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Sample records for nanotube-doped tio2 electrodes

  1. Versatile preparation method for mesoporous TiO2 electrodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    cyanate into CuI layer further enhanced the efficiency up to 2⋅75% under the irradiance .... an extremely easy way to dope films with virtually any .... to see the effect of ionic liquid on CuI, 1-ethyl-3-methyl- ... This analysis showed that TiO2 electrodes were polycrys- .... thin insulating layer of Al2O3 by using dip-coating meth-.

  2. Polymer Photovoltaic Cell Using TiO2/G-PEDOT Nanocomplex Film as Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Xie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TiO2/G-PEDOT (PEDOT/PSS doped with glycerol nanocomplex film as a substitute for metal electrode in organic photovoltaic cell is described. Indium tin oxide (ITO worked as cathode and TiO2/G-PEDOT nanocomplex works as anode. The thickness of TiO2 layer in nanocomplex greatly affects the act of this nonmetallic electrode of the device. To enhance its performance, this inverted organic photovoltaic cell uses another TiO2 layer as electron selective layer contacted to ITO coated glass substrates. All films made by solution processing techniques are coated on the transparent substrate (glass with a conducting film ITO. The efficiency of this solar cell is compared with the conventional device using Al as electrode.

  3. Microwave synthesized nanostructured TiO2-activated carbon composite electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumar, M.; Bhat, D. Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructure TiO 2 has been prepared by a microwave assisted synthesis method. ► Microwave irradiation was varied with time duration on the formation of nanoparticles. ► TiO 2 -activate carbon show very good specific capacitance for supercapacitor. ► Electrochemical properties were studied on electroanalytical techniques. - Abstract: Electrochemical properties of a supercapacitor based on nanocomposite electrodes of activated carbon with TiO 2 nano particles synthesized by a microwave method have been determined. The TiO 2 /activated carbon nanocomposite electrode with a composition of 1:3 showed a specific capacitance 92 Fg −1 . The specific capacitance of the electrode decreased with increase in titanium dioxide content. The p/p symmetrical supercapacitor fabricated with TiO 2 /activated carbon composite electrodes showed a specific capacitance of 122 Fg −1 . The electrochemical behavior of the neat TiO 2 nanoparticles has also been studied for comparison purpose. The galvanostatic charge–discharge test of the fabricated supercapacitor showed that the device has good coulombic efficiency and cycle life. The specific capacitance of the supercapacitor was stable up to 5000 cycles at current densities of 2, 4, 6 and 7 mA cm −2 .

  4. Structure of electron collection electrode in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi; Numata, Youhei; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Ochiai, Masayuki; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Han, Liyuan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the effort to control electron transport in the TiO 2 films of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), the structure of the electron collection electrode on the films has been investigated. Here, we report the comparison between a sandwich-type dye-sensitized solar cell (SW-DSC), in which the TiO 2 film is sandwiched between a TCO glass front electron collection electrode and a sputtered Ti back charge collection electrode, and a normal DSC (N-DSC), which has no back electrode. In N-DSCs, electrons in TiO 2 that are far from the front electrode have to diffuse for a long distance (ca. 10 μm), and therefore, the photocurrent cannot rapidly respond to light with a modulation frequency >100 Hz. In SW-DSCs, the photocurrent response was enhanced at frequencies between 10 and 500 Hz because electrons in TiO 2 can be extracted by both front and back electrodes, which can be also explained by an electron diffusion model. Calculations based on the electron diffusion model suggested that a high short-circuit photocurrent could be maintained in SW-DSCs even when the electron diffusion length in the TiO 2 film was shortened.

  5. TiO2-Anatase Nanowire Dispersed Composite Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asagoe, K; Suzuki, Y; Ngamsinlapasathian, S; Yoshikawa, S

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 anatase nanowires have been prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by post-heat treatment in air. TiO 2 nanoparticle/TiO 2 nanowire composite electrodes were prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) in order to improve light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The TiO 2 NP/TiO 2 NW composite cells showed higher DSC performance than ordinary nanoparticle cells and fully nanowire cells: efficiency (η = 6.53 % for DSC with 10% nanowire, whereas 5.59% for 0% nanowire, and 2.42% for 100% nanowire

  6. Correlation between photoelectrochemical behaviour and photoelectrocatalytic activity and scaling-up of P25-TiO2 electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablos, Cristina; Marugán, Javier; Grieken, Rafael van; Adán, Cristina; Riquelme, Ainhoa; Palma, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The use of TiO 2 electrodes may solve the two main drawbacks of photocatalytic processes: i) the necessity of recovering the catalyst and ii) the low quantum yield in the use of the radiation. This work focuses on the correlation between the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO 2 electrodes and their activity for the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of methanol. Particulate TiO 2 electrodes prepared by deposition of P25-TiO 2 nanoparticles on titanium (TiO 2 /Ti) or conductive glass support (TiO 2 /ITO) seem to be effective for charge carrier transference on TiO 2 surface favouring the formation of ·OH radicals and consequently, the oxidation of molecules. In contrast, thermal TiO 2 electrodes prepared by annealing of titanium (Ti) present better properties for charge carrier separation as a consequence of the application of a potential bias. Despite reducing charge carrier recombination by applying an electric potential bias, the activity of thermal electrodes remains lower than that of P25-particulate electrodes. TiO 2 structure of P25-particulate electrodes does not completely allow developing a potential gradient. However, their adequate TiO 2 layer characteristics for charge carrier transfer lead to a reduction in charge carrier recombination making up for the lack of charge carrier separation when applying an electric potential bias. TiO 2 /Ti showed the highest values of activity. Therefore, the combination of the suitable TiO 2 surface properties for charge carrier transfer with an adequate conductive support seems to increase the properties of the electrode for allowing charge carrier separation. The scaling-up calculations for a TiO 2 /ITO electrode do lead to good estimations of the activity and photocurrent of larger electrodes since this photoanode made from ITO as conductive support does not seem to be significantly affected by the applied potential bias

  7. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiue-Hsyan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-porous TiO2 thin films have been widely used as the working electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In this work, the phase-pure anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2 and rutile TiO2 (r-TiO2 have been prepared using hydrothermal processes. The investigation of photo-to-electron conversion efficiency of DSSCs fabricated from mixed-TiO2 with a-TiO2 and r-TiO2 ratio of 80 : 20 (A8R2 was performed and compared to that from commercial TiO2 (DP-25. The results showed higher efficiency of DSSC for A8R2 cells with same dependence of cell efficiency on the film thickness for both A8R2 and DP-25 cells. The best efficiency obtained in this work is 5.2% from A8R2 cell with TiO2 film thickness of 12.0 μm. The correlation between the TiO2 films thickness and photoelectron chemical properties of DSSCs fabricated from A8R2 and DP-25 was compared and discussed.

  8. TiO 2 counter electrode for electrochromic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2 ... The band gap energy decreases (g) from 3.45 eV for pristine CeO2 to 2.98–3.09 eV ... as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain ...

  9. Improvement of light harvesting and device performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using rod-like nanocrystal TiO2 overlay coating on TiO2 nanoparticle working electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Gao, Mei; Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Weidong; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Novel TiO 2 single crystalline nanorods were synthesized by electrospinning and hydrothermal treatment. The role of the TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode in improvement of light harvesting and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was examined. Although the TiO 2 nanorods had lower dye loading than TiO 2 nanoparticle, they showed higher light utilization behaviour. Electron transfer in TiO 2 nanorods received less resistance than that in TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregation. By just applying a thin layer of TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle working electrode, the DSSC device light harvesting ability and energy conversion efficiency were improved significantly. The thickness of the nanorod layer in the working electrode played an important role in determining the photovoltaic property of DSSCs. An energy conversion efficiency as high as 6.6% was found on a DSSC device with the working electrode consisting of a 12 μm think TiO 2 nanoparticle layer covered with 3 μm thick TiO 2 nanorods. The results obtained from this study may benefit further design of highly efficient DSSCs. - Highlights: • Single crystalline TiO 2 nanorods were prepared for DSSC application. • TiO 2 nanorods show effective light scattering performance. • TiO 2 nanorods have higher electron transfer efficiency than TiO 2 nanoparticles. • TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode improve DSSC efficiency

  10. Growth of TiO2-ZrO2 Binary Oxide Electrode for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than Than Win; Aye Myint Myat Kywe; Shwe Yee Win; Honey Thaw; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    TiO2-ZrO2 fine binary oxide was prepared by mechanochemical milling process to be homogeneous binary oxide powder. TiO2-ZrO2 paste was deposited on microscopic glass slide by rolling. It was immersed in the henna solution and annealed at 100C for 2h. It was deposited onto another glass slide and used as counter electrode (second electrode). Two glass slides were offset and two binder clips were used to hold the electrodes together. Photovoltaic properties of TiO2-ZrO2 cell were measured and it was expected to utilize the dye sensitized solar cells application.

  11. Effect of electrode type in the resistive switching behaviour of TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, E; Zapata-Torres, M; Márquez-Herrera, A; Zaleta-Alejandre, E; Meléndez-Lira, M; Cruz, W de la

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the electrode/active layer on the electric-field-induced resistance-switching phenomena of TiO 2 -based metal-oxide-metal devices (MOM) is studied. TiO 2 active layers were fabricated by the reactive rf-sputtering technique and devices were made by sandwiching between several metal electrodes. Three different MOM devices were made, according with the junction type formed between the electrode and the TiO 2 active layer, those where Ohmic-Ohmic, Ohmic-Schottky and Schottky-Schottky. The junction type was tested by electrical I-V measurements. It was found that MOM devices made with the Ohmic-Ohmic combination did not show any resistive switching behaviour in contrast with devices made with Ohmic-Schottky and Schottky-Schottky combinations. From a detailed analysis of the I-V curves it was found that transport characteristics are Ohmic for the low-resistance state for all the contacts combinations of the MOM devices, whereas in the high-resistance state it depends on contact combinations and can be identified as Ohmic, Schottky and Poole-Frenkel type. These conduction mechanisms in the low- and high-resistance states suggest that formation and rupture of conducting filaments through the film oxide is the mechanism responsible for the resistance switching.

  12. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  13. Preparation and photoelectrocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Han, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite electrode material based on a N-doped TiO2-loaded NaY zeolite membrane (N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane) for photoelectrocatalysis was presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization techniques were used to analyze the structure of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane. The XRD and SEM results verified that the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 20 nm have been successfully loaded on the porous stainless steel-supported NaY zeolite membrane. The UV-vis result showed that the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane exhibited a more obvious red-shift than that of N-TiO2 nanoparticles. The XPS characterization revealed that the doping of N element into TiO2 was successfully achieved. The photoelectrocatalysis performance of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was evaluated by phenol removal and also the effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic performance were investigated. Owing to exhibiting an excellent catalytic activity and good recycling stability, the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was of promising application for photoelectrocatalysis in wastewater treatment.

  14. Visible light photoelectrocatalysis with salicylic acid-modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode for p-nitrophenol degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Zhao Huimin; Quan Xie; Zhao Yazhi; Chen Shuo

    2009-01-01

    This research focused on immersion method synthesis of visible light active salicylic acid (SA)-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode and its photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity. The SA-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode was synthesized by immersing in SA solution with an anodized TiO 2 nanotube array electrode. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and Surface photovoltage (SPV) were used to characterize this electrode. It was found that SA-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode absorbed well into visible region and exhibited enhanced visible light PEC activity on the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP). The degradation efficiencies increased from 63 to 100% under UV light, and 79-100% under visible light (λ > 400 nm), compared with TiO 2 nanotube array electrode. The enhanced PEC activity of SA-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode was attributed to the amount of surface hydroxyl groups introduced by SA-modification and the extension of absorption wavelength range.

  15. VO2/TiO2 Nanosponges as Binder-Free Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenchen; Xu, Henghui; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Feng; Qie, Long; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2015-11-01

    VO2/TiO2 nanosponges with easily tailored nanoarchitectures and composition were synthesized by electrostatic spray deposition as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. Benefiting from the unique interconnected pore network of the VO2/TiO2 electrodes and the synergistic effect of high-capacity VO2 and stable TiO2, the as-formed binder-free VO2/TiO2 electrode exhibits a high capacity of 86.2 mF cm-2 (~548 F g-1) and satisfactory cyclability with 84.3% retention after 1000 cycles. This work offers an effective and facile strategy for fabricating additive-free composites as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors.

  16. VO2/TiO2 Nanosponges as Binder-Free Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenchen; Xu, Henghui; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Feng; Qie, Long; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2015-11-04

    VO2/TiO2 nanosponges with easily tailored nanoarchitectures and composition were synthesized by electrostatic spray deposition as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. Benefiting from the unique interconnected pore network of the VO2/TiO2 electrodes and the synergistic effect of high-capacity VO2 and stable TiO2, the as-formed binder-free VO2/TiO2 electrode exhibits a high capacity of 86.2 mF cm(-2) (~548 F g(-1)) and satisfactory cyclability with 84.3% retention after 1000 cycles. This work offers an effective and facile strategy for fabricating additive-free composites as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors.

  17. Obtainment of TiO2 powders solar cells photo electrodes dye sensitized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbeck, Guilherme; Folgueras, Marilena V.; Chinelatto, Adilson L.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide in its polymorphic anatase phase, presents interesting properties for solar cells photo electrodes dye sensitized such as the forbidden energy band, high refractive index and high constant dielectric. In this study, powders of nanometric titanium dioxide were produced with predominantly the anatase phase and high surface area. We used the sol-gel method, and titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor, which was hydrolyzed in nitric acid solution. The obtained powder was heated to 450 ° C, varying the time for each lot (0, 20 or 120 minutes). The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and surface area analysis. For all lots nanosized crystallites predominated. It was observed that in the batch with 120min heating an increase rutile content. The TiO 2 with 20min heating showed high surface area, greater than that of TiO 2 as taken reference

  18. Influences of Mg Doping on the Electrochemical Performance of TiO2 Nanodots Based Biosensor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. H. Al-Furjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical biosensors are essential for health monitors to help in diagnosis and detection of diseases. Enzyme adsorptions on biosensor electrodes and direct electron transfer between them have been recognized as key factors to affect biosensor performance. TiO2 has a good protein adsorption ability and facilitates having more enzyme adsorption and better electron transfer. In this work, Mg ions are introduced into TiO2 nanodots in order to further improve electrode performance because Mg ions are considered to have good affinity with proteins or enzymes. Mg doped TiO2 nanodots on Ti substrates were prepared by spin-coating and calcining. The effects of Mg doping on the nanodots morphology and performance of the electrodes were investigated. The density and size of TiO2 nanodots were obviously changed with Mg doping. The sensitivity of 2% Mg doped TiO2 nanodots based biosensor electrode increased to 1377.64 from 897.8 µA mM−1 cm−2 and its KMapp decreases to 0.83 from 1.27 mM, implying that the enzyme achieves higher catalytic efficiency due to better affinity of the enzyme with the Mg doped TiO2. The present work could provide an alternative to improve biosensor performances.

  19. TiO2 coated Si nanowire electrodes for electrochemical double layer capacitors in room temperature ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinou, F; Shougee, A; Albrecht, T; Fobelets, K

    2017-01-01

    Three TiO 2 deposition processes are used to coat the surface of Si nanowire array electrodes for electrochemical double layer capacitors in room temperature ionic liquid [Bmim][NTF 2 ]. The fabrication processes are based on wet chemistry only and temperature treatments are kept below 450 °C. Successful TiO 2 coatings are found to be those that are carried out at low pressure and with low TiO 2 coverage to avoid nanowires breakage. The best TiO 2 coated Si nanowire array electrode in [Bmim][NTF 2 ] showed energy densities of 0.9 Wh·kg −1 and power densities of 2.2 kW·kg −1 with a nanowire length of ∼10 µ m. (paper)

  20. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2012-05-22

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive layer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, a power conversion efficiency of 3.67% was obtained, a value comparable to devices having sputtered ITO electrode. Surface roughness and optical efficiency are improved when using the mixed TiO2−x–ITO electrode. The consumption of less indium allows for lower fabrication cost of such mixed thin filmelectrode.

  1. Enhanced supercapacitor performance using hierarchical TiO2 nanorod/Co(OH)2 nanowall array electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadoss, Ananthakumar; Kim, Sang Jae

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO 2 /Co(OH) 2 hierarchical nanostructure was prepared by a combination of hydrothermal and cathodic electrodeposition method. • Hierarchical nanostructure electrode exhibited a maximum capacitance of 274.3 mF cm −2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s −1 . • Combination of Co(OH) 2 nanowall with TiO 2 NR into a single system enhanced the electrochemical behavior of supercapacitor electrode. - Abstract: We report novel hierarchical TiO 2 nanorod (NR)/porous Co(OH) 2 nanowall array electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors fabricated using a two-step process that involves hydrothermal and electrodeposition techniques. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images reveal a bilayer structure consisting of TiO 2 NR arrays with porous Co(OH) 2 nanowalls. Compared with the bare TiO 2 NRs, the hierarchical TiO 2 NRs/Co(OH) 2 electrodes showed improved pseudocapacitive performance in a 2-M KOH electrolyte solution, exhibiting an areal specific capacitance of 274.3 mF cm −2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s −1 . The electrodes exhibited good stability, retaining 82.5% of the initial capacitance after 4000 cycles. The good pseudocapacitive performance of the hierarchical nanostructures is mainly due to the porous structure, which provides fast ion and electron transfer, a large surface area, short ion diffusion paths, and a favourable volume change during the cycling process

  2. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO_2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO_2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  3. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  4. Preparation and characterisation of visible light responsive iodine doped TiO2 electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Szybowska, Katarzyna; Jasulaitiene, Vitalija

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics are presented of new iodine doped TiO 2 (I-TiO 2 ) prepared via the hydrothermal method, where titania (IV) complexes with a ligand containing an iodine atom have been used as a precursor. The structure of samples has been examined by XPS, XRD, UV-vis and FT-IR-ATR techniques. These studies confirm that the obtained powder exhibits a decrease in the bandgap energy value (E g = 2.8 eV). The report presents electrochemical studies of I-TiO 2 films on a Pt electrode, which allow determination of the flatband potential E fb = -0.437 V vs. SCE (in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 ). Cyclic voltammetry measurements show anodic and cathodic activities under Vis and UV-vis radiation. The photocurrent enhancement due to visible light radiation reached 30% of the whole photoacitivity exhibited under UV-vis illumination.

  5. Theoretical Verification of Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation Using Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yanagida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscopic anatase nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2 electrodes play effective and efficient catalytic roles in photoelectrochemical (PEC H2O oxidation under short circuit energy gap excitation conditions. Interfacial molecular orbital structures of (H2O3 &OH(TiO29H as a stationary model under neutral conditions and the radical-cation model of [(H2O3&OH(TiO29H]+ as a working nc-TiO2 model are simulated employing a cluster model OH(TiO29H (Yamashita/Jono’s model and a H2O cluster model of (H2O3 to examine excellent H2O oxidation on nc-TiO2 electrodes in PEC cells. The stationary model, (H2O3&OH(TiO29H reveals that the model surface provides catalytic H2O binding sites through hydrogen bonding, van der Waals and Coulombic interactions. The working model, [(H2O3&OH(TiO29H]+ discloses to have a very narrow energy gap (0.3 eV between HOMO and LUMO potentials, proving that PEC nc-TiO2 electrodes become conductive at photo-irradiated working conditions. DFT-simulation of stepwise oxidation of a hydroxide ion cluster model of OH−(H2O3, proves that successive two-electron oxidation leads to hydroxyl radical clusters, which should give hydrogen peroxide as a precursor of oxygen molecules. Under working bias conditions of PEC cells, nc-TiO2 electrodes are now verified to become conductive by energy gap photo-excitation and the electrode surface provides powerful oxidizing sites for successive H2O oxidation to oxygen via hydrogen peroxide.

  6. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Lim, Jong-Wook; Kim, Han-Ki; Alford, T. L.; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2012-01-01

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive

  7. Hydrogen-bonding effects on film structure and photoelectrochemical properties of porphyrin and fullerene composites on nanostructured TiO 2 electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kira, Aiko; Tanaka, Masanobu; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Matano, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Naoki; Zhang, Yi; Ye, Shen; Lehtivuori, Heli; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonding effects on film structures and photophysical, photoelectrochemical, and photovoltaic properties have been examined in mixed films of porphyrin and fullerene composites with and without hydrogen bonding on nanostructured TiO2 electrodes. The nanostructured TiO2 electrodes modified

  8. Near-uv photon efficiency in a TiO2 electrode - Application to hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplat, J.-L.

    1976-01-01

    An n-type (001) TiO2 electrode irradiated at 365 nm was tested under anodic polarization. A saturation current independent of pH and proportional to light intensity has been observed. Accurate measurements of the incident power lead to a 60 per cent photon efficiency. A photoelectrochemical cell built with such an electrode, operated under solar irradiation without concentration, produced an electrolysis current of 0.7 mA/sq cm without applied voltage.

  9. Sealed two-electrode photoelectrochemical cell based on nanocrystalline TiO2 analyzed as a UV sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcade, Fresnel; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Maqueda, Ma. de la Luz; Curbelo, Larisa; Vigil, Elena; Jennings, James R.; Dunn, Halina; Wang, Hongxia; PeteR, Lauri M.

    2008-01-01

    Potentialities as UV sensor of a sealed two-electrode photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) based on nanocrystalline TiO 2 are analyzed. Ultraviolet component of solar light is responsible for a number of skin disorders and diseases. An inexpensive and simple UV sensor would be convenient to measure the UV intensity been exposed to. Nanocrystalline TiO 2 is a rather inexpensive material, innocuous and very stable which is intensively studied at the present moment because of its possible applications in dye-sensitized solar cells, photocatalysis, electrochromics, etc. The method for obtaining the sensor and its structure are described. Different TiO 2 layer structures for the photoelectrode are studied. Important parameters, such as, spectral response, external quantum efficiency, current vs light intensity and current-voltage curve are presented. Results show prospective for the implementation of this type of sensor. (Full text)

  10. Synthesis of Nano-Ilmenite (FeTiO3) doped TiO2/Ti Electrode for Photoelectrocatalytic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmawati; Watoni, A. H.; Wibowo, D.; Maulidiyah; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiO3) doped on Ti and TiO2/Ti electrodes were successfully prepared by using the sol-gel method. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of FeTiO3 are characterized by XRD, UV-Vis DRS, and SEM. The FeTiO3 and TiO2 greatly affect the photoelectrocatalysis performance characterized by Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The characterization result shows a band gap of FeTiO3 is 2.94 eV. XRD data showed that FeTiO3 formed at 2θ were 35.1° (110), 49.9° (024), and 61.2° (214). The morphology of FeTiO3/Ti and FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti using SEM shows that the formation of FeTiO3 thin layer signifies the Liquid Phase Deposition method effectively in the coating process. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) test showed that FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti electrode was highly oxidation responsive under visible light compared to the FeTiO3/Ti electrodes i.e. 7.87×10-4 A and 9.87×10-5 A. Degradation test of FeTiO3/Ti and FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti electrodes on titan yellow showed that the percentages of degradation with photoelectrocatalysis at 0.5 mg/L were 41% and 43%, respectively.

  11. Integrated titanium dioxide (TiO_2) nanoparticles on interdigitated device electrodes (IDEs) for pH analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizah, N.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Farehanim, M. A.; Fatin, M. F.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ayub, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) nanoparticles based Interdigitated Device Electrodes (IDEs) Nanobiosensor device was developed for intracellular biochemical detection. Fabrication and characterization of pH sensors using IDE nanocoated with TiO_2 was studied in this paper. In this paper, a preliminary assessment of this intracellular sensor with electrical measurement under different pH levels. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was used to enhance the sensitivity of titanium dioxide layer as well as able to provide surface modification by undergoing protonation and deprotonation process. Different types of pH solution provide different resistivity and conductivity towards the surface. Base solution has the higher current compared to an acid solution. Amine and oxide functionalized TiO_2 based IDE exhibit pH-dependent could be understood in terms of the change in surface charge during protonation and deprotonation. The simple fabrication process, high sensitivity, and fast response of the TiO_2 based IDEs facilitate their applications in a wide range of areas. The small size of semiconductor TiO_2 based IDE for sensitive, label-free, real time detection of a wide range of biological species could be explored in vivo diagnostics and array-based screening.

  12. Non-aqueous hybrid supercapacitors fabricated with mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and activated carbon electrodes with superior performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Zhao, Bote; Wang, Jie; Shao, Zongping

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 microspheres, synthesized by a facile template-free solvothermal method and subsequent heat treatment, are exploited as the electrode for hybrid supercapacitors. The effects of the calcination temperature on the phase composition, particulate microstructure and morphology are characterized by XRD, Raman, FE-SEM and N2 adsorption/desorption measurements. Hybrid supercapacitors utilizing the as-prepared TiO2 mesoporous microspheres as the negative electrode and activated carbon (AC) as the positive electrode in a non-aqueous electrolyte are fabricated. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid supercapacitors is studied by galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The hybrid supercapacitor built from TiO2 microspheres calcined at 400 °C shows the best performance, delivering an energy density of 79.3 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 178.1 W kg-1. Even at a power density of 9.45 kW kg-1, an energy density of 31.5 Wh kg-1 is reached. These values are much higher than the AC-AC symmetric supercapacitor. In addition, the hybrid supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling performance, retaining 98% of the initial energy density after 1000 cycles. Such outstanding electrochemical performance of the hybrid supercapacitor is attributed to the matched reaction kinetics between the two electrodes with different energy storage mechanisms.

  13. Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticle and its Application to Graphite Composite Electrode for Hydroxylamine Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazloum-Ardakani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sol-gel method was used tosynthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2. The TiO2nanoparticles was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD and BET technique.The TiO2 and coumarin derivative (7-(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl-9, 10-dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro [3,2-c] chromen-6-on were incorporated in a graphite composite electrode. The resulting modified electrode displayed a good electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydroxylamine, which leads to a reduction in its overpotential by more than 520 mV. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV of hydroxylamine at the modified electrode exhibited a linear dynamic range (between 0.5 and 500.0 µM with a detection limit (3σ of 0.133 μM. The high sensitivity, ease of fabrication and low cost of this modified electrode for the detection of hydroxylamine demonstrate its potential sensing applications.

  14. Understanding the effect of morphology on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotube array electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adán, C.; Marugán, J.; Sánchez, E.; Pablos, C.; Grieken, R. van

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive report on the correlation between the morphology and the photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity of TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs) electrodes is presented. New insights are provided to support the effect of the anodization conditions on the photon-to-current efficiency of the electrodes based on the dimensional characteristics of the TiO 2 -NTs. Electrodes with promising properties based on the characterization data were scaled-up to test their activity on the PC and PEC oxidation of methanol. Results indicate that the length of the nanotubes significantly influences the photodegradation efficiency. The enhancement achieved in both PC and PEC processes with longer nanotubes can be explained by the higher surface area in contact with the electrolyte and the increase in the light absorption as the TiO 2 layer becomes thicker. However, as the length of the nanotubes increases, a reduction in the enhancement achieved by the application of a potential bias is observed. Kinetic constants of both reactions (PC and PEC) tend to get closer and the charge separation effect diminishes. In relative terms, the effect of the electric potential is more pronounced for electrodes with the shorter NTs. The reason is that once the TiO 2 layer is thick enough to absorb the available radiation, a further increase in the NTs length increases the resistance of the electrons to reach the back contact and the diffusional restrictions to the mass transport of the reactants/products along the tubes. Consequently, the existence of a compromise between reactivity and transport properties lead to the existence of an optimal NTs length.

  15. Fabrication of La-doped TiO2 Film Electrode and investigation of its electrocatalytic activity for furfural reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fengwu; Xu, Mai; Wei, Lin; Wei, Yijun; Hu, Yunhu; Fang, Wenyan; Zhu, Chuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanum trivalent ions (La 3+ ) doped nano-TiO 2 film electrode was prepared by the sol–gel method. The prepared electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrocatalytic properties of the roughened TiO 2 film electrode towards the electrocatalytic reduction of furfural to furfural alcohol were evaluated by CV and preparative electrolysis experiments. The results of the optimum molar ratio of La: Ti was 0.005:1. Experimental evidence was presented that the La nano-TiO 2 electrode exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of furfural than the undoped nano-TiO 2 electrode in N,N-dimethylformamide medium. Bulk electrolysis studies were also carried out for the reduction of furfural and the product was confirmed by NMR

  16. Laser welding of nanoparticulate TiO2 and transparent conducting oxide electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Jonghyun; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2010-01-01

    Poor interfacial contact is often encountered in nanoparticulate film-based devices. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a representative case in which a nanoporous TiO 2 electrode needs to be prepared on the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)-coated glass substrate. In this study, we demonstrate that the inter-electrode contact resistance accounts for a considerable portion of the total resistance of a DSSC and its efficiency can be greatly enhanced by welding the interface with a laser. TiO 2 films formed on the TCO-coated glass substrate were irradiated with a pulsed ultraviolet laser beam at 355 nm; this transmits through the TCO and glass but is strongly absorbed by TiO 2 . Electron microscopy analysis and impedance measurements showed that a thin continuous TiO 2 layer is formed at the interface as a result of the local melting of TiO 2 nanoparticles and this layer completely bridges the gap between the two electrodes, improving the current flow with a reduced contact resistance. We were able to improve the efficiency by 35-65% with this process. DSSCs fabricated using a homemade TiO 2 paste revealed an efficiency improvement from η = 3.3% to 5.4%, and an increase from 8.2% to 11.2% was achieved with the TiO 2 electrodes made from a commercial paste.

  17. Nanoporous TiO_2 electrode grown by laser ablation of titanium in air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Białous, Anna; Gazda, Maria; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Atanasov, Petar; Dikovska, Anna; Nedyalkov, Nikolay; Reszczyńska, Joanna; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Recently, fabrication of the nanoporous TiO_2 photoelectrode on metal foils by means of sputtering of the Ti film on preheated metal substrate followed by the TiO_2 deposition (doctor blade technique) and sintering represents the frequently applied technique. This is despite the relatively complicated procedure and number of parameters to be controlled in order to fabricate films of required properties. In this work an approach is applied and discussed in which the nanoporous TiO_2 electrode is fabricated under conditions similar to pulsed laser deposition but with the deposit formed directly on the ablated target at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The titanium dioxide thin film is grown by ablation of the Ti foil with the nanosecond UV laser (266 nm) at fluence up to 1.5 J/cm"2. The rutile–anatase phase transformation takes place during this one-step process and no thermal pre-and post-treatment of the deposit is needed. In samples produced in air, the presence of mixed phases of the non-stoichiometric anatase (> 70%), rutile and negligible amount of TiN is consistently confirmed by the X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray and Raman spectra. For applications of the reported films as electrode material in the third generation photovoltaic cells, the use of industrial lasers could significantly improve the process efficiency. - Highlights: • TiO_2 films via laser ablation of Ti in air under standard temperature and pressure conditions • Nanoporous crystalline structure from one-step process • Anatase content > 70% in the mixed phase film

  18. Graphene-embedded 3D TiO2 inverse opal electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells: morphological characteristics and photocurrent enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Na; Yoo, Haemin; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-05-21

    We demonstrated the preparation of graphene-embedded 3D inverse opal electrodes for use in DSSCs. The graphene was incorporated locally into the top layers of the inverse opal structures and was embedded into the TiO2 matrix via post-treatment of the TiO2 precursors. DSSCs comprising the bare and 1-5 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes were compared. We observed that the local arrangement of graphene sheets effectively enhanced electron transport without significantly reducing light harvesting by the dye molecules. A high efficiency of 7.5% was achieved in DSSCs prepared with the 3 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes, constituting a 50% increase over the efficiencies of DSSCs prepared without graphene. The increase in efficiency was mainly attributed to an increase in J(SC), as determined by the photovoltaic parameters and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis.

  19. High-performance and renewable supercapacitors based on TiO2 nanotube array electrodes treated by an electrochemical doping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hui; Li, Dongdong; Zhu, Xufei; Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Dongfang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Song, Ye; Lu, Linfeng

    2014-01-01

    Although one-dimensional anodic TiO 2 nanotube arrays have shown promise as supercapacitor electrode materials, their poor electronic conductivity embarrasses the practical applications. Here, we develop a simple electrochemical doping method to significantly improve the electronic conductivity and the electrochemical performances of TiO 2 nanotube electrodes. These TiO 2 nanotube electrodes treated by the electrochemical hydrogenation doping (TiO 2 -H) exhibit a very high average specific capacitance of 20.08 mF cm −2 at a current density of 0.05 mA cm −2 , ∼20 times more than the pristine TiO 2 nanotube electrodes. The improved electrochemical performances can be attributed to ultrahigh conductivity of TiO 2 -H due to the introduction of interstitial hydrogen ions and oxygen vacancies by the doping. The supercapacitor device assembled by the doped electrodes delivers a specific capacitance of 5.42 mF cm −2 and power density of 27.66 mW cm −2 , on average, at the current density of 0.05 mA cm −2 . The device also shows an outstanding rate capability with 60% specific capacitance retained when the current density increases from 0.05 to 4.00 mA cm −2 . More interestingly, the electrochemical performances of the supercapacitor after cycling can be recovered by the same doping process. This strategy boosts the performances of the supercapacitor, especially cycling stability

  20. Cold sprayed WO3 and TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water and methanol oxidation in renewable energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Christoph; Schneider, Jenny; Fleisch, Manuel; Gutzmann, Henning; Klassen, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2017-10-03

    Films prepared by cold spray have potential applications as photoanodes in electrochemical water splitting and waste water purification. In the present study cold sprayed photoelectrodes produced with WO 3 (active under visible light illumination) and TiO 2 (active under UV illumination) on titanium metal substrates were investigated as photoanodes for the oxidation of water and methanol, respectively. Methanol was chosen as organic model pollutant in acidic electrolytes. Main advantages of the cold sprayed photoelectrodes are the improved metal-semiconductor junctions and the superior mechanical stability. Additionally, the cold spray method can be utilized as a large-scale electrode fabrication technique for photoelectrochemical applications. Incident photon to current efficiencies reveal that cold sprayed TiO 2 /WO 3 photoanodes exhibit the best photoelectrochemical properties with regard to the water and methanol oxidation reactions in comparison with the benchmark photocatalyst Aeroxide TiO 2 P25 due to more efficient harvesting of the total solar light irradiation related to their smaller band gap energies.

  1. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterization of different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes for the immobilization of Cytochrome c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiaounis, Stavros; Tiflidis, Christina; Tsekoura, Christina; Topoglidis, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    In this work three different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes were prepared and used for the immobilization of Cytochrome c (Cyt-c). Films prepared via a standard sol-gel route (SG-films) were compared with commercially available benchmark nanotitania materials, namely P25 Degussa (P25-films) and Dyesol nanopaste (Dyesol films). Their properties, film deposition characteristics and their abilities to adsorb protein molecules in a stable and functional way were examined. We investigated whether it is possible, rather than preparing TiO2 films using multistep, lengthy and not always reproducible sol-gel procedures, to use commercially available nanotitania materials and produce reproducible films faster that exhibit all the properties that make TiO2 films ideal for protein immobilization. Although these materials are formulated primarily for dye-sensitized solar cell applications, in this study we found out that protein immobilization is facile and remarkably stable on all of them. We also investigated their electrochemical properties by using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry and found out that not only direct reduction of Fe(III)-heme to Fe(II)-heme of immobilized Cyt-c was possible on all films but that the adsorbed protein remained electroactive.

  2. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  3. Enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells based on MgO-coated TiO2 electrodes by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sujuan; Han Hongwei; Tai Qidong; Zhang Jing; Xu Sheng; Zhou Conghua; Yang Ying; Hu Hao; Chen Bolei; Sebo, Bobby; Zhao Xingzhong

    2008-01-01

    A surface modification method was carried out by reactive DC magnetron sputtering to fabricate TiO 2 electrodes coated with insulating MgO for dye-sensitized solar cells. The MgO-coated TiO 2 electrode had been characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The study results revealed that the TiO 2 modification increases dye adsorption, decreases trap states and suppresses interfacial recombination. The effects of sputtering MgO for different times on the performance of DSSCs were investigated. It indicated that sputtering MgO for 3 min on TiO 2 increases all cell parameters, resulting in increasing efficiency from 6.45% to 7.57%

  4. Transparent Conducting Nb-Doped TiO2 Electrodes Activated by Laser Annealing for Inexpensive Flexible Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yi-Chang

    2012-01-01

    A KrF excimer laser (λ= 248 nm) has been adopted for annealing cost-effective Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) films. Sputtered NTO layers were annealed on SiO2-coated flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. This local laser annealing technique is very useful for the formation of anatase NTO electrodes used in flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). An amorphous NTO film with a high resistivity and a low transparency was transformed significantly into a conductive and transparent anatase NTO electrode by laser irradiation. The 210 nm anatase NTO film shows a sheet resistance of 50 Ω and an average optical transmittance of 83.5% in the wavelength range from 450 to 600 nm after annealing at 0.25 J/cm2. The activation of Nb dopants and the formation of the anatase phase contribute to the high conductivity of the laser-annealed NTO electrode. Nb activation causes an increase in the optical band gap due to the Burstein-Moss effect. The electrical properties are in agreement with the material characteristics determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The irradiation energy for the NTO electrode also affects the performance of the organic solar cell. The laser annealing technique provides good properties of the anatase NTO film used as a transparent electrode for flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) without damage to the PET substrate or layer delamination from the substrate.

  5. Preparation of TiO2/boron-doped diamond/Ta multilayer films and use as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Li, Mingji; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2015-12-01

    We report nanostructured TiO2/boron-doped diamond (BDD)/Ta multilayer films and their electrochemical performances as supercapacitor electrodes. The BDD films were grown on Ta substrates using electron-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Ti metal layers were deposited on the BDD surfaces by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, and nanostructured TiO2/BDD/Ta thin films were prepared by electrochemical etching and thermal annealing. The successful formation of TiO2 and Ta layered nanostructures was demonstrated using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The electrochemical responses of these electrodes were evaluated by examining their use as electrical double-layer capacitors, using cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance measurements. When the TiO2/BDD/Ta film was used as the working electrode with 0.1 M Na2SO4 as the electrolyte, the capacitor had a specific capacitance of 5.23 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 for a B/C ratio of 0.1% w/w. Furthermore, the TiO2/BDD/Ta film had improved electrochemical stability, with a retention of 89.3% after 500 cycles. This electrochemical behavior is attributed to the quality of the BDD, the surface roughness and electrocatalytic activities of the TiO2 layer and Ta nanoporous structures, and the synergies between them. These results show that TiO2/BDD/Ta films are promising as capacitor electrodes for special applications.

  6. Influence of nitrogen dopants on N-doped TiO2 electrodes and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; Shen Yihua; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders; Ma Tingli

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three different types of nanocrystalline N-doped TiO 2 synthesized by several nitrogen dopants. → N-doped DSCs achieves a high conversion efficiency of 8.32%. → Ammonia acts as good nitrogen dopants. → Enhanced photocurrent of ca. 36% in N-doped DSCs. → Less charge are needed to get a high open-circuit voltage in N-doped films. - Abstract: Three different types of nanocrystalline, N-doped TiO 2 electrodes were synthesized using several nitrogen dopants through wet methods. The obtained nanocrystalline, N-doped TiO 2 electrodes possessed different crystallite sizes, surface areas, and N-doping amounts. Characterizations were performed to reveal the nitrogen-doping processes for the wet methods using ammonia, urea, and triethylamine as the nitrogen dopants. Additionally, a high conversion efficiency of 8.32% was achieved by the dye-sensitized solar cells, based on the N-doped TiO 2 electrodes. For instance, in comparison with the commercial P25 (5.76%) and pure anatase TiO 2 electrodes (7.14%), significant improvements (44% and 17%, respectively) in the efficiencies were obtained. The findings also indicated that the ammonia nitrogen dopant was more efficient than other two nitrogen dopants. The electron transports, electron lifetimes, and charge recombination in the dye-sensitized N-doped TiO 2 solar cells also differed from those in the pure TiO 2 -based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Specifically, an enhanced photocurrent of ca. 36% in N-doped DSCs resulted from the synergistic effects of the high dye uptake and the efficient electron transport. Moreover, the relationship between charge and voltage revealed that less charge was needed to get a high open-circuit voltage in the N-doping films.

  7. Low-Temperature Preparation of Amorphous-Shell/Nanocrystalline-Core Nanostructured TiO2 Electrodes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongshe Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An amorphous shell/nanocrystalline core nanostructured TiO2 electrode was prepared at low temperature, in which the mixture of TiO2 powder and TiCl4 aqueous solution was used as the paste for coating a film and in this film amorphous TiO2 resulted from direct hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 100∘C sintering was produced to connect the particles forming a thick crack-free uniform nanostructured TiO2 film (12 μm, and on which a photoelectrochemical solar cell-based was fabricated, generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.58 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.647 V, and an overall 4.48% light-to-electricity conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination.

  8. Photoelectrocatalytic decomposition of ethylene using TiO2/activated carbon fiber electrode with applied pulsed direct current square-wave potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Sheng-ying; Zheng, Sen-hong; Song, Xian-liang; Luo, Shu-can

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethylene was decomposed by a photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) process. • A pulsed direct current square-wave (PDCSW) potential was applied to the PEC cell. • An electrode of TiO 2 or modified TiO 2 and activated carbon fiber (ACF) was used. • TiO 2 /ACF photocatalyst electrodes were modified by gamma radiolysis. • Efficiencies of the PEC process were higher than those of the process using DC. - Abstract: Removing ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) from the atmosphere of storage facilities for fruits and vegetable is one of the main challenges in their postharvest handling for maximizing their freshness, quality, and shelf life. In this study, we investigated the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of ethylene gas by applying a pulsed direct current DC square-wave (PDCSW) potential and by using a Nafion-based PEC cell. The cell utilized a titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalyst or γ-irradiated TiO 2 (TiO 2 * ) loaded on activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a photoelectrode. The apparent rate constant of a pseudo-first-order reaction (K) was used to describe the PEC degradation of ethylene. Parameters of the potential applied to the PEC cell in a reactor that affect the degradation efficiency in terms of the K value were studied. These parameters were frequency, duty cycle, and voltage. Ethylene degradation by application of a constant PDCSW potential to the PEC electrode of either TiO 2 /ACF cell or TiO 2 * /ACF cell enhanced the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation and PEC degradation. Gamma irradiation of TiO 2 in the electrode and the applied PDCSW potential synergistically increased the K value. Independent variables (frequency, duty cycle, and voltage) of the PEC cell fabricated from TiO 2 subjected 20 kGy γ radiation were optimized to maximize the K value by using response surface methodology with quadratic rotation–orthogonal composite experimental design. Optimized conditions were as follows: 358.36 Hz frequency, 55.79% duty cycle, and 64.65 V

  9. Few layer graphene wrapped mixed phase TiO2 nanofiber as a potential electrode material for high performance supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanam, Lavanya; Sundara, Ramaprabhu

    2018-06-01

    A combination of favorable composition and optimized anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 (MPTNF)/Hydrogen exfoliated graphene (HEG) composite nanofibers (MPTNF/HEG) and anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite nanofibers (MPTNF/rGO) have been reported to enhance the electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications. These composite nanofibers have been synthesized by an efficient route of electrospinning together with the help of easy chemical methods. Both the composites exhibit good charge storage capability with enhanced pseudocapacitance and electric double-layer capacitance (EDLC) as confirmed by cyclic voltammetry studies. MPTNF/HEG composite showed maximum specific capacitance of 210.5 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g, which was mainly due to its availability of the more active sites for ions adsorption on a few layers of graphene wrapped TiO2 nanofiber surface. The synergistic effect of anatase/rutile mixed phase with one dimensional nanostructure and the electronic interaction between TiO2 and few layer graphene provided the subsequent improvement of ion adsorption capacity. Also exhibit excellent electrochemical performance to improve the capacitive properties of TiO2 electrode materials which is required for the development of flexible electrodes in energy storage devices and open up new opportunities for high performance supercapacitors.

  10. TiO2-NT electrodes modified with Ag and diamond like carbon (DLC) for hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Evrim; Baz, Zeynep; Esen, Ramazan; Yazici Devrim, Birgül

    2017-10-01

    In present work, the two-step anodization technique was applied for synthesis of TiO2 nanotube (NT). Silver and diamond like carbon (DLC) were coated on the surface of as prepared TiO2-NT using chemical reduction method and MW ECR plasma system. The morphology, composition and structure of the electrodes were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that Ag nanoparticles, having size in the range of 48-115 nm, are evenly distributed on the top, inside and outside surface of TiO2-NT and when DLC was coated on the surface of TiO2-NT and TiO2-NT-Ag, the top of nanotubes were partially open and the pore diameter of hexagonal structure decreased from 165 nm to of 38-80 nm. On the other hand, the microhardness test and contact angle measurements revealed that additions of Ag and diamond like carbon have a positive effect on the mechanical properties of TiO2-NT film. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) were investigated by the electrochemical measurements recorded in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, long-term durability of electrodes towards HER and the energy consumption of alkaline electrolysis were investigated. The energy requirement showed that while the deposition of silver provides approximately 14.95% savings of the energy consumption, the DLC coating causes increase in energy consumption.

  11. Supported noble metals on hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube arrays as highly ordered electrodes for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changkun; Yu, Hongmei; Li, Yongkun; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yun; Song, Wei; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube (H-TNT) arrays serve as highly ordered nanostructured electrode supports, which are able to significantly improve the electrochemical performance and durability of fuel cells. The electrical conductivity of H-TNTs increases by approximately one order of magnitude in comparison to air-treated TNTs. The increase in the number of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups on the H-TNTs help to anchor a greater number of Pt atoms during Pt electrodeposition. The H-TNTs are pretreated by using a successive ion adsorption and reaction (SIAR) method that enhances the loading and dispersion of Pt catalysts when electrodeposited. In the SIAR method a Pd activator can be used to provide uniform nucleation sites for Pt and leads to increased Pt loading on the H-TNTs. Furthermore, fabricated Pt nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.4 nm are located uniformly around the pretreated H-TNT support. The as-prepared and highly ordered electrodes exhibit excellent stability during accelerated durability tests, particularly for the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts that have been annealed in ultrahigh purity H2 for a second time. There is minimal decrease in the electrochemical surface area of the as-prepared electrode after 1000 cycles compared to a 68 % decrease for the commercial JM 20 % Pt/C electrode after 800 cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that after the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts are annealed in H2 for the second time, the strong metal-support interaction between the H-TNTs and the Pt catalysts enhances the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. Fuel-cell testing shows that the power density reaches a maximum of 500 mWcm(-2) when this highly ordered electrode is used as the anode. When used as the cathode in a fuel cell with extra-low Pt loading, the new electrode generates a specific power density of 2.68 kWg(Pt) (-1) . It is indicated that H-TNT arrays, which have highly ordered nanostructures, could be used as ordered electrode supports

  12. Characterization of TiO2–MnO2 composite electrodes synthesized using spark plasma sintering technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshephe, TS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available and electrochemical stability of the resulting materials were investigated. Relative densities of 99.33% and 98.49% were obtained for 90TiO2–10MnO2 and 80TiO2–10MnO2 when ball was incorporated. The 90TiO2–10MnO2 powder mixed with balls had its Vickers hardness value...

