical performances make Cu@C NWs promising for the future development of enzyme-free glucose sensors.

  7. High performance supercapacitor and non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on tellurium nanoparticles

    M. Manikandan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium nanoparticles (Te Nps were synthesized by wet chemical method and characterized by XRD, Raman, FESEM, TEM, XPS, UV–Vis and FL. The Nps were coated on graphite foil and Glassy carbon electrode to prepare the electrodes for supercapacitor and biosensor applications. The supercapacitor performance is evaluated in 2 M KOH electrolyte by both Cyclic Voltammetry (CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge method. From charge-discharge method, Te Nps show a specific capacitance of 586 F/g at 2 mA/cm2 and 100 F/g at 30 mA/cm2 as well as an excellent cycle life (100% after 1000 cycles. In addition, the H2O2 sensor performance of Te Nps modified glassy carbon electrode is checked by CV and Chronoamperometry (CA in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. In the linear range of 0.67 to 8.04 μM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, Te NPs show a high sensitivity of 0.83 mA mM−1 cm−2 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The detection limit is 0.3 μM with a response time less than 5 s. Keywords: Tellurium nanoparticles, Supercapacitor, Biosensor, Hydrogen peroxide

  8. Development of a Hydrogen Peroxide Sensor Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Inkjet-Printed Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Stefano Cinti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensor for the simple and sensitive measurement of hydrogen peroxide has been developed which is based on screen printed electrodes (SPEs modified with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs deposited using piezoelectric inkjet printing. PBNP-modified SPEs were characterized using physical and electrochemical techniques to optimize the PBNP layer thickness and electroanalytical conditions for optimum measurement of hydrogen peroxide. Sensor optimization resulted in a limit of detection of 2 × 10−7 M, a linear range from 0 to 4.5 mM and a sensitivity of 762 μA∙mM–1∙cm–2 which was achieved using 20 layers of printed PBNPs. Sensors also demonstrated excellent reproducibility (<5% rsd.

  9. Fabrication of a novel electrochemical sensor for determination of hydrogen peroxide in different fruit juice samples

    Navid Nasirizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 sensor is fabricated based on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNT-GCE and reactive blue 19 (RB. The charge transfer coefficient, α, and the charge transfer rate constant, ks, of RB adsorbed on MWCNT-GCE were calculated and found to be 0.44 ± 0.01 Hz and 1.9 ± 0.05 Hz, respectively. The catalysis of the electroreduction of H2O2 by RB-MWCNT-GCE is described. The RB-MWCNT-GCE shows a dramatic increase in the peak current and a decrease in the overvoltage of H2O2 electroreduction in comparison with that seen at an RB modified GCE, MWCNT modified GCE, and activated GCE. The kinetic parameters such as α and the heterogeneous rate constant, k', for the reduction of H2O2 at RB-MWCNT-GCE surface were determined using cyclic voltammetry. The detection limit of 0.27μM and three linear calibration ranges were obtained for H2O2 determination at the RB-MWCNT-GCE surface using an amperometry method. In addition, using the newly developed sensor, H2O2 was determined in real samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Calorimetric Thermoelectric Gas Sensor for the Detection of Hydrogen, Methane and Mixed Gases

    Nam-Hee Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniaturized calorimeter-type sensor device with a dual-catalyst structure was fabricated by integrating different catalysts on the hot (Pd/θ-Al2O3 and cold (Pt/α-Al2O3 ends of the device. The device comprises a calorimeter with a thermoelectric gas sensor (calorimetric-TGS, combining catalytic combustion and thermoelectric technologies. Its response for a model fuel gas of hydrogen and methane was investigated with various combustor catalyst compositions. The calorimetric-TGS devices detected H2, CH4, and a mixture of the two with concentrations ranging between 200 and 2000 ppm at temperatures of 100–400 °C, in terms of the calorie content of the gases. It was necessary to reduce the much higher response voltage of the TGS to H2 compared to CH4. We enhanced the H2 combustion on the cold side so that the temperature differences and response voltages to H2 were reduced. The device response to H2 combustion was reduced by 50% by controlling the Pt concentration in the Pt/α-Al2O3 catalyst on the cold side to 3 wt%.

  11. Graphene–Noble Metal Nano-Composites and Applications for Hydrogen Sensors

    Sukumar Basu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene based nano-composites are relatively new materials with excellent mechanical, electrical, electronic and chemical properties for applications in the fields of electrical and electronic devices, mechanical appliances and chemical gadgets. For all these applications, the structural features associated with chemical bonding that involve other components at the interface need in-depth investigation. Metals, polymers, inorganic fibers and other components improve the properties of graphene when they form a kind of composite structure in the nano-dimensions. Intensive investigations have been carried out globally in this area of research and development. In this article, some salient features of graphene–noble metal interactions and composite formation which improve hydrogen gas sensing properties—like higher and fast response, quick recovery, cross sensitivity, repeatability and long term stability of the sensor devices—are presented. Mostly noble metals are effective for enhancing the sensing performance of the graphene–metal hybrid sensors, due to their superior catalytic activities. The experimental evidence for atomic bonding between metal nano-structures and graphene has been reported in the literature and it is theoretically verified by density functional theory (DFT. Multilayer graphene influences gas sensing performance via intercalation of metal and non-metal atoms through atomic bonding.

  12. Graphene–palladium nanowires based electrochemical sensor using ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–graphene quantum dots as an effective peroxidase mimic

    Liu, Weiyan; Yang, Hongmei; Ma, Chao; Ding, Ya-nan [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Ge, Shenguang [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yu, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yan, Mei, E-mail: chm_yanm@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • The nanohybrid ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs was developed by assembling the GQDs on the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} through a photo-Fenton reaction. • The ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs exhibited higher peroxidase-like activity and better stability than each individual and HRP. • An electrochemical sensor was fabricated using ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic to detect DNA. • Graphene and Pd nanowires were modified on the glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate. - Abstract: We proposed an electrochemical DNA sensor by using peroxidase-like magnetic ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–graphene quantum dots (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs) nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic label. Aminated graphene and Pd nanowires were successively modified on glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate as well as increased the amount of immobilized capture ssDNA (S1). The nanohybrid ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs was prepared by assembling the GQDs on the surface of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} through a photo-Fenton reaction, which was not only used as a mimic enzyme but also as a carrier to label complementary ssDNA (S3). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically activity of nano-sized GQDs and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the nanohybrid possessed highly-efficient peroxidase-like catalytic activity which could produce a large current toward the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for signal amplification. Thionine was used as an excellent electron mediator. Compared with traditional enzyme labels, the mimic enzyme ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs exhibited many advantages such as environment friendly and better stability. Under the optimal conditions, the approach provided a wide linear range from 10{sup −16} to 5 × 10{sup −9} M and low detection limit of 6.2 × 10{sup −17} M. The remarkable high catalytic capability could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based assay systems. The new, robust and convenient assay systems

  13. Graphene–palladium nanowires based electrochemical sensor using ZnFe2O4–graphene quantum dots as an effective peroxidase mimic

    Liu, Weiyan; Yang, Hongmei; Ma, Chao; Ding, Ya-nan; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanohybrid ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs was developed by assembling the GQDs on the ZnFe 2 O 4 through a photo-Fenton reaction. • The ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs exhibited higher peroxidase-like activity and better stability than each individual and HRP. • An electrochemical sensor was fabricated using ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic to detect DNA. • Graphene and Pd nanowires were modified on the glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate. - Abstract: We proposed an electrochemical DNA sensor by using peroxidase-like magnetic ZnFe 2 O 4 –graphene quantum dots (ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs) nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic label. Aminated graphene and Pd nanowires were successively modified on glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate as well as increased the amount of immobilized capture ssDNA (S1). The nanohybrid ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs was prepared by assembling the GQDs on the surface of ZnFe 2 O 4 through a photo-Fenton reaction, which was not only used as a mimic enzyme but also as a carrier to label complementary ssDNA (S3). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically activity of nano-sized GQDs and ZnFe 2 O 4 , the nanohybrid possessed highly-efficient peroxidase-like catalytic activity which could produce a large current toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 for signal amplification. Thionine was used as an excellent electron mediator. Compared with traditional enzyme labels, the mimic enzyme ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs exhibited many advantages such as environment friendly and better stability. Under the optimal conditions, the approach provided a wide linear range from 10 −16 to 5 × 10 −9 M and low detection limit of 6.2 × 10 −17 M. The remarkable high catalytic capability could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based assay systems. The new, robust and convenient assay systems can be widely utilized for the identification of other target molecules

  14. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated (paper)

  15. Electrical conductivity measurements of bacterial nanowires from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Maruthupandy, Muthusamy; Anand, Muthusamy; Beevi, Akbar Sait Hameedha; Priya, Radhakrishnan Jeeva; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular appendages of bacteria (flagella) that transfer electrons to electrodes are called bacterial nanowires. This study focuses on the isolation and separation of nanowires that are attached via Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial culture. The size and roughness of separated nanowires were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The obtained bacterial nanowires indicated a clear image of bacterial nanowires measuring 16 nm in diameter. The formation of bacterial nanowires was confirmed by microscopic studies (AFM and TEM) and the conductivity nature of bacterial nanowire was investigated by electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which are nondestructive voltammetry techniques, suggest that bacterial nanowires could be the source of electrons—which may be used in various applications, for example, microbial fuel cells, biosensors, organic solar cells, and bioelectronic devices. Routine analysis of electron transfer between bacterial nanowires and the electrode was performed, providing insight into the extracellular electron transfer (EET) to the electrode. CV revealed the catalytic electron transferability of bacterial nanowires and electrodes and showed excellent redox activities. CV and EIS studies showed that bacterial nanowires can charge the surface by producing and storing sufficient electrons, behave as a capacitor, and have features consistent with EET. Finally, electrochemical studies confirmed the development of bacterial nanowires with EET. This study suggests that bacterial nanowires can be used to fabricate biomolecular sensors and nanoelectronic devices. (paper)

  16. Ultrasensitive NO2 gas sensors using hybrid heterojunctions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and on-chip grown SnO2 nanowires

    Nguyet, Quan Thi Minh; Van Duy, Nguyen; Manh Hung, Chu; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid heterojunction devices are designed for ultrahigh response to NO2 toxic gas. The devices were constructed by assembling multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on a microelectrode chip bridged bare Pt-electrode and a Pt-electrode with pre-grown SnO2 nanowires (NWs). All heterojunction devices were realized using different types of MWCNTs, which exhibit ultrahigh response to sub-ppm NO2 gas at 50 °C operated in the reverse bias mode. The response to 1 ppm NO2 gas reaches 11300, which is about 100 times higher than that of a back-to-back heterojunction device fabricated from SnO2 NWs and MWCNTs. In addition, the present device exhibits an ultralow detection limit of about 0.68 ppt. The modulation of trap-assisted tunneling current under reverse bias is the main gas-sensing mechanism. This principle device presents a concept for developing gas sensors made of a hybrid between semiconductor metal oxide NWs and CNTs.

  17. Nanowire Lasers

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  18. A Dual Sensor for pH and Hydrogen Peroxide Using Polymer-Coated Optical Fibre Tips.

    Purdey, Malcolm S; Thompson, Jeremy G; Monro, Tanya M; Abell, Andrew D; Schartner, Erik P

    2015-12-17

    This paper demonstrates the first single optical fibre tip probe for concurrent detection of both hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) concentration and pH of a solution. The sensor is constructed by embedding two fluorophores: carboxyperoxyfluor-1 (CPF1) and seminaphtharhodafluor-2 (SNARF2) within a polymer matrix located on the tip of the optical fibre. The functionalised fibre probe reproducibly measures pH, and is able to accurately detect H₂O₂ over a biologically relevant concentration range. This sensor offers potential for non-invasive detection of pH and H₂O₂ in biological environments using a single optical fibre.

  19. A Dual Sensor for pH and Hydrogen Peroxide Using Polymer-Coated Optical Fibre Tips

    Malcolm S. Purdey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the first single optical fibre tip probe for concurrent detection of both hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration and pH of a solution. The sensor is constructed by embedding two fluorophores: carboxyperoxyfluor-1 (CPF1 and seminaphtharhodafluor-2 (SNARF2 within a polymer matrix located on the tip of the optical fibre. The functionalised fibre probe reproducibly measures pH, and is able to accurately detect H2O2 over a biologically relevant concentration range. This sensor offers potential for non-invasive detection of pH and H2O2 in biological environments using a single optical fibre.

  20. Fast Response and High Sensitivity of ZnO Nanowires-Cobalt Phthalocyanine Heterojunction Based H2S Sensor.

    Kumar, Ashwini; Samanta, Soumen; Singh, Ajay; Roy, Mainak; Singh, Surendra; Basu, Saibal; Chehimi, Mohmad M; Roy, Kallol; Ramgir, Niranjan; Navaneethan, M; Hayakawa, Y; Debnath, Anil K; Aswal, Dinesh K; Gupta, Shiv K

    2015-08-19

    The room temperature chemiresistive response of n-type ZnO nanowire (ZnO NWs) films modified with different thicknesses of p-type cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) has been studied. With increasing thickness of CoPc (>15 nm), heterojunction films exhibit a transition from n- to p-type conduction due to uniform coating of CoPc on ZnO. The heterojunction films prepared with a 25 nm thick CoPc layer exhibit the highest response (268% at 10 ppm of H2S) and the fastest response (26 s) among all samples. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and work function measurements reveal that electron transfer takes place from ZnO to CoPc, resulting in formation of a p-n junction with a barrier height of 0.4 eV and a depletion layer width of ∼8.9 nm. The detailed XPS analysis suggests that these heterojunction films with 25 nm thick CoPc exhibit the least content of chemisorbed oxygen, enabling the direct interaction of H2S with the CoPc molecule, and therefore exhibit the fastest response. The improved response is attributed to the high susceptibility of the p-n junctions to the H2S gas, which manipulates the depletion layer width and controls the charge transport.

  1. Continuous-flow system and monitoring tools for the dielectrophoretic integration of nanowires in light sensor arrays.

    Marín, A García; Núñez, C García; Rodríguez, P; Shen, G; Kim, S M; Kung, P; Piqueras, J; Pau, J L

    2015-03-20

    Although nanowires (NWs) may improve the performance of many optoelectronic devices such as light emitters and photodetectors, the mass commercialization of these devices is limited by the difficult task of finding reliable and reproducible methods to integrate the NWs on foreign substrates. This work shows the fabrication of zinc oxide NWs photodetectors on conventional glass using transparent conductive electrodes to effectively integrate the NWs at specific locations by dielectrophoresis (DEP). The paper describes the careful preparation of NW dispersions by sedimentation and the dielectrophoretic alignment of NWs in a home-made system. This system includes an impedance technique for the assessment of the alignment quality in real time. Following this procedure, ultraviolet photodetectors based on the electrical contacts formed by the DEP process on the transparent electrodes are fabricated. This cost-effective mean of contacting NWs enables front-and back-illumination operation modes, the latter eliminating shadowing effects caused by the deposition of metals. The electro-optical characterization of the devices shows uniform responsivities in the order of 106 A W(-1) below 390 nm under both modes, as well as, time responses of a few seconds.

  2. Architecture of poly(o-phenylenediamine)–Ag nanoparticle composites for a hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Wang Li; Zhu Haozhi; Song Yonghai; Liu Li; He Zhifang; Wan Lingli; Chen Shouhui; Xiang Ying; Chen Shusheng; Chen Jie

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the formation process of AgNPs/PoPD/GCE via a two-step procedure consisting of electropolymerization of o-PD and electrodeposition of AgNPs and their application in H 2 O 2 detection. Highlights: ► o-Phenylenediamine (o-PD) was electropolymerized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). ► The conductive PoPD film was three-dimensional (3D) porous structure. ► Ag NPs formed by electrodepositing and uniformly dispersed on the 3D PoPD film. ► AgNPs/PoPD/GCE displayed good electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of H 2 O 2 . - Abstract: A novel strategy to fabricate a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) sensor was developed by electrodepositing Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) on a poly(o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Firstly, the o-phenylenediamine was polymerized on a GCE by potential cycling to produce PoPD film. Then the AgNPs were electrodeposited on the PoPD film to form AgNPs/PoPD/GCE. The morphology of the electropolymerized PoPD film and the electrodeposited AgNPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy. The results showed the PoPD film was porous and the AgNPs dispersed uniformly on the PoPD film. Cylic voltammetry and amperometry were used to evaluate electrocatalytic properties of the AgNPs/PoPD/GCE. The electrode displayed good electrocatalytic activity in the reduction of H 2 O 2 and could be used as a sensor for H 2 O 2 detection. The sensor exhibited fast amperometric response to H 2 O 2 with high selectivity, good reproducibility and stability. The linear range was 6.0 μM to 67.3 mM with a detection limit of 1.5 μM. Thus, it is considered to be an ideal candidate for practical application.

  3. Detection of Hydrogen Sulphide Gas Sensor Based Nanostructured Ba2CrMoO6 Thick Films

    A. V. Kadu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline pure and doped Ba2CrMoO6, having an average crystallite size of 40 nm were synthesized by the sol-gel citrate method. Structural and gas-sensing characteristics were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD and sensitivity measurements. The gas sensing properties to reducing gases like Hydrogen sulphide (H2S, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen gas (H2 were also discussed. The maximum sensitivity was obtained for 5 wt % Ni doped Ba2CrMoO6 at an operating temperature 250oC for H2S gas. Pd incorporation over 5 wt% Ni doped Ba2CrMoO6 improved the sensitivity, selectivity, response time, and reduced the operating temperature from 250 to 200oC of the sensor for H2S gas. This sensor also shows good satiability.

  4. Solution-chemical route to generalized synthesis of metal germanate nanowires with room-temperature, light-driven hydrogenation activity of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels.

    Liu, Qi; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Wenguang; Yan, Shicheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2014-01-06

    A facile solution-chemical route was developed for the generalized preparation of a family of highly uniform metal germanate nanowires on a large scale. This route is based on the use of hydrazine monohydrate/H2O as a mixed solvent under solvothermal conditions. Hydrazine has multiple effects on the generation of the nanowires: as an alkali solvent, a coordination agent, and crystal anisotropic growth director. Different-percentage cobalt-doped Cd2Ge2O6 nanowires were also successfully obtained through the addition of Co(OAc)2·4H2O to the initial reaction mixture for future investigation of the magnetic properties of these nanowires. The considerably negative conduction band level of the Cd2Ge2O6 nanowire offers a high driving force for photogenerated electron transfer to CO2 under UV-vis illumination, which facilitates CO2 photocatalytic reduction to a renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor at room temperature.

  5. Hydrogen Detection With a Gas Sensor Array – Processing and Recognition of Dynamic Responses Using Neural Networks

    Gwiżdż Patryk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An array consisting of four commercial gas sensors with target specifications for hydrocarbons, ammonia, alcohol, explosive gases has been constructed and tested. The sensors in the array operate in the dynamic mode upon the temperature modulation from 350°C to 500°C. Changes in the sensor operating temperature lead to distinct resistance responses affected by the gas type, its concentration and the humidity level. The measurements are performed upon various hydrogen (17-3000 ppm, methane (167-3000 ppm and propane (167-3000 ppm concentrations at relative humidity levels of 0-75%RH. The measured dynamic response signals are further processed with the Discrete Fourier Transform. Absolute values of the dc component and the first five harmonics of each sensor are analysed by a feed-forward back-propagation neural network. The ultimate aim of this research is to achieve a reliable hydrogen detection despite an interference of the humidity and residual gases.

  6. A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath

    Azhar, M.; Mandon, J.; Neerincx, A. H.; Liu, Z.; Mink, J.; Merkus, P. J. F. M.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.

    2017-11-01

    A compact, cost-effective sensor is developed for detection of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in exhaled breath within seconds. For this, an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy setup is combined with a widely tunable compact near-infrared laser (tunability 1527-1564 nm). For HCN a detection sensitivity has been obtained of 8 ppbv in nitrogen (within 1 s), equal to a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.9 × 10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2. With this sensor we demonstrated the presence of HCN in exhaled breath; its detection could be a good indicator for bacterial lung infection. Due to its compact, cost-effective and user-friendly design, this laser-based sensor has the potential to be implemented in future clinical applications.

  7. Study of a QCM Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sensor Based on a ZnO-Modified Nanowire-Structured Manganese Dioxide Film

    Guang Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO2 surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO2 nanofibers and pure MnO2 nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO2 film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO2 nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species.

  8. Solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire anodes for organic solar cells

    Stewart, Ian E.; Rathmell, Aaron R.; Yan, Liang; Ye, Shengrong; Flowers, Patrick F.; You, Wei; Wiley, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    This work describes a process to make anodes for organic solar cells from copper-nickel nanowires with solution-phase processing. Copper nanowire films were coated from solution onto glass and made conductive by dipping them in acetic acid. Acetic acid removes the passivating oxide from the surface of copper nanowires, thereby reducing the contact resistance between nanowires to nearly the same extent as hydrogen annealing. Films of copper nanowires were made as oxidation resistant as silver nanowires under dry and humid conditions by dipping them in an electroless nickel plating solution. Organic solar cells utilizing these completely solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire films exhibited efficiencies of 4.9%.This work describes a process to make anodes for organic solar cells from copper-nickel nanowires with solution-phase processing. Copper nanowire films were coated from solution onto glass and made conductive by dipping them in acetic acid. Acetic acid removes the passivating oxide from the surface of copper nanowires, thereby reducing the contact resistance between nanowires to nearly the same extent as hydrogen annealing. Films of copper nanowires were made as oxidation resistant as silver nanowires under dry and humid conditions by dipping them in an electroless nickel plating solution. Organic solar cells utilizing these completely solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire films exhibited efficiencies of 4.9%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01024h

  9. Graphene-palladium nanowires based electrochemical sensor using ZnFe2O4-graphene quantum dots as an effective peroxidase mimic.

    Liu, Weiyan; Yang, Hongmei; Ma, Chao; Ding, Ya-nan; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2014-12-10

    We proposed an electrochemical DNA sensor by using peroxidase-like magnetic ZnFe2O4-graphene quantum dots (ZnFe2O4/GQDs) nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic label. Aminated graphene and Pd nanowires were successively modified on glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate as well as increased the amount of immobilized capture ssDNA (S1). The nanohybrid ZnFe2O4/GQDs was prepared by assembling the GQDs on the surface of ZnFe2O4 through a photo-Fenton reaction, which was not only used as a mimic enzyme but also as a carrier to label complementary ssDNA (S3). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically activity of nano-sized GQDs and ZnFe2O4, the nanohybrid possessed highly-efficient peroxidase-like catalytic activity which could produce a large current toward the reduction of H2O2 for signal amplification. Thionine was used as an excellent electron mediator. Compared with traditional enzyme labels, the mimic enzyme ZnFe2O4/GQDs exhibited many advantages such as environment friendly and better stability. Under the optimal conditions, the approach provided a wide linear range from 10(-16) to 5×10(-9) M and low detection limit of 6.2×10(-17) M. The remarkable high catalytic capability could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based assay systems. The new, robust and convenient assay systems can be widely utilized for the identification of other target molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen.

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  11. PREFACE: Synthesis and integration of nanowires

    Samuelson, L.

