WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanotubes fullerenes nanostructured

  1. Flexoelectricity in Carbon Nanostructures: Nanotubes, Fullerenes, and Nanocones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvashnin, Alexander G; Sorokin, Pavel B; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-07-16

    We report theoretical analysis of the electronic flexoelectric effect associated with nanostructures of sp(2) carbon (curved graphene). Through the density functional theory calculations, we establish the universality of the linear dependence of flexoelectric atomic dipole moments on local curvature in various carbon networks (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes with high and low symmetry, and nanocones). The usefulness of such dependence is in the possibility to extend the analysis of any carbon systems with local deformations with respect to their electronic properties. This result is exemplified by exploring of flexoelectric effect in carbon nanocones that display large dipole moment, cumulative over their surface yet surprisingly scaling exactly linearly with the length, and with sine-law dependence on the apex angle, dflex ~ L sin(α). Our study points out the opportunity of predicting the electric dipole moment distribution on complex graphene-based nanostructures based only on the local curvature information.

  2. Production of fullerenic nanostructures in flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jack B.; Vander Sande, John B.; Chowdhury, K. Das

    1999-01-01

    A method for the production of fullerenic nanostructures is described in which unsaturated hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen are combusted in a burner chamber at a sub-atmospheric pressure, thereby establishing a flame. The condensibles of the flame are collected at a post-flame location. The condensibles contain fullerenic nanostructures, such as single and nested nanotubes, single and nested nanoparticles and giant fullerenes. The method of producing fullerenic soot from flames is also described.

  3. Fullerene nanostructures, monolayers and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotier, B.N.

    2000-10-01

    The interaction of submonolayer, monolayer and multilayer coverages of C 60 with the Ag/Si(111)-(√3x√3)R30 deg. (√3Ag/Si) and Si(111)-7x7 surfaces has been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM). It is shown that it is possible to preserve the √3Ag/Si surface, normally corrupted by exposure to air, in ambient conditions when immersed beneath a few layers of C 60 molecules. Upon removal of the fullerene layers in the UHV-STM some corruption is observed which is linked to the morphology of the fullerene film (defined by the nature of the interaction of C 60 with √3Ag/Si). This technique opens up the possibility of performing experiments on the clean √3Ag/Si surface outside of UHV conditions. With the discovery of techniques whereby structures may be formed that are composed of only a few atoms/molecules, there is a need to perform electrical measurements in order to probe the fascinating properties of these 'nano-scale' devices. Using AFM, PES and STM evaporated metals and ion implantation have been investigated as materials for use in forming sub-micron scale contacts to nanostructures. It is found that ion implantation is a more promising approach after studying the response to annealing of treated surfaces. Electrical measurements between open/short circuited contacts and through Ag films clearly demonstrate the validity of the method, further confirmed by a PES study which probes the chemical nature of the near surface region of ion-implanted samples. Attempts have been made to form nanostructure templates between sub-micron scale contacts as a possible precursor to forming nanostructures. The bonding state of C 60 molecules on the Si(111)-7x7 surface has been in dispute for many years. To properly understand the system a comprehensive AFM, PES and STM study has been performed. PES results indicate covalent bond formation, with the number of bonds

  4. Making and exploiting fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco (eds.) [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2014-11-01

    -Stoppered Bistable Rotaxanes'' by Aurelio Mateo-Alonso, which presents an overview of the different types of fullerene-stoppered bistable rotaxanes, their switching mechanism and their potential applications. In the chapter ''Catalysis-Material Crosstalk at Tailored Nano-Carbon Interfaces'' by Michele Melchionna et al., carbon nanomaterials are described as supports for molecular and nanostructured catalysts, where their outstanding electronic and optical properties, high surface area and thermal and mechanical stability contribute to create a synergistic effect that leads to enhanced performance for a wide range of possible applications. Exploitation of nanocarbons in biology and biomedical applications has been increasingly proposed and, in particular, the chapter ''Carbon Nanotubes in Tissue Engineering'' by Susanna Bosi et al. explores applications of CNTs for tissue engineering purposes, where the tubes proved to be ideal materials for the growth and proliferation of many kind of tissues. The local chemical reactivity, the mechanical properties and the electron transfer in graphene membranes have been shown to be strongly affected by the fold-induced curvature; thus in the chapter ''Folds and Buckles at the Nanoscale: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Bending Properties of Graphene Membranes'' by Vittorio Morandi, a novel methodology to investigate the mechanical properties of folded and wrinkled graphene crystals, which combine transmission electron microscopy mapping and theoretical modelling, is described. Graphene and nanocarbons in general are intensively investigated as platforms for the development of sensing devices for the selective and highly sensitive detection of biohazards. The aim of the chapter ''Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials for Chemo- and Biosensing of Chemical and Biochemical Hazards'' by Piyush Sindhu Sharma et al. is then to bring out important

  5. Oscillation of nested fullerenes (carbon onions) in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Nested spherical fullerenes, which are sometimes referred to as carbon onions, of I h symmetries which have N(n) carbon atoms in the nth shell given by N(n) = 60n 2 are studied in this paper. The continuum approximation together with the Lennard-Jones potential is utilized to determine the resultant potential energy. High frequency nanoscale oscillators or gigahertz oscillators created from fullerenes and both single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention for a number of proposed applications, such as ultra-fast optical filters and ultra-sensitive nano-antennae that might impact on the development of computing and signalling nano-devices. Further, it is only at the nanoscale where such gigahertz frequencies can be achieved. This paper focuses on the interaction of nested fullerenes and the mechanics of such molecules oscillating in carbon nanotubes. Here we investigate such issues as the acceptance condition for nested fullerenes into carbon nanotubes, the total force and energy of the nested fullerenes, and the velocity and gigahertz frequency of the oscillating molecule. In particular, optimum nanotube radii are determined for which nested fullerenes oscillate at maximum velocity and frequency, which will be of considerable benefit for the design of future nano-oscillating devices

  6. Nanostructuring of C.sub.60./sub. fullerene thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deutsch, D.; Tarábek, J.; Krause, M.; Janda, Pavel; Dunsch, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, 5-6 (2004), s. 1137-1141 ISSN 0008-6223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : fullerenes * thin films * nanostructuring * ionic liquids Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.331, year: 2004

  7. Fullerene nanostructure design with cluster ion impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vacík, Jiří; Naramoto, H.; Narumi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 483, - (2009), s. 479-483 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200480702; GA AV ČR IAA400100701; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : fullerene films, clusters C60+ * cluster ion implantation * patterning Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2009

  8. Controlled synthesis and characterization of ru-fullerene nanostructures and their catalyticapllications

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Faqiang

    2016-01-01

    The work described in this thesis aims to produce well-ordered nanostructures presenting high catalytic activity, on the bases of the assembly of ruthenium nanoparticles and fullerene/functionalized fullerene. Chapter 1 provides a review on the use of fullerene and fullerene-based materials in heterogeneous catalysis, emphasizing their specific properties such as thermal stability, high capacity for hydrogen adsorption and the ability of various coordination modes. Chapter 2 describes the syn...

  9. Synthesis of condensed phases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fullerenes and nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2004-10-19

    The invention relates to methods for producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and nanotubes, comprising: a. heating at least one carbon-containing material to form a condensed phase comprising at least one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; b. collecting at least some of the condensed phase; c. reacting the condensed phase to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes.

  10. Effect of Peierls transition in armchair carbon nanotube on dynamical behaviour of encapsulated fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieu Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The changes of dynamical behaviour of a single fullerene molecule inside an armchair carbon nanotube caused by the structural Peierls transition in the nanotube are considered. The structures of the smallest C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes are computed using the spin-polarized density functional theory. Significant changes of the barriers for motion along the nanotube axis and rotation of these fullerenes inside the (8,8 nanotube are found at the Peierls transition. It is shown that the coefficients of translational and rotational diffusions of these fullerenes inside the nanotube change by several orders of magnitude. The possibility of inverse orientational melting, i.e. with a decrease of temperature, for the systems under consideration is predicted.

  11. Interaction between fullerene halves C{sub n} (n ≤ 40) and single wall carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Amrish, E-mail: amrish99@gmail.com; Kaur, Sandeep, E-mail: sipusukhn@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala (India); Mudahar, Isha, E-mail: isha@pbi.ac.in [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have investigated the structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotube with small fullerene halves C{sub n} (n ≤ 40) which are covalently bonded to the side wall of an armchair single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) using first principle method based on density functional theory. The fullerene size results in weak bonding between fullerene halves and carbon nanotube (CNT). Further, it was found that the C-C bond distance that attaches the fullerene half and CNT is of the order of 1.60 Å. The calculated binding energies indicate the stability of the complexes formed. The HOMO-LUMO gaps and electron density of state plots points towards the metallicity of the complex formed. Our calculations on charge transfer reveal that very small amount of charge is transferred from CNT to fullerene halves.

  12. Fabrication of fullerene nano-strucutres in mixed films and devices utilizing fullerene nano-structures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yufei

    2017-04-06

    Embodiments provide methods for controlling crystallization of fullerene compounds in mixed films comprising one or more polymers. Methods can include depositing fullerene mixed films comprising one or more polymers on crystalline fullerene substrates and annealing the deposited mixed films. Methods can further include one or more of exposing the annealed mixed film to UV light, and washing the annealed mixed film with a solvent. Fullerene compounds can include one or more of PCBM, PCBNB, and PCBA.

  13. Chemical Reaction and Flow Modeling in Fullerene and Nanotube Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Farhat, Samir; Greendyke, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of processes to produce fullerenes and carbon nanotubes has largely been empirical. Fullerenes were first discovered in the soot produced by laser ablation of graphite [1]and then in the soot of electric arc evaporated carbon. Techniques and conditions for producing larger and larger quantities of fullerenes depended mainly on trial and error empirical variations of these processes, with attempts to scale them up by using larger electrodes and targets and higher power. Various concepts of how fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were formed were put forth, but very little was done based on chemical kinetics of the reactions. This was mainly due to the complex mixture of species and complex nature of conditions in the reactors. Temperatures in the reactors varied from several thousand degrees Kelvin down to near room temperature. There are hundreds of species possible, ranging from atomic carbon to large clusters of carbonaceous soot, and metallic catalyst atoms to metal clusters, to complexes of metals and carbon. Most of the chemical kinetics of the reactions and the thermodynamic properties of clusters and complexes have only been approximated. In addition, flow conditions in the reactors are transient or unsteady, and three dimensional, with steep spatial gradients of temperature and species concentrations. All these factors make computational simulations of reactors very complex and challenging. This article addresses the development of the chemical reaction involved in fullerene production and extends this to production of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation/oven process and by the electric arc evaporation process. In addition, the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process is discussed. The article is in several parts. The first one addresses the thermochemical aspects of modeling; and considers the development of chemical rate equations, estimates of reaction rates, and thermodynamic properties where they are available. The second part

  14. Atom by atom: HRTEM insights into inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sadan, Maya; Houben, Lothar; Enyashin, Andrey N; Seifert, Gotthard; Tenne, Reshef

    2008-10-14

    The characterization of nanostructures down to the atomic scale is essential to understand some physical properties. Such a characterization is possible today using direct imaging methods such as aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), when iteratively backed by advanced modeling produced by theoretical structure calculations and image calculations. Aberration-corrected HRTEM is therefore extremely useful for investigating low-dimensional structures, such as inorganic fullerene-like particles and inorganic nanotubes. The atomic arrangement in these nanostructures can lead to new insights into the growth mechanism or physical properties, where imminent commercial applications are unfolding. This article will focus on two structures that are symmetric and reproducible. The first structure that will be dealt with is the smallest stable symmetric closed-cage structure in the inorganic system, a MoS(2) nanooctahedron. It is investigated by means of aberration-corrected microscopy which allowed validating the suggested DFTB-MD model. It will be shown that structures diverging from the energetically most stable structures are present in the laser ablated soot and that the alignment of the different shells is parallel, unlike the bulk material where the alignment is antiparallel. These findings correspond well with the high-energy synthetic route and they provide more insight into the growth mechanism. The second structure studied is WS(2) nanotubes, which have already been shown to have a unique structure with very desirable mechanical properties. The joint HRTEM study combined with modeling reveals new information regarding the chirality of the different shells and provides a better understanding of their growth mechanism.

  15. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, Julio R; Villalta-Cerdas, Adrián; Echegoyen, Luis

    2012-01-01

    With the constant growing complexity of electronic devices, the top-down approach used with silicon based technology is facing both technological and physical challenges. Carbon based nanomaterials are good candidates to be used in the construction of electronic circuitry using a bottom-up approach, because they have semiconductor properties and dimensions within the required physical limit to establish electrical connections. The unique electronic properties of fullerenes for example, have allowed the construction of molecular rectifiers and transistors that can operate with more than two logical states. Carbon nanotubes have shown their potential to be used in the construction of molecular wires and FET transistors that can operate in the THz frequency range. On the other hand, graphene is not only the most promising material for replacing ITO in the construction of transparent electrodes but it has also shown quantum Hall effect and conductance properties that depend on the edges or chemical doping. The purpose of this review is to present recent developments on the utilization carbon nanomaterials in molecular electronics.

  16. In situ Raman spectroelectrochemical study of 13C-labeled fullerene peapods and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbác, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Dunsch, Lothar

    2007-10-01

    C60 fullerene peapods and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) containing highly 13C enriched C60 and inner tubes, respectively, are studied using Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry in order to follow the influence of 13C enrichment on the vibrational pattern of these carbon nanostructures. The Raman response of 13C60 after encapsulation in fullerene peapods differs from that of isotope-natural species, (Nat)C60. The Raman A(g)(2) mode of encapsulated 13C60 is upshifted in frequency compared to that of the (Nat)C60 peapods with the same filling factor. The chemical doping of 13C60 peapods (peapod = C(60)@SWCNT) with K-vapor leads to the downshift of the A(g)(2) mode, similar to the case of (Nat)C60 peapods. The 13C60 peapods were successfully transformed into DWCNTs, which confirms high filling of single-walled (SW) CNTs with 13C60. The DWCNTs exhibited distinctly downshifted G and D Raman modes for inner tubes, which proves that only inner tubes were enriched by 13C. The in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry of (Nat)C60 exhibits strong anodic enhancement, while for 13C60 peapods the enhancement is only weak. On the other hand, the electrochemical charging of the inner-tube-labeled DWCNTs (13C(i)-DWCNTs) followed the behavior of ordinary (Nat)C(i)-DWCNTs as indicated by in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry. In addition, the spectroelectrochemical behavior of the G mode of inner tubes in 13C(i)-DWCNTs is followed from the start of the electrochemical doping, which was not feasible for (Nat)C(i)-DWCNTs.

  17. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    OpenAIRE

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the formation of different types of nanostructures. Throughout this thesis, three different nanostructures were made: nanowires (Chapters 2 to 6), nanotubes (Chapters 2 and 5) and nanocubes (Chapters 7 and ...

  18. The static polarizability and second hyperpolarizability of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, L; Astrand, PO; Mikkelsen, KV

    2004-01-01

    Utilizing a point-dipole interaction model, we present an investigation of the static polarizability and second hyperpolarizability of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes by varying their structure. The following effects are investigated: (1) the length dependence of the components of the static

  19. Carbon Nanostructures Containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potsi, Georgia; Rossos, Andreas; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Antoniou, Myrsini K.; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Karakassides, Michael A.; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This mini review describes the synthesis and properties of carbon nanostructures containing organic-inorganic cage-like polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The physical and chemical functionalization of carbon nanomaterials such as graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes

  20. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Fullerene-C60 Nano-Structured Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilehvar, Sanaz; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-11-23

    Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (bio)sensors. The performance and sensitivity of biosensors is greatly improved with the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. Since its first discovery, fullerene-C60 has been the object of extensive research. Its unique and favorable characteristics of easy chemical modification, conductivity, and electrochemical properties has led to its tremendous use in (bio)sensor applications. This paper provides a concise review of advances in fullerene-C60 research and its use as a nanomaterial for the development of biosensors. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the synthesis, functionalization, approaches to nanostructuring electrodes with fullerene, and outline some of the exciting applications in the field of (bio)sensing.

  1. 2D-QSAR study of fullerene nanostructure derivatives as potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Abolfazl; Jafari Mousavi, Somaye; Hamidi, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    The protease of human immunodeficiency virus1 (HIV-PR) is an essential enzyme for antiviral treatments. Carbon nanostructures of fullerene derivatives, have nanoscale dimension with a diameter comparable to the diameter of the active site of HIV-PR which would in turn inhibit HIV. In this research, two dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (2D-QSAR) of fullerene derivatives against HIV-PR activity were employed as a powerful tool for elucidation the relationships between structure and experimental observations. QSAR study of 49 fullerene derivatives was performed by employing stepwise-MLR, GAPLS-MLR, and PCA-MLR models for variable (descriptor) selection and model construction. QSAR models were obtained with higher ability to predict the activity of the fullerene derivatives against HIV-PR by a correlation coefficient (R2training) of 0.942, 0.89, and 0.87 as well as R2test values of 0.791, 0.67and 0.674 for stepwise-MLR, GAPLS-MLR, and PCA -MLR models, respectively. Leave-one-out cross-validated correlation coefficient (R2CV) and Y-randomization methods confirmed the models robustness. The descriptors indicated that the HIV-PR inhibition depends on the van der Waals volumes, polarizability, bond order between two atoms and electronegativities of fullerenes derivatives. 2D-QSAR simulation without needing receptor's active site geometry, resulted in useful descriptors mainly denoting ;C60 backbone-functional groups; and ;C60 functional groups; properties. Both properties in fullerene refer to the ligand fitness and improvement van der Waals interactions with HIV-PR active site. Therefore, the QSAR models can be used in the search for novel HIV-PR inhibitors based on fullerene derivatives.

  2. Fabricating designed fullerene nanostructures for functional electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A long-term goal within the field of organic electronics has been to developflexible and functional devices, which can be processed and patterned withlow-cost and energy-efficient solution-based methods. This thesis presents anumber of functional paths towards the attainment of this goal via thedevelopment and demonstration of novel fabrication and patterningmethods involving the important organic-semiconductor family termedfullerenes.Fullerenes are soccer-shaped small molecules, with two oft...

  3. Advances in the synthesis of inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef

    2003-11-03

    In analogy to graphite, nanoparticles of inorganic compounds with lamellar two-dimensional structure, such as MoS(2), are not stable against folding, and can adopt nanotubular and fullerene-like structures, nicknamed inorganic fullerenes or IF. Various applications for such nanomaterials were proposed. For instance, IF-WS(2) nanoparticles were shown to have beneficial effects as solid lubricants and as part of tribological surfaces. Further applications of IF for high-tensile-strength fibers, hydrogen storage, rechargeable batteries, catalysis, and in nanotechnology are being contemplated. This Minireview highlights some of the latest developments in the synthesis of inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like structures. Some structural aspects and properties of IF, which are distinct from the bulk materials, are briefly discussed.

  4. Clay nanotube composites for antibacterial nanostructured coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Christen J.

    A surging demand for the development of new antimicrobial nanomaterials exists due to the frequency of medical device-associated infections and the transfer of pathogens from highly touched objects. Naturally occurring halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) have shown to be ideal particles for polymer reinforcement, time-release drug delivery, nano-reactor synthesis, and as substrate material for nanostructured coatings. This research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel method for coating HNTs with metals for antibacterial applications. The first ever ability to coat HNTs through electrolysis was developed for customizable and multi-functional antibacterial nanoparticle platforms. HNTs were investigated as substrate for the deposition of copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) metal nanoparticles through electrochemical syntheses, and as a platform for nano-structured antibacterial polymer composites. Characterization of interfacial and material properties demonstrated the feasibility of electrolysis as a new efficient and replicable nano-scale surface modification route. Methods of encapsulating HNTs in nanofibers, three-dimensional printer filaments, and multifunctional polymer rubbers were also realized. The nanofabrication methods, nanoparticles, and polymer composites created in this work were novel, scalable, easy-to-replicate, and displayed antibacterial features with tunable properties.

  5. Thermally Stable Bulk Heterojunction Prepared by Sequential Deposition of Nanostructured Polymer and Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Hwang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A morphologically-stable polymer/fullerene heterojunction has been prepared by minimizing the intermixing between polymer and fullerene via sequential deposition (SqD of a polymer and a fullerene solution. A low crystalline conjugated polymer of PCPDTBT (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b′]dithiophene-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole] has been utilized for the polymer layer and PC71BM (phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester for the fullerene layer, respectively. Firstly, a nanostructured PCPDTBT bottom layer was developed by utilizing various additives to increase the surface area of the polymer film. The PC71BM solution was prepared by dissolving it in the 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, exhibiting a lower vapor pressure and slower diffusion into the polymer layer. The deposition of the PC71BM solution on the nanostructured PCPDTBT layer forms an inter-digitated bulk heterojunction (ID-BHJ with minimized intermixing. The organic photovoltaic (OPV device utilizing the ID-BHJ photoactive layer exhibits a highly reproducible solar cell performance. In spite of restricted intermixing between the PC71BM and the PCPDTBT, the efficiency of ID-BHJ OPVs (3.36% is comparable to that of OPVs (3.87% prepared by the conventional method (deposition of a blended solution of polymer:fullerene. The thermal stability of the ID-BHJ is superior to the bulk heterojunction (BHJ prepared by the conventional method. The ID-BHJ OPV maintains 70% of its initial efficiency after thermal stress application for twelve days at 80 °C, whereas the conventional BHJ OPV maintains only 40% of its initial efficiency.

  6. Carbon based nanostructures: diamond clusters structured with nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Shenderova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of designing composites from carbon nanotubes and nanodiamond clusters is discussed based on atomistic simulations. Depending on nanotube size and morphology, some types of open nanotubes can be chemically connected with different facets of diamond clusters. The geometrical relation between different types of nanotubes and different diamond facets for construction of mechanically stable composites with all bonds saturated is summarized. Potential applications of the suggested nanostructures are briefly discussed based on the calculations of their electronic properties using environment dependent self-consistent tight-binding approach.

  7. Fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    Fullerenes or"buckyballs,"a new carbon-based family of materials, have fascinated the scientific community for the past few years. These materials are likely to find applications ranging from lubricants to batteries to biological magic bullets, which will be of great importance in the science and technology of the next century. This carefully edited volume, the first to include Frans Spaepen as co-editor, summarizes our present understanding in a series of didacticarticles, which take the reader from the fundamentals to the present cutting-edge research. A general overview is followed by chapters devoted to synthesis and characterization of fullerenes and their derivatives, the novel structural properties of buckyballs, tubes, and buckyonions, a theoretical and experimental view of electrons and phonons, and finally to the fascinating superconducting properties of these materials.Key Features* Presents systematic overview of entire field* Discusses synthesis, characterization, structure, and superconducting p...

  8. Nanostructure evolution during thermal treatment of polyimide–fullerene composites as revealed by WAXS and SAXS

    OpenAIRE

    Cagiao, M. E.; Pozdnyakov, A. O.; Krumova, M.; Kudryavtsev, V. V.; Baltá Calleja, Francisco José

    2007-01-01

    The nanostructure formation in polyimide–fullerene composites during thermal treatment was investigated ‘‘in situ’’, by means of wide-angle (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. The WAXS patterns of the PI composites do not reveal the presence of C60 reflections. However, the PI/C60 composite, obtained by adding the C60 solution to the diamines-solution during the first step of the reaction (preparation of the polyamic acid, PAA), shows a maximum at small X-ray scattering angles...

  9. Th(IV Adsorption onto Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Presence of Hydroxylated Fullerene and Carboxylated Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangsuo Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Th(IV onto the surface of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs in the absence and presence of hydroxylated fullerene (C60(OHn and carboxylated fullerene (C60(C(COOH2n has been investigated. C60(OHn, C60(C(COOH2n and oMWCNTs have been chosen as model phases because of their representative in carbon nano-materials family. Adsorption experiments were performed by batch procedure as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Th(IV was rapidly reached equilibrium and the kinetic process could be described by a pseudo-second-order rate model very well. Th(IV adsorption on oMWCNTs was dependent on pH but independent on ionic strength. Adsorption isotherms were correlated better with the Langmuir model than with the Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that Th(IV adsorption on oMWCNTs was spontaneous and endothermic. Compared with the adsorption of Th(IV on the same oMWCNTs free of C60(OHn or C60(C(COOH2n, the study of a ternary system showed the inhibition effect of C60(OHn at high concentration on the adsorption of Th(IV in a pH range from neutral to slightly alkaline; whereas the promotion effect of C60(C(COOH2n, even at its low concentration, on Th(IV adsorption was observed in acid medium.

  10. Continuum modeling investigation of gigahertz oscillators based on a C60 fullerene inside cyclic peptide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, F.; Ansari, R.; Darvizeh, M.

    2016-02-01

    Research concerning the fabrication of nano-oscillators with operating frequency in the gigahertz (GHz) range has become a focal point in recent years. In this paper, a new type of GHz oscillators is introduced based on a C60 fullerene inside a cyclic peptide nanotube (CPN). To study the dynamic behavior of such nano-oscillators, using the continuum approximation in conjunction with the 6-12 Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential function, analytical expressions are derived to determine the van der Waals (vdW) potential energy and interaction force between the two interacting molecules. Employing Newton's second law, the equation of motion is solved numerically to arrive at the telescopic oscillatory motion of a C60 fullerene inside CPNs. It is shown that the fullerene molecule exhibits different kinds of oscillation inside peptide nanotubes which are sensitive to the system parameters. Furthermore, for the precise evaluation of the oscillation frequency, a novel semi-analytical expression is proposed based on the conservation of the mechanical energy principle. Numerical results are presented to comprehensively study the effects of the number of peptide units and initial conditions (initial separation distance and velocity) on the oscillatory behavior of C60 -CPN oscillators. It is found out that for peptide nanotubes comprised of one unit, the maximum achievable frequency is obtained when the inner core oscillates with respect to its preferred positions located outside the tube, while for other numbers of peptide units, such frequency is obtained when the inner core oscillates with respect to the preferred positions situated in the space between the two first or the two last units. It is further found out that four peptide units are sufficient to obtain the optimal frequency.

  11. Electronic transport properties of fullerene functionalized carbon nanotubes: Ab initio and tight-binding calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Hashemi, J.; Markussen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    techniques and tight-binding calculations to illustrate these materials' transmission properties and give physical arguments to interpret the numerical results. Specifically, above the Fermi energy we find a strong reduction in electron transmission due to localized states in certain regions of the structure......Fullerene functionalized carbon nanotubes-NanoBuds-form a novel class of hybrid carbon materials, which possesses many advantageous properties as compared to the pristine components. Here, we report a theoretical study of the electronic transport properties of these compounds. We use both ab initio...

  12. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the

  13. Thermoplastic Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naffakh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using inorganic fullerene-like (IF nanoparticles and inorganic nanotubes (INT in organic-inorganic hybrid composite, materials provide the potential for improving thermal, mechanical, and tribological properties of conventional composites. The processing of such high-performance hybrid thermoplastic polymer nanocomposites is achieved via melt-blending without the aid of any modifier or compatibilizing agent. The incorporation of small quantities (0.1–4 wt.% of IF/INTs (tungsten disulfide, IF-WS2 or molybdenum disulfide, MoS2 generates notable performance enhancements through reinforcement effects and excellent lubricating ability in comparison with promising carbon nanotubes or other inorganic nanoscale fillers. It was shown that these IF/INT nanocomposites can provide an effective balance between performance, cost effectiveness, and processability, which is of significant importance for extending the practical applications of diverse hierarchical thermoplastic-based composites.

  14. The effects of encapsulating C60 fullerenes on the bending flexibility of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J; Pan, Z Y; Wang, Y X; Zhou, L; Jiang, Q

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the bending flexibility of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with encapsulated C 60 fullerenes, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our simulations on the bending of the fully ((C 60 ) 12 -(10,10)) and partially ((C 60 ) 10 -(10,10)) filled peapods show an 18 and 6.3% increase of the flexural rigidity, and a 45 and 11% increase of the buckling strength, respectively, compared to the empty (10, 10) CNT. What is characteristically different for the peapod from the empty CNT is the presence of a transitional region in the loading process that proceeds to the onset of buckling. Within this transitional region, the interaction between the encapsulated fullerenes and the hosting CNT leads to an unusual configuration of the peapod, in which there are ripples along the inner arc of the bent peapod. The transition region in the partially filled peapod is short compared with the fully filled peapod. This is mainly caused by the axial motion of C 60 fullerenes, especially after the appearance of the small ripple. The rippling configuration has been reported previously in the bending of multi-walled CNTs, where it emerges after the critical bending angle. However, in the present case, the peapod remains perfectly elastic in this transitional region until buckling takes place

  15. Nanostructured Al/Al4C3 composites reinforced with graphite or fullerene and manufactured by mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles Hernández, F.C.; Calderon, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fullerene mix (C 60 + C 70 + soot) is effective to manufacture nanostructured Al/Al 4 C 3 . ► Carbon in the fullerene mix is more reactive with Al that that present in graphite. ► A complete transformation of carbon into Al 4 C 3 is observed in the Al/fullerene. ► Milling and sintering conditions preserve the nanostructured nature of the composites. ► Hardness improvement: 375% Al/graphite and 582% for Al/fullerene composites. - Abstract: Nanostructured Al matrix composites with reinforcements of graphite or fullerene (C 60 + C 70 + soot) have been produced by mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering (SPS). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that C 60 + C 70 withstand longer mechanical milling/alloying times than graphite. Fullerene is a good control agent during mechanical alloying resulting in a denser Al/fullerene composite when compared to the Al/graphite one. A refinement mechanism that takes place during mechanical alloying of fullerene and graphite is experimentally found and correspondingly discussed. Such a mechanism plays a major role in the amorphization of graphite. The larger surface area of the fullerene mix after milling promotes a better interaction with Al and hence allows its complete transformation into Al 4 C 3 during the SPS process. The sintered products show an increase in hardness for the Al/fullerene composite of 6 times and only 4 times for the Al/graphite composite. The SPS technique shows to be an excellent method to transform the fullerene into Al 4 C 3 while preserving its nanostructured nature.

  16. Charge Transfer Properties of Surface-treated WS2 Nanotubes and Fullerene-like Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana DI LUCCIO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of incorporation of inorganic fullerene like nanoparticles (IF and inorganic nanotubes (INT of WS2 into device structures. In order to disperse in a uniform fashion the semiconducting INT/IF WS2 nanoparticles were functionalized with dodecyltrichlorosilane (DTS. Poly-3(hexylthiophene (P3HT has been used along with WS2 nanoparticles as an active layer for the solution processable material in the proposed OLED structure of the type: ITO/WS2/P3HT/LiF-Al to test the electrical effect of the WS2 and to obtain information on its energy levels. Based on the obtained results, we discuss the possibility to use the WS2 nanoparticles in organic electronic devices.

  17. Oxidatively damaged DNA in rats exposed by oral gavage to C60 fullerenes and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Janne K; Risom, Lotte; Jacobsen, Nicklas R

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C60 fullerenes and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are projected to be used in medicine and consumer products with potential human exposure. The hazardous effects of these particles are expected to involve oxidative stress with generation of oxidatively damaged DNA that might......, liver, and lung of rats after intragastric administration of pristine C60 fullerenes or SWCNT (0.064 or 0.64 mg/kg body weight) suspended in saline solution or corn oil. We investigated the regulation of DNA repair systems toward 8-oxodG in liver and lung tissue. RESULTS: Both doses of SWCNT increased...... of genotoxicity, whereas corn oil per se generated more genotoxicity than the particles. Although there was increased mRNA expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in the liver of C60 fullerene-treated rats, we found no significant increase in repair activity. CONCLUSIONS: Oral exposure to low doses of C60...

  18. Hydrogen-bonding effects on film structure and photoelectrochemical properties of porphyrin and fullerene composites on nanostructured TiO 2 electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kira, Aiko; Tanaka, Masanobu; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Matano, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Naoki; Zhang, Yi; Ye, Shen; Lehtivuori, Heli; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonding effects on film structures and photophysical, photoelectrochemical, and photovoltaic properties have been examined in mixed films of porphyrin and fullerene composites with and without hydrogen bonding on nanostructured TiO2 electrodes. The nanostructured TiO2 electrodes modified

  19. Antibacterial Carbon Nanotubes by Impregnation with Copper Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palza, Humberto; Saldias, Natalia; Arriagada, Paulo; Palma, Patricia; Sanchez, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    The addition of metal-based nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes (CNT) is a relevant method producing multifunctional materials. In this context, CNT were dispersed in an ethanol/water solution containing copper acetate for their impregnation with different copper nanostructures by either a non-thermal or a thermal post-synthesis treatment. Our simple method is based on pure CNT in an air atmosphere without any other reagents. Particles without thermal treatment were present as a well-dispersed layered copper hydroxide acetate nanostructures on CNT, as confirmed by scanning and transmission (TEM) electron microscopies, and showing a characteristic x-ray diffraction peak at 6.6°. On the other hand, by thermal post-synthesis treatment at 300°C, these layered nanostructures became Cu2O nanoparticles of around 20 nm supported on CNT, as confirmed by TEM images and x-ray diffraction peaks. These copper nanostructures present on the CNT surface rendered antibacterial behavior to the resulting hybrid materials against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These findings present for the first time a simple method for producing antibacterial CNT by direct impregnation of copper nanostructures.

  20. Benzoxazine resin/carbon nanotube nanostructured composite's degradation kinetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untem, Flávia O; Botelho, Edson C; Rezende, Mirabel C; Costa, Michelle Leali

    2014-07-01

    In the last decades a new class of thermoset phenolic resin is emerging as a substitute of the traditional epoxy and phenolic resins in the aircraft industry. This new class is called polybenzoxazines and its associates the epoxy resin's mechanical properties and phenolic resin's thermal and flame retardant properties, resulting in a resin with superior properties when analyzed with the others singly. The introduction of carbon nanotubes in low concentration into polymeric matrices can produce nanostructured materials with good properties. Thus, in this study, nanostructured composites of benzoxazine resin were processed with different concentration of carbon nanotubes (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% w/w). In order to evaluate the thermostability of the benzoxazine resin and its nanostructured composites, it was performed a degradation kinetic study using the thermogravimetric technique. For that, the analysis have been done with the temperature ranging from 25 degrees C to 1000 degrees C at nitrogen atmosphere (100 mL x min(-1)) and in different heating rates (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 20 degrees C x min(-1)), in order to obtain the kinetic parameters (activation energy, E(a), and pre-exponential factor, A), based on Ozawa-Wall-Flynn model. The results showed excellent agreement between the thermogravimetric curves obtained and the Ozawa-Wall-Flynn method. The degradation kinetic study showed that the introduction of carbon nanotubes in the benzoxazine matrix does not change the thermostability of the resin, so that it does not have a significant influence in the shelf life of the material.

  1. Carbon nanotubes for stabilization of nanostructured lipid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Nicholas P.; Patil-Sen, Yogita; Baker, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are increasingly studied for innovative biotechnological applications particularly where they are combined with essential biological materials like lipids. Lipids have been used earlier for enhancing the dispersibility of CNTs in aqueous solutions. Here we report a novel application of CNTs for stabilization of internally self-assembled nanostructured lipid particles of 2-5 μm size. Single-walled (pristine) as well as -OH and -COOH functionalized multi-walled CNTs were employed to produce nanostructured emulsions which stayed stable for months and could be re-dispersed after complete dehydration. Concentrations of CNTs employed for stabilization were very low; moreover CNTs were well-decorated with lipid molecules. These features contribute towards reducing their toxicity and improving biocompatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Our approach paves the way for future development of combination therapies employing both CNTs and nanostructured lipid self-assembly together as carriers of different drugs.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are increasingly studied for innovative biotechnological applications particularly where they are combined with essential biological materials like lipids. Lipids have been used earlier for enhancing the dispersibility of CNTs in aqueous solutions. Here we report a novel application of CNTs for stabilization of internally self-assembled nanostructured lipid particles of 2-5 μm size. Single-walled (pristine) as well as -OH and -COOH functionalized multi-walled CNTs were employed to produce nanostructured emulsions which stayed stable for months and could be re-dispersed after complete dehydration. Concentrations of CNTs employed for stabilization were very low; moreover CNTs were well-decorated with lipid molecules. These features contribute towards reducing their toxicity and improving biocompatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Our approach paves the way for future development

  2. Organic–Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jonggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs, using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  3. Organic-Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, Jonggi; Yang, Changduk

    2011-12-01

    A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs), using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  4. Solid-state structures of peapod bearings composed of finite single-wall carbon nanotube and fullerene molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sota; Yamasaki, Takashi; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-10

    A supramolecular combination of carbon nanotube and fullerene, so-called a peapod, has attracted much interest, not solely because of its physical properties but also for its unique assembled structures of carbonaceous entities. However, the detailed structural information available was not sufficient for in-depth understanding of its structural chemistry or for exploratory research inspired by novel physical phenomena, mainly because of the severely inhomogeneous nature of currently available carbon nanotubes. We herein report solid-state structures of a molecular peapod. This structure, solved with a belt-persistent finite carbon nanotube molecule at the atomic level by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, revealed the presence of a smooth, inflection-free Hirshfeld surface inside the tube, and the smoothness permitted dynamic motion of the C60 guest molecule even in the solid state. This precise structural information may inspire the molecular design of carbonaceous machines assembled purely through van der Waals contacts between two neutral molecules.

  5. Solvent-free functionalization of fullerene C{sub 60} and pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes with aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Calera, Itzel J. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Meza-Laguna, Victor [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Gromovoy, Taras Yu. [O.O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, Gen. Naumova 17, 03164 Kiev (Ukraine); Chávez-Uribe, Ma. Isabel [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, Vladimir A., E-mail: basiuk@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, Elena V., E-mail: elbg1111@gmail.com [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with aromatic amines. • The amines add onto nanotube defects, likewise they add onto fullerene C{sub 60}. • The addition takes place at elevated temperature and without organic solvents. • Functionalized nanotubes were characterized by a number of instrumental techniques. - Abstract: We employed a direct one-step solvent-free covalent functionalization of solid fullerene C{sub 60} and pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with aromatic amines 1-aminopyrene (AP), 2-aminofluorene (AF) and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The reactions were carried out under moderate vacuum, in a wide temperature range of 180–250 °C, during relatively short time of about 2 h. To confirm successful amine attachment, a large number of analytical techniques were used (depending on the nanomaterial functionalized) such as Fourier transform infrared, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, {sup 13}C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometric detection, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nucleophilic addition of the aromatic amines to C{sub 60} molecule was studied theoretically by using density functional theory (PBE GGA functional with Grimme dispersion correction in conjunction with the DNP basis set). In the case of crystalline C{sub 60}, the solvent-free technique has a limited applicability due to poor diffusion of vaporous aromatic amines into the bulk. Nevertheless, the approach proposed allows for a facile preparation of aromatic amine-functionalized pristine MWCNTs without contamination with other chemical reagents, detergents and solvents, which is especially important for a vast variety of nanotube applications spanning from nanoelectronics to nanomedicine.

  6. Monitoring the formation of inorganic fullerene-like MoS{sub 2} nanostructures by laser ablation in liquid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compagnini, Giuseppe, E-mail: gcompagnini@unict.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Catania, Viale A.Doria 6, 95125, Catania (Italy); Sinatra, Marco G.; Messina, Gabriele C.; Patane, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Catania, Viale A.Doria 6, 95125, Catania (Italy); Scalese, Silvia [Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Zona industriale VIII, Strada n.5, 95121, Catania (Italy); Puglisi, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Catania, Viale A.Doria 6, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Laser ablation of solid targets in liquid media is emerging as a simple, clean and reproducible way to generate a large number of intriguing nanometric structures with peculiar properties. In this work we present some results on the formation of MoS{sub 2} fullerene-like nanoparticles (10-15 nm diameter) obtained by the ablation of crystalline targets in water. Such a top-down approach can be considered greener than standard sulphidization reactions and represents an intriguing single step procedure. The generation of the MoS{sub 2} nanostructures is in competition with that of oxide clusters and strongly depends on the oxidative environment created by the plasma plume. The size, shape and crystalline phase of the obtained nanoparticles are studied by microscopy while X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to investigate the chemical state of produced nanostructures and to propose mechanisms for their growth.

  7. Formation of Carbon Nanotube Based Gears: Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Mechanics Study of the Electrophilic Addition of o-Benzyne to Fullerenes, Graphene, and Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in chemical functionalization of fullerene molecules. In some cases, the predominant reaction products are different from those obtained (using the same reactants) from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). One such example is the cycloaddition of o-benzyne to C60. It is well established that benzyne adds across one of the rings in naphthalene, anthracene and other PAHs forming the [2+4] cycloaddition product (benzobicyclo[2.2.2.]-octatriene with naphthalene and triptycene with anthracene). However, Hoke et al demonstrated that the only reaction path for o-benzyne with C60 leads to the [2+2] cycloaddition product in which benzyne adds across one of the interpentagonal bonds (forming a cyclobutene ring in the process). Either reaction product results in a loss of aromaticity and distortion of the PAH or fullerene substrate, and in a loss of strain in the benzyne. It is not clear, however, why different products are preferred in these cases. In the current paper, we consider the stability of benzyne-nanotube adducts and the ability of Brenner's potential energy model to describe the structure and stability of these adducts. The Brenner potential has been widely used for describing diamondoid and graphitic carbon. Recently it has also been used for molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations of fullerenes and nanotubes. However, it has not been tested for the case of functionalized fullerenes (especially with highly strained geometries). We use the Brenner potential for our companion nanogear simulations and believe that it should be calibrated to insure that those simulations are physically reasonable. In the present work, Density Functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to determine the preferred geometric structures and energetics for this calibration. The DFT method is a kind of ab initio quantum chemistry method for determining the electronic structure of molecules. For a given basis set

  8. Density functional theory calculations of the non-resonant and resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy of carbon fullerenes and nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; George, Michael W.; Besley, Nicholas A.

    2018-03-01

    The non-resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes is studied with density functional theory in conjunction with short-range corrected functionals. For C60 and C70 the X-ray emission spectra are insensitive to modest structural changes, and absorption onto the fullerene cage has the greatest effect with a broader less structured band observed with the high energy π band reduced in intensity. For carbon nanotubes the X-ray emission spectra are shown to be weakly dependent on the length and chirality of the nanotube. However, some variation with the diameter of the tube is observed in both resonant and non-resonant spectra.

  9. Light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of charge transfer in electrospun fibers containing conjugated polymer/fullerene and conjugated polymer/fullerene/carbon nanotube blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shames, Alexander I.; Bounioux, Celine; Katz, Eugene A.; Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel; Zussman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Electrospun sub-micron fibers containing conjugated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) with a fullerene derivative, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) or a mixture of PCBM and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied by light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results provide experimental evidence of electron transfer between PCBM and P3HT components in both fiber systems and suggest that the presence of a dispersing block-copolymer, which acts via physical adsorption onto the PCBM and SWCNT moieties, does not prevent electron transfer at the P3HT-PCBM interface. These findings suggest a research perspective towards utilization of fibers of functional nanocomposites in fiber-based organic optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. The latter can be developed in the textile-type large area photovoltaics or individual fiber-based solar cells that will broaden energy applications from macro-power tools to micro-nanoscale power conversion devices and smart textiles.

  10. Study of the nickel-fullerene nano-structured thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacík, Jiří; Naramoto, H.; Narumi, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Abe, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 219, č. 20 (2004), s. 862-866 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : nickel * fullerene * magnesium oxide Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.997, year: 2004

  11. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Tripathi, Bijay Prakash

    2011-02-01

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Theoretical estimation of optical hyperpolarizability appearance in fullerene molecule and carbon nanotubes interacting with ionic crystal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestechkin, M. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first hyperpolarizability (HP) of fullerene and finite length carbon nanotubes (FCN), attached to the neutral surfaces of SiO 2 (1 1 0), CdS(1 1 2 0), and CdTe(1 1 0) crystals, is calculated in the framework of the semi-empirical version of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory (TDHF). The norm of β-vector invariant, induced by the substrate, is of the same order as in some organic molecules with the observed nonlinear optical properties. The orthogonal to the substrate β-component is responsible for generation of the second harmonic by fullerene according to Hoshi and co-authors [H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, Y. Maruyama, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (1991) L1397]. The calculated value of this component is shown sufficient for the weak generation. It is found that zig-zag FCN, in contrast to armchair FCN, are characterized by the resonant behaviour of HP for second harmonic generation (SHG) at low frequencies due to the existence of quasi-degenerate (hyperbolic) levels in the close vicinity of the Fermi level. This ability is created by the external ionic crystal potential and affected by mutual electron interaction of molecules in the layer.

  13. Adsorption of Cu(II) on Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Presence of Hydroxylated and Carboxylated Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhan; Li, Shicheng; Qi, Wei; Liu, Peng; Liu, Fuqiang; Ye, Yuanlv; Wu, Liansheng; Wang, Lei; Wu, Wangsuo

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of Cu(II) on oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and hydroxylated fullerene (C60(OH)n) and carboxylated fullerene (C60(C(COOH)2)n) were studied under ambient conditions using batch techniques. The results showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) had rapidly reached equilibrium and the kinetic process was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model. Cu(II) adsorption on oMWCNTs was dependent on pH but independent of ionic strength. Compared with the Freundlich model, the Langmuir model was more suitable for analyzing the adsorption isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that Cu(II) adsorption on oMWCNTs was spontaneous and endothermic. The effect of C60(OH)n on Cu(II) adsorption of oMWCNTs was not significant at low C60(OH)n concentration, whereas a negative effect was observed at higher concentration. The adsorption of Cu(II) on oMWCNTs was enhanced with increasing pH values at pH adsorption of Cu(II) onto oMWCNTs at pH 4–6. The double sorption site model was applied to simulate the adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) in the presence of C60(OH)n and fitted the experimental data well. PMID:24009683

  14. Stable Au-C bonds to the substrate for fullerene-based nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chutora, Taras; López, Roso Redondo Jesús R.; De La Torre Cerdeño, Bruno; Švec, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel; Vázquez, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), s. 1073-1079 ISSN 2190-4286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19672S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Au-C bonds * density functional theory (DFT) * fullerenes * scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) * sputtering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.127, year: 2016

  15. Carbon and oxide nanostructures. Synthesis, characterisation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorhana [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Fundamental and Applied Sciences

    2010-07-01

    This volume covers all aspects of carbon and oxide based nanostructured materials. The topics include synthesis, characterization and application of carbon-based namely carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres, fullerenes, carbon filled composites etc. In addition, metal oxides namely, ZnO, TiO2, Fe2O3, ferrites, garnets etc., for various applications like sensors, solar cells, transformers, antennas, catalysts, batteries, lubricants, are presented. The book also includes the modeling of oxide and carbon based nanomaterials. The book covers the topics: - Synthesis, characterization and application of carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres, fullerenes - Synthesis, characterization and application of oxide based nanomaterials. - Nanostructured magnetic and electric materials and their applications. - Nanostructured materials for petro-chemical industry. - Oxide and carbon based thin films for electronics and sustainable energy. - Theory, calculations and modeling of nanostructured materials. (orig.)

  16. Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Clay: Unique Nanostructured Filler for High-Performance Polymer Nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei-De; Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi

    2006-01-01

    High-performance composites are produced using nanostructured clay-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrids as a reinforcing filler. The intercalation of iron particles between the clay platelets serves as the catalyst for the growth of CNTs, while the platelets are exfoliated by the CNTs, forming the unique

  17. In Situ Mechanical Property Measurements of Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi; Nunez, Jennifer Carpena; Siochi, Emilie J.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the mechanical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C)/boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) nanostructures, in situ mechanical tests are conducted inside a transmission electron microscope equipped with an integrated atomic force microscope system. The nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate multiple in situ tensile, compressive, and lap shear tests with a-C/BNNT hybrid nanostructures. The tensile strength of the a-C/BNNT hybrid nanostructure is 5.29 GPa with about 90 vol% of a-C. The tensile strength and strain of the end-to-end joint structure with a-C welding is 0.8 GPa and 5.2% whereas the lap shear strength of the side-by-side joint structure with a-C is 0.25 GPa.

  18. The Raman spectrum of nano-structured onion-like fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Xu Bingshe; Liu Xuguang; Jia Husheng; Hideki, Ichinose

    2005-01-01

    Onion-like fullerenes (OLFs) have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. With a precise control of current, high-quality OLFs with few defects are found on the redeposit rod on the cathode. The size of OLFs is found to be in the range of 15-40 nm. Metal particles are useful support crystal to realize the synthesis of high-quality OLFs. Raman spectra of OLFs show high degree of graphitization. Compared with that of highly oriented prolific graphite (HOPG), the strain of graphene planes due to curvature and uneven distribution of the diameter of OLFs has been estimated analytically and is used to account for the downward shift of the G peak

  19. Low-toxic and safe nanomaterials by surface-chemical design, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    YanEqual Contribution, Liang; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shoujian; Hu, Zhongbo; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-02-01

    The toxicity grade for a bulk material can be approximately determined by three factors (chemical composition, dose, and exposure route). However, for a nanomaterial it depends on more than ten factors. Interestingly, some nano-factors (like huge surface adsorbability, small size, etc.) that endow nanomaterials with new biomedical functions are also potential causes leading to toxicity or damage to the living organism. Is it possible to create safe nanomaterials if such a number of complicated factors need to be regulated? We herein try to find answers to this important question. We first discuss chemical processes that are applicable for nanosurface modifications, in order to improve biocompatibility, regulate ADME, and reduce the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and graphenes). Then the biological/toxicological effects of surface-modified and unmodified carbon nanomaterials are comparatively discussed from two aspects: the lowered toxic responses or the enhanced biomedical functions. We summarize the eight biggest challenges in creating low-toxicity and safer nanomaterials and some significant topics of future research needs: to find out safer nanofactors; to establish controllable surface modifications and simpler chemistries for low-toxic nanomaterials; to explore the nanotoxicity mechanisms; to justify the validity of current toxicological theories in nanotoxicology; to create standardized nanomaterials for toxicity tests; to build theoretical models for cellular and molecular interactions of nanoparticles; and to establish systematical knowledge frameworks for nanotoxicology.