  13. Study of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Scanning Electron Micrograph Observation and Thickness Optimization of Porous TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoenergy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, it is important to optimize their porous TiO2 electrodes. This paper examines the surface and cross-sectional views of the electrodes using scanning electron micrography. Two types of samples for cross-sectional viewing were prepared by mechanically breaking the substrate and by using an Ar-ion etching beam. The former displays the surface of the TiO2 particles and the latter shows the cross-section of the TiO2 particles. We found interesting surface and cross-sectional structures in the scattering layer containing the 400 nm diameter particles, which have an angular and horned shape. The influence of TiO2 particle size and the thickness of the nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrode in DSCs using four kinds of sensitizing dyes (D149, K19, N719 and Z907 and two kinds of electrolytes (acetonitrile-based and ionic-liquid electrolytes are discussed in regards to conversion efficiency, which this paper aims to optimize.

  14. Oxidation of S(IV) in Seawater by Pulsed High Voltage Discharge Plasma with TiO2/Ti Electrode as Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianying; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Lecheng

    2013-12-01

    Oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) in the effluent of a flue gas desulfurization(FGD) system is very critical for industrial applications of seawater FGD. This paper reports a pulsed corona discharge oxidation process combined with a TiO2 photocatalyst to convert S(IV) to S(VI) in artificial seawater. Experimental results show that the oxidation of S(IV) in artificial seawater is enhanced in the pulsed discharge plasma process through the application of TiO2 coating electrodes. The oxidation rate of S(IV) using Ti metal as a ground electrode is about 2.0×10-4 mol · L-1 · min-1, the oxidation rate using TiO2/Ti electrode prepared by annealing at 500°C in air is 4.5×10-4 mol · L-1 · min-1, an increase with a factor 2.25. The annealing temperature for preparing TiO2/Ti electrode has a strong effect on the oxidation of S(IV) in artificial seawater. The results of in-situ emission spectroscopic analysis show that chemically active species (i.e. hydroxyl radicals and oxygen radicals) are produced in the pulsed discharge plasma process. Compared with the traditional air oxidation process and the sole plasma-induced oxidation process, the combined application of TiO2 photocatalysts and a pulsed high-voltage electrical discharge process is useful in enhancing the energy and conversion efficiency of S(IV) for the seawater FGD system.

  15. Study on copper oxide stability in photoelectrochemical cell composed of nanostructured TiO2 and CuxO electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juodkazytė, J.; Šebeka, B.; Savickaja, I.; Jagminas, A.; Jasulaitienė, V.; Selskis, A.; Kovger, J.; Mack, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of Ti|TiO 2 | 0.1 M KOH |Cu x O|Cu photoelectrochemical cell is investigated. • Recrystallization of nanostructured Cu x O layer during photoelectrolysis is observed. • Comprehensive analysis of possible photoelectrochemical reactions is presented. • Factors influencing stability of Cu/Cu x O photocathode are discussed. • An important role of H 2 O 2 in operation of PEC is revealed. - Abstract: In the present study the performance of photoelectrochemical cell composed of nanostructurized Cu x O and TiO 2 photoelectrodes short-circuited in side by side configuration in 0.1 M KOH is investigated with the purpose to test the stability of Cu/Cu x O photocathode. The techniques employed are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and voltammetry. Comprehensive analysis of possible electrochemical reactions, involving participation of photogenerated charge carriers is presented. Recrystallization of Cu x O layer accompanied by the change in photocathode color is found to occur during the photoelectrolysis. The influence of structural factors, the potential of conjugated electrodes and hydrogen peroxide, which forms as intermediate during photoelectrolysis, on the balance of cathodic reactions and stability of operation of Ti|TiO 2 | 0.1 M KOH | Cu x O|Cu photoelectrochemical cell is discussed

  16. Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Nanostructured TiO2 Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Erten-Ela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free organic sensitizer consisting of donor, electron conducting, and anchoring anhydride groups was engineered at molecular level and synthesized. Dye sensitized solar cells based on conjugated naphthalene dye were fabricated using nanoporous electrode. Photoelectrodes with a 7 μm thick nanoporous layer and a 5 μm thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. DSSCs were fabricated in a FTO/nc-TiO2/organic dye/I-/I3-/Pt/FTO device geometry. Dye sensitized solar cell was characterized by current density-voltage (J-V measurement. All current-voltage (I-V measurements were done under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity and AM 1.5 conditions. The photovoltaic data revealed a short circuit photocurrent density of 1.86 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 430 mV, and a fill factor of 0.63, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 0.53%.

  17. Al2O3 doping of TiO2 electrodes and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Sung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively studied since their discovery in 1991. DSSCs have been extensively researched over the past decades as cheaper alternatives to silicon solar cells due to their high energy-conversion efficiency and their low production cost. However, some problems need to be solved in order to enhance the efficiency of DSSCs. In particular, the electron recombination that occurs due to the contact between the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and a redox electrolyte is one of the main limiting factors of efficiency. In this work, we report for the first time the improvement of the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs by doping TiO 2 with Al 2 O 3 . DSSCs were constructed using composite particles of Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 and TiO 2 nanoparticles. The DSSCs using Al 2 O 3 showed the maximum conversion efficiency of 6.29% due to effective electron transport. DSSCs based on Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 films showed better photovoltaic performance than cells fabricated with only TiO 2 nanoparticles. This result is attributed to the prevention of electron recombination between electrons in the TiO 2 conduction band with holes in the dye or the electrolyte. There mechanism is suggested based on impedance results, which indicated improved electron transport at the TiO 2 /dye/electrolyte interface.

  18. Influence of TiCl4 post-treatment condition on TiO2 electrode for enhancement photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Sung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-10-01

    Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) treatment processed by chemical bath deposition is usually adopted as pre- and post-treatment for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) film deposition in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) technology. TiCl4 post-treatment is a widely known method capable of improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, the effect of TiCl4 post-treatment on the TiO2 electrode is proposed and compared to the untreated film. A TiO2 passivating layer was deposited on FTO glass by RF magnetron sputtering. The TiO2 sol prepared sol-gel method, nanoporous TiO2 upper layer was deposited by screen printing method on the passivating layer. TiCl4 post-treatment was deposited on the substrate by hydrolysis of TiCl4 aqueous solution. Crystalline structure was adjusted by various TiCl4 concentration and dipping time: 20 mM-150 mM and 30 min-120 min. The conversion efficiency was measured by solar simulator (100 mW/cm2). The dye-sensitized solar cell using TiCl4 post-treatment was measured the maximum conversion efficiency of 5.04% due to electron transport effectively. As a result, the DSSCs based on TiCl4 post-treatment showed better photovoltaic performance than cells made purely of TiO2 nanoparticles. The relative DSSCs devices are characterized in terms of short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor, conversion efficiency.

  19. The electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ)2 complex on different carbon based electrodes modified with TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortaboy, Sinem; Atun, Gülten

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of cobalt (II) complex with the N-donor ligand 2,2′-bipyridyl-1,3,5-tripyridyl-s-triazine (TPTZ) was investigated to elucidate the electron-proton transfer mechanisms. The electrochemical response of the complex was studied using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. A conventional three-electrode system, consisting of glassy carbon (GCE), TiO 2 modified glassy carbon (T/GCE), carbon paste (CPE) and TiO 2 modified carbon paste (T/CPE) working electrodes were employed. The ligand/metal ratio and stability constant of the complex as well as the mechanisms of the electrode processes were elucidated by examining the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency on the voltammograms. The EIS results indicated that the samples modified with TiO 2 had the higher charge transfer resistance than that of the bare electrodes and also suggested that the electroactivity of the electrode surfaces increased in the following order, T/CPE > CPE > T/GCE > GCE. The surface morphology of the working electrodes was also characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The values of surface roughness parameters were found to be consistent with the results obtained by EIS experiments. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the experimental process. - Highlights: • Electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ) 2 complex studied by SWV and EIS techniques. • GCE, CPE T/GCE and T/CPE were used as working electrodes for comparative studies. • The surface morphologies of the electrodes were characterized by AFM. • Mechanisms were proposed from the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency. • EIS and morphologic relationships of the surfaces were established successfully

  20. Colloidal nanocrystal ZnO- and TiO2-modified electrodes sensitized with chlorophyll a and carotenoids: a photoelectrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrella, Andrea; Cosma, Pinalysa; Lucia Curri, M.; Rochira, Sergio; Agostiano, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Heterostructures formed of films of organic-capped ZnO and TiO 2 nanocrystals (both with the size of ca. 6 nm) and photosynthetic pigments were prepared and characterized. The surface of optically transparent electrodes (Indium Tin Oxide) was modified with nanocrystals and prepared by colloidal synthetic routes. The nanostructured electrodes were sensitized by a mixture of chlorophyll a and carotenoids. The characterization of the hybrid structures, carried out by means of steady-state optical measurements, demonstrated such class of dyes able to extend the photoresponse of the large band-gap semiconductors. The charge-transfer processes between the components of the heterojunction were investigated, and photoelectrochemical measurements taken on the sensitized ZnO and TiO 2 nanocrystals electrodes elucidated the photoactivity of the heterojunctions as a function of the dyes and of the red–ox mediator used in solution. The effect of methyl viologen as different red–ox mediator was also evaluated in order to show its effect on the heterojunction photoactivity. The overall results contributed to describe the photoelectrochemical potential of the investigated heterojunctions, highlighting a higher response of the dye-sensitized ZnO nanocrystals, and then provided the TiO 2 -modified counterparts.

  1. Core/Shell Structured TiO2/CdS Electrode to Enhance the Light Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Insung; Baek, Minki; Yong, Kijung

    2015-12-23

    In this work, enhanced light stability of perovskite solar cell (PSC) achieved by the introduction of a core/shell-structured CdS/TiO2 electrode and the related mechanism are reported. By a simple solution-based process (SILAR), a uniform CdS shell was coated onto the surface of a TiO2 layer, suppressing the activation of intrinsic trap sites originating from the oxygen vacancies of the TiO2 layer. As a result, the proposed CdS-PSC exhibited highly improved light stability, maintaining nearly 80% of the initial efficiency after 12 h of full sunlight illumination. From the X-ray diffraction analyses, it is suggested that the degradation of the efficiency of PSC during illumination occurs regardless of the decomposition of the perovskite absorber. Considering the light-soaking profiles of the encapsulated cells and the OCVD characteristics, it is likely that the CdS shell had efficiently suppressed the undesirable electron kinetics, such as trapping at the surface defects of the TiO2 and preventing the resultant charge losses by recombination. This study suggests that further complementary research on various effective methods for passivation of the TiO2 layer would be highly meaningful, leading to insight into the fabrication of PSCs stable to UV-light for a long time.

  2. Highly flexible self-standing film electrode composed of mesoporous rutile TiO2/C nanofibers for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Bote; Cai Rui; Jiang Simin; Sha Yujing; Shao Zongping

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in flexible, safe, high-power thin-film lithium-ion batteries which can be applied to various modern devices. Although TiO 2 in rutile phase is highly attractive as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries for its high thermal stability and theoretical capacity of 336 mA h g −1 and low price, its inflexibility and sluggish lithium intercalation kinetics of bulk phase strongly limit its practical application for particular in thin-film electrode. Here we show a simple way to prepare highly flexible self-standing thin-film electrodes composed of mesoporous rutile TiO 2 /C nanofibers with low carbon content ( 2 in as-fabricated nanofibers. Big size (10 cm × 4 cm), flexible thin film is obtained after heat treatment under 10%H 2 –Ar at 900 °C for 3 h. After optimization, the diameter of fibers can reach as small as ∼110 nm, and the as-prepared rutile TiO 2 films show high initial electrochemical activity with the first discharge capacity as high as 388 mA h g −1 . What is more, very stable reversible capacities of ∼122, 92, and 70 mA h g −1 are achieved respectively at 1, 5 and 10 C rates with negligible decay rate within 100 cycling times.

  3. The preparation and characterization of nanostructured TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide electrode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitiyanan, Athapol; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Pavasupree, Soropong; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of nanostructured mixed metal oxide based on a sol-gel method with surfactant-assisted mechanism, and its application for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) are reported. The mixed zirconia (ZrO 2 ) and titania (TiO 2 ) mesoporous powder possessed larger surface area than the corresponding titania. For the UV action spectra of unsensitized photochemical cell, the mixed zirconia/titania electrode can absorb UV light below 380nm, corresponding to band gap (E g ) around 3.27eV, which is higher than that of pure component of titania (E g =3.2eV). Both of these improved properties, i.e., BET surface area and band gap, contributed to the improvement on a short-circuit photocurrent up to 11%, an open-circuit voltage up to 4%, and a solar energy conversion efficiency up to 17%, for the DSSC fabricated by mesoporous zirconia/titania mixed system when compared to the cell that was fabricated only by nanostructured TiO 2 . The cell fabricated by 5μm thick mixed TiO 2 -ZrO 2 electrode gave the short-circuit photocurrent about 13mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage about 600 mV and the conversion efficiency 5.4%

  4. Optimization of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayers as a transparent composite electrode deposited by electron-beam evaporation at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Kou, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Jin-Ye; Sun, Yi-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Highly transparent indium-free composite electrodes of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 are deposited by electron-beam evaporation at room temperature. The effects of Cu thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical and optical properties of the multilayer film are investigated. The critical thickness of Cu mid-layer to form a continuous conducting layer is found to be 11 nm. The multilayer with a mid-Cu thickness of 11 nm is optimized to obtain a resistivity of 7.4×10-5 Ω·cm and an average optical transmittance of 86% in the visible spectral range. The figure of merit of the TiO2/Cu(11 nm)/TiO2 multilayer annealed at 150 °C reaches a minimum resistivity of 5.9×10-5 Ω·cm and an average optical transmittance of 88% in the visible spectral range. The experimental results indicate that TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayers can be used as a transparent electrode for solar cell and other display applications. Project supported by the Research Innovation Key Project of Education Committee of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14ZZ137) and the National Cultivation Fund from University of Shanghai for Science and Technology (Grant No. 14XPM04).

  5. Magnetic loading of TiO2/SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles on electrode surface for photoelectrocatalytic degradation of diclofenac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xinyue; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Jingdong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Magnetic TSF nanoparticles are immobilized on electrode surface with aid of magnet. ► Magnetically attached TSF electrode shows high photoelectrochemical activity. ► Diclofenac is effectively degraded on TSF-loaded electrode by photoelectrocatalysis. ► Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of diclofenac is monitored with voltammetry. - Abstract: A novel magnetic nanomaterials-loaded electrode developed for photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) treatment of pollutants was described. Prior to electrode fabrication, magnetic TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 (TSF) nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FT-IR measurements. The nanoparticles were dispersed in ethanol and then immobilized on a graphite electrode surface with aid of magnet to obtain a TSF-loaded electrode with high photoelectrochemical activity. The performance of the TSF-loaded electrode was tested by comparing the PEC degradation of methylene blue in the presence and absence of magnet. The magnetically attached TSF electrode showed higher PEC degradation efficiency with desirable stability. Such a TSF-loaded electrode was applied to PEC degradation of diclofenac. After 45 min PEC treatment, 95.3% of diclofenac was degraded on the magnetically attached TSF electrode.

  6. Surface plasmon resonance effect of silver nanoparticles on a TiO2 electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haeng-Yun; Yeo, In-Seon; Kim, Tae-Un; Ki, Hyun-Chul; Gu, Hal-Bon

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we exploit local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in order to improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In order to investigate the effect of LSPR, Ag nanoparticles of several sizes were formed using electro-beam equipment; sizes were varied by changing the annealing time. DSSCs were fabricated by coating Ag nanoparticles onto a TiO2 thin film. Finally, TiO2 nanoparticles were layered onto the Ag nanoparticles via a titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) treatment. This study used nanoparticle-coated TiO2 thin films as photoelectrodes, and manufactured the cell in the unit of the DSSCs. We compared the behavior of the electrical properties of DSSCs depending on the presence or absence of Ag nanoparticles, as well as on the nanoparticle size. The Ag particles did not affect dye adsorption because the content of Ag particles is very low (0.13%) compared to that in TiO2 in the photoelectrode. The DSSCs with LSPR showed increased electric current density compared to those without LSPR, and improved the solar conversion efficiency (η) by 24%. The current density of the DSSCs increased because the light absorption of the dye increased. Therefore, we determined that LSPR affects the electrical properties of DSSCs.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Stable and Binder-Free Electrodes of TiO2 Nanofibers for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phontip Tammawat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrospinning technique was used to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers for use as binder-free electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The as-electrospun nanofibers were calcined at 400–1,000°C and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. SEM and TEM images showed that the fibers have an average diameter of ~100 nm and are composed of nanocrystallites and grains, which grow in size as the calcination temperature increases. The electrochemical properties of the nanofibers were evaluated using galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The TiO2 nanofibers calcined at 400°C showed higher electronic conductivity, higher discharge capacity, and better cycling performance than the nanofibers calcined at 600, 800, and 1,000°C. The TiO2 nanofibers calcined at 400°C delivered an initial reversible capacity of 325 mAh·g−1 approaching their theoretical value at 0.1 C rate and over 175 mAh·g−1 at 0.3 C rate with limited capacity fading and Coulombic efficiency between 96 and 100%.

  8. Decoupling optical and electronic optimization of organic solar cells using high-performance temperature-stable TiO2/Ag/TiO2 electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Dae Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An electrode structured with a TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAT multilayer as indium tin oxide (ITO replacement with a superior thermal stability has been successfully fabricated. This electrode allows to directly tune the optical cavity mode towards maximized photocurrent generation by varying the thickness of the layers in the sandwich structure. This enables tailored optimization of the transparent electrode for different organic thin film photovoltaics without alteration of their electro-optical properties. Organic photovoltaic featuring our TAT multilayer shows an improvement of ∼12% over the ITO reference and allows power conversion efficiencies (PCEs up to 8.7% in PTB7:PC71BM devices.

  9. Insight into the Role of Surface Wettability in Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reactions Using Light-Sensitive Nanotubular TiO2 Supported Pt Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chenhui; Wang, Bing; Gao, Ziyue; Liu, Zhaoyue; Zhang, Qianqian; Zhai, Jin

    2017-02-01

    Surface wettability is of importance for electrochemical reactions. Herein, its role in electrochemical hydrogen evolution reactions is investigated using light-sensitive nanotubular TiO2 supported Pt as hydrogen evolution electrodes (HEEs). The HEEs are fabricated by photocatalytic deposition of Pt particles on TiO2 nanotubes followed by hydrophobization with vaporized octadecyltrimethoxysilane (OTS) molecules. The surface wettability of HEEs is subsequently regulated in situ from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity by photocatalytic decomposition of OTS molecules using ultraviolet light. It is found that hydrophilic HEEs demonstrate a larger electrochemical active area of Pt and a lower adhesion force to a gas bubble when compared with hydrophobic ones. The former allows more protons to react on the electrode surface at small overpotential so that a larger current is produced. The latter leads to a quick release of hydrogen gas bubbles from the electrode surface at large overpotential, which ensures the contact between catalysts and electrolyte. These two characteristics make hydrophilic HEEs generate a much high current density for HERs. Our results imply that the optimization of surface wettability is of significance for improving the electrocatalytic activity of HEEs.

  10. Preliminary Study of Natural Pigments Photochemical Properties of Curcuma longa L. and Lawsonia inermis L. as TiO_2 Photo electrode Sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ezyanie Safie; Norasikin Ahmad Ludin; Mohd Sukor Suait; Norul Hisham Hamid; Suhaila Sepeai; Mohd Adib Ibrahim; Mohd Asri Mat Teridi

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin and lawsone dyes extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) are used to investigate their possibility as photosensitizers on a TiO_2 photo electrode, respectively. The natural dyes undergo simple cold extraction techniques without further purification. The photochemical properties are studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The FTIR spectra revealed that the presence of hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups in both dyes indicated the presence of important characteristics in a sensitizer to graft on to TiO_2 photo electrode. The broad range of absorption peak wavelength obtained in this work shows that curcumin and lawsone are promising candidates for efficient sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The maximum absorption peak attributed for curcumin and lawsone are 425 nm and 673 nm. The optical band gaps calculated are 2.48 eV and 1.77 eV, respectively. The findings indicated the potential of naturally obtained dyes to act as photosensitizers in DSSC. (author)

  11. Photovoltaic performance of TiO2 electrode adsorbed with gardenia yellow purified by nonionic polymeric sorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Oun; Kim, Eui Jin; Lee, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Tae Young; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Sang Yook; Suh, Hwa Jin; Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-02-05

    To improve the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), TiO2 electrode adsorbed with gardenia yellow purified by nonionic polymeric sorbent was successfully formulated on nanoporous TiO2 surface. Adsorption and desorption properties of crude gardenia yellow solution on a macroporous resin, XAD-1600, were investigated to purify gardenia yellow because of its strong adsorption and desorption abilities as well as high selectivity. To this end, adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were measured and fitted using adsorption isotherms and kinetic models. Adsorption and desorption breakthrough curves in a column packed with XAD-1600 resin was obtained to optimize the separation process of gardenia yellow. The photovoltaic performance of the photo-electrode adsorbed with the crude and purified gardenia yellow in DSSCs was compared from current-voltage measurements. The results showed that the photovoltaic conversion efficiency was highly dependent on how to separate and purify gardenia yellow as a photosensitizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of La3+-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes with Full Wave-Band Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minghao; Huang, Lingling; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Yongqian

    2018-06-01

    TiO2 nanotubes doped with La3+ were synthesized by anodic oxidation method and the photocatalytic activity was detected by photodegrading methylene blue. As-prepared samples improved the absorption of both ultraviolet light and visible light and have a great enhancement on the photocatalytic activity while contrasting with the pristine TiO2 nanotubes. A tentative mechanism for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity with full wave-band absorption is proposed.

  13. Double functions of porous TiO2 electrodes on CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: Enhancement of perovskite crystal transformation and prohibition of short circuiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindhasamy Murugadoss

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the crystal transformation from hexagonal PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 by the sequential (two-step deposition process, perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 layers were deposited on flat and/or porous TiO2 layers. Although the narrower pores using small nanoparticles prohibited the effective transformation, the porous-TiO2 matrix was able to help the crystal transformation of PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 by sequential two-step deposition. The resulting PbI2 crystals in porous TiO2 electrodes did not deteriorate the photovoltaic effects. Moreover, it is confirmed that the porous TiO2 electrode had served the function of prohibiting short circuits between working and counter electrodes in perovskite solar cells.

  14. A Novel of Buton Asphalt and Methylene Blue as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell using TiO2/Ti Nanotubes Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhidayani; Muzakkar, M. Z.; Maulidiyah; Wibowo, D.; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    A study of TiO2/Ti nanotubes arrays (NTAs) based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) used Asphalt Buton (Asbuton) extract and methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer dye has been conducted. The aim of this research is that the Asbuton extract and Methylene Blue (MB) performance as a dye on DSSC solar cells is able to obtain the voltage-currents produced by visible light irradiation. Electrode TiO2/Ti NTAs have been successfully synthesized by anodizing methods, then characterized by using XRD showed that the anatase crystals formed. Subsequently, the morphology showed that the nanotubes formed which has coated by Asbuton extract. The DSSC system was formed by a sandwich structure and tested by using Multimeter Digital with Potentiostat instrument. The characteristics of current (I) and potential (V) versus time indicated that the Asbuton was obtained in a high-performance in 30s of 14,000µV 0.844µA, meanwhile MB dyes were 8,000µV0.573µA. Based on this research, the Asbuton extract from Buton Island-Southeast Sulawesi-Indonesia was potential for natural dyes in DSSC system.

  15. Electrochemical fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles/[BMIM]BF4 ionic liquid hybrid film electrode and its application in determination of p-acetaminophen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Yuan; Qin, Xianjing; Zhan, Guoqing; Ma, Ming; Li, Chunya

    2012-01-01

    A water soluble ionic liquid, 1‐butyl‐3‐methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF 4 ), was incorporated into TiO 2 nanoparticles to fabricate a hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrode (nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 /GCE) through electrochemical deposition in a tetrabutyltitanate sol solution containing [BMIM]BF 4 . The obtained nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 /GCEs were characterized scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical behaviors of p‐acetaminophen at the nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 /GCEs were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the redox reaction of p‐acetaminophen using an unmodified electrode under the same conditions, a new reduction peak was observed clearly at 0.26 V with the modified electrode. In addition, the peak potential for the oxidation of p‐acetaminophen was found to shift negatively about 90 mV and the current response increased significantly. These changes indicate that the nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 hybrid film can improve the redox reactions of p‐acetaminophen in aqueous medium. Under optimum conditions, a linear relationship was obtained for the p‐acetaminophen solutions with concentration in the range from 5.0 × 10 −8 to 5.0 × 10 −5 M. The estimated detection limit was 1.0 × 10 −8 M (S/N = 3). The newly developed method was applied for the determination of p-acetaminophen in urine samples. - Highlights: ► Nano-TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 hybrid film electrode was fabricated with electrodeposition. ► Voltammetric behavior of p-acetaminophen at the obtained electrode was investigated. ► The hybrid film electrode shows good electrocatalytic response to p-acetaminophen. ► p-acetaminophen in urine samples was successfully determined.

  16. Síntese, caracterização e atividade fotocatalítica de catalisadores nanoestruturados de TiO2 dopados com metais Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 catalysts doped with metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Leonardo da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanostructured catalysts (nanotubes doped with different metals (silver, gold, copper, palladium and zinc were synthesized by the hydrothermal method in order to promote an increase in their photocatalytic activity under visible light. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific area and pore volume determination. The materials' photocatalytic activity was evaluated by rhodamine B decomposition in a glass batch reactor. Under UV radiation, only nanotubes doped with palladium were more active than the TiO2 P25, but the samples doped with silver, palladium and gold exhibited better results than the undoped samples under visible light.

  17. High Transparent and Conductive TiO2/Ag/TiO2 Multilayer Electrode Films Deposited on Sapphire Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Moon, Sung Whan; Choi, YiSik; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2018-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides attract intense interests due to its diverse industrial applications. In this study, we report sapphire substrate-based TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAT) multilayer structure of indium-free transparent conductive multilayer coatings. The TAT thin films were deposited at room temperature on sapphire substrates and a rigorous analysis has been presented on the electrical and optical properties of the films as a function of Ag thickness. The optical and electrical properties were mainly controlled by the Ag mid-layer thickness of the TAT tri-layer. The TAT films showed high luminous transmittance 84% at 550 nm along with noteworthy low electrical resistance 3.65 × 10-5 Ω-cm and sheet resistance of 3.77 Ω/square, which is better are than those of amorphous ITO films and any sapphire-based dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayer stack. The carrier concentration of the films was increased with respect to Ag thickness. We obtained highest Hackke's figure of merit 43.97 × 10-3 Ω-1 from the TAT multilayer thin film with a 16 nm thick Ag mid-layer.

  18. DC sputtering assisted nano-branched core–shell TiO2/ZnO electrodes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zengming; Hu, Yong; Qin, Fuyu; Ding, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An effective method of combining chemical growth and physical decoration to investigate the effect of the energy barrier layer on the efficiency of DSSCs were presented. • High surface area photo-anodes can be achieved through fine-tuning material growth processes. • The branched composite structure shows a set of advantages in electronic transportation, dye adsorption and energy barrier. - Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of nano-branched core–shell TiO 2 /ZnO electrodes and SEM images of the photoanodes at each step. - Abstract: TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell photo-anodes with a large surface area were synthesised by a combination of chemical growth and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering (MS). The use of these combined methods for the advancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was discussed. An understanding of the morphology and structure of this core–shell material was obtained from the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the thickness of the ZnO nanoshells (as assessed by using TEM), prepared by MS, has a significant effect on improvements in the conversion efficiency. The conversion efficiency can be greatly improved from 0.06% to 0.72% by optimising different experimental conditions, such as ZnO nanoshell MS time and chemical bath deposition time. The enhanced efficiency may be attributed to the emergence of a ZnO energy barrier and the improvement of the photo-anode surface area.

  19. Study on the dielectric properties of Al2O3/TiO2 sub-nanometric laminates: effect of the bottom electrode and the total thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Elbahri, M.; Kahouli, A.; Mercey, B.; Lebedev, O.; Donner, W.; Lüders, U.

    2018-02-01

    Dielectrics based on amorphous sub-nanometric laminates of TiO2 and Al2O3 are subject to elevated dielectric losses and leakage currents, in large parts due to the extremely thin individual layer thickness chosen for the creation of the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and therefore the high apparent dielectric constants. The optimization of performances of the laminate itself being strongly limited by this contradiction concerning its internal structure, we will show in this study that modifications of the dielectric stack of capacitors based on these sub-nanometric laminates can positively influence the dielectric losses and the leakage, as for example the nature of the electrodes, the introduction of thick insulating layers at the laminate/electrode interfaces and the modification of the total laminate thickness. The optimization of the dielectric stack leads to the demonstration of a capacitor with an apparent dielectric constant of 90, combined with low dielectric loss (tan δ) of 7 · 10-2 and with leakage currents smaller than 1  ×  10-6 A cm-2 at 10 MV m-1.

  20. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)-incorporated nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Quanxin; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Near infrared to visible up-conversion of light by rare earth ion-doped phosphors (NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)) that convert multiple photons of lower energy to higher energy photons offer new possibilities for improved performance of photovoltaic devices. Here, up-conversion phosphor NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films are designed and used as a electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs based on composite electrodes are investigated. The results show the cell with NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) achieves a power conversion efficiency of 7.65% under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100mWcm(-2)), which is an increase of 14% compared to the cell without NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) (6.71%). The performance improvement is attributed to the dual effects of enhanced light harvesting from extended light absorption range and increased light scattering, and lower electron transfer resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-temperature fabrication of TiO2 nanocrystalline film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, G.; Lee, K.E.; Charboneau, C.; Demopoulos, G.P.; Gauvin, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    2008-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have the potential to render solar energy widely accessible. The deposition of titania nano-crystalline powders on a substrate is an important step in the manufacture of the DSSC. The deposition forms a mesoporous thin film that is followed by thermal treatment and sensitization. Usually titania films are deposited on glass by screen printing and then annealed at temperatures as high as 530 degrees C to provide a good electrical contact between the semiconductor particles and crystallization of the anatase phase. Several research and development efforts have focused on the deposition of titania film on flexible plastic substrates that will simplify the whole manufacturing process in terms of flexibility, weight, application and cost. Lower temperature processing is needed for the preparation of plastic-based titania film electrodes, but this has proven to be counterproductive when it comes to the cell's conversion efficiency. This paper presented a comprehensive evaluation of the different coating and annealing techniques at low temperature as well as important processing factors for improvement. To date, these techniques include pressing, hydrothermal process, electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition, microwave or UV irradiation, and lift-off technique.

  3. Degradation of paracetamol by advance oxidation processes using modified reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes with TiO(2) and CuO/TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo Valdez, H C; García Jiménez, G; Gutiérrez Granados, S; Ponce de León, C

    2012-11-01

    The degradation of paracetamol in aqueous solutions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was carried out by photochemistry, electrolysis and photoelectrolysis using modified 100 pores per inch reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes. The electrodes were coated with catalysts such as TiO(2) and CuO/TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) by electrophoresis followed by heat treatment. The results of the electrolysis with bare reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes show that 90% paracetamol degradation occurs in 4 h at 1.3 V vs. SCE, forming intermediates such as benzoquinone and carboxylic acids followed by their complete mineralisation. When the electrolysis was carried out with the modified electrodes such as TiO(2)/RVC, 90% degradation was achieved in 2 h while with CuO/TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3)/RVC, 98% degradation took only 1 h. The degradation was also carried out in the presence of UV reaching 95% degradation with TiO(2)/RVC/UV and 99% with CuO/TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3)/RVC/UV in 1 h. The reactions were followed by spectroscopy UV-Vis, HPLC and total organic carbon analysis. These studies show that the degradation of paracetamol follows a pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells performances by improving electron density in conduction band of nanostructure TiO2 electrode with using a metalloporphyrin as additional dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojiri-Foroushani, M.; Dehghani, H.; Salehi-Vanani, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► N719 and ZnTCPP dyes were used in a sequential adsorption process. ► By using two dyes, improved the performance of the cell. ► Density of electrons in the conduction band of TiO 2 electrodes improved. -- Abstract: A zinc(II)-porphyrin dye with four carboxyphenyl moiety of ancillary (ZnTCPP) was studied as a sensitizer in combination with a ruthenium complex (N719) in co-sensitized solar cells. The high molar extinction coefficient (ε) of porphyrin dyes leads to high light absorption in the dye-sensitized TiO 2 electrode. In spite of the high ε of porphyrin dyes, they usually have a narrow absorption band and also to suffer from dye aggregation due to their planar structural nature. This causes lower efficiencies of the DSSCs for the porphyrins than the ruthenium complexes. Co-sensitization of two or more dyes with complementary absorption spectra on TiO 2 film is an important method to further enhance the IPCE response and energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, when the ZnTCPP electrode was used to assemble a co-sensitized solar cell by additional adsorption of N719 dye, the efficiency improved to 6.35% (in comparison to N719 that the efficiency was 4.74%). The results indicated that the co-sensitized device shows enhancements of photovoltaic performance not only in short-circuit current density (J SC ) but also in open-circuit voltage (V OC ). In the present study we have been shown that co-sensitization of a zinc(II)-porphyrin with N719 dye changes the energy levels of the TiO 2 electrode and in result produces further improvement for its device performance

  5. Síntese, caracterização e atividade fotocatalítica de catalisadores nanoestruturados de TiO2 dopados com metais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Leonardo da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanostructured catalysts (nanotubes doped with different metals (silver, gold, copper, palladium and zinc were synthesized by the hydrothermal method in order to promote an increase in their photocatalytic activity under visible light. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific area and pore volume determination. The materials' photocatalytic activity was evaluated by rhodamine B decomposition in a glass batch reactor. Under UV radiation, only nanotubes doped with palladium were more active than the TiO2 P25, but the samples doped with silver, palladium and gold exhibited better results than the undoped samples under visible light.

  6. A flexible 3D nitrogen-doped carbon foam@CNTs hybrid hosting TiO2 nanoparticles as free-standing electrode for ultra-long cycling lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Wang, Boya; Wu, Hao; Xiang, Mingwu; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Heng; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue

    2018-03-01

    Free-standing electrodes have stood out from the electrode pack, owing to their advantage of abandoning the conventional polymeric binder and conductive agent, thus increasing the specific capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their practical application is hampered by inferior electrical conductivity and complex manufacturing process. To this end, we report here a facile approach to fabricate a flexible 3D N-doped carbon foam/carbon nanotubes (NCF@CNTs) hybrid to act as the current collector and host scaffold for TiO2 particles, which are integrated into a lightweight free-standing electrode (NCF@CNTs-TiO2). In the resulting architecture, ultra-fine TiO2 nanoparticles are homogeneously anchored in situ into the N-doped NCF@CNTs framework with macro- and meso-porous structure, wrapped by a dense CNT layer, cooperatively enhances the electrode flexibility and forms an interconnected conductive network for electron/ion transport. As a result, the as-prepared NCF@CNTs-TiO2 electrode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance with high specific capacity of 241 mAh g-1 at 1 C, superb rate capability of 145 mAh g-1 at 20 C, ultra-long cycling stability with an ultra-low capacity decay of 0.0037% per cycle over 2500 cycles, and excellent thermal stability with ∼94% capacity retention over 100 cycles at 55 °C.

  7. Enhanced electrochemical oxidation of synthetic dyeing wastewater using SnO2-Sb-doped TiO2-coated granular activated carbon electrodes with high hydroxyl radical yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinyang; Wu, Yue; Zhu, Wei; Xue, Fangqing; Qian, Yi; Wang, Chengwen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study granular activated carbon (GAC) electrodes coated with catalysts. • GAC coated with ATOT demonstrates an impressive ·OH yield. • This electrode can be used in continuous-flow three-dimensional electrode reactors. • We use Rhodamine B as a model organic compound for removal. • The GAC/ATOT performs better than all other electrodes examined. - Abstract: In this study, granular activated carbon (GAC) coated with SnO 2 -Sb doped TiO 2 (GAC/ATOT) with a high hydroxyl radical (·OH) yield is prepared via the sol-gel method. This material is utilized as a granular electrode in a continuous-flow three-dimensional electrode reactor (CTDER) for the enhanced treatment of synthetic dyeing wastewater containing Rhodamine B (RhB). We then characterize the physical properties, electrochemical properties, and electrochemical oxidation performance of the granular electrode. The results show that using the GAC/ATOT electrode in a CTDER significantly enhances the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, decreases the energy consumption, and improves the current efficiency of the wastewater. This is primarily attributed to the higher catalytic activity of GAC/ATOT for ·OH production compared to that of other candidates, such as TiO 2 coated GAC (GAC/T), Sb doped SnO 2 coated GAC (GAC/ATO), and pure GAC. The mechanism of the enhanced electrochemical oxidation afforded by using GAC/ATOT indicates that the high ·OH yield in the reactor packed with GAC/ATOT electrodes contributes to the enhanced electrochemical oxidation performance with respect to organic compounds.

  8. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell using a Nb-doped TiO2 electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Lei; You, Ting; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    In this work Nb-doped anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals are used as the photoanode of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. A solar cell with CdS/CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized 2.5 mol% Nb-doped anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals can achieve a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.3%, which is almost twice as high as the 1.7% obtained by a cell based on undoped TiO 2 nanocrystals. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency can reach as high as 91%, which is a record for all quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Detailed analysis shows that such an enhancement is due to improved lifetime and diffusion length of electrons in the solar cell. (paper)

  9. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell using a Nb-doped TiO2 electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; You, Ting; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2013-10-18

    In this work Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals are used as the photoanode of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. A solar cell with CdS/CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized 2.5 mol% Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals can achieve a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.3%, which is almost twice as high as the 1.7% obtained by a cell based on undoped TiO2 nanocrystals. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency can reach as high as 91%, which is a record for all quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Detailed analysis shows that such an enhancement is due to improved lifetime and diffusion length of electrons in the solar cell.

  10. Monte Carlo random walk simulation of electron transport in confined porous TiO2 as a promising candidate for photo-electrode of nano-crystalline solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, M.; Abdi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Monte Carlo continuous time random walk simulation is used to study the effects of confinement on electron transport, in porous TiO2. In this work, we have introduced a columnar structure instead of the thick layer of porous TiO2 used as anode in conventional dye solar cells. Our simulation results show that electron diffusion coefficient in the proposed columnar structure is significantly higher than the diffusion coefficient in the conventional structure. It is shown that electron diffusion in the columnar structure depends both on the cross section area of the columns and the porosity of the structure. Also, we demonstrate that such enhanced electron diffusion can be realized in the columnar photo-electrodes with a cross sectional area of ˜1 μm2 and porosity of 55%, by a simple and low cost fabrication process. Our results open up a promising approach to achieve solar cells with higher efficiencies by engineering the photo-electrode structure.

  11. Monte Carlo random walk simulation of electron transport in confined porous TiO2 as a promising candidate for photo-electrode of nano-crystalline solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadi, M.; Abdi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo continuous time random walk simulation is used to study the effects of confinement on electron transport, in porous TiO 2 . In this work, we have introduced a columnar structure instead of the thick layer of porous TiO 2 used as anode in conventional dye solar cells. Our simulation results show that electron diffusion coefficient in the proposed columnar structure is significantly higher than the diffusion coefficient in the conventional structure. It is shown that electron diffusion in the columnar structure depends both on the cross section area of the columns and the porosity of the structure. Also, we demonstrate that such enhanced electron diffusion can be realized in the columnar photo-electrodes with a cross sectional area of ∼1 μm 2 and porosity of 55%, by a simple and low cost fabrication process. Our results open up a promising approach to achieve solar cells with higher efficiencies by engineering the photo-electrode structure

  12. Near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Toru; Endo, Masaru; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    We studied the near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes, which is utilized in mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells. Photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation spectra peaks appear at 1.60 and 1.64 eV, respectively. The transient absorption spectrum shows a negative peak at 1.61 eV owing to photobleaching at the band-gap energy, indicating a direct band-gap semiconductor. On the basis of the temperature-dependent PL and diffuse reflectance spectra, we clarified that the absorption tail at room temperature is explained in terms of an Urbach tail and consistently determined the band-gap energy to be ˜1.61 eV at room temperature.

  13. Explaining key properties of lithiation in TiO2-anatase Li-ion battery electrodes using phase-field modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, N.J.J.; Vasileiadis, A.; Smith, Raymond B.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    The improvement of Li-ion battery performance requires development of models that capture the essential physics and chemistry in Li-ion battery electrode materials. Phase-field modeling has recently been shown to have this ability, providing new opportunities to gain understanding of these complex

  14. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  15. Effect of TiO_2 Loading on Pt-Ru Catalysts During Alcohol Electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasa, Bjorn; Kalamaras, Evangelos; Papaioannou, Evangelos I.; Vakros, John; Sygellou, Labrini; Katsaounis, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2 can be used to modify Pt-Ru based electrodes for alcohol oxidation. • TiO_2 modified electrodes with lower amount of metals had higher active surface area than pure Pt-Ru electrodes. • TiO_2 modified electrodes showed comparable performance with pure Pt-Ru electrode both in a single cell and in a PEM fuel cell under alcohol fuelling. - Abstract: In this study, Pt-Ru based electrodes modified by TiO_2 were prepared by means of thermal decomposition of chloride and isopropoxide precursors on Ti substrates, characterised by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical techniques and CO stripping and used as anodes for alcohol oxidation. The minimization of the metal loading without electrocatalytic activity losses was also explored. TiO_2 was chosen due to its chemical stability, low cost and excellent properties as substrate for metal dispersion. It was found that TiO_2 loading up to 50% results in a 3-fold increase of the Electrochemically Active Surface (EAS). This conclusion has been confirmed by CO stripping experiments. All samples have been evaluated during the electrochemical oxidation of methanol, ethanol and glycerol. In all cases, the Pt_2_5-Ru_2_5-(TiO_2)_5_0 electrode had better electrocatalytic activity than the pure Pt_5_0-Ru_5_0 anode. The best modified electrode, (Pt_2_5-Ru_2_5-(TiO_2)_5_0), was also evaluated as anode in a PEM fuel cell under methanol fuelling conditions. The observed higher performance of the TiO_2 modified electrodes was attributed to the enhanced Pt-Ru dispersion as well as the formation of smaller Pt and Ru particles.

  16. Microporous TiO2-WO3/TiO2 films with visible-light photocatalytic activity synthesized by micro arc oxidation and DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kee-Rong; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Yeh, Chung-Wei; Wu, Jiing-Kae

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple MAO is used to prepare porous WO 3 /TiO 2 layer on Ti sheet as a visible-light enabled catalyst. ► The photocatalytic activity of the WO 3 /TiO 2 is enhanced by sputtering over an N,C-TiO 2 layer. ► This is ascribed to the synergetic effect of hybrid sample prepared by two-step method. - Abstract: This study reports the preparation of microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 films with a high surface area using a two-step approach. A porous WO 3 /TiO 2 template was synthesized by oxidizing a titanium sheet using a micro arc oxidation (MAO) process. This sheet was subsequently overlaid with a visible light (Vis)-enabled TiO 2 (N,C-TiO 2 ) film, which was deposited by codoping nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) ions into a TiO 2 lattice using direct current magnetron sputtering. The resulting microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film with a 0.38-μm-thick N,C-TiO 2 top-layer exhibited high photocatalytic activity in methylene blue (MB) degradation among samples under ultraviolet (UV) and Vis irradiation. This is attributable to the synergetic effect of two-step preparation method, which provides a highly porous microstructure and the well-crystallized N,C-TiO 2 top-layer. This is because a higher surface area with high crystallinity favors the adsorption of more MB molecules and more photocatalytic active areas. Thus, the microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film has promising applications in the photocatalytic degradation of dye solution under UV and Vis irradiation. These results imply that the microporous WO 3 /TiO 2 can be used as a template of hybrid electrode because it enables rapid fabrication.

  17. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of WO3-surface modified TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Drmosh, Qasem; Ahmed, Muhammad I.; Qamaruddin, Muhammad; Yamani, Zain H.

    2015-02-01

    Development of nanostructured photocatalysts for harnessing solar energy in energy-efficient and environmentally benign way remains an important area of research. Pure and WO3-surface modified thin films of TiO2 were prepared by magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxide glass, and photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of these films were studied. TiO2 particles were <50 nm, while deposited WO3 particles were <20 nm in size. An enhancement in the photocurrent was observed when the TiO2 surface was modified WO3 nanoparticles. Effect of potential, WO3 amount, and radiations of different wavelengths on the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2 electrodes was investigated. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and WO3-modified TiO2 for the decolorization of methyl orange was tested.

  18. Electrospinning processed nanofibrous TiO2 membranes for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Katsuhiro; Ding, Bin; Tsuge, Yosuke; Naka, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Michiyo; Sugi, Shinichiro; Ohno, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Masato; Shiratori, Seimei

    2006-02-01

    We have recently fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising nanofibrous TiO2 membranes as electrode materials. A thin TiO2 film was pre-deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrate by immersion in TiF4 aqueous solution to reduce the electron back-transfer from FTO to the electrolyte. The composite polyvinyl acetate (PVac)/titania nanofibrous membranes can be deposited on the pre-deposited thin TiO2 film coated FTO by electrospinning of a mixture of PVac and titanium isopropoxide in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The nanofibrous TiO2 membranes were obtained by calcining the electrospun composite nanofibres of PVac/titania as the precursor. Spectral sensitization of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes was carried out with a ruthenium (II) complex, cis-dithiocyanate-N,N'-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) ruthenium (II) dihydrate. The results indicated that the photocurrent and conversion efficiency of electrodes can be increased with the addition of the pre-deposited TiO2 film and the adhesion treatment using DMF. Additionally, the dye loading, photocurrent, and efficiency of the electrodes were gradually increased by increasing the average thickness of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes. The efficiency of the fibrous TiO2 photoelectrode with the average membrane thickness of 3.9 µm has a maximum value of 4.14%.

  19. Biomimetic Approach to Solar Cells Based on TiO2 Nanotubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Jan L; Lee, Ivan C; Wolfenstine, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore the use of nanotube titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an electrode material in dye-sensitized solar cells in order to further the development of solar cell technology...