    2006-06-01

    The field of semiconductor nanowires has attracted much attention in recent years, from the areas of basic materials science, advanced characterization and technology, as well as from the perspective of the applications of nanowires. Research on large-sized whiskers and wires had already begun in the 1960s with the pioneering work of Wagner, as well as by other researchers. It was, however, in the early 1990s that Kenji Hiruma at Hitachi Central Research Laboratories in Japan first succeeded in developing methods for the growth of nanowires with dimensions on the scale of 10-100 nm, thereby initiating the field of growth and applications of nanowires, with a strong emphasis on epitaxial nucleation of nanowires on a single-crystalline substrate. Starting from the mid-1990s, the field developed very rapidly with the number of papers on the subject growing from ten per year to several thousand papers on the subject published annually today, although with a rather generous definition of the concept of nanowires. With this rapid development we have seen many new and different approaches to the growth of nanowires, technological advances leading to a more well-controlled formation of nanowires, new innovative methods for the characterization of structures, as well as a wealth of approaches towards the use of nanowires in electronics, photonics and sensor applications. This issue contains contributions from many different laboratories, each adding significant detail to the development of the field of research. The contributions cover issues such as basic growth, advanced characterization and technology, and application of nanowires. I would like to acknowledge the shared responsibilities for this special issue of Nanotechnology on the synthesis and integration of nanowires with my co-Editors, S Tong Lee and M Sunkara, as well as the highly professional support from Dr Nina Couzin, Dr Ian Forbes and the Nanotechnology team from the Institute of Physics Publishing.

  12. Ultra violet sensors based on nanostructured ZnO spheres in network of nanowires: a novel approach

    Hullavarad, SS; Hullavarad, NV; Karulkar, PC; Luykx, A; Valdivia, P

    2007-01-01

    AbstractThe ZnO nanostructures consisting of micro spheres in a network of nano wires were synthesized by direct vapor phase method. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements were carried out to understand the chemical nature of the sample. ZnO nanostructures exhibited band edge luminescence at 383 nm. The nanostructure based ZnO thin films were used to fabricate UV sensors. The photoresponse measurements were carried out and the responsivity was measured to be 50 mA W−1. The rise a...

  13. Ultra violet sensors based on nanostructured ZnO spheres in network of nanowires: a novel approach

    Luykx A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe ZnO nanostructures consisting of micro spheres in a network of nano wires were synthesized by direct vapor phase method. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements were carried out to understand the chemical nature of the sample. ZnO nanostructures exhibited band edge luminescence at 383 nm. The nanostructure based ZnO thin films were used to fabricate UV sensors. The photoresponse measurements were carried out and the responsivity was measured to be 50 mA W−1. The rise and decay time measurements were also measured.

  14. Enzyme-free hydrogen peroxide sensor based on Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites

    Li, Yancai, E-mail: liyancai@mnnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Zhang, Yayun; Zhong, Yanmei [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Shunxing [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile method was designed to synthesize Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites. • Carbon nanomaterials at the outermost layer could protect Au and Ag nanoparticles from oxidation and aggregation. • The Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites showed high sensitivity and selectivity to electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide. • The hydrogen peroxide sensor has a wide linear range of 5.0 μM to 4.75 mM and a limit of detection as low as 0.14 μM. - Abstract: The well-designed Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites were synthesized via a facile method, and were used to fabricate an enzyme-free amperometric hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor. The size, shape, elementary composition and structure of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy-dispersed spectrum (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The outermost layer of the nanocomposites was amorphous carbon, the second layer was Ag and the core was Au. The Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites exhibit attractive activity for electrocatalytic reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} according to the electrochemical experiments. It also demonstrates the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor possess well performance with a wide linear range of 5.0 μM to 4.75 mM and a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.14 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the interference from the common interfering species, such as glucose, ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid can be effectively avoided. In a word, the Au@Ag@C nanocomposites are promising candidates for enzyme-free H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor.

  15. Hydrogen detector

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  16. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do; Tahereh Fanaei Sheikholeslami; Hassan Azarkish

    2016-01-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method fo...

  17. Surface saturation effect on mechanical and optical properties of ZnO nanowires

    S Yazdani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this work, on the basis of density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA we optimized the electronic structure of the unsaturated and hydrogen saturated ZnO nanowires with [0001] orientation. Studying the effects of a uniaxial strain on the nanowires, we calculated the Young’s modulus and the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the nanowires. Furthermore, the effect of this uniaxial strain on the imaginary part of dielectric function of the nanowires was investigated.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic hydrogen gas sensor utilizing palladium supported zinc oxide multilayers and their nanocomposite.

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-02-10

    We analyze surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic sensor for sensing of small concentrations of hydrogen gas in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. One of the two probes considered has multilayers of zinc oxide (ZnO) and palladium (Pd) while the other has layer of their composite over a silver coated unclad core of the fiber. The analysis is carried out for different volume fractions of palladium nanoparticles dispersed in zinc oxide host material in the nanocomposite layer. For the analysis, a Maxwell-Garnett model is adopted for calculating the dielectric function of a ZnO:Pd nanocomposite having nanoparticles of dimensions smaller than the wavelength of radiation used. The effects of the volume fraction of the nanoparticles in the nanocomposite and the thickness of the nanocomposite layer on the figure of merit of the sensor have been studied. The film thickness of the layer and the volume fraction of nanoparticles in the ZnO:Pd nanocomposite layer have been optimized to achieve the maximum value of the figure of merit of the sensor. It has been found that the figure of merit of the sensing probe coated with ZnO:Pd nanocomposite is more than twofold of the sensing probe coated with multilayers of Pd and ZnO over a silver coated unclad core of the fiber; hence, the sensor with a nanocomposite layer works better than that with multilayers of zinc oxide and palladium. The sensor can be used for online monitoring and remote sensing of hydrogen gas.

  19. Hydrogen

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  20. Metal-dielectric-CNT nanowires for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Altun, Ali; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2017-10-03

    A sensor with a substrate includes nanowires extending vertically from the substrate, a hafnia coating on the nanowires that provides hafnia coated nanowires, and a noble metal coating on the hafnia coated nanowires. The top of the hafnia and noble metal coated nanowires bent onto one another to create a canopy forest structure. There are numerous randomly arranged holes that let through scattered light. The many points of contact, hot spots, amplify signals. The methods include the steps of providing a Raman spectroscopy substrate, introducing nano crystals to the Raman spectroscopy substrate, growing a forest of nanowires from the nano crystals on the Raman spectroscopy substrate, coating the nanowires with hafnia providing hafnia coated nanowires, and coating the hafnia coated nanowires with a noble metal or other metal.

  1. Sensor for Measuring Hydrogen Partial Pressure in Parabolic Trough Power Plant Expansion Tanks

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  2. Coulometric determination of dissolved hydrogen with a multielectrolytic modified carbon felt electrode-based sensor.

    Matsuura, Hiroaki; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Sasaki, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Shunichi

    2013-06-01

    A multielectrolytic modified carbon electrode (MEMCE) was fabricated by the electrolytic-oxidation/reduction processes. First, the functional groups containing nitrogen atoms such as amino group were introduced by the electrode oxidation of carbon felt electrode in an ammonium carbamate aqueous solution, and next, this electrode was electroreduced in sulfuric acid. The redox waves between hydrogen ion and hydrogen molecule at highly positive potential range appeared in the cyclic voltammogram obtained by MEMCE. A coulometric cell using MEMCE with a catalytic activity of electrooxidation of hydrogen molecule was constructed and was used for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen. The typical current vs. time curve was obtained by the repetitive measurement of the dissolved hydrogen. These curves indicated that the measurement of dissolved hydrogen was finished completely in a very short time (ca. 10 sec). A linear relationship was obtained between the electrical charge needed for the electrooxidation process of hydrogen molecule and dissolved hydrogen concentration. This indicates that the developed coulometric method can be used for the determination of the dissolved hydrogen concentration.

  3. A reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor presented using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode

    Mutyala, Sankararao; Mathiyarasu, Jayaraman

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a simple, facile and reproducible non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV–Visible, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis revealed that ERGO/GCE exhibited virtuous charge transfer properties for a standard redox systems and showed excellent performance towards electroreduction of H 2 O 2 . Amperometric study using ERGO/GCE showed high sensitivity (0.3 μA/μM) and faster response upon the addition of H 2 O 2 at an applied potential of − 0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The detection limit is assessed to be 0.7 μM (S/N = 3) and the time to reach a stable study state current is < 3 s for a linear range of H 2 O 2 concentration (1–16 μM). In addition, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. - Graphical abstract: We presented a reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide material. - Highlights: • A facile green procedure proposed for high quality graphene synthesis using electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide • A simple, facile and reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor developed using ERGO/GCE. • ERGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity and finite limit of detection for H 2 O 2 sensing at low overpotential. • ERGO/GCE exhibited long term stability and good reproducibility.

  4. A reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor presented using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode

    Mutyala, Sankararao; Mathiyarasu, Jayaraman, E-mail: al_mathi@yahoo.com

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we report a simple, facile and reproducible non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV–Visible, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis revealed that ERGO/GCE exhibited virtuous charge transfer properties for a standard redox systems and showed excellent performance towards electroreduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Amperometric study using ERGO/GCE showed high sensitivity (0.3 μA/μM) and faster response upon the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at an applied potential of − 0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The detection limit is assessed to be 0.7 μM (S/N = 3) and the time to reach a stable study state current is < 3 s for a linear range of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (1–16 μM). In addition, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. - Graphical abstract: We presented a reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide material. - Highlights: • A facile green procedure proposed for high quality graphene synthesis using electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide • A simple, facile and reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor developed using ERGO/GCE. • ERGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity and finite limit of detection for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensing at low overpotential. • ERGO/GCE exhibited long term stability and good reproducibility.

  5. A Room-temperature Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using Palladium-decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Si Heterojunction

    Yong Gang DU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a room-temperature (RT hydrogen gas (H2 sensor based on palladium-decorated single-walled carbon nanotube/Si (Pd-SWNTs/Si heterojunction. The current-voltage (I-V curves of the Pd-SWNTs/Si heterojunction in different concentrations of H2 were measured. The experimental results reveal that the Pd-SWNTs/Si heterojunction exhibits high H2 response. After exposure to 0.02 %, 0.05 %, and 0.1 % H2 for 10 min, the resistance of the heterojunction increases dramatically. The response is 122 %, 269 % and 457 %, respectively. A simple interfacial theory is used to understand the gas sensitivity results. This approach is a step toward future CNTs-based gas sensors for practical application.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12925

  6. Titanium Dioxide-Based 64∘ YX LiNbO3 Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Gas Sensors

    A. Z. Sadek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2 and gold (Au doped TiO2-based surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors have been investigated as hydrogen gas detectors. The nanocrystal-doped TiO2 films were synthesized through a sol-gel route, mixing a Ti-butoxide-based solution with diluted colloidal gold nanoparticles. The films were deposited via spin coating onto 64∘ YX LiNbO3 SAW transducers in a helium atmosphere. The SAW gas sensors were operated at various temperatures between 150 and 310∘C. It was found that gold doping on TiO2 increased the device sensitivity and reduced the optimum operating temperature.

  7. Eye readable metal hydride based hydrogen tape sensor for health applications

    Ngene, P.; Radeva, T.; Westerwaal, R.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.

    Using the change in the intrinsic optical properties of YMg-based thin films upon exposure to hydrogen, we observe the presence of hydrogen at concentrations as low as 20 ppm just by a change in color. The eye-visible color change circumvents the use of any electronics in this device, thereby making

  8. Portable and Disposable Paper-Based Fluorescent Sensor for In Situ Gaseous Hydrogen Sulfide Determination in Near Real-Time.

    Petruci, João Flávio da Silveira; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves

    2016-12-06

    Hydrogen sulfide is found in many environments including sewage systems, petroleum extraction platforms, kraft paper mills, and exhaled breath, but its determination at ppb levels remains a challenge within the analytical chemistry field. Off-line methods for analysis of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds can suffer from a variety of biases associated with high reactivity, sorptive losses, and atmospheric oxidative reactions. Here, we present a portable, online, and disposable gas sensor platform for the in situ determination of gaseous hydrogen sulfide, employing a 470 nm light emitting diode (LED) and a microfiber optic USB spectrometer. A sensing layer was created by impregnating 2.5 μL (0.285 nmol) of fluorescein mercury acetate (FMA) onto the surface of a micropaper analytical device with dimensions of 5 × 5 mm, which was then positioned in the optical detection system. The quantitative determination of H 2 S was based on the quenching of fluorescence intensity after direct selective reaction between the gas and FMA. This approach enabled linear calibration within the range 17-67 ppb of H 2 S, with a limit of detection of 3 ppb. The response time of the sensor was within 60 s, and the repeatability was 6.5% (RSD). The sensor was employed to monitor H 2 S released from a mini-scale wastewater treatment tank in a research laboratory. The appropriate integration of optoelectronic and mechanical devices, including LED, photodiode, pumps, and electronic boards, can be used to produce simple, fully automated portable sensors for the in situ determination of H 2 S in a variety of environments.

  9. Enhancing performances of a resistivity-type hydrogen sensor based on Pd/SnO2/RGO nanocomposites.

    Peng, Yitian; Zheng, Lulu; Zou, Kun; Li, Cong

    2017-05-26

    Palladium/tin oxide/reduced graphene oxide (Pd/SnO 2 /RGO) nanocomposites with Pd and SnO 2 crystalline nanoparticles of high density and uniformity coated on RGO have been synthesized by a two-step reduction process. A novel hydrogen (H 2 ) sensor based on Pd/SnO 2 /RGO nanocomposites was fabricated by placing Pd/SnO 2 /RGO nanocomposites onto a pair of gold electrodes. The Pd/SnO 2 /RGO nanocomposite-based sensor exhibited higher responses than Pd/RGO to H 2 because the introduction of SnO 2 nanoparticles enhances H 2 adsorption and forms a P-N junction with RGO. The sensor shows a high response of 55% to 10 000 ppm H 2 , and a low detection limit, fast response, good selectivity and repeatability due to a combination effect of the Pd and SnO 2 nanoparticles. The studies provide a novel strategy for great potential applications of graphene-based gas sensors.

  10. Polyaniline assisted by TiO2:SnO2 nanoparticles as a hydrogen gas sensor at environmental conditions

    Nasirian, Shahruz; Milani Moghaddam, Hossain

    2015-02-01

    In the present research, polyaniline assisted by TiO2:SnO2 nanoparticles was synthesized and deposited onto an epoxy glass substrate with Cu-interdigited electrodes for gas sensing application. To examine the efficiency of the polyaniline/TiO2:SnO2 nanocomposite (PTS) as a hydrogen (H2) gas sensor, its nature, stability, response, recovery/response time have been studied with a special focus on its ability to work at environmental conditions. H2 gas sensing results demonstrated that a PTS sensor with 20 and 10 wt% of anatase-TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles, respectively, has the best response time (75 s) with a recovery time of 117 s at environmental conditions. The highest (lowest) response (recovery time) was 6.18 (46 s) in PTS sensor with 30 and 15 wt% of anatase- (rutile-)TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles, respectively, at 0.8 vol.% H2 gas. Further, the H2 gas sensing mechanism of PTS sensor has also been studied.

  11. Pd nanowire arrays as electrocatalysts for ethanol electrooxidation

    Wang, Hong; Cheng, Faliang [Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523106 (China); Xu, Changwei; Jiang, Sanping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-05-15

    Highly ordered Pd nanowire arrays were prepared by template-electrodeposition method using anodic aluminum oxide template. The Pd nanowire arrays, in this paper, have high electrochemical active surface and show excellent catalytic properties for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The activity of Pd nanowire arrays for ethanol oxidation is not only higher that of Pd film, but also higher than that of commercial E-TEK PtRu(2:1 by weight)/C. The micrometer sized pores and channels in nanowire arrays act as structure units. They make liquid fuel diffuse into and products diffuse out of the catalysts layer much easier, therefore, the utilization efficiency of catalysts gets higher. Pd nanowire arrays are stable catalysts for ethanol oxidation. The nanowire arrays may be a great potential in direct ethanol fuel cells and ethanol sensors. (author)

  12. Covalent modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with neutral red for the fabrication of an amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Jeykumari, D R Shobha; Narayanan, S Sriman

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscale dimensions, graphitic surface chemistry and electronic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) make them an ideal candidate for chemical and biochemical sensing. In this paper we explore a covalent chemical strategy for functionalization of MWNTs with neutral red through carbodiimide coupling between the primary amine of neutral red and carboxyl groups of the carbon nanotubes. The construction of an amperometric sensor was achieved by abrasive immobilization of the functionalized MWNTs on a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode followed by a coating of a thin film of nafion. The neutral red functionalized MWNTs were characterized by spectroscopic and electroanalytical methods. From the voltammetric studies, MWNTs were found to exhibit a higher accessible surface area in electrochemical reactions. The modified electrode exhibited stable electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide reduction in a wide potential range. A significant decrease in overvoltage for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, as well as a dramatic increase in the peak currents in comparison with a bare graphite electrode were observed. Such an ability of neutral red functionalized carbon nanotubes to promote the hydrogen peroxide electron transfer reaction with a short response time (<4 s) and long-term stability, a low detection limit, an extended linear concentration range and a high sensitivity suggest great promise for dehydrogenase and oxidase based amperometric biosensors

  13. Covalent modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with neutral red for the fabrication of an amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Jeykumari, D R Shobha; Narayanan, S Sriman [Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India)

    2007-03-28

    The nanoscale dimensions, graphitic surface chemistry and electronic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) make them an ideal candidate for chemical and biochemical sensing. In this paper we explore a covalent chemical strategy for functionalization of MWNTs with neutral red through carbodiimide coupling between the primary amine of neutral red and carboxyl groups of the carbon nanotubes. The construction of an amperometric sensor was achieved by abrasive immobilization of the functionalized MWNTs on a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode followed by a coating of a thin film of nafion. The neutral red functionalized MWNTs were characterized by spectroscopic and electroanalytical methods. From the voltammetric studies, MWNTs were found to exhibit a higher accessible surface area in electrochemical reactions. The modified electrode exhibited stable electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide reduction in a wide potential range. A significant decrease in overvoltage for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, as well as a dramatic increase in the peak currents in comparison with a bare graphite electrode were observed. Such an ability of neutral red functionalized carbon nanotubes to promote the hydrogen peroxide electron transfer reaction with a short response time (<4 s) and long-term stability, a low detection limit, an extended linear concentration range and a high sensitivity suggest great promise for dehydrogenase and oxidase based amperometric biosensors.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide sensor based on modified vitreous carbon with multiwall carbon nanotubes and composites of Pt nanoparticles-dopamine

    Guzman, C.; Orozco, G. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Verde, Y. [Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun, Av. Kabah Km. 3, C.P. 77500, Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Jimenez, S. [Unidad Queretaro Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Juriquilla, Santiago de Queretaro (Mexico); Godinez, Luis A. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Juaristi, E. [Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bustos, E. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx

    2009-02-15

    Sensors using nanostructured materials have been under development in the last decade due to their selectivity for the detection and quantification of different compounds. The physical and chemical characteristics of carbon nanotubes provide significant advantages when used as electrodes for electronic devices, fuel cells and electrochemical sensors. This paper presents preliminary results on the modification of vitreous carbon electrodes with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and composites of Pt nanoparticles-dopamine (DA) as electro-catalytic materials for the hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) reaction. Chemical pre-treatment and consequent functionalization of MWCNTs with carboxylic groups was necessary to increase the distribution of the composites. In addition, the presence of DA was important to protect the active sites and eliminate the pasivation of the surface after the electro-oxidation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} takes place. The proposed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor exhibited a linear response in the 0-5 mM range, with detection and quantification limits of 0.3441 mM and 1.1472 mM, respectively.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide sensor based on modified vitreous carbon with multiwall carbon nanotubes and composites of Pt nanoparticles-dopamine

    Guzman, C.; Orozco, G.; Verde, Y.; Jimenez, S.; Godinez, Luis A.; Juaristi, E.; Bustos, E.

    2009-01-01

    Sensors using nanostructured materials have been under development in the last decade due to their selectivity for the detection and quantification of different compounds. The physical and chemical characteristics of carbon nanotubes provide significant advantages when used as electrodes for electronic devices, fuel cells and electrochemical sensors. This paper presents preliminary results on the modification of vitreous carbon electrodes with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and composites of Pt nanoparticles-dopamine (DA) as electro-catalytic materials for the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) reaction. Chemical pre-treatment and consequent functionalization of MWCNTs with carboxylic groups was necessary to increase the distribution of the composites. In addition, the presence of DA was important to protect the active sites and eliminate the pasivation of the surface after the electro-oxidation of H 2 O 2 takes place. The proposed H 2 O 2 sensor exhibited a linear response in the 0-5 mM range, with detection and quantification limits of 0.3441 mM and 1.1472 mM, respectively

  16. Non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for hydrogen peroxide based on a biocomposite made from chitosan, hemoglobin, and silver nanoparticles

    Tian, L.; Feng, Y.; Qi, Y.; Wang, B.; Chen, Y.; Fu, X.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a novel non-enzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (HP) that is based on a biocomposite made up from chitosan (CS), hemoglobin (Hb), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were prepared in the presence of CS and glucose in an ultrasonic bath, and CS is found to act as a stabilizing agent. They were then combined with Hb and CS to construct a carbon paste biosensor. The resulting electrode gave a well-defined redox couple for Hb, with a formal potential of about -0.17 V (vs. SCE) at pH 6. 86 and exhibited a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of HP. The sensor was used to detect HP by flow injection analysis, and a linear response is obtained in the 0. 08 to 250 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 0.05 μM (at S/N = 3). These characteristics, along with its long-term stability make the sensor highly promising for the amperometric determination of HP. (author)

  17. Effect of oxygen and hydrogen on the optical and electrical characteristics of porous silicon. Towards sensor applications

    Green, S.

    2000-02-01

    The effect of adsorbed oxygen and hydrogen gas on porous silicon has been investigated using two different techniques, viz. optical and electrical. The photoluminescence quenching by oxygen and hydrogen was found to be reversible with a response time of the order of 3000 s. Unlike any reported porous silicon gas quenching systems, both the extent and rate of quenching were found to be a function of photoluminescence wavelength. The quenching is attributed to charge transfer from the conduction band of porous silicon to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of oxygen and hydrogen, respectively. Surface conductance measurements (aluminium contacts) show that the principal charge transfer process is via tunnelling, with some conduction through the underlying bulk p-type silicon layer. Symmetrical current-voltage plots were obtained for this system which were attributed to pinning of the aluminium-porous silicon Fermi level at mid-gap by the high surface trap density. An approximate doubling of the aluminium electrode separation was found to reduce approximately fourfold the initial rate of increase in surface conductance on adsorption of oxygen at a pressure of 10 torr. To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first time that such an effect has been reported in a room temperature solid state gas sensor. Gas sensitivity measurements using surface contacts show a logarithmic response to the concentration of oxygen up to a pressure of 100 torr with a rapid response, of 300 s. A 39% increase in surface conductance occurs on exposure of the device to 100 torr of oxygen. The surface conductance of the device decreases by 34% on exposure to one atmosphere of hydrogen with a response time of the order 2000 s. Transverse conductance (DC) measurements show that Au/PS/p-Si/Al..Ag devices behave like a field-dependent diode. An admittance spectroscopy technique has been applied to porous silicon for the first time to calculate g 0 , the trap density at the Fermi level

  18. Femtosecond Laser Ablated FBG with Composite Microstructure for Hydrogen Sensor Application

    Meng Zou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A composite microstructure in fiber Bragg grating (FBG with film deposition for hydrogen detection is presented. Through ablated to FBG cladding by a femtosecond laser, straight-trenches and spiral micro-pits are formed. A Pd–Ag film is sputtered on the surface of the laser processed FBG single mode fiber, and acts as hydrogen sensing transducer. The demonstrated experimental outcomes show that a composite structure produced the highest sensitivity of 26.3 pm/%H, nearly sevenfold more sensitive compared with original standard FBG. It offers great potential in engineering applications for its good structure stability and sensitivity.