  20. Tailoring of antibacterial Ag nanostructures on TiO2 nanotube layers by magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Song, Doo-Hoon; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Han, Jeon-Geon; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-04-01

    To reduce the incidence of postsurgical bacterial infection that may cause implantation failure at the implant-bone interface, surface treatment of titanium implants with antibiotic materials such as silver (Ag) has been proposed. The purpose of this work was to create TiO2 nanotubes using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), followed by formation of an antibacterial Ag nanostructure coating on the TiO2 nanotube layer using a magnetron sputtering system. PEO was performed on commercially pure Ti sheets. The Ag nanostructure was added onto the resulting TiO2 nanotube using magnetron sputtering at varying deposition rates. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the surface, and Ag content on the TiO2 nanotube layer was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning probe microscopy for surface roughness and contact angle measurement were used to indirectly confirm enhanced TiO2 nanotube hydrophilicity. Antibacterial activity of Ag ions in solution was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and antibacterial testing against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In vitro, TiO2 nanotubes coated with sputtered Ag resulted in significantly reduced S. aureus. Cell viability assays showed no toxicity for the lowest sputtering time group in the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. These results suggest that a multinanostructured layer with a biocompatible TiO2 nanotube and antimicrobial Ag coating is a promising biomaterial that can be tailored with magnetron sputtering for optimal performance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fullerene-Grafted Graphene for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    in recent years. Owing to its unique electrical, thermal , and mechanical properties , graphene and its derivatives (e.g., gra- phene oxide, GO) have...decorated gra- phene electrodes for glucose biosensors with high sensitivity and fast response.15 Another allotropic carbon nanostructure, fullerene C60 ...charge transport properties associated with graphene. Indeed, previous studies have shown that C60 -decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising

  2. Selective formation and efficient photocurrent generation of [70]fullerene-single-walled carbon nanotube composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeyama, Tomokazu; Tezuka, Noriyasu; Seki, Shu; Matano, Yoshihiro; Nishi, Masayuki; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lehtivuori, Heli; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Nakao, Yoshihide; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    For the first time nanocarbon composites with C 70 molecules aligned on the sidewall of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are demonstrated. The C70-SWNT photoelectrochemical devices exhibit efficient photocurrent generation properties that result from selective formation of a single composite

  3. In situ EPR spectroelectrochemistry of single-walled carbon nanotubes and C-60 fullerene peapods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarábek, J.; Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbáč, Martin; Rapta, P.; Zukalová, Markéta; Dunsch, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 11 (2006), s. 2147-2154 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040306; GA MŠk LC510 Grant - others:Slovak Grant Agency(SK) VEGA 1/0053/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * electron paramagnetic resonance * electrochemical treatment * reactivity * electronic properties Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.884, year: 2006

  4. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira, E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais; Costa, Michelle Leali [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DMT/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  5. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida; Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira; Costa, Michelle Leali

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  6. Fullerene-nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes for the direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin and its application in biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zheng, Jianbin

    2013-12-01

    The direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) immobilized by a fullerene-nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes and chitosan (C60-NCNTs/CHIT) composite matrix is demonstrated. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the modified electrode. In the deaerated buffer solution, the cyclic voltammogram of the Hb/C60-NCNTs/CHIT composite film modified electrode showed a pair of well-behaved redox peaks with the E°'=-0.335 (± 0.3) V (vs. SCE). The redox peaks are assigned to the redox reaction of Hb(Fe(III)/Fe(II)) and confirm the effective immobilization of Hb on the composite film. The large value of ks = 1.8 (± 0.2)s(-1) suggests that the immobilized Hb achieved a relative fast electron transfer process. The fast electron transfer interaction between protein and electrode surface suggested that the C60-NCNTs/CHIT composite film may mimic some physiological process and further elucidate the relationship between protein structures and biological functions. Moreover, the resulting electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic ability towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with the linear dynamic range of 2.0-225.0 μM. The linear regression equation was Ip/μA=7.35 (± 0.08)+0.438 (± 0.007)C/μM with the correlation coefficient of 0.9993. The detection limit was estimated at about 1 μM (S/N=3). The sensitivity was 438.0 (± 2.5) μA mM(-1). It is expected that the method presented here can not only be easily extended to other redox enzymes or proteins, but also be used as an electrochemical sensing devices for the determination of H2O2 in cell extracts or urine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Nanotubes and fullerenes: an overview of the possible environmental and biological impact of bio-nanotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, M; Magrini, A; Bottini, N; Bergamaschi, A

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology operates in a dimension that is invisible not only to the human eye but also to most highly sensitive instruments; this technology has made it possible to manufacture materials that have not existed in our environment before. In the medical sphere, many important applications in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases are foreseen. Up to now nanotechnology has evaded social, political and regulatory scrutiny concerning the safety of nano-particles in workplaces and in commercial products. The present article reports the most important bio-medical applications of nanotechnology, followed by the results of research on the individual and environmental effects of nanomaterials and in particular of nanotubes, that are considered one of the most fascinating discoveries of the last millennium. A report is given on the data presented at the 225th ACS National Meeting (March 23-27, 2003, New Orleans, LA), division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Nanotubes and fullereness are recently discovered different forms of carbon-based materials which are widely applied in various technical fields. One of the main concerns regarding these structures is that they resemble asbestos fibers. Although preliminary studies suggest that these materials are not associated with any health risk, many researchers highlight the need to assess possible risks of such structures before they become ubiquitous in every aspect of life.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline and polyaniline - Carbon nanotubes nanostructures for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavio, Marcela A.; Acosta, Gerardo G.; Kessler, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructures of polyaniline (PANI) and PANI with embedded carbon nanotubes (CNT) were synthesized through a chemical method of self-organization. An oxidative polymerization process was performed in the monomer acid solution with the presence of a surfactant and the addition of multi-walled CNT. The CNT were added with and without pretreatment, CNTf and CNTnf, respectively. Furthermore, ammonium persulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate were incorporated to the reaction solution as dispersant and oxidizing agents, respectively. Different nanostructures such as nanoparticles or nanotubes were obtained depending on the CNT added, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Spectroscopy results showed variations in the observed bands of the synthetized nanostructures attributed to changes in the molecular structures, to the state of doped PANI reached during polymerization and to the stabilization of these links by hydrogen bridge interactions. PANI and PANI-CNT composites were evaluated by electrochemical techniques to test their behavior in relation to supercapacitors properties. PANI-CNTf nanocomposites displayed improved capacitive properties in H2SO4 solutions, namely 1744 F g-1at 2 A g-1. Also, the specific capacitance was strongly influenced by the developed morphologies. These characteristics point to their feasible application as supercapacitors materials.

  9. Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and reactive oxygen species induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and C(60) fullerenes in the FE1-Mutatrade markMouse lung epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Pojana, Giulio; White, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Viability, cell cycle effects, genotoxicity, reactive oxygen species production, and mutagenicity of C(60) fullerenes (C(60)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were assessed in the FE1-Mutatrade markMouse lung epithelial cell line. None of these particles induced cell death within 24 hr...... at doses between 0 and 200 microg/ml or during long-term subculture exposure (576 hr) at 100 microg/ml, as determined by two different assays. However, cell proliferation was slower with SWCNT exposure and a larger fraction of the cells were in the G1 phase. Exposure to carbon black resulted...... by the comet assay. The mutant frequency in the cII gene was unaffected by 576 hr of exposure to either 100 microg/ml C(60) or SWCNT when compared with control incubations, whereas we have previously reported that carbon black and diesel exhaust particles induce mutations using an identical exposure scenario...

  10. Interactions of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with the immune system of the skin and the possible implications related to cutaneous nanotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Castro Fernandes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the interaction of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with the constituents of the skin, especially the skin immune unit, is relevant to the determina-tion of toxicological endpoints. A systematic review was done focused on such aspects. Considerable part of the found references concentrated in cytotoxicity and skin per-meation. On a smaller scale, there are articles on immunomodulation and activation of immune cells and other elements. Few of the found studies deal specifically with cutaneous immune response, limiting the related knowledge. The findings suggest that nanomaterials studied may be involved in skin problems such irritant contact dermatitis, anaphylactoid reactions, urticaria, angioedema, and raised the need for performing additional studies to confirm the findings. The standardization of the description and testing of nanomaterials characteristics used in experiments can facilitate comparison of results.

  11. Magnetic amphiphilic hybrid carbon nanotubes containing N-doped and undoped sections: powerful tensioactive nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purceno, Aluir D.; Machado, Bruno F.; Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Medeiros, Tayline V.; Benyounes, Anas; Beausoleil, Julien; Menezes, Helvecio C.; Cardeal, Zenilda L.; Lago, Rochel M.; Serp, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen.In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and

  12. Inorganic nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef; Rao, C N R

    2004-10-15

    Following the discovery of carbon fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, it was hypothesized that nanoparticles of inorganic compounds with layered (two-dimensional) structure, such as MoS(2), will not be stable against folding and form nanotubes and fullerene-like structures: IF. The synthesis of numerous other inorganic nanotubes has been reported in recent years. Various techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanotubes, including high-temperature reactions and strategies based on 'chemie douce' (soft chemistry, i.e. low-temperature) processes, are described. First-principle, density functional theory based calculations are able to provide substantial information on the structure and properties of such nanotubes. Various properties of inorganic nanotubes, including mechanical, electronic and optical properties, are described in brief. Some potential applications of the nanotubes in tribology, protection against impact, (photo)catalysis, batteries, etc., are discussed.

  13. Fullerenes and disk-fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deza, M; Dutour Sikirić, M; Shtogrin, M I

    2013-01-01

    A geometric fullerene, or simply a fullerene, is the surface of a simple closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron with only 5- and 6-gonal faces. Fullerenes are geometric models for chemical fullerenes, which form an important class of organic molecules. These molecules have been studied intensively in chemistry, physics, crystallography, and so on, and their study has led to the appearance of a vast literature on fullerenes in mathematical chemistry and combinatorial and applied geometry. In particular, several generalizations of the notion of a fullerene have been given, aiming at various applications. Here a new generalization of this notion is proposed: an n-disk-fullerene. It is obtained from the surface of a closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron which has one n-gonal face and all other faces 5- and 6-gonal, by removing the n-gonal face. Only 5- and 6-disk-fullerenes correspond to geometric fullerenes. The notion of a geometric fullerene is therefore generalized from spheres to compact simply connected two-dimensional manifolds with boundary. A two-dimensional surface is said to be unshrinkable if it does not contain belts, that is, simple cycles consisting of 6-gons each of which has two neighbours adjacent at a pair of opposite edges. Shrinkability of fullerenes and n-disk-fullerenes is investigated. Bibliography: 87 titles

  14. Synthesis of Co-Electrospun Lead Selenide Nanostructures within Anatase Titania Nanotubes for Advanced Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan K. Wujcik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic nano-scale heterostructures have many advantages over hybrid organic-inorganic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC or Grätzel cells, including their resistance to photo-bleaching, thermal stability, large specific surface areas, and general robustness. This study presents a first-of-its-kind low-cost all-inorganic lead selenide-anatase titania (PbSe/TiO2 nanotube heterostructure material for photovoltaic applications. Herein, PbSe nanostructures have been co-electrospun within a hollow TiO2 nanotube with high connectivity for highly efficient charge carrier flow and electron-hole pair separation. This material has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX to show the morphology and material composition of the synthesized nanocomposite. Photovoltaic characterization has shown this newly synthesized proof-of-concept material can easily produce a photocurrent under solar illumination, and, with further refinement, could reveal a new direction in photovoltaic materials.

  15. Rapid and Controlled In Situ Growth of Noble Metal Nanostructures within Halloysite Clay Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamzadeh, Taha; Islam Khan, Md Shahidul; Riche', Kyle; Lvov, Yuri M; Stavitskaya, Anna V; Wiley, John B

    2017-11-14

    A rapid (≤2 min) and high-yield low-temperature synthesis has been developed for the in situ growth of gold nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled sizes in the interior of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). A combination of HAuCl 4 in ethanol/toluene, oleic acid, and oleylamine surfactants and ascorbic acid reducing agent with mild heating (55 °C) readily lead to the growth of targeted nanostructures. The sizes of Au NPs are tuned mainly by adjusting nucleation and growth rates. Further modification of the process, through an increase in ascorbic acid, allows for the formation of nanorods (NRs)/nanowires within the HNTs. This approach is not limited to gold-a modified version of this synthetic strategy can also be applied to the formation of Ag NPs and NRs within the clay nanotubes. The ability to readily grow such core-shell nanosystems is important to their further development as nanoreactors and active catalysts. NPs within the tube interior can further be manipulated by the electron beam. Growth of Au and Ag could be achieved under a converged electron beam suggesting that both Au@HNT and Ag@HNT systems can be used for the fundamental studies of NP growth/attachment.

  16. Síntese de nanotubos de carbono de parede simples por sublimação de grafite em atmosfera de hélio Synthesis of single-wall nanotubes by pyrolysis of graphite in helium atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gino Venegas Romero

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic samples of fullerene nanostructures are obtained in a modified arc furnace using the electric arc method with a Helium atmosphere at low pressures. High purity graphite rods are used as electrodes but, when drilled and the orifices filled with powders of transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni acting as catalysts, the resulting particles are carbon nanostructures of the fullerene family, known as Single Wall Nanotubes (SWNTs. They have typical diameters of 1.4 nm, lengths up to tenths of microns and they are arranged together in bundles containing several SWNTs. Those samples are observed and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM techniques.

  17. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.

    1999-01-01

    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  18. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph, an......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  19. Multistep structural transition of hydrogen trititanate nanotubes into TiO2-B nanotubes: a comparison study between nanostructured and bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, Edisson Jr; Jardim, P M; Marinkovic, Bojan A; Rizzo, Fernando C; Abreu, Marco A S de; Zotin, Jose L; Araujo, Antonio S

    2007-01-01

    H-trititanate nanotubes obtained by alkali hydrothermal treatment of TiO 2 followed by proton exchange were compared to their bulk H 2 Ti 3 O 7 counterpart with respect to their thermally induced structural transformation paths. As-synthesized and heat-treated samples were characterized by XRD, TEM/SAED, DSC and spectroscopy techniques, indicating that H 2 Ti 3 O 7 nanotubes showed the same sequence of structural transformations as their bulk counterpart obtained by conventional solid state reaction. Nanostructured H 2 Ti 3 O 7 converts into TiO 2 (B) via multistep transformation without losing its nanotubular morphology. The transformation occurs between 120 and 400 deg. C through topotactic mechanisms with the intermediate formation of nanostructured H 2 Ti 6 O 13 and H 2 Ti 12 O 25 , which are more condensed layered titanates eventually rearranging to TiO 2 (B). Our results suggest that the intermediate tunnel structure H 2 Ti 12 O 25 is the final layered intermediate phase, on which TiO 2 (B) nucleates and grows. The conversion of nanostructured TiO 2 (B) into anatase is completed at a much lower temperature than its bulk counterpart and is accompanied by loss of the nanotubular morphology

  20. Multistep structural transition of hydrogen trititanate nanotubes into TiO2-B nanotubes: a comparison study between nanostructured and bulk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Edisson; Jardim, P M; Marinkovic, Bojan A; Rizzo, Fernando C; de Abreu, Marco A S; Zotin, José L; Araújo, Antonio S

    2007-12-12

    H-trititanate nanotubes obtained by alkali hydrothermal treatment of TiO(2) followed by proton exchange were compared to their bulk H(2)Ti(3)O(7) counterpart with respect to their thermally induced structural transformation paths. As-synthesized and heat-treated samples were characterized by XRD, TEM/SAED, DSC and spectroscopy techniques, indicating that H(2)Ti(3)O(7) nanotubes showed the same sequence of structural transformations as their bulk counterpart obtained by conventional solid state reaction. Nanostructured H(2)Ti(3)O(7) converts into TiO(2)(B) via multistep transformation without losing its nanotubular morphology. The transformation occurs between 120 and 400 degrees C through topotactic mechanisms with the intermediate formation of nanostructured H(2)Ti(6)O(13) and H(2)Ti(12)O(25), which are more condensed layered titanates eventually rearranging to TiO(2)(B). Our results suggest that the intermediate tunnel structure H(2)Ti(12)O(25) is the final layered intermediate phase, on which TiO(2)(B) nucleates and grows. The conversion of nanostructured TiO(2)(B) into anatase is completed at a much lower temperature than its bulk counterpart and is accompanied by loss of the nanotubular morphology.

  1. Multistep structural transition of hydrogen trititanate nanotubes into TiO2-B nanotubes: a comparison study between nanostructured and bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Edisson, Jr.; Jardim, P. M.; Marinkovic, Bojan A.; Rizzo, Fernando C.; de Abreu, Marco A. S.; Zotin, José L.; Araújo, Antonio S.

    2007-12-01

    H-trititanate nanotubes obtained by alkali hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 followed by proton exchange were compared to their bulk H2Ti3O7 counterpart with respect to their thermally induced structural transformation paths. As-synthesized and heat-treated samples were characterized by XRD, TEM/SAED, DSC and spectroscopy techniques, indicating that H2Ti3O7 nanotubes showed the same sequence of structural transformations as their bulk counterpart obtained by conventional solid state reaction. Nanostructured H2Ti3O7 converts into TiO2(B) via multistep transformation without losing its nanotubular morphology. The transformation occurs between 120 and 400 °C through topotactic mechanisms with the intermediate formation of nanostructured H2Ti6O13 and H2Ti12O25, which are more condensed layered titanates eventually rearranging to TiO2(B). Our results suggest that the intermediate tunnel structure H2Ti12O25 is the final layered intermediate phase, on which TiO2(B) nucleates and grows. The conversion of nanostructured TiO2(B) into anatase is completed at a much lower temperature than its bulk counterpart and is accompanied by loss of the nanotubular morphology.

  2. Multistep structural transition of hydrogen trititanate nanotubes into TiO{sub 2}-B nanotubes: a comparison study between nanostructured and bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Edisson Jr [PETROBRAS S.A./CENPES, Research and Development Centre, Avenida Horacio Macedo, 950, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Jardim, P M [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pontifical Catholic University, CP 38008, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Marinkovic, Bojan A [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pontifical Catholic University, CP 38008, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Rizzo, Fernando C [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pontifical Catholic University, CP 38008, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Abreu, Marco A S de [PETROBRAS S.A./CENPES, Research and Development Centre, Avenida Horacio Macedo, 950, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Zotin, Jose L [PETROBRAS S.A./CENPES, Research and Development Centre, Avenida Horacio Macedo, 950, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Antonio S [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, CP 1662, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2007-12-12

    H-trititanate nanotubes obtained by alkali hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} followed by proton exchange were compared to their bulk H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} counterpart with respect to their thermally induced structural transformation paths. As-synthesized and heat-treated samples were characterized by XRD, TEM/SAED, DSC and spectroscopy techniques, indicating that H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} nanotubes showed the same sequence of structural transformations as their bulk counterpart obtained by conventional solid state reaction. Nanostructured H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} converts into TiO{sub 2}(B) via multistep transformation without losing its nanotubular morphology. The transformation occurs between 120 and 400 deg. C through topotactic mechanisms with the intermediate formation of nanostructured H{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} and H{sub 2}Ti{sub 12}O{sub 25}, which are more condensed layered titanates eventually rearranging to TiO{sub 2}(B). Our results suggest that the intermediate tunnel structure H{sub 2}Ti{sub 12}O{sub 25} is the final layered intermediate phase, on which TiO{sub 2}(B) nucleates and grows. The conversion of nanostructured TiO{sub 2}(B) into anatase is completed at a much lower temperature than its bulk counterpart and is accompanied by loss of the nanotubular morphology.

  3. Ruthenium-bipyridine complexes bearing fullerene or carbon nanotubes: synthesis and impact of different carbon-based ligands on the resulting products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-yi; Huang, Rong-bin; Xie, Su-yuan; Zheng, Lan-sun

    2011-09-07

    This paper discusses the synthesis of two carbon-based pyridine ligands of fullerene pyrrolidine pyridine (C(60)-py) and multi-walled carbon nanotube pyrrolidine pyridine (MWCNT-py) via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The two complexes, C(60)-Ru and MWCNT-Ru, were synthesized by ligand substitution in the presence of NH(4)PF(6), and Ru(II)(bpy)(2)Cl(2) was used as a reaction precursor. Both complexes were characterized by mass spectroscopy (MS), elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results showed that the substitution way of C(60)-py is different from that of MWCNT-py. The C(60)-py and a NH(3) replaced a Cl(-) and a bipyridine in Ru(II)(bpy)(2)Cl(2) to produce a five-coordinate complex of [Ru(bpy)(NH(3))(C(60)-py)Cl]PF(6), whereas MWCNT-py replaced a Cl(-) to generate a six-coordinate complex of [Ru(bpy)(2)(MWCNT-py)Cl]PF(6). The cyclic voltammetry study showed that the electron-withdrawing ability was different for C(60) and MWCNT. The C(60) showed a relatively stronger electron-withdrawing effect with respect to MWCNT. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  4. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofiberś surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X-100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fiberś surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  5. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R., E-mail: joaopaulofsbrasil@hotmail.com, E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235, PO Box 676, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofibers´ surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X–100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fibers´ surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  6. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofibers´ surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X–100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fibers´ surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs

  7. Hydrogen adsorption in the series of carbon nanostructures: Graphenes-graphene nanotubes-nanocrystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. P.; Kirichenko, A. N.; Tat'yanin, E. V.

    2016-07-01

    A comparative analysis of hydrogen absorption capability is performed for the first time for three types of carbon nanostructures: graphenes, oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs), and pyrocarbon nanocrystallites (PCNs) synthesized in the pores of TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with mean diameters ( D m) of 50 and 90 nm, using methane as the pyrolized gas. The morphology of the carbon nanostructures is studied by means of powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen adsorption is investigated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in combination with mass-spectrometry. It is shown that only OCNTGs can adsorb and store hydrogen, the desorption of which under atmospheric pressure occurs at a temperature of around 175°C. Hydrogen adsorption by OCNTGs is quantitatively determined and found to be about 1.5% of their mass. Applying certain assumptions, the relationship between the mass of carbon required for the formation of single-wall OCNTGs in membrane pores and the surface area of pores is established. Numerical factor Ψ = m dep/ m calc, where m dep is the actual mass of carbon deposited upon the formation of OCNTGs and mcalc is the calculated mass of carbon necessary for the formation of OCNTGs is introduced. It is found that the dependence of specific hydrogen adsorption on the magnitude of the factor has a maximum at Ψ = 1.2, and OCNTGs can adsorb and store hydrogen in the interval 0.4 to 0.6 hydrogen adsorption and its relationship to the structure of carbon nanoformations are examined.

  8. Fullerenes Revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    and exist in the form of a hollow sphere (buckyballs), ellipsoid or tube (bucky tubes or ..... Rare earth ions such as Gd inserted in the fullerene could potentially be used as diagnostic MRI contrast agents for several diseases. These materials are highly stable even at higher temperatures and more effective than fullerenes.

  9. Towards lightweight nanocomposite coatings for corrosion inhibition: Graphene, carbon nanotubes, and nanostructured magnesium as case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Robert Vincent, III

    The field of nanocomposites is a burgeoning area of research due to the interest in the remarkable properties which can be achieved through their use in a variety of applications, including corrosion resistant coatings. Lightweighting is of increasing importance in the world today due to the ever growing push towards energy efficiency and the green movement and in recent years there has been a vast amount of research performed in the area of developing lightweight nanocomposites for corrosion inhibition. Many new composite materials have been developed through the use of newly developed nanomaterials (including carbonaceous and metallic constituents) and their specialized incorporation in the coating matrix materials. We start with a general review on the development of hybrid nanostructured composites for corrosion protection of base metals from a sustainability perspective in Chapter 1. This review demonstrates the ever swelling requirements for a paradigm shift in the way that we protect metals against corrosion due to the costs and environmental concerns that exist with currently used technology. In Chapter 2, we delve into the much required understanding of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide through near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy measurements to elucidate information about the electronic structure upon incorporation of nitrogen within the structure. For successful integration of the carbonaceous nanomaterials into a composite coating, a full swath of knowledge is necessary. Within this work we have shown that upon chemical defunctionalization of graphene oxide to reduced graphene oxide by means of hydrazine treatment, nitrogen is incorporated into the structure in the form of a pyrazole ring. In Chapter 3, we demonstrate that by way of in situ polymerization, graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes can be incorporated within a polymer (polyetherimide, PEI) matrix. Two systems have been developed including graphene and

  10. Production of carbonaceous materials with various lengths in small spheroidal fullerenes and long CNTs by tunable multi-walled carbon nanotube cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hoi; Shin, Ueon Sang [Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Tunable cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using high pressure homogenizer and/or HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution was accomplished, resulting in the production of short CNTs with minimum length of 35 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Zeta sizer analysis showed significant reduction of CNT length from this tunable cutting (e.g. from long and entangled pristine CNTs at about 20 μm to ≥1000 nm, ⁓400 nm, ⁓200 nm, and ⁓100 nm via high pressure jet-spraying cutting within 5 h, while chemical cutting process using greatly longer hours (48 h) showed a reduction only to about 1000 nm). When CNT sample of average 1000 nm length previously shortened by HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was subjected to the high pressure jet-spraying cutting process, the reduction progressed faster (≤1 h), producing ≥35 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated restricted formation of hydrophilic functional groups such as carboxylic group and hydroxyl group in the high pressure jet-spraying cutting, whereas an intensive formation of hydrophilic functional groups on the surface of shortened CNT samples was found after chemical cutting. Such short CNT samples would fulfill the requirements for carbonaceous materials with various lengths in small spheroidal fullerenes and long CNTs. The short CNTs produced are promising for scientific and technological applications in many fields such as electronics, diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, and environmental or energy industries.

  11. Theoretical Investigation of Light Transmission in a Slab Cavity via Kerr Nonlinearity of Carbon Nanotube Quantum Dot Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solookinejad, Gh.; Jabbari, M.; Sangachin, E. Ahmadi; Asadpour, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the transmission properties of weak probe laser field propagate through slab cavity with defect layer of carbon-nanotube quantum dot (CNT-QD) nanostructure. We show that due to spin-orbit coupling, the double electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows appear and the giant Kerr nonlinearity of the intracavity medium can lead to manipulating of transmission coefficient of weak probe light. The thickness effect of defect layer medium has also been analyzed on transmission properties of probe laser field. Our proposed model may be useful for integrated photonics devices based on CNT-QD for applications in all-optical systems which require multiple EIT effect.

  12. A high efficient nanostructured filter based on functionalized carbon nanotube to reduce the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, NNK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefian, Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Filtration efficiency of Pd and Ni loaded single-walled carbon nanotubes via the applicability of the adsorption process for the removal NNK, the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, from tobacco smoke were investigated using first-principles calculations. The thermal and mechanical stability of designed nanostructured filter could allow them to compete with typical commercially used. It is expected that the removal efficiency of the proposed nanostructured filter could also provide a promising adsorbent candidate in removing the environmental pollutant. The suggested separation mechanism in this study was discussed with frontier molecular orbital theory, natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses and the density of states in the density functional theory framework. Finally, by the Bader theory of atoms in molecules (AIM), the topological properties of the electron density contributions for intermolecular and intramolecular interactions has been analyzed. Calculations show that the transition metal-loaded SWCNT exhibit strong affinity toward the NNK molecules.

  13. Fullerene-Related Nanocarbons and Their Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Junfeng; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Hu, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    . From the vast amount of research that has been conducted over the last two decades, it is now apparent that these nanomaterials, notably, carbon nanotubes, carbon-based nanoparticles, graphene, fullerene and fullerene derivatives promise very distinct applications and will add great value to industries....... It is thus expected that the studies on these nanocarbons and related technologies will have huge impacts on future nanotechnology and will significantly contribute to our economy and society....

  14. Ability of Fullerene to Accumulate Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenchikov Mikhail A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, using a modification of the LJ-potential and the continuum approach, we define С60-H2 (He potentials, as well as interaction energy of two fullerene particles. The proposed approach allows to calculate interactions between carbon structures of any character (wavy graphenes, nanotubes, etc.. The obtained results allowed to localize global sorption zones both inside the particle and on the outer surface of the fullerene.

  15. Boron Fullerenes: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Szwacki Nevill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA family of unusually stable boron cages was identified and examined using first-principles local-density functional method. The structure of the fullerenes is similar to that of the B12icosahedron and consists of six crossing double-rings. The energetically most stable fullerene is made up of 180 boron atoms. A connection between the fullerene family and its precursors, boron sheets, is made. We show that the most stable boron sheets are not necessarily precursors of very stable boron cages. Our finding is a step forward in the understanding of the structure of the recently produced boron nanotubes.

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured Hybrids Based on Poly(Vinyl Alcohol/Bioactive Glass Reinforced with Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Mansur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel tridimensional porous hybrids based on PVA combined with bioactive glass and reinforced by chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT for potential use in bone tissue engineering. The functionalization of CNT was performed by introducing carboxylic groups in multiwall nanotubes. This process aimed at enhancing the affinity of CNTs with the water-soluble PVA polymer derived by the hydrogen bonds formed among alcohol (PVA and carboxylic groups (CNT–COOH. In the sequence, the CNT–COOH (0.25 wt% were used as the nanostructure modifier for the hybrid system based on PVA associated with the bioactive glass (BaG. The mechanical properties of the nanostructured hybrids reinforced with CNT–COOH were evaluated by axial compression tests, and they were compared to reference hybrid. The averaged yield stresses of macroporous hybrids were (2.3 ± 0.9 and (4.4 ± 1.0 MPa for the reference and the CNT reinforced materials, respectively. Moreover, yield strain and Young's modulus were significantly enhanced by about 30% for the CNT–COOH hybrids. Hence, as far as the mechanical properties are concerned, the results have clearly showed the feasibility of utilizing these new hybrids reinforced with functionalized CNT in repairing cancellous bone tissues.

  17. Fullerenes: prospects of using in medicine, biology and ecology

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Schur; Z. Z. Matysina; S. Y. Zaginaichenko; N. P. Botsva; О. V. Elina

    2012-01-01

    Results of our own research and academic literature data on the properties of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes are analysed and summarized. Chemical stability of the structure and low toxicity of fullerenes determine their usage in medical chemistry, pharmacology and cosmetology. Due to its mechanical strength the nanotubes have become the basis of clean construction and barrier materials. It is shown that a matrix based on fullerit C60 can be obtained. It allows to store up to 7.7 wt. % hydro...

  18. IrOx-carbon nanotube hybrids: a nanostructured material for electrodes with increased charge capacity in neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Nina M; Lichtenstein, Mathieu P; Pérez, Estela; Cabana, Laura; Suñol, Cristina; Casañ-Pastor, Nieves

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructured iridium oxide-carbon nanotube hybrids (IrOx-CNT) deposited as thin films by dynamic electrochemical methods are suggested as novel materials for neural electrodes. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) serve as scaffolds for growing the oxide, yielding a tridimensional structure with improved physical, chemical and electrical properties, in addition to high biocompatibility. In biological environments, SWCNT encapsulation by IrOx makes more resistant electrodes and prevents the nanotube release to the media, preventing cellular toxicity. Chemical, electrochemical, structural and surface characterization of the hybrids has been accomplished. The high performance of the material in electrochemical measurements and the significant increase in cathodal charge storage capacity obtained for the hybrid in comparison with bare IrOx represent a significant advance in electric field application in biosystems, while its cyclability is also an order of magnitude greater than pure IrOx. Moreover, experiments using in vitro neuronal cultures suggest high biocompatibility for IrOx-CNT coatings and full functionality of neurons, validating this material for use in neural electrodes. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of nanostructures on the mechanical and tribological properties of TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoungchin; Park, Jeongwon

    2018-04-01

    TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization on Ti substrates with a diameter variation of 30–100 nm, and the structure of the nanotubes were studied using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the structure changes from the anatase phase to the rutile phase of TiO2 at a diameter below 50 nm. The tribological behaviors of TiO2 nanotubes were investigated with different diameters. The effectiveness of the rutile phase and the diameter size enhanced the frictional performance of TiO2 nanotubes.

  20. In vitro and in vivo comparative study of the phototherapy anticancer activity of hyaluronic acid-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Yuan, Yujie; Ren, Junxiao; Zhang, Yinling; Wang, Yongchao; Shan, Xiaoning; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2017-08-01

    In this work, carbon nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), graphene oxide (GO), and fullerene (C60) were modified by hyaluronic acid (HA) to obtain water-soluble and biocompatible nanomaterials with high tumor-targeting capacity and then the comparative study of these hyaluronic acid-modified carbon nanomaterials was made in vitro and in vivo. The conjugates of hyaluronic acid and carbon nanomaterials, namely, HA-SWNT, HA-GO, HA-C60, were confirmed by UV/Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). After HA modification, the sizes of HA-SWNT, HA-GO, and HA-C60 were in a range of 70 to 300 nm, and all the three HA-modified materials were at negative potential, demonstrating that HA modification was in favor of extravasation of carbon materials into a tumor site due to enhanced permeability and retention effect of tumor. Photothermal conversion in vitro test demonstrated excellent photothermal sensitivity of HA-SWNT and HA-GO. But the reactive oxygen yield of HA-C60 was the highest compared with the others under visible light irradiation, which proved the good photodynamic therapy effect of HA-C60. In addition, cytotoxicity experiments exhibited that the inhibitory efficacy of HA-SWNT was the lowest, the second was HA-C60, and the highest was HA-GO, which was consistent with the uptake degree of them. While under the laser irradiation, the cell inhibition of the HA-SWNT was the highest, the second was HA-GO, and the last was HA-C60. In vivo evaluation of the three targeting carbon nanomaterials was consistent with the cytotoxicity assay results. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HA-SWNT and HA-GO were suited for photothermal therapy (PTT) agents for their good photothermal property, while HA-C60 was used as a kind of photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent for its photodynamic effect.

  1. 6. international conference on Nano-technology in Carbon: from synthesis to applications of nano-structured carbon and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the sixth international conference sponsored this year by the French Carbon Group (GFEC), the European Research Group on Nano-tubes GDRE 'Nano-E', in collaboration with the British Carbon Group and the 'Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel' (local organizer). The aim of this conference is to promote carbon science in the nano-scale as, for example, nano-structured carbons, nano-tubes, nano-wires, fullerenes, etc. This conference is designed to introduce those with an interest in materials to current research in nano-technology and to bring together research scientists working in various disciplines in the broad area of nano-structured carbons, nano-tubes and fullerene-related nano-structures. Elemental carbon is the simplest exemplar of this nano-technology based on covalent bonding, however other systems (for example containing hetero-atoms) are becoming important from a research point of view, and provide alternative nano-materials with unique properties opening a broad field of applications. Nano-technology requires an understanding of these materials on a structural and textural point of view and this will be the central theme. This year the conference will feature sessions on: S1. Control and synthesis of nano-materials 1.1 Nano-structured carbons: pyrolysis of polymers, activation, templates,... 1.2 Nano-tubes: Catalytic method, HiPCO, graphite vaporization, electrolysis,... 1.3 Fullerenes S2. Chemistry of carbon nano-materials 2.1 Purification of carbon nano-tubes 2.2 Functionalization - Self-assembling S3. Structural characterization S4. Theory and modelling S5. Relationship between structure and properties S6. Applications Water and air purification, Gas and energy storage, Composite materials, Field emission, Nano-electronics, Biotechnology,... S7. Environmental impact. Only one paper concerning carbon under irradiation has been added to the INIS database. (authors)

  2. Fullerenes: prospects of using in medicine, biology and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Schur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of our own research and academic literature data on the properties of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes are analysed and summarized. Chemical stability of the structure and low toxicity of fullerenes determine their usage in medical chemistry, pharmacology and cosmetology. Due to its mechanical strength the nanotubes have become the basis of clean construction and barrier materials. It is shown that a matrix based on fullerit C60 can be obtained. It allows to store up to 7.7 wt. % hydrogen with formation of hydrofullerit C60H60. The usage of fullerenes for accumulation and storage of hydrogen enhances the prospects of clean hydrogen energy development.

  3. Stability Criteria of Fullerene-like Nanoparticles: Comparing V2O5 to Layered Metal Dichalcogenides and Dihalides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehiam Prior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous examples of closed-cage nanostructures, such as nested fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes, formed by the folding of materials with layered structure are known. These compounds include WS2, NiCl2, CdCl2, Cs2O, and recently V2O5. Layered materials, whose chemical bonds are highly ionic in character, possess relatively stiff layers, which cannot be evenly folded. Thus, stress-relief generally results in faceted nanostructures seamed by edge-defects. V2O5, is a metal oxide compound with a layered structure. The study of the seams in nearly perfect inorganic "fullerene-like" hollow V2O5 nanoparticles (NIF-V2O5 synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA, is discussed in the present work. The relation between the formation mechanism and the seams between facets is examined. The formation mechanism of the NIF-V2O5 is discussed in comparison to fullerene-like structures of other layered materials, like IF structures of MoS2, CdCl2, and Cs2O. The criteria for the perfect seaming of such hollow closed structures are highlighted.

  4. Precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures using highly conductive carbon nanotube-thiol-acrylate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xiong, W.; Jiang, L. J.; Zhou, Y. S.; Lu, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is of increasing interest due to its unique combination of truly three-dimensional (3D) fabrication capability and ultrahigh spatial resolution of ~40 nm. However, the stringent requirements of non-linear resins seriously limit the material functionality of 3D printing via TPP. Precise fabrication of 3D micro/nanostructures with multi-functionalities such as high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength is still a long-standing challenge. In this work, TPP fabrication of arbitrary 3D micro/nanostructures using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-thiolacrylate (MTA) composite resins has been developed. Up to 0.2 wt% MWNTs have been incorporated into thiol-acrylate resins to form highly stable and uniform composite photoresists without obvious degradation for one week at room temperature. Various functional 3D micro/nanostructures including woodpiles, micro-coils, spiral-like photonic crystals, suspended micro-bridges, micro-gears and complex micro-cars have been successfully fabricated. The MTA composite resin offers significant enhancements in electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, and on the same time, preserving high optical transmittance and flexibility. Tightly controlled alignment of MWNTs and the strong anisotropy effect were confirmed. Microelectronic devices including capacitors and resistors made of the MTA composite polymer were demonstrated. The 3D micro/nanofabrication using the MTA composite resins enables the precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures of high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, which is expected to lead a wide range of device applications, including micro/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), integrated photonics and 3D electronics.

  5. Fullerenes Revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    underlying the structure of fullerenes can be found in [6]. Table 1 shows the physical properties of C. 60 . Figure 4. Rotation axes of the C60 molecule. Reproduced with permission from Research India Publica- tions: B C Yadav and Ritesh. Kumar, International Journal of. Nanotechnology and Applica- tions ISSN 0973-631X ...

  6. Vertical Alignment of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Nanostructure Fabricated by Atomic Force Microscope

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Haiwon

    2007-01-01

    This project focused on the behavior of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the electrophoresis cells and aligned growth of SWCNTs by thermal chemical vapor deposition on selectively deposited metallic nanoparticle...

  7. Assessing manganese nanostructures based carbon nanotubes composite for the highly sensitive determination of vitamin C in pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Sadaf; Munawar, Anam; Khan, Waheed S; Mujahid, Adnan; Ihsan, Ayesha; Rehman, Asma; Ahmed, Ishaq; Bajwa, Sadia Z

    2017-03-15

    This work is the first report describing the development of a novel three dimensional manganese nanostructures based carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Mn NPs) composite, for the determination of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in pharmaceutical formulation. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used as a conductive skeleton to anchor highly electrolytic manganese nanoparticles (Mn NPs), which were prepared by a hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the presence of Mn Nps of 20-25nm, anchored along the whole length of CNTs, in the form of patches having a diameter of 50-500nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the surface modification of CNTs by amine groups, whereas dynamic light scattering established the presence of positive charge on the prepared nanocomposite. The binding events were studied by monitoring cyclic voltammetry signals and the developed nanosensor exhibited highly sensitive response, demonstrating improved electrochemical activity towards ascorbic acid. Linear dependence of the peak current on the square root of scan rates (R 2 =0.9785), demonstrated that the oxidation of ascorbic acid by the designed nanostructures is a diffusion control mechanism. Furthermore, linear range was found to be 0.06-4.0×10 -3 M, and nanosensor displayed an excellent detection limit of 0.1µM (S/N=3). This developed nanosensor was successfully applied for the determination of vitamin C in pharmaceutical formulation. Besides, the results of the present study indicate that such a sensing platform may offer a different pathway to utilize manganese nanoparticles based CNTs composite for the determination of other bio-molecules as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Affecting the morphology of silver deposition on carbon nanotube surface: From nanoparticles to dendritic (tree-like) nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forati-Nezhad, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mir Mohamad Sadeghi, Gity, E-mail: gsadeghi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yaghmaie, Frank [Northern California Nanotechnology Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Alimohammadi, Farbod [Young Researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reduction was used to synthesize silver crystals on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the presence of acetone, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and isopropyl alcohol as solvent. DMF and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as a reducing and a stabilizing agent, respectively. The structure and nature of hybrid MWCNT/silver were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The presence of silver crystals on the nanotubes was confirmed by XRD. The results show the formation of silver crystals on the MWCNT surface and indicate that the morphology of silver crystals can be control by changing the solvent. The type of solvent is an effective parameter that affects the particle size and morphological transition from nanoparticles to silver trees. - Highlights: • The silver crystals are grown on the CNT surface by chemical reduction method. • The morphology of silver crystals is controlled by changing the solvent. • Silver nanoparticles and dendritic nanostructures on CNT surface are achieved. • Any change in structure and surface defects by synthesis condition is investigated.

  9. Photo-electrochemical properties of graphene wrapped hierarchically branched nanostructures obtained through hydrothermally transformed TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambabu, Y.; Jaiswal, Manu; Roy, Somnath C.

    2017-10-01

    Hierarchically structured nanomaterials play an important role in both light absorption and separation of photo-generated charges. In the present study, hierarchically branched TiO2 nanostructures (HB-MLNTs) are obtained through hydrothermal transformation of electrochemically anodized TiO2 multi-leg nanotubes (MLNT) arrays. Photo-anodes based on HB-MLNTs demonstrated 5 fold increase in applied bias to photo-conversion efficiency (%ABPE) over that of TiO2 MLNTs without branches. Further, such nanostructures are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films to enhance the charge separation, which resulted in ∼6.5 times enhancement in %ABPE over that of bare MLNTs. We estimated charge transport (η tr) and charge transfer (η ct) efficiencies by analyzing the photo-current data. The ultra-fine nano branches grown on the MLNTs are effective in increasing light absorption through multiple scattering and improving charge transport/transfer efficiencies by enlarging semiconductor/electrolyte interface area. The charge transfer resistance, interfacial capacitance and electron decay time have been estimated through electrochemical impedance measurements which correlate with the results obtained from photocurrent measurements.

  10. Photoluminescence quenching, structures, and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanostructures decorated plasma grown single walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, Brahim, E-mail: brahim.aissa@mpbc.ca [University of Quebec, Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS-EMT (Canada); Nedil, Mourad [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT (Canada); Belaidi, Abdelhak; Isaifan, Rima J. [Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (Qatar); Bentouaf, Ali [University Hassiba Ben Bouali, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Algeria); Fauteux, Christian; Therriault, Daniel [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Laboratory for Multiscale Mechanics (LM2), Mechanical Engineering Department (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were successfully grown directly on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) template through the CO{sub 2} laser-induced chemical liquid deposition (LCLD) process. Photoluminescence (PL) of the deposited ZnO/SWCNT hybrid composites exhibits, at room temperature, a narrow near UV band located at 390 nm with no emission bands in the visible region, indicating a high degree of crystalline quality of the ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, when the relative SWCNT loads are varied within the composites, the PL intensity and the diffused optical reflectance diminish in comparison with those of ZnO alone, owing to the transfer of photo-excited electrons from ZnO to the SWCNT, and the enhancement of the optical absorbance, respectively. Finally, these ZnO/SWCNT hybrid composites are integrated into a heterojunction photovoltaic-based device, using PEDOT:PSS on ITO/glass substrate. The devices show an evident p–n junction behavior in the dark, and a clear I–V curve shift downward when illuminated with an open-circuit voltage of 1.1 V, a short circuit current density of 14.05 μA cm{sup −2}, and a fill factor of ∼35%. These results indicate that these composites fabricated via LCLD process could be promising for optoelectronic and energy-harvesting devices.

  11. Photoluminescence quenching, structures, and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanostructures decorated plasma grown single walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssa, Brahim; Nedil, Mourad; Belaidi, Abdelhak; Isaifan, Rima J.; Bentouaf, Ali; Fauteux, Christian; Therriault, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were successfully grown directly on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) template through the CO2 laser-induced chemical liquid deposition (LCLD) process. Photoluminescence (PL) of the deposited ZnO/SWCNT hybrid composites exhibits, at room temperature, a narrow near UV band located at 390 nm with no emission bands in the visible region, indicating a high degree of crystalline quality of the ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, when the relative SWCNT loads are varied within the composites, the PL intensity and the diffused optical reflectance diminish in comparison with those of ZnO alone, owing to the transfer of photo-excited electrons from ZnO to the SWCNT, and the enhancement of the optical absorbance, respectively. Finally, these ZnO/SWCNT hybrid composites are integrated into a heterojunction photovoltaic-based device, using PEDOT:PSS on ITO/glass substrate. The devices show an evident p-n junction behavior in the dark, and a clear I- V curve shift downward when illuminated with an open-circuit voltage of 1.1 V, a short circuit current density of 14.05 μA cm-2, and a fill factor of ˜35%. These results indicate that these composites fabricated via LCLD process could be promising for optoelectronic and energy-harvesting devices.

  12. Adsorption of heavy metals on conventional and nanostructured materials for wastewater treatment purposes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, Alexander E; Galunin, Evgeny V; Burakova, Irina V; Kucherova, Anastassia E; Agarwal, Shilpi; Tkachev, Alexey G; Gupta, Vinod K

    2018-02-01

    The problem of water pollution is of a great concern. Adsorption is one of the most efficient techniques for removing noxious heavy metals from the solvent phase. This paper presents a detailed information and review on the adsorption of noxious heavy metal ions from wastewater effluents using various adsorbents - i.e., conventional (activated carbons, zeolites, clays, biosorbents, and industrial by-products) and nanostructured (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphenes). In addition to this, the efficiency of developed materials for adsorption of the heavy metals is discussed in detail along with the comparison of their maximum adsorption capacity in tabular form. A special focus is made on the perspectives of further wider applications of nanostructured adsorbents (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphenes) in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Organic nanocolloidal polyaniline dispersions containing fullerene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sapurina, I. Yu.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Hlavatá, Drahomíra; Biryulin, Yu.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, 2-3 (2006), s. 447-455 ISSN 1536-383X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050313; GA AV ČR IAA400500504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * fullerene * nanostructure Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2006

  14. Ab initio prediction of nano-structured materials using supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Kawazoe, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Nano-structured materials are currently attracting great attention due to their promise in future nano-technologies. In the scale of a nanometer, properties of matter are sensitive to the atomic details that are often difficult to obtain from experiments. Impurities could change the properties very significantly. Predictive computer simulations based on ab initio methods are playing a very important role in not only supporting and explaining the experimental findings but also suggesting new possibilities. We shall present a brief overview of the current research done in our group using the supercomputing facilities of the IMR in designing and predicting nano-structured materials. These include the areas of molecular electronics, carbon fullerenes and nanotubes, super-structures on surfaces, multilayers, clusters and nanowires using calculational approaches such as all electron mixed basis, augmented plane wave, localized basis and pseudopotential plane wave methods. More accurate descriptions based on GW and QMC methods are also used. The possibilities of doing large scale calculations are also allowing the study of biological systems such as DNA. We shall discuss in more detail our recent predictions of novel metal encapsulated silicon fullerenes and nanotubes that offer new possibilities in developing silicon based technologies at the nano-scale

  15. Liquid phase deposition of silica: Thin films, colloids and fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsitt, Elizabeth A.

    Little research has been done to explore liquid phase deposition (LPD) of silica on non-planar substrates. This thesis proves that the seeded growth of silica colloids from fullerene and surfactant micelles is possible via LPD, as is the coating of individual single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and carbon fibers. Working on the premise that a molecular growth mechanism (versus colloidal/gel deposition) is valid for LPD, nanostructured substrates and specific chemical functional groups should act as "seeds," or templates, for silica growth. Seeded growth is confirmed by reactions of the growth solution with a range of surfactants and with materials with distinctive surface moieties. LPD promises lower production costs and environmental impact as compared to present methods of coating technology, because it is an inherently simple process, using low temperatures and inexpensive air-stable reactants. Silica is ubiquitous in materials science. Its applications range from thixotropic additives for paint to gate dielectrics in the semiconductor industry. Nano-structured coatings and thin films are integral in today's electronics industry and will become more vital as the size of electronics shrinks. With the incorporation of nanoparticles in future devices, the ability to deposit quality coatings with finely tuned properties becomes paramount. The methods developed herein have applications in fabricating insulators for use in the future molecular scale electronics industry. Additionally, these silica nanoparticles have applications as templates for use in photonics and fuel cell membrane production and lend strength and durability to composites.