  20. Three-dimensional observation of TiO2 nanostructures by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Suh, Young Joon; Lu, Ning; Park, Seong Yong; Lee, Tae Hun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Cha, Dong Kyu; Lee, Min Gun; Huang, Jie; Kim, Sung Soo; Sohn, Byeong Hyeok; Kim, Geung Ho; Ko, Min Jae; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures of TiO2 related materials including nanotubes, electron acceptor materials in hybrid polymer solar cells, and working electrodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were visualized by electron tomography as well

  1. Photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds using TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jnug; Lin, Chi-Hsiang

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using TiO2 catalyst fabricated by the Submerged Arc Nanoparticle Synthesis System (SANSS). TiO2 catalyst was employed to decompose volatile organic compounds and compare with Degussa-P25 TiO2 in terms of decomposition efficiency. In the electric discharge manufacturing process, a Ti bar, applied as the electrode, was melted and vaporized under high temperature. The vaporized Ti powders were then rapidly quenched under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions in deionized water, thus nucleating and forming nanocrystalline powders uniformly dispersed in the base solvent. The average diameter of the TiO2 nanoparticles was 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the nanoparticles in the deionized water were Anatase type TiO2. It was found that gaseous toluene exposed to UV irradiation produced intermediates that were even harder to decompose. After 60-min photocomposition, Degussa-P25 TiO2 reduced the concentration of gaseous toluene to 8.18% while the concentration after decomposition by SANSS TiO2 catalyst dropped to 0.35%. Under UV irradiation at 253.7 +/- 184.9 nm, TiO2 prepared by SANSS can produce strong chemical debonding energy, thus showing great efficiency, superior to that of Degussa-P25 TiO2, in decomposing gaseous toluene and its intermediates.

  2. Three-dimensional observation of TiO2 nanostructures by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Suh, Young Joon

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures of TiO2 related materials including nanotubes, electron acceptor materials in hybrid polymer solar cells, and working electrodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were visualized by electron tomography as well as TEM micrographs. The regions on the wall of TiO2 nanotubes where the streptavidins were attached were elucidated by electron tomogram analysis. The coverage of TiO2 nanotubes by streptavidin was also investigated. The TiO2 nanostructures in hybrid polymer solar cells made by sol-gel and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods and the morphologies of pores between TiO2 particles in DSSCs were also observed by reconstructed three-dimensional images made by electron tomography. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of Homogenization Scheme of TiO2 Screen-Printing Paste for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 porous electrodes have been fabricated for photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs using TiO2 screen-printing paste from nanocrystalline TiO2 powder dried from the synthesized sol. We prepared the TiO2 screen-printing paste by two different methods to disperse the nanocrystalline TiO2 powder: a “ball-milling route” and a “mortal-grinding route.” The TiO2 ball-milling (TiO2-BM route gave monodisperse TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in high photocurrent density (14.2 mA cm−2 and high photoconversion efficiency (8.27%. On the other hand, the TiO2 mortal-grinding (TiO2-MG route gave large aggregate of TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in low photocurrent density (11.5 mA cm−2 and low photoconversion efficiency (6.43%. To analyze the photovoltaic characteristics, we measured the incident photon-to-current efficiency, light absorption spectroscopy, and electrical impedance spectroscopy of DSCs.

  4. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  5. Preparation of sol-gel TiO2/purified Na-bentonite composites and their photovoltaic application for natural dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saelim, Ni-on; Magaraphan, Rathanawan; Sreethawong, Thammanoon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Natural dye from red cabbage was successfully employed in DSSC. → A fast sol-gel method to produce TiO 2 /clay thin film was proposed. → The sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay was applied as the scattering layer on top of TiO 2 electrode. → Thicker sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay electrode showed higher DSSC efficiency. - Abstract: The sol-gel TiO 2 /purified natural clay electrodes having Ti:Si molar ratios of 95:5 and 90:10 were initially prepared, sensitized with natural red cabbage dye, and compared to the sol-gel TiO 2 electrode in terms of physicochemical characteristics and solar cell efficiency. The results showed that the increase in purified Na-bentonite content greatly increased the specific surface area and total pore volume of the prepared sol-gel TiO 2 /purified Na-bentonite composites because the clay platelets prevented TiO 2 particle agglomeration. The sol-gel TiO 2 /5 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite and sol-gel TiO 2 /10 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite composites could increase the film thickness of solar cells without cracking when they were coated as a scattering layer on the TiO 2 semiconductor-based film, leading to increasing the efficiency of the natural dye-sensitized solar cells in this work.

  6. A Fumonisins Immunosensor Based on Polyanilino-Carbon Nanotubes Doped with Palladium Telluride Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masikini, Milua; Mailu, Stephen N.; Tsegaye, Abebaw; Njomo, Njagi; Molapo, Kerileng M.; Ikpo, Chinwe O.; Sunday, Christopher Edozie; Rassie, Candice; Wilson, Lindsay; Baker, Priscilla G. L.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2015-01-01

    An impedimetric immunosensor for fumonisins was developed based on poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes doped with palladium telluride quantum dots onto a glassy carbon surface. The composite was assembled by a layer-by-layer method to form a multilayer film of quantum dots (QDs) and poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PDMA-MWCNT). Preparation of the electrochemical immunosensor for fumonisins involved drop-coating of fumonisins antibody onto the composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy response of the FB1 immunosensor (GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT/anti-Fms-BSA) gave a linear range of 7 to 49 ng L−1 and the corresponding sensitivity and detection limits were 0.0162 kΩ L ng−1 and 0.46 pg L−1, respectively, hence the limit of detection of the GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT immunosensor for fumonisins in corn certified material was calculated to be 0.014 and 0.011 ppm for FB1, and FB2 and FB3, respectively. These results are lower than those obtained by ELISA, a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins (the sum of FB1, FB2, and FB3) established by the Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives and contaminants of 2 μg kg−1 and the maximum level recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for protection of human consumption (2–4 mg L−1). PMID:25558993

  7. Chlorine Doping of Amorphous TiO2 for Increased Capacity and Faster Li+-Ion Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moitzheim, S.; Balder, J.E.; Poodt, P.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Gendt, S. de; Vereecken, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Titania (TiO2) offers a high theoretical capacity of 336 mAh g-1 with the insertion of one Li per Ti unit. Unfortunately, the poor ionic and electronic conductivity of bulk TiO2 electrodes limits its practical implementation. Nanosizing titania below ∼20 nm has shown to increase the rate performance

  8. Preparation and electrochemical property of TiO_2/Nano-graphite composite anode for electro-catalytic degradation of ceftriaxone sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaolei; Li, Dong; Wan, Jiafeng; Yu, Xiujuan

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide/Nano-graphite (TiO_2/Nano-G) composite was synthesized by a sol-gel method and TiO_2/Nano-G electrode was prepared in hot-press approach. The composite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electrons microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performance of the TiO_2/Nano-G anode electrode was investigated through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electro-catalytic performance was evaluated by the yield of ·OH radicals, degradation of methyl orange and ceftriaxone sodium. The results demonstrated that TiO_2 nanoparticles were dispersed on the surface and interlamination of the Nano-G uniformly, TiO_2/Nano-G electrode owned higher electro-catalytic oxidation activity and stability than Nano-G electrode. Degradation rate of ceftriaxone sodium within 120 min by TiO_2(40)/Nano-G electrode was 97.7%. And ·OH radicals given by TiO_2/Nano-G electrode was higher than that of Nano-G electrode and DSA (Ti/IrO_2-RuO_2) electrode. The excellent electro-catalytic performance could be ascribed to the admirable conductive property of the Nano-G and more production of ·OH offered by TiO_2(40)/Nano-G electrode.

  9. CdS-sensitized TiO2 nanocorals: hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, S S; Desai, S K; Dalavi, D S; Betty, C A; Bhosale, P N; Patil, P S

    2011-10-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticle-sensitized titanium oxide nanocorals (TNC) were synthesized using a two-step deposition process. The TiO(2) nanocorals were grown on the conducting glass substrates (FTO) using A hydrothermal process and CdS nanoparticles were loaded on TNC using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The TiO(2), CdS and TiO(2)-CdS samples were characterized by optical absorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman, FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle. Further, their photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance was tested in NaOH, Na(2)S-NaOH-S and Na(2)S electrolytes, respectively. When CdS nanoparticles are coated on TNCs, the optical absorption is found to be enhanced and band edge is red-shifted towards visible region. The TiO(2)-CdS sample exhibits improved photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance with maximum short circuit current of (J(sc)) 1.04 mA cm(-2). After applying these TiO(2)-CdS electrodes in photovoltaic cells, the photocurrent was found to be enhanced by 2.7 and 32.5 times, as compared with those of bare CdS and TiO(2) nanocorals films electrodes respectively. Also, the power conversion efficiency of TiO(2)-CdS electrodes is 0.72%, which is enhanced by about 16 and 29 times for TiO(2), CdS samples. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies 2011

  10. SAXS Studies of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Polymer Electrolytes and in Nanostructured Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Bernstorff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolytes as nanostructured materials are very attractive components for batteries and opto-electronic devices. (PEO8ZnCl2 polymer electrolytes were prepared from PEO and ZnCl2. The nanocomposites (PEO8ZnCl2/TiO2 themselves contained TiO2 nanograins. In this work, the influence of the TiO2 nanograins on the morphology and ionic conductivity of the nanocomposite was systematically studied by transmission small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS simultaneously recorded with wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC at the synchrotron ELETTRA. Films containing nanosized grains of titanium dioxide (TiO2 are widely used in the research of optical and photovoltaic devices. The TiO2 films, prepared by chemical vapor deposition and e-beam epitaxy, were annealed in hydrogen atmospheres in the temperature range between 20 °C and 900 °C in order to study anatase-rutile phase transition at 740 °C. Also, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS spectra for each TiO2 film were measured in reflection geometry at different grazing incident angles. Environmentally friendly galvanic cells, as well as solar cells of the second generation, are to be constructed with TiO2 film as working electrode, and nanocomposite polymer as electrolyte.

  11. A Double Layer Sensing Electrode “BaTi(1-XRhxO3/Al-Doped TiO2” for NO2 Detection above 600 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Saruhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available NO2 emission is mostly related to combustion processes, where gas temperatures exceed far beyond 500 °C. The detection of NO2 in combustion and exhaust gases at elevated temperatures requires sensors with high NO2 selectivity. The thermodynamic equilibrium for NO2/NO ≥ 500 °C lies on the NO side. High temperature stability of TiO2 makes it a promising material for elevated temperature towards CO, H2, and NO2. The doping of TiO2 with Al3+ (Al:TiO2 increases the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors to NO2 and results in a relatively low cross-sensitivity towards CO. The results indicate that NO2 exposure results in a resistance decrease of the sensors with the single Al:TiO2 layers at 600 °C, with a resistance increase at 800 °C. This alteration in the sensor response in the temperature range of 600 °C and 800 °C may be due to the mentioned thermodynamic equilibrium changes between NO and NO2. This work investigates the NO2-sensing behavior of duplex layers consisting of Al:TiO2 and BaTi(1-xRhxO3 catalysts in the temperature range of 600 °C and 900 °C. Al:TiO2 layers were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on interdigitated sensor platforms, while a catalytic layer, which was synthesized by wet chemistry in the form of BaTi(1-xRhxO3 powders, were screen-printed as thick layers on the Al:TiO2-layers. The use of Rh-incorporated BaTiO3 perovskite (BaTi(1-xRhxO3 as a catalytic filter stabilizes the sensor response of Al-doped TiO2 layers yielding more reliable sensor signal throughout the temperature range.

  12. Investigation on the Photoelectrocatalytic Activity of Well-Aligned TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodizing Ti foil in viscous F− containing organic electrolytes, and the crystal structure and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube array were characterized and analyzed by XRD, SEM, and TEM, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanotube arrays was evaluated in the photocatalytic (PC and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC degradation of methylene blue (MB dye in different supporting solutions. The excellent performance of ca. 97% for color removal was reached after 90 min in the PEC process compared to that of PC process which indicates that a certain external potential bias favors the promotion of the electrode reaction rate on TiO2 nanotube array when it is under illumination. In addition, it is found that PEC process conducted in supporting solutions with low pH and containing Cl− is also beneficial to accelerate the degradation rate of MB.

  13. Dominant factors governing the rate capability of a TiO2 nanotube anode for high power lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyungkyu; Song, Taeseup; Lee, Eung-Kwan; Devadoss, Anitha; Jeon, Yeryung; Ha, Jaehwan; Chung, Yong-Chae; Choi, Young-Min; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-09-25

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries due to low cost and structural stability during Li insertion/extraction. However, its poor rate capability limits its practical use. Although various approaches have been explored to overcome this problem, previous reports have mainly focused on the enhancement of both the electronic conductivity and the kinetic associated with lithium in the composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder. Here, we systematically explore the effect of the contact resistance between a current collector and a composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder on the rate capability of a TiO(2)-based electrode. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes arrays, directly grown on the current collector, with sealed cap and unsealed cap, and conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrodes were prepared for this study. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes array electrode with unsealed cap showed superior performance with six times higher capacity at 10 C rate compared to conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrode with 10 wt % conducting agent. On the basis of the detailed experimental results and associated theoretical analysis, we demonstrate that the reduction of the contact resistance between electrode and current collector plays an important role in improving the electronic conductivity of the overall electrode system.

  14. Bi-functional TiO2 cemented Ag grid under layer for enhancing the photovoltaic performance of a large-area dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Zhang; Wu Jihuai; Lin Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Enhanced photovoltaic performance of large-area DSSC with conductive grids in the photo and counter electrodes. Highlights: ► TiO 2 protected Ag grids is made for using as electrode in large-area DSSC. ► The electrode has high conductivity and low internal resistance. ► TiO 2 protected Ag grids electrode avoids iodine corrosion in electrolyte. ► The TiO 2 layer also play a blocking layer role. ► Above factors enhance the photovoltaic performance of large-area DSSC. - Abstract: A bi-functional TiO 2 cemented Ag grid under layer for enhanced the photovoltaic performance of a large-area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is prepared with a simple way. The conductive printing paste contains micro-sized Ag powders and nano-sized TiO 2 cementing agent. The conductive printing paste can be well cemented on the FTO glass and form high conductive grids with Ag powders sintered together by the nano-sized TiO 2 particles. The formed conductive grid is protected with a TiO 2 thin layer and TiO 2 sol treatment to avoid the iodine corrosion. The addition of the TiO 2 cemented conductive grid can decrease the internal resistance of the large-area dye-sensitized solar cell when it is prepared in the photo and counter electrodes. Furthermore, the protecting TiO 2 thin layer and the TiO 2 sol treatment can be done on the whole area of the large-area photo electrode to both play as the blocking under layer at the same time, which can also enhance the photovoltaic performance of the large-area dye-sensitized solar cell.

  15. TiO2/Cu2O composite based on TiO2 NTPC photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Le

    2015-05-01

    Water splitting through photoelectrochemical reaction is widely regarded as a major method to generate H2 , a promising source of renewable energy to deal with the energy crisis faced up to human being. Efficient exploitation of visible light in practice of water splitting with pure TiO2 material, one of the most popular semiconductor material used for photoelectrochemical water splitting, is still challenging. One dimensional TiO2 nanotubes is highly desired with its less recombination with the short distance for charge carrier diffusion and light-scattering properties. This work is based on TiO2 NTPC electrode by the optimized two-step anodization method from our group. A highly crystalized p-type Cu2O layer was deposited by optimized pulse potentiostatic electrochemical deposition onto TiO2 nanotubes to enhance the visible light absorption of a pure p-type TiO2 substrate and to build a p-n junction at the interface to improve the PEC performance. However, because of the real photocurrent of Cu2O is far away from its theoretical limit and also poor stability in the aqueous environment, a design of rGO medium layer was added between TiO2 nanotube and Cu2O layer to enhance the photogenerated electrons and holes separation, extend charge carrier diffusion length (in comparison with those of conventional pure TiO2 or Cu2O materials) which could significantly increase photocurrent to 0.65 mA/cm2 under visible light illumination (>420 nm) and also largely improve the stability of Cu2O layer, finally lead to an enhancement of water splitting performance.

  16. Rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays directly grown on Ti foil substrates towards lithium-ion micro-batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shanmu; Wang Haibo; Gu Lin; Zhou Xinhong; Liu Zhihong; Han Pengxian; Wang Ya; Chen Xiao; Cui Guanglei; Chen Liquan

    2011-01-01

    Nanosized rutile TiO 2 is one of the most promising candidates for anode material in lithium-ion micro-batteries owing to their smaller dimension in ab-plane resulting in an enhanced performance for area capacity. However, few reports have yet emerged up to date of rutile TiO 2 nanorod arrays growing along c-axis for Li-ion battery electrode application. In this study, single-crystalline rutile TiO 2 nanorod arrays growing directly on Ti foil substrates have been fabricated using a template-free method. These nanorods can significantly improve the electrochemical performance of rutile TiO 2 in Li-ion batteries. The capacity increase is about 10 times in comparison with rutile TiO 2 compact layer.

  17. Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Gardenia Blue on TiO2 Photoelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured porous TiO2 paste was deposited on the FTO conductive glass using squeeze printing technique in order to obtain a TiO2 thin film with a thickness of 10 μm and an area of 4 cm2. Gardenia blue (GB extracted from Gardenia jasminode Ellis was employed as the natural dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Adsorption studies indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GB on the surface of TiO2 thin film was approximately 417 mg GB/g TiO2 photoelectrode. The commercial and natural dyes, N-719 and GB, respectively, were employed to measure the adsorption kinetic data, which were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with successive adsorptions of GB dye was about 0.2%.

  18. Pt Catalyst Supported within TiO2 Mesoporous Films for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dekang; Zhang, Bingyan; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Yibo; Wittstock, Gunther; Wang, Mingkui; Shen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dispersed Pt nanoparticles into mesoporous TiO 2 thin films are fabricated by a facile electrochemical deposition method as electro-catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction. The mesoporous TiO 2 thin films coated on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by screen printing allow a facile transport of reactants and products. The structural properties of the resulted Pt/TiO 2 electrode are evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry measurements are performed to study the electrochemical properties of the Pt/TiO 2 electrode. Further study demonstrates the stability of the Pt catalyst supported within TiO 2 mesoporous films for the oxygen reduction reaction

  19. Carbon coated anatase TiO2 mesocrystals enabling ultrastable and robust sodium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Lan, Tongbin; Ding, Tianli; Wu, Nae-Lih; Wei, Mingdeng

    2017-08-01

    Nanoporous anatase TiO2 mesocrystals with tunable architectures and crystalline phases were successfully fabricated in the presence of the butyl oleate and oleylamine. Especially, the introduced surfactants served as a carbon source, bring a uniform carbon layer (about 2-8 nm) for heightening the electronic conductivity. The carbon coated TiO2 mesocrystals assembled from crystalline tiny subunits have more space sites for sodium-ion storage. When the material was applied as an electrode material in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries, it exhibited a superior capacity of about 90 mA h g-1 at 20 C (1 C = 168 mA g-1) and a highly reversible capacity for 5000 cycles, which is the longest cycle life reported for sodium storage in TiO2 electrodes.

  20. Flexible symmetric supercapacitors based on vertical TiO2 and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. J.; Chang, Pai-Chun; Lu, Jia G.

    2010-03-01

    Highly conducting and porous carbon nanotubes are widely used as electrodes in double-layer-effect supercapacitors. In this presentation, vertical TiO2 nanotube array is fabricated by anodization process and used as supercapacitor electrode utilizing its compact density, high surface area and porous structure. By spin coating carbon nanotube networks on vertical TiO2 nanotube array as electrodes with 1M H2SO4 electrolyte in between, the specific capacitance can be enhanced by 30% compared to using pure carbon nanotube network alone because of the combination of double layer effect and redox reaction from metal oxide materials. Based on cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, this type of hybrid electrode has proven to be suitable for high performance supercapacitor application and maintain desirable cycling stability. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique shows that the electrode has good electrical conductivity. Furthermore, we will discuss the prospect of extending this energy storage approach in flexible electronics.

  1. Charge transfer in photorechargeable composite films of TiO2 and polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiyama, Teruaki; Sasabe, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Kenta; Horie, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    A photorechargeable battery (PRB) is a photovoltaic device having an energy storage function in a single cell. The photoactive electrode of PRB is a bilayer film consisting of bare porous TiO2 and a TiO2-polyaniline (PANi) mixture that work as a photovoltaic current generator and an electrochemical energy storage by ion dedoping, respectively. To study the charge transfer between TiO2 and PANi, the photorechargeable quantum efficiency QE ([electron count on discharge]/[incident photon count on photocharge]) was measured by varying the thickness LS of the TiO2-PANi mixture. The quantum efficiency QEuv for UV photons had a maximum of ˜7% at LS ˜ 7 µm. The time constant τTP for the charge transfer was about 10-1 s, which was longer ten times or more than the lifetime of excited electrons within TiO2. These facts reveal that the main rate-limiting factor in the photocharging process is the charge transfer between TiO2 and PANi.

  2. Phenol degradation by TiO2 photocatalysts combined with different pulsed discharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Jiani; Wang, Xiaoping; Xin, Qing; Cong, Yanqing; Wang, Qi; Li, Chunjuan

    2013-11-01

    Films of TiO2 nanotubes distributed over the inner surface of a discharge reactor cylinder (CTD) or adhered to a stainless steel electrode surface (PTD) in a discharge reactor were compared with a single-discharge (SD) system to investigate their efficiencies in phenol degradation. Morphology studies indicated that the TiO2 film was destroyed in the PTD system, but that there was no change in the CTD system after discharge. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the anatase phase of the original sample was preserved in the CTD system, but that an anatase-to-rutile phase transformation occurred in the PTD system after discharge. The highest efficiencies of phenol degradation and total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization were observed in the CTD system, and there was no decrease in phenol degradation efficiency upon reuse of a TiO2 film, indicating high catalysis activity and stability of the TiO2 photocatalysts in the combined treatment. TiO2 photocatalysts favored the formation of hydrogen peroxide and disfavored the formation of ozone. A greater degree of oxidation of intermediates and higher energy efficiency in phenol oxidation were observed with the TiO2-plasma systems, especially in the CTD system, compared to those with the SD system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laser induced photocurrent and photovoltage transient measurements of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO_2 nanosheets and TiO_2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaithan, Hamid M.; Qaid, Saif M.H.; Hezam, Mahmoud; Labis, Joselito P.; Alduraibi, Mohammad; Bedja, Idriss M.; Aldwayyan, Abdullah S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO_2 nanoparticles and TiO_2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets are investigated using laser-induced photovoltage and photocurrent transient decay (LIPVCD) measurements. We adopted a simplified version of LIPVCD technique, in which a single illumination light source and a laboratory oscilloscope could be conveniently used for the measurements. Although the {001} surface of TiO_2 nanosheets allowed a noticeably slower recombination with the electrolyte, this was counterpoised by a slower electron transport probably due to its planar morphology, resulting in a shorter diffusion length in TiO_2 nanosheets. The nanosheet morphology also resulted in less surface area and therefore reduced short circuit current density in the fabricated devices. Our work highlights the fact that the morphological parameters of TiO_2 nanosheets finally resulting after electrode film deposition is of no less importance than the reported efficient dye adsorption and slow electron recombination at the surface of individual nanosheets.

  4. Influences of Stacking Architectures of TiO2 Nanoparticle Layers on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers on characteristics and performances of DSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles of different sizes and compositions were characterized for their morphological and optical/scattering properties in thin films. They were used to construct different stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers for use as working electrodes of DSSCs. Characteristics and performances of DSSCs were examined to establish correlation of the stacking architectures of TiO2 nanoparticle layers with characteristics of DSSCs. The results suggest that the three-layer DSSC architecture, with sandwiching a 20 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer between a 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer and a hundred nm sized TiO2 back scattering/reflection layer, is effective in enhancing DSSC efficiencies. The high-total-transmittance 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer with a larger haze can serve as an effective front scattering layer to scatter a portion of the incident light into larger oblique angles and therefore increase optical paths and absorption.

  5. Quantum dot sensitized solar cell based on TiO2/CdS/Ag2S heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sachin A.; Patil, Dipali S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Patil, Pramod S.; Shin, Jae Cheol

    2017-04-01

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is fabricated based on a stepwise band structure of TiO2/CdS/Ag2S to improve the photoconversion efficiency of TiO2/CdS system by incorporating a low band gap Ag2S QDs. Vertically aligned TiO2 nanorods assembly is prepared by a simple hydrothermal technique. The formation of CdS and Ag2S QDs over TiO2 nanorods assembly as a photoanode is carried out by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The synthesized electrode materials are characterized by XRD, XPS, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Optical, solar cell and electrochemical performances. The results designate that the QDs of CdS and Ag2S have efficiently covered exterior surfaces of TiO2 nanorods assembly. A cautious evaluation between TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/Ag2S sensitized cells tells that CdS and Ag2S synergetically helps to enhance the light harvesting ability. Under AM 1.5G illumination, the photoanodes show an improved power conversion efficiency of 1.87%, in an aqueous polysulfide electrolyte with short-circuit photocurrent density of 7.03 mA cm-2 which is four fold higher than that of a TiO2/CdS system.

  6. Improved conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell using Zn doped TiO_2-ZrO_2 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, Laxmi J.; Bhatt, Piyush J.; Desai, Rahul K.; Chakrabarty, B. S.; Panchal, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    TiO_2-ZrO_2 and Zn doped TiO_2-ZrO_2 nanocomposites were prepared by hydrothermal method for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X –ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. XRD results revealed the formation of material in nano size. The average crystallite size is 22.32 nm, 17.41 nm and 6.31 nm for TiO_2, TiO_2-ZrO_2 and Zn doped TiO_2-ZrO_2 nanocomposites respectively. The optical bandgap varies from 2.04 eV to 3.75 eV. Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the prepared material. Pomegranate juice was used as a sensitizer and graphite coated conducting glass plate was used as counter electrode. The I – V characteristics were recorded to measure photo response of DSSC. Photovoltaic parameter like open circuit voltage, power conversion efficiency, and fill factor were evaluated for fabricated solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated with TiO_2, TiO_2-ZrO_2 and Zn doped TiO_2-ZrO_2 nanocomposites were found 0.71%, 1.97% and 4.58% respectively.

  7. Improved conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell using Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Laxmi J.; Bhatt, Piyush J.; Desai, Rahul K.; Chakrabarty, B. S.; Panchal, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were prepared by hydrothermal method for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X -ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. XRD results revealed the formation of material in nano size. The average crystallite size is 22.32 nm, 17.41 nm and 6.31 nm for TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites respectively. The optical bandgap varies from 2.04 eV to 3.75 eV. Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the prepared material. Pomegranate juice was used as a sensitizer and graphite coated conducting glass plate was used as counter electrode. The I - V characteristics were recorded to measure photo response of DSSC. Photovoltaic parameter like open circuit voltage, power conversion efficiency, and fill factor were evaluated for fabricated solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated with TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were found 0.71%, 1.97% and 4.58% respectively.

  8. Gold and TiO2 Nanostructure Surfaces for Assembling of Electrochemical Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curulli, A.; Zane, D.

    2008-01-01

    Devices based on nano materials are emerging as a powerful and general class of ultrasensitive sensors for the direct detection of biological and chemical species. In this work, we report the preparation and the full characterization of nano materials such as gold nano wires and TiO 2 nano structured films to be used for assembling of electrochemical biosensors. Gold nano wires were prepared by electroless deposition within the pores of polycarbonate particle track-etched membranes (PMS). Glucose oxidase was deposited onto the nano wires using self-assembling monolayer as an anchor layer for the enzyme molecules. Finally, cyclic voltammetry was performed for different enzymes to test the applicability of gold nano wires as biosensors. Considering another interesting nano material, the realization of functionalized TiO 2 thin films on Si substrates for the immobilization of enzymes is reported. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase immobilized onto TiO 2 -based nano structured surfaces exhibited a pair of well-defined and quasi reversible voltammetric peaks. The electron exchange between the enzyme and the electrodes was greatly enhanced in the TiO 2 nano structured environment. The electrocatalytic activity of HRP and GOD embedded in TiO 2 electrodes toward H 2 O 2 and glucose, respectively, may have a potential perspective in the fabrication of third-generation biosensors based on direct electrochemistry of enzymes.

  9. Process optimization of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... TiO2 attached closely on the graphene flake is possible to ... spacer between the two electrodes of the cell. Iodide-based .... Doping of high concentration of .... [34] Huang Q, Tian S, Zeng D, Wang X, Song W, Li Y et al 2013.

  10. Gold nanoparticles-immobilized, hierarchically ordered, porous TiO2 nanotubes for biosensing of glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheen Mers SV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SV Sheen Mers,1,2 Elumalai Thambuswamy Deva Kumar,1 V Ganesh1,2 1Electrodics and Electrocatalysis (EEC Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research–Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR–CECRI, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India; 2Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR, New Delhi, India Abstract: Glutathione (GSH is vital for several functions of our human body such as neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds, maintaining the active forms of vitamin C and E, regulation of nitric oxide cycle, iron metabolism, etc. It is also an endogenous antioxidant in most of the biological reactions. Given the importance of GSH, a simple strategy is proposed in this work to develop a biosensor for quantitative detection of GSH. This particular biosensor comprises of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs-immobilized, hierarchically ordered titanium dioxide (TiO2 porous nanotubes. Hexagonally arranged, honeycomb-like nanoporous tubular TiO2 electrodes are prepared by using a simple electrochemical anodization process by applying a constant potential of 30 V for 24 hours using ethylene glycol consisting of ammonium fluoride as an electrolytic medium. Structural morphology and crystalline nature of such TiO2 nanotubes are analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Interestingly, nanocomposites of TiO2 with Au NPs is prepared in an effort to alter the intrinsic properties of TiO2, especially tuning of its band gap. Au NPs are prepared by a well-known Brust and Schiffrin method and are immobilized onto TiO2 electrodes which act as a perfect electrochemical sensing platform for GSH detection. Structural characterization and analysis of these modified electrodes are performed using FESEM, XRD, and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. GSH binding events on Au NPs-immobilized porous TiO2 electrodes are monitored by electrochemical techniques, namely, cyclic voltammetry (CV and

  11. Chalcogenide Sensitized Carbon Based TiO2 Nanomaterial For Solar Driven Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pawan

    The demand for renewable energy is growing because fossils fuels are depleting at a rapid pace. Solar energy an abundant green energy resource. Utilizing this resource in a smart manner can resolve energy-crisis related issues. Sun light can be efficiently harvested using semiconductor based materials by utilizing photo-generated charges for numerous beneficial applications. The main goal of this thesis is to synthesize different nanostructures of TiO2, develop a novel method of coupling and synthesizing chalcogenide nanocrystals with TiO2 and to study the charge transportation effects of the various carbon allotropes in the chalcogenide nanocrystal sensitized TiO2 nanostructure. We have fabricated different nanostructures of TiO2 as solar energy harvesting materials. Effects of the different phases of TiO2 have also been studied. The anatase phase of TiO2 is more photoactive than the rutile phase of TiO2, and the higher dimension of the TiO2 can increase the surface area of the material which can produce higher photocurrent. Since TiO2 only absorbs in the UV range; to increase the absorbance TiO2 should be coupled to visible light absorbing materials. This dissertation presents a simple approach to synthesize and couple chalcogenide nanocrystals with TiO2 nanostructure to form a heterostructured composite. An atmospheric pressure based, single precursor, one-pot approach has been developed and tested to assemble chalcogenide nanocrystal on the TiO2 surface. Surface characterization using microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis indicates the formation of nanocrystals along the nanotube walls and inter-tubular spacing. Optical measurements indicate that the chalcogenide nanocrystals absorb in the visible region and demonstrate an increase in photocurrent in comparison to bare TiO2 nanostructure. The CdS synthesized TiO2 nanostructure produced the highest photocurrent as measured in the three electrode system. We have also assembled the PbS nanocrystal

  12. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  13. Data on the effect of improved TiO2/FTO interface and Ni(OH2 cocatalyst on the photoelectrochemical performances and stability of CdS cased ZnIn2S4/TiO2 heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeo A. Mahadik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents the experimental evidences of the effect of TiO2-fluorine doped tin oxide interface annealing and Ni(OH2 cocatalysts on the photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological and optical properties of Ni(OH2/CdS/ZnIn2S4/TiO2 heterojunction. The Raman spectroscopy exhibits the sharp features of the rutile phase of TiO2 and in agreement with the X-ray diffraction data. The band gap energy of the 500 °C sample was found to be 3.12 eV, further it was increased to 3.20, 3.22 eV for samples annealed at 600 and 700 °C respectively. The decrease in the band gap energy at 500 °C related to the oxygen vacancies and was analysed by photoluminescence spectroscopy analysis. The synthesis, characterization methods and other experimental details of TiO2 based heterostructure are also provided. The presence of CdS and ZnIn2S4 coating on surface of TiO2 electrodes providing a high surface area, extended visible absorption and helps to improve the change separation. This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “Highly efficient and stable 3D Ni(OH2/CdS/ZnIn2S4/TiO2 heterojunction under solar light: Effect of an improved TiO2/FTO interface and cocatalyst” (Mahadik et al., 2017 [1]. Keywords: Annealed TiO2 nanorods, CdS/ZnIn2S4/TiO2 heterostructure, Ni(OH2 cocatalyst, TiO2-FTO interface

  14. Preparation and solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 composites: TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Three TiO2 loaded composites, TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite, were prepared in order to improve the solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity could obviously be enhanced by loading appropriate amount of inorganic mineral materials. Meanwhile, TiO2 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the photocatalytic activity were reviewed. Otherwise, the effect of solar light irradiation time and dye concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red B was investigated. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism and adsorption process were also discussed.

  15. Amorphous and crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhanced Li-ion intercalation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dongsheng; Cai, Chuan; Wang, Ying

    2011-04-01

    We have employed a simple process of anodizing Ti foils to prepare TiO2 nanotube arrays which show enhanced electrochemical properties for applications as Li-ion battery electrode materials. The lengths and pore diameters of TiO2 nanotubes can be finely tuned by varying voltage, electrolyte composition, or anodization time. The as-prepared nanotubes are amorphous and can be converted into anatase nanotubes with heat treatment at 480 degrees C. Rutile crystallites emerge in the anatase nanotube when the annealing temperature is increased to 580 degrees C, resulting in TiO2 nanotubes of mixed phases. The morphological features of nanotubes remain unchanged after annealing. Li-ion insertion performance has been studied for amorphous and crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays. Amorphous nanotubes with a length of 3.0 microm and an outer diameter of 125 nm deliver a capacity of 91.2 microA h cm(-2) at a current density of 400 microA cm(-2), while those with a length of 25 microm and an outer diameter of 158 nm display a capacity of 533 microA h cm-2. When the 3-microm long nanotubes become crystalline, they deliver lower capacities: the anatase nanotubes and nanotubes of mixed phases show capacities of 53.8 microA h cm-2 and 63.1 microA h cm(-2), respectively at the same current density. The amorphous nanotubes show excellent capacity retention ability over 50 cycles. The cycled nanotubes show little change in morphology compared to the nanotubes before electrochemical cycling. All the TiO2 nanotubes demonstrate higher capacities than amorphous TiO2 compact layer reported in literature. The amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with a length of 1.9 microm exhibit a capacity five times higher than that of TiO2 compact layer even when the nanotube array is cycled at a current density 80 times higher than that for the compact layer. These results suggest that anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays are promising electrode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries.

  16. Unconventional cells of TiO2 doped with erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Campos, R.D.; Oliveira, A.S.; Wellen, R.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da

    2016-01-01

    The technology used in TiO_2 solar cells is in constant improvement, new configurations have been developed, aiming practicality and leading to efficiency increase of photovoltaic devices. This paper proposes a new technology for the production of solar cells in order to investigate a better utilization of solar spectrum of TiO2 doped with erbium (Er"3"+), proven by energetic conversion. The Ti_0_,_9Er_0_,_1O2 system was obtained by Pechini method. Nanoparticles have a crystallite size 65.30 nm and surface area 118.48 m"2/g. These characteristics are essential for the formation of the film to be deposited on the conductive glass substrate constituting the cell's photoelectrode. The other side of the cell is the platinum counter electrode. The cell will have the faces sealed by a thermoplastic and, finally the electrolyte will be inserted, then they will be electrically evaluated through energy efficiency and confronted with the literature data base. (author)

  17. Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on TiO2/AgInS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sachin A.; Jeong, Jae Pil; Patil, Dipali S.; More, Vivek M.; Lee, Rochelle S.; Shin, Jae Cheol; Choi, Won Jun

    2018-05-01

    Quantum dot heterojunctions with type-II band alignment can efficiently separate photogenerated electron-hole pairs and, hence, are useful for solar cell studies. In this study, a quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) made of TiO2/AgInS2 is achieved to boost the photoconversion efficiency for the TiO2-based system by varying the AgInS2 layer's thickness. The TiO2 nanorods array film is prepared by using a simple hydrothermal technique. The formation of a AgInS2 QD-sensitized TiO2-nanorod photoelectrode is carried out by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The effect of the QD layer on the performance of the solar cell is studied by varying the SILAR cycles of the QD coating. The synthesized electrode materials are characterized by using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and solar cell performances. The results indicate that the nanocrystals have effectively covered the outer surfaces of the TiO2 nanorods. The interfacial structure of quantum dots (QDs)/TiO2 is also investigated, and the growth interface is verified. A careful comparison between TiO2/AgInS2 sensitized cells reveals that the trasfer of electrons and hole proceeds efficiently, the recombination is suppressed for the optimum thickness of the QD layer and light from the entire visible spectrum is utilised. Under AM 1.5G illumination, a high photocurrent of 1.36 mAcm-2 with an improved power conversion efficiency of 0.48% is obtained. The solar cell properties of our photoanodes suggest that the TiO2 nanorod array films co-sensitized by AgInS2 nanoclusters have potential applications in solar cells.

  18. Characterization of TiO2 Thin Films on Glass Substrate Growth Using DC Sputtering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Santoso; Tjipto Sujitno; Sayono

    2002-01-01

    It has been fabricated and characterization a TiO 2 thin films deposited on glass substrate using DC sputtering technique. Fabrication of TiO 2 thin films were carried out at electrode voltage 4 kV, sputtering current 5 mA, vacuum pressure 5 x 10 -4 torr, deposition time 150 minutes, and temperature of the substrate were varied from 150 -350 o C, while as a gas sputter was argon. The results was tested their micro structure using SEM, and crystal structure using XRD and found that the crystal structure of TiO 2 powder before deposited on glass substrate was rutile and anatase with orientation (110) and (200) for anatase and (100) and (111) rutile structure. While the crystal structure which deposited at temperature 150 o C and deposition time 2.5 hours was anatase with orientation (001) and (200). (author)

  19. Eosin-Y sensitized core-shell TiO2-ZnO nano-structured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, V S; Palai, Akshaya K; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    In the current investigation, TiO 2 and TiO 2 -ZnO (core-shell) spherical nanoparticles were synthesized by simple combined hydrolysis and refluxing method. A TiO 2 core nanomaterial on the shell material of ZnO was synthesized by utilizing variable ratios of ZnO. The structural characterization of TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were done by XRD analysis. The spherical structured morphology of the TiO 2 -ZnO has been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The UV-visible spectra of TiO 2 -ZnO nanostructures were also compared with the pristine TiO 2 to investigate the shift of wavelength. The TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles at the interface efficiently collect the photogenarated electrons from ZnO and also ZnO act a barrier for reduced charge recombination of electrolyte and dye-nanoparticles interface. This combination improved the light absorption which induced the charge transfer ability and dye loading capacity of core-shell nanoparticles. An enhancement in the short circuit current (J sc ) from 1.67 mA/cm 2 to 2.1 mA/cm 2 has been observed for TiO 2 -ZnObased photoanode (with platinum free counter electrode), promises an improvement in the energy conversion efficiency by 57% in comparison with that of the DSSCs based on the pristine TiO 2 . Henceforth, TiO 2 -ZnO photoelectrode in ZnO will effectively act as barrier at the interface of TiO 2 -ZnO and TiO 2 , ensuring the potential for DSSC application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires exhibiting photoactivity across entire UV-visible region for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Ying-Chih; Wang, Gongming; Chang, Kao-Der; Ling, Yichuan; Lin, Yin-Kai; Fitzmorris, Bob C; Liu, Chia-Ming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Zhang, Jin Z; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Li, Yat

    2013-08-14

    Here we demonstrate that the photoactivity of Au-decorated TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation can be effectively enhanced in the entire UV-visible region from 300 to 800 nm by manipulating the shape of the decorated Au nanostructures. The samples were prepared by carefully depositing Au nanoparticles (NPs), Au nanorods (NRs), and a mixture of Au NPs and NRs on the surface of TiO2 nanowire arrays. As compared with bare TiO2, Au NP-decorated TiO2 nanowire electrodes exhibited significantly enhanced photoactivity in both the UV and visible regions. For Au NR-decorated TiO2 electrodes, the photoactivity enhancement was, however, observed in the visible region only, with the largest photocurrent generation achieved at 710 nm. Significantly, TiO2 nanowires deposited with a mixture of Au NPs and NRs showed enhanced photoactivity in the entire UV-visible region. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency measurements indicated that excitation of surface plasmon resonance of Au is responsible for the enhanced photoactivity of Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires. Photovoltage experiment showed that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was attributable to the effective surface passivation of Au NPs. Furthermore, 3D finite-difference time domain simulation was performed to investigate the electrical field amplification at the interface between Au nanostructures and TiO2 upon SPR excitation. The results suggested that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was partially due to the increased optical absorption of TiO2 associated with SPR electrical field amplification. The current study could provide a new paradigm for designing plasmonic metal/semiconductor composite systems to effectively harvest the entire UV-visible light for solar fuel production.

  1. Functionalized TiO2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Baoli; Li, Duxin; Liu, Qingquan; Zhou, Zhihua; Liao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle with highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface, via the reaction between toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The main effect factors on the reaction of TiO 2 with TDI were studied by determining the reaction extent of hydroxyl groups on TiO 2 surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The dispersion of the TDI-functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Owing to the TDI molecules covalently bonded on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface, it was established that the TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in toluene, thus indicating that this functionalization method can prevent TiO 2 nanoparticle from agglomerating. -- Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanoparticle was functionalized with toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate. ► Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in xylene. ► Compatibility of TiO 2 nanoparticle and organic solvent is significantly improved. ► TiO 2 containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry.

  2. Controlled synthesis of TiO2-B nanowires and nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Lihong; Liu Yongjun; Li Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    Controllable synthesis of the TiO 2 -B nanowires (NWs) and nanoparticles (NPs) had been achieved via a facile hydrothermal route, respectively, only by tuning the solution volume. The dye-sensitized solar cells prototypes had been fabricated using TiO 2 -B NW and NP electrodes, respectively. The TiO 2 -B NP cells had higher photocurrent and photoelectrical conversion efficiency than the TiO 2 -B NW cells though the latter exhibited larger photovoltage compared to the former. The key factors such as the photogenerated electron injection drive force, surface defects and the interfacial charge transfer, which determined the photoelectrical properties, had been systematically researched with the surface photovoltage spectra (SPS) and the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The SPS proved that there was larger photoelectron injection drive force in TiO 2 -B NP photoelectrode than that in NW photoelectrode. And the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) revealed that TiO 2 -B NP cells had faster interface charge transfer compared to TiO 2 -B NW cells. Both proved that NP cells had the higher photocurrents.

  3. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2014-01-08

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs) was selected as the base photoelectrode. The self-doped TiO2 NTPCs demonstrated a 10-fold increase in visible-light photocurrent density compared to the nondoped one, and the optimized saturation photocurrent density under simulated AM 1.5G illumination was identified to be 2.5 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is comparable to the highest values ever reported for TiO2-based photoelectrodes. The significant enhancement of photoelectrochemical performance can be ascribed to the rational coupling of morphological and electronic features of the self-doped TiO 2 NTPCs: (1) the periodically morphological structure of the photonic crystal layer traps broadband visible light, (2) the electronic interband state induced from self-doping of Ti3+ can be excited in the visible-light region, and (3) the captured light by the photonic crystal layer is absorbed by the self-doped interbands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. Au Nanoparticles Decorated TiO2 Nanotube Arrays as a Recyclable Sensor for Photoenhanced Electrochemical Detection of Bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangsheng; Fong, Chi-Chun; Zhang, Xuming; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul K S; Chu, Paul K; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Yang, Mengsu

    2016-04-19

    A photorefreshable and photoenhanced electrochemical sensing platform for bisphenol A (BPA) detection based on Au nanoparticles (NPs) decorated carbon doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2/Au NTAs) is described. The TiO2/Au NTAs were prepared by quick annealing of anodized nanotubes in argon, followed by controllable electrodeposition of Au NPs. The decoration of Au NPs not only improved photoelectrochemical behavior but also enhanced electrocatalytic activities of the resulted hybrid NTAs. Meanwhile, the high photocatalytic activity of the NTAs allowed the electrode to be readily renewed without damaging the microstructures and surface states after a short UV treatment. The electrochemical detection of BPA on TiO2/Au NTAs electrode was significantly improved under UV irradiation as the electrode could provide fresh reaction surface continuously and the further increased photocurrent resulting from the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs derived from the consumption of holes by BPA. The results showed that the refreshable TiO2/Au NTAs electrode is a promising sensor for long-term BPA monitoring with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 6.2 nM and the sensitivity of 2.8 μA·μM(-1)·cm(-2).

  6. Effect of sintering temperatures and screen printing types on TiO2 layers in DSSC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanto, Agus; Furqoni, Lutfi; Nurosyid, Fahru; Hidayat, Jojo; Suryana, Risa

    2016-03-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a candidate solar cell, which has a big potential in the future due to its eco-friendly material. This research is conducted to study the effect of sintering temperature and the type of screen-printing toward the characteristics of TiO2 layer as a working electrode in DSSC. TiO2 layers were fabricated using a screen-printing method with a mesh size of T-49, T-55, and T-61. TiO2 layers were sintered at temperatures of 600°C and 650°C for 60 min. DSSC structure was composed of TiO2 as semiconductors, ruthenium complex as dyes, and carbon as counter electrodes. The morphology of TiO2 layer was observed by using Nikon E2 Digital Camera Microscopy. The efficiencies of DSSC were calculated from the I-V curves. The highest efficiency is 0.015% at TiO2 layer fabricated with screen type T-61 and at a sintering temperature of 650°C.

  7. Effect of sintering temperatures and screen printing types on TiO_2 layers in DSSC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyanto, Agus; Furqoni, Lutfi; Nurosyid, Fahru; Suryana, Risa; Hidayat, Jojo

    2016-01-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a candidate solar cell, which has a big potential in the future due to its eco-friendly material. This research is conducted to study the effect of sintering temperature and the type of screen-printing toward the characteristics of TiO_2 layer as a working electrode in DSSC. TiO_2 layers were fabricated using a screen-printing method with a mesh size of T-49, T-55, and T-61. TiO_2 layers were sintered at temperatures of 600°C and 650°C for 60 min. DSSC structure was composed of TiO_2 as semiconductors, ruthenium complex as dyes, and carbon as counter electrodes. The morphology of TiO_2 layer was observed by using Nikon E2 Digital Camera Microscopy. The efficiencies of DSSC were calculated from the I-V curves. The highest efficiency is 0.015% at TiO_2 layer fabricated with screen type T-61 and at a sintering temperature of 650°C.