  19. Synthesis of new copper nanoparticle-decorated anchored type ligands: Applications as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for hydrogen peroxide

    Ensafi, Ali A., E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Zandi-Atashbar, N.; Ghiaci, M.; Taghizadeh, M.; Rezaei, B.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) decorated on two new anchored type ligands were utilized to prepare two electrochemical sensors. These ligands are made from bonding amine chains to silica support including SiO{sub 2}–pro–NH{sub 2} (compound I) and SiO{sub 2}–pro–NH–cyanuric–NH{sub 2} (compound II). The morphology of synthesized CuNPs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-particles were in the range of 13–37 nm with the average size of 23 nm. These materials were used to modify carbon paste electrode. Different electrochemical techniques, including cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and hydrodynamic chronoamperometry, were used to study the sensor behavior. These electrochemical sensors were used as a model for non-enzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). To evaluate the abilities of the modified electrodes for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection, the electrochemical signals were compared in the absence and presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. From them, two modified electrodes showed significant responses vs. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition. The amperograms illustrated that the sensors were selective for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensing with linear ranges of 5.14–1250 μmol L{sup −1} and 1.14–1120 μmol L{sup −1} with detection limits of 0.85 and 0.27 μmol L{sup −1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, sensitivities of 3545 and 11,293 μA mmol{sup −1} L and with response times less than 5 s for I/CPE and II/CPE, respectively. As further verification of the selected sensor, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} contained in milk sample was analyzed and the obtained results were comparable with the ones from classical control titration method. - Highlights: • Copper nanoparticles decorating on two new anchored type ligands were prepared. • Ligands are bonding to silica support as SiO{sub 2}–pro–NH{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}–pro–NH–cyanuric–NH{sub 2}. • These materials were used as electrochemical sensors for H

  20. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis on methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.

  1. Improved Sensitivity with Low Limit of Detection of a Hydrogen Gas Sensor Based on rGO-Loaded Ni-Doped ZnO Nanostructures.

    Bhati, Vijendra Singh; Ranwa, Sapana; Rajamani, Saravanan; Kumari, Kusum; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim; Kumar, Mahesh

    2018-04-04

    We report enhanced hydrogen-gas-sensing performance of a Ni-doped ZnO sensor decorated with the optimum concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Ni-doped ZnO nanoplates were grown by radio frequency sputtering, rGO was synthesized by Hummer's method and decorated by the drop cast method of various concentration of rGO (0-1.5 wt %). The current-voltage characteristics of the rGO-loaded sensor are highly influenced by the loading concentration of rGO, where current conduction decreases and sensor resistance increases as the rGO concentration is increased up to 0.75 wt % because of the formation of various Schottky heterojunctions at rGO/ZnO interfaces. With the combined effect of more active site availability and formation of various p-n heterojunctions due to the optimum loading concentration of rGO (0.75 wt %), the sensor shows the maximum sensing response of ∼63.8% for 100 ppm hydrogen at moderate operating temperature (150 °C). The rGO-loaded sensors were able to detect a minimum of 1 ppm hydrogen concentration and showed high selectivity. However, a further increase in the rGO concentration (1.5 wt %) leads to the reduction of the relative response of hydrogen gas, ascribed to the formation of interconnections of rGO between electrodes. Therefore, it reduces the total resistance of the sensor and minimizes the effect of p-n heterojunction on sensor response.

  2. Effects of chirality and surface stresses on the bending and buckling of chiral nanowires

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Shimada, Takahiro; Kitamura, Takayuki; Wang, Gang-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Due to their superior optical, elastic and electrical properties, chiral nanowires have many applications as sensors, probes, and building blocks of nanoelectromechanical systems. In this paper, we develop a refined Euler–Bernoulli beam model for chiral nanowires with surface effects and material chirality incorporated. This refined model is employed to investigate the bending and buckling of chiral nanowires. It is found that surface effects and material chirality significantly affect the elastic behaviour of chiral nanowires. This study is helpful not only for understanding the size-dependent behaviour of chiral nanowires, but also for characterizing their mechanical properties. (paper)

  3. AC dielectrophoresis alignment of single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWNTS) and palladium nano wires for hydrogen gas sensor

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Ying, K.K.; KKhuan, N.I.; Mohammad Hafizuddin Jumali

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Using AC electric field, nano wires or nano tubes can be aligned, chained or accelerated in a direction parallel to the applied field, oriented or concentrated onto designated locations as well as dispersed in controlled manner under high efficiencies. In this work, systematic study on the alignment of nano wires/ nano tubes across the 3 μm-gaps between pairs of micro fabricated gold electrodes was carried out using AC dielectrophoresis technique. Densities and alignment of the nano wires/ nano tubes across the gaps of the electrodes were controlled by the applied AC field strengths and frequencies on the electrodes. Good alignments of SWNTs and Pd nano wires were achieved at an applied frequency of 5 MHz and a field strength as high as 25 V pp for Pd nano wires compared to only 2 V pp for SWNTs. The aligned nano wires/ nano tubes will be functioned as sensor elements for hydrogen gas sensing. (author)

  4. Electrochemical gene sensor for Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA using dual signal amplification via a Pt-Pd nanowire and horse radish peroxidase

    Liu, Linlin; Xiang, Guiming; Jiang, Dongneng; Du, Chunlan; Liu, Chang; Huang, Weiwei; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    A dually amplified DNA biosensor was constructed for the determination of the DNA of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneu). A gold electrode was modified with 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA; a π-stacking perylene semiconductor dye with outstanding electronic and optical properties), a layer of gold nanoparticles (nano-Au), and capture DNA. Pt-Pd nanowires served as carriers for the co immobilization of complementary probe (CP2) and the mediator thionine (Thi). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) acted as a blocking reagent and signal enhancer. Following base pairing, the modified Pt-Pd nanowires were captured on the surface of the gold electrode. After addition of H 2 O 2 , the Pt-Pd nanowires and HRP both catalyzed the reduction of H 2 O 2 and promoted the electron transfer via the mediator Thi, resulting in an amplified electrochemical signal. The electrical signal, best measured at a working voltage of −200 mV (vs a SCE), is logarithmically related to the concentration of the M. pneu DNA in the 0.1 pM to 20 nM concentration range, and the detection limit (at an S/N ratio of 3) is 0.03 pM. The assay is robust, sensitive and specific. Conceivably, it is a cost-effective alternative to the established PCR method for the detection of M. pneu in clinical samples. (author)

  5. Au nanowire junction breakup through surface atom diffusion

    Vigonski, Simon; Jansson, Ville; Vlassov, Sergei; Polyakov, Boris; Baibuz, Ekaterina; Oras, Sven; Aabloo, Alvo; Djurabekova, Flyura; Zadin, Vahur

    2018-01-01

    Metallic nanowires are known to break into shorter fragments due to the Rayleigh instability mechanism. This process is strongly accelerated at elevated temperatures and can completely hinder the functioning of nanowire-based devices like e.g. transparent conductive and flexible coatings. At the same time, arranged gold nanodots have important applications in electrochemical sensors. In this paper we perform a series of annealing experiments of gold and silver nanowires and nanowire junctions at fixed temperatures 473, 673, 873 and 973 K (200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C) during a time period of 10 min. We show that nanowires are especially prone to fragmentation around junctions and crossing points even at comparatively low temperatures. The fragmentation process is highly temperature dependent and the junction region breaks up at a lower temperature than a single nanowire. We develop a gold parametrization for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrate the surface diffusion origin of the nanowire junction fragmentation. We show that nanowire fragmentation starts at the junctions with high reliability and propose that aligning nanowires in a regular grid could be used as a technique for fabricating arrays of nanodots.

  6. The Different Sensitive Behaviors of a Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer-Coated SAW Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants

    Yin Long

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A linear hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA linear functionalized polymer (PLF, was deposited onto a bare surface acoustic wave (SAW device to fabricate a chemical sensor. Real-time responses of the sensor to a series of compounds including sarin (GB, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, mustard gas (HD, chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (2-CEES, 1,5-dichloropentane (DCP and some organic solvents were studied. The results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to GB and DMMP, and has low sensitivity to HD and DCP, as expected. However, the sensor possesses an unexpected high sensitivity toward 2-CEES. This good sensing performance can’t be solely or mainly attributed to the dipole-dipole interaction since the sensor is not sensitive to some high polarity solvents. We believe the lone pair electrons around the sulphur atom of 2-CEES provide an electron-rich site, which facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonding between PLF and 2-CEES. On the contrary, the electron cloud on the sulphur atom of the HD molecule is offset or depleted by its two neighbouring strong electron-withdrawing groups, hence, hydrogen bonding can hardly be formed.

  7. Sensors

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  8. Sensors

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  9. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  10. Vertical nanowire architectures

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfl-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires and statistics: A statistical process for reading ultradense arrays of nanostructured materials is presented (see image). The experimental realization is achieved through selective nanowire growth using porous alumina templates. The statistical patterning approach is found to provide ri...

  11. Highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles on carbon nanofiber heterostructures

    Yang, Yang; Fu, Renzhong; Yuan, Jianjun; Wu, Shiyuan; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) that is based on the use of a heterostructure composed of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). High-density Pt NPs were homogeneously loaded onto a three-dimensional nanostructured CNF matrix and then deposited in a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The resulting sensor synergizes the advantages of the conducting CNFs and the nanoparticle catalyst. The porous structure of the CNFs also favor the high-density immobilization of the NPs and the diffusion of water-soluble molecules, and thus assists the rapid catalytic oxidation of H 2 O 2 . If operated at a working voltage of −0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the modified GCE exhibits a linear response to H 2 O 2 in the 5 μM to 15 mM concentration range (total analytical range: 5 μM to 100 mM), with a detection limit of 1.7 μM (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The modified GCE is not interfered by species such as uric acid and glucose. Its good stability, high selectivity and good reproducibility make this electrode a valuable tool for inexpensive amperometric sensing of H 2 O 2 . (author)

  12. A comparison of nitrogen-doped sonoelectrochemical and chemical graphene nanosheets as hydrogen peroxide sensors.

    Wu, Yi-Shan; Liu, Zhe-Ting; Wang, Tzu-Pei; Hsu, Su-Yang; Lee, Chien-Liang

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheet (N-SEGN) with pyrrolic nitrogen and 5-9 vacancy defects has been successfully prepared from a hydrothermal reaction of tetra-2-pyridinylpyrazine and sonoelectrochemistry-exfoliated graphene nanosheet, with point defects. Additionally, based on the same reaction using chemically reduced graphene oxide, nitrogen-doped chemically reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) with graphitic nitrogen was prepared. The N-SEGN and N-rGO were used as a non-enzymatic H 2 O 2 sensors. The sensitivity of the N-SEGN was 231.3 μA·mM -1 ·cm -2 , much greater than 57.3 μA·mM -1 ·cm -2 of N-rGO. The N-SEGN showed their potential for being a H 2 O 2 sensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogen sensors based on electrophoretically deposited Pd nanoparticles onto InP

    Grym, Jan; Procházková, Olga; Yatskiv, Roman; Piksová, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 392 (2011), 3921-3925 ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1037; GA AV ČR KJB200670901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : nanoparticles * gas sensors * III-V semiconductors Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2011

  14. As-Grown Gallium Nitride Nanowire Electromechanical Resonators

    Montague, Joshua R.

    Technological development in recent years has led to a ubiquity of micro- and nano-scale electromechanical devices. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, mass, etc., are now found in nearly all electronic devices at both the industrial and consumer levels. As has been true for integrated circuit electronics, these electromechanical devices have continued to be scaled down in size. For many nanometer-scale structures with large surface-to-volume ratio, dissipation (energy loss) becomes prohibitively large causing a decreasing sensitivity with decreasing sensor size. In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are investigated as singly-clamped (cantilever) mechanical resonators with typical mechanical quality factors, Q (equal to the ratio of resonance frequency to peak full-width-at-half-maximum-power) and resonance frequencies, respectively, at or above 30,000, and near 1 MHz. These Q values---in vacuum at room temperature---indicate very low levels of dissipation; they are essentially the same as those for bulk quartz crystal resonators that form the basis of simple clocks and mass sensors. The GaN nanowires have lengths and diameters, respectively, of approximately 15 micrometers and hundreds of nanometers. As-grown GaN nanowire Q values are larger than other similarly-sized, bottom-up, cantilever resonators and this property makes them very attractive for use as resonant sensors. We demonstrate the capability of detecting sub-monolayer levels of atomic layer deposited (ALD) films, and the robust nature of the GaN nanowires structure that allows for their 'reuse' after removal of such layers. In addition to electron microscope-based measurement techniques, we demonstrate the successful capacitive detection of a single nanowire using microwave homodyne reflectometry. This technique is then extended to allow for simultaneous measurements of large ensembles of GaN nanowires on a single sample, providing statistical information about the distribution of

  15. Porous HKUST-1 derived CuO/Cu2O shell wrapped Cu(OH)2 derived CuO/Cu2O core nanowire arrays for electrochemical nonenzymatic glucose sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity

    Yu, Cuiping; Cui, Jiewu; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhang, Jianfang; Shu, Xia; Liu, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-05-01

    Self-supported CuO/Cu2O@CuO/Cu2O core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) are successfully fabricated by a simple and efficient method in this paper. Anodized Cu(OH)2 NWAs could in-situ convert to HKUST-1 at room temperature easily. Cu(OH)2 NWAs cores and HKUST-1 shells transform into CuO/Cu2O simultaneously after calcinations and form CuO/Cu2O@CuO/Cu2O core-shell NWAs. This smart configuration of the core-shell structure not only avoids the agglomeration of the traditional MOF-derived materials in particle-shape, but also facilitates the ion diffusion and increases the active sites. This novel structure is employed as substrate to construct nonenzymatic glucose sensors. The results indicate that glucose sensor based on CuO/Cu2O@CuO/Cu2O core-shell NWAs presents ultrahigh sensitivity (10,090 μA mM-1 cm-2), low detection limit (0.48 μM) and wide linear range (0.99-1,330 μM). In addition, it also shows excellent anti-interference ability toward uric acid, ascorbic acid and L-Cysteine co-existing with glucose, good reproducibility and superior ability of real sample analysis.

  16. A turn-on indole-based sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion.

    Wan, Chin-Feng; Yang, Shih-Tse; Lin, Hsiang-Yi; Chang, Ya-Ju; Wu, An-Tai

    2014-08-01

    A simple indole-based receptor 1 was prepared by a simple Schiff-base reaction of 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde with ethane 1,2-diamine and its fluoroionophoric properties toward anions were investigated. Indole-based receptor 1 acts as a selective turn-on fluorescent sensor for HSO4(-) in methanol among a series of tested anions. Fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging support that the HSO4(-) indeed interacted with imine nitrogen and the proton of nitrogen in indole ring. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Growth of β-Ga2O3 and GaN nanowires on GaN for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation

    Hwang, Jih-Shang; Liu, Tai-Yan; Chen, Han-Wei; Chattopadhyay, Surjit; Hsu, Geng-Ming; Basilio, Antonio M; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Tu, Wen-Hsun; Lin, Yan-Gu; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Li, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of Ga 2 O 3 and GaN nanowires (NWs) grown in situ from GaN were demonstrated. The PEC conversion efficiencies of Ga 2 O 3 and GaN NWs have been shown to be 0.906% and 1.09% respectively, in contrast to their 0.581% GaN thin film counterpart under similar experimental conditions. A low crystallinity buffer layer between the grown NWs and the substrate was found to be detrimental to the PEC performance, but the layer can be avoided at suitable growth conditions. A band bending at the surface of the GaN NWs generates an electric field that drives the photogenerated electrons and holes away from each other, preventing recombination, and was found to be responsible for the enhanced PEC performance. The enhanced PEC efficiency of the Ga 2 O 3 NWs is aided by the optical absorption through a defect band centered 3.3 eV above the valence band of Ga 2 O 3 . These findings are believed to have opened up possibilities for enabling visible absorption, either by tailoring ion doping into wide bandgap Ga 2 O 3 NWs, or by incorporation of indium to form InGaN NWs. (paper)

  18. Growth of β-Ga2O3 and GaN nanowires on GaN for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    Hwang, Jih-Shang; Liu, Tai-Yan; Chattopadhyay, Surjit; Hsu, Geng-Ming; Basilio, Antonio M; Chen, Han-Wei; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Tu, Wen-Hsun; Lin, Yan-Gu; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Li, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2013-02-08

    Enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of Ga(2)O(3) and GaN nanowires (NWs) grown in situ from GaN were demonstrated. The PEC conversion efficiencies of Ga(2)O(3) and GaN NWs have been shown to be 0.906% and 1.09% respectively, in contrast to their 0.581% GaN thin film counterpart under similar experimental conditions. A low crystallinity buffer layer between the grown NWs and the substrate was found to be detrimental to the PEC performance, but the layer can be avoided at suitable growth conditions. A band bending at the surface of the GaN NWs generates an electric field that drives the photogenerated electrons and holes away from each other, preventing recombination, and was found to be responsible for the enhanced PEC performance. The enhanced PEC efficiency of the Ga(2)O(3) NWs is aided by the optical absorption through a defect band centered 3.3 eV above the valence band of Ga(2)O(3). These findings are believed to have opened up possibilities for enabling visible absorption, either by tailoring ion doping into wide bandgap Ga(2)O(3) NWs, or by incorporation of indium to form InGaN NWs.

  19. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  20. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  1. Real-time impedance analysis of silica nanowire toxicity on epithelial breast cancer cells.

    Alexander, Frank A; Huey, Eric G; Price, Dorielle T; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2012-12-21

    Silica nanowires have great potential for usage in the development of highly sensitive in vivo biosensors used for biomarker monitoring. However, careful analysis of nanowire toxicity is required prior to placing these sensors within the human body. This paper describes a real-time and quantitative analysis of nanowire cytotoxicity using impedance spectroscopy; improving upon studies that have utilized traditional endpoint assays. Silica nanowires were grown using the vapor liquid solid (VLS) method, mixed with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and exposed to Hs578T epithelial breast cancer cells at concentrations of 0 μg ml(-1), 1 μg ml(-1), 50 μg ml(-1) and 100 μg ml(-1). Real-time cellular responses to silica nanowires confirm that while not cytotoxic, silica nanowires at high concentrations (≥50 μg ml(-1)) are toxic to cells, and also suggest that cell death is due to mechanical disturbances of high numbers of nanowires.

  2. Nanowire Growth for Photovoltaics

    Holm, Jeppe Vilstrup

    Solar cells commercial success is based on an efficiency/cost calculation. Nanowire solar cells is one of the foremost candidates to implement third generation photo voltaics, which are both very efficient and cheap to produce. This thesis is about our progress towards commercial nanowire solar...... cells. Resonance effects between the light and nanowire causes an inherent concentration of the sunlight into the nanowires, and means that a sparse array of nanowires (less than 5% of the area) can absorb all the incoming light. The resonance effects, as well as a graded index of refraction, also traps...... the light. The concentration and light trapping means that single junction nanowire solar cells have a higher theoretical maximum efficiency than equivalent planar solar cells. We have demonstrated the built-in light concentration of nanowires, by growing, contacting and characterizing a solar cell...

  3. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 o C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  4. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    Sun, Shibin [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China); Chang, Xueting [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong (China); Li, Zhenjiang, E-mail: zjli126@126.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 {sup o}C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  5. Quantifying signal changes in nano-wire based biosensors

    De Vico, Luca; Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Iversen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present a computational methodology for predicting the change in signal (conductance sensitivity) of a nano-BioFET sensor (a sensor based on a biomolecule binding another biomolecule attached to a nano-wire field effect transistor) upon binding its target molecule. The methodolog...

  6. A highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide amperometric sensor based on MnO2-modified vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Xu, Bin; Ye, Min-Ling; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-De

    2010-07-26

    In this report, a highly sensitive amperometric sensor based on MnO(2)-modified vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MnO(2)/VACNTs) for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was fabricated by electrodeposition. The morphology of the nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were applied to investigate the electrochemical properties of the MnO(2)/VACNTs nanocomposite electrode. The mechanism for the electrochemical reaction of H(2)O(2) at the MnO(2)/VACNTs nanocomposite electrode was also discussed. In borate buffer (pH 7.8, 0.20 M), the MnO(2)/VACNTs nanocomposite electrode exhibits a linear dependence (R=0.998) on the concentration of H(2)O(2) from 1.2 x 10(-6)M to 1.8 x 10(-3)M, a high sensitivity of 1.08 x 10(6) microA M(-1) cm(-2) and a detection limit of 8.0 x 10(-7) M (signal/noise=3). Meanwhile, the MnO(2)/VACNTs nanocomposite electrode is also highly resistant towards typical inorganic salts and some biomolecules such as acetic acid, citric acid, uric acid and D-(+)-glucose, etc. In addition, the sensor based on the MnO(2)/VACNTs nanocomposite electrode was applied for the determination of trace of H(2)O(2) in milk with high accuracy, demonstrating its potential for practical application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards a high performing UV-A sensor based on Silicon Carbide and hydrogenated Silicon Nitride absorbing layers

    Mazzillo, M.; Renna, L.; Costa, N.; Badalà, P.; Sciuto, A.; Mannino, G.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. The sun is our primary natural source of UV radiation. The strength of the sun's ultraviolet radiation is expressed as Solar UV Index (UVI). UV-A (320–400 nm) and UV-B (290–320 nm) rays mostly contribute to UVI. UV-B is typically the most destructive form of UV radiation because it has enough energy to cause photochemical damage to cellular DNA. Also overexposure to UV-A rays, although these are less energetic than UV-B photons, has been associated with toughening of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and cataract formation. The use of preventive measures to decrease sunlight UV radiation absorption is fundamental to reduce acute and irreversible health diseases to skin, eyes and immune system. In this perspective UV sensors able to monitor in a monolithic and compact chip the UV Index and relative UV-A and UV-B components of solar spectrum can play a relevant role for prevention, especially in view of the integration of these detectors in close at hand portable devices. Here we present the preliminary results obtained on our UV-A sensor technology based on the use of hydrogenated Silicon Nitride (SiN:H) thin passivating layers deposited on the surface of thin continuous metal film Ni 2 Si/4H-SiC Schottky detectors, already used for UV-Index monitoring. The first UV-A detector prototypes exhibit a very low leakage current density of about 0.2 pA/mm 2 and a peak responsivity value of 0.027 A/W at 330 nm, both measured at 0V bias.

  8. Contact materials for nanowire devices and nanoelectromechanical switches

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    The impact of contact materials on the performance of nanostructured devices is expected to be signifi cant. This is especially true since size scaling can increase the contact resistance and induce many unseen phenomenon and reactions that greatly impact device performance. Nanowire and nanoelectromechanical switches are two emerging nanoelectronic devices. Nanowires provide a unique opportunity to control the property of a material at an ultra-scaled dimension, whereas a nanoelectromechanical switch presents zero power consumption in its off state, as it is physically detached from the sensor anode. In this article, we specifi cally discuss contact material issues related to nanowire devices and nanoelectromechanical switches.

  9. Selective hydrogen detection at high temperature by using yttria-stabilized zirconia-based sensor with coupled metal-oxide-based sensing electrodes

    Yamaguchi, Mami; Anggraini, Sri Ayu; Fujio, Yuki; Breedon, Michael; Plashnitsa, Vladimir V.; Miura, Norio

    2012-01-01

    A selective and sensitive hydrogen (H 2 ) sensor capable of working at a high operating temperature was developed by using a pair of metal-oxide-based SEs formed on a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) tube, operating as a mixed-potential type sensor. The utilization of SnO 2 (+30 wt.% YSZ) electrode together with NiO-TiO 2 electrode configured as a combined-type sensor, successfully diminished the response of the examined interfering gases (especially propene), while maintaining high response toward H 2 at an operating temperature of 600 °C under humid operating conditions. The developed sensor exhibited quick response to 100 ppm H 2 , as the 90% response time was observed to be 9 s. The sensing performance of the combined-type sensor was barely affected by changes in water vapor concentration within the range of 1–4 vol.%, suggesting the resilience of the sensor to function in realistic working conditions. This sensor exhibited a linear relationship between sensitivity and H 2 concentration on a logarithmic scale.