  16. Micro glow plasma for localized nanostructural modification of carbon nanotube forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, Mirza Saquib us; Xiao, Zhiming; Saleh, Tanveer; Nojeh, Alireza; Takahata, Kenichi [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2016-08-22

    This paper reports the localized selective treatment of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, or CNT forests, for radial size modification of the nanotubes through a micro-scale glow plasma established on the material. An atmospheric-pressure DC glow plasma is shown to be stably sustained on the surface of the CNT forest in argon using micromachined tungsten electrodes with diameters down to 100 μm. Experiments reveal thinning or thickening of the nanotubes under the micro glow depending on the process conditions including discharge current and process time. These thinning and thickening effects in the treated nanotubes are measured to be up to ∼30% and ∼300% in their diameter, respectively, under the tested conditions. The elemental and Raman analyses suggest that the treated region of the CNT forest is pure carbon and maintains a degree of crystallinity. The local plasma treatment process investigated may allow modification of material characteristics in different domains for targeted regions or patterns, potentially aiding custom design of micro-electro-mechanical systems and other emerging devices enabled by the CNT forest.

  17. Water-Dispersible Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Hybrid Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Son, Se Mo; Jeong, Yeon Tae

    2010-01-01

    Water-dispersible multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were successfully prepared by the chemical grafting of acylated MWNTs with adenosine. The MWNTs were first purified and oxidized in order to obtain carboxylic acid funcionalized MWNTs, which was further acylated with thionyl chloride to give

  18. Spectroelectrochemistry of carbon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Ladislav; Dunsch, Lothar

    2007-05-14

    This review is focused on charge-transfer reactions at carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. The spectroelectrochemistry of fullerenes deals with the spin states of fullerenes, the role of mono-anions and the reactivity of higher charged states in C60. The optical (Vis-NIR) spectroelectrochemistry of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) follows changes in the allowed optical transitions among the Van Hove singularities. The Raman spectroelectrochemistry of SWNT benefits from strong resonance enhancement of the Raman scattering. Here, both semiconducting and metallic SWNTs are analyzed using the radial breathing mode (RBM) and G-modes as well as the second order (D, G') and intermediate frequency modes. Raman spectroelectrochemistry of SWNT allows the addressing of index-identified tubes and even single isolated nanotubes. Optical and Raman spectroelectrochemistry of fullerene peapods, C60@SWNT and C70@SWNT indicates effective shielding of the intratubular fullerene (peas). The most striking effect in the spectroelectrochemistry of peapods is the so-called "anodic Raman enhancement" of intratubular C60. Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) give a specific spectroscopic response in Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry for the inner and the outer tube. They are better distinguishable by Raman spectroelectrochemistry which allows a precise tracing of the specific doping response of outer/inner tubes.

  19. Nanostructured current sources based on carbon nanotubes excited by β radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurov, A. N. [SMC Technological Center (Russian Federation); Bulyarskiy, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Microelectronics Nanotechnology Institute, INME (Russian Federation); Risovaniy, V. D. [CJSC Science and Innovation (Russian Federation); Pavlov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Microelectronics Nanotechnology Institute, INME (Russian Federation); Abanin, I. E.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Shamanaev, A. A. [SMC Technological Center (Russian Federation); Lebedev, E. A., E-mail: dr.beefheart@gmail.com [National Research University Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology (MIET) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    An analysis of available and promising developments is carried out in the field of power elements based on β decay. The possible fabrication technologies are described, and the efficiency of the power sources manufactured with them is calculated. The possibility of designing a self-charging supercapacitor based on carbon nanotubes is considered with the use of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 14}C isotopes, and theoretical calculation confirms the promising nature of this line of research.

  20. Fullerene assemblies toward photo-energy conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanfei; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2014-04-28

    Manipulating molecular interaction and assembly for developing various functional nanostructures with controlled dimensionality, morphology and tailored properties is currently a research focus in molecular science and materials chemistry. Particularly, the self-organization of fullerenes (i.e. C60) to form various functional assemblies has received intense interest since it can provide excellent optoelectronic properties for photo-energy conversion-induced applications such as solar cells and field effect transistors (FET). In this perspective, we describe our recent efforts toward the development in the area of fullerene molecular design and assemblies aimed at improving the photoconductivity and photo-energy (electric and thermal) conversion systems.

  1. Symmetrical MnO2-carbon nanotube-textile nanostructures for wearable pseudocapacitors with high mass loading

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2011-11-22

    While MnO2 is a promising material for pseudocapacitor applications due to its high specific capacity and low cost, MnO2 electrodes suffer from their low electrical and ionic conductivities. In this article, we report a structure where MnO2 nanoflowers were conformally electrodeposited onto carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled conductive textile fibers. Such nanostructures effectively decrease the ion diffusion and charge transport resistance in the electrode. For a given areal mass loading, the thickness of MnO2 on conductive textile fibers is much smaller than that on a flat metal substrate. Such a porous structure also allows a large mass loading, up to 8.3 mg/cm2, which leads to a high areal capacitance of 2.8 F/cm2 at a scan rate of 0.05 mV/s. Full cells were demonstrated, where the MnO2-CNT-textile was used as a positive electrode, reduced MnO2-CNT-textile as a negative electrode, and 0.5 M Na2SO4 in water as the electrolyte. The resulting pseudocapacitor shows promising results as a low-cost energy storage solution and an attractive wearable power. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Spontaneous Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Nanostructured MnO2 on Nitrogen-Incorporated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the layered manganese dioxide with hydrate (MnO2⋅xH2O deposits onto nitrogen-containing carbon nanotube (CNxNTs as a hierarchical electrode for an energy-storage device. The dense and entangled CNxNTs were directly grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD on a carbon cloth (CC, and subsequently used as a current collector. By controlling the pH value of KMnO4 precursor solution, and incorporating nitrogen into CNTs as a reducing agent, the MnO2 thin layer was uniformly fabricated on the CNxNTs at room temperature by using a spontaneous reduction method. The role of incorporation nitrogen is not only capable of creating active sites on the CNT surface, but can also donate electrons to reduce MnO4- to MnO2 spontaneously. From the measurements of cyclic voltammograms and galvanostatic charge/discharge, MnO2/CNxNTs/CC composite electrodes illustrated excellent specific capacitance of 589.1 Fg-1. The key factor for high performance could be attributed to the thin-layered MnO2 nanostructure, which resulted in the full utilization of MnO2 deposits. Hence, the hierarchically porous MnO2/CNxNTs/CC electrodes exhibited excellent capacitive behavior for electrochemical capacitor application.

  3. Biofunctionalization of carbon nanotubes/chitosan hybrids on Ti implants by atom layer deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yizhou; Liu, Xiangmei [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yeung, Kelvin W.K. [Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics & Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wu, Shuilin, E-mail: shuilin.wu@gmail.com [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Carbon naonotubes/chitosan/ZnO coating was first constructed on Ti implants. • This system endowed Ti implants with excellent self-antibacterial activity. • The amount of Zn could be precisely controlled by atom layer deposition. • This system could regulate cell behaviors on metallic implants. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ZnO using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on chitosan (CS) modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first introduced onto the surfaces of biomedical implants. When the content of ZnO is not sufficient, CNTs can strengthen the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus by 8% and 39%, respectively. CS can improve the cytocompatibility of CNTs and ZnO. The amount of Zn content can be controlled by changing the cycling numbers of ALD processes. This hybrid coating can not only endow medical implants with high self-antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of over 73% and 98%, respectively, but also regulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts by controlling the amount of ZnO.

  4. Biofunctionalization of carbon nanotubes/chitosan hybrids on Ti implants by atom layer deposited ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yizhou; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Chu, Paul K.; Wu, Shuilin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon naonotubes/chitosan/ZnO coating was first constructed on Ti implants. • This system endowed Ti implants with excellent self-antibacterial activity. • The amount of Zn could be precisely controlled by atom layer deposition. • This system could regulate cell behaviors on metallic implants. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ZnO using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on chitosan (CS) modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first introduced onto the surfaces of biomedical implants. When the content of ZnO is not sufficient, CNTs can strengthen the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus by 8% and 39%, respectively. CS can improve the cytocompatibility of CNTs and ZnO. The amount of Zn content can be controlled by changing the cycling numbers of ALD processes. This hybrid coating can not only endow medical implants with high self-antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of over 73% and 98%, respectively, but also regulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts by controlling the amount of ZnO.

  5. Nanostructured Barium Titanate/Carbon Nanotubes Incorporated Polyaniline as Synergistic Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D conductive network structures formed by barium titanate/carbon nanotubes incorporated polyaniline were favorable for strengthening electromagnetic absorption capability. Herein, an easy and flexible method consisting of sol-gel technique, in situ polymerization, and subsequent mechanical method have been developed to prepare the barium titanate/carbon nanotubes incorporated polyaniline (CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI or CBP ternary composites. The dielectric properties and microwave absorption properties of CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composites were investigated in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz by vector network analyzer. Interestingly, it is found that the CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composites with 3D conductive network structures presented outstanding electromagnetic absorption properties, which may be attributed to the high impedance matching behavior and improved dielectric loss ability and novel synergistic effect. Additionally, it also can be supposed that the “geometrical effect” of composite was more beneficial to absorbing the incident electromagnetic wave. The CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composite (the mass ratio of CNTs/BaTiO3 to PANI is 2 : 3 exhibits the best microwave absorption properties, of which the minimum reflection loss value can reach −30.9 dB at 8 GHz and the absorption bandwidth with a reflection loss blew −10 dB ranges from 7.5 to 10.2 GHz.

  6. Surface interaction of H2S, SO2, and SO3 on fullerene-like gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructure semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimifard, M.; Rad, A. Shokuhi; Mahanpoor, K.

    2017-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) using MPW1PW91 and B3LYP hybrid functionals was utilized for quantum-based investigations of three major sulfur compounds (H2S, SO2, and SO3) adsorption onto fullerene-like Ga12N12 nanocluster. All chemicals showed high chemisorption with the order of SO3>SO2>>H2S. Results of charge analysis showed that during adsorption, transfer of charge is from H2S to nanocluster while reverse direction of charge transfer is found for SO2 and SO3 molecules. Partial dissociation is found for adsorbates especially for SO2 and SO3 molecules. Results of thermochemistry analysis show negative values for enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of adsorption, confirming exothermic spontaneous process. Analysis of frontier molecular orbital (FMO) showed important role of orbital hybridizing towards formation of new bonds upon adsorption. As a result, we introduce Ga12N12 nanocluster as a strong adsorbent for sulfur compounds.

  7. Immunotoxicity of nanoparticles: a computational study suggests that CNTs and C60 fullerenes might be recognized as pathogens by Toll-like receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabekova, M.; Rasulev, B.; Theodore, M.; Jackman, J.; Leszczynska, D.; Leszczynski, J.

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decade, a great deal of attention has been devoted to study the inflammatory response upon exposure to multi/single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and different fullerene derivatives. In particular, carbon nanoparticles are reported to provoke substantial inflammation in alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells, epidermal keratinocytes, cultured monocyte-macrophage cells, etc. We suggest a hypothetical model providing the potential mechanistic explanation for immune and inflammatory responses observed upon exposure to carbon nanoparticles. Specifically, we performed a theoretical study to analyze CNT and C60 fullerene interactions with the available X-ray structures of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) homo- and hetero-dimer extracellular domains. This assumption was based on the fact that similar to the known TLR ligands both CNTs and fullerenes induce, in cells, the secretion of certain inflammatory protein mediators, such as interleukins and chemokines. These proteins are observed within inflammation downstream processes resulted from the ligand molecule dependent inhibition or activation of TLR-induced signal transduction. Our computational studies have shown that the internal hydrophobic pockets of some TLRs might be capable of binding small-sized carbon nanostructures (5,5 armchair SWCNTs containing 11 carbon atom layers and C60 fullerene). High binding scores and minor structural alterations induced in TLR ectodomains upon binding C60 and CNTs further supported our hypothesis. Additionally, the proposed hypothesis is strengthened by the indirect experimental findings indicating that CNTs and fullerenes induce an excessive expression of specific cytokines and chemokines (i.e. IL-8 and MCP1).Over the last decade, a great deal of attention has been devoted to study the inflammatory response upon exposure to multi/single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and different fullerene derivatives. In particular, carbon nanoparticles are reported to provoke

  8. Nano-structured variable capacitor based on P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakbita, I.; El-Hami, K.

    2018-02-01

    A newly organic capacitor was conceived with a variable capacitance using the inverse piezoelectric effect. The device consists of two parallel plates of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), known for their large surface area, high sensitivity and high electric conductivity, separated by a thin film of a dielectric layer of Polyinylidene fluoride and trifluoroehtylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) promising material for piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. The obtained architecture is the CNT/PVDF-TrFE/CNT capacitor device. In this study, an ultra-thin film of P(VDF-TrFE) (54/46) with thickness of 20 nm was elaborated on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by spin-coating. The morphology of the ultra-thin film and the mechanical behavior of CNT/P(VDF-TrFE)/CNT system were studied using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with a lock-in amplifier in contact mode. All changes in applied voltage induce a change in thin film thickness according to the inverse piezoelectric effect that affect, consequently the capacitance. The results showed that the ratio of capacitance change ΔC to initial capacitance C0 is ΔC/C0=5%. This value is sufficient to use P(VDF-TrFE) as variable organic capacitor.

  9. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, A.M., E-mail: pan@bgu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Sergeev, N.A. [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, 70-451 Szczecin (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Interpretation of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation data in the carbon nanostructures is usually based on the analysis of fluctuations of dipole-dipole interactions of nuclear spins and anisotropic electron-nuclear interactions responsible for chemical shielding, which are caused by molecular dynamics. However, many nanocarbon systems such as fullerene and nanotube derivatives, nanodiamonds and carbon onions reveal noticeable amount of paramagnetic defects with unpaired electrons originating from dangling bonds. The interaction between nuclear and electron spins strongly influences the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, but usually is not taken into account, thus the relaxation data are not correctly interpreted. Here we report on the temperature dependent NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation measurements of intercalated fullerenes C{sub 60}(MF{sub 6}){sub 2} (M=As and Sb), where nuclear relaxation is caused by both molecular rotation and interaction between nuclei and unpaired electron spins. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the spin-lattice relaxation data taking into account both these contributions. Good agreement between the experimental data and calculations is obtained. The developed approach would be useful in interpreting the NMR relaxation data in different nanostructures and their intercalation compounds.

  10. Combustion method for producing fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jack B.; McKinnon, J. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A method for synthesizing fullerenes in flames is provided. Fullerenes are prepared by burning carbon-containing compounds in a flame and collecting the condensibles. The condensibles contain the desired fullerenes. Fullerene yields can be optimized and fullerene composition can be selectively varied. Fullerene yields and compositions are determined by selectively controlling flame conditions and parameters such as C/O ratio, pressure, temperature, residence time, diluent concentration and gas velocity.

  11. Quantum conductance of carbon nanotube peapods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Mazzoni, Mario S.C.; Louie, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a first-principles study of the quantum conductance of hybrid nanotube systems consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) encapsulating either an isolated single C60 molecule or a chain of C60 molecules (nanotube peapods). The calculations show a rather weak bonding interaction between the fullerenes and the SWCNTs. The conductance of a (10,10) SWCNT with a single C60 molecule is virtually unaffected at the Fermi level, but exhibits quantized resonant reductions at the molecular levels. The nanotube peapod arrangement gives rise to high density of states for the fullerene highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital bands

  12. Comparison of the Photovoltaic Characteristics and Nanostructure of Fullerenes Blended with Conjugated Polymers with Siloxane-Terminated and Branched Aliphatic Side Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Hwan

    2013-02-12

    All-organic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of conjugated polymers with fullerenes have recently surpassed the 8% efficiency mark and are well on their way to the industrially relevant ∼15% threshold. Using a low band-gap conjugated polymer, we have recently shown that polymer side chain engineering can lead to dramatic improvement in the in-plane charge carrier mobility. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of siloxy side chain derivatization in controlling the photovoltaic performance of polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C[71]-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blends and hence its influence on charge transport in the out-of-plane direction relevant for organic solar cells. We find that, in neat blends, the photocurrent of the polymer with siloxy side chains (PII2T-Si) is 4 times greater than that in blends using the polymer with branched aliphatic side chains (PII2T-ref). This difference is due to a larger out-of-plane hole mobility for PII2T-Si brought about by a largely face-on crystallite orientation as well as more optimal nanoscale polymer:PC71BM mixing. However, upon incorporating a common processing additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), into the spin-casting blend solution and following optimization, the PII2T-ref:PC71BM OPV device performance undergoes a large improvement and becomes the better-performing device, almost independent of DIO concentration (>1%). We find that the precise amount of DIO plays a larger role in determining the efficiency of PII2T-Si:PC71BM, and even at its maximum, the device performance lags behind optimized PII2T-ref:PC71BM blends. Using a combination of atomic force microscopy and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, we are able to elucidate the morphological modifications associated with the DIO-induced changes in both the nanoscale morphology and the molecular packing in blend films. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. The topology of fullerenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Wirz, Lukas; Avery, James Emil

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are carbon molecules that form polyhedral cages. Their bond structures are exactly the planar cubic graphs that have only pentagon and hexagon faces. Strikingly, a number of chemical properties of a fullerene can be derived from its graph structure. A rich mathematics of cubic planar g....... In this paper, we present a general overview of recent topological and graph theoretical developments in fullerene research over the past two decades, describing both solved and open problems....

  14. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27

    consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

  15. Mechanical and electrical properties of novel poly(ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube/inorganic fullerene-like WS{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposites: Experimental measurements and theoretical predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Pascual, Ana M. [Department of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Naffakh, Mohammed, E-mail: mnaffakh@ictp.csic.es [Department of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Fatou, Marian A. [Department of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {center_dot} The mechanical properties of PEEK based hybrid nanocomposites were analyzed. {center_dot} The composites showed improved stiffness and strength than the neat polymer. {center_dot} Their Young's modulus was fairly well predicted by simple theoretical models. {center_dot} The hybrids with high SWCNT content exhibited semiconducting behaviour. {center_dot} These multifunctional materials are suitable for industrial applications. - Abstract: The mechanical and electrical properties of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) based hybrid nanocomposites incorporating single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been extensively investigated from both experimental and theoretical point of views. Dynamic mechanical studies revealed a remarkable increase in the storage modulus and glass transition temperature of the matrix by the inclusion of both nanofillers. Moreover, tensile and flexural tests indicated significant enhancements in stiffness and strength, attributed to synergistic reinforcement effects combined with strong PEEK-SWCNT interfacial interactions. The Young's modulus of these nanocomposites was fairly well predicted by simple theoretical models such as the rule of mixtures. The hybrids with SWCNT content equal or higher than 0.5 wt% exhibited semiconducting behaviour and the temperature dependence of their electrical conductivity followed a fluctuation-induced tunnelling model. Enhanced overall performance was found for composites prepared by a single-step melt-blending process compared to those manufactured in two stages. The addition of both nanoreinforcements opens up new opportunities for the development of high-performance multifunctional materials suitable for industrial applications.

  16. Covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures and methods for their separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YuHuang; Brozena, Alexandra H; Deng, Shunliu; Zhang, Yin

    2015-03-17

    The present invention is directed to carbon nanostructures, e.g., carbon nanotubes, methods of covalently functionalizing carbon nanostructures, and methods of separating and isolating covalently functionalized carbon. In some embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with alkylating agents to provide water soluble covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. In other embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with a thermally-responsive agent and exposed to light in order to separate carbon nanotubes of a specific chirality from a mixture of carbon nanotubes.

  17. Raman spectroelectrochemistry of ordered C-60 fullerene layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krause, M.; Deutsch, D.; Dunsch, L.; Janda, Pavel; Kavan, Ladislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2005), s. 159-166 ISSN 1536-383X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : fullerenes * thin films * nanostructuring * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2005

  18. Fullerene and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Orlova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene derivatives superfamily attracts a serious attention as antiviral and anticancer agents and drug delivery carriers as well. A large number of such fullerene С60 derivatives obtained to date. However, there is an obvious deficit of information about causes and mechanisms of immediately and long-term consequences of their effects in vivo which is a true obstacle on the way leading to their practical medical using. First, this concerns their impact on the proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis regulation. Fullerene nanoparticle functionalization type, their sizes and surface nanopathology are of great importance for further promoting of either cytoprotective or cytotoxic effects. One of the main effects of fullerenes on living systems is the reactive oxygen species (ROS formation induction. This lecture provides a modern concept analysis regarding fullerenes effects on ROS formation and modulation of proliferation and apoptosis in normal and tumor cells.

  19. Label-free and reagentless electrochemical detection of microRNAs using a conducting polymer nanostructured by carbon nanotubes: application to prostate cancer biomarker miR-141.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H V; Piro, B; Reisberg, S; Tran, L D; Duc, H T; Pham, M C

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, a label-free and reagentless microRNA sensor based on an interpenetrated network of carbon nanotubes and electroactive polymer is described. The nanostructured polymer film presents very well-defined electroactivity in neutral aqueous medium in the cathodic potential domain from the quinone group embedded in the polymer backbone. Addition of microRNA miR-141 target (prostate cancer biomarker) gives a "signal-on" response, i.e. a current increase due to enhancement of the polymer electroactivity. On the contrary, non-complementary miRNAs such as miR-103 and miR-29b-1 do not lead to any significant current change. A very low detection limit of ca. 8 fM is achieved with this sensor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanotechnology and health safety--toxicity and risk assessments of nanostructured materials on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2007-09-01

    The field of nanotechnology has recently emerged as the most commercially viable technology of this century because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Man-made nanostructured materials such as fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanopowders, nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, nanofibers, quantum dots, dendrimers, nanoclusters, nanocrystals, and nanocomposites are globally produced in large quantities due to their wide potential applications, e.g., in skincare and consumer products, healthcare, electronics, photonics, biotechnology, engineering products, pharmaceuticals, drug delivery, and agriculture. Human exposure to these nanostructured materials is inevitable, as they can enter the body through the lungs or other organs via food, drink, and medicine and affect different organs and tissues such as the brain, liver, kidney, heart, colon, spleen, bone, blood, etc., and may cause cytotoxic effects, e.g., deformation and inhibition of cell growth leading to various diseases in humans and animals. Since a very wide variety of nanostructured materials exits, their interactions with biological systems and toxicity largely depend upon their properties, such as size, concentration, solubility, chemical and biological properties, and stability. The toxicity of nanostructured materials could be reduced by chemical approaches such by surface treatment, functionalization, and composite formation. This review summarizes the sources of various nanostructured materials and their human exposure, biocompatibility in relation to potential toxicological effects, risk assessment, and safety evaluation on human and animal health as well as on the environment.

  1. Nanostructural evolution of one-dimensional BaTiO3 structures by hydrothermal conversion of vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Tabares, J. A.; Bejtka, K.; Lamberti, A.; Garino, N.; Bianco, S.; Quaglio, M.; Pirri, C. F.; Chiodoni, A.

    2016-03-01

    The use of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays as templates for hydrothermal conversion of one-dimensional barium titanate (BaTiO3) structures is considered a promising synthesis approach, even though the formation mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Herein we report a nanostructural study by means of XRD and (HR)TEM of high aspect ratio TiO2-NTs hydrothermally converted into BaTiO3. The nanostructure shows two different and well-defined regions: at the top the conversion involves complete dissolution of NTs and subsequent precipitation of BaTiO3 crystals by homogeneous nucleation, followed by the growth of dendritic structures by aggregation and oriented attachment mechanisms. Instead, at the bottom, the low liquid/solid ratio, due to the limited amount of Ba solution that infiltrates the NTs, leads to the rapid crystallization of such a solution into BaTiO3, thus allowing the NTs to act as a template for the formation of highly oriented one-dimensional nanostructures. The in-depth analysis of the structural transformations that take place during the formation of the rod-like arrays of BaTiO3 could help elucidate the conversion mechanism, thus paving the way for the optimization of the synthesis process in view of new applications in energy harvesting devices, where easy and low temperature processing, controlled composition, morphology and functional properties are required.The use of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays as templates for hydrothermal conversion of one-dimensional barium titanate (BaTiO3) structures is considered a promising synthesis approach, even though the formation mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Herein we report a nanostructural study by means of XRD and (HR)TEM of high aspect ratio TiO2-NTs hydrothermally converted into BaTiO3. The nanostructure shows two different and well-defined regions: at the top the conversion involves complete dissolution of NTs and subsequent precipitation of BaTiO3 crystals by homogeneous nucleation, followed by the

  2. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  3. Synthetic Strategies towards Fullerene-Rich Dendrimer Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Nierengarten

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sphere-shaped fullerene has attracted considerable interest not least due to the peculiar electronic properties of this carbon allotrope and the fascinating materials emanating from fullerene-derived structures. The rapid development and tremendous advances in organic chemistry allow nowadays the modification of C60 to a great extent by pure chemical means. It is therefore not surprising that the fullerene moiety has also been part of dendrimers. At the initial stage, fullerenes have been examined at the center of the dendritic structure mainly aimed at possible shielding effects as exerted by the dendritic environment and light-harvesting effects due to multiple chromophores located at the periphery of the dendrimer. In recent years, also many research efforts have been devoted towards fullerene-rich nanohybrids containing multiple C60 units in the branches and/or as surface functional groups. In this review, synthetic efforts towards the construction of dendritic fullerene-rich nanostructures have been compiled and will be summarized herein.

  4. Fullerene and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Orlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene derivatives superfamily attracts a serious attention as antiviral and anticancer agents and drug delivery carriers as well. A large number of such fullerene С60 derivatives obtained to date. However, there is an obvious deficit of information about causes and mechanisms of immediately and long-term consequences of their effects in vivo which is a true obstacle on the way leading to practical medical use of them. First, this concerns their impact on the proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis regulation. Fullerene nanoparticle functionalization type, their sizes and surface nanopathology are of great importance to further promoting of either cytoprotective or cytotoxic effects. This lecture provides modern concept analysis regarding fullerenes effects on apoptosis pathway in normal and tumor cells.

  5. Simulating fullerene ball bearings of ultra-low friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Yang Wei

    2007-01-01

    We report the direct molecular dynamics simulations for molecular ball bearings composed of fullerene molecules (C 60 and C 20 ) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The comparison of friction levels indicates that fullerene ball bearings have extremely low friction (with minimal frictional forces of 5.283 x 10 -7 and 6.768 x 10 -7 nN/atom for C 60 and C 20 bearings) and energy dissipation (lowest dissipation per cycle of 0.013 and 0.016 meV/atom for C 60 and C 20 bearings). A single fullerene inside the ball bearings exhibits various motion statuses of mixed translation and rotation. The influences of the shaft's distortion on the long-ranged potential energy and normal force are discussed. The phonic dissipation mechanism leads to a non-monotonic function between the friction and the load rate for the molecular bearings

  6. Equilibrium Limit of Boundary Scattering in Carbon Nanostructures: Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin; Kinaci, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Cagin, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    It is widely known that graphene and many of its derivative nanostructures have exceedingly high reported thermal conductivities (up to 4000 W/mK at 300 K). Such attractive thermal properties beg the use of these structures in practical devices; however, to implement these materials while preserving transport quality, the influence of structure on thermal conductivity should be thoroughly understood. For graphene nanostructures, having average phonon mean free paths on the order of one micron, a primary concern is how size influences the potential for heat conduction. To investigate this, we employ a novel technique to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity from the Green-Kubo relations and equilibrium molecular dynamics in systems where phonon-boundary scattering dominates heat flow. Specifically, the thermal conductivities of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes are calculated in sizes up to 3 microns, and the relative influence of boundary scattering on thermal transport is determined to be dominant at sizes less than 1 micron, after which the thermal transport largely depends on the quality of the nanostructure interface. The method is also extended to carbon nanostructures (fullerenes) where phonon confinement, as opposed to boundary scattering, dominates, and general trends related to the influence of curvature on thermal transport in these materials are discussed.

  7. Fabrication of bioactive, antibacterial TiO2 nanotube surfaces, coated with magnetron sputtered Ag nanostructures for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Bae; Song, Doo-Hoon; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Han, Jeon-Geon; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether a silver coating on an anodic oxidized titania (TiO2) nanotube surface would be useful for preventing infections in dental implants. We used a magnetron sputtering process to deposit Ag nanoparticles onto a TiO2 surface. We studied different sputtering input power densities and maintained other parameters constant. We used scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and contact angle measurements to characterize the coated surfaces. Staphylococcus aureus was used to evaluate antibacterial activity. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks that corresponded to metallic Ag, Ti, O, and biocompatible anatase phase TiO2 on the examined surfaces. The contact angles of the Ag nanoparticle-loaded surfaces were significantly lower at 2.5 W/cm2 input power under pulsed direct current mode compared to commercial, untreated Ti surfaces. In vitro antibacterial analysis indicated that a significantly reduced number of S. aureus were detected on an Ag nanoparticle-loaded TiO2 nanotube surface compared to control untreated surfaces. No cytotoxicity was noted, except in the group treated with 5 W/cm2 input power density, which was the highest input of power density we tested for the magnetron sputtering process. Overall, we concluded that it was feasible to create antibacterial Ag nanoparticle-loaded titanium nanotube surfaces with magnetron sputtering.

  8. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Mojgan [Department of Materials Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), 65169 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied.

  9. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Najafi, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied

  10. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haibing [Houston, TX; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, TX

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  11. Equilibrium limit of thermal conduction and boundary scattering in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B; Kınacı, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Çağın, Tahir

    2014-06-28

    Determining the lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of nanostructures is especially challenging in that, aside from the phonon-phonon scattering present in large systems, the scattering of phonons from the system boundary greatly influences heat transport, particularly when system length (L) is less than the average phonon mean free path (MFP). One possible route to modeling κ in these systems is through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, inherently including both phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering effects in the classical limit. Here, we compare current MD methods for computing κ in nanostructures with both L ⩽ MFP and L ≫ MFP, referred to as mean free path constrained (cMFP) and unconstrained (uMFP), respectively. Using a (10,0) CNT (carbon nanotube) as a benchmark case, we find that while the uMFP limit of κ is well-defined through the use of equilibrium MD and the time-correlation formalism, the standard equilibrium procedure for κ is not appropriate for the treatment of the cMFP limit because of the large influence of boundary scattering. To address this issue, we define an appropriate equilibrium procedure for cMFP systems that, through comparison to high-fidelity non-equilibrium methods, is shown to be the low thermal gradient limit to non-equilibrium results. Further, as a means of predicting κ in systems having L ≫ MFP from cMFP results, we employ an extrapolation procedure based on the phenomenological, boundary scattering inclusive expression of Callaway [Phys. Rev. 113, 1046 (1959)]. Using κ from systems with L ⩽ 3 μm in the extrapolation, we find that the equilibrium uMFP κ of a (10,0) CNT can be predicted within 5%. The equilibrium procedure is then applied to a variety of carbon-based nanostructures, such as graphene flakes (GF), graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), CNTs, and icosahedral fullerenes, to determine the influence of size and environment (suspended versus supported) on κ. Concerning the GF and GNR systems, we find that

  12. Poly(hydridocarbyne as Highly Processable Insulating Polymer Precursor to Micro/Nanostructures and Graphite Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Katzenmeyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based electronic materials have received much attention since the discovery and elucidation of the properties of the nanotube, fullerene allotropes, and conducting polymers. Amorphous carbon, graphite, graphene, and diamond have also been the topics of intensive research. In accordance with this interest, we herein provide the details of a novel and facile method for synthesis of poly(hydridocarbyne (PHC, a preceramic carbon polymer reported to undergo a conversion to diamond-like carbon (DLC upon pyrolysis and also provide electrical characterization after low-temperature processing and pyrolysis of this material. The results indicate that the strongly insulating polymer becomes notably conductive in bulk form upon heating and contains interspersed micro- and nanostructures, which are the subject of ongoing research.

  13. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Najafi, Mojgan

    2014-11-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  15. Functionalized fullerene (C₆₀) as a potential nanomediator in the fabrication of highly sensitive biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afreen, Sadia; Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Manickam, Sivakumar; Hashim, Uda

    2015-01-15

    -metal matrix for the detection of tumor and cancer cells is also possible by the inclusion of fullerene in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) known as peapods as well as in double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs), to augment the effectiveness of biosensors. This review discusses various approaches that have been reported for functionalizing fullerene (C60) derivatives and their application in different types of biosensor fabrication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cobalt/Fullerene Spinterfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Spintronics is a multidisciplinary research field and it explores phenomena that interlink the spin and charge degrees of freedom. The thesis focuses on spin-polarized electronic transports in cobalt (Co) and fullerene (C60) based vertical spintronic devices. It starts with a review about

  17. Discovery of Fullerenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 1. Discovery of Fullerenes Giving a New Shape to Carbon Chemistry. Rathna Ananthaiah. Research News Volume 2 Issue 1 January 1997 pp 68-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/01/0068-0073 ...

  18. Prospects of Nanostructure Materials and Their Composites as Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Baranwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured materials (NSMs have increasingly been used as a substitute for antibiotics and additives in various products to impart microbicidal effect. In particular, use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs has garnered huge researchers' attention as potent bactericidal agent due to the inherent antimicrobial property of the silver metal. Moreover, other nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphene, chitosan, etc. have also been studied for their antimicrobial effects in order ensure their application in widespread domains. The present review exclusively emphasizes on materials that possess antimicrobial activity in nanoscale range and describes their various modes of antimicrobial action. It also entails broad classification of NSMs along with their application in various fields. For instance, use of AgNPs in consumer products, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs in drug delivery. Likewise, use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs as additives in consumer merchandises and nanoscale chitosan (NCH in medical products and wastewater treatment. Furthermore, this review briefly discusses the current scenario of antimicrobial nanostructured materials (aNSMs, limitations of current research and their future prospects. To put various perceptive insights on the recent advancements of such antimicrobials, an extended table is incorporated, which describes effect of NSMs of different dimensions on test microorganisms along with their potential widespread applications.

  19. Nanostructures for Electronic and Sensing Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop sensors and electronic components from metal oxide based nanotubes and nanowires. These nanostructured materials will be grown...

  20. Carbon nanotubes and other nanostructures as support material for nanoparticulate noble-metal catalysts in fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Elina, Yli-Rantala

    or platinum-alloy catalysts in the electrodes are required. To maximize the utilization of the noble metal it is frequently deposited as nanoparticles (1–5 nm) on a stabilizing support of carbon black. Carbon black provides good anchoring of the catalyst particles, but is prone to severe destructive oxidation...... carbon black they can conduct electrons to and from the reaction sites, and in addition their resistance to electrochemical degradation is better than that of carbon black due to their much higher structural perfection. This latter feature is indeed highly desired with a view to the durability...... for difficulties in contacting the nanotubes with other substances in the electrode or electrode preparation. Other promising candidate structures for catalyst support include carbon nanofibers (CNF) and various modifications of CNTs. We present some of our work with the investigation of surface properties...

  1. Carbon Nanotubes and Other Nanostructures as Support Material for Nanoparticulate Noble-Metal Catalysts in Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Veltzé, Sune; Skou, Eivind Morten

    or platinum-alloy catalysts in the electrodes are required. To maximize the utilization of the noble metal it is frequently deposited as nanoparticles (1-5 nm) on a stabilizing support of carbon black. Carbon black provides good anchoring of the catalyst particles, but is prone to severe destructive oxidation...... carbon black they can conduct electrons to and from the reaction sites, and in addition their resistance to electrochemical degradation is better than that of carbon black due to their much higher structural perfection. This latter feature is indeed highly desired with a view to the durability...... for difficulties in contacting the nanotubes with other substances in the electrode or electrode preparation. Other promising candidate structures for catalyst support include carbon nanofibers (CNF) and various modifications of CNTs. We present some of our work with the investigation of surface properties...

  2. Core-shell nanostructures of covalently grafted polyaniline multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrids for improved optical limiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remyamol, T; Gopinath, Pramod; John, Honey

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrids are synthesized by the in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of phenylenediamine-functionalized MWCNTs. Along with the aniline monomer, the aniline moiety on the surface of phenylenediamine-functionalized MWCNTs also participates in the polymerization and acts as a covalent bridge between the polyaniline and the MWCNT. The photoluminescence quenching in the hybrid, due to the electron transfer between the polyaniline and the MWCNT, and the resulting improvement in optical limiting are also discussed. The large nonlinear absorption coefficient with the low-limiting threshold of the hybrids compared to polyaniline is attributed to the combined nonlinear optical (NLO) mechanisms and the photo-induced electron transfer interactions.

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of sulfites by DWCNTs, MWCNTs, higher fullerenes and manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Dzhamal; Pchelarov, George; Dimitrov, Ognian; Vassilev, Sasho; Obretenov, Willi; Petrov, Konstantin

    2018-03-01

    Different electrocatalysts were tested for oxidation of sulfites to sulfates, namely, manganese thin films deposited on fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. The results presented clearly show that electrodes containing HFs (higher fullerenes), DWCNTs (double-wall carbon nanotubes) and manganese acetate are effective catalysts in S/O2 fuel cells. HFs and DWCNTs have high catalytic activity and can be employed as standalone catalysts. Manganese was deposited on DWCNTs, HFs and fullerenes C60/C70 by a thermal process. The electrocatalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical testing was carried out by plotting the E/V polarization curve. The polarization curves of the electrodes composed of pristine DWCNTs showed the lowest overpotentials.

  4. Many-particle theory of optical properties in low-dimensional nanostructures. Dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes and semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malic, Ermin

    2008-09-02

    This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of optical properties of low-dimensional nanostructures, specifically single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The density-matrix formalism is applied to explain recent experimental results and to give insight into the underlying physics. A microscopic calculation of the absorption coefficient and the Rayleigh scattering cross section is performed by a novel approach combining the density-matrix formalism with the tight-binding wave functions. The calculated spectra of metallic nanotubes show a double-peaked structure resulting from the trigonal warping effect. The intensity ratios of the four lowest-lying transitions in both absorption and Rayleigh spectra can be explained by the different behavior of the optical matrix elements along the high-symmetry lines K-{gamma} and K-M. The Rayleigh line shape is predicted to be asymmetric, with an enhanced cross section for lower photon energies arising from non-resonant contributions of the optical susceptibility. Furthermore, the Coulomb interaction is shown to be maximal when the momentum transfer is low. For intersubband processes with a perpendicular momentum transfer, the coupling strength is reduced to less than 5%. The chirality and diameter dependence of the excitonic binding energy and the transition frequency are presented in Kataura plots. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding environment on the optical properties of CNTs is investigated. Extending the confinement to all three spatial dimensions, semiconductor Bloch equation are derived to describe the dynamics in QD semiconductor lasers and amplifiers. A detailed microscopic analysis of the nonlinear turn-on dynamics of electrically pumped InAs/GaAs QD lasers is performed, showing the generation of relaxation oscillations on a nanosecond time scale in both the photon and charge carrier density. The theory predicts a strong damping of relaxation oscillations

  5. Many-particle theory of optical properties in low-dimensional nanostructures. Dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes and semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malic, Ermin

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of optical properties of low-dimensional nanostructures, specifically single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The density-matrix formalism is applied to explain recent experimental results and to give insight into the underlying physics. A microscopic calculation of the absorption coefficient and the Rayleigh scattering cross section is performed by a novel approach combining the density-matrix formalism with the tight-binding wave functions. The calculated spectra of metallic nanotubes show a double-peaked structure resulting from the trigonal warping effect. The intensity ratios of the four lowest-lying transitions in both absorption and Rayleigh spectra can be explained by the different behavior of the optical matrix elements along the high-symmetry lines K-Γ and K-M. The Rayleigh line shape is predicted to be asymmetric, with an enhanced cross section for lower photon energies arising from non-resonant contributions of the optical susceptibility. Furthermore, the Coulomb interaction is shown to be maximal when the momentum transfer is low. For intersubband processes with a perpendicular momentum transfer, the coupling strength is reduced to less than 5%. The chirality and diameter dependence of the excitonic binding energy and the transition frequency are presented in Kataura plots. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding environment on the optical properties of CNTs is investigated. Extending the confinement to all three spatial dimensions, semiconductor Bloch equation are derived to describe the dynamics in QD semiconductor lasers and amplifiers. A detailed microscopic analysis of the nonlinear turn-on dynamics of electrically pumped InAs/GaAs QD lasers is performed, showing the generation of relaxation oscillations on a nanosecond time scale in both the photon and charge carrier density. The theory predicts a strong damping of relaxation oscillations

  6. COMPORTAMIENTO DE METAMATERIAL (LHM Y CONVENCIONAL (RHM EN NANOESTRUCTURAS CILÍNDRICAS (NANOTUBOS METAMATERIAL (LHM AND CONVENTIONAL (RHM BEHAVIOR OF CYLINDRICAL NANOSTRUCTURES (NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ester Onell

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento convencional o "Right Handed Materials" (RHM y el comportamiento de metamaterial o "Left Handed Materials" (LHM desde el punto de vista clásico, en nanoestructuras cilíndricas (nanotubos construidas imponiendo condiciones de borde a una red bidimensional infinita de circuitos LC acoplados con interacción a primeros vecinos. Tipificaremos los materiales considerando el signo del coseno del ángulo formado por los vectores velocidad de grupo y velocidad de fase, siendo metamaterial o LHM cuando el coseno del ángulo sea negativo y convencional o RHM cuando el valor del coseno sea positivo. El eje de los nanocilindros se hace coincidir, como primer caso, con la línea de transmisión dual, y como segundo caso, con la línea de transmisión directa. Este estudio muestra que ambos nanocilindros tienen un comportamiento de RHM y LHM, y además se comportan como filtros pasa alto y pasa bajo, pero ahora aparece un número discreto de frecuencias de corte en cada caso, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en las líneas de transmisión.This paper studies the behavior of conventional or "Right-Handed Materials" (RHM and "Left Handed Materials" (LHM also named metamaterial, of cylindrical nanostructures (nanotubes from the classical point of view. The nanotubes are building imposing boundary conditions in an infinite two-dimensional network of coupled LC circuits with interaction to nearest-neighbors. In this article, materials are classified considering the sign of the cosine of the angle between the group velocity vector and the phase velocity vector, in such a way that we have LHM behavior for negative cosine and we have RHM when the cosine is positive. The axis of the nanocylinders coincides, as the first case, with the dual transmission line, and as a second case, with the direct or conventional transmission line. This study shows that both nanocyinders have RHM and LHM behavior. In addition, it is found that

  7. Electrochemical and chemical redox doping of fullerene (C.sub.60./sub.) peapods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbáč, Martin; Zukalová, Markéta; Dunsch, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2006), s. 99-106 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040306; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * fullerene * Raman spectroscopy * electrochemical properties Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.884, year: 2006

  8. Photoelectrochemical and structural properties of TiO.sub.2./sub. nanotubes and nanorods grown on FTO substrate: Comparative study between electrochemical anodization and hydrothermal method used for the nanostructures fabrication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmentová, H.; Kment, Š.; Wang, L.; Paušová, Š.; Václavů, Tereza; Kužel, R.; Han, H.; Hubička, Z.; Zlámal, M.; Olejníček, J.; Čada, M.; Krysa, J.; Zbořil, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 287, Jun (2016), s. 130-136 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : 1D nanostructures * nanorods * nanotubes * hydrothermal method * self-organized anodization * photoelectrochemical water splitting * photocurrents * electron lifetime Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.636, year: 2016

  9. Optical limiting properties of fullerenes and related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Jason Eric

    Optical limiting properties of fullerene C60 and different C60 derivatives (methano-, pyrrolidino-, and amino-) towards nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm were studied. The results show that optical limiting responses of the C60 derivatives are similar to those of the parent C60 despite their different linear absorption and emission properties. For C60 and the derivatives in room-temperature solutions of varying concentrations and optical path length, the optical limiting responses are strongly concentration dependent. The concentration dependence is not due to any optical artifacts since the results obtained under the same experimental conditions for reference systems show no such dependence. Similarly, optical limiting results of fullerenes are strongly dependent on the medium viscosity, with responses in viscous media weaker than that in room-temperature solutions. The solution concentration and medium viscosity dependencies are not limited to fullerenes. In fact, the results from a systematic investigation of several classes of nonlinear absorptive organic dyes show that the optical limiting responses are also concentration and medium viscosity dependent. Interestingly, however, such dependencies are uniquely absent in the optical limiting responses of metallophthalocyanines. In classical photophysics, the strong solution concentration and medium viscosity dependencies are indicative of significant contributions from photoexcited-state bimolecular processes. Thus, the experimental results are discussed in terms of a significantly modified five-level reverse saturable absorption mechanism. Optical limiting properties of single-walled and multiple-walled carbon nanotubes toward nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm were also investigated. When suspended in water, the single-walled and multiple-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit essentially the same optical limiting responses, and the results are also comparable with those of carbon black aqueous suspension. For

  10. Nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on electrochemical properties of carbon foam as constructive electrode for lead acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kumari, Saroj; Mathur, Rakesh B.; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on electrochemical properties of coal tar pitch (CTP) based carbon foam (CFoam) was investigated. The different weight fractions of MWCNTs were mixed with CTP and foam was developed from the mixture of CTP and MWCNTs by sacrificial template technique and heat treated at 1,400 and 2,500 °C in inert atmosphere. These foams were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and potentiostat PARSTAT for cyclic voltammetry. It was observed that, bulk density of CFoam increases with increasing MWCNTs content and decreases after certain amount. The MWCNTs influence the morphology of CFoam and increase the width of ligaments as well as surface area. During the heat treatment, stresses exerting at MWCNTs/carbon interface accelerate ordering of the graphene layer which have positive effect on the electrochemical properties of CFoam. The current density increases from 475 to 675 mA/cm2 of 1,400 °C heat treated and 95 to 210 mA/cm2 of 2,500 °C heat-treated CFoam with 1 wt% MWCNTs. The specific capacitance was decreases with increasing the scan rate from 100 to 1,000 mV/s. In case of 1 % MWCNTs content CFoam the specific capacitance at the scan rate 100 mV/s was increased from 850 to 1,250 μF/cm2 and 48 to 340 μF/cm2 of CFoam heat treated at 1,400 °C and 2,500 °C respectively. Thus, the higher value surface area and current density of MWCNTs-incorporated CFoam heat treated to 1,400 °C can be suitable for lead acid battery electrode with improved charging capability.

  11. Composites of Laminar Nanostructured ZnO and VOx-Nanotubes Hybrid as Visible Light Active Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Benavente

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of hybrid heterostructured nanocomposites of ZnO with V2O5 nanotubes (VOx-NTs in different mixing ratios were synthesized, with the aim of reducing the recombination of photoinduced charge carriers and to optimize the absorption of visible light. The study was focused on the use of heterostructured semiconductors that can extend light absorption to the visible range and enhance the photocatalytic performance of ZnO in the degradation of methylene blue as a model pollutant. The addition of VOx-NTs in the synthesis mixture led to a remarkable performance in the degradation of the model dye, with hybrid ZnO (stearic acid/VOx-NTs at a ratio of 1:0.06 possessing the highest photocatalytic activity, about seven times faster than pristine zinc oxide. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements and experiments in the presence of different trapping elements allowed us to draw conclusions regarding the band positions and photocatalytic degradation mechanism. The photocatalytic activity measured in three subsequent cycles showed good reusability as no significant loss in efficiency of dye degradation was observed.

  12. Probe Sensor Using Nanostructured Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Yarn for Selective and Sensitive Detection of Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wed Al-Graiti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The demands for electrochemical sensor materials with high strength and durability in physiological conditions continue to grow and novel approaches are being enabled by the advent of new electromaterials and novel fabrication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate a probe-style electrochemical sensor using highly flexible and conductive multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT yarns. The MWNT yarn-based sensors can be fabricated onto micro Pt-wire with a controlled diameter varying from 100 to 300 µm, and then further modified with Nafion via a dip-coating approach. The fabricated micro-sized sensors were characterized by electron microscopy, Raman, FTIR, electrical, and electrochemical measurements. For the first time, the MWNT/Nafion yarn-based probe sensors have been assembled and assessed for high-performance dopamine sensing, showing a significant improvement in both sensitivity and selectivity in dopamine detection in presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid. It offers the potential to be further developed as implantable probe sensors.

  13. Growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition for electrical devices

    OpenAIRE

    Furer, Jürg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon emerges in di®erent forms. Diamond and graphite have been well known mate- rials for centuries. Moreover fullerenes and nanotubes were discovered only a few years ago. H. W. Kroto et al. depicted the fullerenes in 1985 [1]. A few years later, in 1991, S. Iijima described carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the ¯rst time [2] (Figure 1.1). CNTs have a close relation to graphite, since a single-wall carbon nanotube is like a rolled-up graphite mono layer. However a nanotube has wi...

  14. Clustering of H2 molecules encapsulated in fullerene structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Barraza, R. E.; Guirado-López, R. A.

    2002-10-01

    We have performed semiempirical (MNDO) as well as ab initio density-functional theory calculations at T=0 to analyze the hydrogen storage behavior in spheroidal C60 and C82, and cylindrical finite-length (5,5) armchair C and BN fullerenes. We have found that, while chemisorption of individual H atoms to the external surface of the fullerenes is observed, hydrogen atoms cannot be attached to the inner wall of the structures and can only exist in a molecular form inside the fullerenes. We further find that, as a function of the symmetry of the encapsulating cavity and a delicate balance between repulsive energies among H2 molecules inside the structures and those between H2 molecules and the fullerene walls, molecular (H2)N clusters of well defined shape are formed namely: linear configurations, two-dimensional zig-zag and triangular arrays, and three-dimensional structures such as octahedral and icosahedral clusters, as well as helicoidal cylindrical-shape assemblies. In the cylindrical configurations (C and BN tubes), hydrogen atoms are placed inside the structures up to a bond breakage of the fullerene network, which allow us to estimate the maximum storage capacities of the different configurations. Actually, in our closed nanotubes, we relate the bond breakage mechanism to the development of a nonuniform hydrogen accommodation along the tubes, driven by the both highly anisotropic H2-H2 and wall-H2 repulsive interactions. With increasing the number of stored H2, tubes are found to be mainly radially deformed, a fact that reduces (up to ~13%) the energy difference between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals in the structures. Finally, saturation of the tube ends with molecular terminations results in stable compounds from which a density-controlled storage of hydrogen seems to be possible.