  8. TiO2-TiO2 composite resistive humidity sensor: ethanol crosssensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamboran, Milad; Saedi, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication method and characterization results of a TiO 2 -TiO 2 composite bead used for humidity sensing along with its negative cross-sensitivity to ethanol vapor are reported. The bead shaped resistive sample sensors are fabricated by the drop-casting of a TiO 2 slurry on two Pt wire segments. The dried bead is pre-fired at 750°C and subsequently impregnated with a Ti-based sol. The sample is ready for characterization after a thermal annealing at 600°C in air. Structurally, the bead is a composite of the micron-sized TiO 2 crystallites embedded in a matrix of nanometric TiO 2 particle aggregates. The performance of the beads as resistive humidity sensors is recorded at room temperature in standard humidity level chambers. Results evince the wide dynamic range of the sensors fabricated in the low relative humidity range. While the sensor conductance is not sensitive to ethanol vapor in dry air, in humid air, sensor's responses are negatively affected by the contaminant. (paper)

  9. Photoelectrochemical properties of the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure prepared by hydrothermal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao SUN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the transport channels of the photogenerated electrons and enhance the photosensitizer loading ability of the electrode, a new TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is prepared through two-step hydrothermal process. First, TiO2 nanorod array is grown on the FTO conductive glass substrate by hydrothermal proess. Then, ZnO sol is coated onto the TiO2 nanorods through dip-coating method and inverted to ZnO seed layer by sintering. Finally, the secondary ZnO nanorods are grown onto the TiO2 nanorods by the sencond hydrothermal method to form the designed TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure. A spin-coating assisted successive ionic layer reaction method (SC-SILR is used to deposit the CdS nanocrystals into the TiO2 nanorod array and the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is used to form the CdS/TiO2 and CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite films. Different methods, such as SEM, TEM, XRD, UV-Vis and transient photocurrent, are employed to characterize and measure the morphologies, structures, light absorption and photoelectric conversion performance of all the samples, respectively. The results indicate that, compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod array, the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure can load more CdS photosensitizer. The light absorption properties and transient photocurrent performance of the CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure composite film are evidently superior to that of the CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films. The excellent photoelctrochemical performance of theTiO2-ZnO hierarchical structure reveales its application prospect in photoanode material of the solar cells.

  10. Integration of High-Performance Nanocrystalline TiO2 Photoelectrodes for N719-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on enhanced performance of N719-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSCs incorporating size and photoelectron diffusion-controlled TiO2 as sensitizer-matched light-scatter layers on conventional nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes. The double-layered N719/TiO2 composite electrode with a high dye-loading capacity exhibits the diffused reflectance of more than 50% in the range of λ = 650–800 nm, even when the films are coupled with the titania nanocrystalline underlayer in the device. As a result, the increased near-infrared light-harvesting produces a high light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of over 9% mainly due to the significant increase of Jsc. Such an optical effect of the NIR-light scattering TiO2 electrodes will be beneficial when the sensitizers with low molar extinction coefficients, such as N719, are introduced in the device.

  11. Water Adsorption on TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Wendt, Stefan; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies and Density Functional Theory (DFT) investigations of the interaction of water with the rutile TiO2 (110) surface are summarized. From high-resolution STM the following reactions have been revealed: water adsorption and diffusion in the Ti troughs, water...... dissociation in bridging oxygen vacancies, assembly of adsorbed water monomers into rapidly diffusing water dimers, and formation of water dimers by reduction of oxygen molecules. The STM results are rationalized based on DFT calculations, revealing the bonding geometries and reaction pathways of the water...

  12. Structure and dye-sensitized solar cell application of TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by the anodic oxidation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seon-Yeong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2010-05-01

    Well-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by the potentiostatic anodic oxidation method using pure Ti foil as a working electrode and ethylene glycol solution as an electrolyte with the small addition of NH4F and H2O. The influence of anodization temperature and time on the morphology and formation of TiO2 nanotube arrays was examined. The TiO2 nanotube arrays were applied as a photoelectrode to dye-sensitized solar cells. Regardless of anodizing temperature and time, the average diameter and wall thickness of TiO2 nanotube arrays show a similar value, whereas the length increases with decreasing reaction temperature. The conversion efficiency is very low, which is due to a morphology breaking of the TiO2 nanotube arrays in the manufacturing process of a photoelectrode.

  13. Properties of TiO2-based transparent conducting oxide thin films on GaN(0001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, J.; Nakao, S.; Yamada, N.; Hitosugi, T.; Moriyama, M.; Goshonoo, K.; Hoang, N. L. H.; Hasegawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    Anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 transparent conducting oxide has been formed on GaN(0001) surfaces using a sputtering method. Amorphous films deposited at room temperature were annealed at a substrate temperature of 500 deg. C in vacuum to form single-phase anatase films. Films with a thickness of 170 nm exhibited a resistivity of 8x10 -4 Ω cm with absorptance less than 5% at a wavelength of 460 nm. Furthermore, the refractive index of the Nb-doped TiO 2 was well matched to that of GaN. These findings indicate that Nb-doped TiO 2 is a promising material for use as transparent electrodes in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs), particularly since reflection at the electrode/GaN boundary can be suppressed, enhancing the external quantum efficiency of blue LEDs.

  14. Electrochemically conductive treatment of TiO2 nanotube arrays in AlCl3 aqueous solution for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjie; Sang, Shangbin; Liu, Yingying; Wu, Qiumei; Liu, Kaiyu; Liu, Hongtao

    2015-10-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) with excellent stability and large specific surface area make them competitive using as supercapacitor materials. Improving the conductivity of TiO2 is of great concern for the construction of high-performance supercapacitors. In this work, we developed a novel approach to improve the performance of TiO2 materials, involving the fabrication of Al-doped TiO2 NTAs by a simple electrochemical cathodic polarization treatment in AlCl3 aqueous solution. The prepared Al-doped TiO2 NTAs exhibited excellent electrochemical performances, attributing to the remarkably improved electrical conductivity (i.e., from approx. 10 kΩ to 20 Ω). Further analysis showed that Al3+ ions rather than H+ protons doped into TiO2 lattice cause this high conductivity. A MnO2/Al-TiO2 composite was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and achieved the specific capacitance of 544 F g-1, and the Ragone plot of the sample showed a high power density but less reduction of energy density. These results indicate that the MnO2/Al-TiO2 NTAs sample could be served as a promising electrode material for high -performance supercapacitors.

  15. Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Enhancement of Optoelectronic Properties of PFO-Based Light Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on optoelectronic properties of poly (9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl- (PFO- based light emitting diode upon incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs is demonstrated. The PFO/TiO2 nanocomposites with different weight ratios between 5 and 35 wt.% were prepared using solution blending method before they were spin coated onto Indium Tin Oxide substrate. Then a thin Al layer was deposited onto the nanocomposite layer to act as top electrode. The nanocomposites were tested as emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. The TiO2 NPs played the most crucial role in facilitating charge transport and electrical injection and thus improved device performance in terms of turn-on voltage, electroluminescence spectra (EL, luminance, and luminance efficiency. The best composition was OLED with 5 wt.% TiO2 NPs content having moderate surface roughness and well distribution of NPs. The device performance was reduced at higher TiO2 NPs content due to higher surface roughness and agglomeration of TiO2 NPs. This work demonstrated the importance of optimum TiO2 NPs content with uniform distribution and controlled surface roughness of the emissive layer for better device performance.

  16. CdS Nanoparticle-Modified α-Fe2O3/TiO2 Nanorod Array Photoanode for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruiyang; Liu, Mingyang; Tang, Rui; Yin, Longwei

    2017-09-02

    In this work, we demonstrate a facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process accompanied by hydrothermal method to synthesize CdS nanoparticle-modified α-Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod array for efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. By integrating CdS/α-Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 ternary system, light absorption ability of the photoanode can be effectively improved with an obviously broadened optical-response to visible light region, greatly facilitates the separation of photogenerated carriers, giving rise to the enhancement of PEC water oxidation performance. Importantly, for the designed abnormal type-II heterostructure between Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 , the conduction band position of Fe 2 O 3 is higher than that of TiO 2 , the photogenerated electrons from Fe 2 O 3 will rapidly recombine with the photogenerated holes from TiO 2 , thus leads to an efficient separation of photogenerated electrons from Fe 2 O 3 /holes from TiO 2 at the Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 interface, greatly improving the separation efficiency of photogenerated holes within Fe 2 O 3 and enhances the photogenerated electron injection efficiency in TiO 2 . Working as the photoanodes of PEC water oxidation, CdS/α-Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 heterostucture electrode exhibits improved photocurrent density of 0.62 mA cm - 2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in alkaline electrolyte, with an obviously negatively shifted onset potential of 80 mV. This work provides promising methods to enhance the PEC water oxidation performance of the TiO 2 -based heterostructure photoanodes.

  17. QCM gas sensor characterization of ALD-grown very thin TiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, S.; Georgieva, V.; Vergov, L.; Szilágyi, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents a technology for preparation and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films suitable for gas sensor applications. Applying atomic layer deposition (ALD), very thin TiO2 films were deposited on quartz resonators, and their gas sensing properties were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The TiO2 thin films were grown using Ti(iOPr)4 and water as precursors. The surface of the films was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) used for a composition study. The research was focused on the gas-sensing properties of the films. Films of 10-nm thickness were deposited on quartz resonators with Au electrodes and the QCMs were used to build highly sensitive gas sensors, which were tested for detecting NO2. Although very thin, these ALD-grown TiO2 films were sensitive to NO2 already at room temperature and could register as low concentrations as 50 ppm, while the sorption was fully reversible, and the sensors could be fully recovered. With the technology presented, the manufacturing of gas sensors is simple, fast and cost-effective, and suitable for energy-effective portable equipment for real-time environmental monitoring of NO2.

  18. Preparation of RuO2-TiO2/Nano-graphite composite anode for electrochemical degradation of ceftriaxone sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Guo, Xiaolei; Song, Haoran; Sun, Tianyi; Wan, Jiafeng

    2018-06-05

    Graphite-like material is widely used for preparing various electrodes for wastewater treatment. To enhance the electrochemical degradation efficiency of Nano-graphite (Nano-G) anode, RuO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G composite anode was prepared through the sol-gel method and hot-press technology. RuO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and N 2 adsorption-desorption. Results showed that RuO 2 , TiO 2 and Nano-G were composited successfully, and RuO 2 and TiO 2 nanoparticles were distributed uniformly on the surface of Nano-G sheet. Specific surface area of RuO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G composite was higher than that of TiO 2 /Nano-G composite and Nano-G. Electrochemical performances of RuO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G anode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. RuO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G anode was applied to electrochemical degradation of ceftriaxone. The generation of hydroxyl radical (OH) was measured. Results demonstrated that RuO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G anode displayed enhanced electrochemical degradation efficiency towards ceftriaxone and yield of OH, which is derived from the synergetic effect between RuO 2 , TiO 2 and Nano-G, which enhance the specific surface area, improve the electrochemical oxidation activity and lower the charge transfer resistance. Besides, the possible degradation intermediates and pathways of ceftriaxone sodium were identified. This study may provide a viable and promising prospect for RuO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G anode towards effective electrochemical degradation of antibiotics from wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Low-Cost TiO2/CuO/Cu Solar Cell by using Combined Spraying and Electroplating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamat Rokhmat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is proposed to develop a low-cost TiO2/CuO/Cu based solar cell. The cell is made by employing a lower grade (technical grade of TiO2 as the active material. CuO powder is synthesized using a wet chemical method and mixed with TiO2 powder to give impurity to the TiO2. A layer of TiO2/CuO is then deposited onto fluorin-doped tin oxide (FTO by spraying. Copper particles are grown on the spaces between the TiO2 and/or CuO particles by electroplating for more feasible electron migration. The TiO2/CuO/Cu solar cell is finalized by sandwiching a polymer electrolyte between the film and the counter electrode. Current-voltage measurement was performed for various parameters, such as the molarity of NaOH for producing CuO particles, the weight ratio of CuO over TiO2, and the current in the electroplating process. A highest efficiency of 1.40% and a fill factor of 0.37 were achieved by using this combined spray and electroplating method.

  20. Scalable Synthesis of Triple-Core-Shell Nanostructures of TiO2 @MnO2 @C for High Performance Supercapacitors Using Structure-Guided Combustion Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongjoon; Shin, Jungho; Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Park, Seonghyun; Choi, Wonjoon

    2018-03-01

    Core-shell nanostructures of metal oxides and carbon-based materials have emerged as outstanding electrode materials for supercapacitors and batteries. However, their synthesis requires complex procedures that incur high costs and long processing times. Herein, a new route is proposed for synthesizing triple-core-shell nanoparticles of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C using structure-guided combustion waves (SGCWs), which originate from incomplete combustion inside chemical-fuel-wrapped nanostructures, and their application in supercapacitor electrodes. SGCWs transform TiO 2 to TiO 2 @C and TiO 2 @MnO 2 to TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C via the incompletely combusted carbonaceous fuels under an open-air atmosphere, in seconds. The synthesized carbon layers act as templates for MnO 2 shells in TiO 2 @C and organic shells of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C. The TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C-based electrodes exhibit a greater specific capacitance (488 F g -1 at 5 mV s -1 ) and capacitance retention (97.4% after 10 000 cycles at 1.0 V s -1 ), while the absence of MnO 2 and carbon shells reveals a severe degradation in the specific capacitance and capacitance retention. Because the core-TiO 2 nanoparticles and carbon shell prevent the deformation of the inner and outer sides of the MnO 2 shell, the nanostructures of the TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C are preserved despite the long-term cycling, giving the superior performance. This SGCW-driven fabrication enables the scalable synthesis of multiple-core-shell structures applicable to diverse electrochemical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Hao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one containing a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double layer structure was a significant improvement in comparison to the DSSC consisting of only a single film layer. The addition of TiO2-P25 in the top layer caused an improvement in the adsorption of dye molecules on the film rather than on the TiO2 nanotubes only. The presence of the TiO2 nanotubes together with TiO2-P25 in the top layer revealed the enhancement in harvesting the incident light and an improvement of electron transport through the film.

  2. TiO2 beads and TiO2-chitosan beads for urease immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, İlyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO 2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO 2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO 2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO 2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2 mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5 mg/ml for A and 1.0 mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0 mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4–70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30 °C (A), 40 °C (B) and 35 °C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65 °C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. - Highlights: • TiO 2 and TiO 2 -chitosan beads for urease immobilization have been prepared and characterized. • The beads used in this work are good matrices for the immobilization of urease. • The immobilized urease was shown to have good properties and stabilities (pH and thermal stability, operational stability). • The 50% activity was protected after 11 cycles for method A and 16 cycles for method B

  3. Synthesis of TiO2 by electrochemical method from TiCl4 solution as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus; Jumari, Arif; Dyartanti, Endah R.; Sari, Sifa Dian Permata; Hanifah, Ita Nur

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide combined with graphite becomes interesting composition. TiO 2 is a good candidate for Li ion battery anode because of cost, availability of sufficient materials, and environmentally friendly. TiO 2 gravimetric capacity varied within a fairly wide range. TiO 2 crystals form highly depends on the synthesis method used. The electrochemical method is beginning to emerge as a valuable option for preparing TiO 2 powders. Using the electrochemical method, the particle can easily be controlled by simply adjusting the imposed current or potential to the system. In this work, the effects of some key parameters of the electrosynthesis on the formation of TiO 2 have been investigated. The combination of graphite and TiO 2 particle has also been studied for lithium-ion batteries. The homogeneous solution for the electrosynthesis of TiO 2 powders was TiCl 4 in ethanol solution. The electrolysis was carried out in an electrochemical cell consisting of two carbon electrodes with dimensions of (5 × 2) cm. The electrodes were set parallel with a distance of 2.6 cm between the electrodes and immersed in the electrolytic solution at a depth of 2 cm. The electrodes were connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply. The electrosynthesis was performed galvanostatically at 0.5 to 2.5 hours and voltages were varied from 8 to 12 V under constant stirring at room temperature. The resulted suspension was aged at 48 hrs, filtered, dried directly in an oven at 150°C for 2 hrs, washed 2 times, and dried again 60 °C for 6 hrs. The particle product has been used to lithium-ion battery as anode. Synthesis of TiO 2 particle by electrochemical method at 10 V for 1 to 2.5 hrs resulted anatase and rutile phase

  4. Pseudocapacitance of amorphous TiO2@nitrogen doped graphene composite for high rate lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Xue, Pan; Lai, Chao; Qiu, Jingxia; Ling, Min; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-01-01

    The high rate applications such as electric vehicles of the traditional lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are commonly limited by their insufficient electron conductivity and slow mass transport of lithium ions in bulk electrode materials. In order to address these issues, in this work, a simple and up-scalable wet-mechanochemical (wet-ball milling) route has been developed for fabrication of amorphous porous TiO 2 @nitrogen doped graphene (TiO 2 @N-G) nanocomposites. The amorphous phase, unique porous structure of TiO 2 and the surface defects from nitrogen doping to graphene planes have incurred surface controlled reactions, contributing pseudocapacitance to the total capacity of the battery. It plays a dominant role in producing outstanding high rate electrochemical performance, e.g., 182.7 mAh/g (at 3.36 A/g) after 100 cycles. The design and synthesis of electrode materials with enhanced conductivity and surface pseudocapacitance can be a promising way for high rate LIBs.

  5. Phycocyanin assemblies onto nanostructured TiO2 for photovoltaic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Enciso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energies is of increasing importance due to depletion of fossil fuel sources and environmental damages caused by their utilization. The energy available from the sun is clean and widely distributed. Solar cells are devices used to convert solar energy into electricity. Among them, dye sensitized solar cells are an interesting alternative to conventional silicon ones, because of their low cost and simple assembly process. They are made of a semiconductor with colored dyes adsorbed onto the surface that work as antennas to catch energy in the visible range of the spectra. In this work, nanostructured TiO2 was synthesized and the protein phycocyanin was used as dye. TiO2 was characterized by electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Phycocyanin was extracted from commercial Spirulina spp. capsules. The assembly process of the electrode covered with TiO2 and phycocyanin was controlled by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR. Results were in accordance with the assembling of an electrode sensitized with phycocyanin.

  6. Conductometric sensor for ammonia and ethanol using gold nanoparticle-doped mesoporous TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Shantang

    2015-01-01

    We describe uniform and high-temperature-stable mesoporous TiO 2 beads functionalized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-TiO 2 ) for use in conductometric sensing of gases and organic vapors. The size of the interconnected main mesopores of the TiO 2 beads ranges from 8 to 15 nm, and the AuNPs have diameters between 8 and 10 nm. The mesoporous TiO 2 beads are formed during calcination while the structure-directing template agent is removed. Monodispersed AuNPs are formed by reduction in-situ and are placed inside the mesoporous TiO 2 framework. This prevents aggregation of the AuNPs even at 500 °C. The materials were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and X-ray diffraction. Comb-type gold electrodes were then fabricated on an alumina substrate and are shown to display excellent properties in terms of sensing ammonia, ethanol, methanol or acetone. The sensitivity (defined as the ratio of resistivities under vapor and air) of a typical AuNPs(0.5 %)-TiO 2 gas sensor for ethanol reached up to 5.65 at above 600 ppm at 75 °C. Response time and recovery times (t 90  ≤ 20 s) are faster than (or comparable to) other metal-doped TiO 2 sensors, and working temperatures are much lower. An interesting observation was made in that the changes in the conductivity of the sensor change with temperature. The sensor prepared with AuNPs(0.5 %)-TiO 2 is of the p-type (in its response to ammonia gas) at 45 °C, but becomes n-type at 20 °C. Obviously, rather slight changes in temperature lead to a complete change in the direction of the conductometric signal change. This may provide a new aspect in terms of selective and highly sensitive detection of ammonia at ambient and slightly elevated temperatures. (author)

  7. Controlled Directional Growth of TiO2 Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how the anodization direction and growth rate of vertically aligned, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can be controlled and manipulated by the local concentration of O-2 in the electrolyte. This leads to the growth of highly active TiO2 NT arrays directly on nonconducting s...

  8. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, S. David; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that tuning the donor density of protective TiO2 layers on a photocathode has dramatic consequences for electronic conduction through TiO2 with implications for the stabilization of oxidation-sensitive catalysts on the surface. Vacuum annealing at 400 °C for 1 hour o...

  9. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photocatalyst; TiO2 nanoparticle; polyaniline; conducting polymer; core-shell nanocomposite. 1. Introduction ..... tine TiO2 nanoparticles, HCl-doped PANI and PANI/TiO2 ..... Karim M R, Lim K T, Lee M S, Kim K and Yeum J H 2009 Synth. Met.

  10. Data on the effect of improved TiO2/FTO interface and Ni(OH)2 cocatalyst on the photoelectrochemical performances and stability of CdS cased ZnIn2S4/TiO2 heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Mahadeo A; Shinde, Pravin S; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Cho, Min; Jang, Jum Suk

    2018-04-01

    This data article presents the experimental evidences of the effect of TiO 2 -fluorine doped tin oxide interface annealing and Ni(OH) 2 cocatalysts on the photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological and optical properties of Ni(OH) 2 /CdS/ZnIn 2 S 4 /TiO 2 heterojunction. The Raman spectroscopy exhibits the sharp features of the rutile phase of TiO 2 and in agreement with the X-ray diffraction data. The band gap energy of the 500 °C sample was found to be 3.12 eV, further it was increased to 3.20, 3.22 eV for samples annealed at 600 and 700 °C respectively. The decrease in the band gap energy at 500 °C related to the oxygen vacancies and was analysed by photoluminescence spectroscopy analysis. The synthesis, characterization methods and other experimental details of TiO 2 based heterostructure are also provided. The presence of CdS and ZnIn 2 S 4 coating on surface of TiO 2 electrodes providing a high surface area, extended visible absorption and helps to improve the change separation. This data article contains data related to the research article entitled "Highly efficient and stable 3D Ni(OH) 2 /CdS/ZnIn 2 S 4 /TiO 2 heterojunction under solar light: Effect of an improved TiO 2 /FTO interface and cocatalyst" (Mahadik et al., 2017) [1].

  11. Ultrafast Flame Annealing of TiO2 Paste for Fabricating Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kyu; Chai, Sung Uk; Cho, Yoonjun; Cai, Lili; Kim, Sung June; Park, Sangwook; Park, Jong Hyeok; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2017-11-01

    Mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticle (NP) films are broadly used as electrodes in photoelectrochemical cells, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). State-of-the-art mesoporous TiO 2 NP films for these solar cells are fabricated by annealing TiO 2 paste-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass in a box furnace at 500 °C for ≈30 min. Here, the use of a nontraditional reactor, i.e., flame, is reported for the high throughput and ultrafast annealing of TiO 2 paste (≈1 min). This flame-annealing method, compared to conventional furnace annealing, exhibits three distinct benefits. First, flame removes polymeric binders in the initial TiO 2 paste more completely because of its high temperature (≈1000 °C). Second, flame induces strong interconnections between TiO 2 nanoparticles without affecting the underlying transparent conducting oxide substrate. Third, the flame-induced carbothermic reduction on the TiO 2 surface facilitates charge injection from the dye/perovskite to TiO 2 . Consequently, when the flame-annealed mesoporous TiO 2 film is used to fabricate DSSCs and PSCs, both exhibit enhanced charge transport and higher power conversion efficiencies than those fabricated using furnace-annealed TiO 2 films. Finally, when the ultrafast flame-annealing method is combined with a fast dye-coating method to fabricate DSSC devices, its total fabrication time is reduced from over 3 h to ≈10 min. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Polythiophene thin films electrochemically deposited on sol-gel based TiO2 for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valaski, R.; Yamamoto, N.A.D.; Canestraro, C.D.; Micaroni, L.; Mello, R.M.Q.; Quirino, W.G.; Legani, C.; Achete, C.A.; Roman, L.S.; Cremona, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the influence of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films on the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices based on electrochemically synthesized polythiophene (PT) was investigated. TiO 2 films were produced by sol-gel methods with controlled thickness. The best TiO 2 annealing condition was determined through the investigation of the temperature influence on the electron charge mobility and resistivity in a range between 723 K and 923 K. The PT films were produced by chronoamperometric method in a 3-electrode cell under a controlled atmosphere. High quality PT films were produced onto 40 nm thick TiO 2 layer previously deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. The morphology of PT films grown on both substrates and its strong influence on the device performance and PT minimum thickness were also investigated. The maximum external quantum efficiency (IPCE) reached was 9% under monochromatic irradiation (λ = 610 nm; 1 W/m 2 ) that is three orders of magnitude higher than that presented by PT-homolayer devices with similar PT thickness. In addition, the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) was about 700 mV and the short-circuit current density (J sc ) was 0.03 A/m 2 (λ = 610 nm; 7 W/m 2 ). However, as for the PT-homolayer also the TiO 2 /PT based devices are characterized by antibatic response when illuminated through FTO. Finally, the Fill Factor (FF) of these devices is low (25%), indicating that the series resistance (R s ), which is strongly dependent of the PT thickness, is too large. This large R s value is compensated by TiO 2 /PT interface morphology and by FTO/TiO 2 and TiO 2 /PT interface phenomena producing preferential paths in which the internal electrical field is higher, improving the device efficiency.

  13. Study on preparation of SnO2-TiO2/Nano-graphite composite anode and electro-catalytic degradation of ceftriaxone sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolei; Wan, Jiafeng; Yu, Xiujuan; Lin, Yuhui

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve the electro-catalytic activity and catalytic reaction rate of graphite-like material, Tin dioxide-Titanium dioxide/Nano-graphite (SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G) composite was synthesized by a sol-gel method and SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode was prepared in hot-press approach. The composite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared, Raman, N 2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electrons microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance of the SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G anode electrode was investigated via cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electro-catalytic performance was evaluated by the degradation of ceftriaxone sodium and the yield of ·OH radicals in the reaction system. The results demonstrated that TiO 2 , SnO 2 and Nano-G were composited successfully, and TiO 2 and SnO 2 particles dispersed on the surface and interlamination of the Nano-G uniformly. The specific surface area of SnO 2 modified anode was higher than that of TiO 2 /Nano-G anode and the degradation rate of ceftriaxone sodium within 120 min on SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode was 98.7% at applied bias of 2.0 V. The highly efficient electro-chemical property of SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode was attributed to the admirable conductive property of the Nano-G and SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode. Moreover, the contribution of reactive species ·OH was detected, indicating the considerable electro-catalytic activity of SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding and removing surface states limiting charge transport in TiO2 nanowire arrays for enhanced optoelectronic device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xia; Chen, Liping; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Kai; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Charge transport within electrode materials plays a key role in determining the optoelectronic device performance. Aligned single-crystal TiO 2 nanowire arrays offer an ideal electron transport path and are expected to have higher electron mobility. Unfortunately, their transport is found not to be superior to that in nanoparticle films. Here we show that the low electron transport in rutile TiO 2 nanowires is mainly caused by surface traps in relatively deep energy levels, which cannot be removed by conventional approaches, such as oxygen annealing treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate an effective wet-chemistry approach to minimize these trap states, leading to over 20-fold enhancement in electron diffusion coefficient and 62% improvement in solar cell performance. On the basis of our results, the potential of TiO 2 NWs can be developed and well-utilized, which is significantly important for their practical applications.

  15. Optimized nanostructured TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Selda; Jodhani, Gagan; Gouma, Pelagia

    2016-07-01

    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on anatase TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite nanofibers photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Pingfan; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie; Li, Ni; Wang, Lijun; Xi, Zhenqiang; Wang, Naiyan; Gao, Linhui; Zhu, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 /multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers are prepared via electrospinning. ► Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are assembled using TiO 2 /MWCNTs nanofibers film as photoanode. ► Energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs. ► Moderate MWCNTs incorporation can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. - Abstract: Anatase TiO 2 /multi-walled carbon nanotubes (TiO 2 /MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers (NFs) film was prepared via a facile electrospinning method. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO 2 /MWCNTs composite NFs photoanodes with different contents of MWCNTs (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1 wt.%) were assembled using N719 dye as sensitizer. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Raman spectrometer were used to characterize the TiO 2 /MWCNTs electrode films. The photocurrent–voltage (I–V) characteristic, incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectrum, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out to evaluate the photoelectric properties of the DSSCs. The results reveal that the energy conversion efficiency is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs in the composite NFs film, and a moderate incorporation of MWCNTs can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. When the electrode contains 0.3 wt.% MWCNTs, the corresponding solar cell yield the highest efficiency of 5.63%. This efficiency value is approximately 26% larger than that of the unmodified counterpart.

  17. Effective charge collection in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi; Numata, Youhei; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Satoh, Shin; Han, Liyuan

    2013-03-01

    The effective charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is an important factor to improve the efficiency. Here, we report the comparison of three types of structures in DSCs. One type of structure is a sandwich-type DSC (SW-DSC), in which the TiO2 film is sandwiched between a TCO glass front electron-collection electrode and a sputtered Ti back collection electrode. The second is a normal DSC (N-DSC), which has no back electrode. The third is a back-contact-type DSC (BC-DSC), in which a sputtered Ti back electrode is deposited on a TiO2 film on the opposite side of the normal glass as an optical window. The photocurrent response of an SW-DSC is the fastest of the three structures due to using intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, which can be explained by the electron diffusion model. The model shows that the SW-DSC is a favorable structure for effective charge collection in DSCs.

  18. Effective charge collection in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi; Numata, Youhei; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Satoh, Shin; Han, Liyuan

    2013-01-01

    The effective charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is an important factor to improve the efficiency. Here, we report the comparison of three types of structures in DSCs. One type of structure is a sandwich-type DSC (SW-DSC), in which the TiO 2 film is sandwiched between a TCO glass front electron-collection electrode and a sputtered Ti back collection electrode. The second is a normal DSC (N-DSC), which has no back electrode. The third is a back-contact-type DSC (BC-DSC), in which a sputtered Ti back electrode is deposited on a TiO 2 film on the opposite side of the normal glass as an optical window. The photocurrent response of an SW-DSC is the fastest of the three structures due to using intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, which can be explained by the electron diffusion model. The model shows that the SW-DSC is a favorable structure for effective charge collection in DSCs. (paper)

  19. Controlled Assembly of Nanorod TiO2 Crystals via a Sintering Process: Photoanode Properties in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Vafaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a synthetic method of obtaining 1D TiO2 nanorods with sintering methods using bundle-shaped 3D rutile TiO2 particles (3D BR-TiO2 with the dimensions of around 100 nm. The purpose of this research is (i to control crystallization of the mixture of two kinds of TiO2 semiconductor nanocrystals, that is, 3D BR-TiO2 and spherical anatase TiO2 (SA-TiO2 on FTO substrate via sintering process and (ii to establish a new method to create photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In addition, we focus on the preparation of low-cost and environmentally friendly titania electrode by adopting the “water-based” nanofluids. Our results provide useful guidance on how to improve the photovoltaic performance by reshaping the numerous 3D TiO2 particles to 1D TiO2-based electrodes with sintering technique.

  20. 3D periodic multiscale TiO_2 architecture: a platform decorated with graphene quantum dots for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Dongdong; Sun, Jing; Ding, Guqiao; Chang, Paichun

    2016-01-01

    Micropatterned TiO_2 nanorods (TiO_2NRs) via three-dimensional (3D) geometry engineering in both microscale and nanoscale decorated with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been demonstrated successfully. First, micropillar (MP) and microcave (MC) arrays of anatase TiO_2 films are obtained through the sol–gel based thermal nanoimprinting method. Then they are employed as seed layers in hydrothermal growth to fabricate the 3D micropillar/microcave arrays of rutile TiO_2NRs (NR), which show much-improved photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance than the TiO_2NRs grown on flat seed layer. The zero-dimensional GQDs are sequentially deposited onto the surfaces of the microscale patterned nanorods. Owing to the fast charge separation that resulted from the favorable band alignment of the GQDs and rutile TiO_2, the MP-NR-GQDs electrode achieves a photocurrent density up to 2.92 mA cm"−"2 under simulated one-sun illumination. The incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) value up to 72% at 370 nm was achieved on the MP-NR-GQDs electrode, which outperforms the flat-NR counterpart by 69%. The IPCE results also imply that the improved photocurrent mainly benefits from the distinctly enhanced ultraviolet response. The work provides a cost-effective and flexible pathway to develop periodic 3D micropatterned photoelectrodes and is promising for the future deployment of high performance optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  1. Hierarchical top-porous/bottom-tubular TiO 2 nanostructures decorated with Pd nanoparticles for efficient photoelectrocatalytic decomposition of synergistic pollutants

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2012-02-22

    In this paper, top-porous and bottom-tubular TiO 2 nanotubes (TiO 2 NTs) loaded with palladium nanoparticles (Pd/TiO 2 NTs) were fabricated as an electrode for an enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity toward organic dye decomposition. TiO 2 NTs with a unique hierarchical top-porous and bottom-tubular structure were prepared by a facile two-step anodization method and Pd nanoparticles were decorated onto the TiO 2 NTs via a photoreduction process. The PEC activity of Pd/TiO 2 NTs was investigated by decomposition of methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB). Because of formation Schottky junctions between TiO 2 and Pd, which significantly promoted the electron transfer and reduced the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes, the Pd/TiO 2 NT electrode showed significantly higher PEC activities than TiO 2 NTs. Interestingly, an obvious synergy between two dyes was observed and corresponding mechanism based on facilitated transfer of electrons and holes as a result of a suitable energy level alignment was suggested. The findings of this work provide a fundamental insight not only into the fabrication but also utility of Schottky junctions for enhanced environmental remediation processes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Biofilm formation on a TiO2 nanotube with controlled pore diameter and surface wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anitha, V C; Narayan Banerjee, Arghya; Woo Joo, Sang; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae; Ki Min, Bong

    2015-01-01

    Titania (TiO 2 ) nanotube arrays (TNAs) with different pore diameters (140 − 20 nm) are fabricated via anodization using hydrofluoric acid (HF) containing ethylene glycol (EG) by changing the HF-to-EG volume ratio and the anodization voltage. To evaluate the effects of different pore diameters of TiO 2 nanotubes on bacterial biofilm formation, Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis) MR-1 cells and a crystal-violet biofilm assay are used. The surface roughness and wettability of the TNA surfaces as a function of pore diameter, measured via the contact angle and AFM techniques, are correlated with the controlled biofilm formation. Biofilm formation increases with the decreasing nanotube pore diameter, and a 20 nm TiO 2 nanotube shows the maximum biofilm formation. The measurements revealed that 20 nm surfaces have the least hydrophilicity with the highest surface roughness of ∼17 nm and that they show almost a 90% increase in the effective surface area relative to the 140 nm TNAs, which stimulate the cells more effectively to produce the pili to attach to the surface for more biofilm formation. The results demonstrate that bacterial cell adhesion (and hence, biofilm formation) can effectively be controlled by tuning the roughness and wettability of TNAs via controlling the pore diameters of TNA surfaces. This biofilm formation as a function of the surface properties of TNAs can be a potential candidate for both medical applications and as electrodes in microbial fuel cells. (paper)

  3. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized TiO2 nanopowder involving choline chloride based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicai, Liana; Petica, Aurora; Patroi, Delia; Marinescu, Virgil; Prioteasa, Paula; Costovici, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 nanopowder electrochemically prepared using choline chloride based ionic liquids. • The new proposed method allowed high anodic synthesis efficiencies of minimum 92%. • High surface area of the electrochemically synthesized titania nanopowders. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The paper presents some experimental results regarding the electrochemical synthesis of TiO 2 nanopowders through anodic dissolution of Ti metal in choline chloride based eutectic mixtures (DES). A detailed characterization of the obtained titania has been performed, using various techniques, including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM associated with EDX analysis, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The anodic behavior of Ti electrode in DES has been also investigated. The photoreactivity of the synthesized materials was evaluated for the degradation of Orange II dye under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible light irradiation. An anodic synthesis efficiency of minimum 92% has been determined. The as-synthesized TiO 2 showed amorphous structure and a calcination post-treatment at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C yielded anatase. The anodically obtained nanocrystalline oxides have crystallite sizes of 8–18 nm, a high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic effect

  4. Anodic Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries: TiO2-rGO Composites for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minella, M.; Versaci, D.; Casino, S.; Di Lupo, F.; Minero, C.; Battiato, A.; Penazzi, N.; Bodoardo, S.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide/reduced graphene oxide (TiO 2 -rGO) composites were synthesized at different loadings of carbonaceous phase, characterized and used as anode materials in Lithium-ion cells, focusing not only on the high rate capability but also on the simplicity and low cost of the electrode production. It was therefore chosen to use commercial TiO 2 , GO was synthesized from graphite, adsorbed onto TiO 2 and reduced to rGO following a chemical, a photocatalytic and an in situ photocatalytic procedure. The synthesized materials were in-depth characterized with a multi-technique approach and the electrochemical performances were correlated i) to an effective reduction of the GO oxidized moieties and ii) to the maintenance of the 2D geometry of the final graphenic structure observed. TiO 2 -rGO obtained with the first two procedures showed good cycle stability, high capacity and impressive rate capability particularly at 10% GO loading. The photocatalytic reduction applied in situ on preassembled electrodes showed similarly good results reaching the goal of a further simplification of the anode production.

  5. Undoped TiO2 particles as photoactive material for integrated metal-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Joel; Calleja, Wilfrido; Hernández, Luis; Zúñiga, Carlos; Linares, Monico; Wade, F. Javier

    2015-01-01

    Rutile-phase undoped TiO 2 nanoparticles are embedded within an organic SiO 2 matrix and the final dielectric mixture is then deposited by spinning on a thin film of aluminum (previously deposited on glass covers by e-beam evaporation). This so called “horizontal” TiO 2 -SiO 2 /Al/Glass structure is then electrically characterized under dark and light conditions (I-V-light) so that the total resistance of a simple aluminum stripe is measured and correlated before and after UV-Vis irradiation. Compared to dark conditions, excess carriers are photogenerated within the TiO 2 nanoparticles during light exposure and they are directly transferred to both ends of the aluminum stripe after applying a low potential difference (photoresistor). On the other hand, “vertical” structures using ultra-thin titanium films as a gate electrode produce a capacitor in the form of a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) structure. Because of the ultra-thin titanium layer, this gate electrode is highly transparent to all UV-Vis irradiation so that when all carriers are being photogenerated, a vertical transition of these carriers between top/bottom (Ti/Al) electrodes by an applied external electric field would require a shorter distance thus increasing their lifetime before recombination as compared to the horizontal structures. These vertical structures are able to photogenerate carriers more efficiently and they are similar in function to that of a so-called photocapacitor, where all carriers could be efficiently stored within the dielectric itself right after photogeneration. Therefore, a light-driven self-charging capacitor having an efficient storage mechanism of solar energy could be obtained. (full text)

  6. Fabrication and Characteristics of Macroporous TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyun Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by a facile nanocasting method using polystyrene (PS spherical particles as the hard template. The synthesized photocatalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and N2-sorption. TEM, SEM, and XRD characterizations confirmed that the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst is composed of anatase phase. The high specific surface area of 87.85 m2/g can be achieved according to the N2-sorption analysis. Rhodamine B (RhB was chosen as probe molecule to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 catalysts. Compared with the TiO2 materials synthesized in the absence of PS spherical template, the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst sintered at 500°C exhibits much higher activity on the degradation of RhB under the UV irradiation, which can be assigned to the well-structured macroporosity. The macroporous TiO2 material presents great potential in the fields of environmental remediation and energy conversion and storage.

  7. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  8. TiO2-ITO and TiO2-ZnO nanocomposites: application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessais B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising ideas to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 is to couple this photocatalyst with other semiconductors. In this work, we report on the development of photo-catalytic properties of two types of composites based on TiO2 – ITO (Indium Tin Oxide and TiO2 – ZnO deposited on conventional ceramic substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The photo-catalytic test was carried out under UV light in order to reduce/oxidize a typical textile dye (Cibacron Yellow. The experiment was carried out in a bench scale reactor using a solution having a known initial dye concentration. After optimization, we found that both nanocomposites exhibit better photocatalytic activity compared to the standard photocatalyst P25 TiO2.

  9. Fabrication of TiO2/Carbon Photocatalyst using Submerged DC Arc Discharged in Ethanol/Acetic Acid Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, T. E.; Nandika, A. O.; Andhika, I. F.; Patiha; Purnawan, C.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to fabricate a modified photocatalyst of TiO2/C to enhance its performance. The fabrication was achieved using the submerged direct current (DC) arc-discharge method employing two graphite electrodes, one of which was filled with a mixture of carbon powder, TiO2, and binder, in ethanol with acetic acid added in various concentrations. The arc-discharge method was conducted by flowing a current of 10-20 A (~20 V). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed significant placements of the main peak characteristics of TiO2, C graphite, and titanium carbide. The surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that fabricated TiO2/C nanoparticles had stretching vibrations of Ti-O, C-H, C═O, C-O, O-H and C═C in the regions of 450-550 cm-1, 2900-2880 cm-1, 1690-1760 cm-1, 1050-1300 cm-1, 3400-3700 cm-1 and ~1600 cm-1, respectively. In addition, the study investigated the photocatalysts of unmodified and modified TiO2/C for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye solution under mercury lamp irradiation. The effectiveness of the degradation was defined by the decrease in 60-minute absorbance under a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Modified TiO2/C proved to be significantly more efficient in reducing dye concentrations, reaching ~70%. It indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups have been successfully attached to the surface of the nanoparticles and played a role in enhancing photocatalytic activity.

  10. Eco-friendly synthesis of core-shell structured (TiO2/Li2CO3) nanomaterials for low cost dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppuchamy, S; Brundha, C

    2016-12-01

    Core-shell structured TiO 2 /Li 2 CO 3 electrode was successfully synthesized by eco-friendly solution growth technique. TiO 2 /Li 2 CO 3 electrodes were characterized using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photocurrent-voltage measurements. The synthesized core-shell electrode material was sensitized with tetrabutylammonium cis-di(thiocyanato)-N,N'-bis(4-carboxylato-4'-carboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenate(II) (N-719). The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on N719 dye modified TiO 2 /Li 2 CO 3 electrodes was investigated. The effect of various shell thickness on the photovoltaic performance of the core-shell structured electrode is also investigated. We found that Li 2 CO 3 shells of all thicknesses perform as inert barriers which improve open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of the DSCs. The energy conversion efficiency was greatly dependent on the thickness of Li 2 CO 3 on TiO 2 film, and the highest efficiency of 3.7% was achieved at the optimum Li 2 CO 3 shell layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ??????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????-???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?aO?Al2O3?TiO2 ??? ???????? ?????? ?????

    OpenAIRE

    ???????, ????; ??????, ?????????

    2011-01-01

    ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????-????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?aO?Al2O3?TiO2, ?? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? 12000?, ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ???? ? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ????????, ?? ?? ...

  12. First-principles investigation of aluminum intercalation and diffusion in TiO2 materials: Anatase versus rutile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiqiang; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi; Zhao, Shuangliang; Liu, Honglai

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum-ion batteries, emerging as a promising post-lithium battery solution, have been a subject of increasing research interest. Yet, most existing aluminum-ion research has focused on electrode materials development and synthesis. There has been a lack of fundamental understanding of the electrode processes and thus theoretical guidelines for electrode materials selection and design. In this study, by using density functional theory, we for the first time report a first-principles investigation on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of aluminum intercalation into two common TiO2 polymorphs, i.e., anatase and rutile. After examining the aluminum intercalation sites, intercalation voltages, storage capacities and aluminum diffusion paths in both cases, we demonstrate that the stable aluminum intercalation site locates at the center of the O6 octahedral for TiO2 rutile and off center for TiO2 anatase. The maximum achievable Al/Ti ratios for rutile and anatase are 0.34375 and 0.36111, respectively. Although rutile is found to have an aluminum storage capacity slightly higher than anatase, the theoretical specific energy of rutile can reach 20.90 Wh kg-1, nearly twice as high as anatase (9.84 Wh kg-1). Moreover, the diffusion coefficient of aluminum ions in rutile is 10-9 cm2 s-1, significantly higher than that in anatase (10-20 cm2 s-1). In this regard, TiO2 rutile appears to be a better candidate than anatase as an electrode material for aluminum-ion batteries.

  13. Enhanced Optoelectronic Properties of PFO/Fluorol 7GA Hybrid Light Emitting Diodes via Additions of TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of TiO2 nanoparticle (NP content on the improvement of poly(9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl (PFO/Fluorol 7GA organic light emitting diode (OLED performance is demonstrated here. The PFO/Fluorol 7GA blend with specific ratios of TiO2 NPs was prepared via a solution blending method before being spin-coated onto an indium tin oxide (ITO substrate to act as an emissive layer in OLEDs. A thin aluminum layer as top electrode was deposited onto the emissive layer using the electron beam chamber. Improvement electron injection from the cathode was achieved upon incorporation of TiO2 NPs into the PFO/Fluorol 7GA blend, thus producing devices with intense luminance and lower turn-on voltage. The ITO/(PFO/Fluorol 7GA/TiO2/Al OLED device exhibited maximum electroluminescence intensity and luminance at 25 wt % of TiO2 NPs, while maximum luminance efficiency was achieved with 15 wt % TiO2 NP content. In addition, this work proved that the performance of the devices was strongly affected by the surface morphology, which in turn depended on the TiO2 NP content.

  14. Improved Light Conversion Efficiency Of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell By Dispersing Submicron-Sized Granules Into The Nano-Sized TiO2 Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song S.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles and submicron-sized granules were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and spray pyrolysis, respectively. Submicron-sized granules were dispersed into the nano-sized TiO2 layer to improve the light conversion efficiency. Granules showed better light scattering, but lower in terms of the dye-loading quantity and recombination resistance compared with nanoparticles. Consequently, the nano-sized TiO2 layer had higher cell efficiency than the granulized TiO2 layer. When dispersed granules into the nanoparticle layer, the light scattering was enhanced without the loss of dye-loading quantities. The dispersion of granulized TiO2 led to increase the cell efficiency up to 6.51%, which was about 5.2 % higher than that of the electrode consisting of only TiO2 nanoparticles. Finally, the optimal hydrothermal temperature and dispersing quantity of granules were found to be 200°C and 20 wt%, respectively.

  15. Thermal degradation of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaram, Anish; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research was to study thermal degradation behavior of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium (Ti). TiO2 nanotubes were grown via anodization method on commercially pure Ti (Cp-Ti) discs using two different electrolytes, 1 vol. % HF in deionized (DI) water and 1 vol. % HF + 0.5 wt. % NH4F + 10 vol. % DI water in ethylene glycol, to obtain nanotubes with two different lengths, 300 nm and 950 nm keeping the nanotube diameter constant at 100 ± 20 nm. As grown TiO2 nanotubes were subjected to heat treatment to understand thermal degradation as a function of both temperature and hold time. The signs of degradation were observed mainly when amorphous nanotubes started to crystallize, however the crystallization temperature varied based on TiO2 nanotubes length and anodizing condition. Overall, 300 nm nanotubes were thermally stable at least up to 400 °C for 12 h, while the 950 nm long nanotubes show signs of degradation from 400 °C for 6 h only. Clearly, length of nanotubes, heat treatment temperature as well as hold times show influence toward degradation kinetics of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium.