  10. Highly stretchable strain sensor based on polyurethane substrate using hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure for monitoring of tiny human motions

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yunong; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia; Zhang, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Strain sensors used as flexible and wearable electronic devices have improved prospects in the fields of artificial skin, robotics, human-machine interfaces, and healthcare. This work introduces a highly stretchable fiber-based strain sensor with a laminated structure made up of a graphene nanoplatelet layer and a carbon black/single-walled carbon nanotube synergetic conductive network layer. An ultrathin, flexible, and elastic two-layer polyurethane (PU) yarn substrate was successively deposited by a novel chemical bonding-based layered dip-coating process. These strain sensors demonstrated high stretchability (˜350%), little hysteresis, and long-term durability (over 2400 cycles) due to the favorable tensile properties of the PU substrate. The linearity of the strain sensor could reach an adjusted R-squared of 0.990 at 100% strain, which is better than most of the recently reported strain sensors. Meanwhile, the strain sensor exhibited good sensibility, rapid response, and a lower detection limit. The lower detection limit benefited from the hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure and continuous conductive path. Finally, a series of experiments were carried out based on the special features of the PU strain sensor to show its capacity of detecting and monitoring tiny human motions.

  11. Low-cost fabrication of highly sensitive room temperature hydrogen sensor based on ordered mesoporous Co-doped TiO2 structure

    Li, Zhong; Haidry, Azhar Ali; Wang, Tao; Yao, Zheng Jun

    2017-07-01

    The development of cost-effective gas sensors with improved sensing properties and minimum power consumption for room temperature hydrogen leakage monitoring is in increasing demand. In this context, this report focus on the facile fabrication of ordered mesoporous TiO2 via evaporation-induced self-assembly route. With the controlled doping threshold (3%Co-TiO2), the output resistance change to 1000 ppm H2 is ˜4.1 × 103 with the response time of 66 s. The sensor response exhibits power law dependence with an increase in the hydrogen concentration, where the power law coefficient was found not only specific to the kind of target gas but also related to temperature. Further, the effect of structure integrity with doping level and humidity on sensing characteristics is interpreted in terms of variation in surface potential eVS and depletion region w caused by the adsorption of molecular oxygen O2-.

  12. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    Irshad, M. I., E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Abdullah, M. Z., E-mail: zaki-abdullah@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Electrochemical deposition technique has been used to deposit cobalt nanowires into the nano sized channels of Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. CoCl{sub 2}Ðœ‡6H2O salt solution was used, which was buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidified by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to increase the plating life and control pH of the solution. Thin film of copper around 150 nm thick on one side of AAO template coated by e-beam evaporation system served as cathode to create electrical contact. FESEM analysis shows that the as-deposited nanowires are highly aligned, parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. The TEM results show that electrodeposited cobalt nanowires are crystalline in nature. The Hysteresis loop shows the magnetization properties for in and out of plane configuration. The in plane saturation magnetization (Ms) is lower than out of plane configuration because of the easy axis of magnetization is perpendicular to nanowire axis. These magnetic nanowires could be utilized for applications such as spintronic devices, high density magnetic storage, and magnetic sensor applications.

  13. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    Irshad, M. I.; Mohamed, N. M.; Ahmad, F.; Abdullah, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition technique has been used to deposit cobalt nanowires into the nano sized channels of Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. CoCl 2 Ðœ‡6H2O salt solution was used, which was buffered with H 3 BO 3 and acidified by dilute H 2 SO 4 to increase the plating life and control pH of the solution. Thin film of copper around 150 nm thick on one side of AAO template coated by e-beam evaporation system served as cathode to create electrical contact. FESEM analysis shows that the as-deposited nanowires are highly aligned, parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. The TEM results show that electrodeposited cobalt nanowires are crystalline in nature. The Hysteresis loop shows the magnetization properties for in and out of plane configuration. The in plane saturation magnetization (Ms) is lower than out of plane configuration because of the easy axis of magnetization is perpendicular to nanowire axis. These magnetic nanowires could be utilized for applications such as spintronic devices, high density magnetic storage, and magnetic sensor applications

  14. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Ternary Chalcogenides

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Hopkins, R. H.; Su, Ching Hua; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades there has been a large rise in the investment and expectations for nanotechnology use. Almost every area of research has projected improvements in sensors, or even a promise for the emergence of some novel device technologies. For these applications major focuses of research are in the areas of nanoparticles and graphene. Although there are some near term applications with nanowires in photodetectors and other low light detectors, there are few papers on the growth mechanism and fabrication of nanowire-based devices. Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very favorable and promising optical properties, including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here an overview of the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt, and some preliminary results for the thallium arsenic selenide material system. Thallium arsenic selenide (TAS) is a multifunctional material combining excellent acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection properties. We observed that small units of (TAS) nanocubes arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. In some cases very long wires (less than mm) are formed. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places.

  15. Hydrogen ion sensors based on indium tin oxide thin film using radio frequency sputtering system

    Chiang, Jung-Lung; Jhan, Syun-Sheng; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Huang, An-Li

    2009-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto Si and SiO 2 /Si substrates using a radio frequency sputtering system with a grain size of 30-50 nm and thickness of 270-280 nm. ITO/Si and ITO/SiO 2 /Si sensing structures were achieved and connected to a standard metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as an ITO pH extended-gate field-effect transistor (ITO pH-EGFET). The semiconductor parameter analysis measurement (Keithley 4200) was utilized to measure the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics curves and study the sensing properties of the ITO pH-EGFET. The linear pH voltage sensitivities were about 41.43 and 43.04 mV/pH for the ITO/Si and ITO/SiO 2 /Si sensing structures, respectively. At the same time, both pH current sensitivities were about 49.86 and 51.73 μA/pH, respectively. Consequently, both sensing structures can be applied as extended-gate sensing heads. The separative structure is suitable for application as a disposable pH sensor.

  16. ZrO2 oxygen and hydrogen sensors: A geologic perspective

    Ulmer, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The geosciences have been attracted to the high accuracy of 5 ZrO 2 cells for both f(O 2 ) and pH sensors. That the very same ZrO 2 membrane can be used above 600 0 C to sense f(O 2 ) and used between 25 0 and 300 0 C (maybe higher) to sense pH has been demonstrated. Specific resistivity measurements for such cells follow the equation log R = -2.20 + 4000/T (for T(K) from 298-1573 K) (for Y 2 O 3 levels of 4-8 mol%). In the lower-temperature regime, i.e., pH sensing, the ZrO 2 cell does not respond to changes in molecular O 2 or H 2 in its environment. Geochemical raw material impurities and ZrO 2 membrane fabrication techniques that affect f(O 2 ) and pH sensing are discussed. The application of ZrO 2 cells to various geologic redox equilibria are demonstrated by a few selected examples

  17. Sputtered PdO Decorated TiO2 Sensing Layer for a Hydrogen Gas Sensor

    Jeong Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a sputtered PdO decorated TiO2 sensing layer by radiofrequency (RF sputtering methods and demonstrated gas sensing performance for H2 gas. We prepared sputtered anatase TiO2 sensing films with 200 nm thickness and deposited a Pd layer on top of the TiO2 films with a thickness ranging from 3 nm to 13 nm. Using an in situ TiO2/Pd multilayer annealing process at 550°C for 1 hour, we observed that Pd turns into PdO by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES depth profile and confirmed decorated PdO on TiO2 sensing layer from scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic-force microscope (AFM. We also observed a positive sensing signal for 3, 4.5, and 6.5 nm PdO decorated TiO2 sensor while we observed negative output signal for a 13.5 nm PdO decorated one. Using a microheater platform, we acquired fast response time as ~11 sec and sensitivity as 6 μV/ppm for 3 nm PdO under 33 mW power.

  18. In situ ZnO nanowire growth to promote the PVDF piezo phase and the ZnO-PVDF hybrid self-rectified nanogenerator as a touch sensor.

    Li, Zetang; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe

    2014-03-28

    A PVDF-ZnO nanowires (NWs) hybrid generator (PZHG) was designed. A simple, cost effective method to produce the PVDF β phase by nano force is introduced. With the ZnO NWs growing, the in situ nano extension force promotes the phase change. A theoretical analysis of the ZnO NWs acting as a self-rectifier of the nano generator is established. The ZnO NWs acted as a self-adjustment diode to control the current output of the PZHG by piezo-electric and semi-conductive effects. Based on the self-controllability of the piezoelectric output, three kinds of finger touching are distinguished by the output performances of the PZHG, which is applicable to an LCD touch pad.

  19. One-Dimensional Vanadium Dioxide Nanostructures for Room Temperature Hydrogen Sensors

    Aline Simo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In relation to hydrogen (H2 economy in general and gas sensing in particular, an extensive set of one dimensional (1-D nano-scaled oxide materials are being investigated as ideal candidates for potential gas sensing applications. This is correlated to their set of singular surface characteristics, shape anisotropy and readiness for integrated devices. Nanostructures of well- established gas sensing materials such as Tin Oxide (SnO2, Zinc Oxide (ZnO, Indium (III Oxide (In2O3, and Tungsten Trioxide (WO3 have shown higher sensitivity and gas selectivity, quicker response, faster time recovery, as well as an enhanced capability to detect gases at low concentrations. While the overall sensing characteristics of these so called 1-D nanomaterials are superior, they are efficient at high temperature; generally above 200 0C. This operational impediment results in device complexities in integration that limit their technological applications, specifically in their miniaturized arrangements. Unfortunately, for room temperature applications, there is a necessity to dope the above mentioned nano-scaled oxides with noble metals such as Platinum (Pt, Palladium (Pd, Gold (Au, Ruthenium (Ru. This comes at a cost. This communication reports, for the first time, on the room temperature enhanced H2 sensing properties of a specific phase of pure Vanadium Dioxide (VO2 phase A in their nanobelt form. The relatively observed large H2 room temperature sensing in this Mott type specific oxide seems to reach values as low as 14 ppm H2 which makes it an ideal gas sensing in H2 fuelled systems.

  20. Properties of Resistive Hydrogen Sensors as a Function of Additives of 3 D-Metals Introduced in the Volume of Thin Nanocrystalline SnO2 Films

    Sevast'yanov, E. Yu.; Maksimova, N. K.; Potekaev, A. I.; Sergeichenko, N. V.; Chernikov, E. V.; Almaev, A. V.; Kushnarev, B. O.

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the results of studying electrical and gas sensitive characteristics of the molecular hydrogen sensors based on thin nanocrystalline SnO2 films coated with dispersed Au layers and containing Au+Ni and Au+Co impurities in the bulk showed that the characteristics of these sensors are more stable under the prolonged exposure to hydrogen in comparison with Au/SnO2:Sb, Au films modified only with gold. It has been found that introduction of the nickel and cobalt additives increases the band bending at the grain boundaries of tin dioxide already in freshly prepared samples, which indicates an increase in the density Ni of the chemisorbed oxygen. It is important that during testing, the band bending eφs at the grain boundaries of tin dioxide additionally slightly increases. It can be assumed that during crystallization of films under thermal annealing, the 3d-metal atoms in the SnO2 volume partially segregate on the surface of microcrystals and form bonds with lattice oxygen, the superstoichiometric tin atoms are formed, and the density Ni increases. If the bonds of oxygen with nickel and cobalt are stronger than those with tin, then, under the prolonged tests, atomic hydrogen will be oxidized not by lattice oxygen, but mainly by the chemisorbed one. In this case, stability of the sensors' characteristics increases.

  1. RECOMBINANT FLUORESCENT SENSOR OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE HyPer FUSED WITH ADAPTOR PROTEIN Ruk/CIN85: DESIGNING OF EXPRESSION VECTOR AND ITS FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION

    А. V. Bazalii

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design the expression vector encoding fluorescent sensor of hydrogen peroxide HyPer fused with adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85 as well as to check its subcellular distribution and ability to sense hydrogen peroxide. It was demonstrated that in transiently transfected HEK293 and MCF-7 cells Ruk/CIN85-HyPer is concentrated in dot-like vesicular structures of different size while HyPer is diffusely distributed throughout the cell. Using live cell fluorescence microscopy we observed gradual increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in representative vesicular structures during the time of experiment. Thus, the developed genetic construction encoding the chimeric Ruk/CIN85-HyPer fluorescent protein represents a new tool to study localized H2O2 production in living cells.

  2. Printing nanotube/nanowire for flexible microsystems

    Tortorich, Ryan P.; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Printing has become an emerging manufacturing technology for mechanics, electronics, and consumer products. Additionally, both nanotubes and nanowires have recently been used as materials for sensors and electrodes due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties. Printed electrodes and conductive traces particularly offer versatility of fabricating low-cost, disposable, and flexible electrical devices and microsystems. While various printing methods such as screen printing have been conventional methods for printing conductive traces and electrodes, inkjet printing has recently attracted great attention due to its unique advantages including no template requirement, rapid printing at low cost, on-demand printing capability, and precise control of the printed material. Computer generated conductive traces or electrode patterns can simply be printed on a thin film substrate with proper conductive ink consisting of nanotubes or nanowires. However, in order to develop nanotube or nanowire ink, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed. The most difficult obstacle to overcome is that of nanotube/nanowire dispersion within a solution. Other challenges include adjusting surface tension and controlling viscosity of the ink as well as treating the surface of the printing substrate. In an attempt to pave the way for nanomaterial inkjet printing, we present a method for preparing carbon nanotube ink as well as its printing technique. A fully printed electrochemical sensor using inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes is also demonstrated as an example of the possibilities for this technology.

  3. Flexible InGaN nanowire membranes for enhanced solar water splitting

    Elafandy, Rami T.; Elafandy, Rami T.; Min, Jung-Wook; Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-01-01

    III-Nitride nanowires (NWs) have recently emerged as potential photoelectrodes for efficient solar hydrogen generation. While InGaN NWs epitaxy over silicon is required for high crystalline quality and economic production, it leads to the formation

  4. Nanowires and nanobelts, v.2 nanowires and nanobelts of functional materials

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires, nanobelts, nanoribbons, nanorods ..., are a new class of quasi-one-dimensional materials that have been attracting a great research interest in the last few years. These non-carbon based materials have been demonstrated to exhibit superior electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties, and can be used as fundamental building blocks for nano-scale science and technology, ranging from chemical and biological sensors, field effect transistors to logic circuits. Nanocircuits built using semiconductor nanowires demonstrated were declared a ""breakthrough in science"" by Science

  5. Enhanced piezo-humidity sensing of a Cd-ZnO nanowire nanogenerator as a self-powered/active gas sensor by coupling the piezoelectric screening effect and dopant displacement mechanism.

    Yu, Binwei; Fu, Yongming; Wang, Penglei; Zhao, Yayu; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2015-04-28

    Highly sensitive humidity sensing has been realized from a Cd-doped ZnO nanowire (NW) nanogenerator (NG) as a self-powered/active gas sensor. The piezoelectric output of the device acts not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to the relative humidity (RH) in the environment. The response of Cd-ZnO (1 : 10) NWs reached up to 85.7 upon exposure to 70% relative humidity, much higher than that of undoped ZnO NWs. Cd dopant can increase the number of oxygen vacancies in the NWs, resulting in more adsorption sites on the surface of the NWs. Upon exposure to a humid environment, a large amount of water molecules can displace the adsorbed oxygen ions on the surface of Cd-ZnO NWs. This procedure can influence the carrier density in Cd-ZnO NWs and vary the screening effect on the piezoelectric output. Our study can stimulate a research trend on exploring composite materials for piezo-gas sensing.

  6. Controlled surface diffusion in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of GaN nanowires

    Hou, W C; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the growth of GaN nanowires by controlling the surface diffusion of Ga species on sapphire in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, Ga has a tendency to adsorb on the substrate surface diffusing to nanowires to contribute to their growth. The significance of surface diffusion on the growth of nanowires is dependent on the environment of the nanowire on the substrate surface as well as the gas phase species and compositions. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, the growth rate is strongly dependent on the surface diffusion of gallium, but the addition of 5% hydrogen in nitrogen plasma instantly diminishes the surface diffusion effect. Gallium desorbs easily from the surface by reaction with hydrogen. On the other hand, under gallium-rich growth conditions, nanowire growth is shown to be dominated by the gas phase deposition, with negligible contribution from surface diffusion. This is the first study reporting the inhibition of surface diffusion effects by hydrogen addition, which can be useful in tailoring the growth and characteristics of nanowires. Without any evidence of direct deposition on the nanowire surface, gallium and nitrogen are shown to dissolve into the catalyst for growing the nanowires at 900 deg. C.

  7. Timoshenko beam model for buckling of piezoelectric nanowires with surface effects

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanowires under distributed transverse loading, within the framework of the Timoshenko beam theory, and in the presence of surface effects. Analytical relations are given for the critical force of axial buckling of nanowires by accounting for the effects of surface elasticity, residual surface tension, and transverse shear deformation. Through an example, it is shown that the critical electric potential of buckling depends on both the surface stresses and piezoelectricity. This study may be helpful in the characterization of the mechanical properties of nanowires and in the calibration of the nanowire-based force sensors. PMID:22453063

  8. Measuring thermal conductivity of polystyrene nanowires using the dual-cantilever technique.

    Canetta, Carlo; Guo, Samuel; Narayanaswamy, Arvind

    2014-10-01

    Thermal conductance measurements are performed on individual polystyrene nanowires using a novel measurement technique in which the wires are suspended between two bi-material microcantilever sensors. The nanowires are fabricated via electrospinning process. Thermal conductivity of the nanowire samples is found to be between 6.6 and 14.4 W m(-1) K(-1) depending on sample, a significant increase above typical bulk conductivity values for polystyrene. The high strain rates characteristic of electrospinning are believed to lead to alignment of molecular polymer chains, and hence the increase in thermal conductivity, along the axis of the nanowire.

  9. Nanowire field effect transistors principles and applications

    Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Nanowire Field Effect Transistor: Basic Principles and Applications” places an emphasis on the application aspects of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET). Device physics and electronics are discussed in a compact manner, together with the p-n junction diode and MOSFET, the former as an essential element in NWFET and the latter as a general background of the FET. During this discussion, the photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LD, DRAM, flash EEPROM and sensors are highlighted to pave the way for similar applications of NWFET. Modeling is discussed in close analogy and comparison with MOSFETs. Contributors focus on processing, electrostatic discharge (ESD) and application of NWFET. This includes coverage of solar and memory cells, biological and chemical sensors, displays and atomic scale light emitting diodes. Appropriate for scientists and engineers interested in acquiring a working knowledge of NWFET as well as graduate students specializing in this subject.

  10. Single cell detection using a magnetic zigzag nanowire biosensor.

    Huang, Hao-Ting; Ger, Tzong-Rong; Lin, Ya-Hui; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2013-08-07

    A magnetic zigzag nanowire device was designed for single cell biosensing. Nanowires with widths of 150, 300, 500, and 800 nm were fabricated on silicon trenches by electron beam lithography, electron beam evaporation, and lift-off processes. Magnetoresistance measurements were performed before and after the attachment of a single magnetic cell to the nanowires to characterize the magnetic signal change due to the influence of the magnetic cell. Magnetoresistance responses were measured in different magnetic field directions, and the results showed that this nanowire device can be used for multi-directional detection. It was observed that the highest switching field variation occurred in a 150 nm wide nanowire when the field was perpendicular to the substrate plane. On the other hand, the highest magnetoresistance ratio variation occurred in a 800 nm wide nanowire also when the field was perpendicular to the substrate plane. Besides, the trench-structured substrate proposed in this study can fix the magnetic cell to the sensor in a fluid environment, and the stray field generated by the corners of the magnetic zigzag nanowires has the function of actively attracting the magnetic cells for detection.

  11. Sensor

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  12. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  13. Functionalised Silver Nanowire Structures

    Andrew, Piers; Ilie, Adelina

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline silver nanowires 60-100 nm in diameter and tens of micrometres in length have been fabricated using a low temperature, solution synthesis technique. We explore the potential of this method to produce functional nanowire structures using two different strategies to attach active molecules to the nanowires: adsorption and displacement. Initially, as-produced silver nanowires capped with a uniaxial-growth-inducing polymer layer were functionalised by solution adsorption of a semiconducting conjugated polymer to generate fluorescent nanowire structures. The influence of nanowire surface chemistry was investigated by displacing the capping polymer with an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer, followed by solution adsorption functionalisation. The success of molecular attachment was monitored by electron microscopy, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy. We examined how the optical properties of such adsorbed molecules are affected by the metallic nanowires, and observed transfer of excitation energy between dye molecules mediated by surface plasmons propagating on the nanowires. Non-contact dynamic force microscopy measurements were used to map the work-function of individual wires, revealing inhomogeneity of the polymer surface coverage

  14. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via ato...

  15. Insights into pulsed electrodeposition of GMR multilayered nanowires

    Pullini, D.; Busquets, D.; Ruotolo, A.; Innocenti, G.; Amigo, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, Co/Cu nanowires are fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition from a single bath solution containing both Co and Cu ions. Alternate Co and Cu layers are deposited into the nanopores of track etched polycarbonate templates. Although the feasibility of this process is generally recognized, some important issues such as process reproducibility and how structural defects affect the nanowires arrays' sensing performances are still open; conditions necessary to turn a this made system into a magnetic field sensor. The present work aims at pushing forward knowledge concerning the nanowires fabrication and defining the best growth parameters; in particular, a tight control of the growth process parameters such as single metal deposition potentials and single cycle deposition durations have been carried out for nanowires of 80 nm diameter and correlated to the system magneto-electric response

  16. Location deterministic biosensing from quantum-dot-nanowire assemblies

    Liu, Chao; Kim, Kwanoh; Fan, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with high fluorescent brightness, stability, and tunable sizes, have received considerable interest for imaging, sensing, and delivery of biomolecules. In this research, we demonstrate location deterministic biochemical detection from arrays of QD-nanowire hybrid assemblies. QDs with diameters less than 10 nm are manipulated and precisely positioned on the tips of the assembled Gold (Au) nanowires. The manipulation mechanisms are quantitatively understood as the synergetic effects of dielectrophoretic (DEP) and alternating current electroosmosis (ACEO) due to AC electric fields. The QD-nanowire hybrid sensors operate uniquely by concentrating bioanalytes to QDs on the tips of nanowires before detection, offering much enhanced efficiency and sensitivity, in addition to the position-predictable rationality. This research could result in advances in QD-based biomedical detection and inspires an innovative approach for fabricating various QD-based nanodevices.

  17. UV irradiation assisted growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface

    Gong, Bo; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Li, Xiaoping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Temgyuan; Tang, Zirong, E-mail: zirong@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new fabrication process combined a hydrothermal process with UV irradiation from optical fiber is developed. • The growth of ZnO nanowires is efficient in the utilization of UV light. • A novel hybrid structure which integrates ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface is synthesized. • The UV assisted growth of ZnO nanowires shows preferred orientation and better quality. • A mechanism of growing ZnO nanowires under UV irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach was developed for the enhanced growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface. The method combined a hydrothermal process with the efficient UV irradiation from the fiber core, and the effects of UV irradiation on the growth behavior of ZnO nanowires were investigated. The results show that UV irradiation had great effects on the preferred growth orientation and the quality of the ZnO nanowires. The crystallization velocity along the c-axis would increase rapidly with the increase of the irradiation power, while the growth process in the lateral direction was marginally affected by the irradiation. The structure of ZnO nanowires also shows less oxygen vacancy with UV irradiation of higher power. The developed approach is applicable for the efficient growth of nanowires on the fiber surface, and the ZnO nanowires/optical fiber hybrid structures have great potentials for a wide variety of applications such as optical fiber sensors and probes.