  15. Nanostructured Materials: Symthesis in Supercritical Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuehe; Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.

    2009-03-24

    This chapter summarizes the recent developent of synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials synthesized in supercritical fluids. Nanocomposite catalysts such as Pt and Pd on carbon nanotube support have been synthesized and used for fuel cell applications.

  16. Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    CVD) and thermal chemical vapor deposition (T-CVD), are developed. The physical properties of the resulting CNTs are analyzed using Raman...MWCNTs) [1]. In the ensuing years the characterization of unique and phenomenal mechanical, electrical, thermal , and chemical properties of CNTs has...rediscovered or introduced carbon nanotubes to the scientific community as a by-product of an electric arc discharge method of synthesizing C60 fullerenes [1

  17. Theoretical properties of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palser, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are invariably terminated with hemi-fullerene caps. In order to investigate the effect of these caps on the electronic structure, a method is developed to enumerate every hemi-fullerene cap which is commensurate with a given nanotube body. This algorithm is then applied to nanotubes for which I + m ≤ 25. The results of this algorithm are then used to study the effects of caps with different symmetries on the electronic structure of metallic and semi-conducting nanotubes within the Hueckel model. It is found that caps can cause localised and resonance states, although the likelihood of localised states occurring in capped metallic nanotubes is shown to be small. In addition, caps induce a non-uniform charge distribution, in which negative charge tends to accumulate on pentagon vertices. The thesis ends by describing two new density matrix methods for performing linear-scaling electronic-structure calculations within the independent electron approximation. Example calculations demonstrate that these methods provide efficient and robust ways of performing linear-scaling calculations, either grand canonically (at a fixed chemical potential) or canonically (at a fixed electron count). (author)

  18. In situ Vis NIR and Raman spectroelectrochemistry at fullerene peapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Ladislav; Dunsch, Lothar; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2002-07-01

    The population of valence-band electronic states of fullerene peapods (C 60@SWCNT) was tuned electrochemically in acetonitrile solutions. Electrochemistry of peapods was dominated by their capacitive charging without distinct faradaic processes. In situ Vis-NIR spectra of peapods showed similar features as those of empty nanotubes. Electrochemical charging caused reversible bleaching of the transitions between Van Hove singularities. This bleaching was mirrored by quenching of resonance Raman spectra of the tube-related modes. The A g(2) mode of C 60 exhibits considerable intensity increase upon anodic doping of peapods, but this mode is not enhanced at cathodic charging.

  19. Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C60 nanowhiskers (KxC60NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K3.3C60NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C60 crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized KxC60NWs in comparison to those of KxC60 crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K3C60. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.

  20. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-03-03

    Metal oxide nanostructure and methods of making metal oxide nanostructures are provided. The metal oxide nanostructures can be 1 -dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofibers, or nanotubes. The metal oxide nanostructures can be doped or undoped metal oxides. The metal oxide nanostructures can be deposited onto a variety of substrates. The deposition can be performed without high pressures and without the need for seed catalysts on the substrate. The deposition can be performed by laser ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc oxide nanostructure can be doped with a rare earth metal such as gadolinium. The metal oxide nanostructures can be used in many devices including light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  1. Synthesis of PbI(2) single-layered inorganic nanotubes encapsulated within carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabana, Laura; Ballesteros, Belén; Batista, Eudar; Magén, César; Arenal, Raúl; Oró-Solé, Judith; Rurali, Riccardo; Tobias, Gerard

    2014-04-02

    The template assisted growth of single-layered inorganic nanotubes is reported. Single-crystalline lead iodide single-layered nanotubes have been prepared using the inner cavities of carbon nanotubes as hosting templates. The diameter of the resulting inorganic nanotubes is merely dependent on the diameter of the host. This facile method is highly versatile opening up new horizons in the preparation of single-layered nanostructures. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes and related carbon nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan-Merchan, Wilson Eduardo

    The work of this thesis is the experimental investigation of various types of carbon nanostructures formed in the oxy-fuel flame media. Soot volume fraction (particle density), soot morphology (primary particle diameter, degree of agglomeration, and the internal and external particle structure), CNTs (synthesis optimization and morphology), and fullerenes are being investigated in this work. These materials are characterized by means of light scattering and optical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Soot particles were investigated using the laser extinction method and by thermophoretic sampling technique. It was found that as the oxygen content increased, the soot volume fraction also tended to increase. High-resolution TEM imaging on the trapped material reveals the presence of highly crystalline soot structures. A catalytic support was positioned at the fuel side of the counter-flow flame formed by fuel (96%CH4+4%C2H2) and oxidizer (50%O2+50%N2) streams. TEM and SEM studies reveal the presence of a variety of highly organized carbonaceous structures with the configurations showing strong dependence on the flame location. It is observed that when a catalytic probe is inserted in the flame under an electric field control, a coating layer of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes covering the catalytic surface of the probe is formed. These results show that electric fields can be applied as a means to control CNT structure and growth rates. Overall, the electric field control method demonstrates stabilization of the structure in a wide flame region while growth rate remains dependent on flame location. The presence of fullerenes produced in the flame was detected using high resolution TEM and high pressure liquid chromatography. We found that large amounts of fullerenes (C60+ C70) can be generated using the counter-flow flame at normal atmospheric conditions.

  3. Electrochemical sensing platform based on the highly ordered mesoporous carbon-fullerene system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Jidong; Guo, Li-ping; Bai, Jing

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, we report a novel all-carbon two-dimensionally ordered nanocomposite electrode system on the basis of the consideration of host-guest chemistry, which utilizes synergistic interactions between a nanostructured matrix of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and an excellent electron acceptor of nanosized fullerene (C 60) to facilitate heterogeneous electron-transfer processes. The integration of OMC-C 60 by covalent interaction, especially its electrochemical applications for electrocatalysis, has not been explored thus far. Such integration may even appear to be counterintuitive because OMC and C 60 provide opposite electrochemical benefits in terms of facilitating heterogeneous electron-transfer processes. Nevertheless, the present work demonstrates the integration of OMC and C 60 can provide a remarkable synergistic augmentation of the current. To illuminate the concept, eight kinds of inorganic and organic electroactive compounds were employed to study the electrochemical response at an OMC-C 60 modified glassy carbon (OMC-C 60/GC) electrode for the first time, which shows more favorable electron-transfer kinetics than OMC/GC, carbon nanotube modified GC, C 60/GC, and GC electrodes. Such electrocatalytic behavior at OMC-C 60/GC electrode could be attributed to the unique physicochemical properties of OMC and C 60, especially the unusual host-guest synergy of OMC-C 60, which induced a substantial decrease in the overvoltage for NADH oxidation compared with GC electrode. The ability of OMC-C 60 to promote electron transfer not only suggests a new platform for the development of dehydrogenase-based bioelectrochemical devices but also indicates a potential of OMC-C 60 to be of a wide range of sensing applications because the electrocatalysis of different electroactive compounds at the OMC-C 60/GC electrode in this work should be a good model for constructing a novel and promising electrochemical sensing platform for further electrochemical detection of

  4. Doping of C60 fullerene peapods with lithium vapor: Raman spectroscopic and spectroelectrochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbác, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Dunsch, Lothar

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry have been applied to the study of the lithium vapor doping of C60@SWCNTs (peapods; SWCNT=single-walled carbon nanotube). A strong degree of doping was proven by the disappearance of the radial breathing mode (RBM) of the SWCNTs and by the attenuation of the tangential (TG) band intensity by two orders of magnitude. The lithium doping causes a downshift of the Ag(2) mode of the intratubular C60 by 27 cm(-1) and changes the resonance condition of the encapsulated fullerene. In contrast to potassium vapor doping, the strong downshift of the TG band was not observed for lithium doping. The peapods treated with lithium vapor remained partially doped even when they were exposed to humid air. This was reflected by a reduction in the intensity of the nanotube and the fullerene modes and by the change in the shape of the RBM band compared with that of the undoped sample. The Ag(2) mode of the intratubular fullerene was not resolved after contact of the lithium-doped sample with water. Lithium insertion into the interior of a peapod and its strong interaction with the intratubular fullerene is suggested to be responsible for the air-insensitive residual doping. This residual doping was confirmed by in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. The TG band of the lithium-doped peapods did not undergo an upshift during the anodic doping, which points to the formation of a stable exohedral metallofullerene peapod.

  5. Methods of analyzing carbon nanostructures, methods of preparation of analytes from carbon nanostructures, and systems for analyzing carbon nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Da Costa, Pedro Miquel Ferreira Joaquim

    2016-09-09

    Provided herein is a method determining the concentration of impurities in a carbon material, comprising: mixing a flux and a carbon material to form a mixture, wherein the carbon material is selected from the group consisting of graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerene, carbon onions, graphite, carbon fibers, and a combination thereof; heating the mixture using microwave energy to form fused materials; dissolution of the fused materials in an acid mixture; and measuring the concentration of one or more impurities.

  6. Dynamical stability and low-temperature lattice specific heat of one-dimensional fullerene polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Atsushi; Ono, Shota

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamical stability of one-dimensional fullerene polymers by computing the phonon dispersion relations within the atomistic approach. We find that only seven models among 54 models proposed previously (Noda et al., 2015) are dynamically stable. We show that the low temperature specific heat of them is proportional to the square root of the temperature in a wider range of temperature compared to the case of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  7. From astrophysics to mesoscopic physics: a sightseeing tour in the world of clusters and fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Arne; Ostling, Daniel; Apell, P.; Tomanek, D.

    1996-12-01

    The discovery of the fullerenes in 1985 by Kroto, Heath, O'Brien, Curl and Smalley and the development of a method for production of macroscopic amounts in 1990 by Kraetschmer, Lamb, Fostiropoulos and Huffman opened a new area of carbon research with possible production of new materials with unique properties. The field has developed further later on with discoveries of nanotubes, metal filled nanotubes, carbon onions and more recently metal covered fullerenes. All these new discoveries show how cluster science opens approaches to the area of meososcopic physics. The general trend is here in the direction from small to large contrary to the general trend of modern meososcopic physics or micro-electronics where the movement is from large to small. It is especially fascinating how the whole area of fullerene research was initiated by problems in astrophysics. Originally Kraetschmer and Huffman had the intention to explain an observed strong extinction form interstellar dust and produced in experiments special carbon soot with a characteristics optical absorption known as 'the camel hump smoke'. This paper gives a short overview of some of our more recent theoretical work of the electronic properties of C60, metal covered C60 and nanotubes. In addition some results are also presented of optical properties of metal covered C60 as a function of metal coverage.

  8. Fullerenes doped with metal halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.P.; Heinebrodt, M.; Naeher, U.; Goehlich, H.; Lange, T.; Schaber, H.

    1993-01-01

    The cage-like structure of fullerenes is a challenge to every experimental to put something inside - to dope the fullerenes. In fact, the research team that first identified C 60 as a football-like molecule quickly succeeded in trapping metal atoms inside and in shrinking the cage around this atom by photofragmentation. In this paper we report the results of ''shrink-wrapping'' the fullerenes around metal halide molecules. Of special interest is the critical size (the minimum number of carbon atoms) that can still enclose the dopant. A rough model for the space available inside a carbon cage gives good agreement with the measured shrinking limits. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs

  9. Stability and electronic properties of low-dimensional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jie

    As the devices used in daily life become smaller and more concentrated, traditional three-dimensional (3D) bulk materials have reached their limit in size. Low-dimensional nanomaterials have been attracting more attention in research and getting widely applied in many industrial fields because of their atomic-level size, unique advanced properties, and varied nanostructures. In this thesis, I have studied the stability and mechanical and electronic properties of zero-dimensional (0D) structures including carbon fullerenes, nanotori, metallofullerenes and phosphorus fullerenes, one-dimensional (1D) structures including carbon nanotubes and phosphorus nanotubes, as well as two-dimensional (2D) structures including layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), phosphorene and phosphorus carbide (PC). I first briefly introduce the scientific background and the motivation of all the work in this thesis. Then the computational techniques, mainly density functional theory (DFT), are reviewed in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, I investigate the stability and electronic structure of endohedral rare-earth metallofullerene La C60 and the trifluoromethylized La C60(CF3)n with n ≤ 5. Odd n is preferred due to the closed-shell electronic configuration or large HOMO-LUMO gap, which is also meaningful for the separation of C 60-based metallofullerenes. Mechanical and electronic properties of layered materials including TMDs and black phosphorus are studied in Chapter 4 and 5. In Chapter 4, a metallic NbSe2/semiconducting WSe2 bilayer is investigated and besides a rigid band shift associated with charge transfer, the presence of NbSe2 does not modify the electronic structure of WSe2. Structural similarity and small lattice mismatch results in the heterojunction being capable of efficiently transferring charge acrossthe interface. In Chapter 5, I investigate the dependence of stability and electronic band structure on the in-layer strain in bulk black phosphorus. In Chapters 6, 7 and

  10. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  11. Structural Consequences of Duplicitous Chemical Relation of Cobalt and Fullerene in Mixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vacík, Jiří; Naramoto, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, 4-7 (2012), s. 328-335 ISSN 1536-383X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA ČR GA106/09/1264; GA ČR GAP107/11/1856 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fullerene * cobalt * chemical bonding * nanostructure * self-organization Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2012

  12. Contrasting magnetism in dilute and supersaturated cobalt-fullerene mixture films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Stupakov, Alexandr; Pokorný, Jan; Lavrentieva, Inna; Vacík, Jiří; Dejneka, Alexandr; Barchuk, M.; Čapková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 33 (2015), s. 335002 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : cobalt * fullerene * nanomagnetism * nanostructure * self-organization Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2015

  13. Electrostatic interactions for directed assembly of high performance nanostructured energetic materials of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Guoping; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Benbo; Luo, Yunjun, E-mail: yjluo@bit.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Electrostatic self-assembly in organic solvent without intensively oxidative or corrosive environments, was adopted to prepare Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials as an energy generating material. The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. This spontaneous assembly method without any surfactant chemistry or other chemical and biological moieties decreased the aggregation of the same nanoparticles largely, moreover, the poor interfacial contact between the Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles was improved significantly, which was the key characteristic of high performance nanostructured energetic materials. In addition, the assembly process was confirmed as Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. The assembled Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials showed excellent performance with heat release of 2400 J/g, peak pressure of 0.42 MPa and pressurization rate of 105.71 MPa/s, superior to that in the control group Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured energetic materials prepared by sonication with heat release of 1326 J/g, peak pressure of 0.19 MPa and pressurization rate of 33.33 MPa/s. Therefore, the approach, which is facile, opens a promising route to the high performance nanostructured energetic materials. - Graphical abstract: The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A facile spontaneous electrostatic assembly strategy without surfactant was adopted. • The fuels and oxidizers assembled into densely packed nanostructured composites. • The assembled nanostructured energetic materials have excellent performance. • This high performance energetic material can be scaled up for practical application. • This

  14. Tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniukov, E; Yakimchuk, D; Kozlovsky, A; Shlimas, D; Zdorovets, M; Kadyrzhanov, K

    2016-01-01

    Simple method of tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes based on template synthesis was developed. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of the obtained nanostructures was carried out. Characterization of structural features was made by methods of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry analysis. Evaluation of wall thickness is made by methods of gas permeability. Electrical conductivity of nanotubes was define in the study of their current-voltage characteristics. The possibility to control of copper nanotubes physical properties by variation of the deposition parameters was shown. (paper)

  15. A density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) based approach to understand the effect of symmetry of fullerenes on the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of carbon NanoBuds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmah, Amrit; Roy, Ram Kinkar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the interaction between fullerene (C 32 ) and SWCNT using CDASE scheme. • Role of symmetry of fullerenes as well as the site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT in the structural stability of the NanoBud structure. • Increase in the fullerene symmetry improves the relative stability of hybrid NanoBud structure. - Abstract: In the present study, we have rationalized the effect of variation in the symmetry of relatively smaller fullerene (C 32 ) on the mode of its interaction with semi-conducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the process of formation of stable hybrid carbon NanoBuds. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, along with the charge transfer values associated with the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs, have been evaluated using an un-conventional and computationally cost–effective method based on density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). In addition to this, conventional DFT based studies are also performed to substantiate the growth of NanoBud structures formed by the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs. The findings of the present study suggest that the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of hybrid carbon NanoBuds are significantly influenced by both the symmetry of C 32 fullerene and its site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT.

  16. The change of the state of an endohedral fullerene by encapsulation into SWCNT: a Raman spectroelectrochemical study of Dy3N@C80 peapods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Yang, S.; Čech, J.; Roth, S.; Dunsch, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2007), s. 8811-8817 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400400601; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : dysprosium * electrochemistry * fullerenes * nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.330, year: 2007

  17. Characterizing the Polymer:Fullerene Intermolecular Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Sweetnam, Sean

    2016-02-02

    Polymer:fullerene solar cells depend heavily on the electronic coupling of the polymer and fullerene molecular species from which they are composed. The intermolecular interaction between the polymer and fullerene tends to be strong in efficient photovoltaic systems, as evidenced by efficient charge transfer processes and by large changes in the energetics of the polymer and fullerene when they are molecularly mixed. Despite the clear presence of these strong intermolecular interactions between the polymer and fullerene, there is not a consensus on the nature of these interactions. In this work, we use a combination of Raman spectroscopy, charge transfer state absorption, and density functional theory calculations to show that the intermolecular interactions do not appear to be caused by ground state charge transfer between the polymer and fullerene. We conclude that these intermolecular interactions are primarily van der Waals in nature. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  18. Safety considerations for graphene: lessons learnt from carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy, Cyrill; Ali-Boucetta, Hanene; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-03-19

    Many consider carbon nanomaterials the poster children of nanotechnology, attracting immense scientific interest from many disciplines and offering tremendous potential in a diverse range of applications due to their extraordinary properties. Graphene is the youngest in the family of carbon nanomaterials. Its isolation, description, and mass fabrication has followed that of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Graphene's development and its adoption by many industries will increase unintended or intentional human exposure, creating the need to determine its safety profile. In this Account, we compare the lessons learned from the development of carbon nanotubes with what is known about graphene, based on our own investigations and those of others. Despite both being carbon-based, nanotubes and graphene are two very distinct nanomaterials. We consider the key physicochemical characteristics (structure, surface, colloidal properties) for graphene and carbon nanotubes at three different physiological levels: cellular, tissue, and whole body. We summarize the evidence for health effects of both materials at all three levels. Overall, graphene and its derivatives are characterized by a lower aspect ratio, larger surface area, and better dispersibility in most solvents compared to carbon nanotubes. Dimensions, surface chemistry, and impurities are equally important for graphene and carbon nanotubes in determining both mechanistic (aggregation, cellular processes, biodistribution, and degradation kinetics) and toxicological outcomes. Colloidal dispersions of individual graphene sheets (or graphene oxide and other derivatives) can easily be engineered without metallic impurities, with high stability and less aggregation. Very importantly, graphene nanostructures are not fiber-shaped. These features theoretically offer significant advantages in terms of safety over inhomogeneous dispersions of fiber-shaped carbon nanotubes. However, studies that directly compare graphene with

  19. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on fullerenes and fullerene compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, J.

    1996-03-01

    A few years ago, a new form of pure carbon, the fullerenes, has been discovered, which shows many fascinating properties. Within this work the spatial and electronic structure of some selected fullerene compounds have been investigated by electron-energy-loss spectroscopy in transmission. Phase pure samples of alkali intercalated fullerides A x C 60 (A=Na, K, Cs) have been prepared using vacuum distillation. Measruements of K 3 C 60 show a dispersion of the charge carrier plasmon close to zero. This can be explained by calculations, which take into account both band structure and local-field (inhomogeneity) effects. The importance of the molecular structure can also be seen from the A 4 C 60 compounds, where the non-metallic properties are explained by a splitting of the t 1u and t 1g derived bands that is caused by electron-correlation and Jahn-Teller effects. First measurements of the electronic structure of Na x C 60 (x>6) are presented and reveal a complete transfer from the sodium atoms but an incomplete transfer onto the C 60 molecules. This behaviour can be explained by taking into account additional electronic states that are situated between the sodium atoms in the octahedral sites and are predicted by calculations using local density approximation. The crystal structure of the higher fullerenes C 76 and C 84 is found to be face-centered cubic

  20. A novel high energy hybrid Li-ion capacitor with a three-dimensional hierarchical ternary nanostructure of hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanoparticles/conductive polymer/carbon nanotubes anode and an activated carbon cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gang; Cao, Liujun; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Yunhuai; Liu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors (LICs) are considered to be high-performance energy storage devices that have stimulated intense attention to bridge the gap between lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. Currently, the major challenge for LICs has been to improve the energy density without sacrificing the high rate of power output performance. Herein, we designed a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructure of hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanoparticles wrapped conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) framework with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hybrid (denoted as, H-TiO2/PPy/SWCNTs) anode material for LICs through a conventional and green approach. Such a unique network can offer continuous electron transport and reduce the diffusion length of lithium ions. A greatly lithium storage specific capacity is achieved with reversible discharge capacity ∼213 mA h g-1 (based on the mass of TiO2) over 50 cycles (@ 0.1 A g-1), which is almostly three times compared with raw TiO2 (a commercial TiO2 nanoparticles powder). In addition, coupled with commercial activated carbon (AC) cathode, the fully assembled H-TiO2/PPy/SWCNTs//AC LICs delivers a maximum energy and power densities of 31.3 Wh kg-1 and 4 kW kg-1, a reasonably good cycling stability (∼77.8% retention after 3000 cycles) within the voltage range of 1.0-3.0 V.

  1. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials. These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples.

  2. Simultaneous determination of levodopa, carbidopa and tryptophan using nanostructured electrochemical sensor based on novel hydroquinone and carbon nanotubes: Application to the analysis of some real samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad, E-mail: mazloum@yazduni.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjipour, Bahram [Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beitollahi, Hadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Environmet Department, Research Institute of Environmental Sciences, International Center for Science, High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mohammad Kazem [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81744-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirkhalaf, Fakhradin [Sonochemistry Center, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB (United Kingdom); Naeimi, Hossein; Nejati-Barzoki, Maryam [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: > A novel hydroquinone-carbon nanotube paste electrode have been fabricated. > This electrode reduced the oxidation potential of levodopa by about 460 mV. > Some kinetic parameters for oxidation of levodopa has been determined. > This electrode resolved the voltammetric waves of levodopa, carbidopa and tryptophan. > This electrode used for determination of levodopa in some real samples. - Abstract: In the present paper, the use of a novel carbon paste electrode modified by 2, 2'-[1,2-ethanediylbis (nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone (EBNBH) and carbon nanotubes prepared by a simple and rapid method for the determination of levodopa (LD), carbidopa (CD) and tryptophan (Trp) was described. In the first part of the work, cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the redox properties of this modified electrode at various scan rates. The apparent charge-transfer rate constant, k{sub s}, and transfer coefficient, {alpha}, for electron transfer between EBNBH and carbon nanotube paste electrode were calculated. In the second part of the work, the mediated oxidation of LD at the modified electrode was described. It has been found that under optimum condition (pH 7.0) in cyclic voltammetry, the oxidation of LD occurs at a potential about 460 mV less positive than that of an unmodified carbon paste electrode. The values of electron transfer coefficient ({alpha}), catalytic rate constant (k{sub h}') and diffusion coefficient (D) were calculated for LD, using electrochemical approaches. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) exhibited two linear dynamic ranges and a detection limit (3{sigma}) of 0.094 {mu}M for LD. In the third part of the work, simultaneous determination of LD, CD and Trp at the modified electrode was described. Finally, this method was used for the determination of LD in some real samples, using standard addition method.

  3. Simultaneous determination of levodopa, carbidopa and tryptophan using nanostructured electrochemical sensor based on novel hydroquinone and carbon nanotubes: Application to the analysis of some real samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Ganjipour, Bahram; Beitollahi, Hadi; Amini, Mohammad Kazem; Mirkhalaf, Fakhradin; Naeimi, Hossein; Nejati-Barzoki, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel hydroquinone-carbon nanotube paste electrode have been fabricated. → This electrode reduced the oxidation potential of levodopa by about 460 mV. → Some kinetic parameters for oxidation of levodopa has been determined. → This electrode resolved the voltammetric waves of levodopa, carbidopa and tryptophan. → This electrode used for determination of levodopa in some real samples. - Abstract: In the present paper, the use of a novel carbon paste electrode modified by 2, 2'-[1,2-ethanediylbis (nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone (EBNBH) and carbon nanotubes prepared by a simple and rapid method for the determination of levodopa (LD), carbidopa (CD) and tryptophan (Trp) was described. In the first part of the work, cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the redox properties of this modified electrode at various scan rates. The apparent charge-transfer rate constant, k s , and transfer coefficient, α, for electron transfer between EBNBH and carbon nanotube paste electrode were calculated. In the second part of the work, the mediated oxidation of LD at the modified electrode was described. It has been found that under optimum condition (pH 7.0) in cyclic voltammetry, the oxidation of LD occurs at a potential about 460 mV less positive than that of an unmodified carbon paste electrode. The values of electron transfer coefficient (α), catalytic rate constant (k h ') and diffusion coefficient (D) were calculated for LD, using electrochemical approaches. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) exhibited two linear dynamic ranges and a detection limit (3σ) of 0.094 μM for LD. In the third part of the work, simultaneous determination of LD, CD and Trp at the modified electrode was described. Finally, this method was used for the determination of LD in some real samples, using standard addition method.

  4. Doping of C70 fullerene peapods with lithium vapor: Raman spectroscopic and Raman spectroelectrochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbáč, Martin; Vales, Vaclav; Kavan, Ladislav; Dunsch, Lothar

    2014-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry were applied to study the lithium vapor doping of C70@SWCNTs (peapods). A strong degree of doping was proved by the vanishing of the single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT’s) radial breathing mode (RBM) and by the attenuation of the tangential (TG) band intensity. In contrast to potassium vapor doping, the strong downshift of the frequency of the TG band has not been observed for Li-doping. The Li vapor treated peapods remained partly doped even if they were exposed to humid air. This has been reflected by a reduced intensity of the nanotube and the fullerene modes and by the change of the shape of the RBM band as compared to that of the undoped sample. The modes of the intratubular fullerene were almost unresolved after the contact of the Li-doped sample with water. A lithium insertion into the interior of a peapod and its strong interaction with the intratubular fullerene is suggested to be responsible for the air-insensitive residual doping. This residual doping was studied by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The TG band of the Li doped peapods is partly upshifted during the anodic doping, which points to the different state of C70@SWCNTs and C60@SWCNTs studied previously.

  5. Photodiodes based on fullerene semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voz, C. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Departament Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3 Campus Nord C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: cvoz@eel.upc.edu; Puigdollers, J. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Departament Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3 Campus Nord C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Cheylan, S. [ICFO- Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av. del Canal Olimpic s/n, 08860-Castelldefels (Spain); Fonrodona, M.; Stella, M.; Andreu, J. [Solar Energy Group, Departament Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain); Alcubilla, R. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Departament Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3 Campus Nord C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    Fullerene thin films have been deposited by thermal evaporation on glass substrates at room temperature. A comprehensive optical characterization was performed, including low-level optical absorption measured by photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The optical absorption spectrum reveals a direct bandgap of 2.3 eV and absorption bands at 2.8 and 3.6 eV, which are related to the creation of charge-transfer excitons. Various photodiodes on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates were also fabricated, using different metallic contacts in order to compare their respective electrical characteristics. The influence of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) buffer layer between the indium-tin-oxide electrode and the fullerene semiconductor is also demonstrated. These results are discussed in terms of the workfunction for each electrode. Finally, the behaviour of the external quantum efficiency is analyzed for the whole wavelength spectrum.

  6. Field Emission from Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giubileo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Field emission electron sources in vacuum electronics are largely considered to achieve faster response, higher efficiency and lower energy consumption in comparison with conventional thermionic emitters. Carbon nanotubes had a leading role in renewing attention to field emission technologies in the early 1990s, due to their exceptional electron emitting properties enabled by their large aspect ratio, high electrical conductivity, and thermal and chemical stability. In the last decade, the search for improved emitters has been extended to several carbon nanostructures, comprising carbon nanotubes, either individual or films, diamond structures, graphitic materials, graphene, etc. Here, we review the main results in the development of carbon-based field emitters.

  7. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  8. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  9. Direct evidence of chemically inhomogeneous, nanostructured, Si-O buried interfaces and their effect on the efficiency of carbon nanotube/Si photovoltaic heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Pintossi, Chiara

    2013-09-12

    An angle resolved X-ray photoemission study of carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells is reported, providing a direct probe of a chemically inhomogeneous, Si-O buried interface between the carbon nanotube (CNT) networked layer and the n-type Si substrate. By changing the photoelectron takeoff angle of the analyzer, a nondestructive in-depth profiling of a CNT/SiOx/SiO2/Si complex interface is achieved. Data are interpreted on the basis of an extensive modeling of the photoemission process from layered structures, which fully accounts for the depth distribution function of the photoemitted electrons. As X-ray photoemission spectroscopy provides direct access to the buried interface, the aging and the effects of chemical etching on the buried interface have been highlighted. This allowed us to show how the thickness and the composition of the buried interface can be related to the efficiency of the PV cell. The results clearly indicate that while SiO2 is related to an increase of the efficiency, acting as a buffer layer, SiOx is detrimental to cell performances, though it can be selectively removed by etching in HF vapors. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Gold nanostructures and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin Z [Santa Cruz, CA; Schwartzberg, Adam [Santa Cruz, CA; Olson, Tammy Y [Santa Cruz, CA

    2012-03-20

    The invention is drawn to novel nanostructures comprising hollow nanospheres and nanotubes for use as chemical sensors, conduits for fluids, and electronic conductors. The nanostructures can be used in microfluidic devices, for transporting fluids between devices and structures in analytical devices, for conducting electrical currents between devices and structure in analytical devices, and for conducting electrical currents between biological molecules and electronic devices, such as bio-microchips.

  11. Electrical, thermal, catalytic and magnetic properties of nano-structured materials and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuwei

    Nanotechnology is a subject that studies the fabrication, properties, and applications of materials on the nanometer-scale. Top-down and bottom-up approaches are commonly used in nano-structure fabrication. The top-down approach is used to fabricate nano-structures from bulk materials by lithography, etching, and polishing etc. It is commonly used in mechanical, electronic, and photonic devices. Bottom-up approaches fabricate nano-structures from atoms or molecules by chemical synthesis, self-assembly, and deposition, such as sol-gel processing, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), focused ion beam (FIB) milling/deposition, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and electro-deposition etc. Nano-structures can have several different dimensionalities, including zero-dimensional nano-structures, such as fullerenes, nano-particles, quantum dots, nano-sized clusters; one-dimensional nano-structures, such as carbon nanotubes, metallic and semiconducting nanowires; two-dimensional nano-structures, such as graphene, super lattice, thin films; and three-dimensional nano-structures, such as photonic structures, anodic aluminum oxide, and molecular sieves. These nano-structured materials exhibit unique electrical, thermal, optical, mechanical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the quantum mechanical regime. Various techniques can be used to study these properties, such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM), scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), micro Raman spectroscopy, etc. These unique properties have important applications in modern technologies, such as random access memories, display, solar energy conversion, chemical sensing, and bio-medical devices. This thesis includes four main topics in the broad area of nanoscience: magnetic properties of ferro-magnetic cobalt nanowires, plasmonic properties of metallic nano-particles, photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanotubes, and electro-thermal-optical properties of carbon nanotubes. These materials and their

  12. Cathode deposits in fullerene formation — microstructural evidence for independent pathways of pyrolytic carbon and nanobody formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. H.; Gerald, J. D. Fitz; Pang, L.; Wilson, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Microstructures in cathode deposits formed during fullerene production by electrical arcing in helium have been examined in detail. This has provided new information about the mechanisms by which nanobodies (nanotubes and nanoparticles) and pyrolytic carbon are deposited. Nanobodies and pyrolytic carbon form independently; the former probably grow in the plasma then deposit on the electrode but much of the latter deposits directly on the electrode surface.

  13. Thermodynamics of association of water soluble fullerene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermodynamics of association of fullerene [C₆₀] and water-soluble fullerene derivatives, i.e., fullerols [C ₆₀ (OH)n, n = 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12] in aqueous solutions have been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The potentials of mean force (PMFs) bring out the tendency of aggregation of these nanostructuresin ...

  14. Surfactant-free fabrication of fullerene C{sub 60} nanotubules under shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimalanathan, Kasturi; Raston, Colin L. [Flinders Centre for NanoScale Science Technology (CNST) Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide (Australia); Shrestha, Rekha Goswami [International Centre for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zhang, Zhi; Zou, Jin [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Nakayama, Tomonobu [International Centre for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2017-07-10

    A method for controlling the self-assembly of fullerene C{sub 60} molecules into nanotubules in the fcc phase, devoid of entrapped solvent, has been established in a thin film microfluidic device. The micron length C{sub 60} nanotubules, with individual hollow diameters of 100 to 400 nm, are formed under continuous flow processing during high shear micromixing of water and a toluene solution of the fullerene, in the absence of surfactant, and without the need for further down-stream processing. TEM revealed pores on the surface of the nanotubes, and the isolated material has a much higher response to small molecule sensing than that for analogous material formed using multistep batch processing. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. The effects of inhomogeneous isotope distribution on the vibrational properties of isotope enriched double walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolyomi, V.; Simon, F.; Rusznyak, A.; Kuerti, J.; Pfeiffer, R.; Peterlik, H.; Kuzmany, H.

    2007-01-01

    The radial breathing mode in the Raman spectrum of 13 C isotope enriched single walled carbon nanotubes is inhomogeneously broadened due to the random distribution of isotopes. We study this effect theoretically using density functional theory within the local density approximation and compare the result with experiments on isotope engineered double walled carbon nanotubes in which the inner tubes were grown from a mixture of 13 C enriched fullerenes and natural fullerenes. As explained by the calculations, this synthesis procedure leads to an increased inhomogeneity compared to a case when only enriched fullerenes are used. The good agreement between the measurements and calculations shows the absence of carbon diffusion along the tube axis during inner tube growth, and presents a strong support of the theory that inner tube growth is governed by Stone-Wales transformations following the interconnection of fullerenes. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Fullerenic structures and such structures tethered to carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anish; Howard, Jack B.; Vander Sande, John B.

    2010-01-05

    The fullerenic structures include fullerenes having molecular weights less than that of C.sub.60 with the exception of C.sub.36 and fullerenes having molecular weights greater than C.sub.60. Examples include fullerenes C.sub.50, C.sub.58, C.sub.130, and C.sub.176. Fullerenic structure chemically bonded to a carbon surface is also disclosed along with a method for tethering fullerenes to a carbon material. The method includes adding functionalized fullerene to a liquid suspension containing carbon material, drying the suspension to produce a powder, and heat treating the powder.

  17. Physical properties of organic fullerene cocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovez, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The basic facts and fundamental properties of binary fullerene cocrystals are reviewed, focusing especially on solvates and salts of Buckminsterfullerene (C60), and hydrates of hydrophilic C60 derivatives. The examined properties include the lattice structure and the presence of orientational disorder and/or rotational dynamics (of both fullerenes and cocrystallizing moieties), thermodynamic properties such as decomposition enthalpies, and charge transport properties. Both thermodynamic properties and molecular orientational disorder shed light on the extent of intermolecular interactions in these binary solid-state systems. Comparison is carried out also with pristine fullerite and with the solid phases of functionalized C60. Interesting experimental findings on binary fullerene cocrystals include the simultaneous occurrence of rotations of both constituent molecular species, crystal morphologies reminiscent of quasi-crystalline behaviour, the observation of proton conduction in hydrate solids of hydrophilic fullerene derivatives, and the production of super-hard carbon materials by application of high pressures on solvated fullerene crystals.

  18. A plasma arc reactor for fullerene research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. T.; Dyer, P. L.; Dykes, J. W.; Klavins, P.; Anderson, P. E.; Liu, J. Z.; Shelton, R. N.

    1994-12-01

    A modified Krätschmer-Huffman reactor for the mass production of fullerenes is presented. Fullerene mass production is fundamental for the synthesis of higher and endohedral fullerenes. The reactor employs mechanisms for continuous graphite-rod feeding and in situ slag removal. Soot collects into a Soxhlet extraction thimble which serves as a fore-line vacuum pump filter, thereby easing fullerene separation from soot. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for yield determination is reported. This TGA method is faster and uses smaller samples than Soxhlet extraction methods which rely on aromatic solvents. Production of 10 g of soot per hour is readily achieved utilizing this reactor. Fullerene yields of 20% are attained routinely.

  19. Electrical and optical properties of monomeric and polymerized fullerenes. Review

    CERN Document Server

    Makarova, T L

    2001-01-01

    Paper presents the survey of properties of monomeric and polymerized fullerenes as materials with semiconducting zone structures. Electronic structure of fullerenes is studied in detail. One analyzes the absorption spectra of fullerenes. Paper contains data on the transport parameters of fullerenes and discusses, as well, models of conductivity in these materials. Peculiar attention is given to the processes occurring in fullerenes under polymerization through photoexcitation, charge transfer and pressure

  20. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  1. Thermal properties of defective fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the thermal conductivity of defective fullerene (C60) by using the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) method. It is found that the thermal conductivity of C60 with one defect is lower than the thermal conductivity of perfect C60. However, double defects in C60 have either positive or negative influence on the thermal conductivity, which depends on the positions of the defects. The phonon spectra of perfect and defective C60 are also provided to give corresponding supports. Our results can be extended to long C60 chains, which is helpful for the thermal management of C60.

  2. Metal nanoparticle deposited inorganic nanostructure hybrids, uses thereof and processes for their preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef; Tsverin, Yulia; Burghaus, Uwe; Komarneni, Mallikharjuna Rao

    2016-01-26

    This invention relates to a hybrid component comprising at least one nanoparticle of inorganic layered compound (in the form of fullerene-like structure or nanotube), and at least one metal nanoparticle, uses thereof as a catalyst, (e.g. photocatalysis) and processes for its preparation.

  3. Ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of microRNA-21 combining layered nanostructure of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds by hybridization chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingzhi; Song, Chao; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Juan; Zhou, Lili; Zhang, Xing; Xie, Guoming

    2015-08-15

    Measurement of microRNA (miRNA) levels in body fluids is a crucial tool for the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. In this study, we developed an electrochemical assay to detect miRNA-21 by fabricating the electrode with layer-by-layer assembly of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds. Tetrahedron-structured probes with free-standing probe on the top served as receptors to hybridize with target miRNA directly. The probes were immobilized on the deposited gold nanoparticles through a well-established strong Au-S bond. The electrochemical signal was mainly derived from an ultrasensitive pattern by combining hybridization chain reaction with DNA-functionalized AuNPs, which provided DNAzyme to catalyze H2O2 reduction. Differential pulse voltammetry was applied to record the electrochemical signals, which was increased linearly with the target miRNA-21, and the linear detection range was 10 fM to 1.0 nM. The limit of detection reached 1.95 fM (S/N=3), and the proposed biosensor exhibited good reproducibility and stability, as well as high sensitivity. Hence, this biosensor has a promising potential in clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Material and energy intensity of fullerene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anctil, Annick; Babbitt, Callie W; Raffaelle, Ryne P; Landi, Brian J

    2011-03-15

    Fullerenes are increasingly being used in medical, environmental, and electronic applications due to their unique structural and electronic properties. However, the energy and environmental impacts associated with their commercial-scale production have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, the life cycle embodied energy of C(60) and C(70) fullerenes has been quantified from cradle-to-gate, including the relative contributions from synthesis, separation, purification, and functionalization processes, representing a more comprehensive scope than used in previous fullerene life cycle studies. Comparison of two prevalent production methods (plasma and pyrolysis) has shown that pyrolysis of 1,4-tetrahydronaphthalene emerges as the method with the lowest embodied energy (12.7 GJ/kg of C(60)). In comparison, plasma methods require a large amount of electricity, resulting in a factor of 7-10× higher embodied energy in the fullerene product. In many practical applications, fullerenes are required at a purity >98% by weight, which necessitates multiple purification steps and increases embodied energy by at least a factor of 5, depending on the desired purity. For applications such as organic solar cells, the purified fullerenes need to be chemically modified to [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), thus increasing the embodied energy to 64.7 GJ/kg C(60)-PCBM for the specified pyrolysis, purification, and functionalization conditions. Such synthesis and processing effects are even more significant for the embodied energy of larger fullerenes, such as C(70), which are produced in smaller quantities and are more difficult to purify. Overall, the inventory analysis shows that the embodied energy of all fullerenes are an order of magnitude higher than most bulk chemicals, and, therefore, traditional cutoff rules by weight during life cycle assessment of fullerene-based products should be avoided.

  5. Synthesis of ferroelectric nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, Per Martin

    2008-12-15

    respectively BaTi2O5/BaTi5O11 and Na2Ti6O13 for the two different systems, in contradiction to the previous studies. It was shown that NaCl reacted with BaO(PbO) resulting in loss of volatile BaCl2 (PbCl2 ) and formation and preferential growth of titanium oxide-rich nanorods instead of the target phase BaTiO3 (or PbTiO3 ). The molten salt synthesis route may therefore not necessarily yield nanorods of the target ternary oxide as reported previously. In addition, the importance of NaCl(g) for the growth of nanorods below the melting point of NaCl was demonstrated in a special experimental setup, where NaCl and the precursors were physically separated. In Paper II and III, a hydrothermal synthesis method to grow arrays and hierarchical nanostructures of PbTiO3 nanorods and platelets on substrates is presented. Hydrothermal treatment of an amorphous PbTiO3 precursor in the presence of a surfactant and PbTiO3 or SrTiO3 substrates resulted in the growth of PbTiO3 nanorods and platelets aligned in the crystallographic <100> orientations of the SrTiO3 substrates. PbTiO3 nanorods oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface could also be grown directly on the substrate by a modified synthesis method. The hydrothermal method described in Paper II and III was developed on the basis of the method described in Appendices I and II. In Paper IV, a template-assisted method to make PbTiO3 nanotubes is presented. An equimolar Pb-Ti sol was dropped onto porous alumina membranes and penetrated into the channels of the template. Single-phase PbTiO3 perovskite nanotubes were obtained by annealing at 700 degrees Celsius for 6 h. The nanotubes had diameters of 200 - 400 nm with a wall thickness of approximately 20 nm. Excess PbO or annealing in a Pb-containing atmosphere was not necessary in order to achieve single phase PbTiO3 nanotubes. The influence of the heating procedure and the sol concentration is discussed. In Paper V, a piezoresponse force microscopy study of single PbTiO3 nanorods is

  6. Hydrogen adsorption in carbon nanostructures compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, H.G.; Nijkamp, M.G.; Kearley, G.J.; Rivera, A.; de Jong, K.P.; Mulder, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports continue to suggest high hydrogen storage capacities for some carbon nanostructures due to a stronger interaction between hydrogen and carbon. Here the interaction of hydrogen with activated charcoal, carbon nanofibers, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and electron beam ‘opened’

  7. Reducibility of platinum supported on nanostructured carbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, A.J.; Schubert, T.; Storr, U.; de Jong, K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The nanostructure of graphite like carbon, i.e. carbon nanofibers (CNF), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanoplatelets (CNP), displayed a significant influence on the reducibility of platinum deposited on these carbons. The onset temperature for reduction increased from 461 K for Pt/CNF to 466 K

  8. Nanoporous carbon tubes from fullerene crystals as the π-electron carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Nishimura, Toshiyuki; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Kawai, Takazumi; Okada, Susumu; Wakabayashi, Katsunori; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-12

    Here we report the thermal conversion of one-dimensional (1D) fullerene (C60) single-crystal nanorods and nanotubes to nanoporous carbon materials with retention of the initial 1D morphology. The 1D C60 crystals are heated directly at very high temperature (up to 2000 °C) in vacuum, yielding a new family of nanoporous carbons having π-electron conjugation within the sp(2)-carbon robust frameworks. These new nanoporous carbon materials show excellent electrochemical capacitance and superior sensing properties for aromatic compounds compared to commercial activated carbons. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Electronic structure of carbon nanotube systems measured with scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbaker, Daniel Jay

    Carbon fullerenes are unusually structured molecules with robust mechanical and electronic properties. Their versatility is astounding; envisioned applications range from field emission displays to impregnated metal composites, battery storage media, and nanoelectronic devices. The combination of simple constituency, diverse behavior, and ease of fabrication makes these materials a cornerstone topic in current research. This thesis details scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments investigating how carbon nanotube fullerenes interact with and couple to their local environment. Scanning tunneling microscopy continues to be a key method for characterizing fullerenes, particularly in regards to their electronic properties. The atomic scale nature of this technique makes it uniquely suited for observing individual molecules and determining correlations between locally measured electronic properties and the particular environment of the molecule. The primary subject of this study is single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which were observed under various perturbative influences resulting in measurable changes in the electronic structure. Additionally, fullerene heterostructures formed by the encapsulation of C60 molecules within the hollow interiors of SWNTs were characterized for the first time with STM. These novel macromolecules (dubbed "peapods") demonstrate the potential for custom engineering the properties of fullerene materials. Measurements indicate that the properties of individual nanotubes depend sensitively on local interactions. In particular, pronounced changes in electronic behavior are observed in nanotubes exhibiting mechanical distortion, interacting with extrinsic materials (including other nanotubes), and possessing intrinsic defects in the atomic lattice. In fullerene peapods, while no discernable change in the atomic ordering of the encapsulating nanotubes was evident, the presence of interior C60 molecules has a dramatic effect on the

  10. Hydrogenated fullerenes in space: FT-IR spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Barbary, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes are found in circumstellar and interstellar environments. But the determination structures for the detected bands in the interstellar and circumstellar space are not completely understood so far. For that purpose, the aim of this article is to provide all possible infrared spectra for C 20 and C 60 fullerenes and their hydrogenated fullerenes. Density Functional theory (DFT) is applied using B3LYP exchange-functional with basis set 6–31G(d, p). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is found to be capable of distinguishing between fullerenes, mono hydrogenated fullerenes and fully hydrogenated fullerenes. In addition, deposition of one hydrogen atom outside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes is found to be distinguished by forming H 2 molecule at peak around 4440 cm −1 . However, deposition of one hydrogen atom inside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes cannot be distinguished. The obtained spectral structures are analyzed and are compared with available experimental results.

  11. Hydrogen storage in single-wall carbon nano-tubes by means of laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksengorn, B.

    2010-01-01

    A new mode for hydrogen adsorption and storage in single-wall carbon nano-tubes is used, on the basis of laser excitation. Remember that this method has been useful to obtain, in the case of the fullerene C 60 , many complex C 60 -atoms or C 60 -molecules, where atoms or molecular particles are trapped inside the C 60 -molecules. We think this method might be important to store many hydrogen molecules inside carbon nano-tubes. (author)

  12. Terminating DNA Tile Assembly with Nanostructured Caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Jiang, Ruoyu; Reinhart, Seth; Mohammed, Abdul M; Jorgenson, Tyler D; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-10-24

    Precise control over the nucleation, growth, and termination of self-assembly processes is a fundamental tool for controlling product yield and assembly dynamics. Mechanisms for altering these processes programmatically could allow the use of simple components to self-assemble complex final products or to design processes allowing for dynamic assembly or reconfiguration. Here we use DNA tile self-assembly to develop general design principles for building complexes that can bind to a growing biomolecular assembly and terminate its growth by systematically characterizing how different DNA origami nanostructures interact with the growing ends of DNA tile nanotubes. We find that nanostructures that present binding interfaces for all of the binding sites on a growing facet can bind selectively to growing ends and stop growth when these interfaces are presented on either a rigid or floppy scaffold. In contrast, nucleation of nanotubes requires the presentation of binding sites in an arrangement that matches the shape of the structure's facet. As a result, it is possible to build nanostructures that can terminate the growth of existing nanotubes but cannot nucleate a new structure. The resulting design principles for constructing structures that direct nucleation and termination of the growth of one-dimensional nanostructures can also serve as a starting point for programmatically directing two- and three-dimensional crystallization processes using nanostructure design.

  13. Superhydrophilic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zormpa, Vasileia; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-05-12

    An embodiment of a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are formed into porous clusters. The porous clusters are formed into aggregate clusters. An embodiment of an article of manufacture includes the superhydrophilic nanostructure on a substrate. An embodiment of a method of fabricating a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes applying a solution that includes nanoparticles to a substrate. The substrate is heated to form aggregate clusters of porous clusters of the nanoparticles.

  14. Sorption properties of carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eletskii, Aleksandr V

    2004-01-01

    The current status of research in sorption properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reviewed. The structural peculiarities of CNTs, determining their sorption characteristics, are considered. The mechanisms of sorption of gaseous and condensed substances by such structures are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the problem of using CNTs for storing hydrogen and other gaseous substances. Methods for filling CNTs with liquid materials, based on capillary phenomena and wetting the graphite surface of the CNT with liquids of various nature, are considered. Properties of 'peapods' formed as a result of filling single-walled CNTs with fullerene molecules are reviewed. Also considered are perspectives on the applied usage of the sorption properties of CNTs in electrochemical and fuel cells, and material storage devices, as well as for producing superminiature metallic conductors. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Polyaniline composites with fullerene C60

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sapurina, I. Yu.; Gribanov, A. V.; Mokeev, M. V.; Zgonnik, V. N.; Trchová, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2002), s. 574-575 ISSN 1063-7834. [International Workshop: Fullerenes and Atomic Clusters /5./. St. Petersburg, 02.06.2001-06.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0698; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : polyaniline-fullerene composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2002

  16. Ferromagnetism in metallocene-doped fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, D

    2003-01-01

    Ferromagnetism in fullerene-based systems doped with metallocenes is reviewed. These compounds form a ferromagnetic state by spin-coupling between pi electrons on fullerene units, while the metallocene molecules do not contribute to the spin ordering. One of these compounds has the highest critical temperature (19 K) for this class of compound. The magnetic properties of these materials are very strongly dependent on the crystallization conditions. Refs. 19 (author)

  17. Ferromagnetism in metallocene-doped fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Ferromagnetism in fullerene-based systems doped with metallocenes is reviewed. These compounds form a ferromagnetic state by spin-coupling between π electrons on fullerene units, while the metallocene molecules do not contribute to the spin ordering. One of these compounds has the highest critical temperature (19 K) for this class of compound. The magnetic properties of these materials are very strongly dependent on the crystallization conditions. Refs. 19 (author)

  18. Electronic properties of Bilayer Fullerene onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincak, R.; Shunaev, V. V.; Smotlacha, J.; Slepchenkov, M. M.; Glukhova, O. E.