  16. Electrochemiluminescent pH sensor measured by the emission potential of TiO2 nanocrystals and its biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Wang, Nianyue; Zhao, Wei; Jiang, Hui

    2015-02-01

    This work reports for the first time a potential-based nano-electrochemiluminescent (ECL) pH sensor, using anatase TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) as the ECL probe. The first ECL peak potential of the TiO2 NCs shifted negatively with increasing pH, showing a linear range from -0.47 V (vs Ag/AgCl) at pH 3 to -1.06 V at pH 10. This phenomenon was attributed to the absorption of 'potential-determining ions' of OH(-) on the surface of TiO2 NCs, leading to larger impedance of the electron injection. Other common 'potential-determining ions', such as phosphate, induced a slight potential shift of 0.03 V at a concentration of 0.1 M. Using urease as an enzyme model, a urea biosensor was developed by the simultaneous modification of urease and TiO2 NCs on indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The biosensor, measured on the basis of the pH increase caused by the enzyme catalysis reaction, had a linear range of 0.01-2.0 mM, with a potential shift of 0.175 V. The as-prepared pH sensor, which has simple construction procedures and acceptable sensitivity and selectivity, may provide new avenues for the construction of ECL bioanalytical methodologies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. H2O-EG-assisted synthesis of uniform urchinlike rutile TiO2 with superior lithium storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun Song; Liang, Yen Nan; Li, Yongmei; Yan, Qingyu; Hu, Xiao

    2013-10-23

    A facile green method to synthesize uniform nanostructured urchinlike rutile TiO2 is demonstrated. Titanium trichloride was selected as the TiO2 precursor, and a mixed solvent containing H2O and ethylene glycol was used. By using this binary medium, the nucleation and crystal growth of rutile TiO2 can be regulated, giving rise to very uniform urchinlike structures with tailorable sizes. As confirmed by the SEM and TEM analysis, large particles with dense aggregation of needle-like building blocks or small ones with loosely packed subunits could be obtained at different reaction conditions. The as-prepared samples were applied as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, and they were shown to have superior properties with a high reversible capacity of 140 mA h g(-1) at a high current rate of 10 C for up to 300 cycles, which is almost unmatched by other rutile TiO2-based electrodes. A stable capacity of 88 mA h g(-1) can also be delivered at an extremely high rate of 50 C, suggesting the great potential of the as-prepared product for high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells using TiO2/reduced graphene oxide films as electron transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Andreia; Alves, João Paulo C.; Lima, Francisco Anderson S.; Lira-Cantu, Monica; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells with the following configuration: fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) |TiO2/RGO|P3HT:PC61BM|V2O5 or PEDOT:PSS|Ag. The TiO2/GO dispersions were prepared by sol-gel method, employing titanium isopropoxide and graphene oxide (GO) as starting materials. The GO concentration was varied from 0.1 to 4.0 wt%. The corresponding dispersions were spin-coated onto FTO substrates and a thermal treatment was performed to remove organic materials and to reduce GO to reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The TiO2/RGO films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed that the addition of RGO significantly changes the morphology of the TiO2 films, with loss of uniformity and increase in surface roughness. Independent of the use of V2O5 or PEDOT: PSS films as the hole transport layer, the incorporation of 2.0 wt% of RGO into TiO2 films was the optimal concentration for the best organic photovoltaic performance. The solar cells based on TiO2/RGO (2.0 wt%) electrode exhibited a ˜22.3% and ˜28.9% short circuit current density (Jsc) and a power conversion efficiency enhancement, respectively, if compared with the devices based on pure TiO2 films. Kelvin probe force microscopy images suggest that the incorporation of RGO into TiO2 films can promote the appearance of regions with different charge dissipation capacities.

  19. Synthesis of titanate, TiO2 (B), and anatase TiO2 nanofibers from natural rutile sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavasupree, Sorapong; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Kawahata, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Titanate nanofibers were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) and anatase TiO 2 (high crystallinity) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-100 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively. The samples characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, HRTEM, and BET surface area. This synthesis method provides a simple route to fabricate one-dimensional nanostructured TiO 2 from low cost material. -- Graphical abstract: Titanate nanofibers (b) were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand (a) as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) (c) and anatase TiO 2 (d) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-50 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively

  20. Effect of TiO2 on the Gas Sensing Features of TiO2/PANi Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Ngoc Huyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and polyaniline (PANi was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi monomer and TiCl4 as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO2 and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH3 gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO2 shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600–700%, 20–25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO2 nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules.

  1. Rapid thermal melted TiO2 nano-particles into ZnO nano-rod and its application for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Ching-Hsun; Chang, Chi-Lung; Chan, Chien-Hung; Lien, Shui-Yang; Weng, Ko-Wei; Yao, Kuo-Shan

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 nano-particles with an anchored ZnO nano-rod structure were synthesized using the hydrothermal method to grow ZnO nano-rods and coated TiO 2 nano-particles on ZnO nano-rods using the rapid thermal annealing method on ITO conducting glass pre-coated with nano porous TiO 2 film. The XRD study showed that there was little difference in crystal composition for various types of TiO 2 nano-particles anchored to ZnO nano-rods. The as-prepared architecture was characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Films with TiO 2 nano-particles anchored to ZnO nano-rods were used as electrode materials to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The best solar energy conversion efficiency of 2.397% was obtained by modified electrode material, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J sc = 15.382 mA/cm 2 , V oc = 0.479 V and fill factor = 32.8%.

  2. Solar cells with PbS quantum dot sensitized TiO2-multiwalled carbon nanotube composites, sulfide-titania gel and tin sulfide coated C-fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokal, Ramesh K; Deepa, Melepurath; Kalluri, Ankarao; Singh, Shrishti; Macwan, Isaac; Patra, Prabir K; Gilarde, Jeff

    2017-10-04

    Novel approaches to boost quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) efficiencies are in demand. Herein, three strategies are used: (i) a hydrothermally synthesized TiO 2 -multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite instead of conventional TiO 2 , (ii) a counter electrode (CE) that has not been applied to QDSCs until now, namely, tin sulfide (SnS) nanoparticles (NPs) coated over a conductive carbon (C)-fabric, and (iii) a quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte composed of S 2- , an inert polymer and TiO 2 nanoparticles as opposed to a polysulfide solution based hole transport layer. MWCNTs by virtue of their high electrical conductivity and suitably positioned Fermi level (below the conduction bands of TiO 2 and PbS) allow fast photogenerated electron injection into the external circuit, and this is confirmed by a higher efficiency of 6.3% achieved for a TiO 2 -MWCNT/PbS/ZnS based (champion) cell, compared to the corresponding TiO 2 /PbS/ZnS based cell (4.45%). Nanoscale current map analysis of TiO 2 and TiO 2 -MWCNTs reveals the presence of narrowly spaced highly conducting domains in the latter, which equips it with an average current carrying capability greater by a few orders of magnitude. Electron transport and recombination resistances are lower and higher respectively for the TiO 2 -MWCNT/PbS/ZnS cell relative to the TiO 2 /PbS/ZnS cell, thus leading to a high performance cell. The efficacy of SnS/C-fabric as a CE is confirmed from the higher efficiency achieved in cells with this CE compared to the C-fabric based cells. Lower charge transfer and diffusional resistances, slower photovoltage decay, high electrical conductance and lower redox potential impart high catalytic activity to the SnS/C-fabric assembly for sulfide reduction and thus endow the TiO 2 -MWCNT/PbS/ZnS cell with a high open circuit voltage (0.9 V) and a large short circuit current density (∼20 mA cm -2 ). This study attempts to unravel how simple strategies can amplify QDSC performances.

  3. Efficient Solar Energy Storage Using A TiO2/WO3 Tandem Photoelectrode in An All-vanadium Photoelectrochemical Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong; Wei, Zi; Hsu, Chia-jen; Shen, Yi; Liu, Fuqiang

    2014-01-01

    Using a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell to convert solar energy to either electricity or chemical fuels has attracted much attention in the last four decades. However, two major obstacles that hinder wide-spread application of this approach lie in the relatively wide bandgap of chemically stable semiconducotrs, e.g., TiO 2 , and the rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers once they are generated within the semiconductors. We reported herein a method that utilized vanadium redox pairs, which are commonly used in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRB), to mitigate charge carrier recombination and thus to improve photoresponse in regenerative solar energy storage for the first time. The results showed significant improvement in photocurrent during photo-charging of the all-vanadium PEC storage cell with the addition of a very low morlarity of vanadium redox species (0.01 M) to the acid electrolytes. Additonally, the photocurrent was almost doubled even with a TiO 2 electrode when two vanadium redox species were used in a full-cell configuration instead of a half-cell setup. To further enhance the light absorption, a TiO 2 /WO 3 tandem electrode was studied and compared to the TiO 2 electrode in various vanadium redox electrolytes. The tandem electrode showed higher photoresponse in all electrolytes investigated. Furthermore, the important role of vanadium redox species and WO 3 have been discussed

  4. Control of crystallographic texture and surface morphology of Pt/Tio2 templates for enhanced PZT thin film texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Austin J; Drawl, Bill; Fox, Glen R; Gibbons, Brady J; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Optimized processing conditions for Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si templating electrodes were investigated. These electrodes are used to obtain [111] textured thin film lead zirconate titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1-x ]O3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) (PZT). Titanium deposited by dc magnetron sputtering yields [0001] texture on a thermally oxidized Si wafer. It was found that by optimizing deposition time, pressure, power, and the chamber pre-conditioning, the Ti texture could be maximized while maintaining low surface roughness. When oxidized, titanium yields [100]-oriented rutile. This seed layer has as low as a 4.6% lattice mismatch with [111] Pt; thus, it is possible to achieve strongly oriented [111] Pt. The quality of the orientation and surface roughness of the TiO2 and the Ti directly affect the achievable Pt texture and surface morphology. A transition between optimal crystallographic texture and the smoothest templating surface occurs at approximately 30 nm of original Ti thickness (45 nm TiO2). This corresponds to 0.5 nm (2 nm for TiO2) rms roughness as determined by atomic force microscopy and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve 0002 (200) peak of 5.5/spl degrees/ (3.1/spl degrees/ for TiO2). A Pb[Zr0.52Ti 0.48]O3 layer was deposited and shown to template from the textured Pt electrode, with a maximum [111] Lotgering factor of 87% and a minimum 111 FWHM of 2.4/spl degrees/ at approximately 30 nm of original Ti.

  5. Assembly of individual TiO2-C60/porphyrin hybrid nanoparticles for enhancement of photoconversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jae Kwon; Park, Se Ho; Song, Hyunjoon; Park, Joon T; Kim, Chulwoo; Ko, Jaejung; Seo, Won Seok

    2011-01-01

    Rational organization of porphyrin and C 60 on the electrode surface in photovoltaic structures is essential to yield high quantum efficiency. In the present work, individual TiO 2 nanoparticles were modified by introducing C 60 and porphyrin units on the surface, and then electrophoretically deposited on an ITO/SnO 2 electrode. The morphology of the photoactive layer on the electrode was significantly different from that of the layer produced as a result of separate deposition of C 60 and porphyrin. The maximum incident photon to current efficiency of the resulting electrode approached 88% at 410 nm, which is the highest value among molecule-based photovoltaic cells reported to date. This indicates that molecular assembly of the C 60 and porphyrin units on the individual nanoparticles through strong chemical attachment is a key factor in improving effective electron transfer between the photoactive units and the electrodes.

  6. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatil Amali Che Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC, TiO2/carbon (C, and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1. The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.

  7. Rapid charge-discharge property of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanosheet and nanotube composites as anode material for power lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Fang, Zi-Kui; Xie, Ying; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Yang, Shuang-Yuan

    2014-11-26

    Well-defined Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanosheet and nanotube composites have been synthesized by a solvothermal process. The combination of in situ generated rutile-TiO2 in Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets or nanotubes is favorable for reducing the electrode polarization, and Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanocomposites show faster lithium insertion/extraction kinetics than that of pristine Li4Ti5O12 during cycling. Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 electrodes also display lower charge-transfer resistance and higher lithium diffusion coefficients than pristine Li4Ti5O12. Therefore, Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 electrodes display lower charge-transfer resistance and higher lithium diffusion coefficients. This reveals that the in situ TiO2 modification improves the electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity of the electrode in the local environment, resulting in its relatively higher capacity at high charge-discharge rate. Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanocomposite with a Li/Ti ratio of 3.8:5 exhibits the lowest charge-transfer resistance and the highest lithium diffusion coefficient among all samples, and it shows a much improved rate capability and specific capacity in comparison with pristine Li4Ti5O12 when charging and discharging at a 10 C rate. The improved high-rate capability, cycling stability, and fast charge-discharge performance of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanocomposites can be ascribed to the improvement of electrochemical reversibility, lithium ion diffusion, and conductivity by in situ TiO2 modification.

  8. Sulphur doped nanoparticles of TiO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szatmáry, Lórant; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Bezdička, Petr; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Bastl, Zdeněk; Brezová, V.; Korenko, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-28 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : photocatalyst * S-doped TiO2 * Thiourea Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  9. Impedance spectroscopy studies of surface engineered TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Impedance; nanoTiO2; self-assembled monolayers; electrical resistivity; permittivity. 1. Introduction ... search studies showed that nanostructured TiO2 ceramics possess ..... tion handbook (ed) J Cazes (New York: Marcel Dekker). 3rd ed, p ...

  10. Supercritical Flow Synthesis of TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus has been constructed in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis. TiO2 is a well-known mater...

  11. Fluoropolymer - TiO2 coatings and their superhydrophilicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Jepsen, Henrik

    In this work the superhydrophilicity of coatings on fluoropolymer were investigated. The different coatings were prepared by help of P25 Degussa TiO2 powder, titaniumisopropoxide, Lumiflon® and two different curing agents (BL 3175 and Cymel 303). The investigations were performed by help of a sta...

  12. High-pressure polymorphs of anatase TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlt, T.; Bermejo, M.; Blanco, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The equation of state of anatase TiO2 has been determined experimentally-using polycrystalline as well as single-crystal material-and compared with theoretical calculations using the ab initio perturbed ion model. The results are highly consistent, the zero-pressure bulk modulus being 179(2) GPa ...

  13. Protein Corona Prevents TiO2 Phototoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Garvas

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles have generally low toxicity in the in vitro systems although some toxicity is expected to originate in the TiO2-associated photo-generated radical production, which can however be modulated by the radical trapping ability of the serum proteins. To explore the role of serum proteins in the phototoxicity of the TiO2 nanoparticles we measure viability of the exposed cells depending on the nanoparticle and serum protein concentrations.Fluorescence and spin trapping EPR spectroscopy reveal that the ratio between the nanoparticle and protein concentrations determines the amount of the nanoparticles' surface which is not covered by the serum proteins and is proportional to the amount of photo-induced radicals. Phototoxicity thus becomes substantial only at the protein concentration being too low to completely coat the nanotubes' surface.These results imply that TiO2 nanoparticles should be applied with ligands such as proteins when phototoxic effects are not desired - for example in cosmetics industry. On the other hand, the nanoparticles should be used in serum free medium or any other ligand free medium, when phototoxic effects are desired - as for efficient photodynamic cancer therapy.

  14. Are TiO2 nanotubes worth using in photocatalytic purification of air and water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Pierre

    2014-09-19

    Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNT) have mainly been used in dye sensitized solar cells, essentially because of a higher transport rate of electrons from the adsorbed photo-excited dye to the Ti electrode onto which TNT instead of TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) are attached. The dimension ranges and the two main synthesis methods of TNT are briefly indicated here. Not surprisingly, the particular and regular texture of TNT was also expected to improve the photocatalytic efficacy for pollutant removal in air and water with respect to TNP. In this short review, the validity of this expectation is checked using the regrettably small number of literature comparisons between TNT and commercialized TNP referring to films of similar thickness and layers or slurries containing an equal TiO2 mass. Although the irradiated geometrical area differed for each study, it was identical for each comparison considered here. For the removal of toluene (methylbenzene) or acetaldehyde (ethanal) in air, the average ratio of the efficacy of TNT over that of TiO2 P25 was about 1.5, and for the removal of dyes in water, it was around 1. This lack of major improvement with TNT compared to TNP could partially be due to TNT texture disorders as seems to be suggested by the better average performance of anodic oxidation-prepared TNT. It could also come from the fact that the properties influencing the efficacy are more numerous, their interrelations more complex and their effects more important for pollutant removal than for dye sensitized solar cells and photoelectrocatalysis where the electron transport rate is the crucial parameter.

  15. Improving Reversible Capacities of High-Surface Lithium Insertion Materials – The Case of Amorphous TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, Swapna; Basak, Shibabrata; Lefering, Anton; Rogers, Edith; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Chemisorbed water and solvent molecules and their reactivity with components from the electrolyte in high-surface nano-structured electrodes remains a contributing factor toward capacity diminishment on cycling in lithium ion batteries due to the limit in maximum annealing temperature. Here, we report a marked improvement in the capacity retention of amorphous TiO 2 by the choice of preparation solvent, control of annealing temperature, and the presence of surface functional groups. Careful heating of the amorphous TiO 2 sample prepared in acetone under vacuum lead to complete removal of all molecular solvent and an improved capacity retention of 220 mAh/g over 50 cycles at a C/10 rate. Amorphous TiO 2 when prepared in ethanol and heated under vacuum showed an even better capacity retention of 240 mAh/g. From Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, the improved capacity is attributed to the complete removal of ethanol and the presence of very small fractions of residual functional groups coordinated to oxygen-deficient surface titanium sites. These displace the more reactive chemisorbed hydroxyl groups, limiting reaction with components from the electrolyte and possibly enhancing the integrity of the solid electrolyte interface. The present research provides a facile strategy to improve the capacity retention of nano-structured electrode materials.

  16. TiO2--a prototypical memristive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szot, K; Rogala, M; Speier, W; Klusek, Z; Besmehn, A; Waser, R

    2011-06-24

    Redox-based memristive switching has been observed in many binary transition metal oxides and related compounds. Since, on the one hand, many recent reports utilize TiO(2) for their studies of the memristive phenomenon and, on the other hand, there is a long history of the electronic structure and the crystallographic structure of TiO(2) under the impact of reduction and oxidation processes, we selected this material as a prototypical material to provide deeper insight into the mechanisms behind memristive switching. In part I, we briefly outline the results of the historical and recent studies of electroforming and resistive switching of TiO(2)-based cells. We describe the (tiny) stoichiometrical range for TiO(2 - x) as a homogeneous compound, the aggregation of point defects (oxygen vacancies) into extended defects, and the formation of the various Magnéli phases. Furthermore, we discuss the driving forces for these solid-state reactions from the thermodynamical point of view. In part II, we provide new experimental details about the hierarchical transformation of TiO(2) single crystals into Magnéli phases, and vice versa, under the influence of chemical, electrical and thermal gradients, on the basis of the macroscopic and nanoscopic measurements. Those include thermogravimetry, high-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-temperature conductivity measurements, as well as low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and LC-AFM (atomic force microscope equipped with a conducting tip) studies. Conclusions are drawn concerning the relevant parameters that need to be controlled in order to tailor the memristive properties.

  17. Effect of surface Fe2O3 clusters on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for phenol degradation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiong; Leng, Wenhua; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface modified TiO 2 with iron oxide clusters through adsorption and decomposition of a large Fe(III) complex shows an enhanced activity for phenol degradation in water under UV light. But it was only observed with the clusters in a small size and at very low coverage on anatase. Highlights: ► Iron oxide clusters are made by decomposition of a large Fe(III) complex on TiO 2 . ► The modified anatase shows an enhanced activity for phenol photodegradation. ► The composite catalyst is very stable during four repeated experiments. - Abstract: Surface modification of TiO 2 with Fe 2 O 3 clusters was made through chemisorption of ferric phthalocyaninetetracarboxylate onto TiO 2 , followed by sintering in air to remove organic moiety. Solid characterization with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and other techniques showed that ferric oxides were highly dispersed on TiO 2 as a noncrystallized cluster, while TiO 2 phases remained unchanged. For phenol degradation in aerated aqueous suspension, only the sample containing less than 0.3 at.% Fe was more active than bare TiO 2 under UV light, whereas no activity was found under visible light. As anatase thermally transferred into rutile, the Fe-containing catalyst became less active than bare TiO 2 , mainly ascribed to the increased size of Fe 2 O 3 clusters. In the presence of H 2 O 2 , all Fe-containing catalysts were more active than bare TiO 2 . Moreover, similar trend in activity among different catalysts was also observed with the formation of hydroxyl radicals, and with the generation of photocurrent measured under N 2 with Fe/TiO 2 electrode. Present work clearly shows that only Fe 2 O 3 clusters in a small size and at low coverage on TiO 2 are beneficial to the photocatalytic reaction, while excess iron oxide is detrimental. Possible mechanism is discussed in the text.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of multilayered photoanodes by introducing mesoporous carbon and TiO2 for humic acid adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Soraya; Jahangirian, Hossein; Webster, Thomas J; Soltani, Salman Masoudi; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured photoanodes were prepared via a novel combination of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and mesoporous carbon (C). Four different photoanodes were synthesized by sol–gel spin coating onto a glassy substrate of fluorine-doped tin oxide. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2, TiO2/C/TiO2, TiO2/C/C/TiO2, and TiO2/C/TiO2/C/TiO2 photoanodes were evaluated by exposing the synthesized photoanodes to UV–visible light. The photocurrent density observed in these photoanodes confirmed that an additional layer of mesoporous carbon could successfully increase the photocurrent density. The highest photocurrent density of ~1.022 mA cm−2 at 1 V/saturated calomel electrode was achieved with TiO2/C/C/TiO2 under an illumination intensity of 100 mW cm−2 from a solar simulator. The highest value of surface roughness was measured for a TiO2/C/C/TiO2 combination owing to the presence of two continuous layers of mesoporous carbon. The resulting films had a thickness ranging from 1.605 µm to 5.165 µm after the calcination process. The presence of double-layer mesoporous carbon resulted in a 20% increase in the photocurrent density compared with the TiO2/C/TiO2 combination when only a single mesoporous carbon layer was employed. The improved performance of these photoanodes can be attributed to the enhanced porosity and increased void space due to the presence of mesoporous carbon. For the first time, it has been demonstrated here that the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2 can be improved by integrating several layers of mesoporous carbon. Comparison of the rate of removal of humic acid by the prepared photoanodes showed that the highest performance from TiO2/C/C/TiO2 was due to the highest photocurrent density generated. Therefore, this study showed that optimizing the sequence of mesoporous carbon layers can be a viable and inexpensive method for enhanced humic acid removal. PMID:27574426

  19. Interface architecture determined electrocatalytic activity of Pt on vertically oriented TiO(2) nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, Robert E; Allam, Nageh K; Alamgir, Faisal M

    2011-02-01

    The surface atomic structure and chemical state of Pt is consequential in a variety of surface-intensive devices. Herein we present the direct interrelationship between the growth scheme of Pt films, the resulting atomic and electronic structure of Pt species, and the consequent activity for methanol electro-oxidation in Pt/TiO(2) nanotube hybrid electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were performed to relate the observed electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation state and the atomic structure of the deposited Pt species. The atomic structure as well as the oxidation state of the deposited Pt was found to depend on the pretreatment of the TiO(2) nanotube surfaces with electrodeposited Cu. Pt growth through Cu replacement increases Pt dispersion, and a separation of surface Pt atoms beyond a threshold distance from the TiO(2) substrate renders them metallic, rather than cationic. The increased dispersion and the metallic character of Pt results in strongly enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation. This study points to a general phenomenon whereby the growth scheme and the substrate-to-surface-Pt distance dictates the chemical state of the surface Pt atoms, and thereby, the performance of Pt-based surface-intensive devices.

  20. Hybrid Solar Cell with TiO2 Film: BBOT Polymer and Copper Phthalocyanine as Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadip Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell was fabricated using Titanium dioxide (TiO2: 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl thiophene (BBOT film and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc as a sensitizer. BBOT was used in photodetector in other reported research works, but as per best of our knowledge, it was not implemented in solar cells till date. The blend of TiO2: BBOT blend was used to fabricate the film on ITO-coated glass and further a thin layer of CuPc was coated on the film. This was acted as photoanode and another ITO coated glass with a platinum coating was used as a counter electrode (cathode. An optimal blend of acetonitrile (solvent (50-100%, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (10-25%, iodine (2.5-10% and lithium iodide, pyridine derivative and thiocyanate was used as electrolytes in the hybrid solar cell. The different structural, optical and electrical characteristics were measured. The Hybrid solar cell showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.51%.

  1. A Humidity Sensor Based on Nb-doped Nanoporous TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Anbia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The humidity sensing properties of the sensor fabricated from Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 by screen-printing on the alumina substrate with Ag-Pd interdigital electrodes have been investigated. The nanoporous thin film has been prepared by sol-gel technique. The product has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the structure and its morphology. It is found that the impedance of this sensor changes more than four orders of magnitude in the relative humidity (RH range of 11–95 % at 25 °C. The response and recovery time of the sensor are about 19 and 25 s, respectively, during the RH variation from 11 to 95 %. The sensor shows high humidity sensitivity, rapid response and recovery, prominent stability, good repeatability and narrow hysteresis loop. These results indicate that Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 thin films have a great potential for humidity sensing applications in room temperature operations.

  2. Photoelectrochemical energy conversion obtained with ultrathin organo-metallic-chemical-vapor-deposition layer of FeS2 (pyrite) on TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennaoui, A.; Fiechter, S.; Tributsch, H.; Giersig, M.; Vogel, R.; Weller, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrathin (10 to 20 nm thick), polycrystalline films of FeS 2 (pyrite) were grown on TiO 2 (anatase) by chemical vapor deposition. The FeS 2 films were characterized using optical absorption and high-resolution electron microscopy. Photoelectrochemical solar cells, using TiO 2 (anatase) coated with FeS 2 ultrathin films, generated high open-circuit photo-voltages, of up to 600 mV, compared with a single crystal of pyrite electrode (200 mV). The photoelectrochemical behavior shows a strong dependence of photovoltage and photocurrent on the pH of the solution. This paper reports that it is explained by electron injection from the conduction band of FeS 2 to the conduction band of TiO 2 . Regeneration of holes is taking place by electron transfer from the redox system in the electrolyte

  3. Fate of pristine TiO2 nanoparticles and aged paint-containing TiO2 nanoparticles in lettuce crop after foliar exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Trcera, Nicolas; Sorieul, Stéphanie; Cécillon, Lauric; Ouerdane, Laurent; Legros, Samuel; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-05-30

    Engineered TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are present in a large variety of consumer products, and are produced in largest amount. The building industry is a major sector using TiO2-NPs, especially in paints. The fate of NPs after their release in the environment is still largely unknown, and their possible transfer in plants and subsequent impacts have not been studied in detail. The foliar transfer pathway is even less understood than the root pathway. In this study, lettuces were exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs and aged paint leachate containing TiO2-NPs and microparticles (TiO2-MPs). Internalization and in situ speciation of Ti were investigated by a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Not only TiO2-NPs pristine and from aged paints, but also TiO2-MPs were internalized in lettuce leaves, and observed in all types of tissues. No change in speciation was noticed, but an organic coating of TiO2-NPs is likely. Phytotoxicity markers were tested for plants exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs. No acute phytotoxicity was observed; variations were only observed in glutathione and phytochelatin levels but remained low as compared to typical values. These results obtained on the foliar uptake mechanisms of nano- and microparticles are important in the perspective of risk assessment of atmospheric contaminations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Favorable recycling photocatalyst TiO2/CFA: Effects of loading percent of TiO2 on the structural property and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianwen; Chen Shaohua; Ye Zhilong; Wang Shumei; Wu Peng

    2010-01-01

    A series of photocatalysts TiO 2 /CFA were prepared using coal fly ash (CFA), waste discharged from coal-fired power plant, as substrate, and then these photocatalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen adsorption test and ultraviolet-visible absorption analysis. The effects of loading percent of TiO 2 on the photocatalytic activity and re-use property of TiO 2 /CFA were evaluated by the photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization of methyl orange solution. The results show that the pore volume and the specific surface area of the TiO 2 /CFA both increased with the increase in the loading percent of TiO 2 , which improved the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 /CFA. However, when the loading percent of TiO 2 was too high (up to 54.51%), superfluous TiO 2 was easy to break away from CFA in the course of water treatment, which was disadvantaged to the recycling property of TiO 2 /CFA. In this study, the optimal loading percent of TiO 2 was 49.97%, and the efficiencies of photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization could be maintained above 99% and 90%, respectively, when the photocatalyst was used repeatedly, without any decline, even at the sixth cycle.

  5. Superhydrophilicity of TiO2 nano thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadizadeh, M.R.; Ashkarran, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Among the several oxide semiconductors, titanium dioxide has a more helpful role in our environmental purification due to its photocatalytic activity, photo-induced superhydrophilicity, and as a result of them non-toxicity, self cleaning, and antifogging effects. After the discovery of superhydrophilicity of titanium dioxide in 1997, several researches have been performed due to its nature and useful applications. The superhydrophilicity property of the surface allows water to spread completely across the surface rather than remains as droplets, thus making the surface antifog and easy-to-clean. The distinction of photo-induced catalytic and hydrophilicity properties of TiO 2 thin films has been accepted although, the origin of hydrophilicity property has not been recognized completely yet. TiO 2 thin films on soda lime glass were prepared by the sol-gel method and spin coating process. The calcination temperature was changed from 100 to 550 C. XRD patterns show increasing the content of polycrystalline anatase phase with increasing the calcination temperature. The AFM results indicate granular morphology of the films, which particle size changes from 22 to 166 nm by increasing the calcination temperature. The RBS, EDX and Raman spectroscopy of the films show the ratio of Ti:O∼0.5, and diffusion of sodium ions from substrate into the layer, by increasing the calcination temperature. The UV/Vis. spectroscopy of the films indicates a red shift by increasing the calcination temperature. The contact angle meter experiment shows that superhydrophilicity of the films depends on the formation of anatase crystal structure and diffused sodium content from substrate to the layer. The best hydrophilicity property was observed at 450 C calcination temperature, where the film is converted to a superhydrophilic surface after 10 minutes under 2mW/cm 2 UV irradiation. TiO 2 thin film on Si(111), Si(100), and quartz substrates needs less time to be converted to superhydrophilic surface rather than glass and polycrystalline Si substrates. Our results are consistent with the idea that UV-induced wetting of TiO 2 surface is caused by the removal of hydrophobic layers of hydrocarbons by TiO 2 -mediated photo-oxidation, which leads to the attractive interaction of water with clean TiO 2 surface. (authors)

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained samples with pH 7, XRD measurements showed the coexistence of TiO2 and sodium titanate phase. By decreasing the pH during acid washing the sodium content was eliminated leaving only the main phase. This behavior was observed for samples containing Cerium concentrations up to 0.2%. The obtained nanotubes presented multiple walls, having dimensions of 5 nm of diameter and about 200 nm of length. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyzes revealed that nanotubes are mainly composed of titanium and oxygen, with small amounts of sodium when pH is 7 and sodium no was observed for the sample obtained at pH 4. It shows that synthesis conditions are very important in order to obtain single-phase structures. In addition, TiO2 nanotubes showed good photocatalytic activity with degradation around 100 minutes.(author)

  7. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained samples with pH 7, XRD measurements showed the coexistence of TiO2 and sodium titanate phase. By decreasing the pH during acid washing the sodium content was eliminated leaving only the main phase. This behavior was observed for samples containing Cerium concentrations up to 0.2%. The obtained nanotubes presented multiple walls, having dimensions of 5 nm of diameter and about 200 nm of length. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyzes revealed that nanotubes are mainly composed of titanium and oxygen, with small amounts of sodium when pH is 7 and sodium no was observed for the sample obtained at pH 4. It shows that synthesis conditions are very important in order to obtain single-phase structures. In addition, TiO2 nanotubes showed good photocatalytic activity with degradation around 100 minutes.(author)

  8. Photocorrosion Mechanism of TiO2-Coated Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Didden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition was used to coat CdS photoanodes with 7 nm thick TiO2 films to protect them from photocorrosion during photoelectrochemical water splitting. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the TiO2 coating does not provide full protection against photocorrosion. The degradation of the film initiates from small pinholes and shows oscillatory behavior that can be explained by an Avrami-type model for photocorrosion that is halfway between 2D and 3D etching. XPS analysis of corroded films indicates that a thin layer of CdS remains present on the surface of the corroded photoanode that is more resilient towards photocorrosion.

  9. Application of TIO2 as A sorbent for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamroni, H.; Las, T.; Kamarz, H.

    1997-01-01

    The sorption properties of the neodymium has been studied by using TiO 2 sorbent. The experiment was carried out by batch methods to investigate the kinetic sorption, effect of pH and effect of NaNO 3 concentration in the solution. Neodymium uses for a model of trivalent actinide treated by TiO 2 which was known as materials having high thermal and radiation stabilities as well as potentially used for immobilization of waste with cement or vitrification. the results show that the optimum of kinetic sorption was obtained after one day experiment to reach the equilibrium in sorption on pH 4, and the increasing of NaNO 3 concentrations will increase the sorption of neodymium in solution (author)

  10. TiO2 and SiC nanostructured films, organized CNT structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sized nanostructured TiO2 films through hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide. (TTIP) [9 ... structured TiO2 as a photocatalyst is as follows [15]:. TiO2(ns) ... The deposited films were easily detached from the silica tube and subjected to. SEM.

  11. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films prepared by TiO2 nanorods exhibited larger surface roughness than those prepared by the commercial TiO2 particles. It was found that a pure anatase phase of TiO2 nanorods can be obtained from the hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with TiO2 nanorods exhibited a higher solar efficiency than those fabricated with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles directly. Further, triple-layer structures of TiO2 thin films with different particle sizes were investigated to improve the solar efficiency.

  12. Enhanced Bonding of Silver Nanoparticles on Oxidized TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Ørbæk; Salazar, Estephania Lira; Galliker, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of silver nanoclusters on TiO2(110) surfaces with on-top O adatoms (oxidized TiO2), surface O vacancies and H adatoms (reduced TiO2) have been studied. From the interplay of scanning tunneling microscopy/photoelectron spectroscopy experiments and density functional theor...

  13. Application of TiO_2 nanofibers, electrospinning obtained, the production of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, L.G.; Bergmann, C.P.; Alves, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospinning is a simple, low cost which promotes the production of a large amount of nanofibers. The process of applying an electrode connected to a high voltage source, inserted into the polymer solution contained in a capillary tube. With increasing voltage, the surface of the droplet elongates to form a cone when the electrostatic forces overcome the surface tension of a spray solution on the edge of the cone is ejected. In this work, TiO_2 nanofibers obtained by electrospinning, were thermally treated at 650, 700, 750 and 800 ° C, and its photoactivity was evaluated. The technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to determine the crystal structure and crystallite size and morphology of the fibers was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the nanofibers containing the anatase phase in larger quantities can be applied to the production of hydrogen. (author)

  14. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaoyue; Misra, Mano

    2010-01-01

    In this work we describe a novel bifacial design concept for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Bifacial DSCs are fabricated with ruthenium complex chemisorbed double-sided TiO 2 nanotube arrays on a Ti metal substrate, in combination with two electron-collecting counter electrodes. Our investigation shows that the present bifacial DSCs have similar conversion efficiencies when illuminated from either their front or rear side, and a summated output power when illuminated on both sides. Furthermore, this type of bifacial DSC is also able to summate the output power of each side when working at an 'unsymmetrical' mode, in which much different output powers are generated by the front and rear sides. Therefore, this bifacial design concept exhibits a promising potential to reduce the cost of solar electricity when DSCs are operated at a location where a high albedo radiation is available.

  15. Photocatalytic Water Treatment on TiO2 Thin Layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Spáčilová, L.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 25 (2016), s. 11631-11638 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos Island, 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : water purification * endocrine disruptor * photocatalytic * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  16. TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposite as high performace photocatalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Popelková, Daniela; Vláčil, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 51 (2011), s. 25209-25218 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FI-IM3/061; GA MPO FI-IM5/239 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : titanium-dioxide * visible-light * doped TiO2 * degradation * graphene * oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.805, year: 2011

  17. Defects improved photocatalytic ability of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lei; Tian, Hong-Wei; Meng, Fan-Ling; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Wei-Tao; Sun, Chang Q.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Defect improves the photocatalytic ability by band gap narrowing and carrier life prolonging. • Atomic undercoordination shortens the local bonds, entraps, and polarizes electrons. • Polarization lowers the local workfunction and lengthens carrier life. • Entrapment and polarization narrows the band gap tuning the wavelength of absorption. - Abstract: Defect generation forms an important means modulating the photocatalytic ability of TiO 2 with mechanisms that remain yet unclear. Here we show that a spectral distillation clarifies the impact of defect on modulating the band gap, electroaffinity, and work function of the substance. Firstly, by analyzing XPS measurements, we calibrated the 2p 3/2 level of 451.47 eV for an isolated Ti atom and its shifts by 2.14 and 6.94 eV, respectively, upon Ti and TiO 2 bulk formation. Spectral difference between the defected and the un-defected TiO 2 skin revealed then that the 2p 3/2 level shifts further from 6.94 to 9.67 eV due to the defect-induced quantum entrapment. This entrapment is associated with an elevation of the upper edges of both the 2p 3/2 and the conduction band by polarization. The shortening and strengthening of bonds between undercoordinated atoms densify and entrap the core electrons, which in turn polarize the dangling bond electrons of defect atoms. The entrapment and polarization mediate thus the band gap, the electroaffinity, the work function, and the photocatalytic ability of TiO 2

  18. Drug loading of nanoporous TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon, Arturo A; Cantu, Michael; Chava, Kalpana; Agrawal, C Mauli; Feldman, Marc D; Johnson, Dave; Patel, Devang; Marton, Denes; Shi, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The loading of therapeutic amounts of drug on a nanoporous TiO 2 surface is described. This novel drug-loading scheme on a biocompatible surface, when employed on medical implants, will benefit patients who require the deployment of drug-eluting implants. Anticoagulants, analgesics and antibiotics can be considered on the associated implants for drug delivery during the time of maximal pain or risk for patients undergoing orthopedic procedures. Therefore, this scheme will maximize the chances of patient recovery. (communication)

  19. Lattice defects in rutile, TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Itoh, H.; Nakanishi, S.; Kondo, K.; Okada, M.; Atobe, K.

    1991-01-01

    Rutile, TiO 2 , having a relatively high melting point exhibits strong optical absorption after neutron irradiation (8 x 10 16 n f /cm 2 ) at 15K. The band peak is located near 0.96 μ, having a FWHM of 0.87 eV (at liquid nitrogen temperature). After inverse recovery at 120K, lattice defects due probably to F centers are annealed out at about 220K. (author)

  20. Sensing and electrical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to synthesize TiO 2 nanoparticles using Coprecipitation method. 2 different samples were synthesized, one with a modifier and other without using a modifier. After synthesis, newly formed nanoparticles were characterized b different techniques to find various properties of these nanoparticles. Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to study structure and morphology of Cu nanoparticles and for compositional analysis Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Studies were also carried out to find phase an average particle Size. To find the band gap of our nanoparticles, UV-Visible Spectroscopy was also done. Non-Modified nanoparticles were as small as 12nm reported by SEM images which were synthesized using a modifier were as small as 10nm. Modified TiO 2 nanoparticles were used in humidity sensing devices and it properties as a humidity sensor were examined by doing Impedance spectroscopy, D measurements and Dielectric measurements. Our TiO 2 humidity sensor showed sensitivity for humidity at low and mid-range frequencies while its response time was 4 seconds when we changed RH% to 90 from 40% and measured the impedance. (author)

  1. Incorporation of chromium into TiO2 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollbek, Kamila; Sikora, Marcin; Kapusta, Czesław; Szlachetko, Jakub; Radecka, Marta; Lyson-Sypien, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanopowders of TiO 2 :Cr with different amount of Cr dopant were obtained by flame spray synthesis, FSS. • Increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge were observed upon Cr doping. • HERFD-XANES measurements indicated that the average valence state of titanium ions was preserved. • Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character was observed upon Cr doping. - Abstract: The paper reports on the results of a study of optical, electronic and magnetic properties of TiO 2 nanopowders doped with Cr ions. Diffused reflectance spectra reveal an increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge towards lower energies upon Cr doping. Direct information on the Ti electronic state and the symmetry of its nearest environment is obtained from XANES Ti K-edge spectra. Magnetic behaviour is probed by means of the temperature dependence of DC magnetic susceptibility. Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character is observed upon increasing chromium doping. The Curie constant of TiO 2 :10 at.% Cr sample (0.12 emu K/mol Oe) is lower than that expected for Cr 3+ (0.1875 emu K/mol Oe) possibly due to the appearance of Cr 4+ or the presence of the orbital contribution to the magnetic moment

  2. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous TiO2 suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaming; Zhang Ke; Shi Rongrong; Li Xianwei; Dong Xiaodan; Yu Yongmei

    2006-01-01

    Anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles of about 16 nm in crystal size have been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method. Thermal treatment of the precursor at 500-600 deg. C results in the formation of different TiO 2 phase compositions. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Effects of the pH value of the solution, H 2 O 2 addition, TiO 2 phase composition and recycled TiO 2 on the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MeO) in TiO 2 suspensions under ultraviolet (UV) illumination were primarily investigated. The results indicate that a low pH value, proper amount of H 2 O 2 and pure anatase TiO 2 will facilitate the photocatalytic oxidation of the MeO solution. The photodegradation degree decreases with increasing the pH value of the solution and varies with different amounts of H 2 O 2 . Pure anatase TiO 2 shows better photocatalytic activity for MeO decolorization than biphase TiO 2 . The photocatalytic mechanism of the as-synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles was discussed

  3. OXIDACIÓN DE p -NITROFENOL USANDO TiO 2 -ADENOSINA MONOFOSFATO I OXIDATION OF p -NITROPHENOL USING TiO 2 -ADENOSIN MONOPHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Rivas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface of TiO2 was modified with the nucleotides adenosine 3’-monophosphate (AMP’3 and Adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP’5. The adsorption of nucleotides was adjusted to Langmuir ́s adsorption model, determining that the optimal condition for TiO 2 modification was at neutral pH. UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance and IR Attenuated Total Reflectance spectra show that the chemisorption of nucleotides take placed on TiO 2 anatase. The new catalysts (TiO 2 -nucleotide improved the photodegradation of p -nitrophenol in a wide range of pH as compared with the titanium dioxide precursor. Most photoactivity was generated by using the new photocatalytic in the degradation of p -nitrophenol at pH = 6, obtaining high values for the pseudo first order kinetic constant (0.0254 min -1 and 0.0244 min -1 for TiO 2 -AMP’3 and TiO 2 -AMP’5, respectively. For all pH, the trend obtained for the photodegradation was: TiO 2 -AMP ́3 @ TiO 2 -AMP’5 > TiO 2 . Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics shows that the contribution of the surface reac tion rate governs the oxidation of the contaminant.

  4. Photocatalytic effects for the TiO2-coated phosphor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. → The photobleaching of an MB aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. → The ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor composite showed much higher photocatalytic reactivity. → The light emitted from the phosphors contributed to the photo-generation. - Abstract: This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. A TiO 2 thin film was deposited on CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Nd 3+ phosphor particles by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and its photocatalytic reaction was investigated by the photobleaching of an aqueous solution of methylene-blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. To clarify the mechanism of the TiO 2 -phosphorescent materials, two different samples of TiO 2 -coated phosphor and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor particles were prepared. The photocatalytic mechanisms of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor powders were different from those of the pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor. The absorbance in a solution of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor decreased much faster than that of pure TiO 2 under visible irradiation. In addition, the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor showed moderately higher photocatalytic degradation of MB solution than the TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor did. The TiO 2 -coated phosphorescent materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS).

  5. Annealing Effect on Photovoltaic Performance of CdSe Quantum-Dots-Sensitized TiO2 Nanorod Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitan Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large area rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were grown on F:SnO2 (FTO conductive glass using a hydrothermal method at low temperature. CdSe quantum dots (QDs were deposited onto single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays by a chemical bath deposition (CBD method to make a photoelectrode. The solar cell was assembled using a CdSe-TiO2 nanostructure as the photoanode and polysulfide solution as the electrolyte. The annealing effect on optical and photovoltaic properties of CdSe quantum-dots-sensitized TiO2 nanorod solar cells was studied systematically. A significant change of the morphology and a regular red shift of band gap of CdSe nanoparticles were observed after annealing treatment. At the same time, an improved photovoltaic performance was obtained for quantum-dots-sensitized solar cell using the annealed CdSe-TiO2 nanostructure electrode. The power conversion efficiency improved from 0.59% to 1.45% as a consequence of the annealing effect. This improvement can be explained by considering the changes in the morphology, the crystalline quality, and the optical properties caused by annealing treatment.

  6. TiO2/ CNT hetero-structure with variable electron beam diameter suitable for nano lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barati, F.; Abdi, Y.; Arzi, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report fabrication of a novel TiO 2 /carbon nano tube based field emission device suitable for nano lithography and fabrication of transistor. The growth of carbon nano tubes is performed on silicon substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The vertically grown carbon nano tubes are encapsulated by TiO 2 using an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition system. Field emission from the carbon nano tubes is realized by mechanical polishing of the prepared nano structure. The possibility of the application of such nano structures as a lithography tool with variable electron beam diameter was investigated. The obtained results show that spot size of less than 30 nm can be obtained by applying a proper voltage on TiO 2 surrounding gate. Electrical measurements of the fabricated device confirm the capability of this nano structure for the fabrication of field emission based field effect transistor. By applying a voltage between the gate and the cathode electrode, the emission current from carbon nano tubes shows a significant drop, indicating proper control of gate on the emission current.

  7. Mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets anchored on graphene for ultra long life Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruifang; Wang, Yuankun; Zhou, Han; Lang, Jinxin; Xu, Jingjing; Xiang, Yang; Ding, Shujiang

    2018-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries, which have a similar electrochemical reaction mechanism to lithium-ion batteries, have been considered as one of the most potential lithium-ion battery alternatives due to the rich reserves of sodium. However, it is very hard to find appropriate electrode materials imputing the large radius of sodium-ion. TiO2 is particularly interesting as anodes for sodium-ion batteries due to their reasonable operation voltage, cost, and nontoxicity. To obtain a better electrochemical property, mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets (NSs)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites have been synthesized via a scalable hydrothermal-solvothermal method with a subsequent calcination process. Benefitting from unique structure design, TiO2 NSs@rGO exhibits a superior cycle stability (90 mAh g‑1 after 10 000 cycles at a high current rate of 20 C) and satisfactory rate performance (97.3 mAh g‑1 at 25 C). To our knowledge, such ultra long cycle life has not previously been reported.