  18. A high performance hydrogen sulfide gas sensor based on porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} operates at room-temperature

    Huang, Yanwu; Chen, Weimei; Zhang, Shouchao; Kuang, Zhong; Ao, Dongyi [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Alkurd, Nooraldeen Rafat; Zhou, Weilie [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Liu, Wei [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Shen, Wenzhong [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan, 030001 (China); Li, Zhijie, E-mail: zhijieli@uestc.edu.cn [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Novel porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. • The sensor based on porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits high sensitivity towards H{sub 2}S gas. • The detection limit towards H{sub 2}S gas was as low as 50 ppb at room temperature. • The sensor exhibits excellent selectivity against other toxic and noxious gases. - Abstract: Porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by simple annealing of β-FeOOH precursor derived from a facile hydrothermal route, the structures and morphologies of the as-prepared product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the average crystallite size of the obtained porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 34 nm and exits numerous irregularly distributed pores with a diameter varying from 2 nm to 10 nm on the particle surface. The gas-sensing properties of the sensor based on porous α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were investigated, and the result showed that the sensor exhibited a high performance in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) detection at room temperature. The highest sensitivity reached 38.4 for 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, and the detection limit was as low as 50 ppb. In addition, the response of the sensor towards other gases including C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, CO, H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} indicates the sensor has an excellent selectivity to detection H{sub 2}S gas. Finally, the sensing mechanism of the sensor towards H{sub 2}S was also discussed.

  19. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-05-06

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and integration into microsystems. In5 addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the high elasticity and easy patterning of the polymer-based material, leading to a corrosion-resistant, flexible material that can be used to realize extreme sensitivity. In combination with magnetic sensor elements patterned underneath the nanocomposite, the nanocomposite device realizes highly sensitive and power efficient flexible artificial cilia sensors for flow measurement or tactile sensing.

  20. Investigation of the influence of growth parameters on self-catalyzed ITO nanowires by high RF-power sputtering

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yuantao; Feng, Lungang; Wang, Zuming; Wang, Tao; Yun, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires are successfully fabricated using a radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique with a high RF power of 250 W. The fabrication of the ITO nanowires is optimized through the study of oxygen flow rates, temperatures and RF power. The difference in the morphology of the ITO nanowires prepared by using a new target and a used target is observed and the mechanism for the difference is discussed in detail. A hollow structure and air voids within the nanowires are formed during the process of the nanowire growth. The ITO nanowires fabricated by this method demonstrated good conductivity (15 Ω sq-1) and a transmittance of more than 64% at a wavelength longer than 550 nm after annealing. Furthermore, detailed microstructure studies show that the ITO nanowires exhibit a large number of oxygen vacancies. As a result, it is expected that they can be useful for the fabrication of gas sensor devices.

  1. Ultra low power temperature compensation method for palladium nanowire grid

    Ing. Erik Puik; J.F. van der Bent; C.J.M. van Rijn

    2010-01-01

    From Science direct: One of the nanowires was covered with a 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate based compound to prevent hydrogen from reaching the wire. The compound was dried by a UV source and tested in chamber for comparison with previous measurements. The results shows that temperature effects can

  2. Photocatalytic segmented nanowires and single-step iron oxide nanotube synthesis: Templated electrodeposition as all-round tool

    Maas, M.G.; Rodijk, E.J.B.; Maijenburg, A.W.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Blank, David H.A.; Nielsch, K.; Fontcuberta i Morral, A.; Holt, J.K.; Thomson, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    Templated electrodeposition was used to synthesize silver-zinc oxide nanowires and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanotubes in polycarbonate track etched (PCTE) membranes. Metal/oxide segmented nanowires were made to produce hydrogen gas from a water/methanol mixture under ultraviolet irradiation. It was

  3. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes–fullerene–chitosan–ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H_2O_2 in the range of 0.2 μM to 2.0 mM, and the detection limit is 55.0 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H_2O_2 concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL/GC electrode was constructed by layer-by-layer method. • The catalytic performance of the sensor was studied with the use of amperometric technique. • The constructed sensor showed enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H_2O_2. • The CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL/GC electrode demonstrated high stability for the detection of H_2O_2.

  4. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes–fullerene–chitosan–ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the range of 0.2 μM to 2.0 mM, and the detection limit is 55.0 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL/GC electrode was constructed by layer-by-layer method. • The catalytic performance of the sensor was studied with the use of amperometric technique. • The constructed sensor showed enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL/GC electrode demonstrated high stability for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  5. Determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose using a novel sensor platform based on Co0.4Fe0.6LaO3 nanoparticles

    Zhang, Zhen; Gu, Shuqing; Ding, Yaping; Zhang, Fenfen; Jin, Jindi

    2013-01-01

    We report on a novel nonenzymatic sensor platform for the determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose. It is based on a carbon paste electrode that was modified with Co 0.4 Fe 0.6 LaO 3 nanoparticles synthesized by the sol–gel method. The structure and morphology of Co 0.4 Fe 0.6 LaO 3 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of this sensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, and the results demonstrated that it exhibits strong electrocatalytical activity towards the oxidation of H 2 O 2 and glucose in an alkaline medium. The sensor has a limit of detection as low as 2.0 nM of H 2 O 2 and a linear range that extends from 0.01 to 800 μM. The response to glucose is characterized by two analytical ranges of different slope, viz. from 0.05 to 5 μM and from 5 to 500 μM, with a 10 nM limit of detection. The glucose sensor has a fast response and good long term stability. (author)

  6. A highly sensitive hydrogen sensor with gas selectivity using a PMMA membrane-coated Pd nanoparticle/single-layer graphene hybrid.

    Hong, Juree; Lee, Sanggeun; Seo, Jungmok; Pyo, Soonjae; Kim, Jongbaeg; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-02-18

    A polymer membrane-coated palladium (Pd) nanoparticle (NP)/single-layer graphene (SLG) hybrid sensor was fabricated for highly sensitive hydrogen gas (H2) sensing with gas selectivity. Pd NPs were deposited on SLG via the galvanic displacement reaction between graphene-buffered copper (Cu) and Pd ion. During the galvanic displacement reaction, graphene was used as a buffer layer, which transports electrons from Cu for Pd to nucleate on the SLG surface. The deposited Pd NPs on the SLG surface were well-distributed with high uniformity and low defects. The Pd NP/SLG hybrid was then coated with polymer membrane layer for the selective filtration of H2. Because of the selective H2 filtration effect of the polymer membrane layer, the sensor had no responses to methane, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen dioxide gas. On the contrary, the PMMA/Pd NP/SLG hybrid sensor exhibited a good response to exposure to 2% H2: on average, 66.37% response within 1.81 min and recovery within 5.52 min. In addition, reliable and repeatable sensing behaviors were obtained when the sensor was exposed to different H2 concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 2%.

  7. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    Garnett, Erik C.; Peters, Craig; Brongersma, Mark; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  8. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  9. ZnO nanowires for the modification of evanescence-field sensors and the development of novel solar cells; ZnO-Nanodraehte zur Modifizierung von Evaneszenzfeldsensoren und der Entwicklung neuartiger Solarzellen

    Boerner, Susanne

    2008-10-02

    The photoluminescence of single structures and the nanowire ensemble were analyzed and compared. This pursued in dependence on the excitation density and the sample temperature. The excitonic emission contributes essentially to the near-band-edge photoluminescence. The ZnO nanowire ensemble exhibits a laser threshold of 500 kW/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. To the photoluminescence spectra the single exciton processes were assigned. The wave-guiding properties were practically detected by means of optical microscopy and micromanipulation. While the main topic of this thesis lied in the analysis of the optical properties of the ZnO nanowires in the last part the implementation of nanostructures in hybrid solar cells was discussed and first results of the characterization of the material complex of p-conducting polymer (Clevios P) and ZnO nanowires presented.

  10. Integrated mechano-optical hydrogen gas sensor using cantilever bending readout with a Si3N4 grated waveguide.

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Dijkstra, Mindert; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Pollnau, Markus; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    We demonstrate a proof of concept of a novel and compact integrated mechano-optical sensor for H2 detection based on a microcantilever suspended above a Si3N4 grated waveguide. The fabricated devices are mechanically and optically modeled and characterized. Sensing operation of the sensor is

  11. Construction of highly ordered polyaniline nanowires and their applications in DNA sensing.

    Hao, Yuanqiang; Zhou, Binbin; Wang, Fangbin; Li, Juan; Deng, Liu; Liu, You-Nian

    2014-02-15

    A novel electrochemical active polyaniline (PANI) nanowire was fabricated and utilized for the construction of a highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for hepatitis B virus gene. The uniform PANI nanowire was prepared by the enzymatic polymerization of aniline monomers on the amyloid-like nanofiber (AP nanowire), which was self-assembled from an aniline-attached nonapeptide, aniline-GGAAKLVFF (AP). The prepared PANI nanowires were characterized by electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption spectra, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). These ultra-thin nanowires displayed high electrochemical activity. Then the nucleic acid biosensor was constructed by modifying a glass carbon electrode with AP nanowires which were functionalized by a designed hair-pin loop DNA. Upon the presence of target nucleic acid and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled oligonucleotide, the HRP will catalyze the polymerization of aniline monomers conjugated in AP nanowires, leading to the formation of PANI nanowires which can bring about a dramatical increase in the current response of the biosensor. The dynamic range of the sensor for hepatitis B virus gene is 2.0-800.0 fM with a low detection limit of 1.0 fM (3σ, n=10). The biosensor also displayed highly selectivity and stability. All these excellent performances of the developed biosensor indicate that this platform can be easily extended to the detection of other nucleic acids. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanotubes and nanowires

    Unknown

    junction nanotubes by the pyrolysis of appropriate organic precursors. ... By making use of carbon nanotubes, nanowires of metals, metal ..... The use of activated carbon in place of ..... required for the complete removal of the carbon template.

  13. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-12-19

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  14. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Ravasi, Timothy; Contreras Gerenas, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  15. Nano-assemblies consisting of Pd/Pt nanodendrites and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-coated reduced graphene oxide on glassy carbon electrode for hydrogen peroxide sensors

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Di; Ma, Min; Wang, Weizhen; Chen, Qiang, E-mail: qiangchen@nankai.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensors were fabricated on the basis of glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with palladium (Pd) core-platinum (Pt) nanodendrites (Pt-NDs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A facile wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. In this approach, the growth of Pt NDs was directed by Pd nanocrystal which could be regarded as seed. The PDDA-coated rGO could form uniform film on the surface of GC electrode, which provided a support for Pd core- Pt NDs adsorption by self-assembly. The morphologies of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (spectrum). Electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods. The sensor fabricated by Pd core-Pt NDs/PDDA-rGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity (672.753 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), low detection limit (0.027 μM), wider linear range (0.005–0.5 mM) and rapid response time (within 5 s). Besides, it also exhibited superior reproducibility, excellent anti-interference performance and long-term stability. The present work could afford a viable method and efficient platform for fabricating all kinds of amperometric sensors and biosensors. - Highlights: • A facial wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. • The morphologies of graphene and Pd core-Pt nanodendrites were characterized. • A novel H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor was fabricated by nano-assembly. • The performance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods.

  16. Microscopic and magnetic properties of template assisted electrodeposited iron nanowires

    Irshad, M. I., E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Yar, A., E-mail: asfandyarhargan@gmail.com [Department of Fundamental & Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Abdullah, M. Z., E-mail: zaki-abdullah@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Nanowires of magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys of them are one of the most widely investigated structures because of their possible applications in high density magnetic recording media, sensor elements, and building blocks in biological transport systems. In this work, Iron nanowires have been prepared by electrodeposition technique using Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The electrolyte used consisted of FeSO{sub 4.}6H{sub 2}O buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidized by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. FESEM analysis shows that the asdeposited nanowires are parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. To fabricate the working electrode, a thin film of copper (∼ 220 nm thick) was coated on back side of AAO template by e-beam evaporation system to create electrical contact with the external circuit. The TEM results show that electrodeposited nanowires have diameter around 100 nm and are polycrystalline in structure. Magnetic properties show the existence of anisotropy for in and out of plane configuration. These nanowires have potential applications in magnetic data storage, catalysis and magnetic sensor applications.

  17. Nanowire structures and electrical devices

    Bezryadin, Alexey; Remeika, Mikas

    2010-07-06

    The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive segments and conductance constricting segments of a nanowire, such as metallic, superconducting or semiconducting nanowire. The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive nanowire segments and conductance constricting nanowire segments having accurately selected phases including crystalline and amorphous states, compositions, morphologies and physical dimensions, including selected cross sectional dimensions, shapes and lengths along the length of a nanowire. Further, the present invention provides methods of processing nanowires capable of patterning a nanowire to form a plurality of conductance constricting segments having selected positions along the length of a nanowire, including conductance constricting segments having reduced cross sectional dimensions and conductance constricting segments comprising one or more insulating materials such as metal oxides.

  18. Optimization of the HyPer sensor for robust real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide in the rice blast fungus.

    Huang, Kun; Caplan, Jeff; Sweigard, James A; Czymmek, Kirk J; Donofrio, Nicole M

    2017-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and breakdown have been studied in detail in plant-pathogenic fungi, including the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae; however, the examination of the dynamic process of ROS production in real time has proven to be challenging. We resynthesized an existing ROS sensor, called HyPer, to exhibit optimized codon bias for fungi, specifically Neurospora crassa, and used a combination of microscopy and plate reader assays to determine whether this construct could detect changes in fungal ROS during the plant infection process. Using confocal microscopy, we were able to visualize fluctuating ROS levels during the formation of an appressorium on an artificial hydrophobic surface, as well as during infection on host leaves. Using the plate reader, we were able to ascertain measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels in conidia as detected by the MoHyPer sensor. Overall, by the optimization of codon usage for N. crassa and related fungal genomes, the MoHyPer sensor can be used as a robust, dynamic and powerful tool to both monitor and quantify H 2 O 2 dynamics in real time during important stages of the plant infection process. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    Karen C. Cheung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation.

  20. Silicon nanowire arrays as learning chemical vapour classifiers

    Niskanen, A O; Colli, A; White, R; Li, H W; Spigone, E; Kivioja, J M

    2011-01-01

    Nanowire field-effect transistors are a promising class of devices for various sensing applications. Apart from detecting individual chemical or biological analytes, it is especially interesting to use multiple selective sensors to look at their collective response in order to perform classification into predetermined categories. We show that non-functionalised silicon nanowire arrays can be used to robustly classify different chemical vapours using simple statistical machine learning methods. We were able to distinguish between acetone, ethanol and water with 100% accuracy while methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol were classified with 96% accuracy in ambient conditions.

  1. Carbon monoxide sensing properties of B-, Al- and Ga-doped Si nanowires

    de Santiago, F.; Trejo, A.; Miranda, A.; Salazar, F.; Carvajal, E.; Pérez, L. A.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2018-05-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are considered as potential chemical sensors due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and their possible integration into arrays for nanotechnological applications. Detection of harmful gases like CO has been experimentally demonstrated, however, the influence of doping on the sensing capacity of SiNWs has not yet been reported. For this work, we theoretically studied the surface adsorption of a CO molecule on hydrogen-passivated SiNWs grown along the [111] crystallographic direction and compared it with the adsorption of other molecules such as NO, and O2. Three nanowire diameters and three dopant elements (B, Al and Ga) were considered, and calculations were done within the density functional theory framework. The results indicate that CO molecules are more strongly adsorbed on the doped SiNW than on the pristine SiNW. The following trend was observed for the CO adsorption energies: E A[B-doped] > E A[Al-doped] > E A[Ga-doped] > E A[undoped], for all diameters. The electronic charge transfers between the SiNWs and the adsorbed CO were estimated by using a Voronoi population analysis. The CO adsorbed onto the undoped SiNWs has an electron-acceptor character, while the CO adsorbed onto the B-, Al-, and Ga-doped SiNWs exhibits an electron-donor character. Comparing these results with the ones obtained for the NO and O2 adsorption, the larger CO adsorption energy on B-doped SiNWs indicates their good selectivity towards CO. These results suggest that SiNW-based sensors of toxic gases could represent a clear and advantageous application of nanotechnology in the improvement of human quality of life.

  2. Flow injection determination of choline in milk hydrolysates by an immobilized enzyme reactor coupled to a selective hydrogen peroxide amperometric sensor

    Pati, Sandra [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Quinto, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agroambientali, Chimica e Difesa Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia (Italy); Palmisano, Francesco [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: palmisano@chimica.uniba.it

    2007-07-02

    A choline oxidase (ChO) immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) prepared by glutaraldehyde coupling of the enzyme on aminopropyl modified controlled pore glass beads is described. The ChO-IMER was coupled, in a flow injection configuration system, to an interference free hydrogen peroxide amperometric sensor based on a Pt surface modified by an overoxidized polypyrrole film. The resulting analytical device responds selectively to choline and displays a sensitivity of 46.9 {+-} 0.2 {mu}C mM{sup -1} and a limit of detection, calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio equal to 3, of 7 {mu}M. Sensitivity remains constant for about 20 days and then starts to slowly deteriorate and after 2 months a 70% of the initial sensitivity was still retained. The application to choline determination in milk hydrolysates is demonstrated. Short- and long-term drift observed in the analytical response can be corrected by a bracketing technique.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes synthesized over NiO/Na-montmorillonite catalyst and application to a hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Hsu, H.-L.; Jehng, J.-M.; Liu, Y.-C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on clay mineral layers, and the preparation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) sensor based on CNT/Nafion/Na-montmorillonite (Clay) composite film for the detection of H 2 O 2 . The nickel oxide metallic catalyst (NiO) has been prepared by the polyol method and then dispersed onto the clay mineral layers. The CNTs were successfully synthesized over the NiO/Clay catalyst onto clay layers to form a three-dimensional CNT/Clay network by thermal chemical vapor deposition method. From field-emission scanning electron microscope images, the results of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transfer infrared spectra; the layered clay platelets are apparently delaminated and exfoliated after the growth of CNTs onto the surface of clay minerals. The mixed hybrid film of Nafion and CNT/Clay is coated on the glassy carbon electrode to detect hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). This composite film performs a detection limit of 1.0 x 10 -4 M for H 2 O 2 and the current is linear for H 2 O 2 concentrations from 0.1 to 12.8 mM. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the GCE modified with the CNT/Clay/Nafion hybrid film to H 2 O 2 was calculated to be 1.71 x 10 5 μA M -1 cm -2 . Consequently, the CNT/Clay/Nafion medium can probably be a useful electrode for the development of sensors due to its high sensitivity and applicability

  4. Perspectives: Nanofibers and nanowires for disordered photonics

    Dario Pisignano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As building blocks of microscopically non-homogeneous materials, semiconductor nanowires and polymer nanofibers are emerging component materials for disordered photonics, with unique properties of light emission and scattering. Effects found in assemblies of nanowires and nanofibers include broadband reflection, significant localization of light, strong and collective multiple scattering, enhanced absorption of incident photons, synergistic effects with plasmonic particles, and random lasing. We highlight recent related discoveries, with a focus on material aspects. The control of spatial correlations in complex assemblies during deposition, the coupling of modes with efficient transmission channels provided by nanofiber waveguides, and the embedment of random architectures into individually coded nanowires will allow the potential of these photonic materials to be fully exploited, unconventional physics to be highlighted, and next-generation optical devices to be achieved. The prospects opened by this technology include enhanced random lasing and mode-locking, multi-directionally guided coupling to sensors and receivers, and low-cost encrypting miniatures for encoders and labels.

  5. Hydrogen sensors made on InP or GaN with electrophoretically deposited Pd or Pt nanoparticles

    Žďánský, Karel; Černohorský, Ondřej; Yatskiv, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 572-575 ISSN 0587-4246 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10021 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : semiconductor devices * nanostructures * sensors Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  6. Graphite/InP and graphite/GaN Schottky barrier hydrogen sensors with electrophoretically deposited Pd or Pt nanoparticles

    Žďánský, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 415 (2012), s. 4151-4156 ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10021 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : semiconductor devices * nanostructures * sensors Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2012

  7. Mass and stiffness calibration of nanowires using thermally driven vibration

    Kiracofe, D R; Raman, A; Yazdanpanah, M M

    2011-01-01

    Cantilevered or suspended nanowires show promise for force or mass sensing applications due to their small mass, high force sensitivity and high frequency bandwidth. To use these as quantitative sensors, their bending stiffness or mass must be calibrated experimentally, often using thermally driven vibration. However, this can be difficult because nanowires are slightly asymmetric, which results in two spatially orthogonal bending eigenmodes with closely spaced frequencies. This asymmetry presents problems for traditional stiffness calibration methods, which equate the measured thermal vibration spectrum near a resonance to that of a single eigenmode. Moreover, the principal axes may be arbitrarily rotated with respect to the measurement direction. In this work, the authors propose a method for calibrating the bending stiffness and mass of such nanowires' eigenmodes using a single measurement taken at an arbitrary orientation with respect to the principal axes.

  8. Nano-soldering of magnetically aligned three-dimensional nanowire networks

    Gao Fan; Gu Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    It is extremely challenging to fabricate 3D integrated nanostructures and hybrid nanoelectronic devices. In this paper, we report a simple and efficient method to simultaneously assemble and solder nanowires into ordered 3D and electrically conductive nanowire networks. Nano-solders such as tin were fabricated onto both ends of multi-segmented nanowires by a template-assisted electrodeposition method. These nanowires were then self-assembled and soldered into large-scale 3D network structures by magnetic field assisted assembly in a liquid medium with a high boiling point. The formation of junctions/interconnects between the nanowires and the scale of the assembly were dependent on the solder reflow temperature and the strength of the magnetic field. The size of the assembled nanowire networks ranged from tens of microns to millimeters. The electrical characteristics of the 3D nanowire networks were measured by regular current-voltage (I-V) measurements using a probe station with micropositioners. Nano-solders, when combined with assembling techniques, can be used to efficiently connect and join nanowires with low contact resistance, which are very well suited for sensor integration as well as nanoelectronic device fabrication.

  9. Synthesis, formation mechanism and sensing properties of WO3 hydrate nanowire netted-spheres

    Yan, Aihua; Xie, Changsheng; Zeng, Dawen; Cai, Shuizhou; Hu, Mulin

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten oxide hydrate nanowire netted-spheres were successfully synthesized in the glycol solution using a facile solvothermal approach. The nanowires with uniform diameter of 4-6 nm are actually a kind of tungsten oxide hydrate/surfactant hybrid materials. The influence of surfactant, solvent, time and temperature on tailoring morphology was investigated in detail. The possible formation process of WO 3 hydrate nanowire netted-sphere was proposed. Sensing properties of such WO 3 hydrate sensor show that the desirable sensing characteristics towards 100 ppm ammonia gas at 320 o C were obtained, such as rapid response (18.3 s), high sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates for high response and low concentration hydrogen gas sensor application

    Nakate, Umesh T.; Lee, Gun Hee; Ahmad, Rafiq; Patil, Pramila; Bhopate, Dhanaji P.; Hahn, Y.B.; Yu, Y.T.; Suh, Eun-kyung

    2018-01-01

    High quality nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates were synthesized using surfactant and template free hydrothermal route. The gas sensing properties of NiO nanoplates were investigated. The nanoplates morphology of NiO with average thickness ~20 nm and diameter ~100 nm has been confirmed by FE-SEM and TEM. Crystalline quality of NiO has been studied using HRTEM and SAED techniques. Structural properties and elemental compositions have been analysed by XRD and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) respectively. The detailed investigation of structural parameters has been carried out. The optical properties of NiO were analyzed from UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectra. NiO nanoplates have good selectivity towards hydrogen (H2) gas. The lowest H2 response of 3% was observed at 2 ppm, whereas 90% response was noted for 100 ppm at optimized temperature of 200 °C with response time 180 s. The H2 responses as functions of different operating temperature as well as gas concentrations have been studied along with sensor stability. The hydrogen sensing mechanism was also elucidated.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates for high response and low concentration hydrogen gas sensor application

    Nakate, Umesh T.