    2017-10-01

    The HOMO-LUMO gaps of the bilayer fullerene onions were investigated. For this purpose, the HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated for the isolated fullerenes using the parametrization of the tight binding method with the Harrison-Goodwin modification. Next, the difference of the Fermi levels of the outer and inner shell was calculated by considering the hybridization of the orbitals on the base of the geometric parameters. The results were obtained by the combination of these calculations.

  19. Thermophoretic transport of water nanodroplets confined in carbon nanotubes: the role of friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Zambrano, Harvey

    The development of efficient nanofluidic devices requires driving mechanisms that provide controlled transport of fluids through nanoconduits. Temperature gradients have been proposed as a mechanism to drive particles, fullerenes and nanodroplets inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In this work, molecula...

  20. Photoinduced singlet and triplet energy transfer in fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, Paul A. van; Knol, Joop; Langeveld-Voss, Bea M.W.; Meskers, Stefan C.J.; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, René A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Photophysical properties of fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene (C60-nT-C60) triads with n = 3, 6, or 9 thiophene units have been investigated using photoinduced absorption (PIA) and (time-resolved) fluorescence spectroscopy in toluene and compared to mixtures of oligothiophenes (nT) with

  1. Photoinduced energy and electron transfer in fullerene- oligothiophene-fullerene triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, Paul A. van; Knol, Joop; Langeveld-Voss, Bea M.W.; Meskers, Stefan C.J.; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, René A.J.

    2000-01-01

    A series of fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene (C60-nT-C60) triads with n = 3, 6, or 9 thiophene units has been synthesized, and their photophysical properties have been studied using photoinduced absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in solution and in the solid state as thin films. The results

  2. Recent advances in fullerene superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Margadonna, S

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting transition temperatures in bulk chemically intercalated fulleride salts reach 33 K at ambient pressure and in hole-doped C sub 6 sub 0 derivatives in field-effect-transistor (FET) configurations, they reach 117 K. These advances pose important challenges for our understanding of high-temperature superconductivity in these highly correlated organic metals. Here we review the structures and properties of intercalated fullerides, paying particular attention to the correlation between superconductivity and interfullerene separation, orientational order/disorder, valence state, orbital degeneracy, low-symmetry distortions, and metal-C sub 6 sub 0 interactions. The metal-insulator transition at large interfullerene separations is discussed in detail. An overview is also given of the exploding field of gate-induced superconductivity of fullerenes in FET electronic devices.

  3. Nanostructured superconductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moshchalkov, V. V; Fritzsche, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    ... through nanostructuring and for developing a variety of novel fluxonics devices based on vortex manipulation. Nanostructuring can, in fact, create such conditions for the flux pinning by arrays of nanofabricated antidots or magnetic dots, which could maximize the second important superconducting critical parameter (critical current) up to its theoretical limit ...

  4. Nanotube junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    2003-01-01

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  5. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, M.D.; Alford, J. M.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2007-05-31

    The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for

  6. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  7. Structure comparison of nanotubes produced by different processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, P.; Miklosi, J.; Poczik, P.; Papp, K.; Palinkas, G.; Kalman, E. [IC CRC HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Konya, Z.; Kiricsi, I. [University of Szeged (Hungary)

    2001-04-01

    Several methods used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes have been developed in the last decade. The preparation techniques used, and their associated parameters, have an ultimate effect on the structure of the resulting nanotubes. Consequently, it is of great interest to compare the structure of carbon nanotubes synthesized by different techniques. We investigated a range of nanotubes of different origin by scanning probe microscopy (TM-AFM), and by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Three different types of nanotubes have been investigated: commercial SWNT and MWNT, MWNT (synthesized using a CCVD process) and its SiO{sub 2} coated variant, and nanostructures produced using an electrochemical method. A preparative technique is described and different tube parameters are measured. The quality of coated MWNT-s is investigated and nano-structured rings are revealed in samples obtained by electrolysis of molten salts on graphite electrodes. (orig.)

  8. NMR strategies to study the local magnetic properties of carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2012-02-01

    The local magnetic properties of the one dimensional inner space of the nanotubes are investigated using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of encapsulated fullerene molecules inside single walled carbon nanotubes. Isotope engineering and magnetically purified nanotubes have been advantageously used on our study to discriminate between the different diamagnetic and paramagnetic shifts of the resonances. Ring currents originating from the π electrons circulating on the nanotube, are found to actively screen the applied magnetic field by -36.9 ppm. Defects and holes in the nanotube walls cancel this screening locally. What is interesting, that at high magnetic fields, the modifications of the NMR resonances of the molecules from free to encapsulated can be exploited to determine some structural characteristics of the surrounding nanotubes, never observed experimentally. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-fullerene electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenekhe, Samson A.; Li, Haiyan; Earmme, Taeshik; Ren, Guoqiang

    2017-11-07

    Non-fullerene electron acceptors for highly efficient organic photovoltaic devices are described. The non-fullerene electron acceptors have an extended, rigid, .pi.-conjugated electron-deficient framework that can facilitate exciton and charge derealization. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can physically mix with a donor polymer and facilitate improved electron transport. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can be incorporated into organic electronic devices, such as photovoltaic cells.

  10. Bright-field electron tomography of individual inorganic fullerene-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sadan, Maya; Wolf, Sharon G; Houben, Lothar

    2010-03-01

    Nanotubes and fullerene-like nanoparticles of various inorganic layered compounds have been studied extensively in recent years. Their characterisation on the atomic scale has proven essential for progress in synthesis as well as for the theoretical modelling of their physical properties. We show that with electron tomography it is possible to achieve a reliable reconstruction of the 3D structure of nested WS(2) or MoS(2) fullerene-like and nanotube structures with sub-nanometre resolution using electron microscopes that are not aberration-corrected. Model-based simulations were used to identify imaging parameters, under which structural features such as the shell structure can be retained in the tomogram reconstructed from bright-field micrographs. The isolation of a particle out of an agglomerate for the analysis of a single structure and its interconnection with other particles is facilitated through the tomograms. The internal structure of the layers within the particle alongside the shape and content of its internal void are reconstructed. The tomographic reconstruction yields insights regarding the growth process as well as structural defects, such as non-continuous layers, which relate to the lubrication properties.

  11. Preparation of magnetite-fullerene nanocomposite with enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalska-Szostko, B; Rogowska, M

    2012-09-01

    This study presents modification of magnetite nanoparticles and fullerene for biocompatibility. It show also specific fabrication of magnetite-carbon nanocomposite with immobilized biomolecule. The composites were created by joining individual components step-by-step manner (fullerene to magnetite and glucose oxidase or glucose oxidase to magnetite and fullerene). The resulting nanocomposites were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  12. Atomistic Simulations of Fluid Flow through Graphene Channels and Carbon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A.; Walther, Jens Honore; Oyarzua, Elton E.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of aqueous solutions in artificial nanopores is of both fundamental and technological interest. Recently, carbon nano-structured materials (fullerenes) have attracted a great deal of attention in nanotechnology. In fact, due to their large specific surface area, high thermal conduct...

  13. Carbon-nanostructured materials for energy generation and storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Linkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed and refined a chemical vapour deposition method to synthesise nanotubes using liquid petroleum gasasthe carbonsource. The nanotubes were thoroughly characterised by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy
    X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The protocol to grow nanotubes was then adapted to deposit nanotubes on the surface of different substrates, which were chosen based upon how
    the substrates could be applied in various hydrogen energyconver-sion systems. Carbon nanotubes area nanostructured material with an extremely wide range of application sinvariousenergy applications. The methods outlined demonstrate the complete
    development of carbon nanotube composite materials with direct applications in hydrogen energy generation, storage and conversion.

  14. Manipulation and functionalization of nano-tubes: application to boron nitride nano-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguer, A.

    2007-01-01

    This PhD work is divided into two parts dealing with boron nitride (BNNT) and carbon nano-tubes. The first part is about synthesis, purification and chemical functionalization of BNNT. Single-walled BNNT are synthesized by LASER ablation of a hBN target. Improving the synthesis parameters first allowed us to limit the byproducts (hBN, boric acid). A specific purification process was then developed in order to enrich the samples in nano-tubes. Purified samples were then used to develop two new chemical functionalization methods. They both involve chemical molecules that present a high affinity towards the BN network. The use of long chain-substituted quinuclidines and borazines actually allowed the solubilization of BNNT in organic media. Purification and functionalization were developed for single-walled BNNT and were successfully applied to multi-walled BNNT. Sensibility of boron to thermic neutrons finally gave birth to a study about covalent functionalization possibilities of the network. The second part of the PhD work deals with separation of carbon nano-tubes depending on their properties. Microwave irradiation of carbon nano-tubes first allowed the enrichment of initially polydisperse samples in large diameter nano-tubes. A second strategy involving selective interaction between one type of tubes and fullerene micelles was finally envisaged to selectively solubilize carbon nano-tubes with specific electronic properties. (author) [fr

  15. A Review of Double-Walled and Triple-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Fujisawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs and TWNTs consist of coaxially-nested two and three single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs. They act as the geometrical bridge between SWNTs and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs, providing an ideal model for studying the coupling interactions between different shells in MWNTs. Within this context, this article comprehensively reviews various synthetic routes of DWNTs’ and TWNTs’ production, such as arc discharge, catalytic chemical vapor deposition and thermal annealing of pea pods (i.e., SWNTs encapsulating fullerenes. Their structural features, as well as promising applications and future perspectives are also discussed.

  16. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  17. Self assembly of amphiphilic C60 fullerene derivatives into nanoscale supramolecular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casscells S Ward

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiphilic fullerene monomer (AF-1 consists of a "buckyball" cage to which a Newkome-like dendrimer unit and five lipophilic C12 chains positioned octahedrally to the dendrimer unit are attached. In this study, we report a novel fullerene-based liposome termed 'buckysome' that is water soluble and forms stable spherical nanometer sized vesicles. Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS studies were used to characterize the different supra-molecular structures readily formed from the fullerene monomers under varying pH, aqueous solvents, and preparative conditions. Results Electron microscopy results indicate the formation of bilayer membranes with a width of ~6.5 nm, consistent with previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Cryo-EM indicates the formation of large (400 nm diameter multilamellar, liposome-like vesicles and unilamellar vesicles in the size range of 50–150 nm diameter. In addition, complex networks of cylindrical, tube-like aggregates with varying lengths and packing densities were observed. Under controlled experimental conditions, high concentrations of spherical vesicles could be formed. In vitro results suggest that these supra-molecular structures impose little to no toxicity. Cytotoxicity of 10–200 μM buckysomes were assessed in various cell lines. Ongoing studies are aimed at understanding cellular internalization of these nanoparticle aggregates. Conclusion In this current study, we have designed a core platform based on a novel amphiphilic fullerene nanostructure, which readily assembles into supra-molecular structures. This delivery vector might provide promising features such as ease of preparation, long-term stability and controlled release.

  18. Memory effect in the deposition of C20 fullerenes on a diamond surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, A. J.; Pan, Z. Y.; Ho, Y. K.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, Z. X.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, the deposition of C20 fullerenes on a diamond (001)-(2×1) surface and the fabrication of C20 thin film at 100 K were investigated by a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using the many-body Brenner bond order potential. First, we found that the collision dynamic of a single C20 fullerene on a diamond surface was strongly dependent on its impact energy. Within the energy range 10-45 eV, the C20 fullerene chemisorbed on the surface retained its free cage structure. This is consistent with the experimental observation, where it was called the memory effect in ``C20-type'' films [P. Melion et al., Int. J. Mod. B 9, 339 (1995); P. Milani et al., Cluster Beam Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials (Springer, Berlin, 1999)]. Next, more than one hundred C20 (10-25 eV) were deposited one after the other onto the surface. The initial growth stage of C20 thin film was observed to be in the three-dimensional island mode. The randomly deposited C20 fullerenes stacked on diamond surface and acted as building blocks forming a polymerlike structure. The assembled film was also highly porous due to cluster-cluster interaction. The bond angle distribution and the neighbor-atom-number distribution of the film presented a well-defined local order, which is of sp3 hybridization character, the same as that of a free C20 cage. These simulation results are again in good agreement with the experimental observation. Finally, the deposited C20 film showed high stability even when the temperature was raised up to 1500 K.

  19. Semiquantum molecular dynamics simulation of thermal properties and heat transport in low-dimensional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Alexander V.; Kosevich, Yuriy A.; Cantarero, Andres

    2012-08-01

    We present a detailed description of semiquantum molecular dynamics simulation of stochastic dynamics of a system of interacting particles. Within this approach, the dynamics of the system is described with the use of classical Newtonian equations of motion in which the effects of phonon quantum statistics are introduced through random Langevin-like forces with a specific power spectral density (the color noise). The color noise describes the interaction of the molecular system with the thermostat. We apply this technique to the simulation of thermal properties and heat transport in different low-dimensional nanostructures. We describe the determination of temperature in quantum lattice systems, to which the equipartition limit is not applied. We show that one can determine the temperature of such a system from the measured power spectrum and temperature- and relaxation-rate-independent density of vibrational (phonon) states. We simulate the specific heat and heat transport in carbon nanotubes, as well as the heat transport in molecular nanoribbons with perfect (atomically smooth) and rough (porous) edges, and in nanoribbons with strongly anharmonic periodic interatomic potentials. We show that the effects of quantum statistics of phonons are essential for the carbon nanotube in the whole temperature range T<500K, in which the values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity of the nanotube are considerably less than that obtained within the description based on classical statistics of phonons. This conclusion is also applicable to other carbon-based materials and systems with high Debye temperature like graphene, graphene nanoribbons, fullerene, diamond, diamond nanowires, etc. We show that the existence of rough edges and quantum statistics of phonons change drastically the low-temperature thermal conductivity of the nanoribbon in comparison with that of the nanoribbon with perfect edges and classical phonon dynamics and statistics. The semiquantum molecular

  20. Graphene macro-assembly-fullerene composite for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick G.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Merrill, Matthew; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Worsley, Marcus A.; Biener, Monika M.; Hernandez, Maira Raquel Ceron

    2018-01-16

    Disclosed here is a method for producing a graphene macro-assembly (GMA)-fullerene composite, comprising providing a GMA comprising a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, and incorporating at least 20 wt. % of at least one fullerene compound into the GMA based on the initial weight of the GMA to obtain a GMA-fullerene composite. Also described are a GMA-fullerene composite produced, an electrode comprising the GMA-fullerene composite, and a supercapacitor comprising the electrode and optionally an organic or ionic liquid electrolyte in contact with the electrode.

  1. Fascinating serendipity some adventures in fullerene chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.; Rauch, H.

    2001-01-01

    The lecture is divided to four chapters. Chapter one gives a short overview on the notion of serendipity and the serendipitous discovery of the fullerenes, the third allotropic form of carbon and will try to highlight why this discovery can be considered a revolution in chemistry. The second and third chapters present some results of the author's research group. Neutron irradiation of C 60 in a nuclear reactor has also made possible the serendipitous discovery of a new procedure for synthesis of endohedral C 60 compounds exemplified by the synthesis of many endohedral radio-fullerenes of * X at C 60 type. The fourth chapter of the lecture deals with 'Capture-captive chemistry' as a new typology for molecular containers including fullerenes. (author)

  2. Potential of AlN nanostructures as hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Sun, Qiang; Jena, Puru; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-03-24

    The capability of AlN nanostructures (nanocages, nanocones, nanotubes, and nanowires) to store hydrogen has been studied using gradient-corrected density functional theory. In contrast to bulk AlN, which has the wurtzite structure and four-fold coordination, the Al sites in AlN nanostructures are unsaturated and have two- and three-fold coordination. Each Al atom is capable of binding one H(2) molecule in quasi-molecular form, leading to 4.7 wt % hydrogen, irrespective of the topology of the nanostructures. With the exception of AlN nanotubes, energetics does not support the adsorption of additional hydrogen. The binding energies of hydrogen to these unsaturated metal sites lie in the range of 0.1-0.2 eV/H(2) and are ideal for applications under ambient thermodynamic conditions. Furthermore, these materials do not suffer from the clustering problem that often plagues metal-coated carbon nanostructures.

  3. Fabrication of nylon/fullerene polymer memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayan, Manuvel; Davis, Rosemary; Karthik, M. P.; Devika, K.; Kumar, G. Vijay; Sriraj, B.; Predeep, P.

    2017-06-01

    Two terminal Organic memories in passive matrix array form with device structure, Al/Nylon/ (Nylon+C60)/Nylon/ Al are fabricated. The current-voltage measurements showed hysteresis and the devices are thoroughly characterized for write-read-erase-read cycles. The control over the dispersion concentration, capacity of fullerene to readily accept electrons and the constant diameter of fullerene made possible uniform device fabrication with reproducible results. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the device thickness remained uniform in the range of 19 micrometers.

  4. Laser controlled magnetism in hydrogenated fullerene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, Tatiana L.; Shelankov, Andrei L.; Kvyatkovskii, Oleg E.; Zakharova, Irina B.; Buga, Sergei G.; Volkov, Aleksandr P.

    2011-01-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior in fullerene photopolymerized films treated with monatomic hydrogen is reported. The hydrogen treatment controllably varies the paramagnetic spin concentration and laser induced polymerization transforms the paramagnetic phase to a ferromagnetic-like one. Excess laser irradiation destroys magnetic ordering, presumably due to structural changes, which was continuously monitored by Raman spectroscopy. We suggest an interpretation of the data based on first-principles density-functional spin-unrestricted calculations which show that the excess spin from mono-atomic hydrogen is delocalized within the host fullerene and the laser-induced polymerization promotes spin exchange interaction and spin alignment in the polymerized phase.

  5. Fullerene/photosensitizer nanovesicles as highly efficient and clearable phototheranostics with enhanced tumor accumulation for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mirong; Ge, Jiechao; Wu, Jingyi; Zhang, Guoqiang; Chen, Daiqin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Zou, Toujun; Zhen, Mingming; Wang, Chunru; Chu, Taiwei; Hao, Xiaojuan; Shu, Chunying

    2016-10-01

    A novel phototheranostic platform based on tri-malonate derivative of fullerene C70 (TFC70)/photosensitizer (Chlorin e6, Ce6) nanovesicles (FCNVs) has been developed for effective tumor imaging and treatment. The FCNVs were prepared from amphiphilic TFC70-oligo ethylene glycol -Ce6 molecules. The developed FCNVs possessed the following advantages: (i) high loading efficiency of Ce6 (up to ∼57 wt%); (ii) efficient absorption in near-infrared light region; (iii) enhanced cellular uptake efficiency of Ce6 in vitro and in vivo; (iv) good biocompatibility and total clearance out from the body. These unique properties suggest that the as-prepared FCNVs could be applied as an ideal theranostic agent for simultaneous imaging and photodynamic therapy of tumor. This finding may provide a good solution to highly efficient phototheranostic applications based on fullerene derivatives fabricated nanostructures. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Vanadium Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livage, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    A wide range of vanadium oxides have been obtained via the hydrothermal treatment of aqueous V(V) solutions. They exhibit a large variety of nanostructures ranging from molecular clusters to 1D and 2D layered compounds. Nanotubes are obtained via a self-rolling process while amazing morphologies such as nano-spheres, nano-flowers and even nano-urchins are formed via the self-assembling of nano-particles. This paper provides some correlation between the molecular structure of precursors in the solution and the nanostructure of the solid phases obtained by hydrothermal treatment. PMID:28883325

  7. Production and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanotube-Based Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pavel; Arepalli, Sivaram; Holmes, William; Gorelik, Olga; Files, Brad; Scott, Carl; Santos, Beatrice; Mayeaux, Brian; Victor, Joe

    1999-01-01

    The Nobel Prize winning discovery of the Buckuball (C60) in 1985 at Rice University by a group including Dr. Richard Smalley led to the whole new class of carbon allotropes including fullerenes and nanotubes. Especially interesting from many viewpoints are single-walled carbon nanotubes, which structurally are like a single graphitic sheet wrapped around a cylinder and capped at the ends. This cylinders have diameter as small as 0.5 - 2 nm (1/100,000th the diameter of a human hair) and are as long as 0.1 - 1 mm. Nanotubes are really individual molecules and believed to be defect-free, leading to high tensile strength despite their low density. Additionally, these fibers exhibit electrical conductivity as high as copper, thermal conductivity as high as diamond, strength 100 times higher than steel at one-sixth the weight, and high strain to failure. Thus it is believed that developments in the field of nanotechnology will lead to stronger and lighter composite materials for next generation spacecraft. Lack of a bulk method of production is the primary reason nanotubes are not used widely today. Toward this goal JSC nanotube team is exploring three distinct production techniques: laser ablation, arc discharge and chemical vapor deposition (CVD, in collaboration with Rice University). In laser ablation technique high-power laser impinges on the piece of carbon containing small amount of catalyst, and nanotubes self-assemble from the resulting carbon vapor. In arc generator similar vapor is created in arc discharge between carbon electrodes with catalyst. In CVD method nanotubes grow at much lower temperature on small catalyst particles from carbon-containing feedstock gas (methane or carbon monoxide). As of now, laser ablation produces cleanest material, but mass yield is rather small. Arc discharge produces grams of material, but purity is low. CVD technique is still in baby steps, but preliminary results look promising, as well as perspective of scaling the process

  8. Micro-‘‘factory’’ for self-assembled peptide nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime; Rodriguez-Trujíllo, Romén; Gauthier, Sébastian

    2011-01-01

    nanostructures due to the mild conditions of their synthesis process. This biological material can form nanostructures in a rapid way and the synthesis method is less expensive as compared to that of carbon nanotubes or silicon nanowires. The present article thus reports on the on-chip fabrication of self...

  9. Biomolecule-based nanomaterials and nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Itamar; Willner, Bilha

    2010-10-13

    Biomolecule-nanoparticle (or carbon nanotube) hybrid systems provide new materials that combine the unique optical, electronic, or catalytic properties of the nanoelements with the recognition or biocatalytic functions of biomolecules. This article summarizes recent applications of biomolecule-nanoparticle (or carbon nanotubes) hybrid systems for sensing, synthesis of nanostructures, and for the fabrication of nanoscale devices. The use of metallic nanoparticles for the electrical contacting of redox enzymes with electrodes, and as catalytic labels for the development of electrochemical biosensors is discussed. Similarly, biomolecule-quantum dot hybrid systems are implemented for optical biosensing, and for monitoring intracellular metabolic processes. Also, the self-assembly of biomolecule-metal nanoparticle hybrids into nanostructures and functional nanodevices is presented. The future perspectives of the field are addressed by discussing future challenges and highlighting different potential applications.

  10. Silver nanowires - unique templates for functional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yugang

    2010-09-01

    This feature article reviews the synthesis and application of silver nanowires with the focus on a polyol process that is capable of producing high quality silver nanowires with high yield. The as-synthesized silver nanowires can be used as both physical templates for the synthesis of metal/dielectric core/shell nanowires and chemical templates for the synthesis of metal nanotubes as well as semiconductor nanowires. Typical examples including Ag/SiO2 coaxial nanocables, single- and multiple-walled nanotubes made of Au-Ag alloy, AgCl nanowires and AgCl/Au core/shell nanowires are discussed in detail to illustrate the versatility of nanostructures derived from silver nanowire templates. Novel properties associated with these one-dimensional nanostructures are also briefly discussed to shed the light on their potential applications in electronics, photonics, optoelectronics, catalysis, and medicine.

  11. Electronic stopping in ion-fullerene collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlathölter, T.A.; Hadjar, O.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Morgenstern, R.W.H.

    The electronic friction experienced by a multiply charged ion interacting with the valence electrons of a single fullerene is an important aspect of the collision dynamics. It manifests itself in a considerable loss of projectile kinetic energy transferred to the target, resulting in excitation. The

  12. Thiamakrocykly pro komplexaci fullerenů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holý, Petr; Buchta, Michal; Rybáček, Jiří; Závada, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 9 (2009), s. 186-187 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /61./. 07.09.2009-11.09.2009, Tatranské Matliare] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : makrocycles * alkylation * fullerenes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Spectroscopy on Polymer-Fullerene Photovoltaic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakonov, V.; Riedel, I.; Godovsky, D.; Parisi, J.; Ceuster, J. De; Goovaerts, E.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the electrical transport properties of ITO/conjugated polymer-fullerene/Al photovoltaic cells and the role of defect states with current-voltage studies, admittance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance technique. In the temperature range 293-40K, the characteristic step in the

  14. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7 ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  15. Fullerenes, PAHs, Amino Acids and High Energy Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Iglesias-Groth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present theoretical, observational and laboratory work on the spectral properties of fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes. Fullerenes in its various forms (individual, endohedral, hydrogenated, etc. can contribute to the UV bump in the extinction curves measured in many lines of sight of the Galaxy. They can also produce a large number of absorption features in the optical and near infrared which could be associated with diffuse interstellar bands. We summarise recent laboratory work on the spectral characterisation of fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes (for a range of temperatures. The recent detection of mid-IR bands of fullerenes in various astrophysical environments (planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae provide additional evidence for a link between fullerene families and diffuse interstellar bands. We describe recent observational work on near IR bands of C60+ in a protoplanetary nebula which support fullerene formation during the post-AGB phase. We also report on the survival of fullerenes to irradiation by high energy particles and gamma photons and laboratory work to explore the chemical  reactions that take place when fullerenes are exposed to this radiations in the presence of water, ammonia and other molecules as a potential path to form amino acids.

  16. Storage of hydrogen in nanostructured carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda; Taralp, Alpay; Veziroğlu, T. Nejat; Veziroglu, T. Nejat

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments focusing on novel hydrogen storage media have helped to benchmark nanostructured carbon materials as one of the ongoing strategic research areas in science and technology. In particular, certain microporous carbon powders, carbon nanomaterials, and specifically carbon nanotubes stand to deliver unparalleled performance as the next generation of base materials for storing hydrogen. Accordingly, the main goal of this report is to overview the challenges, distinguishing trait...

  17. Search for fullerenes in stone meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oester, M. Y.; Kuechl, D.; Sipiera, P. P.; Welch, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    The possibility of identifying fullerenes in stony meteorites became apparent from a paper given by Radicati de Brozolo. In this paper it was reported that fullerenes were present in the debris resulting from a collision between a micrometeoroid and an orbiting satellite. This fact generated sufficient curiosity to initiate a search for the presence of fullerenes in various stone meteorites. In the present study seven ordinary chondrites (al-Ghanim L6 (find), Dimmitt H4 (find), Lazbuddie LL5 (find), New Concord H5 (fall), Silverton H4 (find), Springlake L6 (find), and Umbarger L3/6 (find)). Four carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 83100 C2 (find), ALH 83108 C30 (find), Allende CV3 (fall), and Murchison CM2 (fall), and one achondrite (Monticello How (find)) were analyzed for the presence of fullerenes. The analytical procedure employed was as follows: 100 mg of meteorite was ground up with a mortar and pestle; 10 mL of toluene was then added and the mixture was refluxed for 90 min; this mixture was then filtered through a short column of silica; a 50 microliter sample was then analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Buckyclutcher I column with a mobile phase consisting of equal volumes of toluene and hexane at a flow rate of 1.00 mg per minute, with detection at 330 and 600 nm. Three of the meteorites, Allende, Murchison, and al-Ghanim, gave HPLC traces containing peaks with similar retention times to the HPLC trace of an authentic fullerene C60. However, further analysis using an HPLC instrument equipped with a diode-array detector failed to confirm any of the substances detected in the three meteorites as C60. Additional analyses will be conducted to identify what the HPLC traces actually represent.

  18. On the increasing of adhesive strength of nanotube layers on beta titanium alloys for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fojt, Jaroslav, E-mail: fojtj@vscht.cz; Filip, Vladimir; Joska, Ludek

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanostructured surface on Ti–36Nb–6Ta alloy was prepared by anodic oxidation. • The nanotubes properties were modified by electrochemical process parameters. • The composition and mechanical properties of the anodized surface were investigated. • The adhesive strength of the nanostructures was over 30 MPa. - Abstract: The nanostructuring of titanium and its alloys surfaces is used inter alia for increasing the medical implants osseointegration. Many papers about this topic were published. However, in most cases there were no informations about nanostructures adhesion to the surface, which is crucial from the application point of view. The aim of this study was to prepare nanostructures on titanium beta alloy and optimized its adhesion to the alloy surface. Nanotubes were formed by anodic polarization in electrolyte containing fluoride ions. The composition of the nanotubes was described by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nanostructures adhesion was tested by pull-of method. The nanotubes on the Ti–36Nb–6Ta beta alloy surface were prepared by anodization. The nanostructures properties were modified by electrochemical process parameters. The adhesion of the nanotubes prepared in this work was satisfactory for implantological applications.

  19. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Reyes, M.; Lopez-Sandoval, R.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Garibay-Alonso, R.; Carroll, D.L.; Lastras-Martinez, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam

  20. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)], E-mail: reyesm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garibay-Alonso, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem NC 27109 (United States); Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanohybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Sfuncia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    In this work a purification method for carbon nanotubes was first developed. Purified nanotubes were characterized by AFM, TGA, RAMAN, NIR-PL and then used to prepare composite materials in conjunction with semiconducting polymers. Electrical and optical properties of this composite material were investigated and finally a nanostructuring technique able to create thin hybrid films with nanoscale phase separation was developed.

  2. Non-Fullerene Electron Acceptors for Use in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian B.

    2015-10-27

    The active layer in a solution processed organic photovoltaic device comprises a light absorbing electron donor semiconductor, typically a polymer, and an electron accepting fullerene acceptor. Although there has been huge effort targeted to optimize the absorbing, energetic, and transport properties of the donor material, fullerenes remain as the exclusive electron acceptor in all high performance devices. Very recently, some new non-fullerene acceptors have been demonstrated to outperform fullerenes in comparative devices. This Account describes this progress, discussing molecular design considerations and the structure–property relationships that are emerging. The motivation to replace fullerene acceptors stems from their synthetic inflexibility, leading to constraints in manipulating frontier energy levels, as well as poor absorption in the solar spectrum range, and an inherent tendency to undergo postfabrication crystallization, resulting in device instability. New acceptors have to address these limitations, providing tunable absorption with high extinction coefficients, thus contributing to device photocurrent. The ability to vary and optimize the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level for a specific donor polymer is also an important requirement, ensuring minimal energy loss on electron transfer and as high an internal voltage as possible. Initially perylene diimide acceptors were evaluated as promising acceptor materials. These electron deficient aromatic molecules can exhibit good electron transport, facilitated by close packed herringbone crystal motifs, and their energy levels can be synthetically tuned. The principal drawback of this class of materials, their tendency to crystallize on too large a length scale for an optimal heterojunction nanostructure, has been shown to be overcome through introduction of conformation twisting through steric effects. This has been primarily achieved by coupling two units together, forming dimers

  3. Heterogeneous electron transfer and oxygen reduction reaction at nanostructured iron(II) phthalocyanine and its MWCNTs nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mamuru, SA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Electron transfer and oxygen reduction dynamics at nanostructured iron(II) phthalocyanine/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite supported on an edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPPGE-MWCNT-nanoFePc) platform have been reported. All...

  4. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mihaela eTilmaciu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  6. Carbon nanotube biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîlmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites, or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we describe their structural and physical properties, functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers. PMID:26579509

  7. Carbon nanotubes and methods of forming same at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biris, Alexandru S.; Dervishi, Enkeleda

    2017-05-02

    In one aspect of the invention, a method for growth of carbon nanotubes includes providing a graphitic composite, decorating the graphitic composite with metal nanostructures to form graphene-contained powders, and heating the graphene-contained powders at a target temperature to form the carbon nanotubes in an argon/hydrogen environment that is devoid of a hydrocarbon source. In one embodiment, the target temperature can be as low as about 150.degree. C. (.+-.5.degree. C.).

  8. DNA-based Artificial Nanostructures: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Young; Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Table of Content 1. Introduction 2. DNA fundamentals 3. Attachment of DNA to surface 4. Fabrication of nanostructures using DNA 4.1 Nanostructures of pure DNA 4.2 DNA-based assembly of metal nanoparticles 4.3 Construction of semiconductor particle arrays using DNA 4.4 DNA-directed nanowires 4.5 DNA-functionalized carbon nanotubes 4.6 Field-transistor based on DNA 4.7 Nanofabrication using artificial DNA 5. DNA-based nanostructures as biosensors 6. Properties of DNA-linked gold nanoparticles 6...

  9. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  10. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle

    2008-07-15

    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  11. Nanoparticle/nanotube-based nanoelectronic devices and chemically-directed assembly thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard K [Cypress, TX

    2011-02-22

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a nanoelectronic device based on a nanostructure that may include a nanotube with first and second ends, a metallic nanoparticle attached to the first end, and an insulating nanoparticle attached to the second end. The nanoelectronic device may include additional nanostructures so a to form a plurality of nanostructures comprising the first nanostructure and the additional nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures may arranged in a network comprising a plurality of edges and a plurality of vertices, wherein each edge comprises a nanotube and each vertex comprises at least one insulating nanoparticle and at least one metallic nanoparticle adjacent the insulating nanoparticle. The combination of at least one edge and at least one vertex comprises a diode. The device may be an optical rectenna.

  12. Transport and dynamics of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue

    This thesis is concerned with the heating and electronic properties of nanoscale devices based on nanostructured graphene. As electronic devices scale down to nanometer dimensions, the operation depends on the detailed atomic structure. Emerging carbon nano-materials such as graphene, carbon...... nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, exhibit promising electronic and heat transport properties. Much research addresses the electron mobility of pristine graphene devices. However, the thermal transport properties, as well as the effects of e-ph interaction, in nanoscale devices, based on nanostructured...... graphene, have received much less attention. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the thermal properties of nanostructured graphene. The computational analysis is based on DFT/TB-NEGF. We show how a regular nanoperforation of a graphene layer - a graphene antidot lattice (GAL) - may...

  13. Einstein relation in compound semiconductors and their nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Sitangshu

    2008-01-01

    Deals with the Einstein relation in compound semiconductors and their nanostructures. This book considers materials such as nonlinear optical, III-V, ternary, quaternary, II-VI, IV-VI, Bismuth, stressed compounds, quantum wells, quantum wires, nipi structures, carbon nanotubes, heavily doped semiconductors, and inversion layers.

  14. Electron transport in doped fullerene molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Milanpreet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    The effect of doping on the electron transport of molecular junctions is analyzed in this paper. The doped fullerene molecules are stringed to two semi-infinite gold electrodes and analyzed at equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions of these device configurations. The contemplation is done using nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF)-density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate its density of states (DOS), transmission coefficient, molecular orbitals, electron density, charge transfer, current, and conductance. We conclude from the elucidated results that Au-C16Li4-Au and Au-C16Ne4-Au devices behave as an ordinary p-n junction diode and a Zener diode, respectively. Moreover, these doped fullerene molecules do not lose their metallic nature when sandwiched between the pair of gold electrodes.

  15. Lateral translation of covalently bound fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphry, M J; Beton, P H; Keeling, D L; Fawcett, R H J; Moriarty, P; Butcher, M J; Birkett, P R; Walton, D R M; Taylor, R; Kroto, H W

    2006-01-01

    Lateral manipulation of fullerenes on clean silicon surfaces may be induced by either an attractive or repulsive interaction between adsorbed molecules and the tip of a scanning probe microscope, and can result in a complex response arising from molecular rolling. The model for rolling is supported by new results which show that manipulation is suppressed for adsorbed functionalized fullerenes due to the presence of phenyl sidegroups. The influence of varying the dwell time of the tip during manipulation is also reported. By reducing this time to a value which is less than the response time of the feedback control loop it is possible to induce manipulation in a quasi-constant height mode which is accompanied by large increases/decreases in current

  16. Boron hydride analogues of the fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quong, A.A.; Pederson, M.R.; Broughton, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The BH moiety is isoelectronic with C. We have studied the stability of the (BH) 60 analogue of the C 60 fullerene as well as the dual-structure (BH) 32 icosahedron, both of them being putative structures, by performing local-density-functional electronic calculations. To aid in our analysis, we have also studied other homologues of these systems. We find that the latter, i.e., the dual structure, is the more stable although the former is as stable as one of the latter's lower homologues. Boron hydrides, it seems, naturally form the dual structures used in algorithmic optimization of complex fullerene systems. Fully relaxed geometries are reported as well as electron affinities and effective Hubbard U parameters. These systems form very stable anions and we conclude that a search for BH analogues of the C 60 alkali-metal supeconductors might prove very fruitful

  17. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    The use of nanomaterials in separation science has increased rapidly in the last decade. The reason for this is to take advantage of the unique properties of these materials, such as a very high surface-to-volume ratio and favourable sorbent behaviour. Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon...... surface can furthermore be used directly as a stationary phase in reverse-phase separations, thereby avoiding subsequent functionalization of the nanostructures. This significantly reduces the fabrication time and possibly also increases the reproducibility of the column performance. In this presentation......, microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis...

  18. Nanotube cathodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  19. Nanotube cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  20. In silico assembly and nanomechanical characterization of carbon nanotube buckypaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranford, Steven W; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotube sheets or films, also known as 'buckypaper', have been proposed for use in actuating, structural and filtration systems, based in part on their unique and robust mechanical properties. Computational modeling of such a fibrous nanostructure is hindered by both the random arrangement of the constituent elements as well as the time- and length-scales accessible to atomistic level molecular dynamics modeling. Here we present a novel in silico assembly procedure based on a coarse-grain model of carbon nanotubes, used to attain a representative mesoscopic buckypaper model that circumvents the need for probabilistic approaches. By variation in assembly parameters, including the initial nanotube density and ratio of nanotube type (single- and double-walled), the porosity of the resulting buckypaper can be varied threefold, from approximately 0.3 to 0.9. Further, through simulation of nanoindentation, the Young's modulus is shown to be tunable through manipulation of nanotube type and density over a range of approximately 0.2-3.1 GPa, in good agreement with experimental findings of the modulus of assembled carbon nanotube films. In addition to carbon nanotubes, the coarse-grain model and assembly process can be adapted for other fibrous nanostructures such as electrospun polymeric composites, high performance nonwoven ballistic materials, or fibrous protein aggregates, facilitating the development and characterization of novel nanomaterials and composites as well as the analysis of biological materials such as protein fiber films and bulk structures.

  1. Redox potentials and binding enhancement of fullerene and fullerene-cyclodextrin systems in water and dimethylsulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Gál, Miroslav; Kocábová, Jana; Sokolová, Romana; Filippone, S.; Yang, J.; Guan, Z.; Rassat, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2010), s. 153-162 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA ČR GA203/08/1157; GA ČR GP203/09/P502; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk ME09114; GA MŠk OC 140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : electrochemistry * fullerenes * fullerene- cyclodextrin systems Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.893, year: 2010

  2. A bottom-up approach for the synthesis of highly ordered fullerene-intercalated graphene hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios eGournis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research effort on graphene focuses on its use as a building block for the development of new hybrid nanostructures with well-defined dimensions and properties suitable for applications such as gas storage, heterogeneous catalysis, gas/liquid separations, nanosensing and biomedicine. Towards this aim, here we describe a new bottom-up approach, which combines self-assembly with the Langmuir Schaefer deposition technique to synthesize graphene-based layered hybrid materials hosting fullerene molecules within the interlayer space. Our film preparation consists in a bottom-up layer-by-layer process that proceeds via the formation of a hybrid organo-graphene oxide Langmuir film. The structure and composition of these hybrid fullerene-containing thin multilayers deposited on hydrophobic substrates were characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, atomic force microscopy and conductivity measurements. The latter revealed that the presence of C60 within the interlayer spacing leads to an increase in electrical conductivity of the hybrid material as compared to the organo-graphene matrix alone.

  3. C60fullerene as promising therapeutic agent for correcting and preventing skeletal muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prylutskyy, Yurij I; Vereshchaka, Inna V; Maznychenko, Andriy V; Bulgakova, Nataliya V; Gonchar, Olga O; Kyzyma, Olena A; Ritter, Uwe; Scharff, Peter; Tomiak, Tomasz; Nozdrenko, Dmytro M; Mishchenko, Iryna V; Kostyukov, Alexander I

    2017-01-13

    Bioactive soluble carbon nanostructures, such as the C 60 fullerene can bond with up to six electrons, thus serving by a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species similarly to many natural antioxidants, widely used to decrease the muscle fatigue effects. The aim of the study is to define action of the pristine C 60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C 60 FAS), on the post-fatigue recovering of m. triceps surae in anaesthetized rats. During fatigue development, we observed decrease in the muscle effort level before C 60 FAS administration. After the application of C 60 FAS, a slower effort decrease, followed by the prolonged retention of a certain level, was recorded. An analysis of the metabolic process changes accompanying muscle fatigue showed an increase in the oxidative stress markers H 2 O 2 (hydrogen peroxide) and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in relation to the intact muscles. After C 60 FAS administration, the TBARS content and H 2 O 2 level were decreased. The endogenous antioxidant system demonstrated a similar effect because the GSH (reduced glutathione) in the muscles and the CAT (catalase) enzyme activity were increased during fatigue. C 60 FAS leads to reduction in the recovery time of the muscle contraction force and to increase in the time of active muscle functioning before appearance of steady fatigue effects. Therefore, it is possible that C 60 FAS affects the prooxidant-antioxidant muscle tissue homeostasis, subsequently increasing muscle endurance.

  4. Metal Nanoparticles and Carbon-Based Nanostructures as Advanced Materials for Cathode Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Calandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the most advanced methods for the fabrication of cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells employing nanostructured materials. The attention is focused on metal nanoparticles and nanostructured carbon, among which nanotubes and graphene, whose good catalytic properties make them ideal for the development of counter electrode substrates, transparent conducting oxide, and advanced catalyst materials.

  5. Spontaneous growth of the polyhedral fullerene crystals in the supersaturated Ni-C(60) composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacík, Jiří; Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Michalcová, A.; Abe, H.; Horák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 509, č. 1 (2011), S380-S383 ISSN 0925-8388. [17th International Symposium on Metastable, Amorphous and Nanostructured Materials (ISMANAM 2010). Zurich, 04.09.2010-09.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/11/1856; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400320901; GA AV ČR IAA200480702; GA ČR GA106/09/1264; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Nickel * Fullerenes * Phase separation * Polyhedral particles Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.289, year: 2011

  6. Heterostructures based on graphene and MoS2 layers decorated by C60 fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernozatonskii, Leonid A.; Kvashnin, Alexander G.; Sorokin, Pavel B.

    2016-09-01

    Here we present a comprehensive investigation of various novel composite structures based on graphene (G) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) monolayers decorated by C60 fullerenes, which can be successfully applied in photovoltaics as a solar cell unit. Theoretical studies of the atomic structure, stability and electronic properties of the proposed G/C60, MoS2/C60 and G/MoS2/C60/G nanostructures were carried out. We show that making the G/MoS2/C60/G heterostructure from the 2D films considered here will lead to the appearance of particular properties suitable for application in photovoltaics due to the broad energetic region of high electronic density of states.

  7. Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using phenylacetylene based rigid-rod linkers (PhA), we have successfully synthesized two fullerene derivatives, C60-PhA and C60-PhA-C60. The absorption spectral features of C60, as well as that of the phenylacetylene moiety are retained in the monomeric forms of these fullerene derivatives, ruling out the possibility ...

  8. Fullerene as alligator clips for electrical conduction through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-20

    Apr 20, 2017 ... Therefore, in order to observe the increased conduction of a molecular junction formed by fullerene alligator clips, we considered anthracene, a polyaromatic molecule sandwiched between two gold electrodes with interface being X-20 fullerene, where. X represents boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine.

  9. Fullerene as alligator clips for electrical conduction through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-20

    Apr 20, 2017 ... presented the suitability of fullerene anchoring in coupling anthracene molecule with gold electrodes. AMJ with boron-20 (B-20) and C-20 alligator clips exhibited strongest conduction in contrast to nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and neon alligator clips. Keywords. HOMO; LUMO; fullerenes; alligator clips; ...

  10. Thermodynamics of association of water soluble fullerene derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SONANKI KESHRI

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... The biolog- ical and medical interactions and effects of fullerenes and modified fullerenes are dependent upon the nature of their hydrophobic hydration and hydrophobic inter- action in aqueous environments. There are only few experimental studies on the solubility of fullerols in aqueous media. Recently ...

  11. Thermodynamics of association of water soluble fullerene derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SONANKI KESHRI

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Abstract. The thermodynamics of association of fullerene [C60] and water-soluble fullerene derivatives, i.e., fullerols [C60(OH)n, where, n = 2, 4, 8, 12] in aqueous solutions have been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The potentials of mean force (PMFs) bring out the tendency of aggregation ...

  12. Nanotribological performance of fullerene-like carbon nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Ruiz, Francisco Javier; Enriquez-Flores, Christian Ivan; Chiñas-Castillo, Fernando; Espinoza-Beltrán, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fullerene-like CNx samples show an elastic recovery of 92.5% and 94.5% while amorphous CNx samples had only 75% elastic recovery. • Fullerene-like CNx films show an increment of 34.86% and 50.57% in fractions of C 1s and N 1s. • Fullerene-like CNx samples show a lower friction coefficient compared to amorphous CNx samples. • Friction reduction characteristics of fullerene-like CNx films are strongly related to the increase of sp 3 CN bonds. - Abstract: Fullerene-like carbon nitride films exhibit high elastic modulus and low friction coefficient. In this study, thin CNx films were deposited on silicon substrate by DC magnetron sputtering and the tribological behavior at nanoscale was evaluated using an atomic force microscope. Results show that CNx films with fullerene-like structure have a friction coefficient (CoF ∼ 0.009–0.022) that is lower than amorphous CNx films (CoF ∼ 0.028–0.032). Analysis of specimens characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that films with fullerene-like structure have a higher number of sp 3 CN bonds and exhibit the best mechanical properties with high values of elastic modulus (E > 180 GPa) and hardness (H > 20 GPa). The elastic recovery determined on specimens with a fullerene-like CNx structure was of 95% while specimens of amorphous CNx structure had only 75% elastic recovery

  13. Nanotribological performance of fullerene-like carbon nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Ruiz, Francisco Javier; Enriquez-Flores, Christian Ivan [Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV) IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Lib. Norponiente 2000, Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230, Querétaro, Qro., México (Mexico); Chiñas-Castillo, Fernando, E-mail: fernandochinas@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Tecnológico de Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Oax. Calz. Tecnológico No. 125, CP. 68030, Oaxaca, Oax. (Mexico); Espinoza-Beltrán, Francisco Javier [Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV) IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Lib. Norponiente 2000, Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230, Querétaro, Qro., México (Mexico)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Fullerene-like CNx samples show an elastic recovery of 92.5% and 94.5% while amorphous CNx samples had only 75% elastic recovery. • Fullerene-like CNx films show an increment of 34.86% and 50.57% in fractions of C 1s and N 1s. • Fullerene-like CNx samples show a lower friction coefficient compared to amorphous CNx samples. • Friction reduction characteristics of fullerene-like CNx films are strongly related to the increase of sp{sup 3} CN bonds. - Abstract: Fullerene-like carbon nitride films exhibit high elastic modulus and low friction coefficient. In this study, thin CNx films were deposited on silicon substrate by DC magnetron sputtering and the tribological behavior at nanoscale was evaluated using an atomic force microscope. Results show that CNx films with fullerene-like structure have a friction coefficient (CoF ∼ 0.009–0.022) that is lower than amorphous CNx films (CoF ∼ 0.028–0.032). Analysis of specimens characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that films with fullerene-like structure have a higher number of sp{sup 3} CN bonds and exhibit the best mechanical properties with high values of elastic modulus (E > 180 GPa) and hardness (H > 20 GPa). The elastic recovery determined on specimens with a fullerene-like CNx structure was of 95% while specimens of amorphous CNx structure had only 75% elastic recovery.

  14. Platinum–Vanadium Oxide Nanotube Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández EduardoPadrón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present contribution reports on the features of platinum-based systems supported on vanadium oxide nanotubes. The synthesis of nanotubes was carried out using a commercial vanadium pentoxide via hydrothermal route. The nanostructured hybrid materials were prepared by wet impregnation using two different platinum precursors. The formation of platinum nanoparticles was evaluated by applying distinct reduction procedures. All nanostructured samples were essentially analysed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. After reduction, transmission electron microscopy also made it possible to estimate particle size distribution and mean diameter calculations. It could be seen that all reduction procedures did not affect the nanostructure of the supports and that the formation of metallic nanoparticles is quite efficient with an indistinct distribution along the nanotubes. Nevertheless, the reduction procedure determined the diameter, dispersion and shape of the metallic particles. It could be concluded that the use of H2PtCl6 is more suitable and that the use of hydrogen as reducing agent leads to a nanomaterial with unagglomerated round-shaped metallic particles with mean size of 6–7 nm.