  8. Synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 (anatase) and TiO2(B) in ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mansfeldová, Věra; Lásková, Barbora; Krýsová, Hana; Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 85-90 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA MŠk 7E09117 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) NMP-229036 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TiO2(B) * ionic liquid * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  9. Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijenburg, A. Wouter; Rodijk, Eddy J.B.; Maas, Michiel G.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytically active nanostructures require a large specific surface area with the presence of many catalytically active sites for the oxidation and reduction half reactions, and fast electron (hole) diffusion and charge separation. Nanowires present suitable architectures to meet these requirements. Axially segmented Ag|ZnO and radially segmented (coaxial) TiO2-Ag nanowires with a diameter of 200 nm and a length of 6-20 µm were made by templated electrodeposition within the pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) or anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, respectively. In the photocatalytic experiments, the ZnO and TiO2 phases acted as photoanodes, and Ag as cathode. No external circuit is needed to connect both electrodes, which is a key advantage over conventional photo-electrochemical cells. For making segmented Ag|ZnO nanowires, the Ag salt electrolyte was replaced after formation of the Ag segment to form a ZnO segment attached to the Ag segment. For making coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires, a TiO2 gel was first formed by the electrochemically induced sol-gel method. Drying and thermal annealing of the as-formed TiO2 gel resulted in the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanotubes. A subsequent Ag electrodeposition step inside the TiO2 nanotubes resulted in formation of coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires. Due to the combination of an n-type semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) and a metal (Ag) within the same nanowire, a Schottky barrier was created at the interface between the phases. To demonstrate the photocatalytic activity of these nanowires, the Ag|ZnO nanowires were used in a photocatalytic experiment in which H2 gas was detected upon UV illumination of the nanowires dispersed in a methanol/water mixture. After 17 min of illumination, approximately 0.2 vol% H2 gas was detected from a suspension of ~0.1 g of Ag|ZnO nanowires in a 50 ml 80 vol% aqueous methanol solution. PMID:24837535

  10. TiO2/PbS/ZnS heterostructure for panchromatic quantum dot sensitized solar cells synthesized by wet chemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, T. S.; Mali, S. S.; Sheikh, A. D.; Korade, S. D.; Pawar, K. K.; Hong, C. K.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

    2017-11-01

    So far we developed the efficient photoelectrodes which can harness the UV as well as the visible regime of the solar spectrum effectively. In order to exploit a maximum portion of solar spectrum, it is necessary to study the synergistic effect of a photoelectrode comprising UV and visible radiations absorbing materials. Present research work highlights the efforts to study the synchronized effect of TiO2 and PbS on the power conversion efficiency of quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). A cascade structure of TiO2/PbS/ZnS QDSSC is achieved to enhance the photoconversion efficiency of TiO2/PbS system by incorporating a surface passivation layer of ZnS which avoids the recombination of charge carriers. A QDSSC is fabricated using a simple and cost-effective technique such as hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated with PbS and ZnS using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Synthesized electrode materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), High resolution-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), STEM-EDS mapping, optical and solar cell performances. Phase formation of TiO2, PbS and ZnS get confirmed from the XPS study. FE-SEM images of the photoelectrode show uniform coverage of PbS QDs onto the TiO2 nanorods which increases with increasing number of SILAR cycles. The ZnS layer not only improves the charge transport but also reduces the photocorrosion of lead chalcogenides in the presence of a liquid electrolyte. Finally, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) study is carried out using an optimized photoanode comprising TiO2/PbS/ZnS assembly. Under AM 1.5G illumination the TiO2/PbS/ZnS QDSSC photoelectrode shows 4.08 mA/cm2 short circuit current density in a polysulfide electrolyte which is higher than that of a bare TiO2 nanorod array.

  11. Synergistic effects between TiO2 and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a TiO2/CNTs system under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Kuo, Chao-Yin; Chen, Shih-Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study synthesized a TiO2/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite via the sol-gel method. The surface characteristics of the TiO2/CNTs composite were determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area analyser, ultraviolent (UV)-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectrometer. The photocatalytic activity ofthe TiO2/CNTs composite was evaluated by decolourizing C.I. Reactive Red 2 (RR2) under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the effects of calcination temperature, pH, RR2 concentration, and the TiO2/CNTs composite dosage on RR2 decolourization were determined simultaneously. The optimal calcination temperature to generate TiO2 and the TiO2/CNTs composite was 673 K, as the percentage of anatase crystallization at this temperature was highest. The specific surface area of the TiO2/CNTs composite and TiO2 were 45 and 42 m2/g, respectively. The band gap of TiO2 and the TiO2/CNTs composite was 2.97 and 2.71 eV by UV-vis measurements, respectively. Experimental data indicate that the Ti-O-C bond formed in the TiO2/CNTs composite. The RR2 decolourization rates can be approximated by pseudo-first-order kinetics; moreover, only the TiO2/CNTs composite had photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. At pH 7, the RR2 decolourization rate constant of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/L TiO2/CNTs addition was 0.005, 0.0015, and 0.0047 min(-1), respectively. Decolourization rate increased as pH and the RR2 concentration decreased. The CNTs functioned as electron acceptors, promoting separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs to retard their recombination; thus, photocatalytic activity of the TiO2/CNTs composite exceeded that of TiO2.

  12. Photovoltaic performance enhancement of CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 photoanodes with plasmonic gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Aiping; Ren, Qinghua; Zhao, Ming; Xu, Tao; Yuan, Ming; Zhao, Tingyu; Tang, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS QD-sensitized TiO 2 porous photoanode with plasmonic gold. • A prominent light absorption enhancement of hybrid was attained by gold plasmon. • The photovoltaic response of hybrid was tunable by CdS amount. • The Au/TiO 2 /CdS hybrid had a potential application in energy conversion devices. -- Abstract: The CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO 2 films with plasmonic gold nanoparticles were designed as photoanodes by the electrodeposition of gold combined with the “successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction” (SILAR) method for CdS deposition on porous TiO 2 films. A prominent enhancement in light absorption of Au/TiO 2 /CdS hybrid was attained by efficient light scattering of gold plasmons as sub-wavelength antennas and concentrators. The photogenerated electron formed in the near-surface region of TiO 2 and CdS were facilitated to transfer to the plasmonic gold, resulting in the enhancement of photocurrent and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of hybrid photoanode upon photoirradiation. Furthermore, the photovoltaic response of hybrid was highly tunable with respect to the number of SILAR cycles applied to deposit CdS. The thicker absorber layer with less porous structure and larger CdS crystals might limit the electrolyte diffusion into the hybrid electrode and impose a barrier for electron tunneling and transferring. The highly versatile and tunable properties of Au/TiO 2 /CdS photoanodes demonstrated their potential application in energy conversion devices

  13. Unraveling the charge transfer/electron transport in mesoporous semiconductive TiO2 films by voltabsorptometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Christophe; Nicole, Lionel; Sanchez, Clément; Costentin, Cyrille; Balland, Véronique; Limoges, Benoît

    2015-04-28

    electron transfer/transport mechanisms in heterogeneous photoelectrocatalytic systems combining nanostructured semiconductor electrodes and heterogeneous redox-active catalysts.

  14. Study of the electrochemical behavior at low temperatures of green anodes for Lithium ion batteries prepared with anatase TiO2 and water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, M.; Nobili, F.; Tossici, R.; Marassi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Water soluble CMC and PVDF binders are used to prepare anatase TiO 2 electrodes. ► The electrochemical behavior of the different electrodes is studied between 20 and −30 °C. ► CMC/TiO 2 anodes show lower ICL, lower polarization and higher low-temperature capacity at high rates than PVDF/TiO 2 anodes. ► Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy results show better kinetics for CMC/TiO 2 electrodes. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior at low temperatures of anatase TiO 2 electrodes for Lithium ion batteries have been evaluated by galvanostatic cycles in the temperature range 20 to −30 °C. Two different manufacturing processes have been used to prepare anatase anodes containing water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or poly(vinilydene fluoride) (PVDF) as binder. The low temperature performances at different charge/discharge rates of TiO 2 /CMC and TiO 2 /PVDF electrodes are compared and discussed in terms of irreversible capacity loss (ICL) at the first cycle, capacity retention and reversible capacity. The kinetics of the electrodes containing CMC or PVDF is evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

  15. Free-standing Hierarchical Porous Assemblies of Commercial TiO_2 Nanocrystals and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes as High-performance Anode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong; Xu, Guobao; Xiao, Huaping; Wei, Xiaolin; Yang, Liwen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilization of commercial nanomaterials to freestanding sodium electrode is demonstrated. • Free-standing electrodes composed of TiO_2 and MWCNTs are hierarchically porous. • Hierarchical porous architecture benefits charge transport and interfacial Na"+ adsorption. • Free-standing hierarchical porous electrodes exhibit superior Na storage performance. - Abstract: Freestanding hierarchical porous assemblies of commercial TiO_2 nanocrystals and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as electrode materials for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are prepared via modified vacuum filtration, free-drying and annealing. Microstructure characterizations reveal that TiO_2 nanocrystals are confined in hierarchically porous, highly electrically conductive and mechanically robust MWCNTs networks with cross-linking of thermally-treated bovine serum albumin. The hierarchical porous architecture not only enables rapid charge transportation and sufficient interaction between electrode and electrolyte, but also guarantees abundant interfacial sites for Na"+ adsorption, which benefits substantial contribution from pseudocapacitive Na storage. When it is used directly as an anode for sodium-ion batteries, the prepared electrode delivers high specific capacity of 100 mA h g"−"1 at a current density of 3000 mA g"−"1, and 150 mA h g"−"1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1. The low-cost TiO_2-based freestanding anode has large potential application in high-performance SIBs for portable, flexible and wearable electronics.

  16. High pressure structural phase transitions of TiO2 nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quan-Jun; Liu Bing-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the high pressure study on the TiO 2 nanomaterials has attracted considerable attention due to the typical crystal structure and the fascinating properties of TiO 2 with nanoscale sizes. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress in the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials. We discuss the size effects and morphology effects on the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials with different particle sizes, morphologies, and microstructures. Several typical pressure-induced structural phase transitions in TiO 2 nanomaterials are presented, including size-dependent phase transition selectivity in nanoparticles, morphology-tuned phase transition in nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials, and pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) and polyamorphism in ultrafine nanoparticles and TiO 2 -B nanoribbons. Various TiO 2 nanostructural materials with high pressure structures are prepared successfully by high pressure treatment of the corresponding crystal nanomaterials, such as amorphous TiO 2 nanoribbons, α -PbO 2 -type TiO 2 nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials. These studies suggest that the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials depend on the nanosize, morphology, interface energy, and microstructure. The diversity of high pressure behaviors of TiO 2 nanomaterials provides a new insight into the properties of nanomaterials, and paves a way for preparing new nanomaterials with novel high pressure structures and properties for various applications. (topical review)

  17. Application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 for Resistive-Type SO2 Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, Noriya; Hagen, Gunter; Schönauer, Daniela; Röder-Roith, Ulla; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    A study on the application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 (VWT) as the sensitive material for resistive-type SO2 sensor was conducted, based on the fact that VWT is a well-known catalyst material for good selective catalytic nitrogen oxide reduction with a proven excellent durability in exhaust gases. The sensors fabricated in this study are planar ones with interdigitated electrodes of Au or Pt. The vanadium content of the utilized VWT is 1.5 or 3.0 wt%. The resistance of VWT decreases with an increasing SO2 concentration in the range from 20 ppm to 5,000 ppm. The best sensor response to SO2 occurs at 400 °C using Au electrodes. The sensor response value is independent on the amount of added vanadium but dependent on the electrode materials at 400 °C. These results are discussed and a sensing mechanism is discussed. PMID:22163780

  18. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO2 nanoparticle layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Minami, Satoshi; Kohno, Kazufumi

    2016-01-01

    TiO 2 /CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 -based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. TiO 2 require high-temperature processing to achieve suitably high carrier mobility. TiO 2 electron transport layers and TiO 2 scaffold layers for the perovskite were fabricated from TiO 2 nanoparticles with different grain sizes. The photovoltaic properties and microstructures of solar cells were characterized. Nanoparticle sizes of these TiO 2 were 23 nm and 3 nm and the performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiO 2 nanoparticles

  19. Photocatalytic decouloration of malachite green dye by application of TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Alexandre G.S.; Costa, Leonardo L.

    2009-01-01

    The nanotubes of titania were synthesized in a hydrothermal system and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, FT-Raman, and surface charge density by surface area analyzer. These nanomaterials were applied to photocatalyse malachite green dye degradation. Photodegradation capacity of TiO 2 nanotubes was compared to TiO 2 anatase photoactivity. Malachite dye was completely degraded in 75 and 105 min of reaction photocatalysed by TiO 2 nanotubes and TiO 2 anatase, respectively. Catalysts displayed high photodegradation activity at pH 4. TiO 2 nanotubes were easily recycled whereas the reuse of TiO 2 anatase was not effective. Nanotubes maintained 80% of their activity after 10 catalytic cycles and TiO 2 anatase presented only 8% of its activity after 10 cycles.

  20. First-principles atomistic Wulff constructions for an equilibrium rutile TiO2 shape modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fengzhou; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Dali; He, Gang; Zhou, Jiabei; Wang, Fanhou; Chen, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-01

    Identifying the exposed surfaces of rutile TiO2 crystal is crucial for its industry application and surface engineering. In this study, the shape of the rutile TiO2 was constructed by applying equilibrium thermodynamics of TiO2 crystals via first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and Wulff principles. From the DFT calculations, the surface energies of six low-index stoichiometric facets of TiO2 are determined after the calibrations of crystal structure. And then, combined surface energy calculations and Wulff principles, a geometric model of equilibrium rutile TiO2 is built up, which is coherent with the typical morphology of fully-developed equilibrium TiO2 crystal. This study provides fundamental theoretical guidance for the surface analysis and surface modification of the rutile TiO2-based materials from experimental research to industry manufacturing.

  1. Composition of Surface Adsorbed Layer of TiO2 Stored in Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharenko V.S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of dark, UV, and visible light promoted desorption of surface species were investigated for three different TiO2 samples: TiO2 prepared by dispersion of the titania single crystal, TiO2 prepared by combustion of a pyrotechnic mixture in air, and commercial TiO2 P25. The composition of the adsorbed layer was identified in the dark and under UV and visible light irradiation. The composition of desorption products showed the dependence of the adsorption layer state on the TiO2 nature. Methane photodesorption was detected only for the commercial TiO2 P25. Possible reasons for methane emission include the capturing of complete molecules during the TiO2 production process and photocatalytic hydrogenation of CO2 under UV-light.

  2. Immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles on Fe-filled carbon nanocapsules for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-C.; Huang, G.-L.; Chen, H.-L.; Lee, Y.-D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a simple sol-gel method, a novel magnetic photocatalyst was produced by immobilization of TiO 2 nano-crystal on Fe-filled carbon nanocapsules (Fe-CNC). High resolution TEM images indicated that the immobilization of TiO 2 on Fe-CNC was driven primarily by heterogeneous coagulation, whereas surface nucleation and growth was the dominant mechanism for immobilizing TiO 2 on acid-functionalized hollow CNC. The TiO 2 immobilized on Fe-CNC exhibited the anatase phase as revealed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. In comparison with free TiO 2 and TiO 2 -coated CNC, TiO 2 -coated Fe-CNC displayed good performance in the removal of NO gas under UV exposure. Due to the advantages of easy recycling and good photocatalytic efficiency, the novel magnetic photocatalyst developed here has potential use in photocatalytic applications for pollution prevention

  3. Study of TiO2 nanotubes as an implant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazan, Roshasnorlyza; Sreekantan, Srimala; Mydin, Rabiatul Basria S. M. N.; Mat, Ishak; Abdullah, Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Vertically aligned TiO 2 nanotubes have become the primary candidates for implant materials that can provide direct control of cell behaviors. In this work, 65 nm inner diameters of TiO 2 nanotubes were successfully prepared by anodization method. The interaction of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) in term of cell adhesion and cell morphology on bare titanium and TiO 2 nanotubes is reported. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis proved interaction of BMSC on TiO 2 nanotubes structure was better than flat titanium (Ti) surface. Also, significant cell adhesion on TiO 2 nanotubes surface during in vitro study revealed that BMSC prone to attach on TiO 2 nanotubes. From the result, it can be conclude that TiO 2 nanotubes are biocompatible to biological environment and become a new generation for advanced implant materials

  4. Enhanced Performance of MoS2 Photodetectors by Inserting an ALD-Processed TiO2 Interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Pak, Yusin; Park, Woojin; Mitra, Somak; Devi, Assa Aravindh Sasikala; Loganathan, Kalaivanan; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Kim, Yonghun; Cho, Byungjin; Jung, Gun-Young; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Roqan, Iman S.

    2017-01-01

    2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) possesses excellent optoelectronic properties that make it a promising candidate for use in high-performance photodetectors. Yet, to meet the growing demand for practical and reliable MoS2 photodetectors, the critical issue of defect introduction to the interface between the exfoliated MoS2 and the electrode metal during fabrication must be addressed, because defects deteriorate the device performance. To achieve this objective, the use of an atomic layer-deposited TiO2 interlayer (between exfoliated MoS2 and electrode) is reported in this work, for the first time, to enhance the performance of MoS2 photodetectors. The TiO2 interlayer is inserted through 20 atomic layer deposition cycles before depositing the electrode metal on MoS2/SiO2 substrate, leading to significantly enhanced photoresponsivity and response speed. These results pave the way for practical applications and provide a novel direction for optimizing the interlayer material.

  5. Enhanced Performance of MoS2 Photodetectors by Inserting an ALD-Processed TiO2 Interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Pak, Yusin

    2017-12-05

    2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) possesses excellent optoelectronic properties that make it a promising candidate for use in high-performance photodetectors. Yet, to meet the growing demand for practical and reliable MoS2 photodetectors, the critical issue of defect introduction to the interface between the exfoliated MoS2 and the electrode metal during fabrication must be addressed, because defects deteriorate the device performance. To achieve this objective, the use of an atomic layer-deposited TiO2 interlayer (between exfoliated MoS2 and electrode) is reported in this work, for the first time, to enhance the performance of MoS2 photodetectors. The TiO2 interlayer is inserted through 20 atomic layer deposition cycles before depositing the electrode metal on MoS2/SiO2 substrate, leading to significantly enhanced photoresponsivity and response speed. These results pave the way for practical applications and provide a novel direction for optimizing the interlayer material.

  6. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  7. Distinct toxic interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with four coexisting organochlorine contaminants on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Deng, Rui; Lin, Daohui; Wu, Fengchang

    Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly discharged into the environment. After discharge, these nanoparticles can interact with co-existing organic contaminants, resulting in a phenomena referred to as 'joint toxicity'. This study evaluated joint toxicities of TiO 2 nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) with four different (atrazine, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) organochlorine contaminants (OCs) toward algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa). The potential mechanisms underlying the joint toxicity were discussed, including TiO 2 NPs-OC interactions, effects of TiO 2 NPs and OCs on biophysicochemical properties of algae and effects of TiO 2 NPs and OCs on each other's bioaccumulation in algae. The results indicate that coexposure led to a synergistic effect on the joint toxicity for TiO 2 NPs-atrazine, antagonistic effect for TiO 2 NPs-hexachlorobenzene and TiO 2 NPs-3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and an additive effect for TiO 2 NPs-pentachlorobenzene. There was nearly no adsorption of OCs by TiO 2 NPs, and the physicochemical properties of TiO 2 NPs were largely unaltered by the presence of OCs. However, both OCs and NPs affected the biophysicochemical properties of algal cells and thereby influenced the cell surface binding and/or internalization. TiO 2 NPs significantly increased the bioaccumulation of each OC. However, with the exception of atrazine, the bioaccumulation of TiO 2 NPs decreased when used with each OC. The distinct joint toxicity outcomes were a result of the balance between the increased toxicities of OCs (increased bioaccumulations) and the altered toxicity of TiO 2 NPs (bioaccumulation can either increase or decrease). These results can significantly improve our understanding of the potential environmental risks associated with NPs.

  8. Hybrid matrices of TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers with silicone for high water flux photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Alm, Martin; Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers were produced by electrospinning technique and surface coated on silicone elastomer (diameter: 10.0 mm; thickness: 2.0 mm) by dipcoating method. These coated hybrid nanoporous matrices were characterized by various morphological and physicochemical techniques (like SEM...

  9. TiO2/Cu2O composite based on TiO2 NTPC photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Le

    2015-01-01

    in practice of water splitting with pure TiO2 material, one of the most popular semiconductor material used for photoelectrochemical water splitting, is still challenging. One dimensional TiO2 nanotubes is highly desired with its less recombination

  10. Charge transfer between biogenic jarosite derived Fe3+and TiO2 enhances visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mahabubur; Shoko, Sipiwe; Cummings, Fransciuos; Fester, Veruscha; Ojumu, Tunde Victor

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we have shown that mining waste derived Fe 3+ can be used to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 . This will allow us to harness a waste product from the mines, and utilize it to enhance TiO 2 photocatalytic waste water treatment efficiency. An organic linker mediated route was utilized to create a composite of TiO 2 and biogenic jarosite. Evidence of FeOTi bonding in the TiO 2 /jarosite composite was apparent from the FTIR, EFTEM, EELS and ELNEFS analysis. The as prepared material showed enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO 2 , biogenic jarosite and mechanically mixed sample of jarosite and TiO 2 under both simulated and natural solar irradiation. The prepared material can reduce the electrical energy consumption by 4 times compared to pristine P25 for degradation of organic pollutant in water. The material also showed good recyclability. Results obtained from sedimentation experiments showed that the larger sized jarosite material provided the surface to TiO 2 nanoparticles, which increases the settling rate of the materials. This allowed simple and efficient recovery of the catalyst from the reaction system after completion of photocatalysis. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composite material was due to effective charge transfer between TiO 2 and jarosite derived Fe 3+ as was shown from the EELS and ELNEFS. Generation of OH was supported by photoluminesence (PL) experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Structural properties of TiO2 nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusior, Anna; Banas, Joanna; Trenczek-Zajac, Anita; Zubrzycka, Paulina; Micek-Ilnicka, Anna; Radecka, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The surface of solids is characterized by active, energy-rich sites that determine physicochemical interaction with gaseous and liquid media and possible applications in photocatalysis. The behavior of materials in such processes is related to their form and amount of various species, especially water and forms of oxygen adsorbed on the surface. The preparation of materials with controlled morphology, which includes modifications of the size, geometry, and composition, is currently an important way of optimizing properties, as many of them depend on not only the size and phase composition, but also on shape. Hydroxylated centers on the surface, which can be treated as trapping sites, are particularly significant. Water adsorbed on the surface bridging hydroxyl groups can distinctly modulate the properties of the surface of titania. The saturation of the surface with hydroxyl groups may improve the photocatalytic properties. TiO2 nanomaterials were obtained via different methods. SEM and TEM analysis were performed to study the morphology. The analysis of XRD and Raman data revealed a phase composition of obtained materials. To examine the surface properties, FTIR absorption spectra of TiO2 nanomaterials were recorded. The photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was investigated through the decomposition of methylene blue. It was demonstrated that each surface modification affects the amount of adsorbed hydroxyl groups. The different contributions of the two species to the ν(H2O) FTIR bands for different nanostructures result from the preparation conditions. It was noted that pre-adsorbed water (the surface-bridging hydroxyl) might significantly modulate the surface properties of the material. The increase in hydroxyl group density on the titanium dioxide surface enhances the effectiveness of the photocatalytic processes. It was demonstrated that flower-like titania obtained via hydrothermal synthesis exhibits the weakest catalytic activity, in contrast to the typical spherical TiO2.

  12. Structure and properties of nanophase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.W.; Hahn, H.; Ramasamy, S.; Zongquan, Li; Ting, Lu; Gronsky, R.

    1987-07-01

    Ultrafine-grained, nanophase samples of TiO 2 (rutile) were synthesized by the gas-condensation method and subsequent in-situ compaction, and then studied by transmission electron microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements, and positron annihilation spectroscopy as a function of sintering temperature. The nanophase compacts densified rapidly above 500 0 C, with only a small increase in grain size. The hardness values obtained by this method are comparable to or greater than coarser-grained compacts, but at temperatures 400 to 600 0 C lower than conventional sintering temperatures and without the need for sintering aids. 11 refs., 3 figs

  13. On Multiple Zagreb Indices of TiO2 Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mehar Ali; Imran, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The First and Second Zagreb indices were first introduced by I. Gutman and N. Trinajstic in 1972. It is reported that these indices are useful in the study of anti-inflammatory activities of certain chemical instances, and in elsewhere. Recently, the first and second multiple Zagreb indices of a graph were introduced by Ghorbani and Azimi in 2012. In this paper, we calculate the Zagreb indices and the multiplicative versions of the Zagreb indices of an infinite class of Titania nanotubes TiO(2)[m,n].

  14. Carrier recombination dynamics in anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigli, Lucia; Bogani, Franco; Vinattieri, Anna; Cortese, Lorenzo; Colocci, Marcello; Faso, Valentina; Baldi, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    We present an experimental study of the radiative recombination dynamics in size-controlled TiO 2 nanoparticles in the range 20-130 nm. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra clearly show a dominance of self-trapped exciton (STE) emission, with main features not dependent on the nanoparticle size and on its environment. From picosecond time-resolved experiments as a function of the excitation density and the nanoparticle size we address the STE recombination dynamics as the result of two main processes related to the direct STE formation and to the indirect STE formation mediated by non-radiative surface states.

  15. Al-bound hole polarons in TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stashans, Arvids; Bermeo, Sthefano

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the structural and electronic properties of TiO 2 (anatase and rutile) due to the Al-doping are studied using a quantum-chemical approach based on the Hartree-Fock theory. The formation of hole polarons trapped at oxygen sites near the Al impurity has been discovered and their spatial configuration are discussed. The occurrence of well-localized one-center hole polarons in rutile may influence its photocatalytic activity. Optical absorption energy for this hole center is obtained, 0.4 eV, using the ΔSCF approach.

  16. Tailoring the wettability of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiyu; Chen, Yan; Fan, Yuzun; Hu, Yong; Wu, Yuedong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Meng, Qingbo

    2012-01-01

    The water contact angle (WCA) of nanocrystalline TiO2 films was adjusted by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification and photocatalytic lithography. FAS modification made the surface hydrophobic with the WCA up to ∼156°, while ultraviolet (UV) irradiation changed surface to hydrophilic with the WCA down to ∼0°. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were enhanced by surface roughness. The wettability can be tailored by varying the concentration of FAS solution and soaking time, as well as the UV light intensity and irradiation time. Additionally, with the help of photomasks, hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns can be fabricated and manifested via area-selective deposition of polystyrene particles.

  17. Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching characteristics in TiO2/BaTiO3/TiO2 multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Yue; Lin, S. P.; Luo, J. M.; Wang, B.; Li, Z. X.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale multilayer structure TiO 2 /BaTiO 3 /TiO 2 has been fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate by chemical solution deposition method. Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching (BRS) characteristics have been observed in Pt/TiO 2 /BaTiO 3 /TiO 2 /Pt cells. Analysis of the current-voltage relationship demonstrates that the space-charge-limited current conduction controlled by the localized oxygen vacancies should be important to the resistive switching behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that oxygen vacancies in TiO 2 play a crucial role in the resistive switching phenomenon and the introduced TiO 2 /BaTiO 3 interfaces result in the high uniformity of bipolar resistive switching characteristics

  18. Synthesis of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanorod-nanotube arrays by filling TiO2 nanotubes with Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Susanta K; Banerjee, Subarna; Misra, Mano

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanostructures on a titania (TiO 2 ) nanotubular template is carried out using a pulsed electrodeposition technique. The TiO 2 nanotubes are prepared by the sonoelectrochemical anodization method and are filled with iron (Fe) by pulsed electrodeposition. The Fe/TiO 2 composite is then annealed in an O 2 atmosphere to convert it to Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The length of the Fe 2 O 3 inside the TiO 2 nanotubes can be tuned from 50 to 550 nm by changing the deposition time. The composite material is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible studies to confirm the formation of one-dimensional Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The present approach can be used for designing variable one-dimensional metal oxide heterostructures

  19. Unconventional cells of TiO2 doped with erbium; Celulas nao convencionais de TiO2 dopado com erbio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Campos, R.D.; Oliveira, A.S.; Wellen, R., E-mail: pollyana@cear.ufpb.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Diniz, V.C.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The technology used in TiO{sub 2} solar cells is in constant improvement, new configurations have been developed, aiming practicality and leading to efficiency increase of photovoltaic devices. This paper proposes a new technology for the production of solar cells in order to investigate a better utilization of solar spectrum of TiO2 doped with erbium (Er{sup 3+}), proven by energetic conversion. The Ti{sub 0,9}Er{sub 0,1}O2 system was obtained by Pechini method. Nanoparticles have a crystallite size 65.30 nm and surface area 118.48 m{sup 2}/g. These characteristics are essential for the formation of the film to be deposited on the conductive glass substrate constituting the cell's photoelectrode. The other side of the cell is the platinum counter electrode. The cell will have the faces sealed by a thermoplastic and, finally the electrolyte will be inserted, then they will be electrically evaluated through energy efficiency and confronted with the literature data base. (author)

  20. Magnetic properties of zigzag (0,9 GaAs nanotube doped with 3d transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fathi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available of 3d transition metals (Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn , Fe, Co, Ni in both far and close situations were studied based on spin polarised density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation (LDA with SIESTA code. The electronic structures show that zigzag (0,9 GaAs nanotubes are non-magnetic semiconductors with direct band gap. It was revealed that doping of 11.11 % Fe and Mn concentrations substituted in Ga sites in ferromagnetic phase in far situation and Cr sites in ferromagnetic phase in near situation introduces half metallic behavior with %100 spin polarization. The unique structure of spin polarised energy levels is primarily attributed to strong hybridization of 3d transition metal and its nearest-neighbor As-4p orbitals. The results of this study can be useful for empirical studies on diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs and systemic investigation in 3d transitional metals. We suggest that GaAs nanotubes doped by transition metals would have a potential application as a spin polarised electron source for spintronic devices in the future.

  1. Photocatalytic activities of heterostructured TiO2-graphene porous microspheres prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jikai; Zhang, Xintong; Li, Bing; Liu, Hong; Sun, Panpan; Wang, Changhua; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yichun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • USP method is used to prepare TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres. • XPS shows GO sheets in the composites has been reduced to graphene. • TiO 2 -graphene microspheres display a red-shifted absorption edge. • PL spectra indicate graphene can accept the photoexcited electrons from TiO 2 . • TiO 2 -graphene shows higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 under solar light. -- Abstract: TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) of aqueous suspension of graphene oxide containing TiO 2 nanoparticles (Degussa P25). The composite microspheres were characterized with SEM, XPS, photoluminescence, Raman and UV–Vis absorption spectra. TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres displayed higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution than pristine TiO 2 microspheres under the irradiation of Xe lamp, and the highest activity was obtained at a weight percentage of graphene around 1%. The effect of graphene on photocatalytic activity of porous microsphere was discussed in terms of the enhanced charge separation by TiO 2 -graphene heterojunction, increased absorption of the visible light, as well as the possible hindrance of mass transportation in microspheres

  2. Photocatalytic Decolorization Study of Methyl Orange by TiO2–Chitosan Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Fajriati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange (MO by TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite has been studied. This study was started by synthesizing TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites using sol-gel method with various concentrations of Titanium(IV isopropoxide (TTIP as the TiO2 precursor. The structure, surface morphology, thermal and optical property of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and diffuse reflectance ultra violet (DRUV spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange as a model pollutant. The results indicate that the particle size of TiO2 increases with increasing ofthe concentration of TTIP, in which TiO2 with smallest particle size exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic decolorization was obtained at 5 h of contact time, initial concentration of MO at 20 ppm and at solution pH of 4. Using these conditions, over 90% of MO was able to be decolorized using 0.02 g of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. The TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite could be reused, which meant that the TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites can be developed as an effective and economical photocatalyst to decolorize or treat dye in wastewater.

  3. The Influence of NiO Addition in TiO2 Structure and Its Photoactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Purwanti, P. D.; Munawaroh, H.; Ichsan, S.; Kristiawan, Y. R.

    2018-03-01

    The synthesis of TiO2 together with the TiO2-NiO composite using various annealing temperatures has been studied. The synthesis of TiO2 was performed by sol gel method using Titanium Tetra Isopropoxide (TTIP) precursor, whereas the synthesis of TiO2-NiO composite was done by wet impregnation method using NiNO3.6H2O precursor. This study aims to determine the influence of NiO addition in its structure and photoactivity. The diffraction of synthesized TiO2 at 400 °C temperature shows anatase TiO2 peak at 2θ = 25.35 °. The addition of NiO dopant to the synthesis of TiO2 process is carried out by annealing at 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C, respectively. The TiO2-NiO composite has been prepared and shows the diffraction peak of NiO at 2θ=43° about 33.08 to 36.68%. The optimum result of Rhodamine B photodegradation with TiO2 was 43.15%, while the optimum result of Rhodamine B degradation with TiO2-NiO composite was 92.85%.

  4. A thick hierarchical rutile TiO2 nanomaterial with multilayered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shengli; Xie, Guoqiang; Yang, Xianjin; Cui, Zhenduo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We synthesized a new rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure. ► The nano architecture structure consist of nanorods and nanoflower arrays. ► The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). ► The TiO 2 nanomaterials present a multilayer structure. - Abstract: In the present paper, we synthesized a new type of rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure using a novel method, which combined dealloying process with chemical synthesis. The structure characters were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). The hierarchical structure of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial consists of large quantities nanorods and nanoflower arrays. The nanoflowers consist of serveral nanopetals with diameter of 100–200 nm. The cross section of TiO 2 nanomaterials presents a multilayer structure with the layer thickness of about 3–5 μm. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has high specific surface area. The formation mechanism of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial was discussed according to the experimental results. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has potential applications in catalysis, photocatalysis and solar cells

  5. Preparation of rutile TiO(2) coating by thermal chemical vapor deposition for anticoking applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiyun; Wang, Jianli; Zhu, Quan; Chen, Yaoqiang; Li, Xiangyuan

    2014-10-08

    To inhibit the metal catalytic coking and improve the oxidation resistance of TiN coating, rutile TiO2 coating has been directly designed as an efficient anticoking coating for n-hexane pyrolysis. TiO2 coatings were prepared on the inner surface of SS304 tubes by a thermal CVD method under varied temperatures from 650 to 900 °C. The rutile TiO2 coating was obtained by annealing the as-deposited TiO2 coating, which is an alternative route for the deposition of rutile TiO2 coating. The morphology, elemental and phase composition of TiO2 coatings were characterized by SEM, EDX and XRD, respectively. The results show that deposition temperature of TiO2 coatings has a strong effect on the morphology and thickness of as-deposited TiO2 coatings. Fe, Cr and Ni at.% of the substrate gradually changes to 0 when the temperature is increased to 800 °C. The thickness of TiO2 coating is more than 6 μm and uniform by metalloscopy, and the films have a nonstoichiometric composition of Ti3O8 when the deposition temperature is above 800 °C. The anticoking tests show that the TiO2 coating at a deposition temperature of 800 °C is sufficiently thick to cover the cracks and gaps on the surface of blank substrate and cut off the catalytic coke growth effect of the metal substrate. The anticoking ratio of TiO2 coating corresponding to each 5 cm segments is above 65% and the average anticoking ratio of TiO2 coating is up to 76%. Thus, the TiO2 coating can provide a very good protective layer to prevent the substrate from severe coking efficiently.

  6. Exchange of TiO2 nanoparticles between streams and streambeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncagni, Natalia Ticiana; Otaegui, Justo Manuel; Warner, Evelyn; Curran, Trisha; Ren, Jianhong; de Cortalezzi, Maria Marta Fidalgo

    2009-10-15

    The expanding use of manufactured nanoparticles has increased the potential for their release into the natural environment. Particularly, TiO2 nanoparticles pose significant exposure risk to humans and other living species due to their extensive use in a wide range of fields. To better understand the environmental and health risks associated with the release of TiO2 nanoparticles, knowledge on their fate and transport is needed. This study evaluates the transport of two different TiO2 nanoparticles: one commercially available (P25 TiO2 and the other synthesized at a lab scale (synthesized TiO2). Laboratory flume, column, and batch experiments were conducted to investigate the processes dominating the transport of TiO2 nanoparticles between streams and streambeds and to characterize the properties of these nanoparticles under different physicochemical conditions. Results show that the synthesized TiO2 was more stable compared to the P25 TiO2, which underwent significant aggregation under the same experimental conditions. As a result, P25 TiO2 deposited at a faster rate than the synthesized TiO2 in the streambed. Both types of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited in the streambed were easily released when the stream velocity was increased. The aggregation and deposition of P25 TiO2 were highly dependent on pH. A process-based colloid exchange model was applied to interpret the observed transport behavior of the TiO2 nanoparticles.

  7. Rational design of a tripartite-layered TiO2 photoelectrode: a candidate for enhanced power conversion efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Javid; Gu, Jiuwang; He, Shiman; Li, Xiaohui; Ahmed, Gulzar; Liu, Zhongwu; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Mai, Wenjie; Wu, Mingmei

    2017-07-20

    A tri-layered photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is assembled using single crystal hollow TiO 2 nanoparticles (HTNPs), sub-micro hollow TiO 2 mesospheres (SHTMSs) and hierarchical TiO 2 microspheres (HTMSs). The bottom layer composed of single crystal hollow TiO 2 nanoparticles serves to absorb dye molecules, harvest light due to its hollow structure and keep a better mechanical contact with FTO conducting glass; the middle layer consisting of sub-micro hollow mesospheres works as a multifunctional layer due to its high dye adsorption ability, strong light trapping and scattering ability and slow recombination rates; and the top layer consisting of hierarchical microspheres enhances light scattering. The DSSCs made of photoanodes with a tripartite-layer structure (Film 4) show a superior photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.24%, which is 7.4% higher than a single layered photoanode composed of HTNPs (Film 1: 8.90%), 4.6% higher than a double layer-based electrode consisting of HTNPs and SHTMSs (Film 2: 9.03%) and 2.6% higher than a double layer-based electrode made of HTNPs and HTMSs (Film 3: 9.11%). The significant improvements in the PCE for tri-layered TiO 2 photoanodes are mainly because of the combined effects of their higher light scattering ability, long electron lifetime, fast electron transport rate, efficient charge collection and a considerable surface area with high dye-loading capability. This study confirms that the facile tri-layered photoanode is an interesting structure for high-efficiency DSSCs.

  8. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai; Yang, Xiulin; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Ahmed, Elaf S.; Shi, Le; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs

  9. Study on the use of TiO2 passivation layer to reduce recombination losses in dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander bin Samsudin, Adel; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Nayan, Nafarizal; Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Shariffuddin, Sharifah Amira Amir; Omar, Salwa

    2012-01-01

    A lot of research on various aspects of dye solar cells (DSC) has been carried out in order to improve efficiency. This paper analyzes the utilization of TiO 2 passivation layers of different thicknesses by improving the electron transport properties. Four different thicknesses of passivation layers namely 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm were deposited onto the working electrode using r.f sputtering. The electrodes were assembled into TiO 2 based DSC with active area of 1 cm 2 . The solar performance was investigated using 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight from solar simulator. The kinetics of the solar cells was investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and the spectral response was measured using Incident Photon to Electron Conversion (IPCE) measurement system. The highest efficiency was found for DSC with 20 nm passivation layer. DSCs with the passivation layer have open circuit voltage, V OC increased by 57 mV, their current density, J SC increased by 0.774 mA cm −2 compared to the one without the passivation layer. The quantum efficiency of the 20 nm passivation layer is the highest, peaking at the wavelength of 534 nm, resulting in the highest performance. All DSCs with the passivation layer recorded higher ratio of R BR /R T where R T is the diffusion resistance of the TiO 2 particles in the mesoscopic layer and R BR is the recombination resistance of the electron to the electrolyte. This implies that the recombination of the electrolyte I − 3 /3I − couple at the substrate/electrolyte interface has been effectively reduced resulting in an enhanced efficiency.

  10. Photoluminescence studies on Eu doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningthoujam, R.S.; Sudarsan, V.; Vatsa, R.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Jagannath; Gupta, A.

    2009-01-01

    Eu 3+ doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by urea hydrolysis in ethylene glycol medium at low temperature of 150 deg. C. X-ray diffraction study showed that anatase phase of tetragonal structure was formed below 500 deg. C; and above this temperature, additional peaks due to rutile phase were also observed. From luminescence study, it was found that as prepared nanoparticles showed the enhanced luminescence intensity due to energy transfer from host to europium ions. However, photoluminescence from these nanoparticles was found to disappear when the samples were heated above 900 deg. C. We established the origin of the reduction in the luminescence intensity from Eu 3+ when doped in TiO 2 and heated at 900 deg. C. Based on detailed studies at different heat-treatment temperatures using techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, Raman spectroscopy, and Moessbauer spectroscopy, it has been established that formation of Eu 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase, wherein Eu 3+ ions occupy high symmetric environment (D 3d ) and also reduced distance between Eu 3+ and Eu 3+ ions is responsible for the decrease/loss in the luminescence intensity.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Islam, Muhammad S.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study has been conducted to investigate the matrix properties by introducing nanosize TiO 2 (5-40 nm, 0.5-2% by weight) fillers into an epoxy resin. Ultrasonic mixing process, via sonic cavitations, was employed to disperse the particles into the resin system. The thermal, mechanical, morphology and the viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposite and the neat resin were measured with TGA, DMA, TEM and Instron. The nano-particles are dispersed evenly throughout the entire volume of the resin. The nanofiller infusion improves the thermal, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the epoxy resin. The nanocomposite shows increase in storage modulus, glass transition temperature, tensile modulus, flexural modulus and short beam shear strength from neat epoxy resin. The mechanical performance and thermal stability of the epoxy nanocomposites are depending on with the dispersion state of the TiO 2 in the epoxy matrix and are correlated with loading (0.0015-0.006% by volume). In addition, the nanocomposite shows enhanced flexural strength. Several reasons to explain these effects in terms of reinforcing mechanisms were discussed

  12. Effect of annealing temperature on the anatase and rutile TiO2 nano tubes formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainovia Lockman; Kit, C.H.; Srimala Sreekantan

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we report on the optimum condition for TiO 2 titania nano tubes formation and the effect of annealing on the formation of anatse and rutile titania. Anodic oxidation was carried out in two electrodes bath consisting of 5 wt % NH 4 F ions. The anode was a 0.1 mm thick Ti foil and the cathode was Pt electrode. Anodization was conducted at 20 V. The anodised foils were subjected to morphological and structural characterizations. As-anodised foil was found to be amorphous or weakly crystalline. When the oxide was heat treated, x-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of (101) anatase at annealing temperature from 400 - 500 degree Celsius. This indicates that the transformation occurs at this range of temperatures. Raman spectroscopy analysis showed the diminishing of anatase peaks for samples annealed at 500 degree Celsius. At above 600 degree Celsius, x-ray diffraction pattern shows a peak belonging to the rutile peak. Transformation from anatase to rutile is thought to occur at about 500 degree Celsius with a more complete transformation at higher temperature. Annealing at higher than 600 degree Celsius induces thickening of the nano tubes wall and at above 700 degree Celsius, the nano tubes structure has completely disappeared. (author)

  13. Electrocatalytic activity of lithium polysulfides adsorbed into porous TiO2 coated MWCNTs hybrid structure for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiulin; Hou, Huijie; Yuan, Xiqing; Huang, Long; Hu, Jingping; Liu, Bingchuan; Xu, Jingyi; Xie, Jia; Yang, Jiakuan; Liang, Sha; Wu, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted great attention because of their high energy density, environmental friendliness, natural abundance and intrinsically low cost of sulfur. However, their commercial applications are greatly hindered by rapid capacity decay due to poor conductivity of electrode, fast dissolution of the intermediate polysulfides into the electrolyte, and the volume expansion of sulfur. Herein, we report a novel composite MWCNTs@TiO2-S nanostructure by grafting TiO2 onto the surface of MWCNTs, followed by incorporating sulfur into the composite. The inner MWCNTs improved the mechanical strength and conductivity of the electrode and the outer TiO2 provided the adsorption sites to immobilize polysulfides due to bonding interaction between TiO2 and polysulfides. The MWCNTs@TiO2-S composite with a mass ratio of 50% (MWCNTs in MWCNTs@TiO2) exhibited the highest electrochemistry performance among all compositing ratios of MWCNTs/TiO2. The performance improvement might be attributed to the downward shift of the apparent Fermi level to a more positive potential and electron rich space region at the interface of MWCNTs-TiO2 that facilitates the reduction of lithium polysulfide at a higher potential. Such a novel hybrid structure can be applicable for electrode design in other energy storage applications. PMID:28098167

  14. Robust binder-free anodes assembled with ultralong mischcrystal TiO2 nanowires and reduced graphene oxide for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Yang, Dongzhi; Yu, Ruomeng; Liu, Yaxin; Hao, Shu-Meng; Zhang, Shiyi; Qu, Jin; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2018-04-01

    To satisfy increasing power demands of mobile devices and electric vehicles, rationally designed electrodes with short diffusion length are highly imperative to provide highly efficient ion and electron transport paths for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries. Herein, binder-free electrodes with the robust three-dimensional conductive network are prepared by assembling ultralong TiO2 nanowires with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for high-performance lithium-ion storage. Ultralong TiO2 nanowires are synthesized and used to construct an interconnecting network that avoids the use of inert auxiliary additives of polymer binders and conductive agents. By thermal annealing, a small amount of anatase is generated in situ in the TiO2(B) nanowires to form abundant TiO2(B)/anatase interfaces for accommodating additional lithium ions. Simultaneously, RGO sheets efficiently enhance the electronic conductivity and enlarge the specific surface area of the TiO2/RGO nanocomposite. The robust 3D network in the binder-free electrode not only effectively avoids the agglomeration of TiO2/RGO components during the long-term charging/discharging process, but also provides direct and fast ion/electron transport paths. The binder-free electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 259.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an excellent cycling performance with a high reversible capacity of 111.9 mA h g-1 at 25 C after 5000 cycles.

  15. Electrical conductivity characteristic of TiO2 nanowires from hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Amat, Noor Faridah; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Rajan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    One dimensional nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) were synthesized via hydrothermal method by mixing TiO 2 as precursor in aqueous solution of NaOH as solvent. Then, heat and washing treatment was applied. Thus obtained wires had diameter ∼15 nm. TiO 2 nanowires will be used as a network in solar cell such dye-sensitized solar cell in order to improve the performance of electron movement in the device. To improve the performance of electron movement, the characteristics of TiO 2 nanowires have been analyses using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis, x-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis and brunauer emmett teller (BET) analysis. Finally, electrical conductivity of TiO 2 nanowires was determined by measuring the resistance of the TiO 2 nanowires paste on microscope glass.