    2018-05-30

    High quality nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates were synthesized using surfactant and template free hydrothermal route. The gas sensing properties of NiO nanoplates were investigated. The nanoplates morphology of NiO with average thickness ~20 nm and diameter ~100 nm has been confirmed by FE-SEM and TEM. Crystalline quality of NiO has been studied using HRTEM and SAED techniques. Structural properties and elemental compositions have been analysed by XRD and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) respectively. The detailed investigation of structural parameters has been carried out. The optical properties of NiO were analyzed from UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectra. NiO nanoplates have good selectivity towards hydrogen (H2) gas. The lowest H2 response of 3% was observed at 2 ppm, whereas 90% response was noted for 100 ppm at optimized temperature of 200 °C with response time 180 s. The H2 responses as functions of different operating temperature as well as gas concentrations have been studied along with sensor stability. The hydrogen sensing mechanism was also elucidated.

  12. EDITORIAL: Nanowires for energy Nanowires for energy

    LaPierre, Ray; Sunkara, Mahendra

    2012-05-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology focuses on studies illustrating the application of nanowires for energy including solar cells, efficient lighting and water splitting. Over the next three decades, nanotechnology will make significant contributions towards meeting the increased energy needs of the planet, now known as the TeraWatt challenge. Nanowires in particular are poised to contribute significantly in this development as presented in the review by Hiralal et al [1]. Nanowires exhibit light trapping properties that can act as a broadband anti-reflection coating to enhance the efficiency of solar cells. In this issue, Li et al [2] and Wang et al [3] present the optical properties of silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays. In addition to enhanced optical properties, core-shell nanowires also have the potential for efficient charge carrier collection across the nanowire diameter as presented in the contribution by Yu et al [4] for radial junction a-Si solar cells. Hybrid approaches that combine organic and inorganic materials also have potential for high efficiency photovoltaics. A Si-based hybrid solar cell is presented by Zhang et al [5] with a photoconversion efficiency of over 7%. The quintessential example of hybrid solar cells is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) where an organic absorber (dye) coats an inorganic material (typically a ZnO nanostructure). Herman et al [6] present a method of enhancing the efficiency of a DSSC by increasing the hetero-interfacial area with a unique hierarchical weeping willow ZnO structure. The increased surface area allows for higher dye loading, light harvesting, and reduced charge recombination through direct conduction along the ZnO branches. Another unique ZnO growth method is presented by Calestani et al [7] using a solution-free and catalyst-free approach by pulsed electron deposition (PED). Nanowires can also make more efficient use of electrical power. Light emitting diodes, for example, will eventually become the

  13. Synthesis of nano-structured materials by laser-ablation and their application to sensors

    Okada, T.; Suehiro, J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of nano-structured materials of ZnO and Pd by laser ablation and their applications to sensors. The synthesis of ZnO nano-wires was performed by nano-particle assisted deposition (NPAD) where nano-crystals were grown with nano-particles generated by laser-ablating a ZnO sintered target in an Ar background gas. The synthesized ZnO nano-wires were characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and the photoluminescent characteristics were examined under an excitation with the third harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. The nano-wires with a diameter in the range from 50 to 150 nm and a length of up to 5 μm were taken out of the substrate by laser blow-off technique and/or sonication. It was confirmed that the nano-wires showed the stimulated emission under optical pumping, indicating a high quality of the crystalinity. Pd nano-particles were generated by laser-ablating a Pd plate in pure water. The transmission electron microscope observation revealed that Pd nano-particles with a diameter in the range from 3 nm to several tens of nanometers were produced. Using these nano-structured materials, we successfully fabricated sensors by the dielectrophoresis techniques. In the case of the ultraviolet photosensor, a detection sensitivity of 10 nW/cm 2 was achieved and in the case of hydrogen sensing, the response time of less than 10 s has been demonstrated with Pd nano-particles

  14. Developing an electrochemical sensor based on a carbon paste electrode modified with nano-composite of reduced graphene oxide and CuFe2O4 nanoparticles for determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    Benvidi, Ali; Nafar, Mohammad Taghi; Jahanbani, Shahriar; Tezerjani, Marzieh Dehghan; Rezaeinasab, Masoud; Dalirnasab, Sudabeh

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a highly sensitive voltammetric sensor based on a carbon paste electrode with CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticle (RGO/CuFe 2 O 4 /CPE) was designed for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The electrocatalytic reduction of H 2 O 2 was examined using various techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry, amperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. Then, a high conductive platform based on a carbon paste electrode modified with RGO and CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles was prepared as a suitable platform for determination of hydrogen peroxide. Under the optimum conditions (pH5), the modified electrode indicated a fast amperometric response of determination of hydrogen peroxide. Also, the peak current of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) of hydrogen peroxide is increased linearly with its concentration in the ranges of 2 to 10μM and 10 to 1000μM. The obtained detection limit for hydrogen peroxide was evaluated to be 0.064μM by DPV. The designed sensor was successfully applied for the assay of hydrogen peroxide in biological and pharmaceutical samples such as milk, green tea, and hair dye cream and mouthwash solution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW, is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark condition and the solar cell I-V characteristics are obtained under incident of the standardized light of AM1.5. The results for the two mentioned Schottky solar cell samples are compared and discussed. An improvement in short circuit current and efficiency of Schottky solar cell is found when Si nanowires are employed.

  16. Low temperature synthesis of Zn nanowires by physical vapor deposition

    Schroeder, Philipp; Kast, Michael; Brueckl, Hubert [Austrian Research Centers GmbH ARC, Nano- Systemtechnologies, Donau-City-Strasse 1, A-1220 Wien (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    We demonstrate catalytic growth of zinc nanowires by physical vapor deposition at modest temperatures of 125-175 C on various substrates. In contrast to conventional approaches using tube furnaces our home-built growth system allows to control the vapor sources and the substrate temperature separately. The silicon substrates were sputter coated with a thin gold layer as metal catalyst. The samples were heated to the growth temperature and subsequently exposed to the zinc vapor at high vacuum conditions. The work pressure was adjusted by the partial pressure of oxygen or argon flow gas. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations revealed that the nanowires exhibit straight, uniform morphology and have diameters in the range of 50-350 nm and lengths up to 70 {mu}m. The Zn nanowires grow independently of the substrates crystal orientation via a catalytic vapor-solid growth mechanism. Since no nanowire formation was observed without gold coating, we expect that the onedimensional growth is initiated by a surface reactive Au seed. ZnO nanowires can be produced in the same preparation chamber by oxidation at 500 C in 1atm (80% Ar, 20% O{sub 2}) for 1 hour. ZnO is highly attractive for sensor applications.

  17. Artificial cilia of magnetically tagged polymer nanowires for biomimetic mechanosensing

    Schroeder, P; Schotter, J; Shoshi, A; Eggeling, M; Brückl, H; Bethge, O; Hütten, A

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric nanowires of polypyrrole have been implemented as artificial cilia on giant-magneto-resistive multilayer sensors for a biomimetic sensing approach. The arrays were tagged with a magnetic material, the stray field of which changes relative to the underlying sensor as a consequence of mechanical stimuli which are delivered by a piezoactuator. The principle resembles balance sensing in mammals. Measurements of the sensor output voltage suggest a proof of concept at frequencies of around 190 kHz and a tag thickness of ∼300 nm. Characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Micromagnetic and finite-element simulations were conducted to assess basic sensing aspects.

  18. Study and characterization of an integrated circuit-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor for the detection of particles and radiations; Etude et caracterisation d'un capteur en silicium amorphe hydrogene depose sur circuit integre pour la detection de particules et de rayonnements

    Despeisse, M

    2006-03-15

    Next generation experiments at the European laboratory of particle physics (CERN) require particle detector alternatives to actual silicon detectors. This thesis presents a novel detector technology, which is based on the deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor on top of an integrated circuit. Performance and limitations of this technology have been assessed for the first time in this thesis in the context of particle detectors. Specific integrated circuits have been designed and the detector segmentation, the interface sensor-chip and the sensor leakage current have been studied in details. The signal induced by the track of an ionizing particle in the sensor has been characterized and results on the signal speed, amplitude and on the sensor resistance to radiation are presented. The results are promising regarding the use of this novel technology for radiation detection, though limitations have been shown for particle physics application. (author)

  19. Construction of a zinc porphyrin-fullerene-derivative based nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor for sensitive sensing of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite.

    Wu, Hai; Fan, Suhua; Jin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hong; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2014-07-01

    Enzymatic sensors possess high selectivity but suffer from some limitations such as instability, complicated modified procedure, and critical environmental factors, which stimulate the development of more sensitive and stable nonenzymatic electrochemical sensors. Herein, a novel nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor is proposed based on a new zinc porphyrin-fullerene (C60) derivative (ZnP-C60), which was designed and synthesized according to the conformational calculations and the electronic structures of two typical ZnP-C60 derivatives of para-ZnP-C60 (ZnP(p)-C60) and ortho-ZnP-C60 (ZnP(o)-C60). The two derivatives were first investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and ZnP(p)-C60 with a bent conformation was verified to possess a smaller energy gap and better electron-transport ability. Then ZnP(p)-C60 was entrapped in tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) film and modified on glassy carbon electrode (TOAB/ZnP(p)-C60/GCE). The TOAB/ZnP(p)-C60/GCE showed four well-defined quasi-reversible redox couples with extremely fast direct electron transfer and excellent nonenzymatic sensing ability. The electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2 showed a wide linear range from 0.035 to 3.40 mM, with a high sensitivity of 215.6 μA mM(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.81 μM. The electrocatalytic oxidation of nitrite showed a linear range from 2.0 μM to 0.164 mM, with a sensitivity of 249.9 μA mM(-1) and a LOD down to 1.44 μM. Moreover, the TOAB/ZnP(p)-C60/GCE showed excellent stability and reproducibility, and good testing recoveries for analysis of the nitrite levels of river water and rainwater. The ZnP(p)-C60 can be used as a novel material for the fabrication of nonenzymatic electrochemical sensors.

  20. Growth and Raman spectroscopy studies of gold-free catalyzed semiconductor nanowires

    Zardo, Ilaria

    2010-12-15

    The present Ph.D. thesis proposes two aims: the search for catalysts alternative to gold for the growth of silicon nanowires and the investigation of the structural properties of the gold-free catalyzed Si, Ge, and GaAs nanowires. The successful growth of gold free catalyzed silicon nanowires was obtained using Ga and In as catalyst. Hydrogen plasma conditions were needed during the growth process. We proposed a growth mechanism where the role of the hydrogen plasma is taken into account. The influence of the growth conditions on nanowire growth morphology and structural properties was investigated in detail. The TEM studies showed the occurrence of different kind of twin defects depending on the nanowire growth direction. The intersection of twins in different spatial directions in <111>-oriented nanowires or the periodicity of highly dense twins in <112>-oriented nanowires leads to the formation of hexagonal domains embedded in the diamond silicon structure. A simple crystallographic model which illustrates the formation of the hexagonal phase was proposed. The presence of the hexagonal domains embedded in the diamond silicon structure was investigated also by means of Raman spectroscopy. The measured frequencies of the E2g and A1g modes were found to be in agreement with frequencies expected from phonon dispersion folding. An estimation of the percentage of hexagonal structure with respect to the cubic structure was given. The relative percentage of the two structures was found to change with growth temperature. Spatially resolved Raman scattering experiments were also realized on single Si nanowires. The lattice dynamics of gold-free catalyzed Ge and GaAs nanowires was studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. We performed spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy experiments on single crystalline- amorphous core-shell Ge nanowires. The correlation with TEM studies on nanowires grown under the same conditions and with AFM measurements realized of the same nanowires

  1. Oxygen partial pressure effects on the RF sputtered p-type NiO hydrogen gas sensors

    Turgut, Erdal; Çoban, Ömer; Sarıtaş, Sevda; Tüzemen, Sebahattin; Yıldırım, Muhammet; Gür, Emre

    2018-03-01

    NiO thin films were grown by Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering method under different oxygen partial pressures, which are 0.6 mTorr, 1.3 mTorr and 2.0 mTorr. The effects of oxygen partial pressures on the thin films were analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Hall measurements. The change in the surface morphology of the thin films has been observed with the SEM and AFM measurements. While nano-pyramids have been obtained on the thin film grown at the lowest oxygen partial pressure, the spherical granules lower than 60 nm in size has been observed for the samples grown at higher oxygen partial pressures. The shift in the dominant XRD peak is realized to the lower two theta angle with increasing the oxygen partial pressures. XPS measurements showed that the Ni2p peak involves satellite peaks and two oxidation states of Ni, Ni2+ and Ni3+, have been existed together with the corresponding splitting in O1s spectrum. P-type conductivity of the grown NiO thin films are confirmed by the Hall measurements with concentrations on the order of 1013 holes/cm-3. Gas sensor measurements revealed minimum of 10% response to the 10 ppm H2 level. Enhanced responsivity of the gas sensor devices of NiO thin films is shown as the oxygen partial pressure increases.

  2. HER Catalytic Activity of Electrodeposited Ni-P Nanowires under the Influence of Magnetic Field

    Hung-Bin Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel alloy electrodes both in plane and nanowire morphologies were fabricated by electrodeposition in sulfamate bath. With the increasing concentration of phosphorous acid in the electrolyte, the P content in the deposition increased accordingly. In the meantime, the grain refined and even became amorphous in microstructure as the P content was raised. For the nanowire electrode, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM measurement showed that its coercivity was anisotropic and decreased with P-content. In addition, the easy axis for magnetization of the electrode was parallel to the axial direction of nanowire. The electrocatalytic activity measurement of the electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte showed that the nanowire electrode had higher activity than the plane one, and the alloying of P in Ni electrode raised its hydrogen evolution reaction (HER performance. The enhanced performance of nanowire electrode was attributed to the smaller and more uniform hydrogen bubbles generated in HER reaction. Finally, the applied magnetic field (3.2 T improved significantly the HER activity of Ni but not Ni-P electrode. By using nanowire morphology and applying magnetic field, the current density at −0.75 V HER stability test of the Ni electrode increased fourfold more than its plane counterpart.

  3. Facile synthesis of silver nanostructures by using various deposition potential and time: A nonenzymetic sensor for hydrogen peroxide

    Amiri, Mandana, E-mail: mandanaamiri@uma.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nouhi, Sima [Department of Chemistry, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizian-Kalandaragh, Yashar [Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanostructures have been successfully fabricated by using electrodeposition method onto indiumtinoxide (ITO) substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis) techniques were employed for characterization of silver nanostructures. The results show nanostructures with different morphology and electrochemical properties can be obtained by various deposition potentials and times. Electrochemical behavior of the nanostructures has been studied by using cyclic voltammetry. Silver nanostructures exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The presented electrode can be employed as sensing element for hydrogen peroxide. - Highlights: • Silver nanostructures (AgNS) have been fabricated using electrodeposition ITO. • AgNS with different morphology and electrochemical properties obtained. • AgNS exhibits good electrocatalytic activity for reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  4. Synthesis and application of graphene–silver nanowires composite for ammonia gas sensing

    Tran, Quang Trung; Huynh, Tran My Hoa; Tong, Duc Tai; Tran, Van Tam; Nguyen, Nang Dinh

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, consisting of a single carbon layer in a two-dimensional (2D) lattice, has been a promising material for application to nanoelectrical devices in recent years. In this study we report the development of a useful ammonia (NH 3 ) gas sensor based on graphene–silver nanowires ‘composite’ with planar electrode structure. The basic strategy involves three steps: (i) preparation of graphene oxide (GO) by modified Hummers method; (ii) synthesis of silver nanowires by polyol method; and (iii) preparation of graphene and silver nanowires on two electrodes using spin and spray-coating of precursor solutions, respectively. Exposure of this sensor to NH 3 induces a reversible resistance change at room temperature that is as large as ΔR/R 0 ∼ 28% and this sensitivity is eight times larger than the sensitivity of the ‘intrinsic’ graphene based NH 3 gas sensor (ΔR/R 0 ∼ 3,5%). Their responses and the recovery times go down to ∼200 and ∼60 s, respectively. Because graphene synthesized by chemical methods has many defects and small sheets, it cannot be perfectly used for gas sensor or for nanoelectrical devices. The silver nanowires are applied to play the role of small bridges connecting many graphene islands together to improve electrical properties of graphene/silver nanowires composite and result in higher NH 3 gas sensitivity. (paper)

  5. The Electrostatically Formed Nanowire: A Novel Platform for Gas-Sensing Applications

    Gil Shalev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN gas sensor is based on a multiple-gate field-effect transistor with a conducting nanowire, which is not defined physically; rather, the nanowire is defined electrostatically post-fabrication, by using appropriate biasing of the different surrounding gates. The EFN is fabricated by using standard silicon processing technologies with relaxed design rules and, thereby, supports the realization of a low-cost and robust gas sensor, suitable for mass production. Although the smallest lithographic definition is higher than half a micrometer, appropriate tuning of the biasing of the gates concludes a conducting channel with a tunable diameter, which can transform the conducting channel into a nanowire with a diameter smaller than 20 nm. The tunable size and shape of the nanowire elicits tunable sensing parameters, such as sensitivity, limit of detection, and dynamic range, such that a single EFN gas sensor can perform with high sensitivity and a broad dynamic range by merely changing the biasing configuration. The current work reviews the design of the EFN gas sensor, its fabrication considerations and process flow, means of electrical characterization, and preliminary sensing performance at room temperature, underlying the unique and advantageous tunable capability of the device.

  6. Biocatalytic synthesis of polymeric nanowires by micellar templates of ionic surfactants

    Nazari, K.; Adhami, F.; Najjar-Safari, A.; Salmani, S.; Mahmoudi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Soft-template production of polyguaiacol nanowire was done by peroxidase enzyme. → Main advantage of this simple method is producing soluble encapsulated nanowires. → Nanowire can be easily precipitated and separated by dilution with distilled water. → Size tuned templates of sodium decyl sulfate (d = 2.7 nm) gave nanowires with d = 2-4 nm. → Dried surfactant-coated wires recover freshly on specified and desired applications. -- Abstract: Micelle-templated polyguaiacol nanowires were successfully prepared via polymerization oxidation of guaiacol (o-methoxy phenol) by peroxidase enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at mild reaction conditions. The dimensions of the prepared nanowires were controlled by tuning the size and shape of the micelle structure via changing and controlling the type, chain length and molar concentrations of the ionic surfactant. The progress of the reaction and estimation of the size of soft micellar templates were followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The resulting micelle encapsulated or purified polyguaiacol nanowires were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  7. Biocatalytic synthesis of polymeric nanowires by micellar templates of ionic surfactants

    Nazari, K., E-mail: nazarikh@ripi.ir [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, NIOC, P.O. Box 14665-137, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemistry Dept., Shahr Rey Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 18735-334, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adhami, F.; Najjar-Safari, A.; Salmani, S. [Chemistry Dept., Shahr Rey Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 18735-334, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, A. [Chemistry Dept., Karaj Islamic Azad University, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Soft-template production of polyguaiacol nanowire was done by peroxidase enzyme. {yields} Main advantage of this simple method is producing soluble encapsulated nanowires. {yields} Nanowire can be easily precipitated and separated by dilution with distilled water. {yields} Size tuned templates of sodium decyl sulfate (d = 2.7 nm) gave nanowires with d = 2-4 nm. {yields} Dried surfactant-coated wires recover freshly on specified and desired applications. -- Abstract: Micelle-templated polyguaiacol nanowires were successfully prepared via polymerization oxidation of guaiacol (o-methoxy phenol) by peroxidase enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at mild reaction conditions. The dimensions of the prepared nanowires were controlled by tuning the size and shape of the micelle structure via changing and controlling the type, chain length and molar concentrations of the ionic surfactant. The progress of the reaction and estimation of the size of soft micellar templates were followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The resulting micelle encapsulated or purified polyguaiacol nanowires were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  8. Growth of uranyl hydroxide nanowires and nanotubes with electrodeposition method

    Wang Lin; Yuan Liyong; Chai Zhifang; Shi Weiqun

    2013-01-01

    Actinides nanomaterials have great potential applications in fabrication of novel nuclear fuel and spent fuel reprocessing in advanced nuclear energy system. However, the relative research so far still lacks systematic investigation on the synthetic methods for actinides nanomaterials. In this work, we use track-etched membranes as hard templates to synthesize uranium based nanomaterials with novel structures by electrodeposition method. Through electrochemical behavior investigations and subsequent product characterizations such as energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the chemical composition of deposition products have been confirmed as the uranyl hydroxide. More importantly, accurate control of morphology and structures (nanowires and nanotubes) could be achieved by carefully adjusting the growth parameters such as deposition time and deposition current density. It was found that the preferred morphology of electrodeposition products is nanowire when a low current density was applied, whereas nanotubes could be formed only under conditions of high current density and the short deposition time. The mechanism for the formation of nanowires in track-etched membranes is based on the precipitation of uranyl hydroxide from uranyl nitrate solution, according to the previous researches about obtaining nanostructures of hydroxides from nitrate salt solutions. And we have concluded that the formation of nanotubes is attributed to the hydrogen bubbles generated by water electrolysis under the condition of over-potential electro-reduction. The conveying of hydrogen bubbles plays the role of dynamic template which can prevent the complete filling of uranyl hydroxide in the channels. Additionally, we transform the chemical composition of deposition products from uranyl hydroxide to triuranium octoxide by calcining them at 500 and 800 degree centigrade, respectively, and SEM results show the morphologies of nanowires and

  9. Novel Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite synthesized by electrochemically active biofilm for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Ansari, Sajid Ali; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-01-01

    A novel nonenzymatic sensor for H 2 O 2 was developed based on an Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite synthesized using a simple and cost effective approach with an electrochemically active biofilm. The optical, structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite were examined by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and their electrochemical performance was analyzed by CV, differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite modified GCE (Ag@TiO 2 /GCE) displayed excellent performance towards H 2 O 2 sensing at − 0.73 V in the linear response range from 0.83 μM to 43.3 μM, within a detection limit and sensitivity of 0.83 μM and ∼ 65.2328 ± 0.01 μAμM −1 cm −2 , respectively. In addition, Ag@TiO 2 /GCE exhibited good operational reproducibility and long term stability. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite by electrochemically active biofilm for H 2 O 2 sensing. - Highlights: • Electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) • EAB mediated synthesis of Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite • Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode • Ag@TiO 2 /GCE for H 2 O 2 sensing • Nonenzymatic sensor for H 2 O 2

  10. Long Silver Nanowires Synthesis by Pulsed Electrodeposition

    M.R. Batevandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires were pulse electrodeposited into nanopore anodic alumina oxide templates. The effects of continuous and pulse electrodeposition waveform on the microstructure properties of the nanowire arrays were studied. It is seen that the microstructure of nanowire is depend to pulse condition. The off time duration of pulse waveform enables to control the growth direction of Ag nanowires.

  11. Fabrication of vertically aligned Pd nanowire array in AAO template by electrodeposition using neutral electrolyte

    Yüzer Hayrettin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A vertically aligned Pd nanowire array was successfully fabricated on an Au/Ti substrate using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template by a direct voltage electrodeposition method at room temperature using diluted neutral electrolyte. The fabrication of Pd nanowires was controlled by analyzing the current–time transient during electrodeposition using potentiostat. The AAO template and the Pd nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX methods and X-Ray diffraction (XRD. It was observed that the Pd nanowire array was standing freely on an Au-coated Ti substrate after removing the AAO template in a relatively large area of about 5 cm2, approximately 50 nm in diameter and 2.5 μm in length with a high aspect ratio. The nucleation rate and the number of atoms in the critical nucleus were determined from the analysis of current transients. Pd nuclei density was calculated as 3.55 × 108 cm−2. Usage of diluted neutral electrolyte enables slower growing of Pd nanowires owing to increase in the electrodeposition potential and thus obtained Pd nanowires have higher crystallinity with lower dislocations. In fact, this high crystallinity of Pd nanowires provides them positive effect for sensor performances especially.