  15. Intercalated vs Non-Intercalated Morphologies in Donor-Acceptor Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: PBTTT:Fullerene Charge Generation and Recombination Revisited

    KAUST Repository

    Collado Fregoso, Elisa

    2017-08-04

    In this contribution, we study the role of the donor:acceptor interface nanostructure upon charge separation and recombination in organic photovoltaic devices and blend films, using mixtures of PBTTT and two different fullerene derivatives (PC70BM and ICTA) as models for intercalated and non-intercalated morphologies, respectively. Thermodynamic simulations show that while the completely intercalated system exhibits a large free-energy barrier for charge separation, this barrier is significantly lower in the non-intercalated system, and almost vanishes when energetic disorder is included in the model. Despite these differences, both fs-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) and TDCF exhibit extensive first-order losses in that system, suggesting that geminate pairs are the primary product of photoexcitation. In contrast, the system that comprises a combination of fully intercalated polymer:fullerene areas and fullerene aggregated domains (1:4 PBTTT:PC70BM), is the only one that shows slow, second-order recombination of free charges, resulting in devices with an overall higher short circuit current and fill factor. This study therefore provides a novel consideration of the role of the interfacial nanostructure and the nature of bound charges, and their impact upon charge generation and recombination.

  16. Polarization Bremsstrahlung on Atoms, Plasmas, Nanostructures and Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Astapenko, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    The book is devoted to the modern theory and experimental manifestation of Polarization Bremsstrahlung (PB) which arises due to scattering of charged particles from various targets: atoms, nanostructures (including atomic clusters, nanoparticle in dielectric matrix, fullerens, graphene-like two-dimensional atomic structure) and in condensed matter (monocrystals, polycrystals, partially ordered crystals and amorphous matter) The present book addresses mainly researchers interested in the radiative processes during the interaction between fast particles and matter. It also will be useful for post-graduate students specializing in radiation physics and related fields.

  17. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  18. Abooming area:non-fullerene acceptors for organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Yangkun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic solar cells have been extensively investigated in the last decade because they are one of the very important solutions to the global energy crisis.While predominant electron acceptor materials for organic solar cell are focused on fullerene and its derivatives,scientists are now more desperately looking for new alternative acceptor materials because fullerene acceptors face the challenges of narrow absorption spectrum,low solubility,high cost and non-environmental friendly synthesis processes.Non-fullerene electron acceptors have drawn great attention recently and have been widely used in organic solar cells because they have the great advantages of wide absorption spectrum,high solubility,precise structural controllability,and good processability.In this review paper,we summarize the most significant progresses in the area of non-fullerene organic solar cell acceptors during the last 6 years and we look forward to a bright future of non-fullerene organic solar cells.

  19. Production of Heat Resistant Composite based on Siloxane Elastomer and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonov, I. V.; Karelina, N. V.; Kopitsyna, M. N.; Morozov, A. S.; Reznik, S. V.; Skidchenko, V. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Development of a new generation of composite with unique thermal properties is an important task in the fields of science and technology where material is operated at high temperatures and exposure to a short-wave radiation. Recent studies show that carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes and carbon nanotubes) could improve the thermal, radiation and thermal-oxidative stability of the polymer matrix. In this article the development of a new heat resistant composite based on elastomer and carbon nanotubes (CNT) was performed and physicochemical properties of final product were evaluated.

  20. Evolution of nanomechanical properties and crystallinity of individual titanium dioxide nanotube resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Stassi, Stefano

    2017-12-29

    Herein a complete characterization of single TiO2 nanotube resonator was reported for the first time. The modal vibration response analysis allows a non-invasive indirect evaluation of the mechanical properties of the TiO2 nanotube. The effect of post-grown thermal treatments on nanotube mechanical properties was investigated and carefully correlated to the chemico-physical parameters evolution. The Young\\'s modulus of TiO2 nanotube linearly rises from 57 GPa up to 105 GPa for annealing at 600°C depending on the compositional and crystallographic evolution of the nanostructure. Considering the growing interest in single nanostructure devices, the reported findings allow a deeper understanding of the properties of individual titanium dioxide nanotubes extrapolated from their standard arrayed architecture.

  1. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic based on polythiophene-polyelectrolyte carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi 78216 (Mexico); Liu, J.; Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2007-09-22

    It is shown that carbon nanotubes can be used to enhance carrier mobility for efficient removal of the charges in thin film polymer-conjugated/fullerene photovoltaic devices. The fabricated photovoltaic devices consist of poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) polymer blended with undoped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon nanotubes doped with nitrogen (CNx-MWNTs). Nanophase formation and dispersion problems associated with the use of carbon nanotubes in polymer devices were addressed through the generation of functional groups and electrostatic attaching of the polyelectrolyte poly(dimethyldiallylamine) chloride (PDDA) in both MWNTs and CNx-MWNT systems. The resultant nanophase was highly dispersed allowing for excellent bulk heterojunction formation. Our results indicate that CNx-MWNTs enhance the efficiency of P3OT solar cells in comparison with MWNTs. (author)

  2. Role of intertube interactions in double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Thomas Ch; Araujo, Paulo T; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F; Seifert, Max; Nielsch, Kornelius; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2014-02-25

    Resonant Raman spectroscopy studies are performed to access information about the intertube interactions and wall-to-wall distances in double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes. Here, we explain how the surroundings of the nanotubes in a multiwalled system influence their radial breathing modes. Of particular interest, the innermost tubes in double- and triple-walled carbon nanotube systems are shown to be significantly shielded from environmental interactions, except for those coming from the intertube interaction with their own respective host tubes. From a comparison of the Raman results for bundled as well as individual fullerene-peapod-derived double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes, we observe that metallic innermost tubes, when compared to their semiconducting counterparts, clearly show weaker intertube interactions. Additionally, we discuss a correlation between the wall-to-wall distances and the frequency upshifts of the radial breathing modes observed for the innermost tubes in individual double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes. All results allow us to contemplate fundamental properties related to DWNTs and TWNTs, as for example diameter- and chirality-dependent intertube interactions. We also discuss differences in fullerene-peapod-derived and chemical vapor deposition grown double- and triple-walled systems with the focus on mechanical coupling and interference effects.

  3. Carbon nanotube oscillators for applications as nanothermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, Fainida; Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes have a broad range of potential applications such as nanomotors, nano-oscillators and electromechanical nanothermometers, and a proper understanding of the molecular interaction between nanostructures is fundamentally important for these applications. In this paper, we determine the molecular interaction potential of interacting carbon nanotubes for two configurations. The first is a shuttle configuration involving a short outer tube sliding on a fixed inner tube, and the second involves a telescopic configuration for which an inner tube moves both in the region between two outer tubes and through the tubes themselves. For the first configuration we examine two cases of semi-infinite and finite inner carbon nanotubes. We employ the continuum approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential for non-bonded molecules to determine the molecular interaction potential and the resulting van der Waals force, and we evaluate the resulting surface integrals numerically. We also investigate the acceptance condition and suction energy for the first configuration. Our results show that for the shuttle configuration with a semi-infinite inner tube, the suction energy is maximum when the difference between the outer and inner tubes radii is approximately 3.4 A, which is the ideal inter-wall spacing between graphene sheets. For the finite inner tube, the potential energy is dependent on both the inner and outer tube lengths as well as on the inter-wall spacing. In terms of the oscillating frequency, the critical issue is the length of the moving outer tube, and the shorter the length, the higher the frequency. Further, for the telescopic configuration with two semi-infinite outer nanotubes of different radii, we find that the interaction energy also depends on the difference of the tube radii. For two outer nanotubes of equal radii we observe that the shorter the distance between the two outer nanotubes, the higher the magnitude of the

  4. Nanotube phonon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2013-10-29

    Disclosed are methods and devices in which certain types of nanotubes (e.g., carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes conduct heat with high efficiency and are therefore useful in electronic-type devices.

  5. Distribution patterns of different carbon nanostructures in silicon nitride composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapasztó, Orsolya; Markó, Márton; Balázsi, Csaba

    2012-11-01

    The dispersion properties of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as well as mechanically exfoliated few layer graphene flakes within the silicon nitride ceramic matrix have been investigated. Small angle neutron scattering experiments have been employed to gain information on the dispersion of the nano-scale carbon fillers throughout the entire volume of the samples. The neutron scattering data combined with scanning electron microscopy revealed strikingly different distribution patterns for different types of carbon nanostructures. The scattering intensities for single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) reveal a decay exponent characteristic to surface fractals, which indicate that the predominant part of nanotubes can be found in loose networks wrapping the grains of the polycrystalline matrix. By contrast, multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were found to be present mainly in the form of bulk aggregate structures, while few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes have been individually dispersed within the host matrix, under the very same preparation and processing conditions.

  6. Atomic and electronic structures of carbon nanotube covalent connecting with graphene by oxygen molecular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianwei; Wei, Qiang; Ma, Zengwei; Zeng, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Based on density functional theories, we have investigated the nanostructure in which boron and nitrogen co-doped carbon nanotube (CNT)/graphene (GR) were connected by an oxygen molecular. The geometry structure and electronic properties of the system were calculated carefully. The band structures indicate that the impurity state of oxygen transfer the semiconducting co-doped carbon nanotube/graphene into a semimetallic composite material. The results show that the connection can be achieved with energy release under a wider range of distance between the nanotube and graphene. It indicates that the connection between the nanotube and the graphene might be a self-assemble process.

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    planes to stable loops caused by annealing M Endo, B J Lee, Y A Kim, Y J Kim, H Muramatsu, T Yanagisawa, T Hayashi, M Terrones and M S Dresselhaus Energetics and electronic structure of C70-peapods and one-dimensional chains of C70 Susumu Okada, Minoru Otani and Atsushi Oshiyama Theoretical characterization of several models of nanoporous carbon F Valencia, A H Romero, E Hernández, M Terrones and H Terrones First-principles molecular dynamics study of the stretching frequencies of hydrogen molecules in carbon nanotubes Gabriel Canto, Pablo Ordejón, Cheng Hansong, Alan C Cooper and Guido P Pez The geometry and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes: beyond the ideal behaviour Jeno Kürti, Viktor Zólyomi, Miklos Kertesz and Sun Guangyu Curved nanostructured materials Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones A one-dimensional Ising model for C70 molecular ordering in C70-peapods Yutaka Maniwa, Hiromichi Kataura, Kazuyuki Matsuda and Yutaka Okabe Nanoengineering of carbon nanotubes for nanotools Yoshikazu Nakayama and Seiji Akita Narrow diameter double-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, electron microscopy and inelastic light scattering R R Bacsa, E Flahaut, Ch Laurent, A Peigney, S Aloni, P Puech and W S Bacsa Sensitivity of single multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the environment M Krüger, I Widmer, T Nussbaumer, M Buitelaar and C Schönenberger Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonance Raman scattering A Jorio, M A Pimenta, A G Souza Filho, R Saito, G Dresselhaus and M S Dresselhaus FTIR-luminescence mapping of dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes Sergei Lebedkin, Katharina Arnold, Frank Hennrich, Ralph Krupke, Burkhard Renker and Manfred M Kappes Structural properties of Haeckelite nanotubes Ph Lambin and L P Biró Structural changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes under non-hydrostatic pressures: x-ray and Raman studies Sukanta Karmakar, Surinder M Sharma, P V Teredesai, D V S Muthu, A Govindaraj, S K Sikka and A K Sood Novel properties of 0

  8. Nanotube News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Smaller, faster computers, bullet-proof t-shirts, and itty-bitty robots--such are the promises of nanotechnology and the cylinder-shaped collection of carbon molecules known as nanotubes. But for these exciting ideas to become realities, scientists must understand how these miracle molecules perform under all sorts of conditions. This brief…

  9. GaS multi-walled nanotubes from the lamellar precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Fu, L.; Cao, L. C.; Zhu, D. B.

    2005-04-01

    Inorganic fullerene-like (IF) nanotubes constructed from layered metal chalcogenides are of particular significance because of their excellent physical properties and potential application in wide fields. But very few previous studies were focused on the IF nanotubes of layered III-VI semiconductor. Therefore we investigate the preparation, structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties of GaS nanotube (an important III-VI semiconductor IF nanotube). A simple method is introduced to prepare GaS multi-walled nanotubes for the first time by annealing the natural lamellar precursor in Ar. The reaction temperature is crucial for the formation of nanotube. A suitable temperature range is 500-850 °C. Bulk quantities of GaS nanotubes with diameters of 30-150 nm and lengths up to ten micrometers were produced. Some of these nanotubes show corrugated and interlinked structure and form many segments, demonstrating a bamboo-like structure. As compared to bulk materials, the obvious distinction of the products in PL spectra at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K was due to the structure variety.

  10. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes For Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qi; Cassell, Alan M.; Liu, Hongbing; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) related nanostructures possess remarkable electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties. To produce these nanostructures for real world applications, a large-scale controlled growth of carbon nanotubes is crucial for the integration and fabrication of nanodevices and nanosensors. We have taken the approach of integrating nanopatterning and nanomaterials synthesis with traditional silicon micro fabrication techniques. This integration requires a catalyst or nanomaterial protection scheme. In this paper, we report our recent work on fabricating wafer-scale carbon nanotube AFM cantilever probe tips. We will address the design and fabrication considerations in detail, and present the preliminary scanning probe test results. This work may serve as an example of rational design, fabrication, and integration of nanomaterials for advanced nanodevice and nanosensor applications.

  11. First-principles investigation on structural and electronic properties of antimonene nanoribbons and nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, V.; Chandiramouli, R.

    2018-03-01

    The electronic properties of antimonene nanotubes and nanoribbons hydrogenated along the zigzag and armchair borders are investigated with the help of density functional theory (DFT) method. The structural stability of antimonene nanostructures is confirmed with the formation energy. The electronic properties of hydrogenated zigzag and armchair antimonene nanostructures are studied in terms of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) & lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap and density of states (DOS) spectrum. Moreover, due to the influence of buckled orientation, hydrogen passivation and width of antimonene nanostructures, the HOMO-LUMO gap widens in the range of 0.15-0.41 eV. The findings of the present study confirm that the electronic properties of antimonene nanostructures can be tailored with the influence of width, orientation of the edges, passivation with hydrogen and morphology of antimonene nanostructures (nanoribbons, nanotubes), which can be used as chemical sensor and for spintronic devices.

  12. Functional nanostructured titanium nitride films obtained by sputtering magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, O.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Navas, D.; Auger, M.A.; Baldonedo, J.L.; Sanz, R.; Pirota, K.R.; Vazquez, M.

    2006-01-01

    Development of new methods in the formation of hollow structures, in particular, nanotubes and nanocages are currently generating a great interest as a consequence of the growing relevance of these nanostructures on many technological fields, ranging from optoelectronics to biotechnology. In this work, we report the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) nanotubes and nanohills via reactive sputtering magnetron processes. Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) were used as template substrates to grow the TiN nanostructures. The AAM were obtained through electrochemical anodization processes by using oxalic acid solutions as electrolytes. The nanotubes were produced at temperatures below 100 deg. C, and using a pure titanium (99.995%) sputtering target and nitrogen as reactive gas. The obtained TiN thin films showed surface morphologies adjusted to pore diameter and interpore distance of the substrates, as well as ordered arrays of nanotubes or nanohills depending on the sputtering and template conditions. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) was used to elucidate both the surface order and morphology of the different grown nanostructures. The crystalline structure of the samples was examined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns and their qualitative chemical composition by using X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS) in a scanning electron microscopy

  13. Solitonic fullerene structures in light atomic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battye, R A; Sutcliffe, P M

    2001-04-30

    The Skyrme model is a classical field theory which has topological soliton solutions. These solitons are candidates for describing nuclei, with an identification between the numbers of solitons and nucleons. We have computed numerically, using two different minimization algorithms, minimum energy configurations for up to 22 solitons. We find, remarkably, that the solutions for seven or more solitons have nucleon density isosurfaces in the form of polyhedra made of hexagons and pentagons. Precisely these structures arise, though at the much larger molecular scale, in the chemistry of carbon shells, where they are known as fullerenes.

  14. Numerical simulation of Platonic hydrocarbons and fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katin, K P; Lobanov, D A; Maslov, M M

    2010-01-01

    Thermal stability of small cage clusters known as Platonic hydrocarbons (tetrahedrane, cubane) was studied over a wide temperature range using tight-binding molecular dynamics simulation. Activation energies and frequency factors in the Arrhenius equation were obtained for these clusters. Ab initio calculations using HF, and B3LYP methods with 6-31G* basis set were performed on C 20 , C 36 and C 60 fullerenes to compute the lowest energy barriers preventing their decomposition. Possible decomposition products were also analyzed in detail.

  15. Routes to carbon schwarzites from fullerene fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadoni, S.; Colombo, L.; Benedek, G.; Milani, P.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics the coalescence of fullerenic fragments and carbon clusters by following the evolution of the topological connectivity. Though different temperature variation protocols lead to irregular structures, their connectivity is found to stabilize at values corresponding either to three-branched schwarzites or tubulenes, indicating that long-time evolution at constant connectivity is potentially able to yield regular shapes. These results can be related to experiments on laser-induced transformations of fullerite occasionally yielding branched structures with a schwarzite shape. (orig.)

  16. Contacting nanowires and nanotubes with atomic precision for electronic transport

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Shengyong

    2012-01-01

    Making contacts to nanostructures with atomic precision is an important process in the bottom-up fabrication and characterization of electronic nanodevices. Existing contacting techniques use top-down lithography and chemical etching, but lack atomic precision and introduce the possibility of contamination. Here, we report that a field-induced emission process can be used to make local contacts onto individual nanowires and nanotubes with atomic spatial precision. The gold nano-islands are deposited onto nanostructures precisely by using a scanning tunneling microscope tip, which provides a clean and controllable method to ensure both electrically conductive and mechanically reliable contacts. To demonstrate the wide applicability of the technique, nano-contacts are fabricated on silicide atomic wires, carbon nanotubes, and copper nanowires. The electrical transport measurements are performed in situ by utilizing the nanocontacts to bridge the nanostructures to the transport probes. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Applications and Nanotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Fisher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their unique mechanical, electrical, optical, and thermal properties, carbon nanostructures including carbon nanotubes and graphenes show great promise for advancing the fields of biology and medicine. Many reports have demonstrated the promise of these carbon nanostructures and their hybrid structures (composites with polymers, ceramics, and metal nanoparticles, etc. for a variety of biomedical areas ranging from biosensing, drug delivery, and diagnostics, to cancer treatment, tissue engineering, and bioterrorism prevention. However, the issue of the safety and toxicity of these carbon nanostructures, which is vital to their use as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in biomedical fields, has not been completely resolved. This paper aims to provide a summary of the features of carbon nanotube and graphene-based materials and current research progress in biomedical applications. We also highlight the current opinions within the scientific community on the toxicity and safety of these carbon structures.

  18. Production of anti-fullerene C{sub 60} polyclonal antibodies and study of their interaction with a conjugated form of fullerene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, O. D., E-mail: odhendrick@gmail.com; Fedyunina, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Martianov, A. A. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zherdev, A. V.; Dzantiev, B. B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to produce anti-fullerene C{sub 60} antibodies for the development of detection systems for fullerene C{sub 60} derivatives. To produce anti-fullerene C{sub 60} antibodies, conjugates of the fullerene C{sub 60} carboxylic derivative with thyroglobulin, soybean trypsin inhibitor, and bovine serum albumin were synthesized by carbodiimide activation and characterized. Immunization of rabbits by the conjugates led to the production of polyclonal anti-fullerene antibodies. The specificity of the immune response to fullerene was investigated. Indirect competitive immunoenzyme assay was developed for the determination of conjugated fullerene with detection limits of 0.04 ng/mL (calculated for coupled C{sub 60}) and 0.4 ng/mL (accordingly to total fullerene-protein concentration).

  19. Electronics with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avouris, P.

    2007-01-01

    From mobile phones and laptops to Xboxes and iPods, it is difficult to think of any aspect of modern life that has not been touched by developments in electronics, computing and communications over the last few decades. Many of these technological advances have arisen from our ability to create ever smaller electronic devices, in particular silicon-based field effect transistors (FETs), which has led to denser, faster and less power-hungry circuits. The problem is that this device miniaturization, or 'scaling', cannot continue forever. Fundamental scientific and technological limitations exist that will make it impossible to build better performing silicon devices below a certain size. This potential show-stopper has inspired a worldwide effort to develop alternative device technologies based on 1D materials or those that exploit the spin, as well as the charge, of electrons. One promising and, in principle, simpler approach is to maintain the operating concept of today's silicon-based FETs but to replace a key component of the device - the semiconducting silicon channel - with 1D nanostructures that have much more versatile electrical-transport properties. Among the different 1D materials that have been developed, those with the most desirable properties are 'single-walled' carbon nanotubes, which were first created in 1993 by Sumio Ijima at the NEC Fundamental Research Laboratory in Tsukuba, Japan, and by Donald Bethune of IBM's Almaden Research Center in California. These materials are hollow tubes made from rolled up sheets of carbon just one atom thick, otherwise known as graphene. In the March issue of Physics World, Phaedon Avouris discusses some of the many properties and applications of carbon nanotubes, which he describes as an 'engineer's dream' because of their exceptionally high strength and heat conduction. (U.K.)

  20. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, D S T; Alves, O L; Barbieri, E

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO 3 -MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO 3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO 3 -treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO 3 -MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO 3 -MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO 3 -MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  1. The electrochemical properties of bundles of single-walled nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Haridoss, P.; Uribe, F.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors studied electrochemical properties of single-walled fullerene nanotube bundles. The materials exhibited a highly anisotropic conductivity. Electrochemical cycling in solutions of alkyl ammonium salts in propylene carbonate revealed that the nanotubes are stable to at least {+-}1.5 V and have a fairly high accessible surface area. Double-layer charging currents of approximately 30 farads per gram were observed. This is on the same order of magnitude, though somewhat lower, than state-of-the-art values for ultra-capacitor materials. Electrochemical insertion of lithium was attempted. Though several features were observed in a slow cyclic voltammetric scan, these features were not reversible, indicating little reversible insertion. Several possible reasons for this behavior are discussed.

  2. Nanostructured Networks for Energy Storage: Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes (VACNT as Current Collectors for High-Power Li4Ti5O12(LTO//LiMn2O4(LMO Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Pawlitzek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As a concept for electrode architecture in high power lithium ion batteries, self-supported nanoarrays enable ultra-high power densities as a result of their open pore geometry, which results in short and direct Li+-ion and electron pathways. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT on metallic current collectors with low interface resistance are used as current collectors for the chemical solution infiltration of electroactive oxides to produce vertically aligned carbon nanotubes decorated with in situ grown LiMn2O4 (LMO and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO nanoparticles. The production processes steps (catalyst coating, VACNT chemical vapor deposition (CVD, infiltration, and thermal transformation are all scalable, continuous, and suitable for niche market production to achieve high oxide loadings up to 70 wt %. Due to their unique transport structure, as-prepared nanoarrays achieve remarkably high power densities up to 2.58 kW kg−1, which is based on the total electrode mass at 80 C for LiMn2O4//Li4Ti5O12 full cells. The tailoring of LTO and LMO nanoparticle size (~20–100 nm and VACNT length (array height: 60–200 µm gives insights into the rate-limiting steps at high current for these kinds of nanoarray electrodes at very high C-rates of up to 200 C. The results reveal the critical structural parameters for achieving high power densities in VACNT nanoarray full cells.

  3. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  4. Applications of Nanostructured Carbon Materials in Constructions: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent studies on the applications of nanostructured carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene oxides, in constructions are presented. First, the preparation of nanostructured carbon/infrastructure material composites is summarized. This part is mainly focused on how the nanostructured carbon materials were mixed with cementitious or asphalt matrix to realize a good dispersion condition. Several methods, including high speed melting mixing, surface treatment, and aqueous solution with surfactants and sonication, were introduced. Second, the applications of the carbon nanostructured materials in constructions such as mechanical reinforcement, self-sensing detectors, self-heating element for deicing, and electromagnetic shielding component were systematically reviewed. This paper not only helps the readers understand the preparation process of the carbon nanostructured materials/infrastructure material composites but also sheds some light on the state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanostructured materials in constructions.

  5. Synthesis of MoS(2)-C one-dimensional nanostructures with improved lithium storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaofeng; Wang, Zhiyu; Guo, Zaiping; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-07-25

    Uniform one-dimensional (1D) MoS2-C composite nanostructures including nanorods and nanotubes have been produced through a sulfidation reaction in H2S flow using MoOx/polyaniline hybrid nanostructures as the precursor. These MoS2-C 1D nanostructures exhibit greatly enhanced electrochemical performance as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Typically, stable capacity retention of 776 mA h g(-1) can be achieved after 100 cycles for MoS2-C nanotubes. Even cycled at a high current density of 1000 mA g(-1), these structures can still deliver high capacities of 450-600 mA h g(-1). The unique 1D nanostructure and the extra carbon in the hybrid structure are beneficial to the greatly improved electrochemical performance of these MoS2-C nanocomposites.

  6. The Influence of Solvent Additive on Polymer Solar Cells Employing Fullerene and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xin

    2017-11-27

    Small-molecule-based non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) are emerging as a new field in organic photovoltaics, due to their structural versatility, the tunability of their energy levels, and their ease of synthesis. High-efficiency polymer donors have been tested with these non-fullerene acceptors in order to further boost the efficiency of organic solar cells. Most of the polymer:fullerene systems are optimized with solvent additives for high efficiency, while little attention has been paid to NFA-based solar cells so far. In this report, the effect of the most common additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), on PTB7-Th:PC71BM solar cells is investigated and it is compared with non-fullerene acceptor 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2′,3′-d′]-s-indaceno-[1,2-b:5,6b′]di-thiophene (ITIC) devices. It is interesting that the high boiling solvent additive does have a negative impact on the power conversion efficiency when PTB7-Th is blended with ITIC acceptor. The solar cell devices are studied in terms of their optical, photophysical, and morphological properties and find out that PTB7-Th:ITIC devices with DIO results in coarser domains, reduced absorption strength, and slightly lower mobility, while DIO improves the absorption strength of the PTB7-Th:PC71BM blend film and increase the aggregation of PC71BM in the blend, resulting in higher fill factor and Jsc.

  7. One-dimensional titania nanostructures: Synthesis and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Guo, Zhiguang; Wang, Shimin; Liu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) titania (TiO 2 ) in the form of nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their unique physical, chemical and optical properties enabling extraordinary performance in biomedicine, sensors, energy storage, solar cells and photocatalysis. In this review, we mainly focus on synthetic methods for 1D TiO 2 nanostructures and the applications of 1D TiO 2 nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Traditional nanoparticle-based DSCs have numerous grain boundaries and surface defects, which increase the charge recombination from photoanode to electrolyte. 1D TiO 2 nanostructures can provide direct and rapid electron transport to the electron collecting electrode, indicating a promising choice for DSCs. We divide the applications of 1D TiO 2 nanostructures in DSCs into four parts, that is, 1D TiO 2 nanostructures only, 1D TiO 2 nanostructure/nanoparticle composites, branched 1D TiO 2 nanostructures, and 1D TiO 2 nanostructures combined with other materials. This work will provide guidance for preparing 1D TiO 2 nanostructures, and using them as photoanodes in efficient DSCs. - Graphical abstract: 1D TiO 2 nanostructures which can provide direct and rapid pathways for electron transport have promising applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The synthetic methods and applications of 1D TiO 2 nanostructures in DSCs are summarized in this review article.

  8. Construction of DNA nanotubes with controllable diameters and patterns using hierarchical DNA sub-tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Wu, Xiaoxu; Song, Tao; Li, Xin

    2016-08-21

    The design of DNA nanotubes is a promising and hot research branch in structural DNA nanotechnology, which is rapidly developing as a versatile method for achieving subtle nanometer scale materials and molecular diagnostic/curative devices. Multifarious methods have been proposed to achieve varied DNA nanotubes, such as using square tiles and single-stranded tiles, but it is still a challenge to develop a bottom-up assembly way to build DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns using certain universal DNA nanostructures. This work addresses the challenge by assembling three types of spatial DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns from the so-called "basic bricks", i.e., hierarchical DNA sub-tiles. A high processing rate and throughput synthesis of DNA nanotubes are observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Experimental observations and data analysis suggests the stability and controllability of DNA nanotubes assembled by hierarchical DNA sub-tiles.

  9. High efficient photocatalytic activity from nanostructuralized photonic crystal-like p-n coaxial hetero-junction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Fang-Ting; Chang, Yin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Structuring the materials in the form of photonic crystals is a new strategy for photocatalytic applications. Herein, a new concept of photonic crystal-induced p-n coaxial heterojunction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 (CTS/PhC-TNAs) was well-designed and successfully fabricated by combining periodic pulse anodic oxidation and in-situ self-assembling methods Such nanostructured CTS/PhC-TNAs exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic degradation activity under simulated sunlight irradiation with methyl orange (MO) as the target pollutants. Within 120 min, 82% of the MO (10 mg/L) was photodegraded and its kinetic constant per specific surface area reached 0.05332 μmol/m2h, which is 1.6 and 12.8 times more quickly than that of PhC-TNAs and CTS, respectively. Its significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity could be mainly attributed to a joint effect of the unique photonic crystal property of PhC-TNAs and the nanostructured hollow p-n coaxial hetero-junction, which result in an increased efficiency of charge separation and transfer and also an improved spectral response capability. This photonic crystal film photocatalyst has the potential for enhancing the photocatalytic activity via further optimizing the photonic stop band of PhC-TNAs. The study presents a new means to design the kind of photonic crystal structural-induced novel photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activities in pollution treatment.

  10. Production and Consumption of Reactive Oxygen Species by Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important intermediates in chemical, photochemical, and biological processes. To understand the environmental exposure and toxicity of fullerenes better, the production and consumption of ROS (singlet oxygen, superoxide, hydrogen ...

  11. Electronic structure of C and Si fullerenes and fullerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fullerenes, i.e., cage-structure clusters are now studied intensively as a building unit for a new class of materials. The electronic structure of C 60 and Si 20 fullerenes and their fullerides obtained in the framework of the density-functional theory is discussed with emphasis on the electronic as well as the geometrical hierarchy in superconducting fullerides. In both C 60 and Si 20 fullerides, the charge transfer from alkali atoms to fullerenes and the hybridization between alkaline-earth states and fullerene states are observed. Also A 3 C 60 and (Ba 3 Si 3 Na rate at Si 20 ) 2 superconductors are found to have high Fermi-level density of states, although the mechanism giving it is different in two materials. Interesting materials to be produced in the future are also discussed. (orig.)

  12. From Carbon-Based Nanotubes to Nanocages for Advanced Energy Conversion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2017-02-21

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have been the focus of research interests in the past 30 years due to their abundant microstructures and morphologies, excellent properties, and wide potential applications, as landmarked by 0D fullerene, 1D nanotubes, and 2D graphene. With the availability of high specific surface area (SSA), well-balanced pore distribution, high conductivity, and tunable wettability, carbon-based nanomaterials are highly expected as advanced materials for energy conversion and storage to meet the increasing demands for clean and renewable energies. In this context, attention is usually attracted by the star material of graphene in recent years. In this Account, we overview our studies on carbon-based nanotubes to nanocages for energy conversion and storage, including their synthesis, performances, and related mechanisms. The two carbon nanostructures have the common features of interior cavity, high conductivity, and easy doping but much different SSAs and pore distributions, leading to different performances. We demonstrated a six-membered-ring-based growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with benzene precursor based on the structural similarity of the benzene ring to the building unit of CNTs. By this mechanism, nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) with homogeneous N distribution and predominant pyridinic N were obtained with pyridine precursor, providing a new kind of support for convenient surface functionalization via N-participation. Accordingly, various transition-metal nanoparticles were directly immobilized onto NCNTs without premodification. The so-constructed catalysts featured high dispersion, narrow size distribution and tunable composition, which presented superior catalytic performances for energy conversions, for example, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol oxidation in fuel cells. With the advent of the new field of carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts, we first extended ORR catalysts from the electron-rich N-doped to the

  13. Thermal Transport in Fullerene Derivatives Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Wang, Xiaojia; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effects of alkyl chain on the thermal properties of fullerene derivatives, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to predict the thermal conductivity of fullerene (C60) and its derivative phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The results of non-equilibrium MD simulations show a length-dependent thermal conductivity for C60 but not for PCBM. The thermal conductivity of C60, obtained from the linear extrapolation of inverse conductivity vs. inverse length cu...

  14. Experimental and computational studies of Si-doped fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billas, I.M.L.; Tast, F.; Branz, W.; Malinowski, N.; Heinebrodt, M.; Martin, T.P.; Boero, M.; Massobrio, C.; Parrinello, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Silicon in-cage doped fullerenes result from laser-induced photofragmentation of mixed clusters of composition C{sub 60}Si{sub x}. These parent clusters are produced in a low pressure condensation cell, through the mixing of silicon vapor with a vapor containing the preformed C{sub 60} molecules. The geometric and the electronic structures of fullerenes substitutionally doped with one and two silicon atoms are studied by ab-initio calculations within density functional theory. (orig.)

  15. Fullerenes and endohedrals as “big atoms”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya., E-mail: amusia@vms.huji.ac.il

    2013-03-12

    Highlights: ► Response of multi-electron atoms to radiation is determined by correlation effects. ► The response of fullerenes and endohedrals is characterized by strong resonances. ► Most important are confinement and Giant endohedral resonances. ► Fullerene is described as a zero-thickness polarizable shell. ► Electron exchange can play a very important role in inner shell ionization. - Abstract: We present the main features of the electronic structure of the heavy atoms that is best of all seen in photoionization. We acknowledge how important was and still is investigation of the interaction between atoms and low- and high frequency lasers with big intensity. We discuss the fullerenes and endohedrals as big atoms concentrating upon their most prominent features revealed in photoionization. Namely, we discuss reflection of photoelectron wave by the static potential that mimics the fullerenes electron shell and modification of the incoming photon beam under the action of the polarizable fullerenes shell. Both effects are clearly reflected in the photoionization cross-section. We discuss the possible features of interaction between laser field of both low and high frequency and high intensity upon fullerenes and endohedrals. We envisage prominent effects of multi-electron ionization and photon emission, including high-energy photons. We emphasize the important role that can be played by electron exchange in these processes.

  16. Fullerenes and endohedrals as “big atoms”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Response of multi-electron atoms to radiation is determined by correlation effects. ► The response of fullerenes and endohedrals is characterized by strong resonances. ► Most important are confinement and Giant endohedral resonances. ► Fullerene is described as a zero-thickness polarizable shell. ► Electron exchange can play a very important role in inner shell ionization. - Abstract: We present the main features of the electronic structure of the heavy atoms that is best of all seen in photoionization. We acknowledge how important was and still is investigation of the interaction between atoms and low- and high frequency lasers with big intensity. We discuss the fullerenes and endohedrals as big atoms concentrating upon their most prominent features revealed in photoionization. Namely, we discuss reflection of photoelectron wave by the static potential that mimics the fullerenes electron shell and modification of the incoming photon beam under the action of the polarizable fullerenes shell. Both effects are clearly reflected in the photoionization cross-section. We discuss the possible features of interaction between laser field of both low and high frequency and high intensity upon fullerenes and endohedrals. We envisage prominent effects of multi-electron ionization and photon emission, including high-energy photons. We emphasize the important role that can be played by electron exchange in these processes

  17. Wicking and spreading of water droplets on nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho Seon; Park, Gunyeop; Kim, Joonwon; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2012-02-07

    Recently, there has been intensive research on the use of nanotechnology to improve the wettability of solid surfaces. It is well-known that nanostructures can improve the wettability of a surface, and this is a very important safety consideration in regard to the occurrence of boiling crises during two-phase heat transfer, especially in the operation of nuclear power plant systems. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in wetting phenomena on nanostructures in the field of nuclear heat transfer. Much of the latest research on liquid absorption on a surface with nanostructures indicates that liquid spreading is generated by capillary wicking. However, there has been comparatively little research on how capillary forces affect liquid spreading on a surface with nanotubes. In this paper, we present a visualization of liquid spreading on a zircaloy surface with nanotubes, and establish a simple quantitative method for measuring the amount of water absorbed by the nanotubes. We successfully describe liquid spreading on a two-dimensional surface via one-dimensional analysis. As a result, we are able to postulate a relationship between liquid spreading and capillary wicking in the nanotubes.

  18. Efficient Regular Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Pristine [70]Fullerene as Electron-Selective Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collavini, Silvia; Kosta, Ivet; Völker, Sebastian F; Cabanero, German; Grande, Hans J; Tena-Zaera, Ramón; Delgado, Juan Luis

    2016-06-08

    [70]Fullerene is presented as an efficient alternative electron-selective contact (ESC) for regular-architecture perovskite solar cells (PSCs). A smart and simple, well-described solution processing protocol for the preparation of [70]- and [60]fullerene-based solar cells, namely the fullerene saturation approach (FSA), allowed us to obtain similar power conversion efficiencies for both fullerene materials (i.e., 10.4 and 11.4 % for [70]- and [60]fullerene-based devices, respectively). Importantly, despite the low electron mobility and significant visible-light absorption of [70]fullerene, the presented protocol allows the employment of [70]fullerene as an efficient ESC. The [70]fullerene film thickness and its solubility in the perovskite processing solutions are crucial parameters, which can be controlled by the use of this simple solution processing protocol. The damage to the [70]fullerene film through dissolution during the perovskite deposition is avoided through the saturation of the perovskite processing solution with [70]fullerene. Additionally, this fullerene-saturation strategy improves the performance of the perovskite film significantly and enhances the power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on different ESCs (i.e., [60]fullerene, [70]fullerene, and TiO2 ). Therefore, this universal solution processing protocol widens the opportunities for the further development of PSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Electron attenuation lengths in fullerene and fullerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongnian; Wang Xiaoxiong; Ding Wangfeng

    2006-01-01

    Using X-ray photoemission measurements, we have determined the attenuation length of C 1s photoelectrons in C 60 film to be 21.5 A with the incident photon energy of Mg Kα radiation. The inelastic mean free path calculated with the TPP-2M algorithm coincides fairly well with the experimentally determined attenuation length, indicating the validity of the algorithm to fullerene and fullerides. The inelastic mean free paths for some fullerides, i.e. K 3 C 60 , K 6 C 60 , Ba 4 C 60 , Sm 2.75 C 60 and Sm 6 C 60 are calculated to help the quantitative analyses of the photoemission spectra for these compounds

  20. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  1. Magnetostatic interactions in cylindrical nanostructures with non-uniform magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, O.J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Perez, L.M. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Laroze, D., E-mail: david.laroze@gmail.com [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany); Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Fisica and Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-15

    Cylindrical magnetic nanostructures, like nanowires or nanotubes, should be used for the new generation of magnetic devices. Therefore, the investigation of inter-element interaction is an intense area of research. In this paper we investigated cylindrical nanostructures with non-uniform magnetization field. We focus on particles with a periodic magnetization function and using Fourier series we reduced the problem to a single integral expression. Analytical expressions for both, the self and the interaction magnetostatic energy, are given. These expressions are used to analyze multisegmented tubes, as a function of the number of segments and the distance between particles. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic cylindrical nanoparticles like nanowires or nanotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetostatic interaction between particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-uniform magnetization states.

  2. Surface functionalization of aluminosilicate nanotubes with organic molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface functionalization of inorganic nanostructures is an effective approach for enriching the potential applications of existing nanomaterials. Inorganic nanotubes attract great research interest due to their one-dimensional structure and reactive surfaces. In this review paper, recent developments in surface functionalization of an aluminosilicate nanotube, “imogolite”, are introduced. The functionalization processes are based on the robust affinity between phosphate groups of organic molecules and the aluminol (AlOH surface of imogolite nanotubes. An aqueous modification process employing a water soluble ammonium salt of alkyl phosphate led to chemisorption of molecules on imogolite at the nanotube level. Polymer-chain-grafted imogolite nanotubes were prepared through surface-initiated polymerization. In addition, the assembly of conjugated molecules, 2-(5’’-hexyl-2,2’:5’,2’’-terthiophen-5-ylethylphosphonic acid (HT3P and 2-(5’’-hexyl-2,2’:5’,2’’-terthiophen-5-ylethylphosphonic acid 1,1-dioxide (HT3OP, on the imogolite nanotube surface was achieved by introducing a phosphonic acid group to the corresponding molecules. The optical and photophysical properties of these conjugated-molecule-decorated imogolite nanotubes were characterized. Moreover, poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT chains were further hybridized with HT3P modified imogolite to form a nanofiber hybrid.

  3. Magnetocaloric effect at cryogenic temperature in gadolinium oxide nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Rima, E-mail: rima.paul@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Paramanik, Tapas; Das, Kalipada [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sen, Pintu [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Satpati, B.; Das, I. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2016-11-01

    We have synthesized fascinating nano-structure of Gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) using controlled template-assisted electrochemical deposition technique which showed interesting anisotropic magnetic behavior. The nanotubes of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} with average diameter 200 nm, length 10 µm and wall thickness 20 nm are constituted of nanoclusters with average diameter 7.5 nm. The tubes are aligned and are almost uniform throughout their length. Detailed magnetic measurements of aligned Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes have been performed for both parallel and perpendicular magnetic field orientations with respect to the axis of the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotube array. Significant differences in magnetization values have been observed between the parallel and perpendicular orientations. Experimental results indicate the superparamagnetic nature of the nanomaterial. Large magnetocaloric effect, associated with the sharp change in magnetization of the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes, has been observed in the cryogenic temperature regime that shows anisotropic behavior. - Highlights: • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes of diameter ~200 nm synthesized through electrochemical technique. • The nanotubes are superparamagnetic in nature. • At cryogenic temperature, the nanotubes exhibit large magnetocaloric anisotropic effect.

  4. Characterization of electrodeposited bismuth-tellurium nanowires and nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinisetty, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Davis, D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Podlaha-Murphy, E.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Murphy, M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Karki, A.B.; Young, D.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Devireddy, R.V., E-mail: devireddy@me.lsu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Arrays of nanowires and nanotubes of bismuth-tellurium (Bi-Te) were fabricated by electrodeposition techniques. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to characterize the morphology of the fabricated BiTe nanowires and nanotubes. The fabricated BiTe nanowire and nanotube arrays are shown to be polycrystalline with no preferred orientation. Wavelength dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows that either p-type (Bi rich) or n-type (Te rich) nanowires or nanotubes can be obtained by changing the electrodeposition potentials. The lamellar thickness of the nanowires and nanotube crystallites were determined using the Scherrer equation and found to be {approx}17-24 nm. The Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature obtained for the nanowires and nanotubes deposited at -400 mV were +11.5 and +17 {mu}V K{sup -1}, respectively, whereas those obtained at -65 mV were -48 and -63 {mu}V K{sup -1}, respectively. The electrical resistance measurements indicated that the resistance of the nanowires and nanotubes decreased with increasing temperature, suggesting that these nanostructures behave like semiconductors.

  5. Changes in Agglomeration of Fullerenes During Ingestion and Excretion in Thamnocephalus Platuyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus was exposed to aqueous suspensions of fullerenes C60 and C70. Aqueous fullerene suspensions were formed by stirring C60 and C70 as received from a commercial vendor in deionized water (term...

  6. Textile fibers coated with carbon nanotubes for smart clothing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Sandra; Lalek, Bartłomiej; Janczak, Daniel; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Łucja; Krzemiński, Jakub; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Łekawa-Raus, Agnieszka

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanomaterials: graphene, fullerenes and in particular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are extremely interesting and extraordinary materials. It is mostly thanks to theirs unusual electrical and mechanical properties. Carbon nanotubes are increasingly examined to enable its usage in many fields of science and technology. It has been reported that there is a high possibility to use CNTs in electronics, optics, material engineering, biology or medicine. However, this material still interests and inspire scientists around the world and the list of different CNTs applications is constantly expanding. In this paper we are presenting a study on the possibility of application carbon nanotubes as a textile fiber coating for smart clothing applications. Various suspensions and pastes containing CNTs have been prepared as a possible coating onto textile fibers. Different application techniques have also been tested. Those techniques included painting with nanotube suspension, spray coating of suspensions and immersion. Following textile fibers were subject to tests: cotton, silk, polyester, polyamide and wool. Obtained composites materials were then characterized electrically by measuring the electrical resistance.

  7. Design Principles in Polymer-Fullerene BHJ Solar Cells: PBDTTPD as a Case Study

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre

    2015-06-29

    Among Organic Electronics, solution-processable π-conjugated polymers are proving particularly promising in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with fullerene acceptors such as PCBM.[1] In recent years, great headway has been made in the development of efficient polymer donors across the community, with published power conversion efficiencies (PCE) >8% in single cells and >10% in tandems. In most reports, these systems involve elaborate repeat unit and side chain patterns, and deviating from those patterns induces substantial drops in device PCE. While the range of polymer design parameters that impact BHJ solar cell performance remains a matter of some debate, our recent developments indicate that the combination of side-chain substituents appended to the main chain critically impacts polymer performance. For example, in poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD), side-chain substituents of various size and branching impart distinct molecular packing distances (i.e., π–π stacking and lamellar spacing), varying degrees of nanostructural order in thin films, and preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate.[2-5] While these structural variations seem to correlate with BHJ solar cell performance, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 4% to 8.5%,[2,3] we believe that other contributing parameters – such as the local conformations between the polymer and the fullerene, and the domain distribution/composition across the BHJ (i.e., pure/mixed phases) – should also be taken into account.[6,7] Other discrete modifications of PBDTTPD’s molecular structure affect polymer performance in BHJ solar cells with PCBM, and our recent developments emphasize how systematic structure-property relationship studies impact the design of efficient polymer donors for BHJ solar cell applications.[8-10] It is important to further our understanding of these effects as we look to continue improving BHJ solar

  8. High Efficiency Flexible Battery Based on Graphene-carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    nanotube field emitter structure on three- dimensional micro-channeled copper , Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012) 1 7. Carbon Nanostructures in Lithium Ion...Electrochemical performance of the 3D MWCNTs-graphene-PET as a flexible LIB anode structure. (a) Initial galvanostatic charge and discharge profiles of 3D...grown on copper We present a novel binder-free multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) structure as anode in Li- ion batteries. The interface-controlled

  9. Bioactive DNA-peptide nanotubes enhance the differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Freeman, Ronit; North, Hilary A; Sur, Shantanu; Jeong, Su Ji; Tantakitti, Faifan; Kessler, John A; Stupp, Samuel I

    2015-01-14

    We report the construction of DNA nanotubes covalently functionalized with the cell adhesion peptide RGDS as a bioactive substrate for neural stem cell differentiation. Alteration of the Watson-Crick base pairing program that builds the nanostructures allowed us to probe independently the effect of nanotube architecture and peptide bioactivity on stem cell differentiation. We found that both factors instruct synergistically the preferential differentiation of the cells into neurons rather than astrocytes.

  10. On the design and fabrication of nanostructures and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    Nanotechnology is emerging into a new frontier in science and technology with potential impact on every aspect of human life. One of the major breakthroughs in today's nanotechnology is the discovery and preparation of new classes of nanomaterials and nanostructures. A large number of nanomaterials and nanostructures are synthesized and characterized with either new or profoundly enhanced properties or phenomena. However, there are several major challenges ahead need to be overcome before any substantial benefits can be brought to the market. One of the challenges that we need to address today is how to effectively integrate useful nanomaterials and nanostrucrures into functional devices and systems. Our mother nature gives us a classic example of how living organisms are built. Starting from a single cell, through its division and growth, it can self-assemble and become functional tissues and organs. Similar self-assemble approach has been adopted as a nano-fabrication technique to assemble nanomaterials and nanostructures into functional nanodevices. This technique has advantages of high precision and nanometer scale resolution. However, it requires a lot of effort to construct a single device and since the properties of individual nanostructures can be different, the fabricated devices may have different properties. In this dissertation, we design and fabricate nanostructures and devices using novel microfabrication techniques. In the first part of the dissertation, the design and fabrication of a variety of nanostructures, such as metal nanowires array, polymer nanowells, and nanostructured surfaces are discussed. In the second part, carbon nanotubes as a novel material has been explored as an example to demonstrate the integration of nanomaterials with novel microfabrication techniques to form a functional device. First, a resistive heating technique is developed to grow carbon nanotubes in localized regions, such as a nichrome heating coil. Then, MEMS micro

  11. Controlling Blend Morphology for Ultra-High Current Density in Non-Fullerene Acceptor Based Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xin

    2018-01-23

    Due to the high absorption coefficient and modulated band gap of non-fullerene small molecule acceptors (NFAs), photons can be utilized more efficiently in near-infrared (NIR) range. In this report, we highlight a system with a well-known polymer donor (PTB7-Th) blended with a narrow bandgap non-fullerene acceptor (IEICO-4F) as active layer and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as the solvent additive. The optimization of the photoactive layer nanomorphology yields short-circuit current density value (Jsc) of 27.3 mA/cm2, one of the highest value in OSCs reported to date, which competes with other types of solution processed solar cells such as perovskite or quantum dot devices. Along with decent open-circuit voltage (0.71V) and fill factor values (66%), a power conversion efficiency of 12.8% is achieved for the champion devices. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) patterns and resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) elucidate that the origin of this high photocurrent is mainly due to increased π-π coherence length of the acceptor, the domain spacing as well as the mean-square composition variation of the blend. Optoelectronic measurements confirm a balanced hole and electron mobility and reduced trap-assisted recombination for the best devices. These findings unveil the relevant solvent processing-nanostructure-electronic properties correlation in low band gap non-fullerene based solar cells, which provide a helpful guide for maximizing photocurrent that can pave the way for high efficiency organic solar cells.