  16. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy from TiO2 particles embedded in polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Johansen, Villads Egede

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a physical simulation carried out using TiO2-Polyurethane composite coating on bright aluminium surface to understand the light scattering effect for designing white surfaces. Polyurethane matrix is selected due to the matching refractive index (1.7) with Al2O3...... layer on anodized aluminium surfaces. Three different TiO2 particle distributions were dispersed in polyurethane and spin coated onto high gloss and caustic etched aluminium substrates. Reflectance spectra of TiO2-polyurethane films of various concentrations were analysed using an integrating sphere....... The results show that the TiO2-polyurethane coatings have a high diffuse reflectance as a result of multiple scattering from TiO2 particles. Diffuse reflectance spectra of TiO2 containing films vary weakly with particle concentration and reach a steady state value at a concentration of 0.75 wt.%. Using...

  18. Photodegradation of Reactive Golden Yellow R Dye Catalyzed by Effective Titania (TiO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedurus, E.A.; Marinah Mohd Ariffin; Mohd Hasmizam Razali

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, Microwave Assisted Synthesis (MAS) method was applied to synthesize titania (TiO 2 ) at 150 degree Celsius in a range of 2-6 hours heating time. Each prepared TiO 2 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen gas (N 2 ) sorption analysis (Brunaeur-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) calculation) techniques. The TiO 2 prepared by MAS 150 degree Celsius (4 hours) has emerged with the highest photo catalytic activity. Within 4 hours, the TiO 2 managed to catalyze the degradation of Reactive Golden Yellow R dye up to 98.51 %. This is because of the TiO 2 possessed high crystallinity of anatase phase, small crystallite size and high pore volume compared to other prepared TiO 2 . (author)

  19. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2012-02-10

    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  20. Engineering of highly ordered TiO2 nanopore arrays by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yong; Kou, Shengzhong; Yang, Hangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis was used to simulate the current density distributions in the TiO2 barrier layer formed at the initial stage of Ti anodization. The morphology modification of the barrier layer was found to induce current density distribution change. By starting the anodization with proper TiO2 barrier layer morphology, the current density distribution can be adjusted to favor the formation of either nanotube arrays or nanopore arrays of anodic TiO2. We also found that the addition of sodium acetate into the electrolyte suppressed both the field-assisted chemical dissolution of TiO2 and the TiF62- hydrolysis induced TiO2 deposition during anodization, and thus further favored the nanopore formation. Accordingly, highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanopore arrays, similar to anodic aluminum oxide nanopore arrays, were successfully prepared.

  1. XRD analysis of undoped and Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles by Williamson Hall method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Bandna; Barman, P. B.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and Fe doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature. The synthesized samples were annealed at 500°C. For structural analysis, the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size of TiO 2 and Fe doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were calculated by Scherer’s formula, and was found to be 15 nm and 11 nm, respectively. Reduction in crystallite size of TiO 2 with Fe doping was observed. The anatase phase of Fe-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction. By using Williamson-Hall method, lattice strain and crystallite size were also calculated. Williamson–Hall plot indicates the presence of compressive strain for TiO 2 and tensile strain for Fe-TiO 2 nanoparticles annealed at 500°C

  2. Effect of surface ethoxy groups on photoactivity of TiO2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lihong; Deng Kejian; Ye Liqun; Zan Lin

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 nanocrystals modified by ethoxy groups were prepared by a facile nonhydrolytic solvothermal method and characterized by XRD, TEM, TG-DTA and XPS, which showed an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity on the degradation of Rhodamine B compared with TiO 2 modified by benzyloxy groups and the 'naked' TiO 2 . The adsorption and degradation pathway of Rhodamine B on TiO 2 modified by ethoxy groups were also investigated. The zeta-potential (ζ) results showed that the TiO 2 modified by ethoxy groups had high negative surface charge, which incited the positive -N(Et) 2 group of RhB absorbing on the TiO 2 surface and preferably led the N-dealkylation pathway under visible light irradiation.

  3. An innovative approach to synthesize highly-ordered TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isimjan, Tayirjan T; Yang, D Q; Rohani, Sohrab; Ray, Ajay K

    2011-02-01

    An innovative route to prepare highly-ordered and dimensionally controlled TiO2 nanotubes has been proposed using a mild sonication method. The nanotube arrays were prepared by the anodization of titanium in an electrolyte containing 3% NH4F and 5% H2O in glycerol. It is demonstrated that the TiO2 nanostructures has two layers: the top layer is TiO2 nanowire and underneath is well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes. The top layer can easily fall off and form nanowires bundles by implementing a mild sonication after a short annealing time. We found that the dimensions of the TiO2 nanotubes were only dependent on the anodizing condition. The proposed technique may be extended to fabricate reproducible well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes with large area on other metals.

  4. Graphene-enhanced Raman imaging of TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumenko, Denys; Snitka, Valentinas; Snopok, Boris; Arpiainen, Sanna; Lipsanen, Harri

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of anatase titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles with chemical vapour deposited graphene sheets transferred on glass substrates is investigated by using atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and imaging. Significant electronic interactions between the nanoparticles of TiO 2 and graphene were found. The changes in the graphene Raman peak positions and intensity ratios indicate that charge transfer between graphene and TiO 2 nanoparticles occurred, increasing the Raman signal of the TiO 2 nanoparticles up to five times. The normalized Raman intensity of TiO 2 nanoparticles per their volume increased with the disorder of the graphene structure. The complementary reason for the observed enhancement is that due to the higher density of states in the defect sites of graphene, a higher electron transfer occurs from the graphene to the anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles. (paper)

  5. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  6. Ammonia Sensing Behaviors of TiO2-PANI/PA6 Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide-polyaniline/polyamide 6 (TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of PA6 nanofibers and a sputtering-deposition process with a high purity titanium sputtering target. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers and PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were fabricated for ammonia gas sensing. The ammonia sensing behaviors of the sensors were examined at room temperature. All the results indicated that the ammonia sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers was superior to that of PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers had good selectivity to ammonia. It was also found that the content of TiO2 had a great influence on both the morphology and the sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers.

  7. Eco-friendly synthesis of TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cell applications and evaluation of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, K.; Kumaraguru, S.; Bhakyaraj, K.; Thirumal, S.; Arumugam, A.

    2016-04-01

    Driven by the demand of pure TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 NPs were successfully synthesized using Terminalia arjuna bark extract. The eco-friendly synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-Vis-DRS, ATR-FT-IR, PL, XRD, Raman, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were investigation for dye sensitized solar cell applications. UV-Vis-Diffused Reflectance Spectra clearly showed that the expected TiO2 inter band absorption below 306 nm, incorporation of gold shows surface plasma resonant (SPR) near 555 nm and platinum incorporated TiO2 NPs shows absorbance at 460 nm. The energy conversion efficiency for Au doped TiO2 NPs when compared to pure and Pt doped TiO2 NPs. In addition to that, Au noble metal present TiO2 matrix and an improve open-circuit voltage (Voc) of DSSC. Synthesized NPs was evaluated into antibacterial and antifungal activities by disk diffusion method. It is observed that NPs have not shown any activities in all tested bacterial and fungal strains. In this eco-friendly synthesis method to provide non toxic and environmental friendly nanomaterials can be used for solar energy device application.

  8. TiO2 nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO2 hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe; Nam, Chang-Yong; Shi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO 2 layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO 2 nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO 2 layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO 2 precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO 2 layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO 2 blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO 2 layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime

  9. Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of Ambipolar Lithium Ion and Electron-Polaron Diffusion into Nanostructured TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jianguo; Sushko, Maria L.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured titania (TiO2) polymorphs have proved to be promising electrode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the fundamental microscopic processes that control charge transport in these materials. Here we present microscopic simulations of the collective dynamics of lithium-ion (Li+) and charge compensating electron polarons (e-) in rutile TiO2 nanoparticles in contact with idealized conductive matrix and electrolyte. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used, parameterized by molecular dynamics-based predictions of activation energy barriers for Li+ and e- diffusion. Simulations reveal the central role of electrostatic coupling between Li+ and e- on their collective drift diffusion at the nanoscale. They also demonstrate that high contact area between conductive matrix and rutile nanoparticles leads to undesirable coupling-induced surface saturation effects during Li+ insertion, which limits the overall capacity and conductivity of the material. These results help provide guidelines for design of nanostructured electrode materials with improved electrochemical performance.

  10. Interaction of NO during cathodic polarization in alkaline conditions at the interface of Pt-nanostructures supported on C and TiO2-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estudillo-Wong, L.A.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Manzo-Robledo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The electroreduction of nitric oxide (NO) in alkaline media was carried out on Pt nanoparticles (5 wt.% Pt), which were synthesized by the carbonyl route. The as-prepared materials were supported on Carbon Black (XC-72R, C) and TiO 2 -C composite (10 wt.% TiO 2 ) and deposited on glassy carbon (GC) electrode. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), CO-stripping and hydrogen adsorption-desorption (H upd ) analysis were employed to characterize the structure and electrochemical properties. According to XRD patterns, the particle size increases from 3.95 to 8.98 nm due to the interaction of Pt with TiO 2 in the carbon matrix. This modification promotes a better performance during CO-oxidation and proton adsorption-desorption. As a consequence, the performance toward NO-reduction was more important in TiO 2 -C composite, linked with the electrochemical active-surface area and chemical surface area relationship (ECSA/CSA). It was found that the mechanism for the reduction of nitric oxide toward nitrogen is a bi-functional process with coupled chemical and electrochemical interfacial-reactions with NH 2 specie as intermediate, as demonstrated by the induced reduction reaction of NO 2 − and NO 2 − + NO, and UV-vis spectrometry

  11. Magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 Nanoparticles-based Test Strip Immunosensing Device for Rapid Detection of Phosphorylated Butyrylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2013-12-15

    An integrated magnetic nanoparticles-based test-strip immunosensing device was developed for rapid and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the biomarker of exposure to organophosphous pesticides (OP), in human plasma. In order to overcome the difficulty in scarce availability of OP-specific antibody, here magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles were used and adsorbed on the test strip through a small magnet inserted in the device to capture target OP-BChE through selective binding between TiO2 and OP moiety. Further recognition was completed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anti-BChE antibody (Ab) co-immobilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Their strong affinities among Fe3O4@TiO2, OP-BChE and HRP/Ab-GNPs were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements. After cutting off from test strip, the resulted immunocomplex (HRP/Ab-GNPs/OP-BChE/Fe3O4@TiO2) was measured by SWV using a screen printed electrode under the test zone. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by introduction of GNPs to link enzyme and antibody at high ratio, which amplifies electrocatalytic signal significantly. Moreover, the use of test strip for fast immunoreactions reduces analytical time remarkably. Coupling with a portable electrochemical detector, the integrated device with advanced nanotechnology displays great promise for sensitive, rapid and in-filed on-site evaluation of OP poisoning.

  12. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional hollow Sb2O3@TiO2 composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Cheng, Yong; Li, Qian; Chang, Limin; Wang, Limin

    2018-06-01

    Metallic Sb is deemed as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its flat voltage platform and high security. Nevertheless, the limited capacity restricts its large-scale application. Therefore, a simple and effective method to explore novel antimony trioxide with high capacity used as anode material for LIBs is imperative. In this work, we report a facile and efficient strategy to fabricate 1D hollow Sb2O3@TiO2 composites by using the Kirkendall effect. When used as an anode material for LIBs, the optimal Sb2O3@TiO2 composite displays a high reversible discharge capacity of 593 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles and a relatively superior discharge capacity of 439 mAh g-1 at a current density of 500 mA g-1 even after 600 cycles. In addition, a reversible discharge capacity of 334 mAh g-1 can also be obtained even at a current density of 2000 mA g-1. The excellent cycling stability and rate performance of the Sb2O3@TiO2 composite can be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 shell and hollow structure of Sb2O3, both of which can effectively buffer the volume expansion and maintain the integrity of the electrode during the repeated charge-discharge cycles.

  13. CdTe and graphene co-sensitized TiO2 nanotube array photoanodes for protection of 304SS under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong; Wang, Xiutong; Hou, Baorong; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    CdTe/graphene/TiO 2 films that served as photoanodes for cathodic protection application were prepared by an electrochemical deposition method. The deposition of graphene and CdTe nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of the TiO 2 nanotubes was confirmed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The composites exhibited high light absorption in both the UV and visible light region. The results indicated that TiO 2 nanotube photoelectrodes sensitized by 20-cycle graphene and 30-cycle CdTe NPs exhibited effective photocathodic protection properties for 304 stainless steel (304SS) under the visible-light illumination, with an photopotential of −750 mV versus saturated calomel electrode and a current density of 560 μA cm −2 . Due to the efficient photogenerated charge separation, the three-component CdTe/graphene/TiO 2 showed stronger photoresponse than pure TiO 2 under visible-light illumination. In summary, the CdTe/graphene could improve the photocathodic protection properties of TiO 2 films. (paper)

  14. Flexible free-standing TiO2/graphene/PVdF films as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, H.M.; Ding, Y.H.; Chang, F.H.; He, X.; Feng, J.Q.; Wang, C.F.; Jiang, Y.; Zhang, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Flexible TiO 2 /graphene electrode was prepared by a solvent evaporation technique. ► PVdF was used as substance to support the TiO 2 /graphene active materials. ► The flexible films can be employed as anode materials for Li-ion battery. - Abstract: Graphene composites were prepared by hydrothermal method using titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) adsorbed graphene oxide (GO) sheets as precursors. Free-standing hybrid films for lithium-ion batteries were prepared by adding TiO 2 /graphene composites to the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF)/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solution, followed by a solvent evaporation technique. These films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and various electrochemical techniques. Flexible films show an excellent cycling performance, which was attributed to the interconnected graphene conducting network, which depressed the increasing of electric resistance during the cycling.

  15. Engineering the TiO2 -graphene interface to enhance photocatalytic H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lichen; Liu, Zhe; Liu, Annai; Gu, Xianrui; Ge, Chengyan; Gao, Fei; Dong, Lin

    2014-02-01

    In this work, TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are synthesized with tunable TiO2 crystal facets ({100}, {101}, and {001} facets) through an anion-assisted method. These three TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites have similar particle sizes and surface areas; the only difference between them is the crystal facet exposed in TiO2 nanocrystals. UV/Vis spectra show that band structures of TiO2 nanocrystals and TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are dependent on the crystal facets. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggest that the charge-transfer rate between {100} facets and graphene is approximately 1.4 times of that between {001} facets and graphene. Photoelectrochemical measurements also confirm that the charge-separation efficiency between TiO2 and graphene is greatly dependent on the crystal facets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Ti-C bonds are formed between {100} facets and graphene, while {101} facets and {001} facets are connected with graphene mainly through Ti-O-C bonds. With Ti-C bonds between TiO2 and graphene, TiO2 -100-G shows the fastest charge-transfer rate, leading to higher activity in photocatalytic H2 production from methanol solution. TiO2 -101-G with more reductive electrons and medium interfacial charge-transfer rate also shows good H2 evolution rate. As a result of its disadvantageous electronic structure and interfacial connections, TiO2 -001-G shows the lowest H2 evolution rate. These results suggest that engineering the structures of the TiO2 -graphene interface can be an effective strategy to achieve excellent photocatalytic performances. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.

    2013-04-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different techniques to characterize five different manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles. In this study, different measurement techniques have been implemented: Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The TEM results lead to a relatively good agreement between data from the manufacturer and our characterizations of primary particle size. With regard to the dustiness, the results show a strong presence of agglomerates / aggregates of primary particles and a significant presence of emitted airborne nanoparticles with a diameter below 100 nm (composed of isolated primary particles and small aggregates / agglomerates formed from a few primary particles): the number proportion of these particles varies from 0 to 44 % in the measurement range 14-360 nm depending on the types of powders and corrections of measurements.

  17. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzkus, C; Macé, T; Vaslin-Reimann, S; Ausset, P; Maillé, M

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO 2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different techniques to characterize five different manufactured TiO 2 nanoparticles. In this study, different measurement techniques have been implemented: Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The TEM results lead to a relatively good agreement between data from the manufacturer and our characterizations of primary particle size. With regard to the dustiness, the results show a strong presence of agglomerates / aggregates of primary particles and a significant presence of emitted airborne nanoparticles with a diameter below 100 nm (composed of isolated primary particles and small aggregates / agglomerates formed from a few primary particles): the number proportion of these particles varies from 0 to 44 % in the measurement range 14-360 nm depending on the types of powders and corrections of measurements.

  18. Positron annihilation lifetime characterization of oxygen ion irradiated rutile TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Homnath; Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Chattopadhyay, S.; Asokan, K.; Sanyal, D.

    2016-07-01

    Ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature has been induced in rutile phase of TiO2 polycrystalline sample by O ion irradiation. 96 MeV O ion induced defects in rutile TiO2 sample has been characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopic techniques. Positron annihilation results indicate the formation of cation vacancy (VTi, Ti vacancy) in these irradiated TiO2 samples. Ab initio density functional theoretical calculations indicate that in TiO2 magnetic moment can be induced either by creating Ti or O vacancies.

  19. The effects of nanostructures on the mechanical and tribological properties of TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoungchin; Park, Jeongwon

    2018-04-01

    TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization on Ti substrates with a diameter variation of 30-100 nm, and the structure of the nanotubes were studied using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the structure changes from the anatase phase to the rutile phase of TiO2 at a diameter below 50 nm. The tribological behaviors of TiO2 nanotubes were investigated with different diameters. The effectiveness of the rutile phase and the diameter size enhanced the frictional performance of TiO2 nanotubes.

  20. Annealing of TiO2 Films Deposited on Si by Irradiating Nitrogen Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Katsuhiro; Yano, Yoshinori; Miyashita, Fumiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were deposited on Si at a temperature of 600 deg. C by an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method. The TiO2 films were annealed for 30 min in Ar at temperatures below 700 deg. C. The as-deposited TiO2 films had high permittivities such 200 εo and consisted of crystallites that were not preferentially oriented to the c-axis but had an expanded c-axis. On the annealed TiO2 films, permittivities became lower with increasing annealing temperature, and crystallites were oriented preferentially to the (110) plane

  1. Synthesis of Nd3+doped TiO2 nanoparticles and Its Optical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure and Rare earth ion doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by Sol-gel method. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence emission spectra. From the UV-visible measurement, the absorption edge of Nd3+-TiO2 was shifted to a higher wavelength side with decreasing band gap. Photoluminescence emission studies reveal the energy transfer mechanism of Nd3+ doped TiO2 nanoparticles explain.

  2. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00476g

  3. Enhancing lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris using oxidative stress by TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Moon, Myounghoon; Park, Min S.; Yang, Ji-Won; Lim, JitKang

    2014-01-01

    Ability to increase the lipid production in microalgae is one of the heavily sought-after ideas to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae-derived transportation fuels for commercial applications. We used the oxidative stress by TiO 2 nanoparticles, a well-known photocatalyst, to induce lipid production in microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 was cultivated under various concentrations of TiO 2 ranging from 0.1 to 5 g/L under UV-A illumination. Maximum specific growth rate was affected in responding to TiO 2 concentrations. In the presence of UV-A, chlorophyll concentration was decreased at the highest concentration of TiO 2 (5 g/L TiO 2 ) by oxidative stress. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition analysis suggested that oxidative stress causes the accumulation and decomposition of lipids. The highest FAME productivity was 18.2 g/L/d under low concentrations of TiO 2 (0.1 g/L) and a short induction time (two days). The controlled condition of TiO 2 /UV-A inducing oxidative stress (0.1 g/L TiO 2 and two days induction) could be used to increase the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris UTEX 265. Our results show the possibility of modulating the lipid induction process through oxidative stress with TiO 2 /UV-A

  4. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline porous TiO2/WO3 composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsay, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 materials possessing not only photocatalytic but also electrochromic properties have attracted many research and development interests. Though WO 3 exhibits excellent electrochromic properties, the much higher cost and water-sensitivity of WO 3 as compared with the TiO 2 may restrict the practical application of WO 3 materials. In the present study, the feasibility of preparing nanocrystalline porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite thin films was investigated. Precursors of sols TiO 2 and/or WO 3 and polystyrene microspheres were used to prepare nanocrystalline pure TiO 2 , WO 3 , and composite TiO 2 /WO 3 thin films by spin coating. The spin-coated thin films were amorphous and, after heat treating at a temperature of 500 o C, nanocrystalline TiO 2 , TiO 2 /WO 3 , and WO 3 thin films with or without pores were prepared successfully. The heat-treated thin films were colorless and coloration-bleaching phenomena can be observed during cyclic voltammetry tests. The heat-treated thin films exhibited good reversible electrochromic behavior while the porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite film exhibited improved electrochromic properties

  5. Flow-Regulated Growth of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) Nanotubes in Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Chen, Xinye; Wang, Zihao; Custer, David; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-08-01

    Electrochemical anodization of titanium (Ti) in a static, bulk condition is used widely to fabricate self-organized TiO 2 nanotube arrays. Such bulk approaches, however, require extended anodization times to obtain long TiO 2 nanotubes and produce only vertically aligned nanotubes. To date, it remains challenging to develop effective strategies to grow long TiO 2 nanotubes in a short period of time, and to control the nanotube orientation. Here, it is shown that the anodic growth of TiO 2 nanotubes is significantly enhanced (≈16-20 times faster) under flow conditions in microfluidics. Flow not only controls the diameter, length, and crystal orientations of TiO 2 nanotubes, but also regulates the spatial distribution of nanotubes inside microfluidic devices. Strikingly, when a Ti thin film is deposited on silicon substrates and anodized in microfluidics, both vertically and horizontally aligned (relative to the bottom substrate) TiO 2 nanotubes can be produced. The results demonstrate previously unidentified roles of flow in the regulation of growth of TiO 2 nanotubes, and provide powerful approaches to effectively grow long, oriented TiO 2 nanotubes, and construct hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays on silicon-based materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. One-component solution system to prepare nanometric anatase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trung, Tran; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2004-01-01

    A novel one-pot synthesis route was proposed to prepare nanometric anatase TiO 2 using trichloroethylene as reaction medium, which may have great advantage over multicomponent solution systems when TiO 2 is used as a reinforcing filler for polymers dissolved in trichloroethylene. The anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It was found that the diameters of TiO 2 nanoparticles are in the range from 5 to 13 nm

  7. Enhanced bonding between TiO2-Graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naknikham, Usuma; Buffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    analysis. Besides, the study of Ti-O-C and Ti-C interface bonding was carried out using XPS. The band-gap energy was determined using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Thus, it was possible for us to determine the reactivity of the new photocatalysts under the visible light...... as photocatalysts, which can efficiently react with organic species under solar light and can enhance the adsorption of water pollutants [3]. Many studies have shown that TiO2-GO heterostructures can quickly mineralize organic dyes in solution under UV-light. However, it is not clear if these materials can provide...... the same performances under sunlight and with complex real water systems. Hence, this research aims to study the photocatalystic property on GO-TiO2 composites with aqueous solutions of selected emerging pollutants under visible light. The samples were synthesized via the in-situ sol-gel nucleation...

  8. Selective microwave sensors exploiting the interaction of analytes with trap states in TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, M. H.; Farsinezhad, S.; Abdolrazzaghi, M.; Daneshmand, M.; Shankar, K.

    2016-03-01

    Sensing of molecular analytes by probing the effects of their interaction with microwaves is emerging as a cheap, compact, label-free and highly sensitive detection and quantification technique. Microstrip ring-type resonators are particularly favored for this purpose due to their planar sensing geometry, electromagnetic field enhancements in the coupling gap and compatibility with established printed circuit board manufacturing. However, the lack of selectivity in what is essentially a permittivity-sensing method is an impediment to wider adoption and implementation of this sensing platform. By placing a polycrystalline anatase-phase TiO2 nanotube membrane in the coupling gap of a microwave resonator, we engineer selectivity for the detection and differentiation of methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol. The scavenging of reactive trapped holes by aliphatic alcohols adsorbed on TiO2 is responsible for the alcohol-specific detection while the different short chain alcohols are distinguished on the basis of differences in their microwave response. Electrodeless microwave sensors which allow spectral and time-dependent monitoring of the resonance frequency and quality factor provide a wealth of information in comparison with electrode-based resistive sensors for the detection of volatile organic compounds. A high dynamic range (400 ppm-10 000 ppm) is demonstrated for methanol detection.Sensing of molecular analytes by probing the effects of their interaction with microwaves is emerging as a cheap, compact, label-free and highly sensitive detection and quantification technique. Microstrip ring-type resonators are particularly favored for this purpose due to their planar sensing geometry, electromagnetic field enhancements in the coupling gap and compatibility with established printed circuit board manufacturing. However, the lack of selectivity in what is essentially a permittivity-sensing method is an impediment to wider adoption and implementation of this sensing platform

  9. A Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Capacitor Based on Porous TiO2 Hollow Microspheres Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faxing; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Yujuan; Liu, Zaichun; Chang, Zheng; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-12-01

    The quasi-solid-state Li-ion capacitor is demonstrated with graphene nanosheets prepared by an electrochemical exfoliation as the positive electrode and the porous TiO 2 hollow microspheres wrapped with the same graphene nanosheets as the negative electrode, using a Li-ion conducting gel polymer electrolyte. This device may be the key to bridging the gap between conventional lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, meanwhile meeting the safety demands of electronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ag nanoparticles modified TiO2 NTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingyao; Yang Xiuchun; Liu Dan; Zhao Jianfu

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TiO 2 NTs were first treated with bi-functional mercaptoacetic acid linkers (HOOC–R–S). The –OH group on the surface of TiO 2 NT provides a strong affinity with the carboxylate group in the linker molecules. The thiol functional group in the linker molecules facilitates the binding with Ag from AgNO 3 solution. After Ag + ions were reduced by NaBH 4 , Ag nanoparticles formed by nucleation and growth. Highlights: ► Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9.2 nm were filled in the TiO 2 nanotubes by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. ► Bi-functional mercaptoacetic acid linkers were used to bind TiO 2 nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles. ► Ag nanoparticles modification of TiO 2 NTs largely enhanced the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet light irradiation. - Abstract: Ordered anatase TiO 2 nanotubes (TiO 2 NTs) on Ti substrate were synthesized by electrochemical anodization and subsequently vapor-thermal treatment. Ag nanoparticles were decorated on TiO 2 NTs by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the characterization of surface morphology, phase composition, and microstructure of the original TiO 2 NTs, the vapor-thermally treated TiO 2 NTs and the Ag nanoparticles decorated TiO 2 NTs. The results indicate that vapor-thermal treatment favors to the transformation of amorphous TiO 2 into anatase phase. Increasing the SILAR cycle times favors to increase the loaded amounts of Ag nanoparticles in TiO 2 NTs. Ag nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in the TiO 2 NTs, and the SILAR process does not damage the ordered tubular structure. A possible formation mechanism of Ag/TiO 2 NTs has also been proposed. The photocatalytic results showed that the Ag nanoparticle modified TiO 2 NTs largely enhanced the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet light irradiation.

  11. The Effects of Anchor Groups on (1) TiO2-Catalyzed Photooxidation and (2) Linker-Assisted Assembly on TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian Mark

    Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are a popular target for research due to their potential for highly efficient, easily tuned absorption. Typically, light is absorbed by quantum dots attached to a semiconductor substrate, such as TiO2, via bifunctional linker molecules. This research aims to create a patterned monolayer of linker molecules on a TiO2 film, which would in turn allow the attachment of a patterned layer of quantum dots. One method for the creation of a patterned monolayer is the functionalization of a TiO2 film with a linker molecule, followed by illumination with a laser at 355 nm. This initiates a TiO 2-catalyzed oxidation reaction, causing loss of surface coverage. A second linker molecule can then be adsorbed onto the TiO2 surface in the illuminated area. Towards that end, the behaviors of carboxylic and phosphonic acids adsorbed on TiO2 have been studied. TiO2 films were functionalized by immersion in solutions a single adsorbate and surface coverage was determined by IR spectroscopy. It is shown that phosphonic acids attain higher surface coverage than carboxylic acids, and will displace them from TiO2 when in a polar solvent. Alkyl chain lengths, which can influence stabilities of monolayers, are shown not to have an effect on this relationship. Equilibrium binding data for the adsorption of n-hexadecanoic acid to TiO2 from a THF solution are presented. It is shown that solvent polarity can affect monolayer stability; carboxylates and phosphonates undergo more desorption into polar solvents than nonpolar. Through illumination, it was possible to remove nearly all adsorbed linkers from TiO2. However, the illuminated areas were found not to be receptive to attachment by a second adsorbate. A possible reason for this behavior is presented. I also report on the synthesis and characterization of a straight-chain, thiol-terminated phosphonic acid. Initial experiments involving monolayer formation and quantum dot attachment are presented. Finally, it was found that quantum dots attach in high amounts to linker-functionalized TiO2 when suspended in pyridine. This increased surface attachment was present even when the linker molecule used lacked a functional group which would bind to the CdSe surface.

  12. The synthesis of aqueous-dispersible anatase TiO2 nanoplatelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Guobin; Demopoulos, George P

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous well-dispersed and phase-pure anatase TiO 2 truncated octahedron nanoplatelets (NPLs) were prepared via controlled hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) in ethylene glycol at 240 deg. C. Two shapes, square and hexagon, were observed by microscopy, exactly corresponding to the truncated octahedron NPLs. Ethylene glycol was found to produce water in situ that reacts with TiCl 4 to produce TiO 2 and HCl-the latter promoting TiO 2 colloid peptization. TiO 2 truncated octahedron NPLs are formed under the stabilizing action of ethylene glycol thermolysis derivatives, such as aldehydes. Crystal growth of the TiO 2 NPLs was affected by the reaction temperature that determines the water production rate and HCl-assisted peptization. TGA and FT-IR results showed ∼1.2% ethylene glycol thermolysis derivatives are attached to the surface of the TiO 2 NPLs, which prevents their agglomeration, hence making them easily dispersible in aqueous media. HR-TEM and SAED results showed that the TiO 2 NPLs are well crystallized and that the SAED patterns of the single TiO 2 NPL changes with its size and shape. XRD patterns showed that the TiO 2 NPLs are phase-pure anatase and the percentage of the {101} plane in the TiO 2 NPLs to be only 18%-a structural feature that renders the TiO 2 NPLs with enhanced UV absorption and reactivity properties.

  13. The Influence of Cr3+ on TiO2 Crystal Growth and Photoactivity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Hidayatika, W. N.; Sari, P. L.; Sari, P. P.; Hidayat, R.; Munawaroh, H.; Ramelan, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    The photocatalyst technology is an integrated combination of photochemical processes and catalysis in order to carry out a chemical transformation reaction. One of the semiconductor materials that have good photocatalytic activity is TiO2 anatase. This study aim to determine the effect of the Cr3+ addition on the growth of TiO2 rutile crystal and the increasing of TiO2 photoactivity. Diffractogram X-Ray of the samples showed that the synthesized TiO2 at 400 °C has been produced 100% TiO2 anatase. Synthesis of TiO2 doped Cr3+ composite was using wet impregnation method. The TiO2 doped Cr3+ composites have beed grown by annealed at a temperature of 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C, respectively Annealing process have capabled to gain to the TiO2 doped Cr3+ nanocomposite. The result product annealed at 500 °C only appear anatase phase due to the Cr3+ addition influence that was able to suppress the growth of rutile. Identification of TiO2 doped Cr3+ composite using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) showed O-Cr vibration at 2283.72 cm-1. The TiO2 doped Cr3+ photoactivity was studied to degrade Rhodamin B. The best result on photodegradation of Rhodamin B was performed by using TiO2 doped Cr3+ composite which was annealed at 700 °C i.e. 74.71%.

  14. Rapid detection of TiO2 (E171) in table sugar using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Zhiyun; He, Lili

    2017-02-01

    The potential toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) to humans remain debatable despite its broad application as a food additive. Thus, confirmation of the existence of TiO 2 particles in food matrices and subsequently quantifying them are becoming increasingly critical. This study developed a facile, rapid (E171) from food products (e.g., table sugar) by Raman spectroscopy. To detect TiO 2 particles from sugar solution, sequential centrifugation and washing procedures were effectively applied to separate and recover 97% of TiO 2 particles from the sugar solution. The peak intensity of TiO 2 sensitively responded to the concentration of TiO 2 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.073 mg kg -1 . In the case of sugar granules, a mapping technique was applied to directly estimate the level of TiO 2 , which can be potentially used for rapid online monitoring. The plot of averaged intensity to TiO 2 concentration in the sugar granules exhibited a good linear relationship in the wide range of 5-2000 mg kg -1 , with an LOD of 8.46 mg kg -1 . Additionally, we applied Raman spectroscopy to prove the presence of TiO 2 in sugar-coated doughnuts. This study begins to fill in the analytical gaps that exist regarding the rapid detection and quantification of TiO 2 in food, which facilitate the risk assessment of TiO 2 through food exposure.

  15. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance for degradation of diclofenac and mechanism with TiO2 nano-particles decorated TiO2 nano-tubes arrays photoelectrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiuwen; Liu, Huiling; Chen, Qinghua; Li, Junjing; Wang, Pu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, TiO 2 nano-particles decorated TiO 2 nano-tubes arrays (TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs) photoelectrodes have been successfully prepared through anodization, combined with ultrasonic strategy, followed by annealing post-treatment. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoelectrodes were characterized by scanning electrons microscopy (SEM), N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–visible light diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). In addition, the generation of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) was detected by a photoluminescence (PL) spectra using terephthalic acid (TA) as a probe molecule. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical (PECH) properties of TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoanode were investigated through transient open circuit potential (OCP), photocurrent response (PCR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoelectrode exhibited a distinct decrease of OCP of −0.219 mV cm −2 and PCR of 0.049 mA cm −2 , while a significantly enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) efficiency of 63.6% (0.4 V vs. SCE) for the degradation of diclofenac. Moreover, the enhanced PEC mechanism of TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoanode was proposed. The high PEC performance could be attributed to the decoration of TiO 2 NPs, which could improve the mobility and separation efficiency of photoinduced charge carriers under external potential

  16. Interfacial electron-transfer equilibria and flat-band potentials of α-Fe2O3 and TiO2 colloids studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, N.M.; Savic, D.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics and equilibria of electron transfer between methylviologen cation radicals and α-Fe 2 O 3 or TiO 2 colloidal particles were studied with the pulse-radiolysis technique. The rates of electron transfer to both colloids are lower than those predicted for a diffusion-controlled reaction. For higher pHs (TiO 2 , pH > 2; α-Fe 2 O 3 , pH > 9) the established equilibrium MV + in equilibrium MV 2+ + (e - )/sub coll/ is strongly influenced by the MV 2+ concentration and pH. The MV + equilibrium concentration can be exploited to derive the flat-band potential of the semiconductor colloids. The method for determining the flat-band potential of the particles is independent of whether the injected electrons are free or trapped, and whether the electrons raise the bulk Fermi level toward the conduction band or just produce a space charge. The flat-band potentials for both colloids appear to be somewhat more negative (-0.1 to -0.2 V) than the corresponding single-crystal electrodes. Also, the flat-band potentials become slightly more negative with increasing radiation dose (initial MV + concentration). The effect of absorbed radiation dose is explained by the corresponding changes in the ratio of oxidized to reduced forms of the redox couple, which in turn changes the adsorbed ionic charge on the semiconductor surface. For colloidal particles of TiO 2 stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), the flat-band potentials were almost the same as those for PVA-free TiO 2 sols. The decrease of particle diameter from 800 to 70 A does not affect the value of the flat-band potentials for TiO 2 and α-Fe 2 O 3 colloids. 28 references, 9 figures

  17. Carbon nanotubes doped with trivalent elements by using back - scattering Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Babanejad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper by using DC arc discharge method and acetylene gas, as the carbon source, and nitrogen, as the carrier gas, canrbon nanotubes, CNTs, doped with trivalent element boron, B, have been produced. The deposited CNTs on the cathod electrod, which have structural doped properties to boron element, have been collected and after purification have been investigated by back-scattering Raman spectroscopy. The results reveal that the high frequency G mode component in CNTs doped with electron acceptor element, B, shift to higher wavenumbers. The low frequency G mode component which can appear at approximately 1540–1570 cm-1 wavenumber region, called BWF mode, is a sign of metallic CNT. In the synthesized doped CNTs due to the presence of boron dopant, D mode has sharp peaks and has relatively high intensity in the Raman spectra .

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol on TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/cellulosic fiber under UV and sunlight irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Jallouli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen ((N-(4-hydroxyphe-nylacetamide, an analgesic drug has been investigated in a batch reactor using TiO2 P25 as a photocatalyst in slurry and under UV light. Using TiO2 P25 nanoparticles, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred, more than 90% of 2.65 × 10−4 M paracetamol was degraded under UV irradiation. Changes in pH values affected the adsorption and the photodegradation of paracetamol. pH 9.0 is found to be the optimum for the photodegradation of paracetamol. HPLC detected hydroquinone, benzoquinone, p-nitrophenol, and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene during the TiO2-assisted photodegradation of paracetamol among which some pathway products are disclosed for the first time. The results showed that TiO2 suspension/UV system is more efficient than the TiO2/cellulosic fiber mode combined to solar light for the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol. Nerveless the immobilization of TiO2 showed many advantages over slurry system because it can enhance adsorption properties while allowing easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated solution with improved reusable performance.

  19. Equilibrium lithium-ion transport between nanocrystalline lithium-inserted anatase TiO2 and the electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Swapna; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Mulder, Fokko M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2011-12-23

    The power density of lithium-ion batteries requires the fast transfer of ions between the electrode and electrolyte. The achievable power density is directly related to the spontaneous equilibrium exchange of charged lithium ions across the electrolyte/electrode interface. Direct and unique characterization of this charge-transfer process is very difficult if not impossible, and consequently little is known about the solid/liquid ion transfer in lithium-ion-battery materials. Herein we report the direct observation by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of continuous lithium-ion exchange between the promising nanosized anatase TiO(2) electrode material and the electrolyte. Our results reveal that the energy barrier to charge transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface is equal to or greater than the barrier to lithium-ion diffusion through the solid anatase matrix. The composition of the electrolyte and in turn the solid/electrolyte interface (SEI) has a significant effect on the electrolyte/electrode lithium-ion exchange; this suggests potential improvements in the power of batteries by optimizing the electrolyte composition. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Preparation of Pt deposited nanotubular TiO2 as cathodes for enhanced photoelectrochemical hydrogen production using seawater electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Wonsik; Oh, Seichang; Joo, Hyunku; Yoon, Jaekyung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop effective cathodes to increase the production of hydrogen and use the seawater, an abundant resource in the earth as the electrolyte in photoelectrochemical systems. In order to fabricate the Pt/TiO 2 cathodes, various contents of the Pt precursor (0-0.4 wt%) deposited by the electrodeposition method were used. On the basis of the hydrogen evolution rate, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO 2 was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TiO 2 cathodes with the natural seawater and two concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from single (nanofiltration) and combined membrane (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) processes. The surface characterizations exhibited that crystal structures and morphological properties of Pt and TiO 2 found the results of XRD pattern and SEM/TEM images, respectively. - Graphical abstract: On the basis of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO 2 was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TIO 2 cathodes with natural seawater. In comparison of hydrogen evolution rate with various seawater electrolytes, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO 2 was found to show the better performance as cathode with the concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from membrane. Highlights: → Pt deposited TiO 2 electrodes are used as cathode in PEC H 2 production. → Natural and concentrated seawater by membranes are used as electrolytes in PEC. → Pt/TiO 2 shows a good performance as cathode with seawater electrolytes. → H 2 evolution rate increases with more concentrated seawater electrolyte. → Highly saline seawater is useful resource for H 2 production.

  1. SiO2@TiO2 Coating: Synthesis, Physical Characterization and Photocatalytic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of silicon dioxide (SiO2 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 have been widely investigated individually in coatings technology, but their combined properties promote compatibility for different innovative applications. For example, the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 coatings, when exposed to UV light, have interesting environmental applications, such as air purification, self-cleaning and antibacterial properties. However, as reported in different pilot projects, serious durability problems, associated with the adhesion between the substrate and TiO2, have been evidenced. Thus, the aim of this work is to synthesize SiO2 together with TiO2 to increase the durability of the photocatalytic coating without affecting its photocatalytic potential. Therefore, synthesis using sonochemistry, synthesis without sonochemistry, physical characterization, photocatalytic evaluation, and durability of the SiO2, SiO2@TiO2 and TiO2 coatings are presented. Results indicate that using SiO2 improved the durability of the TiO2 coating without affecting its photocatalytic properties. Thus, this novel SiO2@TiO2 coating shows potential for developing long-lasting, self-cleaning and air-purifying construction materials.

  2. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to ... gaku D-max γA diffractometer with graphite mono- chromized ... FT–IR absorption spectra of TiO2-doped SiO2 com-.

  3. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  4. Oxidation and photo-oxidation of water on TiO2 surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdes, A.; Qu, Z.W.; Kroes, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation and photo-oxidation of water on the rutile TiO2(110) surface is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We investigate the relative stability of different surface terminations of TiO2 interacting with H2O and analyze the overpotential needed for the electrol...

  5. Hazards of TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans

  6. Spectral Sensitization of TiO2 Substrates by Monolayers of Porphyrin Heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Boschloo, G.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Goossens, A.; Schaafsma, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical cells have been constructed by depositing monolayers of oriented covalently linked zinc/free base porphyrin heterodimers onto ~30 nm nonporous layers of TiO2 on ITO, deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD), and onto ~100 nm porous, nanostructured TiO2

  7. Construction of hydrophobic wood surfaces by room temperature deposition of rutile (TiO2) nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongbo Zheng; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Qingyu Li; Hongyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    A convenient room temperature approach was developed for growing rutile TiO2 hierarchical structures on the wood surface by direct hydrolysis and crystallization of TiCl3 in saturated NaCl aqueous solution.The morphology and the crystal structure of TiO2 coated on the wood surface were characterized...

  8. TiO2 Based Photocatalyst: From Synthesis and Characterization to Optimization and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 based photocatalyst has attracted gerat attentions from both fundamental and an applied aspects in water/air purifications and energy production. In this thesis, series of well-defined TiO2 photocatalyst with various parameters (i.e., polymorph composition, shape, impurity concentration, sur...

  9. Characterization of low temperature deposited atomic layer deposition TiO2 for MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Pandraud, G.; Sarro, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 is an interesting and promising material for micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). For high performance and reliable MEMS/NEMS, optimization of the optical characteristics, mechanical stress, and especially surface smoothness of TiO2 is required. To overcome the roughness issue of

  10. The Effects of Leaching Process to the TiO2 Synthesis from Bangka Ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Pramono, E.; Argawan, P.; Djatisulistya, A.; Firdiyono, F.; Sulistiyono, E.; Sari, P. P.

    2018-03-01

    Ilmenite mineral is a naturally occurring iron titanate (FeTiO3) and is abundant in nature. The separation of components into TiO2 and Fe2O3 must be expand. The purpose of this research is to synthesis TiO2 nanoparticles from the filtrate of Bangka ilmenite leaching process. Leaching of ilmenite was done with H2SO4 and HCl at various concentrations. The formation of TiO2 crystal determined by hydrolysis conditions and condensation reaction. TiO2 synthesized from the filtrate of sulfuric acid leaching that produced from TiO2 anatase phase when hydrolyzed in an aquaregia solvent and low concentrations of HCl (0.1M). Hydrolysis conditions at higher concentrations of HCl (1M) was produced TiO2 anatase-rutile phase. The synthesis of TiO2 from the filtrate of hydrochloric acid leaching was produced anatase phase. While the condition under the alcoholic solvent (2-propanol: H2O (v/v) = 9: 1) anatase phase crystallites grow in the temperature range up to 550 °C, above this temperature, TiO2 transform into rutile phase.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 Nanotubes: Microwave heating versus conventional heating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sikhwivhilu, LM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the method of synthesis in the properties of the tubular structures derived from TiO2 was investigated using XRD, SEM and BET analysis. The use of microwave irradiation resulted in the formation of TiO2 tubes comprising anatase...

  12. TiO2 Photocatalysis Damages Lipids and Proteins in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carre, Gaelle; Hamon, Erwann; Ennahar, Said; Estner, Maxime; Lett, Marie-Claire; Horvatovich, Peter; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Keller, Valerie; Keller, Nicolas; Andre, Philippe

    This study investigates the mechanisms of UV-A (315 to 400 nm) photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) applied to the degradation of Escherichia coli and their effects on two key cellular components: lipids and proteins. The impact of TiO2 photocatalysis on E. coli survival was monitored by

  13. New TiO2/DSAT Immobilization System for Photodegradation of Anionic and Cationic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Izhan Nawawi Wan Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new immobilized TiO2 technique was prepared by coating TiO2 solution onto double-sided adhesive tape (DSAT as a thin layer binder without adding any organic additives. Glass plate was used as support material to immobilized TiO2/DSAT. Two different charges of dyes were applied, namely, anionic reactive red 4 (RR4 and cationic methylene blue (MB dyes. Photocatalytic degradation of RR4 and MB dyes was observed under immobilized TiO2/DSAT with the degradation rate slightly lower and higher, respectively, compared with TiO2 in suspension mode. It was observed that DSAT is able to provide a very strong intact between glass and TiO2 layers thus making the reusability of immobilized TiO2/DSAT be up to 30 cycles. In fact, a better photodegradation activity was observed by number of cycles due to increasing formation of pores on TiO2 surface observed by SEM analysis.

  14. Photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.; Hsu, T.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. By introducing polystyrene (PS) spheres into the precursor solution, porous TiO 2 /Ag thin films were prepared after calcination at a temperature of 500 deg. C for 4 h. Three different sizes (50, 200, and 400 nm) of PS spheres were used to prepare porous TiO 2 films. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy to reveal structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. When PS spheres of different sizes were introduced after calcination, the as-prepared TiO 2 films exhibited different porous structures. XRD results showed that all TiO 2 /Ag films exhibited a major anatase phase. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 thin films prepared with 200 nm PS spheres and doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where ∼ 100% methylene blue was decomposed within 8 h under UV exposure

  15. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    goes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to .... Figure 6. Photodegradation of IGOR organic dye by a. bare TiO2 thin film and b. ... Meng L-J and Dos Santos M P 1993 Thin Solid Films 226 22.

  16. Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic activity of nano TiO2 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    salicylic acid over combustion-synthesized nano TiO2 under UV and solar exposure has been carried out. Under identical conditions of UV exposure, the initial degra- dation rate of phenol with combustion-synthesized TiO2 is two times higher than the initial degradation rate of phenol with Degussa P25, the commercial ...