  12. Metal-Catalyst-Free Synthesis and Characterization of Single-Crystalline Silicon Oxynitride Nanowires

    Shuang Xi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of single-crystal silicon oxynitride nanowires with high N concentration have been synthesized directly on silicon substrate at 1200°C without using any metal catalyst. The diameter of these ternary nanowires is ranging from 10 to 180 nm with log-normal distribution, and the length of these nanowires varies from a few hundreds of micrometers to several millimeters. A vapor-solid mechanism was proposed to explain the growth of the nanowires. These nanowires are grown to form a disordered mat with an ultrabright white nonspecular appearance. The mat demonstrates highly diffusive reflectivity with the optical reflectivity of around 80% over the whole visible wavelength, which is comparable to the most brilliant white beetle scales found in nature. The whiteness might be resulted from the strong multiscattering of a large fraction of incident light on the disordered nanowire mat. These ultra-bright white nanowires could form as reflecting surface to meet the stringent requirements of bright-white light-emitting-diode lighting for higher optical efficiency. They can also find applications in diverse fields such as sensors, cosmetics, paints, and tooth whitening.

  13. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors formed by epitaxial growth from small molecules such as the para-phenylenes or squaraines promise a vast application potential as the active ingredient in electric and optoelectronic devices. Their self-organization into organic nanowires or "nanofibers" adds a peculiar...... attribute, making them especially interesting for light generation in OLEDs and for light-harvesting devices such as solar cells. Functionalization of the molecules allows the customization of optical and electrical properties. However, aging of the wires might lead to a considerable decrease in device...... performance over time. In this study the morphological stability of organic nanoclusters and nanowires from the methoxy functionalized quaterphenylene, 4,4'''dimethoxy-1,1':4',1''4'',1'''-quaterphenylene (MOP4), is investigated in detail. Aging experiments conducted by atomic force microscopy under ambient...

  14. Silicon nanowire transistors

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  15. An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron–Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications

    Yun Tu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG fabricated in hydrogen (H2-loaded boron–germanium (B–Ge co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging.

  16. Characterization of Nanowire Photodetectors

    2016-11-28

    characterization system and picosecond pulsed laser source will be used to provide deeper insight into the fast charge carrier dynamics in the GaAsSb and...value of the current fluctuations for a particular frequency, f is the effective measurement bandwidth at the discrete frequency point, and IDS is...GaAsSb CS nanowires. The best fit of the spectra with the simulation carried out using Matlab revealed flicker noise at lower frequency having 1/f

  17. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanowires

    Van Dam, J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding the low-temperature electrical transport properties of semiconductor nanowires. The semiconductor nanowires (1-100 nm in diameter) are grown from nanoscale gold particles via a chemical process called vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)

  18. Fluorescent sensors based on quinoline-containing styrylcyanine: determination of ferric ions, hydrogen peroxide, and glucose, pH-sensitive properties and bioimaging.

    Yang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Peiliang; Qu, Jinqing; Liu, Ruiyuan

    2015-08-01

    A novel styrylcyanine-based fluorescent probe 1 was designed and synthesized via facile methods. Ferric ions quenched the fluorescence of probe 1, whereas the addition of ferrous ions led to only small changes in the fluorescence signal. When hydrogen peroxide was introduced into the solution containing probe 1 and Fe(2+) , Fe(2+) was oxidized to Fe(3+), resulting in the quenching of the fluorescence. The probe 1/Fe(2+) solution fluorescence could also be quenched by H2 O2 released from glucose oxidation by glucose oxidase (GOD), which means that probe 1/Fe(2+) platform could be used to detect glucose. Probe 1 is fluorescent in basic and neutral media but almost non-fluorescent in strong acidic environments. Such behaviour enables it to work as a fluorescent pH sensor in both the solution and solid states and as a chemosensor for detecting volatile organic compounds with high acidity and basicity. Subsequently, the fluorescence microscopic images of probe 1 in live cells and in zebrafish were achieved successfully, suggesting that the probe has good cell membrane permeability and a potential application for imaging in living cells and living organisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. SPICE analysis of the charge division in resistive semiconductor nanowire diodes

    Guardiola, C; Money, K; Carabe, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the charge division method in semiconductor nanowire Schottky diodes using an electrical model based on the SPICE simulation code. A semiconductor nanowire prototype that is simulated as an RC network and two readout electronic systems are modelled in order to understand its behaviour and to assess its application as a possible ionizing particle detector in clinical high-LET particle beams. We study the use of resistive charge division along the semiconductor nanowire to calculate the position of deposited charge generated by an ionizing particle as it crosses the nanodevice and to determine the minimal viable spatial resolution. Our aim is to demonstrate the charge division concept in resistive semiconductor nanowire diodes, and to subsequently understand the performance of these nanodevices as radiation sensors and address the design limitations of such an application

  20. Control of the ZnO nanowires nucleation site using microfluidic channels.

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Hyun Jung; Oh, Dongcheol; Lee, Seog Woo; Goto, Hiroki; Buckmaster, Ryan; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Matsue, Tomokazu; Hong, Soon-Ku; Ko, HyunChul; Cho, Meoung-Whan; Yao, Takafumi

    2006-03-09

    We report on the growth of uniquely shaped ZnO nanowires with high surface area and patterned over large areas by using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channel technique. The synthesis uses first a patterned seed template fabricated by zinc acetate solution flowing though a microfluidic channel and then growth of ZnO nanowire at the seed using thermal chemical vapor deposition on a silicon substrate. Variations the ZnO nanowire by seed pattern formed within the microfluidic channel were also observed for different substrates and concentrations of the zinc acetate solution. The photocurrent properties of the patterned ZnO nanowires with high surface area, due to their unique shape, were also investigated. These specialized shapes and patterning technique increase the possibility of realizing one-dimensional nanostructure devices such as sensors and optoelectric devices.

  1. Templated synthesis, characterization, and sensing application of macroscopic platinum nanowire network electrodes

    Wang, D. H.; Kou, R.; Gil, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    properties of the electrodes, such as electrochemical active area and methanol oxidation, have also been studied. Compared with conventional polycrystalline Pt electrodes, these novel nanowire network electrodes possess high electrochemical active areas and demonstrate higher current densities and a lower...... onset potential for methanol electro-oxidation. Enzymatic Pt nanowire-network-based sensors show higher sensitivity for glucose detection than that using conventional polycrystalline Pt electrode. Such macroscopic nanowire network electrodes provide ideal platforms for sensing and other device......Abstract: Novel platinum nanowire network electrodes have been fabricated through electrodeposition using mesoporous silica thin films as templates. These electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical...

  2. Novel Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite synthesized by electrochemically active biofilm for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor.

    Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Ansari, Sajid Ali; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-12-01

    A novel nonenzymatic sensor for H2O2 was developed based on an Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite synthesized using a simple and cost effective approach with an electrochemically active biofilm. The optical, structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite were examined by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and their electrochemical performance was analyzed by CV, differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite modified GCE (Ag@TiO2/GCE) displayed excellent performance towards H2O2 sensing at -0.73 V in the linear response range from 0.83 μM to 43.3 μM, within a detection limit and sensitivity of 0.83 μM and ~65.2328±0.01 μA μM(-1) cm(-2), respectively. In addition, Ag@TiO2/GCE exhibited good operational reproducibility and long term stability. © 2013.

  3. Improved photocatalytic activity of highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays for methylene blue degradation

    Lv, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjlv@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials and HKU-CAS Joint Laboratory on New Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Hao; Chang, Haixin [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Although many efforts have been done on the photocatalytic properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, much less work is done on the photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} nanowires. Self-organized anodic TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays have been fabricated using a simple electrochemical approach and used as photocatalysts in photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dyes. Here we found for the first time TiO{sub 2} nanowires have better photocatalytic properties and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) than TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. N doped TiO{sub 2} nanowires showed further enhancement in photodegradation activity and photocurrent response in the visible region. Such TiO{sub 2} nanowires are expected to have great potential in photodegradation of pollutants, photovoltaic solar energy conversion and water splitting for hydrogen generation as well. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays electrode fabricated via anodizing Ti foil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays have higher photodegradation activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N doped TiO{sub 2} nanowires enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

  4. Single-step synthesis of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires decorated with TeO{sub 2} nanobeads and their acetone-sensing properties

    Park, Sunghoon; Kheel, Hyejoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Lee, Chongmu [Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Eon [Inha University, Department of Chemistry, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires decorated with TeO{sub 2} nanobeads were synthesized by a facile single-step thermal evaporation process, and their acetone-gas-sensing properties were examined. The diameters and lengths of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires ranged from 10 to 20 nm and up to 100 μm, respectively, whereas the diameters of the TeO{sub 2} beads ranged from 50 to 200 nm. The TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor showed stronger response to acetone gas than the pristine In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor. The pristine and TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires exhibited sensitivity of ∝10.13 and ∝24.87, respectively, to 200 ppm acetone at 300 C. The decorated nanowire sensor also showed much more rapid response and recovery than the latter. Both sensors showed the strongest response to acetone gas at 300 C, respectively. The mechanism and origin of the enhanced acetone-gas-sensing performance of the TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor compared to the pristine In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor were discussed in detail. The enhanced sensing performance of the TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire is mainly due to the modulation of the potential barrier height at the TeO{sub 2}-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface, high catalytic activity of TeO{sub 2,} and creation of active adsorption sites by incorporation of TeO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  5. MOLECULAR DOCKING AND DYNAMICS STUDIES ON THE PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS OF ELECTRICALLY ACTIVE PILIN NANOWIRES OF GEOBACTER SULFURREDUCENS.

    D. Jeya Sundara Sharmila1 *

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular interactions are key aspects in biological recognitions applicable in nano/micro systems. Bacterial nanowires are pilus filament based structures that can conduct electrons. The transport of electron is proposed to be facilitated by filamentous fibers made up of polymeric assemblies of proteins called pilin. Geobacter sulfurreducens is capable of delivering electrons through extracellular electron transport (EET by employing conductive nanowires, which are pilin proteins composed of type IV subunit PilA. Protein-protein interactions play an important role in the stabilization of the pilin nanowire assembly complex and it contains transmembrane (TM domain. In current study, protein-protein docking and multiple molecular dynamic (MD simulations were performed to understand the binding mode of pilin nanowires. The MD result explains the conformational behavior and folding of pilin nanowires in water environment in different time scale duration 20, 5, 5, 10 and 20ns (total of 60ns. Direct hydrogen bonds and water mediated hydrogen bonds that play a crucial role during the simulation were investigated. The conformational state, folding, end-toend distance profile and hydrogen bonding behavior had indicated that the Geobacter sulfurreducens pilin nanowires have electrical conductivity properties.

  6. Sensing Responses Based on Transfer Characteristics of InAs Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Savelyev, Igor; Blumin, Marina; Wang, Shiliang; Ruda, Harry E.

    2017-01-01

    Nanowire-based field-effect transistors (FETs) have demonstrated considerable promise for a new generation of chemical and biological sensors. Indium arsenide (InAs), by virtue of its high electron mobility and intrinsic surface accumulation layer of electrons, holds properties beneficial for creating high performance sensors that can be used in applications such as point-of-care testing for patients diagnosed with chronic diseases. Here, we propose devices based on a parallel configuration of InAs nanowires and investigate sensor responses from measurements of conductance over time and FET characteristics. The devices were tested in controlled concentrations of vapour containing acetic acid, 2-butanone and methanol. After adsorption of analyte molecules, trends in the transient current and transfer curves are correlated with the nature of the surface interaction. Specifically, we observed proportionality between acetic acid concentration and relative conductance change, off current and surface charge density extracted from subthreshold behaviour. We suggest the origin of the sensing response to acetic acid as a two-part, reversible acid-base and redox reaction between acetic acid, InAs and its native oxide that forms slow, donor-like states at the nanowire surface. We further describe a simple model that is able to distinguish the occurrence of physical versus chemical adsorption by comparing the values of the extracted surface charge density. These studies demonstrate that InAs nanowires can produce a multitude of sensor responses for the purpose of developing next generation, multi-dimensional sensor applications. PMID:28714903

  7. Novel low-temperature growth of SnO2 nanowires and their gas-sensing properties

    Kumar, R. Rakesh; Parmar, Mitesh; Narasimha Rao, K.; Rajanna, K.; Phani, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- A simple thermal evaporation method is presented for the growth of crystalline SnO 2 nanowires at a low substrate temperature of 450 °C via an gold-assisted vapor–liquid–solid mechanism. The as-grown nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and were also tested for methanol vapor sensing. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed the single-crystalline nature of the each nanowire. The fabricated sensor shows good response to methanol vapor at an operating temperature of 450 °C.

  8. All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect transistor devices: Effects of surface preparations

    Masood, M.N.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Etching/hydrogen termination of All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect (SiNW-FET) devices developed by conventional photolithography and plane dependent wet etchings is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and

  9. Photoresponsive properties of ultrathin silicon nanowires

    Tran, Duy P.; Macdonald, Thomas J.; Nann, Thomas; Thierry, Benjamin; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Stockmann, Regina; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Functional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are promising building blocks in the design of highly sensitive photodetectors and bio-chemical sensors. We systematically investigate the photoresponse properties of ultrathin SiNWs (20 nm) fabricated using a size-reduction method based on e-beam lithography and tetramethylammonium hydroxide wet-etching. The high-quality SiNWs were able to detect light from the UV to the visible range with excellent sensitivity (∼1 pW/array), good time response, and high photoresponsivity (R ∼ 2.5 × 10 4  A/W). Improvement of the ultrathin SiNWs' photoresponse has been observed in comparison to 40 nm counter-part nanowires. These properties are attributable to the predominance surface-effect due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of ultrathin SiNWs. Long-term measurements at different temperatures in both the forward and reverse bias directions demonstrated the stability and reliability of the fabricated device. By sensitizing the fabricated SiNW arrays with cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs), hybrid QD SiNW devices displayed an improvement in photocurrent response under UV light, while preserving their performance in the visible light range. The fast, stable, and high photoresponse of these hybrid nanostructures is promising towards the development of optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices

  10. Photoresponsive properties of ultrathin silicon nanowires

    Tran, Duy P.; Macdonald, Thomas J.; Nann, Thomas; Thierry, Benjamin, E-mail: a.offenhaeusser@fz-juelich.de, E-mail: benjamin.thierry@unisa.edu.au [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, MM Bldg., Mawson Lakes Blvd., Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Wolfrum, Bernhard; Stockmann, Regina; Offenhäusser, Andreas, E-mail: a.offenhaeusser@fz-juelich.de, E-mail: benjamin.thierry@unisa.edu.au [Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 2.4v Bldg., Wilhelm-Johnen St., Jülich 52428 (Germany)

    2014-12-08

    Functional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are promising building blocks in the design of highly sensitive photodetectors and bio-chemical sensors. We systematically investigate the photoresponse properties of ultrathin SiNWs (20 nm) fabricated using a size-reduction method based on e-beam lithography and tetramethylammonium hydroxide wet-etching. The high-quality SiNWs were able to detect light from the UV to the visible range with excellent sensitivity (∼1 pW/array), good time response, and high photoresponsivity (R ∼ 2.5 × 10{sup 4 }A/W). Improvement of the ultrathin SiNWs' photoresponse has been observed in comparison to 40 nm counter-part nanowires. These properties are attributable to the predominance surface-effect due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of ultrathin SiNWs. Long-term measurements at different temperatures in both the forward and reverse bias directions demonstrated the stability and reliability of the fabricated device. By sensitizing the fabricated SiNW arrays with cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs), hybrid QD SiNW devices displayed an improvement in photocurrent response under UV light, while preserving their performance in the visible light range. The fast, stable, and high photoresponse of these hybrid nanostructures is promising towards the development of optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.

  11. Superconductivity in nanowires

    Bezryadin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i

  12. Optical Binding of Nanowires

    Simpson, Stephen Hugh; Zemánek, Pavel; Marago, O.M.; Jones, P.H.; Hanna, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2017), s. 3485-3492 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) CNR-16-12 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical binding nanowires * Brownian motion * self-organization * non-equilibrium thermodynamics * non-equilibrium steady state * spin-orbit coupling * emergent phenomena Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 12.712, year: 2016

  13. Contact planarization of ensemble nanowires

    Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2011-06-01

    The viability of four organic polymers (S1808, SC200, SU8 and Cyclotene) as filling materials to achieve planarization of ensemble nanowire arrays is reported. Analysis of the porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability of each filling material was performed. Sonication was used as an effective method to remove the tops of the nanowires (NWs) to achieve complete planarization. Ensemble nanowire devices were fully fabricated and I-V measurements confirmed that Cyclotene effectively planarizes the NWs while still serving the role as an insulating layer between the top and bottom contacts. These processes and analysis can be easily implemented into future characterization and fabrication of ensemble NWs for optoelectronic device applications.

  14. A non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with cuprous oxide and nitrogen-doped graphene in a nafion matrix

    Jiang, Bin-Bin; Wei, Xian-Wen; Wu, Fang-Hui; Chen, Le; Yuan, Guo-Zan; Wu, Kong-Lin; Dong, Chao; Ye, Yin

    2014-01-01

    We have modified a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with copper(I) oxide nanoparticles (NPs), nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) and Nafion to obtain a novel sensing platform for the non-enzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide. The deposition of the Cu 2 O NPs on N-graphene was accomplished by single-step chemical reduction. The nanocomposite was characterized by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy which revealed the successful attachment of monodispersed Cu 2 O NPs to the N-graphene. Electrochemical studies revealed that the composite possesses excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution at a working potential of −0.60 V. Nafion obviously enhances the stability of the modified GCE and repels any negatively charged species. Compared to a conventional Cu 2 O/Nafion-modified GCE, the modified GCE presented here exhibits (a) a higher catalytic activity for the reduction of H 2 O 2 (1.94 times), (b) a wider linear range (from 5.0 μM to 3.57 mM), (c) a lower detection limit (0.8 μM at an S/N of 3), (d) higher sensitivity (26.67 μA mM −1 ) and (e) a shorter response time (2 s). Moreover, the new GCE exhibits good selectivity and stability. These properties make the new hybrid electrode a promising tool for to the development of electrochemical sensors, molecular bioelectronic devices, biosensors, and biofuel cells. (author)

  15. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.

  16. Functionalization of silicon nanowires by conductive and non-conductive polymers

    Belhousse, S.; Tighilt, F.-Z.; Sam, S.; Lasmi, K.; Hamdani, K.; Tahanout, L.; Megherbi, F.; Gabouze, N.

    2017-11-01

    The work reports on the development of hybrid devices based on silicon nanowires (SiNW) with polymers and the difference obtained when using conductive and non-conductive polymers. SiNW have attracted much attention due to their importance in understanding the fundamental properties at low dimensionality as well as their potential application in nanoscale devices as in field effect transistors, chemical or biological sensors, battery electrodes and photovoltaics. SiNW arrays were formed using metal assisted chemical etching method. This process is simple, fast and allows obtaining a wide range of silicon nanostructures. Hydrogen-passivated SiNW surfaces show relatively poor stability. Surface modification with organic species confers the desired stability and enhances the surface properties. For this reason, this work proposes a covalent grafting of organic material onto SiNW surface. We have chosen a non-conductive polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and conductive polymers polythiophene (PTh) and polypyrrole (PPy), in order to evaluate the electric effect of the polymers on the obtained materials. The hybrid structures were elaborated by the polymerization of the corresponding conjugated monomers by electrochemical route; this electropolymerization offers several advantages such as simplicity and rapidity. SiNW functionalization by conductive polymers has shown to have a huge effect on the electrical mobility. Hybrid surface morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and contact angle measurements.

  17. Electric Conductivity of Phosphorus Nanowires

    Jing-Xiang, Zhang; Hui, Li; Xue-Qing, Zhang; Kim-Meow, Liew

    2009-01-01

    We present the structures and electrical transport properties of nanowires made from different strands of phosphorus chains encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. Optimized by density function theory, our results indicate that the conductance spectra reveal an oscillation dependence on the size of wires. It can be seen from the density of states and current-voltage curves that the structure of nanowires affects their properties greatly. Among them, the DNA-like double-helical phosphorus nanowire exhibits the distinct characteristic of an approximately linear I – V relationship and has a higher conductance than others. The transport properties of phosphorus nanowires are highly correlated with their microstructures. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  18. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we

  19. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    Pfreundt, Andrea

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project...

  20. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project...

  1. IC Compatible Wafer Level Fabrication of Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors for Biosensing Applications

    Moh, T.S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In biosensing, nano-devices such as Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (SiNW FETs) are promising components/sensors for ultra-high sensitive detection, especially when samples are low in concentration or a limited volume is available. Current processing of SiNW FETs often relies on expensive

  2. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    Yahya, Noorhana; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe 2 O 3 (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is −4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0–21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 µB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750−800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe 2 O 3 and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe 2 O 3 peaks at 410 cm −1 , 500 cm −1 and 616 cm −1 . The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16–25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe 2 O 3 perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe 2 O 3 NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0–1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690–1600 cm −1 . This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process currently used by the current industry which utilizes high temperature and high pressure

  3. UV-assisted room temperature gas sensing of GaN-core/ZnO-shell nanowires

    Park, Sunghoon; Ko, Hyunsung; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, Chongmu

    2014-01-01

    GaN is highly sensitive to low concentrations of H 2 in ambient air and is almost insensitive to most other common gases. However, enhancing the sensing performance and the detection limit of GaN is a challenge. This study examined the H 2 -gas-sensing properties of GaN nanowires encapsulated with ZnO. GaN-core/ZnO-shell nanowires were fabricated by using a two-step process comprising the thermal evaporation of GaN powders and the atomic layer deposition of ZnO. The core-shell nanowires ranged from 80 to 120 nm in diameter and from a few tens to a few hundreds of micrometers in length, with a mean shell layer thickness of ∼8 nm. Multiple-networked pristine GaN nanowire and ZnO-encapsulated GaN (or GaN-core/ZnO-shell) nanowire sensors showed responses of 120 - 147% and 179 - 389%, respectively, to 500 - 2,500 ppm of H 2 at room temperature under UV (254 nm) illumination. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced response of the GaN nanowire to H 2 gas when using ZnO encapsulation and UV irradiation is discussed.

  4. Biotemplated Synthesis of PZT Nanowires

    2013-11-25

    electromechanical coupling coefficient , Y is the Young’s modulus, and Ri is intrinsic resistance. The PZT nanowire- based film is taken to have negligible...robotic actuation, and bioMEMS. Lead zirconate titanate ( PZT ), in particular, has attracted significant attention, owing to its superior...electromechanical conversion performance. Yet, the ability to synthesize crystalline PZT nanowires with reproducible and well-controlled properties remains a

  5. Silicon nanowires: structure and properties

    Nezhdanov, A.V.; Mashin, A.I.; Razuvaev, A.G.; Ershov, A.V.; Ignatov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    An attempt to grow silicon nanowires has been made by electron beam evaporation on highly oriented pyrolytic substrate. Needle-like objects are located along the normal to a substrate (density 2 x 10 11 cm -2 ). For modeling quasi-one-dimensional objects calculations of nuclear structure and energy spectra have been accomplished. A fullerene-like structure Si 24 is proposed as a basic atomic configuration of silicon nanowires [ru

  6. Synthesis, microstructure, and physical properties of metallic barcode nanowires

    Park, Bum Chul; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-05-01

    With rapid progress in nanotechnology, nanostructured materials have come closer to our life. Single-component nanowires are actively investigated because of their novel properties, attributed to their nanoscale dimensions and adjustable aspect ratio, but their technical limitations cannot be resolved easily. Heterostructured nanomaterials gained attention as alternatives because they can improve the existing single-component structure or add new functions to it. Among them, barcode nanowires (BNWs), comprising at least two different functional segments, can perform multiple functions for use in biomedical sensors, information encoding and security, and catalysts. BNW applications require reliable response to the external field. Hence, researchers have been attempting to improve the reliability of synthesis and regulate the properties precisely. This article highlights the recent progress and prospects for the synthesis, properties, and applications of metallic BNWs with focus on the dependence of the magnetic, optical, and mechanical properties on material, composition, shape, and microstructure.