  12. Preparation and characterization of stable aqueous higher-order fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aich, Nirupam; Flora, Joseph R V; Saleh, Navid B

    2012-01-01

    Stable aqueous suspensions of nC 60 and individual higher fullerenes, i.e. C 70 , C 76 and C 84 , are prepared by a calorimetric modification of a commonly used liquid–liquid extraction technique. The energy requirement for synthesis of higher fullerenes has been guided by molecular-scale interaction energy calculations. Solubilized fullerenes show crystalline behavior by exhibiting lattice fringes in high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The fullerene colloidal suspensions thus prepared are stable with a narrow distribution of cluster radii (42.7 ± 0.8 nm, 46.0 ± 14.0 nm, 60 ± 3.2 nm and 56.3 ± 1.1 nm for nC 60 , nC 70 , nC 76 and nC 84 , respectively) as measured by time-resolved dynamic light scattering. The ζ-potential values for all fullerene samples showed negative surface potentials with similar magnitude ( − 38.6 ± 5.8 mV, − 39.1 ± 4.2 mV, − 38.9 ± 5.8 mV and − 41.7 ± 5.1 mV for nC 60 , nC 70 , nC 76 and nC 84 , respectively), which provide electrostatic stability to the colloidal clusters. This energy-based modified solubilization technique to produce stable aqueous fullerenes will likely aid in future studies focusing on better applicability, determination of colloidal properties, and understanding of environmental fate, transport and toxicity of higher-order fullerenes. (paper)

  13. An analytical method for determination of fullerenes and functionalized fullerenes in soils with high performance liquid chromatography and UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboni, Andrea; Emke, Erik; Parsons, John R.; Kalbitz, Karsten; Voogt, Pim de

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A total of eight fullerenes can be analyzed in a single run with HPLC-UV. •The method allows the analysis of fullerenes in soil at relatively low concentrations. •The method developed is robust, highly reproducible and relatively efficient. •The method can be applied to the study of the environmental fate and toxicology of fullerenes. -- Abstract: Fullerenes are carbon-based nanomaterials expected to play a major role in emerging nanotechnology and produced at an increasing rate for industrial and household applications. In the last decade a number of novel compounds (i.e. fullerene derivatives) is being introduced into the market and specific analytical methods are needed for analytical purposes as well as environmental and safety issues. In the present work eight fullerenes (C60 and C70) and functionalized fullerenes (C60 and C70 exohedral-derivatives) were selected and a novel liquid chromatographic method was developed for their analysis with UV absorption as a method of detection. The resulting HPLC-UV method is the first one suitable for the analysis of all eight compounds. This method was applied for the analysis of fullerenes added to clayish, sandy and loess top-soils at concentrations of 20, 10 and 5 μg kg −1 and extracted with a combination of sonication and shaking extraction. The analytical method limits of detection (LoD) and limits of quantification (LoQ) were in the range of 6–10 μg L −1 and 15–24 μg L −1 respectively for the analytical solutions. The extraction from soil was highly reproducible with recoveries ranging from 47 ± 5 to 71 ± 4% whereas LoD and LoQ for all soils tested were of 3 μg kg −1 and 10 μg kg −1 respectively. No significant difference in the extraction performance was observed depending of the different soil matrices and between the different concentrations. The developed method can be applied for the study of the fate and toxicity of fullerenes in complex matrices

  14. Two new types of pi-conjugation between a fullerene sphere and an addend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Floris B.; Leuning, Tessa M.; Martinez, Enrique Maroto; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2010-01-01

    Diazirine addition reactions to C(60), followed by an HCl elimination step, yielded [6,6] and [5,6] sp(2) carbon bridged fullerenes. The [5,6] adducts (alkylidenehomofullerenes) are the first examples of fullerene structures where the addend is attached to the fullerene cage in a true, albeit highly

  15. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Naab, Fabian; Savage, Lauren; Holland, Wayne; Duggan, Jerome; McDaniel, Floyd

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen as a fuel source is an attractive, relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a major limitation in its use for the application of automobiles has been the requirement for an efficient hydrogen storage medium. Current hydrogen storage systems are: physical storage in high pressure tanks, metal hydride, and gas-on-solid absorption. However, these methods do not fulfill the Department of Energy's targeted requirements for a usable hydrogen storage capacity of 6.5 wt.%, operation near ambient temperature and pressure, quick extraction and refueling, reliability and reusability.Reports showing high capacity hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes originally prompted great excitement in the field, but further research has shown conflicting results. Results for carbon nanostructures have ranged from less than 1 wt.% to 70 wt.%. The wide range of adsorption found in previous experiments results from the difficulty in measuring hydrogen in objects just nanometers in size. Most previous experiments relied on weight analysis and residual gas analysis to determine the amount of hydrogen being adsorbed by the CNTs. These differing results encouraged us to perform our own analysis on single-walled (SWNTs), double-walled (DWNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as carbon fiber. We chose to utilize direct measurement of hydrogen in the materials using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates and the University of North Texas.

  16. Fullerene hydride - A potential hydrogen storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Xing Wang; Jun Ping Zhang; An Guang Yu; Yun Xu Yang; Wu Wei Wang; Rui long Sheng; Jia Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, as a clean, convenient, versatile fuel source, is considered to be an ideal energy carrier in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage must be solved in using of hydrogen energy. To date, much effort has been put into storage of hydrogen including physical storage via compression or liquefaction, chemical storage in hydrogen carriers, metal hydrides and gas-on-solid adsorption. But no one satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. C 60 H 36 , firstly synthesized by the method of the Birch reduction, was loaded with 4.8 wt% hydrogen indicating [60]fullerene might be as a potential hydrogen storage material. If a 100% conversion of C 60 H 36 is achieved, 18 moles of H 2 gas would be liberated from each mole of fullerene hydride. Pure C 60 H 36 is very stable below 500 C under nitrogen atmosphere and it releases hydrogen accompanying by other hydrocarbons under high temperature. But C 60 H 36 can be decomposed to generate H 2 under effective catalyst. We have reported that hydrogen can be produced catalytically from C 60 H 36 by Vasks's compound (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) under mild conditions. (RhCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) having similar structure to (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ), was also examined for thermal dehydrogenation of C 60 H 36 ; but it showed low catalytic activity. To search better catalyst, palladium carbon (Pd/C) and platinum carbon (Pt/C) catalysts, which were known for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds, were tried and good results were obtained. A very big peak of hydrogen appeared at δ=5.2 ppm in 1 H NMR spectrum based on Evans'work (fig 1) at 100 C over a Pd/C catalyst for 16 hours. It is shown that hydrogen can be produced from C 60 H 36 using a catalytic amount of Pd/C. Comparing with Pd/C, Pt/C catalyst showed lower activity. The high cost and limited availability of Vaska's compounds, Pd and Pt make it advantageous to develop less expensive catalysts for our process based on

  17. Strong piezoelectricity in bioinspired peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, Andrei; Amdursky, Nadav; Bdikin, Igor; Gazit, Ehud; Rosenman, Gil

    2010-02-23

    We show anomalously strong shear piezoelectric activity in self-assembled diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes (PNTs), indicating electric polarization directed along the tube axis. Comparison with well-known piezoelectric LiNbO(3) and lateral signal calibration yields sufficiently high effective piezoelectric coefficient values of at least 60 pm/V (shear response for tubes of approximately 200 nm in diameter). PNTs demonstrate linear deformation without irreversible degradation in a broad range of driving voltages. The results open up a wide avenue for developing new generations of "green" piezoelectric materials and piezonanodevices based on bioactive tubular nanostructures potentially compatible with human tissue.

  18. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  19. Single nanowire OPV properties of a fullerene-capped P3HT dyad investigated using conductive and photoconductive AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Daniel A; Wang, Mingfeng; Wudl, Fred; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2012-02-28

    The effect of molecular self-assembly on nanoscale photoinduced charge generation of fullerene-capped poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PCB-c-P3HT) films and its effectiveness as a molecular additive in bulk heterojunction P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is investigated through photoconductive atomic force microscopy. ortho-Dichlorobenzene-cast films of PCB-c-P3HT are found to form interconnected fibrous networks that show high photocurrent generation, while tetrahydrofuran-cast films show nanospheres with relatively low photocurrent generation. The nanofiber size and current generated from these nanowires are shown to vary with additions of PCBM. The PCB-c-P3HT amphiphile is shown to be a successful molecular additive in P3HT:PCBM films. These observations demonstrate how the self-assembly of PCB-c-P3HT into specific nanostructures is crucial to charge generation and transport.

  20. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  1. Table of periodic properties of fullerenes based on structural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    The periodic table (PT) of the elements suggests that hydrogen could be the origin of everything else. The construction principle is an evolutionary process that is formally similar to those of Darwin and Oparin. The Kekulé structure count and permanence of the adjacency matrix of fullerenes are related to structural parameters involving the presence of contiguous pentagons p, q and r. Let p be the number of edges common to two pentagons, q the number of vertices common to three pentagons, and r the number of pairs of nonadjacent pentagon edges shared between two other pentagons. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the structural parameters and cluster analysis (CA) of the fullerenes permit classifying them and agree. A PT of the fullerenes is built based on the structural parameters, PCA and CA. The periodic law does not have the rank of the laws of physics. (1) The properties of the fullerenes are not repeated; only, and perhaps, their chemical character. (2) The order relationships are repeated, although with exceptions. The proposed statement is the following: The relationships that any fullerene p has with its neighbor p + 1 are approximately repeated for each period.

  2. Carboxylated Fullerene at the Oil/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongqiang; Chai, Yu; Jiang, Yufeng; Ashby, Paul D; Toor, Anju; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-10-04

    The self-assembly of carboxylated fullerene with poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) with different molecular weights, poly-2-vinylpyridine, and amine-terminated polystyrene, at the interface between toluene and water was investigated. For all values of the pH, the functionalized fullerene interacted with the polymers at the water/toluene interface, forming a nanoparticle network, reducing the interfacial tension. At pH values of 4.84 and 7.8, robust, elastic films were formed at the interface, such that hollow tubules could be formed in situ when an aqueous solution of the functionalized fullerene was jetted into a toluene solution of PS-b-P2VP at a pH of 4.84. With variation of the pH, the mechanical properties of the fullerene/polymer assemblies can be varied by tuning the strength of the interactions between the functionalized fullerenes and the PS-b-P2VP.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aurangzeb

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) represents an important semiconductor material due to its wideband gap (3.37 eV at room temperature), large exciton binding energy (60 meV), high optical gain, and luminescence as well as piezoelectric properties [1]. From the 1960s, ZnO thin films have been extensively studied because of their applications as sensors, transducers and catalysts [2]. Since a few decades, one-dimensional nanostructures have become the focus point in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Nanostructures are considered to have unique physical, chemical, catalytic and optical properties that are profoundly different from their bulk counterparts. Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991, a string of research activities led to the growth and characterization of nanostructures of various materials including semiconductors such as Si, Ge and also compound semiconductors such as InP, GaAs, GaN and ZnO. ZnO is a versatile material and has shown potential for the synthesis of various types of nanostructures such as nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelices/nanosprings, nanobelts, nanowires and nanocages under specific growth conditions and probably has the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structure and properties. This dissertation presents the synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures with the development of a PVD system. The nanostructures of ZnO are synthesized on various kinds of substrates such as Silicon, Sapphire and Alumina. We have synthesized a large family of nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanobelts, aligned nanorods, nanosheets, nanospheres, nanocombs, microspheres, hexagons etc. The nanostructures are then characterized by SEM, EDX, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, PL and CL. From the characterization of the materials, we observed that these nanostructures are of good crystalline quality. PL and CL spectra reveal that all the nanostructures emit a ˜380 nm (UV) usually called the near

  4. Fabrication of Nanostructures Using Self-Assembled Peptides as Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self-organize into nanostruc......This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self......-organize into nanostructures (nanotubes, nanofibers or nanospheres) under very mild conditions; some of its properties make them excellent candidates to be use as, for instance, dry-etch masks in a reactive ion etching process for the rapid fabrication of silicon micro and nanowires. Here, the methods used to exploit...

  5. Fullerenes: Characteristics of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenes are molecules composed of an even number of carbon atoms of a spherical or an ellipsoidal, closed spatial structure. The most common fullerene is the C60 molecule with a spherical structure – a truncated icosahedron, compared to a football. Fullerenes are widely used in the diagnostics and medicine, but also in the electronics and energy industry. Occupational exposure to fullerene may occur during its production. The occupational concentrations of fullerenes reached 0.12–1.2 μ/m3 for nanoparticles fraction (< 100 nm, which may evidence low exposure levels. However, fullerene mostly agglomerates into larger particles. Absorption of fullerene by oral and respiratory routes is low, and it is not absorbed by skin. After intravenous administration, fullerene accumulates mainly in the liver but also in the spleen and the kidneys. In animal experiments there was no irritation or skin sensitization caused by fullerene, and only mild irritation to the eyes. Fullerene induced transient inflammation in the lungs in inhalation studies in rodents. Oral exposure does not lead to major adverse effects. Fullerene was not mutagenic, genotoxic or carcinogenic in experimental research. However, fullerene may cause harmful effects on the mice fetus when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Pristine C60 fullerene is characterized by poor absorption and low toxicity, and it does not pose a risk in the occupational environment. The authors of this study are of the opinion that there is no ground for estimating the maximum allowable concentration (NDS of pristine fullerene C60. Fullerene derivatives, due to different characteristics, require separate analysis in terms of occupational risk assessment. Med Pr 2016;67(3:397–410

  6. Computer modelling of the plasma chemistry and plasma-based growth mechanisms for nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review paper, an overview is given of different modelling efforts for plasmas used for the formation and growth of nanostructured materials. This includes both the plasma chemistry, providing information on the precursors for nanostructure formation, as well as the growth processes itself. We limit ourselves to carbon (and silicon) nanostructures. Examples of the plasma modelling comprise nanoparticle formation in silane and hydrocarbon plasmas, as well as the plasma chemistry giving rise to carbon nanostructure formation, such as (ultra)nanocrystalline diamond ((U)NCD) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The second part of the paper deals with the simulation of the (plasma-based) growth mechanisms of the same carbon nanostructures, i.e. (U)NCD and CNTs, both by mechanistic modelling and detailed atomistic simulations.

  7. Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition growth of carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivan R. Singh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various input parameters on the production of carbon nanostructures using a simple microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique has been investigated. The technique utilises a conventional microwave oven as the microwave energy source. The developed apparatus is inexpensive and easy to install and is suitable for use as a carbon nanostructure source for potential laboratory-based research of the bulk properties of carbon nanostructures. A result of this investigation is the reproducibility of specific nanostructures with the variation of input parameters, such as carbon-containing precursor and support gas flow rate. It was shown that the yield and quality of the carbon products is directly controlled by input parameters. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the carbon products; these were found to be amorphous, nanotubes and onion-like nanostructures.

  8. An efficient route to functionalize singe-walled carbon nanotubes using alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Rong; Wang Xianbao; Li Mingjian; Hu Huating; Chen Rong; Liu Fangming; Zheng Han; Wan Li

    2008-01-01

    An efficient method to functionalize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with alcohols under microwave irradiation was reported. An electrophilic addition reaction took place between a series of alcohols and SWNTs, resulting in the attachment of various alkyl or alcoholic groups, as well as hydroxyl groups, to the surface of the nanotubes. The modified SWNTs show better dispersibility in common organic solvents (such as N, N-dimethylformamide and ethanol) than the pristine nanotubes, which is important to improve their processability. These results illustrate a direct pathway to abundantly functionalize SWNTs for building nanostructures.

  9. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with amino groups by reacting with supercritical ammonia fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lu; Bai Yongping; Huang Xu; Gao Zhangfei; Meng Linghui; Huang Yudong; Ma Jun

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, supercritical ammonia fluid was utilized to simply functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with amino groups. The successful amino functionalization of MWCNTs was proven and the physicochemical properties of MWCNTs before and after supercritical ammonia fluids modifications were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results also indicated that the supercritical ammonia fluids had the visible effects on the nanostructure of carbon nanotubes. Our novel modification approach provides an easy way to modify MWCNTs with amino groups, which is very useful for realizing 'carbon nanotube economy' in the near future.

  10. Chalcogenide phase-change memory nanotubes for lower writing current operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeonwoong; Agarwal, Rahul; Yang, Chung-Ying; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of Sb-doped Te-rich nanotubes, and study their memory switching properties under the application of electrical pulses. Te-rich nanotubes display significantly low writing currents due to their small cross-sectional areas, which is desirable for power-efficient memory operation. The nanotube devices show limited resistance ratio and cyclic switching capability owing to the intrinsic properties of Te. The observed memory switching properties of this new class of nanostructured memory elements are discussed in terms of fundamental materials properties and extrinsic geometrical effects.

  11. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small

  12. Plasma Enhanced Growth of Carbon Nanotubes For Ultrasensitive Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Li, J.; Ye, Q.; Koehne, J.; Chen, H.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The multitude of considerations facing nanostructure growth and integration lends itself to combinatorial optimization approaches. Rapid optimization becomes even more important with wafer-scale growth and integration processes. Here we discuss methodology for developing plasma enhanced CVD growth techniques for achieving individual, vertically aligned carbon nanostructures that show excellent properties as ultrasensitive electrodes for nucleic acid detection. We utilize high throughput strategies for optimizing the upstream and downstream processing and integration of carbon nanotube electrodes as functional elements in various device types. An overview of ultrasensitive carbon nanotube based sensor arrays for electrochemical biosensing applications and the high throughput methodology utilized to combine novel electrode technology with conventional MEMS processing will be presented.

  13. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaji, T; Ohba, T; Uchida, T; Minezaki, H; Ishihara, S; Racz, R; Muramatsu, M; Biri, S; Kitagawa, A; Kato, Y; Yoshida, Y

    2014-02-01

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C60 has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C60 was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  14. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Cates, Nichole C.

    2009-12-09

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  15. Liposome Formulation of Fullerene-Based Molecular Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene medicine is a new but rapidly growing research subject. Fullerene has a number of desired structural, physical and chemical properties to be adapted for biological use including antioxidants, anti-aging, anti-inflammation, photodynamic therapy, drug delivery, and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Chemical functionalization of fullerenes has led to several interesting compounds with very promising preclinical efficacy, pharmacokinetic and safety data. However, there is no clinical evaluation or human use except in fullerene-based cosmetic products for human skincare. This article summarizes recent advances in liposome formulation of fullerenes for the use in therapeutics and molecular imaging.

  16. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures is devoted to the fabrication, characterization, experimental investigation, theoretical understanding, and utilization of advanced magnetic nanostructures. Focus is on various types of 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' artificial nanostructures, as contrasted to naturally occurring magnetic nanostructures, such as iron-oxide inclusions in magnetic rocks, and to structures such as perfect thin films. Chapter 1 is an introduction into some basic concepts, such as the definitions of basic magnetic quantities. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to the theory of magnetic nanostructures, Chapter 5 deals with the characterization of the structures, and Chapters 6-10 are devoted to specific systems. Applications of advanced magnetic nanostructures are discussed in Chapters11-15 and, finally, the appendix lists and briefly discusses magnetic properties of typical starting materials. Industrial and academic researchers in magnetism and related areas such as nanotechnology, materials science, and theore...

  17. Spin-on carbon using fullerene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommhold, A.; Brown, A. G.; Lada, T.; Palmer, R. E.; Robinson, A. P. G.

    2014-03-01

    Progress in lithographic resolution has made the adoption of extremely thin photoresist films necessary for the fabrication of `2× nm' structures to prevent issues such as resist collapse during development. While there are resists with high etch durability, ultimately etch depth is limited by resist thickness. A possible solution is the use of a multilayer etch stack. For organic hardmasks a carbon-rich material is preferred as carbon possesses a high etch resistance in silicon etch plasma processes. In terms of manufacturability it is beneficial to spin coat the carbon layer instead of using chemical vapor deposition, but the presence of carbon-hydrogen bonds in typical spin on carbon leads to line wiggling during the etch. We have previously introduced a fullerene based `spin on carbon' (SoC) with high etch durability and reported on material characterization. Here we show recent advances in material development and work towards commercialization. The low hydrogen level in the material allows for high resolution etching without wiggling.

  18. Effective transformation of PCDTBT nanorods into nanotubes by polymer melts wetting approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhra Aziz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, p-type conducting polymer of poly [N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole] (PCDTBT has been explored for nanostructures. A novel approach has been adopted to transform nanorods into nanotubes by altering template-wetting methods. PCDTBT nanorods are fabricated by infiltrating porous alumina template with various solution concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml. Upon thermal annealing PCDTBT beyond its melting point, the nanorods are transformed into nanotubes. The morphological and optical investigations reveal that the nanorods prepared with a concentration of 10 mg/ml are longer, denser, well-arranged and red shifted as compared to other nanorods. The PCDTBT nanotubes of the same concentration prepared at 300 °C are found the best among all other nanotubes with improved length, density and alignment as compared to their nanorod counterparts. Furthermore, the optical spectra of the nanotubes demonstrate broad spectral region, augmented absorption intensity and significant red-shift. The changes observed in Raman shift indicate improvement in molecular arrangement of the nanotubes. Optimization of the solution concentration and annealing temperature leads to improvement of PCDTBT nanostructures. PCDTBT nanotubes, with better molecular arrangement and broad optical spectrum, can be exploited in the state-of-the-art photovoltaic devices.

  19. Fullerene-based anchoring groups for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian A; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger; Bjørnholm, Thomas; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M; van der Zant, Herre S J

    2008-10-08

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can be self-assembled from solution and has a low-bias conductance of 3 x 10(-4) G0. Compared to 1,4-benzenedithiol the fullerene-anchored molecule exhibits a considerably lower conductance spread. In addition, the signature of the new compound in histograms is more significant than that of 1,4-benzenediamine, probably owing to a more stable adsorption motif. Statistical analyses of the breaking of the junctions confirm the stability of the fullerene-gold bond.

  20. Synthesis of Platinum Nanotubes and Nanorings via Simultaneous Metal Alloying and Etching

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Zhiqi

    2016-04-19

    Metallic nanotubes represent a class of hollow nanostructures with unique catalytic properties. However, the wet-chemical synthesis of metallic nanotubes remains a substantial challenge, especially for those with dimensions below 50 nm. This communication describes a simultaneous alloying-etching strategy for the synthesis of Pt nanotubes with open ends by selective etching Au core from coaxial Au/Pt nanorods. This approach can be extended for the preparation of Pt nanorings when Saturn-like Au core/Pt shell nanoparticles are used. The diameter and wall thickness of both nanotubes and nanorings can be readily controlled in the range of 14-37 nm and 2-32 nm, respectively. We further demonstrated that the nanotubes with ultrathin side walls showed superior catalytic performance in oxygen reduction reaction. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  1. Synthesis of uniform carbon at silica nanocables and luminescent silica nanotubes with well controlled inner diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haisheng; Yu Shuhong; Ren Lei; Yang Yipeng; Zhang Wei

    2006-01-01

    Uniform carbon at silica nanocables and silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters can be synthesized in an easy way by a sacrificial templating method. This was performed using carbon nanofibres as hard templates that were synthesized previously by a hydrothermal carbonization process. Silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters were synthesized from carbon at silica core-shell nanostructures by removal of the core carbon component. The inner diameters of the as-prepared silica nanotubes can be well controlled from several nanometres to hundreds of nanometres by adjusting the diameters of the carbon nanofibres. The silica nanotubes synthesized by this method display strong photoluminescence in ultraviolet at room temperature. Such uniform silica nanotubes might find potential applications in many fields such as encapsulation, catalysis, chemical/biological separation, and sensing

  2. Three-dimensional observation of TiO2 nanostructures by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Suh, Young Joon

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures of TiO2 related materials including nanotubes, electron acceptor materials in hybrid polymer solar cells, and working electrodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were visualized by electron tomography as well as TEM micrographs. The regions on the wall of TiO2 nanotubes where the streptavidins were attached were elucidated by electron tomogram analysis. The coverage of TiO2 nanotubes by streptavidin was also investigated. The TiO2 nanostructures in hybrid polymer solar cells made by sol-gel and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods and the morphologies of pores between TiO2 particles in DSSCs were also observed by reconstructed three-dimensional images made by electron tomography. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Three-dimensional observation of TiO2 nanostructures by electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Joon; Lu, Ning; Park, Seong Yong; Lee, Tae Hun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Cha, Dong Kyu; Lee, Min Gun; Huang, Jie; Kim, Sung-Soo; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Kim, Geung-Ho; Ko, Min Jae; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures of TiO2 related materials including nanotubes, electron acceptor materials in hybrid polymer solar cells, and working electrodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were visualized by electron tomography as well as TEM micrographs. The regions on the wall of TiO2 nanotubes where the streptavidins were attached were elucidated by electron tomogram analysis. The coverage of TiO2 nanotubes by streptavidin was also investigated. The TiO2 nanostructures in hybrid polymer solar cells made by sol-gel and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods and the morphologies of pores between TiO2 particles in DSSCs were also observed by reconstructed three-dimensional images made by electron tomography. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Theoretical characterization of layered silica nanostructures from first-principles prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hongcai; Xi, Zexiao; Zhao, Mingwen, E-mail: zmw@sdu.edu.cn

    2014-10-03

    Using first-principles calculations, we study the structural, mechanical and electronic properties of the layered silica nanostructures built on base of silica bilayers consisting of four- and six-membered Si–O ring (4 MR and 6 MR) units. These silica nanostructures have high stability and good flexibility comparable to graphene and can serve as a promising precursor for the fabrication of well-ordered silica nanotubes. The porous structure and wide band gap of the silica nanomaterials may find applications in gas separation, slow-release microcapsules, and catalyst supports. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2} nanosheets with four and six Si–O rings have high stability and good feasibility. • SiO{sub 2} nanotubes can be formed by rolling up SiO{sub 2} nanosheet with low strain energy. • Both SiO{sub 2} nanosheets and nanotubes are insulators independent of chirality.

  5. Nanostructured Materials for Magnetoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikailzade, Faik

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of nanometer-scale magnetism and focuses on the investigation of the basic properties of magnetic nanostructures. It describes a wide range of physical aspects together with theoretical and experimental methods. A broad overview of the latest developments in this emerging and fascinating field of nanostructured materials is given with emphasis on the practical understanding and operation of submicron devices based on nanostructured magnetic materials.

  6. Intratracheal administration of fullerene nanoparticles activates splenic CD11b{sup +} cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ning [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Kunugita, Naoki [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6, Minami, Wako 351-0197 (Japan); Ichinose, Takamichi [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita 870-1201 (Japan); Song, Yuan [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Yokoyama, Mitsuru [Bio-information Research Center, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Arashidani, Keiichi [School of Health Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Yasuhiro, E-mail: freude@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Fullerene administration triggered splenic responses. {yields} Splenic responses occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. {yields} CD11b{sup +} cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene. - Abstract: Fullerene nanoparticles ('Fullerenes'), which are now widely used materials in daily life, have been demonstrated to induce elevated pulmonary inflammation in several animal models; however, the effects of fullerenes on the immune system are not fully understood. In the present study, mice received fullerenes intratracheally and were sacrificed at days 1, 6 and 42. Mice that received fullerenes exhibited increased proliferation of splenocytes and increased splenic production of IL-2 and TNF-{alpha}. Changes in the spleen in response to fullerene treatment occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. Furthermore, fullerenes induced CDK2 expression and activated NF-{kappa}B and NFAT in splenocytes at 6 days post-administration. Finally, CD11b{sup +} cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene administration in the splenic inflammatory process. Taken together, in addition to the effects on pulmonary responses, fullerenes also modulate the immune system.

  7. Intratracheal administration of fullerene nanoparticles activates splenic CD11b+ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Ning; Kunugita, Naoki; Ichinose, Takamichi; Song, Yuan; Yokoyama, Mitsuru; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fullerene administration triggered splenic responses. → Splenic responses occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. → CD11b + cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene. - Abstract: Fullerene nanoparticles ('Fullerenes'), which are now widely used materials in daily life, have been demonstrated to induce elevated pulmonary inflammation in several animal models; however, the effects of fullerenes on the immune system are not fully understood. In the present study, mice received fullerenes intratracheally and were sacrificed at days 1, 6 and 42. Mice that received fullerenes exhibited increased proliferation of splenocytes and increased splenic production of IL-2 and TNF-α. Changes in the spleen in response to fullerene treatment occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. Furthermore, fullerenes induced CDK2 expression and activated NF-κB and NFAT in splenocytes at 6 days post-administration. Finally, CD11b + cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene administration in the splenic inflammatory process. Taken together, in addition to the effects on pulmonary responses, fullerenes also modulate the immune system.

  8. As-grown carbon nanotube quantum dots with superconducting contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The progress in fabrication technology and the miniaturization of nanostructured devices in the recent past has attracted a lot of interest in the field of electronic circuits on the nanoscale where the system's spatial dimensions allow for the investigation of quantum phenomena. Since their first identification by S. Iijima in 1991, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been implemented in electronic junctions making use of their extraordinary electronic and mechanical properties. The investigation o...

  9. Formation of nanomagnetic thin films by dispersed fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyi A.; Lairson, Bruce M.; Barrera, Enrique V.; Shull, Robert D.

    2000-11-01

    A method of forming magnetic materials using dispersed fullerenes in ferromagnetic materials has been studied. Fullerenes (C60) have been integrated into the matrix of Co, Fe, CoFe thin films by thermal vapor codeposition. The size effects and interaction of the C60 molecules to the metallic atoms promote a self-assembly grain growth mode to produce thin films with unique evoluted microstructures characterized by nanosize columnar grains with uniformly dispersed C60 on the grain boundaries. These nanocrystalline films have displayed a series of promising magnetic properties, such as high out of plane remanence, high coercivity, fast magnetic switching, and unusual hysteresis behavior.

  10. Exciton and Hole-Transfer Dynamics in Polymer: Fullerene Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loosdrecht P. H. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast hole transfer dynamics from fullerene derivative to polymer in bulk heterojunction blends are studied with visible-pump - IR-probe spectroscopy. The hole transfer process is found to occur in 50/300 fs next to the interface, while a longer 15-ps time is attributed to exciton diffusion towards interface in PC71BM domains. High polaron generation efficiency in P3HT blends indicates excellent intercalation between the polymer and the fullerene even at highest PC71BM concentration thereby yielding a valuable information on the blend morphology.

  11. Fullerene-based Anchoring Groups for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christian A.; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger

    2008-01-01

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can...... be self-assembled from solution and has a low-bias conductance of 3 × 10-4 G0. Compared to 1,4-benzenedithiol the fullerene-anchored molecule exhibits a considerably lower conductance spread. In addition, the signature of the new compound in histograms is more significant than that of 1,4-benzenediamine...

  12. Stereodivergent-at-metal synthesis of [60]fullerene hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco-Martinez, Juan; Vidal, Sara; Fernandez, Israel; Filippone, Salvatore [Departamento de Quimica Organica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Martin, Nazario [Departamento de Quimica Organica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); IMDEA-Nanociencia, C/Faraday, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-13

    Chiral fullerene-metal hybrids with complete control over the four stereogenic centers, including the absolute configuration of the metal atom, have been synthesized for the first time. The stereochemistry of the four chiral centers formed during [60]fullerene functionalization is the result of both the chiral catalysts employed and the diastereoselective addition of the metal complexes used (iridium, rhodium, or ruthenium). DFT calculations underpin the observed configurational stability at the metal center, which does not undergo an epimerization process. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. The influence of sintering on the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapasztó, Orsolya; Lemmel, Hartmut; Markó, Márton; Balázsi, Katalin; Balázsi, Csaba; Tapasztó, Levente

    2014-10-01

    Optimizing the dispersion of carbon nanostructures in ceramic matrix composites is a fundamental technological challenge. So far most efforts have been focused on improving the dispersion of nanostructures during the powder phase processing, due to the limited information and control on their possible redistribution during the sintering. Here, we address this issue by comparing multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced Si3N4 composites prepared from the same starting powder dispersion but sintered using two different techniques. We employ ultra-small angle neutron scattering measurements to gain reliable information on the dispersion of nanostructures allowing a direct comparison of their redistribution during the sintering.

  14. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-05-27

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light-matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important

  15. Nanostructured layers of thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffrey J.; Lynch, Jared; Coates, Nelson; Forster, Jason; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Chabinyc, Michael; Russ, Boris

    2018-01-30

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to thermoelectric materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing a plurality of nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures comprise a thermoelectric material, with each nanostructure of the plurality of nanostructures having first ligands disposed on a surface of the nanostructure. The plurality of nanostructures is mixed with a solution containing second ligands and a ligand exchange process occurs in which the first ligands disposed on the plurality of nanostructures are replaced with the second ligands. The plurality of nanostructures is deposited on a substrate to form a layer. The layer is thermally annealed.

  16. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Mintz, Eric; Meador, Michael A.; Hull, David R.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Willis, Peter; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have created a great deal of excitement in the Materials Science community because of their outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Use of carbon nanotubes as reinforcements for polymers could lead to a new class of composite materials with properties, durability, and performance far exceeding that of conventional fiber reinforced composites. Organized arrays of carbon nanotubes, e.g., nanotube monolayers, could find applications as thermal management materials, light emitting devices, and sensor arrays. Carbon nanotubes could also be used as templates upon which nanotubes from other materials could be constructed. Successful use of carbon nanotubes in any of these potential applications requires the ability to control the interactions of nanotubes with each other and with other materials, e.g., a polymer matrix. One approach to achieving this control is to attach certain chemical groups to the ends and/or side-walls of the nanotubes. The nature of these chemical groups can be varied to achieve the desired result, such as better adhesion between the nanotubes and a polymer. Under a joint program between NASA Glenn, Clark Atlanta University, and Rice University researchers are working on developing a chemistry "tool-kit" that will enable the functionalization of carbon nanotubes with a variety of chemical groups. Recent results of this effort will be discussed.

  17. NANOSTRUCTURING AS A WAY FOR THERMOELECTRIC EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Bochkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of thermoelectric energy conversion is proved. Perspectives of nanostructures usage as thermoelectric materials are shown. The authors have systematized and generalized the methods and investigation results of bulk nanostructure thermoelectrics based on Bi-Sb-Te solid solutions. Ways of nanoparticles fabrication and their subsequent sintering into a bulk sample, results of structure study of the received materials are shown by methods of electronic microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy, results of mechanical properties investigation. Methods of manufacturing suggested with the authors’ participation and properties of thermoelectric nanocomposites, fabricated with addition of fullerene, thermally split graphite, graphene and molybdenum disulphide are discussed. Methods for prevention of recrystallization, measurement methods of thermoelectric properties of studied nanothermoelectrics are considered, including electric and thermal conductivities, thermoemf and the figure of merit. Factors that influence on thermoelectric figure of merit, including the tunneling of carriers through interfaces between nanograins, the additional phonon scattering on nanograin borders and the energy filtration of carriers through barriers have been theoretically investigated. Mechanisms and ways for improvement of the figure of merit are determined. Experimental confirmation for thermoelectric figure of merit increase is received. Physical mechanisms of thermoelectric figure of merit increase are shown by perceptivity of nanostructures utilization. The growth of thermoelectric figure of merit means an expansion of areas for rational application of thermoelectric energy generation and thermoelectric cooling.

  18. Growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Zhongchun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Medforth, Craig J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-03-08

    Our overall goal has been to understand and develop a light-driven approach to the controlled growth of novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures when exposed to visible light, providing metal nucleation and growth centers. The photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location of the deposition of metal and therefore the morphology of the nanostructures that are grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods we are using for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, each photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition near the photocatalyst and ultimately the synthesis of new metallic nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Georgia. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled nanosynthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. Our specific goals for the past three years have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic metal (Pt, Pd, Au) nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient conditions and the synthesis of photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes) as templates for fabrication of photo-active metal

  19. Comparing the Device Physics and Morphology of Polymer Solar Cells Employing Fullerenes and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Bloking, Jason T.

    2014-04-23

    There is a need to find electron acceptors for organic photovoltaics that are not based on fullerene derivatives since fullerenes have a small band gap that limits the open-circuit voltage (VOC), do not absorb strongly and are expensive. Here, a phenylimide-based acceptor molecule, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (HPI-BT), that can be used to make solar cells with VOC values up to 1.11 V and power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7% with two thiophene polymers is demonstrated. An internal quantum efficiency of 56%, compared to 75-90% for polymer-fullerene devices, results from less efficient separation of geminate charge pairs. While favorable energetic offsets in the polymer-fullerene devices due to the formation of a disordered mixed phase are thought to improve charge separation, the low miscibility (<5 wt%) of HPI-BT in polymers is hypothesized to prevent the mixed phase and energetic offsets from forming, thus reducing the driving force for charges to separate into the pure donor and acceptor phases where they can be collected. A small molecule electron acceptor, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (HPI-BT), achieves efficiencies of 3.7% and open-circuit voltage values of 1.11 V in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices with polythiophene donor materials. The lower internal quantum efficiency (56%) in these non-fullerene acceptor devices is attributed to an absence of the favorable energetic offsets resulting from nanoscale mixing of donor and acceptor found in comparable fullerene-based devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Carbon nanotubes: properties, synthesis, purification, and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Current discoveries of different forms of carbon nanostructures have motivated research on their applications in various fields. They hold promise for applications in medicine, gene, and drug delivery areas. Many different production methods for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced; functionalization, filling, doping, and chemical modification have been achieved, and characterization, separation, and manipulation of individual CNTs are now possible. Parameters such as structure, surface area, surface charge, size distribution, surface chemistry, and agglomeration state as well as purity of the samples have considerable impact on the reactivity of carbon nanotubes. Otherwise, the strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes make them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures, which suggests they will have a significant role in nanotechnology engineering. PMID:25170330

  1. Structurally uniform and atomically precise carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Yasutomo; Ito, Hideto; Itami, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    Nanometre-sized carbon materials consisting of benzene units oriented in unique geometric patterns, hereafter named nanocarbons, conduct electricity, absorb and emit light, and exhibit interesting magnetic properties. Spherical fullerene C60, cylindrical carbon nanotubes and sheet-like graphene are representative forms of nanocarbons, and theoretical simulations have predicted several exotic 3D nanocarbon structures. At present, synthetic routes to nanocarbons mainly lead to mixtures of molecules with a range of different structures and properties, which cannot be easily separated or refined into pure forms. Some researchers believe that it is impossible to synthesize these materials in a precise manner. Obtaining ‘pure’ nanocarbons is a great challenge in the field of nanocarbon science, and the construction of structurally uniform nanocarbons, ideally as single molecules, is crucial for the development of functional materials in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and biomedical applications. This Review highlights the organic chemistry approach — more specifically, bottom-up construction with atomic precision — that is currently the most promising strategy towards this end.

  2. Fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanotubes with sub-10 nm walls using cryogenic inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqin; Chen, Yiqin; Zhu, Xupeng; Zheng, Mengjie; Dong, Fengliang; Chen, Peipei; Xu, Lihua; Chu, Weiguo; Duan, Huigao

    2016-09-01

    Single-crystal silicon nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years due in part to their unique optical properties. In this work, we demonstrate direct fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanotubes with sub-10 nm walls which show low reflectivity. The fabrication was based on a cryogenic inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching process using high-resolution hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures as the hard mask. Two main etching parameters including substrate low-frequency power and SF6/O2 flow rate ratio were investigated to determine the etching mechanism in the process. With optimized etching parameters, high-aspect-ratio silicon nanotubes with smooth and vertical sub-10 nm walls were fabricated. Compared to commonly-used antireflection silicon nanopillars with the same feature size, the densely packed silicon nanotubes possessed a lower reflectivity, implying possible potential applications of silicon nanotubes in photovoltaics.

  3. Evaluation of carbon nanotube based copper nanoparticle composite for the efficient detection of agroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanomaterials based sensors offer sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of a specific analyte-of-the-interest. Described here is a novel assay for the detection of a DNA sequence based on nanostructured carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles composite. This assay was modeled on strong electro...

  4. Sulfur mustard gas adsorption on ZnO fullerene-like nanocage: Quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohammad; Rad, Ali Shokuhi

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we used density functional theory calculations (at B3LYP and ωB97XD Levels) to search on the adsorption of Sulfur mustard gas (defined as mustard gas) on the surface of fullerene-like ZnO nanocage as a semiconductor. We found three different configurations of adsorbed gas on the surface of this nanostructure semiconductor. The values of adsorption energy of mustard gas are calculated in the range of -144∼ -200 kJ/mol with enthalpies in the range of -132∼-195 kJ/mol and Gibbs free energies in the range of -88∼-144 kJ/mol (T = 298 K, based on ωB97XD level), which indicate exothermic and spontaneous chemisorption. For all geometries, we calculated geometry parameters by taking into account the charge analysis and frontier molecular orbital study. The result of this study can be a support for next studies to develop new nanomaterials as adsorbent/sensor for mustard gas.

  5. Synthesis and Immobilization of Pt Nanoparticles on Amino-Functionalized Halloysite Nanotubes toward Highly Active Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and effective method for the preparation of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs grown on amino-func‐ tionalized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs was developed. The nanostructures were synthesized through the func‐ tionalization of the HNTs, followed by an in situ approach to generate Pt NPs with diameter of approximately 1.5 nm within the entire HNTs. The synthesis process, composition and morphology of the nanostructures were characterized. The results suggest PtNPs/NH2-HNTs nanostructures with ultrafine PtNPs were successfully synthesized by green chemically-reducing H2PtCl6 without the use of surfactant. The nanostructures exhibit promising catalytic properties for reducing potassium hexacyanoferrate(III to potassium hexacyanoferrate(II. The presented experiment for novel PtNPs/NH2-HNTs nanostructures is quite simple and environmentally benign, permitting it as a potential application in the future field of catalysts.

  6. Self-assembly of diphenylalanine backbone homologues and their combination with functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Bhimareddy; Squillaci, Marco A; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Samorì, Paolo; Bianco, Alberto

    2015-10-14

    The integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into organized nanostructures is of great interest for applications in materials science and biomedicine. In this work we studied the self-assembly of β and γ homologues of diphenylalanine peptides under different solvent and pH conditions. We aimed to investigate the role of peptide backbone in tuning the formation of different types of nanostructures alone or in combination with carbon nanotubes. In spite of having the same side chain, β and γ peptides formed distinctively different nanofibers, a clear indication of the role played by the backbone homologation on the self-assembly. The variation of the pH allowed to transform the nanofibers into spherical structures. Moreover, the co-assembly of β and γ peptides with carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with the same peptide generated unique dendritic assemblies. This comparative study on self-assembly using diphenylalanine backbone homologues and of the co-assembly with CNT covalent conjugates is the first example exploring the capacity of β and γ peptides to adopt precise nanostructures, particularly in combination with carbon nanotubes. The dendritic organization obtained by mixing carbon nanotubes and peptides might find interesting applications in tissue engineering and neuronal interfacing.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2009-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

  8. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  9. Fullerene as alligator clips for electrical conduction through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... assistance in the formation of robust molecular junctions. In this article, we have presented the suitability of fullerene anchoring in coupling anthracene molecule with gold electrodes. AMJ with boron-20 (B-20) and C-20 alligator clips exhibited strongest conduction in contrast to nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and neon alligator ...

  10. Fullerene nanoparticles in soil: Analysis, occurrence and fate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carboni, A.

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes are carbon-based nanomaterials that can occur in the environment due to both natural events and human production. Recently, the increasing use in novel nanotechnologies raised concern for the possible adverse effects on humans and the environment. However, the assessment is complicated by

  11. A novel route towards high quality fullerene-pillared graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, Konstantinos; Kang, Longtian; Diamanti, Eumorfia K.; Gengler, Regis Y.; Gournis, Dimitrios; Prato, Maurizio; Rudolf, Petra

    A new approach for the synthesis of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs), by the help of co-intercalant molecules, has been observed. In the present work, we demonstrate the successful incorporation of fullerene (C-60) molecules between the graphene sheets aided by the preceding intercalation of

  12. Photoconducting properties of fullerene derivatized with a biphenil moiety

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corvis, Y.; Trzcinska, K.; Rink, R.; Bílková, Petra; Gorecka, E.; Bilewicz, R.; Rogalska, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2006), s. 1899-1907 ISSN 0137-5083 Grant - others:Research Training Network(XE) HPRN-CT-2002-00171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : fullerene * photoconductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006

  13. Transport properties of fullerene-polyphenylene oxide homogeneous membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polotskaya, G.; Biryulin, Yu.; Pientka, Zbyněk; Brožová, Libuše; Bleha, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2004), s. 371-376 ISSN 1536-383X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : fullerene * polyphenylene oxide * homogeneous membranes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.117, year: 2004

  14. Fullerene-based Anchoring Groups for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christian A.; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger

    2008-01-01

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can...

  15. Ultimate efficiency of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2006-01-01

    We present model calculations to explore the potential of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. As a starting point, devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 6,6-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), reaching 3.5% efficiency, are modeled. Lowering the polymeric band gap will

  16. Bipolar polaron pair recombination in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupijai, Alexander J.; Behringer, Konstantin M.; Schaeble, Florian G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the rate-limiting spin-dependent charge-transfer processes in different polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells at 10 K. Observing central spin-locking signals in pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance and an inversion of Rabi oscillations in multifrequency...

  17. APPLICATION FULLERENE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MEAT PRODUCTS CONTAINING KLENBUTEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In modern conditions the majority of developing livestock complexes, various chemical additives, apply to cattle feeding. One of such preparations is clenbuterol. Clenbuterol is β-2-adrenostimulyator belonging to group β-agonist who stimulate growth of muscular weight and regulate a ratio of fatty and muscular tissue at cultivation of agricultural animals and birds. In Russia results of researches in which it is recommended to apply clenbuterol as a growth factor at cattle cultivation are published. Thus the risk of influences of the residual maintenance of a preparation in animal husbandry production on health of consumers wasn't estimated. We conducted researches in the field of studying of properties fullerene and clenbuterol and their opportunities interaction among themselves. For identification clenbuterol in meat raw materials the synthesis of Prato based on a functionalization fullerene by C60 and C70 consisting in its transformation in fullerene on reactions of a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide on multiple communications of C=C of a fulleren kernel was moved. Reaction took place with allocation of a deposit of the dark color which analysis proved that is a product of interaction of substances investigated by us. This experiment gives the chance to identify clenbuterolfullerene.

  18. Enhanced efficiency in double junction polymer: Fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, D.J.D.; Bruyn, P. de; Kotlarski, J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer solar cells based on the polyfluorene copolymer poly[9,9-didecanefluorene-alt-(bis-thienylene) benzothiadiazole] (PF10TBT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 4%. However, the optimum thickness of the

  19. Convenient syntheses of fullerynes for ‘clicking’ into fullerene polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fu-Ai; Guo, Yanli; He, Jianping; Zhang, Yong; Han, Zhewen; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alkyne-functionalized fullerenes (fullerynes) were designed and conveniently synthesized via Bingel reaction in one step with high yields. They were used to react with azido-functionalized polystyrene (PS) via Huisgen [3 + 2] cycloaddition ‘click’ chemistry to form two fullerene polymers: one with C60 tethered to the end of a PS chain (C60-1PS) and the other with C60 tethered at the junction point of two PS chains of identical molecular weight (C60-2PS). The fullerene polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and SEC. The results showed that the fullerene polymers are well-defined with narrow polydispersity and high fullerene functionality. Besides, aggregation of C60 in THF was observed in the SEC traces. The optical properties of the fullerene polymers were studied by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, and the results suggested that the PS chain(s) on the fullerene core has no remarkable effect on the optic property of C60. The thermal properties of the fullerene polymers were studied by TGA and DSC, and the results indicated that the two fullerene polymers with different C60 content and distinct molecular topology may have different self-assemble architectures in the solid state. The well-defined fullerene polymers can be used as model compounds to study the self-assemble architecture of shape amphiphiles based on polymer-tethered molecular nanoparticles. PMID:29491799

  20. An analytical method for determination of fullerenes and functionalized fullerenes in soils with high performance liquid chromatography and UV detection UV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carboni, A.; Emke, E.; Parsons, J.R.; Kalbitz, K.; de Voogt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are carbon-based nanomaterials expected to play a major role in emerging nanotechnology and produced at an increasing rate for industrial and household applications. In the last decade a number of novel compounds (i.e. fullerene derivatives) is being introduced into the market and

  1. [60]Fullerene Displacement from (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0): An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics experiments on the ligand-C[subscript 60] exchange reactions on (dihapto-[60]fullerene) pentacarbonyl tungsten(0), ([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])W(CO)[subscript 5], form an educational activity for the inorganic chemistry laboratory that promotes graphical thinking as well as the understanding of kinetics, mechanisms, and the…

  2. Effects of C3+ ion irradiation on structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ni nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlimas, D. I.; Kozlovskiy, A. L.; Zdorovets, M. V.; Kadyrzhanov, K. K.; Uglov, V. V.; Kenzhina, I. E.; Shumskaya, E. E.; Kaniukov, E. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Ion irradiation is an attractive method for obtaining nanostructures that can be used under extreme conditions. Also, it is possible to control the technological process that allows obtaining nanomaterials with new properties at ion irradiation. In this paper, we study the effect of irradiation with 28 MeV C3+ ions and fluences up to 5 × 1011 cm-2 on the structure and properties of template-synthesized nickel nanotubes with a length of 12 μm, with diameters of 400 nm, and a wall thickness of 100 nm. It is demonstrated that the main factor influencing the degradation of nanostructures under irradiation in PET template is the processes of mixing the material of nanostructures with the surrounding polymer. The influence of irradiation with various fluences on the crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties of nickel nanotubes is studied.