  7. Hydrogen energy

    2005-03-01

    This book consists of seven chapters, which deals with hydrogen energy with discover and using of hydrogen, Korean plan for hydrogen economy and background, manufacturing technique on hydrogen like classification and hydrogen manufacture by water splitting, hydrogen storage technique with need and method, hydrogen using technique like fuel cell, hydrogen engine, international trend on involving hydrogen economy, technical current for infrastructure such as hydrogen station and price, regulation, standard, prospect and education for hydrogen safety and system. It has an appendix on related organization with hydrogen and fuel cell.

  8. Nanowire-templated microelectrodes for high-sensitivity pH detection

    Antohe, V.A.; Radu, Adrian; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária

    2009-01-01

    A highly sensitive pH capacitive sensor has been designed by confined growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays on interdigited microelectrodes. The active surface of the device has been functionalized with an electrochemical pH transducer (polyaniline). We easily tune the device features...... by combining lithographic techniques with electrochemical synthesis. The reported electrical LC resonance measurements show considerable sensitivity enhancement compared to conventional capacitive pH sensors realized with microfabricated interdigited electrodes. The sensitivity can be easily improved...

  9. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel; Papadakis, Stergios J.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  10. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2013-12-06

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  11. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Gkionis, Konstantinos; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  12. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  13. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  14. Quantitative measurements of C-reactive protein using silicon nanowire arrays

    Min-Ho Lee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Min-Ho Lee, Kuk-Nyung Lee, Suk-Won Jung, Won-Hyo Kim, Kyu-Sik Shin, Woo-Kyeong SeongKorea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi, KoreaAbstract: A silicon nanowire-based sensor for biological application showed highly desirable electrical responses to either pH changes or receptor-ligand interactions such as protein disease markers, viruses, and DNA hybridization. Furthermore, because the silicon nanowire can display results in real-time, it may possess superior characteristics for biosensing than those demonstrated in previously studied methods. However, despite its promising potential and advantages, certain process-related limitations of the device, due to its size and material characteristics, need to be addressed. In this article, we suggest possible solutions. We fabricated silicon nanowire using a top-down and low cost micromachining method, and evaluate the sensing of molecules after transfer and surface modifications. Our newly designed method can be used to attach highly ordered nanowires to various substrates, to form a nanowire array device, which needs to follow a series of repetitive steps in conventional fabrication technology based on a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method. For evaluation, we demonstrated that our newly fabricated silicon nanowire arrays could detect pH changes as well as streptavidin-biotin binding events. As well as the initial proof-of-principle studies, C-reactive protein binding was measured: electrical signals were changed in a linear fashion with the concentration (1 fM to 1 nM in PBS containing 1.37 mM of salts. Finally, to address the effects of Debye length, silicon nanowires coupled with antigen proteins underwent electrical signal changes as the salt concentration changed.Keywords: silicon nanowire array, C-reactive protein, vapor-liquid-solid method

  15. Complex Electric-Field Induced Phenomena in Ferroelectric/Antiferroelectric Nanowires

    Herchig, Ryan Christopher

    Perovskite ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics have attracted a lot of attention owing to their potential for device applications including THz sensors, solid state cooling, ultra high density computer memory, and electromechanical actuators to name a few. The discovery of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale provides not only new and exciting possibilities for device miniaturization, but also a way to study the fundamental physics of nanoscale phenomena in these materials. Ferroelectric nanowires show a rich variety of physical characteristics which are advantageous to the design of nanoscale ferroelectric devices such as exotic dipole patterns, a strong dependence of the polarization and phonon frequencies on the electrical and mechanical boundary conditions, as well as a dependence of the transition temperatures on the diameter of the nanowire. Antiferroelectricity also exists at the nanoscale and, due to the proximity in energy of the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases, a phase transition from the ferroelectric to the antiferroelectric phase can be facilitated through the application of the appropriate mechanical and electrical boundary conditions. While much progress has been made over the past several decades to understand the nature of ferroelectricity/antiferroelectricity in nanowires, many questions remain unanswered. In particular, little is known about how the truncated dimensions affect the soft mode frequency dynamics or how various electrical and mechanical boundary conditions might change the nature of the phase transitions in these ferroelectric nanowires. Could nanowires offer a distinct advantage for solid state cooling applications? Few studies have been done to elucidate the fundamental physics of antiferroelectric nanowires. How the polarization in ferroelectric nanowires responds to a THz electric field remains relatively underexplored as well. In this work, the aim is to to develop and use computational tools that allow first

  16. Magnetic Tactile Sensor for Braille Reading

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-04-27

    We report a biomimetic magnetic tactile sensor for Braille characters reading. The sensor consists of magnetic nanocomposite artificial cilia implemented on magnetic micro sensors. The nanocomposite is produced from the highly elastic polydimethylsiloxane and iron nanowires that exhibit a permanent magnetic behavior. This design enables remote operation and does not require an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires. The highly elastic nanocomposite is easy to pattern, corrosion resistant and thermally stable. The tactile sensors can detect vertical and shear forces, which allows recognizing small changes in surface texture, as in the case of Braille dots. The 6 dots of a braille cell are read from top to bottom with a tactile sensor array consisting of 4 elements and 1 mm long nanocomposite cilia.

  17. Magnetic Tactile Sensor for Braille Reading

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Khan, Mohammed; Cardoso, Susana; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    We report a biomimetic magnetic tactile sensor for Braille characters reading. The sensor consists of magnetic nanocomposite artificial cilia implemented on magnetic micro sensors. The nanocomposite is produced from the highly elastic polydimethylsiloxane and iron nanowires that exhibit a permanent magnetic behavior. This design enables remote operation and does not require an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires. The highly elastic nanocomposite is easy to pattern, corrosion resistant and thermally stable. The tactile sensors can detect vertical and shear forces, which allows recognizing small changes in surface texture, as in the case of Braille dots. The 6 dots of a braille cell are read from top to bottom with a tactile sensor array consisting of 4 elements and 1 mm long nanocomposite cilia.

  18. Plasmon-enhanced refractometry using silver nanowire coatings on tilted fibre Bragg gratings.

    Bialiayeu, A; Bottomley, A; Prezgot, D; Ianoul, A; Albert, J

    2012-11-09

    A novel technique for increasing the sensitivity of tilted fibre Bragg grating (TFBG) based refractometers is presented. The TFBG sensor was coated with chemically synthesized silver nanowires ~100 nm in diameter and several micrometres in length. A 3.5-fold increase in sensor sensitivity was obtained relative to the uncoated TFBG sensor. This increase is associated with the excitation of surface plasmons by orthogonally polarized fibre cladding modes at wavelengths near 1.5 μm. Refractometric information is extracted from the sensor via the strong polarization dependence of the grating resonances using a Jones matrix analysis of the transmission spectrum of the fibre.

  19. Plasmon-enhanced refractometry using silver nanowire coatings on tilted fibre Bragg gratings

    Bialiayeu, A; Albert, J; Bottomley, A; Prezgot, D; Ianoul, A

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique for increasing the sensitivity of tilted fibre Bragg grating (TFBG) based refractometers is presented. The TFBG sensor was coated with chemically synthesized silver nanowires ∼100 nm in diameter and several micrometres in length. A 3.5-fold increase in sensor sensitivity was obtained relative to the uncoated TFBG sensor. This increase is associated with the excitation of surface plasmons by orthogonally polarized fibre cladding modes at wavelengths near 1.5 μm. Refractometric information is extracted from the sensor via the strong polarization dependence of the grating resonances using a Jones matrix analysis of the transmission spectrum of the fibre. (paper)

  20. Photoexcited Individual Nanowires: Key Elements in Room Temperature Detection of Oxidizing Gases

    Prades, J. D.; Jimenez-Diaz, R.; Manzanares, M.; Andreu, T.; Cirera, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Hernandez-Ramirez, F.; Morante, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Illuminating metal oxide semiconductors with ultra-violet light is a feasible alternative to activate chemical reactions at their surface and thus, using them as gas sensors without the necessity of heating them. Here, the response at room temperature of individual single-crystalline SnO 2 nanowires towards NO 2 is studied in detail. The results reveal that similar responses to those obtained with thermally activated sensors can be achieved by choosing the optimal illumination conditions. This finding paves the way to the development of conductometric gas sensors operated at room temperature. The power consumption in these devices is in range with conventional micromachined sensors.

  1. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    MacIntyre, I.; Tchouvelev, A.V.; Hay, D.R.; Wong, J.; Grant, J.; Benard, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  2. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  3. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits

  4. The influence of seeding conditions and shielding gas atmosphere on the synthesis of silver nanowires through the polyol process

    Chen, Chang; Wang, Li; Jiang, Guohua; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Jianjun; Yu, Haojie; Chen, Tao; Wang, Chiliang; Chen, Xu

    2006-01-01

    The polyol process including the introduction of preformed seeds and the inducement of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) has been developed as a powerful approach for synthesizing silver nanowires. Here, silver nanowires without other metal elements as impurities were synthesized through a silver seeding polyol process in a shielding gas atmosphere. It is demonstrated that the first seeding step is critical in obtaining silver nanowires as the principal product, and we also observe that the shielding gas atmosphere not only improves the repeatability of experiments but also affects the morphology of the final product. We obtained nanocubes with hydrogen gas shielding in a short reaction time; these would scarcely appear with argon or air shielding. Our work supplies new evidence to explain the actual growth mechanism of silver nanowires.

  5. From dopyballs to nanowires

    Smalley, R E [Rice Quantum Inst. and Depts. of Chemistry and Physics, Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-04-19

    Consideration of the factors involved in the production of fullerene nanotubes in carbon arcs leads to the notion that a high electric field may be the critical factor that causes the tubes to grow. This thought then leads to a suggestion that it may be possible to grow continuous fullerene fibers many centimeters in length by an electric-field-and-laser induced pyrolysis of gas phase hydrocarbons of fullerenes on the tip of the growing fiber as it extends out from its place of attachment on a high voltage needle. Use of metal- or boron-doped fullerenes (dopyballs) in such an apparatus may lead to the production of doped fullerene fiber nanowires of high strength and conductivity. (orig.)

  6. Indium Arsenide Nanowires

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal

    -ray diffraction. InAs NWs can be used in a broad range of applications, including detectors, high speed electronics and low temperature transport measurements, but in this thesis focus will be put on biological experiments on living cells. Good control of Au-assisted InAs NW growth has been achieved......This thesis is about growth of Au-assisted and self-assisted InAs nanowires (NWs). The wires are synthesized using a solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system and characterized with several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x...... by a systematic study to optimize the growth conditions; first the Au deposition, then the growth temperature and finally the beam fluxes. For further control of the growth, Au droplets have been positioned with electron beam lithography and large scale arrays with a > 99 % yield have been made on 2 inch...

  7. Resonance of curved nanowires

    Calabri, L [CNR-INFM-National Research Center on nanoStructures and bioSystems at Surfaces (S3), Via Campi 213/a, 41100 Modena (Italy); Pugno, N [Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Ding, W [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States); Ruoff, R S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States)

    2006-08-23

    The effects of non-ideal experimental configuration on the mechanical resonance of boron (B) nanowires (NWs) were studied to obtain the corrected value for the Young's modulus. The following effects have been theoretically considered: (i) the presence of intrinsic curvature (ii) non-ideal clamps (iii) spurious masses (iv) coating layer, and (v) large displacements. An energy-based analytical analysis was developed to treat such effects and their interactions. Here, we focus on treating the effect of the intrinsic curvature on the mechanical resonance. The analytical approach has been confirmed by numerical FEM analysis. A parallax method was used to obtain the three-dimensional geometry of the NW.

  8. Investigation of growth parameters influence on self-catalyzed ITO nanowires by high RF-power sputtering.

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yuantao; Feng, Lungang; Wang, Zuming; Wang, Tao; Yun, Feng

    2018-02-15

    ITO nanowires have been successfully fabricated using a radio-frequency sputtering technique with a high RF-power of 250W. The fabrication of the ITO nanowires has been optimized through the study of oxygen flow rates, temperatures and RF-power. The difference in the morphology of the ITO nanowires prepared by using a new target and a used target has been first observed and the mechanism for the difference has been discussed in detail. A hollow structure and air voids within the nanowires are formed during the process of the nanowire growth. The ITO nanowires fabricated by this method has demonstrated good conductivity (15Ω/sq) and a transmittance of more than 64% at a wavelength longer than 550nm after annealing. Furthermore, detailed microstructure studies show that the ITO nanowires exhibit a large number of oxygen vacancies. As a result, it is expected that they can be useful for the fabrication of gas sensor devices. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Topological insulator nanowires and nanowire hetero-junctions

    Deng, Haiming; Zhao, Lukas; Wade, Travis; Konczykowski, Marcin; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2014-03-01

    The existing topological insulator materials (TIs) continue to present a number of challenges to complete understanding of the physics of topological spin-helical Dirac surface conduction channels, owing to a relatively large charge conduction in the bulk. One way to reduce the bulk contribution and to increase surface-to-volume ratio is by nanostructuring. Here we report on the synthesis and characterization of Sb2Te3, Bi2Te3 nanowires and nanotubes and Sb2Te3/Bi2Te3 heterojunctions electrochemically grown in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with varied (from 50 to 150 nm) pore diameters. Stoichiometric rigid polycrystalline nanowires with controllable cross-sections were obtained using cell voltages in the 30 - 150 mV range. Transport measurements in up to 14 T magnetic fields applied along the nanowires show Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) quantum oscillations with periods corresponding to the nanowire diameters. All nanowires were found to exhibit sharp weak anti-localization (WAL) cusps, a characteristic signature of TIs. In addition to A-B oscillations, new quantization plateaus in magnetoresistance (MR) at low fields (< 0 . 7T) were observed. The analysis of MR as well as I - V characteristics of heterojunctions will be presented. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-1122594, NSF-DMR-1312483-MWN, and DOD-W911NF-13-1-0159.

  10. Room temperature NO2 gas sensing of Au-loaded tungsten oxide nanowires/porous silicon hybrid structure

    Wang Deng-Feng; Liang Ji-Ran; Li Chang-Qing; Yan Wen-Jun; Hu Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report an enhanced nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) gas sensor based on tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) nanowires/porous silicon (PS) decorated with gold (Au) nanoparticles. Au-loaded WO 3 nanowires with diameters of 10 nm–25 nm and lengths of 300 nm–500 nm are fabricated by the sputtering method on a porous silicon substrate. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs show that Au nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the surfaces of WO 3 nanowires. The effect of the Au nanoparticles on the NO 2 -sensing performance of WO 3 nanowires/porous silicon is investigated over a low concentration range of 0.2 ppm–5 ppm of NO 2 at room temperature (25 °C). It is found that the 10-Å Au-loaded WO 3 nanowires/porous silicon-based sensor possesses the highest gas response characteristic. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced sensing properties of the Au-loaded WO 3 nanowires/porous silicon is also discussed. (paper)

  11. Single Nanowire Probe for Single Cell Endoscopy and Sensing

    Yan, Ruoxue

    adaptable to average bio-lab environment. These probes are mechanically robust and flexible and can withstand repeated bending and deformation without significant deterioration in optical performance, which offers an ideal instrumental platform for out subsequent effort of using these nanoprobes in chemical sensing as well as single cell endoscopy and spot delivery. Parameters affecting the coupling efficiency and output power of the nanoprobe were studied and chemical etched of single mode fiber with small cone angle was established to be optimized for highly effective optical nanoprobes. The versatility of the nanoprobe design was first tested by transforming the nanowire probe into a pH sensor with near-field photopolymerization of a copolymer containing pH sensitive dye on the tip of the nanowire. The pH-sensitive nanoprobe was able to report the pH difference in micro-droplets containing buffer solution with the excitation of light waveguided on the nanoprobe with internal calibration, fast response time and good photostability and reversibility. Such nanoprobe sensors are ideal for high definition spatial and temporal sensing of concentration profile, especially for the kinetic processes in single cell studies for which chemical probes of minute sizes and fast response are desired. The nanoprobe was then applied into spot cargo delivery and in-situ single cell endoscopy. It was demonstrated that nanowire-based optical probe can deliver payloads into the cell with a high spatiotemporal precision, guide and confine visible light into intracellular compartments selectively and detect optical signals from the subcellular regions with high spatial resolution. The nanoprobe was proven to be biocompatible and non-invasive. The effective optical coupling between the fiber optics and the nanowire enables highly localized excitation and detection, limiting the probe volume to the close proximity of the nanowire. None the less, this versatile technique does not rely on any

  12. Nanophotonic Image Sensors.

    Chen, Qin; Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Yu, Yan; Cumming, David R S

    2016-09-01

    The increasing miniaturization and resolution of image sensors bring challenges to conventional optical elements such as spectral filters and polarizers, the properties of which are determined mainly by the materials used, including dye polymers. Recent developments in spectral filtering and optical manipulating techniques based on nanophotonics have opened up the possibility of an alternative method to control light spectrally and spatially. By integrating these technologies into image sensors, it will become possible to achieve high compactness, improved process compatibility, robust stability and tunable functionality. In this Review, recent representative achievements on nanophotonic image sensors are presented and analyzed including image sensors with nanophotonic color filters and polarizers, metamaterial-based THz image sensors, filter-free nanowire image sensors and nanostructured-based multispectral image sensors. This novel combination of cutting edge photonics research and well-developed commercial products may not only lead to an important application of nanophotonics but also offer great potential for next generation image sensors beyond Moore's Law expectations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Magnetic micropillar sensors for force sensing

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2015-04-13

    A force sensor system consisting of bioinspired, magnetic and highly elastic micropillars integrated on a magnetic field sensing element is reported. The micro-pillars are made of a nanocomposite consisting of magnetic nanowires incorporated into polydimethylsiloxane. The permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires allows remote operation without an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and system integration. We demonstrate the potential of this concept by realizing a tactile sensing element. The developed sensor element operates at power consumption of 75 μW and has a detection range between 0–120 kPa and a resolution of 2.7 kPa, which can easily be tuned in a wide range.

  14. Magnetic micropillar sensors for force sensing

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    A force sensor system consisting of bioinspired, magnetic and highly elastic micropillars integrated on a magnetic field sensing element is reported. The micro-pillars are made of a nanocomposite consisting of magnetic nanowires incorporated into polydimethylsiloxane. The permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires allows remote operation without an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and system integration. We demonstrate the potential of this concept by realizing a tactile sensing element. The developed sensor element operates at power consumption of 75 μW and has a detection range between 0–120 kPa and a resolution of 2.7 kPa, which can easily be tuned in a wide range.

  15. Improving Gas Sensing Properties of Tin Oxide Nanowires Palladium-Coated Using a Low Cost Technique

    M. Barzegar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of SnO2 nanowires were successfully prepared by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD process on quartz substrates. Afterwards, a thin  layer of palladium (Pd as a catalyst was coated on top of nanowires. For the deposition of Pd, a simple and low cost technique of spray pyrolysis was employed, which caused an intensive enhancement on the sensing response of fabricated sensors. Prepared sensor devices were exposed to liquid petroleum gas (LPG and vapor of ethanol (C2H5OH. Results indicate that SnO2 nanowires sensors coated with Pd as a catalyst show decreasing in response time (~40s to 1000ppm of LPG at a relatively low operating temperature (200o C. SnO2 /Pd nanowire devices show gas sensing response time and recovery time as short as 50s and 10s respectively with a high sensitivity value of ~120 for C2H5OH, that is remarkable in comparison with other reports.

  16. Nucleation and growth mechanism of Co–Pt alloy nanowires electrodeposited within alumina template

    Srivastav, Ajeet K., E-mail: srivastav.ajeet.kumar@gmail.com, E-mail: mm09d004@smail.iitm.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (India); Shekhar, Rajiv [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (India)

    2015-01-15

    Co–Pt alloy nanowires were electrodeposited by direct current electrodeposition within nanoporous alumina templates with varying deposition potentials. The effect of deposition potential on nucleation and growth mechanisms during electrodeposition of Co–Pt alloy nanowires was investigated. The less negative deposition potential (−0.9 V) favours the instantaneous nucleation mechanism. The positive deviation from theoretical instantaneous and progressive nucleation mechanisms occurs at higher negative deposition potentials. The hysteresis behaviour and magnetic properties of electrodeposited Co–Pt alloy nanowires altered with varying deposition potential. The easy magnetization direction was in direction perpendicular to the wire axis. The deposition potential dependent change in hysteresis behaviour with increased coercivity and scattered remanence ratio was observed. This is attributed to better crystallinity with reduced defect density and hydrogen evolution causing structural changes at more negative deposition potentials.

  17. Control growth of silicon nanocolumns' epitaxy on silicon nanowires

    Chong, Su Kong, E-mail: sukong1985@yahoo.com.my [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics (Malaysia); Dee, Chang Fu [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN) (Malaysia); Yahya, Noorhana [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Faculty of Science and Information Technology (Malaysia); Rahman, Saadah Abdul [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics (Malaysia)

    2013-04-15

    The epitaxial growth of Si nanocolumns on Si nanowires was studied using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. A single-crystalline and surface oxide-free Si nanowire core (core radius {approx}21 {+-} 5 nm) induced by indium crystal seed was used as a substance for the vapor phase epitaxial growth. The growth process is initiated by sidewall facets, which then nucleate upon certain thickness to form Si islands and further grow to form nanocolumns. The Si nanocolumns with diameter of 10-20 nm and aspect ratio up to 10 can be epitaxially grown on the surface of nanowires. The results showed that the radial growth rate of the Si nanocolumns remains constant with the increase of deposition time. Meanwhile, the radial growth rates are controllable by manipulating the hydrogen to silane gas flow rate ratio. The optical antireflection properties of the Si nanocolumns' decorated SiNW arrays are discussed in the text.

  18. Theoretical approach to the phonon modes and specific heat of germanium nanowires

    Trejo, A.; López-Palacios, L.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M., E-mail: irisson@ipn.mx

    2014-11-15

    The phonon modes and specific heat of Ge nanowires were computed using a first principles density functional theory scheme with a generalized gradient approximation and finite-displacement supercell algorithms. The nanowires were modeled in three different directions: [001], [111], and [110], using the supercell technique. All surface dangling bonds were saturated with Hydrogen atoms. The results show that the specific heat of the GeNWs at room temperature increases as the nanowire diameter decreases, regardless the orientation due to the phonon confinement and surface passivation. Also the phonon confinement effects could be observed since the highest optical phonon modes in the Ge vibration interval shifted to a lower frequency compared to their bulk counterparts.

  19. LDA+U and tight-binding electronic structure of InN nanowires

    Molina-Sánchez, A.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.; Terentjevs, A.; Cicero, G.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we employ a combined ab initio and tight-binding approach to obtain the electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated Indium nitride (InN) nanowires. We first discuss InN band structure for the wurtzite structure calculated at the LDA+U level and use this information to extract the parameters needed for an empirical tight-binging implementation. These parameters are then employed to calculate the electronic and optical properties of InN nanowires in a diameter range that would not be affordable by ab initio techniques. The reliability of the large nanowires results is assessed by explicitly comparing the electronic structure of a small diameter wire studied both at LDA+U and tight-binding level.

  20. Gold nanowires and the effect of impurities

    Novaes Frederico

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMetal nanowires and in particular gold nanowires have received a great deal of attention in the past few years. Experiments on gold nanowires have prompted theory and simulation to help answer questions posed by these studies. Here we present results of computer simulations for the formation, evolution and breaking of very thin Au nanowires. We also discuss the influence of contaminants, such as atoms and small molecules, and their effect on the structural and mechanical properties of these nanowires.