  3. Nanostructures of Boron, Carbon and Magnesium Diboride for High Temperature Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Fang, Fang [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Iyyamperumal, Eswarmoorthi [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Keskar, Gayatri [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2013-12-23

    Direct fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures is achieved by employing metal (Ni,Mg) incorporated MCM-41 in the Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) reaction. Different reaction conditions are tested to optimize the fabrication process. TEM analysis shows the fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures starting at the reaction temperature of 600oC, with the yield of the nanostructures increasing with increasing reaction temperature. The as-synthesized MgxBy nanostructures have the diameters in the range of 3-5nm, which do not increase with the reaction temperature consistent with templated synthesis. EELS analysis of the template removed nanostructures confirms the existence of B and Mg with possible contamination of Si and O. NEXAFS and Raman spectroscopy analysis suggested a concentric layer-by-layer MgxBy nanowire/nanotube growth model for our as-synthesized nanostructures. Ni k-edge XAS indicates that the formation of MgNi alloy particles is important for the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth of MgxBy nanostructures with fine diameters, and the presence of Mg vapor not just Mg in the catalyst is crucial for the formation of Ni-Mg clusters. Physical templating by the MCM-41 pores was shown to confine the diameter of the nanostructures. DC magnetization measurements indicate possible superconductive behaviors in the as-synthesized samples.

  4. Effect of fullerene tris-adducts on the photovoltaic performance of P3HT:fullerene ternary blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunbum; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Tae Eui; Cho, Chul-Hee; Park, Sunhee; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2013-05-22

    Fullerene tris-adducts have the potential of achieving high open-circuit voltages (V(OC)) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), because their lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level is higher than those of fullerene mono- and bis-adducts. However, no successful examples of the use of fullerene tris-adducts as electron acceptors have been reported. Herein, we developed a ternary-blend approach for the use of fullerene tris-adducts to fully exploit the merit of their high LUMO level. The compound o-xylenyl C60 tris-adduct (OXCTA) was used as a ternary acceptor in the model system of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the electron donor and the two soluble fullerene acceptors of OXCTA and fullerene monoadduct (o-xylenyl C60 monoadduct (OXCMA), phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), or indene-C60 monoadduct (ICMA)). To explore the effect of OXCTA in ternary-blend PSC devices, the photovoltaic behavior of the device was investigated in terms of the weight fraction of OXCTA (W(OXCTA)). When W(OXCTA) is small (P3HT and the fullerene monoadduct, leading to simultaneous enhancement in both V(OC) and short-circuit current (J(SC)). For example, the ternary PSC devices of P3HT:(OXCMA:OXCTA) with W(OXCTA) of 0.1 and 0.3 exhibited power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.91% and 3.96%, respectively, which were significantly higher than the 3.61% provided by the P3HT:OXCMA device. Interestingly, for W(OXCTA) > 0.7, both V(OC) and PCE of the ternary-blend PSCs exhibited nonlinear compositional dependence on W(OXCTA). We noted that the nonlinear compositional trend of P3HT:(OXCMA:OXCTA) was significantly different from that of P3HT:(OXCMA:o-xylenyl C60 bis-adduct (OXCBA)) ternary-blend PSC devices. The fundamental reasons for the differences between the photovoltaic trends of the two different ternary-blend systems were investigated systemically by comparing their optical, electrical, and morphological properties.

  5. Structure and photocatalysis activity of silver doped titanium oxide nanotubes array for degradation of pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arfaj, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    Semiconductor titanium oxide showed a wonderful performance as a photocatalysis for environmental remediation. Owing to high stability and promising physicochemical properties, titanium oxide nanostructures are used in various applications such as wastewater treatment, antimicrobial and air purification. In the present study, titanium oxide nanotubes and silver doped titanium oxide nanotubes were synthesized via anodic oxidation method. The morphology and composition structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results depicted that nanotubes possess anatase phase with average tube diameter of 65 nm and 230 ± 12 nm in length. The band gap of the un-doped and silver doped titanium dioxide nanotubes was determined using UV-Vis. spectrophotometer. The results showed that the band gap of titanium dioxide nanotubes is decreased when doped with silver ions. The photocatalysis activity of un-doped and silver doped TiO2 nanotubes were evaluated in terms of degradation of phenol in the presence of ultra violet irradiation. It was found that silver doped TiO2 nanotubes exhibited much higher photocatalysis activity than un-doped TiO2 nanotubes.

  6. Tuning porosity and radial mechanical properties of DNA origami nanotubes via crossover design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhipeng; Kawai, Kentaro; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2017-06-01

    DNA origami nanotubes are utilized as structural platforms for the fabrication of various micro/nanosystems for drug delivery, optical or biological sensing, and even nanoscale robots. Their radial structural and mechanical properties, which play a crucial role in the effective use of micro/nanosystems, have not been fully studied. In particular, the effects of crossovers, which are basic structures for rationally assembling double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) helices into a nanotube configuration, have not yet been characterized experimentally. To investigate the effects of crossovers on the porosity and the radial mechanical properties of DNA origami nanotubes, we fabricated a DNA origami nanotube with varied crossover designs along the nanotube axis. The radial geometry of the DNA origami nanotube is experimentally characterized by both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Moreover, the radial mechanical properties of the DNA origami nanotube including the radial modulus are directly measured by force-distance-based AFM. These measurements reveal that the porosity and the radial modulus of DNA origami nanotubes can be tuned by adjusting the crossover design, which enables the optimal design and construction of DNA origami nanostructures for various applications.

  7. Carbon nanostructure based mechano-nanofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Jin; Ma, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Fast transport of water inside carbon nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene-based nanomaterials, has addressed persistent challenges in nanofluidics. Recently reported new mechanisms show that the coupling between phonons in these materials and fluids under-confinement could lead to the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient. These developments have led to the emerging field of mechano-nanofluidics, which studies the effects of mechanical actuations on the properties of nanofluidics. In this tutorial review, we provide the basic concepts and development of mechano-nanofluidics. We also summarize the current status of experimental observations of fluids flow in individual nanochannels and theoretical interpretations. Finally, we briefly discuss the challenges and opportunities for the utilization of mechano-nanofluidics, such as controlling the fluid flow through regulating the coupling between materials and fluids.

  8. Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Carrier for Targeting Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Mishra, Arun Kumar; Verma, Navneet; Verma, Anurag; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility, and specificity to cells, various cancer cells have been explored with CNTs for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, cell viability, cytotoxicty, and drug delivery in tumor cells. This review attempts to highlight all aspects of CNTs which render them as an effective anticancer drug carrier and imaging agent. Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has been covered in this review. PMID:24872894

  9. Peapods: Exploring the inner space of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hisanori

    2018-02-01

    During the past quarter century, the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has been very much influenced and substantiated by the emergence of real nanometer-scale materials headed by fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene, the so-called nanocarbons. This review article deals with some of the recent progress in the syntheses, characterization, and applications of the hybrid materials composed of nanopeapods (CNTs encapsulating atoms, molecules, nanowires, and nanoribbons). All of these studies are closely related to the characteristic usages of the internal nanospace prepared by the CNTs. Furthermore, the two-dimensional (2D) space prepared by two sheets of graphene has also been used as a 2D template for observing some dynamical phenomena of liquidus materials by transmission electron microscopy even under high-vacuum conditions.

  10. Nanotube junctions and the genus of multi-tori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diudea, Mircea V; Szefler, Beata

    2012-06-14

    Carbon nanotube junctions can be modeled by fullerene spanning or by using some operations on map. They can self-assemble into more complex structures, such as finite or infinite high genera multi-tori. Four junctions of tetrahedral and octahedral symmetry, covered by patches consisting only of hexagons, were designed. Their stability is discussed in terms of total energy, evaluated at Hartree-Fock (HF) level of theory, HOMO-LUMO gap, strain energy, HOMA index of aromaticity and the Kekulé structure count. Vibrational spectra of these junctions are given as well. A new multi-toroidal structure, of octahedral symmetry, is presented for the first time. The study on topology of the multi-tori herein designed revealed the relation of these structures with the genus of their embedding surface.

  11. Purification of carbon nanotubes via selective heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A.; Wilson, William L.; Jin, Sung Hun; Dunham, Simon N.; Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad; Du, Frank; Huang, Yonggang; Song, Jizhou

    2017-11-21

    The present invention provides methods for purifying a layer of carbon nanotubes comprising providing a precursor layer of substantially aligned carbon nanotubes supported by a substrate, wherein the precursor layer comprises a mixture of first carbon nanotubes and second carbon nanotubes; selectively heating the first carbon nanotubes; and separating the first carbon nanotubes from the second carbon nanotubes, thereby generating a purified layer of carbon nanotubes. Devices benefiting from enhanced electrical properties enabled by the purified layer of carbon nanotubes are also described.

  12. Conjugation-promoted reaction of open-cage fullerene: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Yan, Jingjing; Khashab, Niveen M

    2012-02-01

    Density functional theory calculations are performed to study the addition mechanism of e-rich moieties such as triethyl phosphite to a carbonyl group on the rim of a fullerene orifice. Three possible reaction channels have been investigated. The obtained results show that the reaction of a carbonyl group on a fullerene orifice with triethyl phosphite most likely proceeds along the classical Abramov reaction; however, the classical product is not stable and is converted into the experimental product. An attack on a fullerene carbonyl carbon will trigger a rearrangement of the phosphate group to the carbonyl oxygen as the conversion transition state is stabilized by fullerene conjugation. This work provides a new insight on the reactivity of open-cage fullerenes, which may prove helpful in designing new switchable fullerene systems. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Remarkably improved electrical insulating performances of lightweight polypropylene nanocomposites with fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bin; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Yao; He, Jinliang

    2017-11-01

    A polypropylene/fullerene nanocomposite was fabricated via solution processing with good dispersion of the fullerene nanoparticles. It was observed that a small amount of fullerene (~1 wt. ‰) can significantly improve the direct current (DC) electrical insulation performance (i.e. improved space charge distribution, greater DC dielectric breakdown strength, and larger DC volume resistivity) of polypropylene. Thermally stimulated depolarization current tests indicate that fullerene doping remarkably increases the deep trap density of pure polypropylene. The mechanisms by which the electrical properties of the polypropylene nanocomposites were improved are the introduction of deep traps and the high electron affinity of fullerene. The deep traps result from the interfaces between polypropylene and fullerene. This work provides a potential method to tailor lightweight nanodielectric materials with excellent electrical insulating performances.

  14. Elemental and Microscopic Analysis of Naturally Occurring C-O-Si Hetero-Fullerene-Like Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullavarad, Nilima V; Hullavarad, Shiva S; Fochesatto, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Carbon exhibits an ability to form a wide range of structures in nature. Under favorable conditions, carbon condenses to form hollow, spheroid fullerenes in an inert atmosphere. Using high resolution FESEM, we have concealed the existence of giant hetero-fullerene like structures in the natural form. Clear, distinct features of connected hexagons and pentagons were observed. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis depth-profile of natural fullerene structures indicates that Russian-doll-like configurations composed of C, 0, and Si rings exist in nature. The analysis is based on an outstanding molecular feature found in the size fraction of aerosols having diameters 150 nm to 1.0 µm. The fullerene like structures, which are ~ 150 nm in diameter, are observed in large numbers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct detailed observation of natural fullerene-like structures. This article reports inadvertent observation of naturally occurring hetero-fullerene-like structures in the Arctic.

  15. Fabrication of Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding Pipe with Nanostructured Oxide Layer for Prevention of Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y. J.; Park, J. W.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, S. O. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There has been an attempt to protect zircaloy fuel cladding by coating SiC. Research on producing oxide layer that can block fuel cladding from water on the surface of zircaloy fuel cladding by means of anodizing to reduce the rate of oxidation of fuel cladding at Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is an significant ongoing study subject. Applying nanostructured oxide layer to the prevention of thermal deformation of oxide layer was already suggested in our research group, the reasons of which is nanoporous structure is better than nanotube structure in terms of corrosion-resistant structure because nanotube structure can be easily peeled off. In this study, methods which are able to control morphology between nanoporous and nanotube structure were conducted by changing the anodizing conditions. Hence, Using glycerol and ammonium fluoride, Zircaloy-4 was anodized by varying water contents and applied voltage. Zircaloy-4 pipe with nanostructured surface was fabricated by anodization technique. The produced nanostructure is quite even but the thickness of the oxide layer is not even. The nanostructured surface can increase the thermal characteristics of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding.

  16. Fine-tunable plasma nano-machining for fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures: SERS application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrvar, L; Hajihoseini, H; Mahmoodi, H; Tavassoli, S H; Fathipour, M; Mohseni, S M

    2017-08-04

    Novel processing sequences for the fabrication of artificial nanostructures are in high demand for various applications. In this paper, we report on a fine-tunable nano-machining technique for the fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures. This technique originates from redeposition effects occurring during Ar dry etching of nano-patterns. Different geometries of honeycomb, double ring, nanotube, cone and crescent arrays have been successfully fabricated from various metals such as Au, Ag, Pt and Ti. The geometrical parameters of the 3D hollow nanostructures can be straightforwardly controlled by tuning the discharge plasma pressure and power. The structure and morphology of nanostructures are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Finally, a Ag nanotube array was assayed for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), resulting in an enhancement factor (EF) of 5.5 × 10 5 , as an experimental validity proof consistent with the presented simulation framework. Furthermore, it was found that the theoretical EF value for the honeycomb array is in the order of 10 7 , a hundred times greater than that found in nanotube array.

  17. Assembly of polyaniline nanotubes by interfacial polymerization for corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueiny, C; Berlioz, S; Perrin, F X

    2016-02-07

    Polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by the oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate as an oxidant in an immiscible organic/aqueous biphasic system and with decylphosphonic acid (DPA) or benzylphosphonic acid (BPA) in the aqueous phase. Nanofibers of aniline oligomers were produced using BPA in the aqueous phase while high quality polyaniline nanotubes were produced using DPA in the aqueous phase. PANI nanotubes have a outer diameter 160-240 nm, an inner diameter of 50-100 nm and a length of the order of several μm. The understanding of the formation of PANI nanotubes was examined by isolation of reaction intermediates and their ex situ characterization by atomic force microscopy. The roles of BPA and DPA on the morphology formation of the PANI nanostructures were discussed. A nanofibrillar template produced by aniline oligomers was found to guide the growth of PANI to nanotubular morphology. PANI nanotubes are thus not derived from DPA vesicles. Preliminary corrosion tests exhibit high corrosion protection efficiency of PANI nanotubes because of their high surface area and corrosion inhibitive properties of DPA dopant.

  18. Chemical Sharpening, Shortening, and Unzipping of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfang; Connell, John W.; Fay, Catharine C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), the one-dimensional member of the boron nitride nanostructure family, are generally accepted to be highly inert to oxidative treatments and can only be covalently modifi ed by highly reactive species. Conversely, it is discovered that the BNNTs can be chemically dispersed and their morphology modifi ed by a relatively mild method: simply sonicating the nanotubes in aqueous ammonia solution. The dispersed nanotubes are significantly corroded, with end-caps removed, tips sharpened, and walls thinned. The sonication treatment in aqueous ammonia solution also removes amorphous BN impurities and shortened BNNTs, resembling various oxidative treatments of carbon nanotubes. Importantly, the majority of BNNTs are at least partially longitudinally cut, or "unzipped". Entangled and freestanding BN nanoribbons (BNNRs), resulting from the unzipping, are found to be approximately 5-20 nm in width and up to a few hundred nanometers in length. This is the fi rst chemical method to obtain BNNRs from BNNT unzipping. This method is not derived from known carbon nanotube unzipping strategies, but is unique to BNNTs because the use of aqueous ammonia solutions specifi cally targets the B-N bond network. This study may pave the way for convenient processing of BNNTs, previously thought to be highly inert, toward controlling their dispersion, purity, lengths, and electronic properties.

  19. Electronic structure of carbon-boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanginés-Mendoza, Raúl; Martinez, Edgar

    2013-03-01

    Structures of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes (CNTs, BNNTs) are quite similar, conversely, electronic properties are radically different from each other. Carbon nanotubes, whose electronic properties can be either metallic or semiconducting depending on their chiral structure, boron nitride nanotubes are always semiconductors with bandgaps over 4 eV. We have looked to hybrid systems, to predict a new kind of nanostructures with novel electronic properties. In this way, we explore the electronic properties of C-BN nanotubes. In particular, we studied the electronic structure of armchair C-BN nanotubes. The calculations were performed using the pseudopotential LCAO method with a Generalized Gradient Approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional. The band structure of most of these systems have semiconductor character with an indirect gap smaller than its analogous BNNTs. In addition, the most prominent feature of these systems is the existence of flat bands both at the valence band top and at the conduction band minimum. Such flat bands results in sharp and narrow peaks on the total density of states. The behavior of these flat bands mainly indicates that electrons are largely localized. Thus, a detailed analysis on the electronic band structure shows that hybridization between those orbitals on the interfaces is responsible to exhibit localization effects on the hybrid systems.This research was supported by Conacyt under Grant No. 133022.

  20. On the Evaporation Kinetics of [60] Fullerene in Aromatic Organic Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Amer, Maher S.

    2018-04-03

    We investigate the effect of C60 fullerene nanospheres on the evaporation kinetics of a number of aromatic solvents with different levels of molecular association, namely, benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzene. The dependence of the evaporation rate on the fullerene concentration is not monotonic but rather exhibits maxima and minima. The results strongly support the notion of molecular structuring within the liquid solvent controlled by the nature of fullerene/solvent interaction and the level of molecular association within the solvent itself.

  1. Plasmon-plasmon coupling in nested fullerenes: photoexcitation of interlayer plasmonic cross modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, Mathew A; De, Ruma; Chakraborty, Himadri S; Madjet, Mohamed E; Manson, Steven T

    2011-01-01

    Considering the photoionization of a two-layer fullerene-onion system, C 60 -C 240 , strong plasmonic couplings between the nested fullerenes are demonstrated. The resulting hybridization produces four cross-over plasmons generated from the bonding and antibonding mixing of excited charge clouds of individual fullerenes. This suggests the possibility of designing buckyonions exhibiting plasmon resonances with specified properties and may motivate future research to modify the resonances with encaged atoms, molecules or clusters. (fast track communication)

  2. Biophysical studies of fullerene-based composite for bio-nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prylutskyy, Yu.I.; Yashchuk, V.M.; Kushnir, K.M.; Golub, A.A.; Kudrenko, V.A.; Prylutska, S.V.; Grynyuk, I.I.; Buzaneva, E.V.; Scharff, P.; Braun, T.; Matyshevska, O.P

    2003-01-15

    The UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of biological samples and the DNA structural state in cells under X-ray irradiation in the presence of the fullerene-containing composite, synthesized on the basis of aminopropylaerosil, were investigated and analysed in detail. The significant pro-oxidant effect of the fullerene-containing composite at the low concentration of fullerene C{sub 60} (10{sup -5} M) was revealed.

  3. Polythiophene/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell fabricated via electrochemical co-deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Bin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Liduo; Shi, Gaoquan [Key Lab of Organic Optical Electronics and Molecular Engineering, Education Commission of China, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-12-15

    We report a polythiophene/fullerene (C{sub 60}) bulk heterojunction solar cell fabricated via electrochemical co-deposition of polythiophene (PTh) and fullerene on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode modified with a thin layer of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxylthiophene) (PEDOT). Although the amount of C{sub 60} incorporated into the film was relatively low, the photovoltaic performance of the cell based on the polythiophene/fullerene (PTh/C{sub 60}) composite film was remarkably improved. (author)

  4. Fullerene-like MoSe2 nanoparticles-embedded CNT balls with excellent structural stability for highly reversible sodium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous-structured carbon nanotube (CNT) balls embedded with fullerene-like MoSe2 nanocrystals were successfully prepared by the spray pyrolysis process and subsequent selenization process. The MoO2-CNT composite balls prepared by spray pyrolysis transformed into the fullerene-like MoSe2/CNT (F-MoSe2/CNT) composite balls by the selenization process. The F-MoSe2/CNT composite balls exhibited superior sodium-ion storage properties to bare MoSe2 and MoSe2/CNT with a filled structure (N-MoSe2/CNT), both of which were prepared as comparison samples. The 250th discharge capacities of bare MoSe2, N-MoSe2/CNT composite balls, and F-MoSe2/CNT composite balls were 144, 200, and 296 mA h g-1, respectively, at a high current density of 1.0 A g-1, and their capacity retentions measured from the second cycle were 37%, 66%, and 83%, respectively. The 10th discharge capacities of the F-MoSe2/CNT composite balls were 382, 346, 310, 280, and 255 mA h g-1 at current densities of 0.2, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 A g-1, respectively. The synergetic effect of the fullerene-like MoSe2 nanocrystals with ultrafine sizes and the CNT balls with a tangled and 3D porous structure and high electrical conductivity resulted in excellent sodium-ion storage properties of the F-MoSe2/CNT composite balls.Three-dimensional (3D) porous-structured carbon nanotube (CNT) balls embedded with fullerene-like MoSe2 nanocrystals were successfully prepared by the spray pyrolysis process and subsequent selenization process. The MoO2-CNT composite balls prepared by spray pyrolysis transformed into the fullerene-like MoSe2/CNT (F-MoSe2/CNT) composite balls by the selenization process. The F-MoSe2/CNT composite balls exhibited superior sodium-ion storage properties to bare MoSe2 and MoSe2/CNT with a filled structure (N-MoSe2/CNT), both of which were prepared as comparison samples. The 250th discharge capacities of bare MoSe2, N-MoSe2/CNT composite balls, and F-MoSe2/CNT composite balls were 144

  5. Nanostructured Electrochemical Biosensors for Label-Free Detection of Water- and Food-Borne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Nekane; Saint, Christopher P; Michelmore, Andrew; Prieto-Simon, Beatriz; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2018-02-21

    The emergence of nanostructured materials has opened new horizons in the development of next generation biosensors. Being able to control the design of the electrode interface at the nanoscale combined with the intrinsic characteristics of the nanomaterials engenders novel biosensing platforms with improved capabilities. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive and critical overview of the latest trends in emerging nanostructured electrochemical biosensors. A detailed description and discussion of recent approaches to construct label-free electrochemical nanostructured electrodes is given with special focus on pathogen detection for environmental monitoring and food safety. This includes the use of nanoscale materials such as nanotubes, nanowires, nanoparticles, and nanosheets as well as porous nanostructured materials including nanoporous anodic alumina, mesoporous silica, porous silicon, and polystyrene nanochannels. These platforms may pave the way toward the development of point-of-care portable electronic devices for applications ranging from environmental analysis to biomedical diagnostics.

  6. Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal B. Dhungana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT, which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  7. MnO2/TiN heterogeneous nanostructure design for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Duay, Jonathon; Gui, Zhe; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-09-07

    MnO(2)/TiN nanotubes are fabricated using facile deposition techniques to maximize the surface area of the electroactive material for use in electrochemical capacitors. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit conformal nanotubes within an anodic aluminium oxide template. After template removal, the inner and outer surfaces of the TiN nanotubes are exposed for electrochemical deposition of manganese oxide. Electron microscopy shows that the MnO(2) is deposited on both the inside and outside of TiN nanotubes, forming the MnO(2)/TiN nanotubes. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge curves are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of the MnO(2)/TiN nanotubes. Due to the close proximity of MnO(2) with the highly conductive TiN as well as the overall high surface area, the nanotubes show very high specific capacitance (662 F g(-1) reported at 45 A g(-1)) as a supercapacitor electrode material. The highly conductive and mechanically stable TiN greatly enhances the flow of electrons to the MnO(2) material, while the high aspect ratio nanostructure of TiN creates a large surface area for short diffusion paths for cations thus improving high power. Combining the favourable structural, electrical and energy properties of MnO(2) and TiN into one system allows for a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  8. Carbon-coated SnO2 nanotubes: template-engaged synthesis and their application in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Jingxue; Qi, Yue; Yang, Deren

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of carbon-coated SnO2 (SnO2-C) nanotubes through a simple glucose hydrothermal and subsequent carbonization approach by using Sn nanorods as sacrificial templates. The as-synthesized SnO2-C nanotubes have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, which exhibit improved cyclic performance compared to pure SnO2 nanotubes. The hollow nanostructure, together with the carbon matrix which has good buffering effect and high electronic conductivity, can be responsible for the improved cyclic performance.

  9. Stability and Electronic Properties of TiO2 Nanostructures With and Without B and N Doping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2009-01-01

    We address one of the main challenges to TiO2 photocatalysis, namely band gap narrowing, by combining nanostructural changes with doping. With this aim we compare TiO2’s electronic properties for small 0D clusters, 1D nanorods and nanotubes, 2D layers, and 3D surface and bulk phases using differe...

  10. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...... in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  11. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  12. Nanostructured CNx (0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongiorno, G; Blomqvist, M; Piseri, P; Milani, P; Lenardi, C; Ducati, C; Caruso, T; Rudolf, P; Wachtmeister, S; Csillag, S; Coronel, E

    Nanostructured CNx thin films were prepared by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) and systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The

  13. Potentiality of the composite fulleren based carbon films as the stripper foils for tandem accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vasin, A V; Rusavsky, A V; Totsky, Y I; Vishnevski, I N

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the radiation resistance of the carbon stripper foils is considered. The short review of the experimental data available in literature and original experimental results of the are presented. In the paper discussed is the possibility of composite fulleren based carbon films to be used for preparation of the stripper foils. Some technological methods for preparation of composite fulleren based carbon films are proposed. Raman scattering and atom force microscopy were used for investigation of the fulleren and composite films deposited by evaporation of the C sub 6 sub 0 fulleren powder.

  14. Electronic transport properties aspects and structure of polymer-fullerene based organic semiconductors for photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamopoulos, G.; Heiser, T.; Giovanella, U.; Ould-Saad, S.; Wetering, K.I. van de; Brochon, C.; Zorba, T.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Hadziioannou, G.

    2006-01-01

    A series of polystyrene (PS) and fullerene (C 60 ) based thin films containing from 23 to 60 wt.% in fullerene were investigated. Initially, the films were characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy where the characteristic absorption bands of both the fullerene and the polystyrene were revealed. The additional characteristic absorption bands due the grafted fullerene to polystyrene were revealed as well. The relative peak intensities provided with qualitative information of the films stoichiometry in terms of the fullerene's amount that was grafted to polystyrene. The optical properties of the films were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). It was found that the increase of the fullerene's amount that was grafted to polystyrene results in an increase of the absorption coefficient α, refractive index n, extinction coefficient k as well as in the dielectric constant ε ∝ within the range between 2.4 and 2.8 for the lower and higher fullerene content, respectively. The films' J-V characteristics, of the space charge limited current (SCLC) behaviour, showed increased currents with increasing the fullerene's content. The electron mobility was extracted and found to increase with increasing the fullerene amount, from 4 x 10 -9 cm 2 /V s to 2 x 10 -7 cm 2 /V s

  15. Protein Biosensors Based on Polymer Nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes and Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeksoo Ji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of biosensors using electrochemical methods is a promising application in the field of biotechnology. High sensitivity sensors for the bio-detection of proteins have been developed using several kinds of nanomaterials. The performance of the sensors depends on the type of nanostructures with which the biomaterials interact. One dimensional (1-D structures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanorods are proven to have high potential for bio-applications. In this paper we review these three different kinds of nanostructures that have attracted much attention at recent times with their great performance as biosensors. Materials such as polymers, carbon and zinc oxide have been widely used for the fabrication of nanostructures because of their enhanced performance in terms of sensitivity, biocompatibility, and ease of preparation. Thus we consider polymer nanowires, carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide nanorods for discussion in this paper. We consider three stages in the development of biosensors: (a fabrication of biomaterials into nanostructures, (b alignment of the nanostructures and (c immobilization of proteins. Two different methods by which the biosensors can be developed at each stage for all the three nanostructures are examined. Finally, we conclude by mentioning some of the major challenges faced by many researchers who seek to fabricate biosensors for real time applications.

  16. Origin of the size-dependence of the equilibrium van der Waals binding between nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P.; Tang, Hong; Shahi, Chandra

    2018-02-01

    Nanostructures can be bound together at equilibrium by the van der Waals (vdW) effect, a small but ubiquitous many-body attraction that presents challenges to density functional theory. How does the binding energy depend upon the size or number of atoms in one of a pair of identical nanostructures? To answer this question, we treat each nanostructure as a whole object, not as a collection of atoms. Our calculations start from an accurate static dipole polarizability for each considered nanostructure, and an accurate equilibrium center-to-center distance for the pair (the latter from experiment or from the vdW-DF-cx functional). We consider the competition in each term -C2k/d2k (k = 3, 4, 5) of the long-range vdW series for the interaction energy, between the size dependence of the vdW coefficient C2k and that of the 2kth power of the center-to-center distance d. The damping of these vdW terms can be negligible, but in any case, it does not affect the size dependence for a given term in the absence of non-vdW binding. To our surprise, the vdW energy can be size-independent for quasi-spherical nanoclusters bound to one another by vdW interaction, even with strong nonadditivity of the vdW coefficient, as demonstrated for fullerenes. We also show that, for low-dimensional systems, the vdW interaction yields the strongest size-dependence, in stark contrast to that of fullerenes. We illustrate this with parallel planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The size dependences of other morphologies or bonding types lie between, as shown by sodium clusters.

  17. Origin of the size-dependence of the equilibrium van der Waals binding between nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P; Tang, Hong; Shahi, Chandra

    2018-02-21

    Nanostructures can be bound together at equilibrium by the van der Waals (vdW) effect, a small but ubiquitous many-body attraction that presents challenges to density functional theory. How does the binding energy depend upon the size or number of atoms in one of a pair of identical nanostructures? To answer this question, we treat each nanostructure as a whole object, not as a collection of atoms. Our calculations start from an accurate static dipole polarizability for each considered nanostructure, and an accurate equilibrium center-to-center distance for the pair (the latter from experiment or from the vdW-DF-cx functional). We consider the competition in each term -C 2k /d 2k (k = 3, 4, 5) of the long-range vdW series for the interaction energy, between the size dependence of the vdW coefficient C 2k and that of the 2kth power of the center-to-center distance d. The damping of these vdW terms can be negligible, but in any case, it does not affect the size dependence for a given term in the absence of non-vdW binding. To our surprise, the vdW energy can be size-independent for quasi-spherical nanoclusters bound to one another by vdW interaction, even with strong nonadditivity of the vdW coefficient, as demonstrated for fullerenes. We also show that, for low-dimensional systems, the vdW interaction yields the strongest size-dependence, in stark contrast to that of fullerenes. We illustrate this with parallel planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The size dependences of other morphologies or bonding types lie between, as shown by sodium clusters.

  18. Pressure-driven opening of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2016-03-01

    The closing and opening of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for their applications in nanoscale chemistry and biology. We report reactive molecular dynamics simulations of CNT opening triggered by internal pressure of encapsulated gas molecules. Confined argon generates 4000 bars of pressure inside capped CNT and lowers the opening temperature by 200 K. Chemical interactions greatly enhance the efficiency of CNT opening: fluorine-filled CNTs open by fluorination of carbon bonds at temperature and pressure that are 700 K and 1000 bar lower than for argon-filled CNTs. Moreover, pressure induced CNT opening by confined gases leaves the CNT cylinders intact and removes only the fullerene caps, while the empty CNT decomposes completely. In practice, the increase in pressure can be achieved by near-infrared light, which penetrates through water and biological tissues and is absorbed by CNTs, resulting in rapid local heating. Spanning over a thousand of bars and Kelvin, the reactive and non-reactive scenarios of CNT opening represent extreme cases and allow for a broad experimental control over properties of the CNT interior and release conditions of the confined species. The detailed insights into the thermodynamic conditions and chemical mechanisms of the pressure-induced CNT opening provide practical guidelines for the development of novel nanoreactors, catalysts, photo-catalysts, imaging labels and drug delivery vehicles.

  19. Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Different ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into numerous consumer products, and have also been employed in various industrial areas because of their extraordinary properties. The large scale production and wide applications of CNTs make their release into the environment a major concern. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the degree of potential CNT contamination in the environment, which requires a sensitive and accurate technique for selectively detecting and quantifying CNTs in environmental matrices. In this study, a simple device based on utilizing heat generated/temperature increase from CNTs under microwave irradiation was built to quantify single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and carboxylated CNTs (MWCNT-COOH) in three environmentally relevant matrices (sand, soil and sludge). Linear temperature vs CNT mass relationships were developed for the three environmental matrices spiked with known amounts of different types of CNTs that were then irradiated in a microwave at low energies (70-149 W) for a short time (15-30 s). MWCNTs had a greater microwave response in terms of heat generated/temperature increase than SWCNTs and MWCNT-COOH. An evaluation of microwave behavior of different carbonaceous materials showed that the microwave measurements of CNTs were not affected even with an excess of other organic, inorganic carbon or carbon based nanomaterials (fullerene, granular activated carbon and graphene oxide) mainly because micr

  20. Study of irradiation effect of Xe+22 and Kr+14 ions on structural properties of Zn nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdorovets, M. V.; Kadyrzhanov, D. B.; Kenzhina, I. E.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kozlovskiy, A. L.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the results of synthesis and directed modification of structural properties of Zn nanotubes by irradiating with heavy ions. The nanotubes were obtained by electrochemical deposition in pores of template polymer matrices. It was established using SEM, XRD and EDS methods where irradiation with Xe+22 and Kr+14 ions makes it possible to modify the crystal structure of nanotubes. As a result of irradiation with Xe+22 ions, partial destruction of nanotubes is observed, which indicates an increase in the number of defects in the structure and a decrease in strength properties. Change in the crystal structure parameters is observed when irradiation with Kr+14 ions with fluence below 5  ×  1011 ion cm‑2. That indicates the possibility of using Kr+14 ions for directional modification of nanostructures, while irradiation with Xe+22 ions leads to amorphization and destruction of nanotubes.

  1. Simple Formation of Nanostructured Molybdenum Disulfide Thin Films by Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured molybdenum disulfide thin films were deposited on various substrates by direct current (DC electrolysis form aqueous electrolyte containing molybdate and sulfide ions. Post deposition annealing at higher temperatures in the range 450–700°C transformed the as-deposited amorphous films to nanocrystalline structure. High temperature X-ray diffraction studies clearly recorded the crystal structure transformations associated with grain growth with increase in annealing temperature. Surface morphology investigations revealed featureless structure in case of as-deposited surface; upon annealing it converts into a surface with protruding nanotubes, nanorods, or dumbbell shape nanofeatures. UV-visible and FTIR spectra confirmed about the presence of Mo-S bonding in the deposited films. Transmission electron microscopic examination showed that the annealed MoS2 films consist of nanoballs, nanoribbons, and multiple wall nanotubes.

  2. A review of nanostructured based radiation sensors for neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Pervaiz; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    Currently radiation sensors with various mechanisms such as radio thermo luminescence, radiographic and radiochromic film, semiconductor and ionization have been used for the detection of nuclear radiation. Sensitivity, handling procedure, heating condition, energy response, nonlinearity, polarization, non-uniform electric field, high bias voltage and spatial resolution due to large physical size are some of the key issues faced by these sensors. Due to the excellent electrical and mechanical properties, nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been researched as sensing elements in the sensors to overcome the mentioned problems. However CNTs are found to pose different problems, arising from the uncontrolled helicity and small cross-sectional area. Therefore, alternative sensing elements are still been sought after and the possibility of using boron nitride nanotubes for sensing neutron is considered in this review.

  3. Cytotoxicity of nanostructured vanadium oxide on human cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Laura S; Silkworth, William T; Roppolo, Megan L; Whittingham, M Stanley

    2010-02-01

    Vanadium oxide nanostructures have potential uses for electrochemistry and catalysis, yet little is known about their toxicology. In this study, cultured human colon carcinoma cells (Caco-2) were exposed to vanadium oxide and their viability assessed with the neutral red assay. Cells exposed to either vanadium oxide (powdered form) or ethylene diamine intercalated vanadium oxide (enH(2))V(7)O(16) demonstrated no significant reduction in viability after twenty-four hours, yet cells exposed to vanadium oxide nanotubes demonstrated a significant loss in viability after four hours. The physical size and structure of the nanotubes may play an important role in their cytotoxic effects, and the safety of using such nanomaterials must be considered.

  4. A review of nanostructured based radiation sensors for neutron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Pervaiz; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif

    2012-09-01

    Currently radiation sensors with various mechanisms such as radio thermo luminescence, radiographic and radiochromic film, semiconductor and ionization have been used for the detection of nuclear radiation. Sensitivity, handling procedure, heating condition, energy response, nonlinearity, polarization, non-uniform electric field, high bias voltage and spatial resolution due to large physical size are some of the key issues faced by these sensors. Due to the excellent electrical and mechanical properties, nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been researched as sensing elements in the sensors to overcome the mentioned problems. However CNTs are found to pose different problems, arising from the uncontrolled helicity and small cross-sectional area. Therefore, alternative sensing elements are still been sought after and the possibility of using boron nitride nanotubes for sensing neutron is considered in this review.

  5. Nanostructured tantala as a template for enhanced osseointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckh, Timothy; Porter, Joshua R; Popat, Ketul C; Allam, Nageh K; Feng Xinjian; Grimes, Craig A

    2009-01-01

    The goal of current dental and orthopedic biomaterials research is to design implants that induce controlled and guided tissue growth, and rapid healing. In addition to acceleration of normal wound healing phenomena, these implants should result in the formation of a characteristic interfacial layer with adequate biomechanical properties. To achieve these goals, however, a better understanding of events at the bone-material interface is needed, as well as the development of new materials and approaches that promote osseointegration. Here we present novel nanostructured nanoarrays from tantala that can promote cell adhesion and differentiation. Our results suggest that tantala nanotube arrays enhance osteoblast cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The routes of fabrication of tantala nanotube arrays are flexible and cost-effective, enabling realization of desired platform topologies on existing non-planar orthopedic implants.

  6. Nanotubes and nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nanotubes are likely to be useful as nanochips since they exhibit diode properties at the junction. By making use of carbon nanotubes, nanowires of metals, metal oxides and GaN have been obtained. Both the oxide and GaN nanowires are single crystalline. Gold nanowires exhibit plasmon bands varying markedly with.

  7. Influence of the contact geometry on single-walled carbon nanotube/Si photodetector response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliotti, Mattia; Salvato, Matteo; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; Boscardin, Maurizio; Castrucci, Paola

    2018-03-01

    A systematic study of the optical response of photodetectors based on carbon nanotube/Si heterojunctions is performed by measuring the responsivity, the detectivity and the time response of the devices with different contact configurations. The sensors are obtained by dry transferring single-walled carbon nanotube films on the surface of n-doped Si substrate provided with a multifinger contact geometry. The experimental data show a consistent improvement of the photodetector parameters with the increase of the number of fingers without affecting the carbon nanotube film thickness for increase its optical transmittance as in previous experiments. The role of the electrical resistance of the carbon nanotube film is discussed. The obtained results confirm the method and suggest new perspectives in the use of nanostructured materials as part of semiconducting optical devices.

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Waterborne Multi-wall Carbon Nanotube Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowty, Heather; Wang, Chyi-Shan

    2005-04-01

    The fabrication of water-borne polyurethane nanocomposites containing multi-wall nanotubes has presented a significant technological challenge to those in the polymer community. Such conductive polyurethanes are of great interest to the paint and coatings industry for use in electrical grounding and shielding. Currently, these materials are formed by strong acidic reflux of the nanotubes and subsequent dispersal in the polymer matrix. This treatment can result in significant shortening of the tubes and degradation of the resulting mechanical and electrical transport properties. Here we present an alternate technique in which various conductive and non-conductive water-soluble polymers are physi-adsorbed to the surface of the nanotube. These interactions with the nanotubes result in highly uniform suspensions of water-based urethane coatings and bulk materials. We will examine the polymer chemistry and morphologies of these nanostructured materials and the resulting thermal, electrical and mechanical properties.

  9. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures by the pyrolysis of wood sawdust in a tubular reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Sebag Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures were produced by wood sawdust pyrolysis. The results obtained revealed that the thermodynamic simulations (FactSage were successful to predict the best reaction conditions for the synthesis of carbon, and potentially carbon fibers and nanotubes production. Graphite formation was indicated by XRD study, and by thermal analysis which presented the carbon oxidation range. The morphology of the samples (SEM/TEM analysis showed carbon nanotubes/nanofibers varying in size and thickness, with defects and flaws. The tubular reactor was considered to be an economic and environmental correct way to nanomaterials growing, with the simultaneous generation of hydrogen and lower pollutant gas emissions.

  10. IF-WS2/Nanostructured Carbon Hybrids Generation and Their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia C. Luhrs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to develop a new generation of materials that combine either the known energy absorbing properties of carbon nanofibers (CNF, or the carbon-carbon bond strength of graphene sheets (G, with the shock resistance properties reported for Inorganic Fullerene type WS2 structures (IF-WS2, hybrid CNF/IF-WS2 and G/IF-WS2 were generated, characterized and tested. Experimentation revealed that in situ growth of carbon nanostructures with inorganic fullerene tungsten disulfide particulates had to be performed from particular precursors and fabrication conditions to avoid undesirable byproducts that hinder fiber growth or deter graphene generation. The novel protocols that allowed us to integrate the IF-WS2 with the carbon nanostructures, producing dispersions at the nanoscale, are reported. Resulting hybrid CNF/IF-WS2 and G/IF-WS2 products were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy. The thermal stability of samples in air was evaluated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. CNF/IF-WS2 and G/IF-WS2 hybrids were introduced into epoxy matrices, and the mechanical properties of the resulting composites were analyzed using nanoindentation. Epoxy composite samples showed drastic improvements in the Young’s modulus and hardness values by the use of only 1% hybrid weight loadings. The carbon nanofiber inclusions seem to have a much greater impact on the mechanical properties of the composite than the graphene based counterparts.

  11. Glycolipid-based nanostructures with thermal-phase transition behavior functioning as solubilizers and refolding accelerators for protein aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameta, N; Matsuzawa, T; Yaoi, K; Fukuda, J; Masuda, M

    2017-05-03

    The self-assembly of synthetic glycolipids produced nanostructures such as vesicles and nanotubes consisting of bilayer membranes, which underwent a gel-to-liquid crystalline thermal phase transition. Vesicles formed at temperatures above the thermal phase transition temperatures (T g-l ) could solubilize aggregates of denatured proteins by trapping them in the fluid bilayer membranes. Cooling to temperatures below T g-l caused a morphological transformation into nanotubes that accompanied the thermal phase transition from the fluid to the solid state. This phenomenon allowed the trapped proteins to be quickly released into the bulk solution and simultaneously facilitated the refolding of the proteins. The refolding efficiency strongly depended on the electrostatic attraction between the bilayer membranes of the nanostructures and the proteins. Because of the long shape (>400 nm) of the nanotubes, simple membrane filtration through a pore size of 200 nm led to complete separation and recovery of the refolded proteins (3-9 nm sizes).

  12. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of fusion and fragmentation in fullerene-fullerene collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhovtsev, A.; Korol, A.V.; Solovyov, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations of collision-induced fusion and fragmentation of C 60 fullerenes, performed by means of the MBN Explorer software package. The simulations provide information on structural differences of the fused compound depending on kinematics of the collision process. The analysis of fragmentation dynamics at different initial conditions shows that the size distributions of produced molecular fragments are peaked for dimers, which is in agreement with a well-established mechanism of C 60 fragmentation via preferential C 2 emission. Atomic trajectories of the colliding particles are analyzed and different fragmentation patterns are observed and discussed. On the basis of the performed simulations, characteristic time of C 2 emission is estimated as a function of collision energy. The results are compared with experimental time-of-flight distributions of molecular fragments and with earlier theoretical studies. Considering the widely explored case study of C 60 -C 60 collisions, we demonstrate broad capabilities of the MBN Explorer software, which can be utilized for studying collisions of a broad variety of nano-scale and bio-molecular systems by means of classical molecular dynamics. (authors)

  13. Fullerene thin-film transistors fabricated on polymeric gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdollers, J. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, C/ Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: jpuigd@eel.upc.edu; Voz, C. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, C/ Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Cheylan, S. [ICFO - Mediterranean Technology Park, Avda del Canal Olimpic s/n, 08860-Castelldefels (Spain); Orpella, A.; Vetter, M.; Alcubilla, R. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, C/ Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    Thin-film transistors with fullerene as n-type organic semiconductor have been fabricated. A polymeric gate dielectric, polymethyl methacrylate, has been used as an alternative to usual inorganic dielectrics. No significant differences in the microstructure of fullerene thin-films grown on polymethyl methacrylate were observed. Devices with either gold or aluminium top electrodes have been fabricated. Although the lower work-function of aluminium compared to gold should favour electron injection, similar field-effect mobilities in the range of 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} were achieved in both cases. Actually, the output characteristics indicate that organic thin-film transistors behave more linearly with gold than with aluminium electrodes. These results confirm that not only energy barriers determine carrier injection at metal/organic interfaces, but also chemical interactions.

  14. Thermodynamics of TMPC/PSd/Fullerene Nanocomposites: SANS Study

    KAUST Repository

    Chua, Yang-Choo

    2010-11-23

    Wereport a small angle neutron scattering study of the thermodynamics of a polymer mixture in the presence of nanoparticles, both in equilibrium and during phase separation. Neutron cloud point measurements and random phase approximation (RPA) analysis demonstrate that 1-2 mass % of C60 fullerenes destabilizes a highly interacting mixture of poly(tetramethyl bisphenol A polycarbonate) and deuterated polystyrene (TMPC/PSd). We unequivocally corroborate these findings with time-resolved temperature jump experiments that, in identical conditions, result in phase separation for the nanocomposite and stability for the neat polymer mixture. At lower C 60 loadings (viz. 0.2-0.5 mass %), stabilization of the mixture is observed. The nonmonotonic variation of the spinodal temperature with fullerene addition suggests a competitive interplay of asymmetric component interactions and nanoparticle dispersion. The stability line shift depends critically on particle dispersion and vanishes upon nanoparticle agglomeration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Carbon composite based on fullerenes and exfoliated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkin, V. I.; Popov, V. V.; Tomkovich, M. V.

    2017-03-01

    A carbon composite material based on fullerenes and exfoliated graphite with different ratios (from 16: 1 to 1: 16 by weight) is synthesized and investigated. Samples are obtained by the introduction of C60 in a conductive matrix by means of heat treatment of initial disperse mixtures in a vacuum diffusion-adsorption process followed by cold pressing and annealing. It is shown that covalent bonds are formed between the fullerenes and the environment. The conductivity of the samples is quite high and ranges from a few to hundreds (Ω cm)-1. The concentration of charge carriers (mainly holes) is 1019 to 1020 cm-3. It is concluded that the material obtained using these ratios of the components can be attributed to metal systems with structural disorder.

  16. Fullerene thin-film transistors fabricated on polymeric gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Cheylan, S.; Orpella, A.; Vetter, M.; Alcubilla, R.

    2007-01-01

    Thin-film transistors with fullerene as n-type organic semiconductor have been fabricated. A polymeric gate dielectric, polymethyl methacrylate, has been used as an alternative to usual inorganic dielectrics. No significant differences in the microstructure of fullerene thin-films grown on polymethyl methacrylate were observed. Devices with either gold or aluminium top electrodes have been fabricated. Although the lower work-function of aluminium compared to gold should favour electron injection, similar field-effect mobilities in the range of 10 -2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were achieved in both cases. Actually, the output characteristics indicate that organic thin-film transistors behave more linearly with gold than with aluminium electrodes. These results confirm that not only energy barriers determine carrier injection at metal/organic interfaces, but also chemical interactions

  17. On the π Coordination of Organometallic Fullerene Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Molina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel organometallic complexes of fullerene C80 and aryl ligands were simulated. The nature and characteristics of this family of complexes involving π coordination between the fullerene and a metal centre have been studied from a theoretical point of view. We are particularly interested in complexes where η6 coordination is present, this being the strangest manifestation of known coordinations, and thus we have studied several known and simulated compounds of this kind in order to understand the lack of examples. The presence of other η6 or η5 ligands on the opposite side seems to be an important element aiding the stabilization of these complexes, also inducing the conductive and semiconductive behaviour of the studied species.

  18. Recent Developments of Nanostructured Electrodes for Bioelectrocatalysis of Dioxygen Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Opallo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of nanostructured electrodes for bioelectrocatalytic dioxygen reduction catalysed by two copper oxidoreductases, laccase and bilirubin oxidase, is reviewed. Carbon-based nanomaterials as carbon nanotubes or carbon nanoparticles are frequently used for electrode modification, whereas there are only few examples of biocathodes modified with metal or metal oxide nanoparticles. These nanomaterials are adsorbed on the electrode surface or embedded in multicomponent film. The nano-objects deposited act as electron shuttles between the enzyme and the electrode substrate providing favourable conditions for mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis.

  19. Quantum Simulations of One-Dimensional Nanostructures under Arbitrary Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Pekka

    A powerful technique is discussed for simulating mechanical and electromechanical properties of one-dimensional nanostructures under arbitrary combinations of bending, twisting, and stretching. The technique is based on an unconventional control of periodic symmetry, which eliminates artifacts due to deformation constraints and quantum finite-size effects and allows transparent electronic-structure analysis. Via density-functional tight-binding implementation, the technique demonstrates nonlinear electromechanical properties in carbon nanotubes and abrupt behavior in the structural yielding of Au7 and Mo6S6 nanowires. The technique drives simulations closer to more realistic modeling of slender one-dimensional nanostructures under experimental conditions. Academy of Finland is acknowledged for funding and the CSC-IT Center for Science in Finland for the computer resources.

  20. On electrons in quantum chaos state in doped fullerene crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, A.; Mucha, M.

    2000-01-01

    We show band electrons in A n C 60 crystal (C 60 fullerene doped with alkali ions A) are in highly chaotic quantum state. We describe intensity of the chaos by means of the Shannon information entropy, which we calculate using single particle Bloch functions. The entropy provides a quantitative measure of scars as well as degree of electrons delocalization in gaps between C 60 molecules. Implications of our results for conductivity in A 3 C 60 are discussed. (author)