  17. Microstructure and antibacterial property of in situ TiO(2) nanotube layers/titanium biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, C X; Gao, X; Qi, Y M; Liu, S J; Sun, J B

    2012-04-01

    The TiO(2) nanotube layer was in situ synthesized on the surface of pure titanium by the electrochemical anodic oxidation. The diameter of nano- TiO(2) nanotubes was about 70~100 nm. The surface morphology and phase compositions of TiO(2) nanotube layers were observed and analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The important processing parameters, including anodizing voltage, reaction time, concentration of electrolyte, were optimized in more detail. The photocatalytic activity of the nano- TiO(2) nanotube layers prepared with optimal conditions was evaluated via the photodegradation of methylthionine in aqueous solution. The antibacterial property of TiO(2) nanotube layers prepared with optimal conditions was evaluated by inoculating Streptococcus mutans on the TiO(2) nanotube layers in vitro. The results showed that TiO(2) nanotube layers/Ti biocomposites had very good antibacterial activity to resist Streptococcus mutans. As a dental implant biomaterial, in situ TiO(2) nanotube layer/Ti biocomposite has better and wider application prospects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanorice on TiO2 nanofibers

    KAUST Repository

    Chetibi, Loubna; Hamana, Djamel; Achour, Slimane

    2014-01-01

    with anatase TiO2 nanofibers. These nanofibers were prepared by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a concentrated solution of H 2O2 and NaOH, followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Afterward, TiO2 nanofibers on Ti substrate were coated with HA

  19. Nanoscale surface potential imaging of the photocatalytic TiO2 films on aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Dirscherl, Kai; Canulescu, Stela

    2013-01-01

    in the surface potential of TiO2 coatings upon UV-illumination are closely correlated to the band gap and thickness of the coatings. The inhomogeneity surface potential distribution of a 100 nm TiO2 film indicates a heterogeneous coating. Transition to a homogeneous surface potential distribution was observed...

  20. TiO2@C Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formed by Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra eVasei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e. the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolisis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent.

  1. Hot corrosion performance of LVOF sprayed Al2O3–40% TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ficients of thermal expansions of the two. ... size 40 mesh just prior to deposition of the coating. Al2O3–. 40% TiO2 ... the laboratory Kanthal wire tube furnace, which was cali- ... formation of TiO2, Al2O3 and Al2Ti7O15 phases in the coat- ing.

  2. Intrinsic Photocatalytic Assessment of Reactively Sputtered TiO2 Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Driessen, Rick Theodorus; Driessen, Rick T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were prepared by DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering, a transition from metallic Ti to TiO2 was identified by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline nature of the film developed during

  3. Electrochemical characteristics of porous TiO2 encapsulated silicon anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances of the TiO 2 coated silicon anode at different catalyst pH values. Display Omitted Highlights: → TiO 2 coated silicon was used as the anode material for lithium batteries. → TiO 2 layer acted as a buffer layer for reducing the volume expansion. → Pore size distribution of TiO 2 coated silicon influenced discharge capacity. → Higher capacity retention was exhibited at pH 10.7. - Abstract: TiO 2 coated silicon, which was prepared by the modified sol-gel method, was employed as the anode material for lithium secondary batteries and the relationship between the diffusivity and electrochemical characteristics was investigated. The results showed that the physical properties of the samples, such as their diffusivity and pore size distribution, enhanced the cycling efficiency of the TiO 2 coated silicon, probably due to the reduction of the side reactions, which may be closely related to the pore size distribution of the TiO 2 coating layer. The pore size of the coating layer plays an important role in retarding the lithium ion diffusion. In the experimental range studied herein, higher capacity retention was exhibited for the TiO 2 coated silicon prepared at pH 10.7.

  4. Fullerene C70 decorated TiO2 nanowires for visible-light-responsive photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Er-Chieh; Ciou, Jing-Hao; Zheng, Jia-Huei; Pan, Job; Hsiao, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Kuen-Chan; Huang, Jen-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO 2 nanowire decorated with C 60 and C 70 derivatives has been synthesized. • The fullerenes impede the charge recombination due to its high electron affinity. • The fullerenes expand the utilization of solar light from UV to visible light. • The modified-TiO 2 has great biocompatibility. - Abstract: In this study, we have synthesized C 60 and C 70 -modified TiO 2 nanowire (NW) through interfacial chemical bonding. The results indicate that the fullerenes (C 60 and C 70 derivatives) can act as sinks for photogenerated electrons in TiO 2 , while the fullerene/TiO 2 is illuminated under ultraviolet (UV) light. Therefore, in comparison to the pure TiO 2 NWs, the modified TiO 2 NWs display a higher photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. Moreover, the fullerenes also can function as a sensitizer to TiO 2 which expand the utilization of solar light from UV to visible light. The results reveal that the C 70 /TiO 2 NWs show a significant photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue (MB) in visible light region. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the effect of fullerenes on the photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 , the electron only devices and photoelectrochemical cells based on fullerenes/TiO 2 are also fabricated and evaluated.

  5. Complex impedance study on nano-CeO2 coating TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei; Wang Honglian; Wang Xidong; Li Wenchao

    2006-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles and cerium dioxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles coated titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (CeO 2 -TiO 2 nanoparticles) have been successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The complex impedance of the materials was investigated. The grain resistance, boundary resistance and activation energy of the nanoparticles were calculated according to Arrhenius equation. According to calculating results, the active capacity of pure TiO 2 nanoparticles has been improved because of nano-CeO 2 coating. An optimal CeO 2 content of 4.9 mol% was achieved. The high resolution electron microscopy images of CeO 2 -TiO 2 nanoparticles showed that TiO 2 nanoparticles, as a core, were covered by CeO 2 nanoparticles. The average size of CeO 2 coating TiO 2 nanoparticles was about 70 nm. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicted that CeO 2 nanoparticle coating improved the separation, insulation, and stability the CeO 2 -TiO 2 nanoparticles, which was benefit to the activity of materials

  6. MoSe2 modified TiO2 nanotube arrays with superior photoelectrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping; Zhu, Haifeng; Yu, Lianqing; He, Jiandong; Huang, Chengxing

    2018-04-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs) are first prepared by anodization Ti foils in ethylene glycol electrolyte. Then, MoSe2 deposites electrochemically on TNTs. The as-synthesized MoSe2/TiO2 composite has a much higher photocurrent density of 1.07 mA cm‑2 at 0 V than pure TNTs of 0.38 mA cm‑2, which suggests that the MoSe2/TiO2 composite film has optimum photoelectrocatalysis properties. The electron transport resistances of the MoSe2/TiO2 decreases to half of pure TiO2, at 295.6 ohm/cm2. Both photocurrent-time and Mott-Schottky plots indicate MoSe2 a p-type semiconductor characteristics. MoSe2/TiO2 composite can achieve a maximum 5 orders of magnitude enhancement in carrier density (4.650 × 1027 cm‑3) than that of pure TiO2 arrays. It can be attributed to p-n heterojunction formed between MoSe2 and TiO2, and the composite can be potentially applied in photoelectrochemical, photocatalysis fields.

  7. Azo dyes decomposition on new nitrogen-modified anatase TiO2 with high adsorptivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus, M.; Choina, J.; Morawski, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    New vis active photocatalyst was obtained by the modification of commercial anatase TiO 2 (Police, Poland) in pressure reactor in an ammonia water atmosphere at 100 o C for 4 h. The photocatalytic activity of new material was tested during three azo dyes decomposition: monoazo (Reactive Read), diazo (Reactive Black) and poliazodye (Direct Green). Obtained photocatalyst had new bands at 1430-1440 cm -1 attributed to the bending vibrations of NH 4 + and at 1535 cm -1 associated with NH 2 groups or NO 2 and NO. UV-vis/DR spectra of photocatalyst had also insignificant decrease in visible region. Fluorescence technique was used for studying the amount of hydroxyl radicals produced on TiO 2 surface during visible light irradiation. The hydroxyl radicals produced react with coumarin present in the solution to form 7-hydroxycoumarin which has fluorescent capacity. Photocatalytic activity of modified TiO 2 was compared with commercial titanium dioxide P25 (Degussa, Germany). The photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 /N was higher than that of unmodified material and P25 under visible light irradiation. The ability for dye adsorption (Reactive Red) on photocatalyst surface was also tested. Unmodified TiO 2 and P25 has isotherm of adsorption by Freundlich model, and nitrogen-modified TiO 2 by Langmuir model. The presence of nitrogen at the surface of TiO 2 significantly increased adsorption capacity of TiO 2 as well as OH· radicals formation under visible radiation.

  8. Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays for efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinlian; Wang, Yanqing; Cui, Zhendong; Li, Long; Shi, Chengwu

    2018-05-01

    To improve the electron transportation in TiO2 nanorod arrays and charge separation in the interface of TiO2/perovskite, Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays with the length of 200 nm, diameter of 11 nm and areal density of 1050 μm-2 were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method and the influence of Y/Ti molar ratios of 0%, 3%, 5% in the hydrothermal grown solutions on the growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays was investigated. The results revealed that the appropriate Y/Ti molar ratios can increase the areal density of the corresponding TiO2 nanorod arrays and improve the charge separation in the interface of the TiO2/perovskite. The Y-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells with the Y/Ti molar ratio of 3% exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.11% along with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 22.50 mA cm-2 and fill factor (FF) of 76.16%, while the un-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells gave a PCE of 16.42% along with Voc of 1.04 V, Jsc of 21.66 mA cm-2 and FF of 72.97%.

  9. First-Principles Modeling of Polaron Formation in TiO2 Polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaslmane, A R; Watkins, M B; McKenna, K P

    2018-06-21

    We present a computationally efficient and predictive methodology for modeling the formation and properties of electron and hole polarons in solids. Through a nonempirical and self-consistent optimization of the fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange (α) in a hybrid functional, we ensure the generalized Koopmans' condition is satisfied and self-interaction error is minimized. The approach is applied to model polaron formation in known stable and metastable phases of TiO 2 including anatase, rutile, brookite, TiO 2 (H), TiO 2 (R), and TiO 2 (B). Electron polarons are predicted to form in rutile, TiO 2 (H), and TiO 2 (R) (with trapping energies ranging from -0.02 eV to -0.35 eV). In rutile the electron localizes on a single Ti ion, whereas in TiO 2 (H) and TiO 2 (R) the electron is distributed across two neighboring Ti sites. Hole polarons are predicted to form in anatase, brookite, TiO 2 (H), TiO 2 (R), and TiO 2 (B) (with trapping energies ranging from -0.16 eV to -0.52 eV). In anatase, brookite, and TiO 2 (B) holes localize on a single O ion, whereas in TiO 2 (H) and TiO 2 (R) holes can also be distributed across two O sites. We find that the optimized α has a degree of transferability across the phases, with α = 0.115 describing all phases well. We also note the approach yields accurate band gaps, with anatase, rutile, and brookite within six percent of experimental values. We conclude our study with a comparison of the alignment of polaron charge transition levels across the different phases. Since the approach we describe is only two to three times more expensive than a standard density functional theory calculation, it is ideally suited to model charge trapping at complex defects (such as surfaces and interfaces) in a range of materials relevant for technological applications but previously inaccessible to predictive modeling.

  10. Positively charged TiO2 particles in non-polar system for electrophoretic display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Young Seon

    2005-02-01

    Electrophoretic display uses a technique called electrophoresis to represent images and letters electronically with electronic ink. Although it has good characteristics such as wide viewing angle, high contrast ratio and extremely low power consumption, there are still several issues to be resolved to improve its performances. Higher mobility and stability of the ink particles are the most important issues among them. In this study, TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide were found to be effective ink particles that satisfy higher mobility and stability. The TiO 2 particles coated with 5∼40% acrylamide were prepared by dispersion polymerization using monomers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylamide. The TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide were dispersed in isopar-G with sorbitan esters such as span 20, span 80 and span 85. The size of the TiO 2 particles were changed from 200±150 nm to 350∼500 nm by the coating process. The morphology of coated particles was observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). From the TGA results, the weight fraction of TiO 2 and polymer in coated particle were calculated. From the zeta potential measurement, it was shown that as acrylamide concentration was increased from 5% to 30%, zeta potential of the coated TiO 2 particles was increased from 50mV to about 230mV. The zeta potential of the coated TiO 2 particles with 40% acrylamide was decreased to 50mV. As a stabilizer, span 85 was the most effective surfactant to improve stability of the TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide among used surfactants in this study. Span 85 showed best stability in the storage test with TiO 2 particles coated with 10% acrylamide. The mobility of TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide with span 85 in dye solution (Oil Blue-N dissolved in isopar-G) were measured by ITO cell test. The mobility of TiO 2 particles coated with 10∼30% acrylamide was over 600μm 2 /Vs while the mobility of TiO 2 particles coated with 40% acrylamide was about 400μm 2 /Vs. Span 85 was effective to improve the mobility of TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide. As the concentration of span 85 was increased from 0 to 1.75 vol %, mobility of the TiO 2 particles coated with 20% acrylamide was increased from 250μm 2 /Vs to about 720μ 2 /Vs

  11. Structural, optical and ferromagnetic properties of Cr doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Biswajit; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Doping of Cr 3+ distorts the lattice of TiO 2 , generate oxygen vacancies and create d-band states in the mid band gap of TiO 2 . Incorporation of Cr 3+ also imparts magnetism in non-magnetic TiO 2 by undergoing coupling with the neighboring oxygen vacancies. -- Highlights: • Incorporation of Cr 3+ increases the concentration of oxygen vacancies in TiO 2 nanoparticles. • Doped TiO 2 nanoparticles contain absorption peaks corresponding to d–d transition of Cr 3+ into TiO 2 . • Pure and doped TiO 2 nanoparticles contain emission peaks related to oxygen vacancies. • Pure TiO 2 shows diamagnetism while Cr doped TiO 2 shows ferromagnetism. • The ferromagnetism is due to the interaction of Cr 3+ ions via oxygen vacancies. -- Abstract: Cr doped TiO 2 nanoparticles are prepared with three different concentrations of chromium, 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5 mol% respectively. Doping decreases the crystallinity and increases the width of the X-ray diffraction peak. The Raman active E g peak of TiO 2 nanoparticles become asymmetric and shifted to higher energy on doping of 4.5% chromium. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra reveal the presence of Cr 3+ in the host TiO 2 matrix. The absorption spectra of Cr doped TiO 2 nanoparticles contain absorption peaks corresponding to d–d transition of Cr 3+ in octahedral coordination. Most of the visible emission peaks are due to the electrons trapped in the oxygen vacancy centers. Undoped TiO 2 nanoparticles show diamagnetism at room temperature while all chromium doped samples show ferromagnetism. The magnetization of the doped samples increases at 1.5% and 3.0% and decreases at 4.5%. The ferromagnetism arises owing to the interaction of the neighboring Cr 3+ ions via oxygen vacancies. The decrease of magnetization at the highest doping is possibly due to the antiferromagnetic interactions of Cr 3+ pairs or due to Cr 3+ -O 2− -Cr 3+ superexchange interaction in the lattice

  12. Synergistic effects for the TiO2/RuO2/Pt photodissociation of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondel, G; Harriman, A; Williams, D

    1983-07-01

    Compressed discs of naked TiO2 or TiO2 coated with a thin film of a noble metal (e.g. Pt) do not photodissociate water upon illumination with UV light, but small amounts of H2 are generated if the TiO2 has been reduced in a stream of H2 at 600 C. Discs prepared from mixtures of TiO2/RuO2 facilitate the UV photodissociation of water into H2 and O2 although the yields are very low. When a thin (about 9 nm) film of Pt is applied to the TiO2/RuO2 discs, the yields of H2 and O2 observed upon irradiation with UV light are improved drastically. 25 references.

  13. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV–visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2.

  14. Properties of phases in HfO2-TiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'ko, V.P.; Terekhovskij, P.B.; Majster, I.M.; Shevchenko, A.V.; Lopato, L.M.; Dvernyakova, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made on axial and linear coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of HfO 2 -TiO 2 system samples in concentration range of 25-50 mol% TiO 2 . Samples, containing 35 and 37 mol% TiO 2 , are characterized by the lowest values of linear CTE. Dispersion of the basic substances doesn't affect CTE value. Correlation with axial and linear CTE of samples in ZrO 2 -TiO 2 system was conducted. Presence of anisotropy of change of lattice parameters was supported for samples, containing 37.5 and 40 mol% TiO 2 . Polymorphous transformations for hafnium titanate were not revealed

  15. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated with CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zheng; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Can; Li, Zhengcao; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 nanorod arrays (TiO 2 NRAs) sensitized with CdS nanoparticles were fabricated via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and TiO 2 NRAs were obtained by oxidizing Ti NRAs obtained through oblique angle deposition. The TiO 2 NRAs decorated with CdS nanoparticles exhibited excellent photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties under visible light, and the one decorated with 20 SILAR cycles CdS nanoparticles shows the best performance. This can be attributed to the enhanced separation of electrons and holes by forming heterojunctions of CdS nanoparticles and TiO 2 NRAs. This provides a promising way to fabricate the material for solar energy conversion and wastewater degradation. (paper)

  16. Preparation and performance of photocatalytic TiO2 immobilized on palladium-doped carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yaofeng; Fu Yaqin; Ni Qingqing

    2011-01-01

    Pd-modified carbon fibers (CFs) are obtained by a facile oxidation-reduction method and then dip-coated in a sol-gel of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) to form supported TiO 2 /Pd-CF photocatalysts. The morphology of the Pd-modified CFs and the amount Pd deposited are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction is used to investigate the crystal structures of the TiO 2 photocatalyst. Acid orange II is used as a model contaminant to evaluate the photocatalytic properties of the photocatalyst under UV irradiation. TiO 2 /Pd-CF exhibits higher catalytic activity than TiO 2 /CF towards the degradation of acid orange II. Optimum photocatalytic performance and support properties are achieved when the Pd particle loading is about 10.8 mg/g.

  17. Effects of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation of Cu electrodeposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effects of TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation density of Cu during electrodeposition in a solution of CuSO4 and H2SO4 at 50 degrees C compared with those of pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates. During electrodeposition, the density of Cu nuclei on the TiO2 nanotube substrate increased and the average size of Cu nuclei decreased with increasing anodizing voltage and time for the synthesis of the substrate. In addition, the nucleation density of Cu electrodeposits on the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrate was much higher than that on pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates.

  18. Preparation of anatase TiO2 thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Tsukada, Satoshi; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2006-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films with high photocatalytic activity have been prepared with deposition rates as high as 16 nm/min by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) method using sintered TiO 2 pellets as the source material. Highly transparent TiO 2 thin films prepared at substrate temperatures from room temperature to 400 deg. C exhibited photocatalytic activity, regardless whether oxygen (O 2 ) gas was introduced during the VAPE deposition. The highest photocatalytic activity and photo-induced hydrophilicity were obtained in anatase TiO 2 thin films prepared at 300 deg. C, which correlated to the best crystallinity of the films, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction. In addition, a transparent and conductive anatase TiO 2 thin film with a resistivity of 2.6 x 10 -1 Ω cm was prepared at a substrate temperature of 400 deg. C without the introduction of O 2 gas

  19. Antimicrobial and Barrier Properties of Bovine Gelatin Films Reinforced by Nano TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nassiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nano titanium dioxide incorporation were investigated on the water vaporpermeability, oxygen permeability, and antimicrobial properties of bovine gelatin films. The nano TiO2 (TiO2-N was homogenized by sonication and incorporated into bovine gelatin solutions at different concentrations(e.g. 1, 2, 3, and 5% w/w of dried gelatin. The permeability of the films to water vapor and oxygen wassignificantly decreased by incorporating of low concentration TiO2-N to gelatin solutions. TiO2-N gelatin filmsshowed an excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Theseproperties suggest that TiO2-N has the potential as filler in gelatin-based films for using as an active packagingmaterials in pharmaceutical and food packaging industries.

  20. Optimized monolayer grafting of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane onto amorphous, anatase and rutile TiO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Yan; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik

    2010-02-01

    Experimental conditions were studied for optimized attachment of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) onto amorphous, anatase and rutile titanium dioxide (TiO 2) surfaces. The attachment process and extent was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In particular, the effect of attachment time, silane concentration, reaction temperature and the TiO 2 crystalline structure on the growth kinetics of the silane layers was studied. The measurements reveal that typically monolayers are more dense on amorphous than on crystalline TiO 2. The results show that critical experimental conditions exist where APTES attachment to the TiO 2 surface changes from a monolayer to a multilayer growth mode. The obtained results and parameters to produce optimized APTES layers are of a high practical relevance as APTES attachment often constitutes the initial step for organic modification of TiO 2 surface with biorelevant molecules such as proteins, enzymes or growth factors.

  1. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summarize the synthesis and properties of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanomaterials (bare 1D TiO2 nanomaterial and 1D hierarchical TiO2 and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs.

  2. Excess electrons in reduced rutile and anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Jin; Wen, Bo; Zhou, Chuanyao; Selloni, Annabella; Liu, Li-Min

    2018-05-01

    As a prototypical photocatalyst, TiO2 is a material of scientific and technological interest. In photocatalysis and other applications, TiO2 is often reduced, behaving as an n-type semiconductor with unique physico-chemical properties. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the fundamental properties and applications of excess electrons in reduced, undoped TiO2. We discuss the characteristics of excess electrons in the bulk and at the surface of rutile and anatase TiO2 focusing on their localization, spatial distribution, energy levels, and dynamical properties. We examine specific features of the electronic states for photoexcited TiO2, for intrinsic oxygen vacancy and Ti interstitial defects, and for surface hydroxyls. We discuss similarities and differences in the behaviors of excess electrons in the rutile and anatase phases. Finally, we consider the effect of excess electrons on the reactivity, focusing on the interaction between excess electrons and adsorbates.

  3. Recent improvements on TiO2 and ZnO nanostructure photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamalullail Nurnaeimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is a promising candidate for a low cost solar harvesting technology as it promised a low manufacturing cost, ease of fabrication and reasonable conversion efficiency. Basic structure of DSSC consists of photoanode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. Photoanode plays an important role for a DSSC as it supports the dye molecules and helps in the electron transfer that will determine the energy conversion efficiency. This paper emphasizes the various improvements that had been done on the TiO2 and ZnO photoanode nanostructures synthesized through thermal method. For overall comparisons, ZnO nanoflowers photoanode had achieved the highest energy conversion efficiency of 4.7% due to its ability of internal light scattering that had increased the electron transportation rate. This has made ZnO as a potential candidate to replace TiO2 as a photoanode material in DSSC.

  4. Influence of substrate on structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reaction magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 films have been prepared by DC reaction magnetron sputtering technique on different substrates (glass, SiO2, platinum electrode-Pt, Silicon-Si. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that all TiO2 films were grown along the preferred orientation of (110 plane. Samples on Si and Pt substrates are almost monophasic rutile, however, samples on glass and SiO2 substrates accompanied by a weak anatase structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images revealed uniform grain distribution except for films on Pt substrates. Photoluminescence (PL spectra showed obvious intrinsic emission band, but films on glass was accompanied by a distinct defect luminescence region. Raman spectroscopy suggested that all samples moved to high wavenumbers and films on glass moved obviously.

  5. Photovoltaic and Impedance Spectroscopy Study of Screen-Printed TiO2 Based CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Atif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulphide (CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs based on screen-printed TiO2 were assembled using a screen-printing technique. The CdS quantum dots (QDs were grown by using the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR method. The optical properties were studied by UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. Photovoltaic characteristics and impedance spectroscopic measurements of CdS QDSSCs were carried out under air mass 1.5 illuminations. The experimental results of capacitance against voltage indicate a trend from positive to negative capacitance because of the injection of electrons from the Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO electrode into TiO2.

  6. Anatase TiO2 as a Cheap and Sustainable Buffering Filler for Silicon Nanoparticles in Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Fabio; Carbonari, Gilberto; Croce, Fausto; Tossici, Roberto; Nobili, Francesco

    2017-12-08

    The design of effective supporting matrices to efficiently cycle Si nanoparticles is often difficult to achieve and requires complex preparation strategies. In this work, we present a simple synthesis of low-cost and environmentally benign aAnatase TiO 2 nanoparticles as buffering filler for Si nanoparticles (Si@TiO 2 ). The average anatase TiO 2 crystallite size was approximately 5 nm. A complete structural, morphological, and electrochemical characterization was performed. Electrochemical test results show very good specific capacity values of up to 1000 mAh g -1 and cycling at several specific currents, ranging from 500 to 2000 mA g -1 , demonstrating a very good tolerance to high cycling rates. Postmortem morphological analysis shows very good electrode integrity after 100 cycles at 500 mA g -1 specific current. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hysteretic current-voltage characteristics in RF-sputtered nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, Manuel; Juarez, Gabriel; Heluani, Silvia P. de; Comedi, David

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the current-voltage characteristics at room temperature of a nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin film fabricated by reactive RF-sputtering deposition and sandwiched between ITO (indium-tin-oxide)-buffered glass substrate and an indium top electrode. The I-V characteristics are ohmic for low voltages and become non-linear, hysteretic and asymmetric as the voltage is increased. The system is shown to be well represented by two distinct resistance states in the non-ohmic region. Current transient evolutions were also measured for constant voltage excitations. The resistance is stable in time for voltages in the ohmic regime. In contrast, for voltages in the non-ohmic regime, the resistance has a small variation for a short period of time (order of tens seconds) and then increases with time. For those transients, long characteristic times (on the order of tens of minutes up to hours) were found. The behavior of the system is discussed on the basis of experimental results reported in the literature for similar systems and existing models for electric-field induced resistive switching

  8. Synthesis of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with tunable sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian; Zha, Chenyang; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Liming; Wang, Yifeng; Gupta, Arunava; Yoriya, Sorachon; Bao, Ningzhong

    2014-09-01

    Vertically-oriented one-dimensional TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays have been fabricated by anodic oxidation using different electrolyte solvents, including ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in the presence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) or ammonium fluoride (NH4F). The influence of synthetic conditions, including the nature of the electrolyte and anodization voltage, on nanotube microstructure has been systematically investigated. Highly-ordered TNTs with tube length of ˜0.5-26.7 μm, inner diameter of ˜13-201 nm, and outer diameter of ˜28-250 nm have been obtained. The conversion of as-prepared TNT arrays from amorphous phase to crystalline structure has been achieved by a post-synthetic annealing at 500 °C for 3 h in oxygen ambient. The TNT arrays with tunable sizes and structures are attractive for use as electrode materials in fabrication of thin film solar cells and highly active photocatalysts.

  9. Synthesis of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with tunable sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xian; Zha, Chenyang; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Liming; Wang, Yifeng; Bao, Ningzhong; Gupta, Arunava; Yoriya, Sorachon

    2014-01-01

    Vertically-oriented one-dimensional TiO 2 nanotube (TNT) arrays have been fabricated by anodic oxidation using different electrolyte solvents, including ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in the presence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) or ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F). The influence of synthetic conditions, including the nature of the electrolyte and anodization voltage, on nanotube microstructure has been systematically investigated. Highly-ordered TNTs with tube length of ∼0.5–26.7 μm, inner diameter of ∼13–201 nm, and outer diameter of ∼28–250 nm have been obtained. The conversion of as-prepared TNT arrays from amorphous phase to crystalline structure has been achieved by a post-synthetic annealing at 500 °C for 3 h in oxygen ambient. The TNT arrays with tunable sizes and structures are attractive for use as electrode materials in fabrication of thin film solar cells and highly active photocatalysts. (paper)

  10. ADSORCIÓN DE ALDEHÍDOS INSATURADOS SOBRE TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudió la adsorción de aldehídos insaturados sobre la superficie del TiO2. Para evaluar su eficiencia como catalizador, se realizaron experimentos de fotocatálisis heterogénea de p-nitrofenol (PNF y una muestra proveniente de efluentes industriales. Se empleó un simulador solar y cuatro sistemas de TiO2: el TiO2-sólo (sin modificar y los sistemas TiO2-dienal constituidos por la adsorción química de 2,4 hexadienal, 2,4 heptadienal y el trans-cinamaldehído sobre la superficie del TiO2. La adsorción de los aldehídos insaturados sobre el TiO2 se cuantificó empleando los modelos de adsorción de Langmuir y Freundlich. Se evaluó la influencia del pH en los sistemas TiO2-dienal y su efecto en la degradación fotocatalítica del PNF. En condiciones básicas, la constante de velocidad del PNF es mayor al emplear los sistemas TiO2-dienal en comparación con el TiO2-sólo, mientras que en condiciones ácidas se encontró la tendencia opuesta. El sistema TiO2-cina resultó ser el fotocatalizador de mayor eficiencia.

  11. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of graphene based doped TiO2 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yongji; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene based doped TiO 2 nanocomposites were prepared. • The intimate contact between doped TiO 2 and graphene is achieved simultaneously. • These nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 and doped TiO 2 . • Photocatalytic mechanism was explained thoroughly. - Abstract: The nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide based nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N–TiO 2 –RGO) and reduced graphene oxide based nitrogen and vanadium co-doped TiO 2 (N, V–TiO 2 –RGO) were prepared via a facile hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide and TiO 2 in a water solvent. In this hydrothermal treatment, the reduction of graphene oxide and the intimate contact between nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N–TiO 2 ) or nitrogen and vanadium co-doped TiO 2 (N,V–TiO 2 ) and the RGO sheet is achieved simultaneously. Both N–TiO 2 –RGO and N,V–TiO 2 –RGO nanocomposites exhibit much higher visible light photocatalytic activity than N–TiO 2 and N,V–TiO 2 , and the order of visible light photocatalytic activity is N,V–TiO 2 –RGO > N–TiO 2 –RGO > N,V–TiO 2 > N–TiO 2 > TiO 2 . According to the characterization, the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites is attributed to reasons, such as enhancement of adsorption of pollutants, light absorption intensity, minimizing the recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes and more excited states of these nanocomposites under visible light irradiation. Overall, this work provides a more marked contrast of graphene based semiconductor nanocomposites and a more comprehensive explanation of the mechanism

  12. Recovery TiO2 by leaching process of carbothermic reduced Kalimantan ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Sari, P. P.; Ramelan, A. H.

    2018-05-01

    Ilmenite naturally occurred in iron titanate (FeTiO3) minerals. The separation of natural ilmenite into TiO2 and Fe2O3 need to be explored to gain the high purity separation product. A new combination method named of carbothermic reduction, acidic-leaching and complexation by EDTA were proposed for separation TiO2 from Ilmenite. Roasting of ilmenite was carried out at 950 °C for 1 h by the addition of activated carbon with mass ratio of ilmenite : activated carbon =4:3. The carbothermic reduction was carried out to yield a high separation of initial content of ilmenite that will be easily to dissolve within hydrochloric acid solution in leaching process. The composition of ilmenite observed by X-Ray Fluoresences (XRF) changed after the carbothermic reduction process and the dominant content is TiO2 (57.56%). X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) of roasted ilmenite composed of decomposed product of ilmenite i.e. hematite (Fe2O3), TiO2 anatase, TiO2 rutile, and inorganic salt. The leaching of the roasted ilmenite has been done by sulphuric acid solution (6 M) to gain the titanyl sulphate solution. Separation of iron impurities of TiO2 gel from titanyl sulphate (TiOSO4) solution was conducted by complexation method using EDTA as a complexation agent. The characteristic of TiO2 obtained using XRD showed that TiO2 is anatase type and the percentage of TiO2 using XRF showed that TiO2 content of 86,03%.

  13. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • V-doped TiO 2 /diatomite composite photocatalyst was synthesized. • The physiochemical property and solar light photoactivity were characterized. • The presence and influence of V ions in TiO 2 matrix was systematically analyzed. • The photocatalysis for Rhodamine B were studied under solar light illumination. - Abstract: V-doped TiO 2 /diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO 2 /diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO 2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO 2 bandgap due to V 4+ ions substituted to Ti 4+ sites. The 0.5% V-TiO 2 /diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO 2 /diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V 4+ ions incorporated in TiO 2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO 2 to produce superoxide radicals ·O 2 – , while V 5+ species presented on the surface of TiO 2 particles in the form of V 2 O 5 contributed to e – –h + separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability

  14. Efficient photodecomposition of herbicide imazapyr over mesoporous Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adel A; Abdelfattah, Ibrahim; Faisal, M; Helal, Ahmed

    2018-01-15

    The unabated release of herbicide imazapyr into the soil and groundwater led to crop destruction and several pollution-related concerns. In this contribution, heterogeneous photocatalytic technique was employed utilizing mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites for degrading imazapyr herbicide as a model pollutant molecule. Mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites with varied Ga 2 O 3 contents (0-5wt%) were synthesized through sol-gel process. XRD and Raman spectra exhibited extremely crystalline anatase TiO 2 phase at low Ga 2 O 3 content which gradually reduced with the increase of Ga 2 O 3 content. TEM images display uniform TiO 2 particles (10±2nm) with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO 2 exhibits large surface areas of 167m 2 g -1 , diminished to 108m 2 g -1 upon 5% Ga 2 O 3 incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 3-9nm. The photocatalytic efficiency of synthesized Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites was assessed by degrading imazapyr herbicide and comparing with commercial photocatalyst UV-100 and mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 under UV illumination. 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is considered the optimum photocatalyst, which degrades 98% of imazapyr herbicide within 180min. Also, the photodegradation rate of imazapyr using 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is nearly 10 and 3-fold higher than that of mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 and UV-100, respectively. The high photonic efficiency and long-term stability of the mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites are ascribed to its stronger oxidative capability in comparison with either mesoporous TiO 2 , Ga 2 O 3 or commercial UV-100. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-enzymatic detection of glucose in fruits using TiO2-Mn3O4 hybrid nano interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanth Babu, K.; Sasya, Madhurantakam; Nesakumar, Noel; Shankar, Prabakaran; Gumpu, Manju Bhargavi; Ramachandra, Bhat Lakshmishri; Kulandaisamy, Arockia Jayalatha; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of fruits leads to increase in glucose level in blood for diabetic patients, which in turn leads to peripheral, vascular, ocular complications and cardiac diseases. In this context, a non-enzymatic hybrid glucose biosensor was fabricated for the first time to detect glucose by immobilizing titanium oxide-manganese oxide (TiO2-Mn3O4) nanocomposite and chitosan membrane on to the surface of Pt working electrode (Pt/TiO2-Mn3O4/chitosan). TiO2-Mn3O4 nanocomposite catalyzed the oxidation of glucose to gluconolactone in the absence of glucose oxidase enzyme with high electron transfer rate, good biocompatibility and large surface coverage. Electrochemical measurements revealed the excellent sensing response of the developed biosensor towards glucose with a high sensitivity of 7.073 µA mM-1, linearity of 0.01-0.1 mM, low detection limit of 0.01 µM, reproducibility of 1.5% and stability of 98.8%. The electrochemical parameters estimated from the anodic process were subjected to linear regression models for the detection of unknown concentration of glucose in different fruit samples.

  16. A Micro Oxygen Sensor Based on a Nano Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor’s output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10−4 and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required.

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells with vertically aligned TiO2 nanowire arrays grown on carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun

    2014-02-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) have received widespread attention from solar cell and related optoelectronics scientists. The controllable synthesis of ordered TNW arrays on arbitrary substrates would benefit both fundamental research and practical applications. Herein, vertically aligned TNW arrays in situ grown on carbon fiber (CF) substrates through a facile, controllable, and seed-assisted thermal process is presented. Also, hierarchical TiO2 -nanoparticle/TNW arrays were prepared that favor both the dye loading and depressed charge recombination of the CF/TNW photoanode. An impressive conversion efficiency of 2.48 % (under air mass 1.5 global illumination) and an apparent efficiency of 4.18 % (with a diffuse board) due to the 3D light harvesting of the wire solar cell were achieved. Moreover, efficient and inexpensive wire solar cells made from all-CF electrodes and completely flexible CF-based wire solar cells were demonstrated, taking into account actual application requirements. This work may provide an intriguing avenue for the pursuit of lightweight, cost-effective, and high-performance flexible/wearable solar cells. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electrochemical sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 for the simultaneous determination of trace colourants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tian; Sun, Junyong; Meng, Wen; Song, Li; Zhang, Yuxia

    2013-12-15

    Currently, synthetic colourants draw much attention as food additives. This paper investigated the simultaneous electrocatalytic oxidation of sunset yellow and tartrazine, two yellow colourants commonly present in food together, with a novel voltammetric sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 modified carbon paste electrode. Due to the high accumulation effect and great catalytic capability of graphene and mesoporous TiO2, the developed sensor exhibited well-defined and separate square wave voltammetric peaks (i.e., 272 mV) for sunset yellow tartrazine. The peak currents of sunset yellow and tartrazine increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.02-2.05 μM and 0.02-1.18 μM, respectively. And the detection limit was 6.0 and 8.0 nM for sunset yellow and tartrazine, respectively. This new sensor was applied to determine sunset yellow and tartrazine in several food sample extracts. Results suggested that the proposed sensor was sensitive, rapid and reliable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced photoelectrochemical efficiency and stability using a conformal TiO2 film on a black silicon photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanhao; Zhang, Zheng; Yin, Xin; Kvit, Alexander; Liao, Qingliang; Kang, Zhuo; Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xudong

    2017-06-01

    Black silicon (b-Si) is a surface-nanostructured Si with extremely efficient light absorption capability and is therefore of interest for solar energy conversion. However, intense charge recombination and low electrochemical stability limit the use of b-Si in photoelectrochemical solar-fuel production. Here we report that a conformal, ultrathin, amorphous TiO2 film deposited by low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of b-Si can simultaneously address both of these issues. Combined with a Co(OH)2 thin film as the oxygen evolution catalyst, this b-Si/TiO2/Co(OH)2 heterostructured photoanode was able to produce a saturated photocurrent density of 32.3 mA cm-2 at an external potential of 1.48 V versus reversible reference electrode (RHE) in 1 M NaOH electrolyte. The enhanced photocurrent relative to planar Si and unprotected b-Si photoelectrodes was attributed to the enhanced charge separation efficiency as a result of the effective passivation of defective sites on the b-Si surface. The 8-nm ALD TiO2 layer extends the operational lifetime of b-Si from less than half an hour to four hours.

  20. Surfactant-assisted sol gel preparation of high-surface area mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystalline Li-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, S.; Di Lupo, F.; Francia, C.; Tuel, A.; Bodoardo, S.; Gerbaldi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous TiO 2 nanocrystalline lithium battery anodes with tunable morphology. • Simple sol–gel technique using different cationic surfactants is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • TiO 2 anatase using C16TAB exhibits stable performance after 200 cycles. • It shows promising prospects as high-voltage safe Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: We here investigate the physico-chemical/morphological characteristics and cycling behaviour of several kinds of nanocrystalline TiO 2 Li-ion battery anodes selectively prepared through a simple sol–gel strategy based on a low-cost titanium oxysulfate precursor, by mediation of different cationic surfactants having different features (e.g., chain lengths, counter ion, etc.): i.e., cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), cetyl-trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), benzalkonium chloride (BC) or octadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (C 18 TAB). X-ray diffraction profiles reveal single phase anatase having good correspondence with the reference pattern when using short chain CTAB, while in the other cases the presence of chloride and/or an increased chain length affect the purity of the samples. FESEM analysis reveal nanosized particles forming cauliflower-like aggregates. TiO 2 materials demonstrate mesoporous characteristics and large specific surface area ranging from 250 to 30 m 2 g −1 . Remarkably stable electrode performance are achieved by appropriately selecting the cationic surfactant and the surfactant/precursor ratio. Detailed analysis is provided on the effect of the reaction conditions upon the formation of mesoporous crystalline titania enlightening new directions for the development of high performing lithium storage electrodes by a simple and low cost sol–gel strategy

  1. An electrochemical aptasensor based on TiO2/MWCNT and a novel synthesized Schiff base nanocomposite for the ultrasensitive detection of thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Amini, Maryam; Ardakani, Mehdi Hatefi

    2016-11-15

    A sensitive aptasensor based on a robust nanocomposite of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), chitosan and a novel synthesized Schiff base (SB) (TiO2/MWCNT/CHIT/SB) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for thrombin detection. The resultant nanocomposite can provide a large surface area, excellent electrocatalytic activity, and high stability, which would improve immobilization sites for biological molecules, allow remarkable amplification of the electrochemical signal and contribute to improved sensitivity. Thrombin aptamers were simply immobilized onto the TiO2-MWCNT/CHIT-SB nanocomposite matrix through simple π - π stacking and electrostatic interactions between CHIT/SB and aptamer strands. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to analyze the surface characterization of unmodified GCE and TiO2-MWCNT/CHIT-SB modified GCE, and also the interaction between aptamer and thrombin. In the presence of thrombin, the aptamer on the adsorbent layer captures the target on the electrode interface, which makes a barrier for electrons and inhibits electron transfer, thereby resulting in decreased DPV and increased impedance signals of the TiO2-MWCNT/CHIT-SB modified GCE. Furthermore, the proposed aptasensor has a very low LOD of 1.0fmolL(-1) thrombin within the detection range of 0.00005-10nmolL(-1). The aptasensor also presents high specificity and reproducibility for thrombin, which is unaffected by the coexistence of other proteins. Clinical application was performed with analysis of the thrombin levels in blood and CSF samples obtained from patients with MS, Parkinson, Epilepsy and Polyneuropathy using both the aptasensor and commercial ELISA kit. The results revealed the proposed system to be a promising candidate for clinical analysis of thrombin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells employing doubly or singly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays: structural geometry and charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongmin; Song, Seulki; Kang, Gyeongho; Park, Taiho

    2014-09-10

    We systematically investigated the charge transport properties of doubly or singly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays (DNT and SNT, respectively) for their utility as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The SNT or DNT arrays were transferred in a bottom-up (B-up) or top-up (T-up) configuration onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate onto which had been deposited a 2 μm thick TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) interlayer. This process yielded four types of DSCs prepared with SNTs (B-up or T-up) or DNT (B-up or T-up). The photovoltaic performances of these DSCs were analyzed by measuring the dependence of the charge transport on the DSC geometry. High resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the electrode cross sections, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the electrical connection at the interface between the NT array and the TiO2 NP interlayer. We examined the effects of decorating the DNT or SNT arrays with small NPs (sNP@DNT and sNP@SNT, respectively) in an effort to increase the extent of dye loading. The DNT arrays decorated with small NPs performed better than the decorated SNT arrays, most likely because the Ti(OH)4 precursor solution flowed freely into the array through the open ends of the NTs in the DNT case but not in the SNT case. The sNP@DNT-based DSC exhibited a better PCE (10%) compared to the sNP@SNT-based DSCs (6.8%) because the electrolyte solution flow was not restricted, direct electron transport though the NT arrays was possible, the electrical connection at the interface between the NT array and the TiO2 NP interlayer was good, and the array provided efficient light harvesting.

  3. Structural and optical properties of AgCl-sensitized TiO2 (TiO2 @AgCl prepared by a reflux technique under alkaline condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mu’izayanti

    Full Text Available Abstract The AgCl-sensitized TiO2 (TiO2@AgCl has been prepared from the precursor of TiO2-rutile type which on its surface adsorb chloride anion (Cl- and various amounts of silver using AgNO3 as starting material: AgNO3/(AgNO3+TiO2 mass ratio of 0.00, 1.14, 3.25, 6.38 and 10.32%. Reflux under alkaline condition was the employed technique. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy. The sample without the addition of AgNO3 was analyzed by scanning electron microscope and surface area analyzer. The morphology of the sample showed a distribution of microspheres of approximately 0.5 to 1.0 µm and the specific surface area was 68 m2/g. XRD patterns indicated that the sample without the addition of AgNO3 contained two types of TiO2: rutile (major and anatase (minor, whereas the samples with the addition of AgNO3 consisted of one phase of AgCl and two types of TiO2: rutile and anatase. The bandgaps of the samples were in the range of 2.97 to 3.24 eV, which were very close to the bandgap of intrinsic TiO2 powder. The presence of 0.8, 2.6 and 4.4 wt% of AgCl in each sample resulted in an additional bandgap in visible light region of 1.90, 1.94 and 2.26 eV, respectively, whereas the presence of 9.4 wt% of AgCl in the sample resulted in two bandgaps in visible light region of 1.98 and 1.88 eV.

  4. Interface actions between TiO2 and porous diatomite on the structure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-diatomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yue; Li, Fangfei; Jiang, Yinshan; Xia, Maosheng; Xue, Bing; Li, Yanjuan

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 -diatomite photocatalysts were prepared by sol–gel process with various pre-modified diatomite. In order to obtain diatomite with different surface characteristics, two modification approaches including calcination and phosphoric acid treatment on the micro-structure of diatomite are introduced. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms and micromorphology analysis. The results indicate that, compared with pure TiO 2 , the anatase-to-rutile phase transition temperature of TiO 2 loaded on diatomite carrier is significantly increased to nearly 900 °C, depending on the different pretreatment method of diatomite. The photocatalytic activities of different samples were evaluated by their degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) dye under UV and visible-light irradiation. The samples prepared by phosphoric acid pretreatment method exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. After 90 min of UV irradiation, about 90% of MO is decomposed by the best effective photocatalyst. And after 8 h visible-light irradiation, nearly 60% of MO is decomposed by the same sample. Further mechanism investigation reveals that the H 3 PO 4 pretreatment process can obviously change the surface features of diatomite carrier, cause the formation of Si–O–Ti bond, increase the binding strength between TiO 2 and diatomite, restrain crystal growth of loaded TiO 2 , and thus form thermal-stable mesoporous structure at the granular spaces. It helps to build micro-, meso- and macro-porous hierarchical porous structure in TiO 2 -diatomite, and improves the charge and mass transfer efficiency during catalyzing process, resulting in the significantly increased photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -diatomite pretreated by phosphoric acid.

  5. Interface actions between TiO2 and porous diatomite on the structure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yue; Li, Fangfei; Jiang, Yinshan; Xia, Maosheng; Xue, Bing; Li, Yanjuan

    2014-06-01

    TiO2-diatomite photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel process with various pre-modified diatomite. In order to obtain diatomite with different surface characteristics, two modification approaches including calcination and phosphoric acid treatment on the micro-structure of diatomite are introduced. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and micromorphology analysis. The results indicate that, compared with pure TiO2, the anatase-to-rutile phase transition temperature of TiO2 loaded on diatomite carrier is significantly increased to nearly 900 °C, depending on the different pretreatment method of diatomite. The photocatalytic activities of different samples were evaluated by their degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) dye under UV and visible-light irradiation. The samples prepared by phosphoric acid pretreatment method exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. After 90 min of UV irradiation, about 90% of MO is decomposed by the best effective photocatalyst. And after 8 h visible-light irradiation, nearly 60% of MO is decomposed by the same sample. Further mechanism investigation reveals that the H3PO4 pretreatment process can obviously change the surface features of diatomite carrier, cause the formation of Si-O-Ti bond, increase the binding strength between TiO2 and diatomite, restrain crystal growth of loaded TiO2, and thus form thermal-stable mesoporous structure at the granular spaces. It helps to build micro-, meso- and macro-porous hierarchical porous structure in TiO2-diatomite, and improves the charge and mass transfer efficiency during catalyzing process, resulting in the significantly increased photocatalytic activity of TiO2-diatomite pretreated by phosphoric acid.

  6. XAS study of TiO2-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K.; Zajac, D.; Sikora, M.; Kapusta, Cz.; Michalow-Mauke, K.; Graule, Th.; Rekas, M.

    2015-07-01

    X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy studies of the W (0-1 at% W) and Mo-doped TiO2 (0-1 at% Mo) nanoparticle specimens at the K edges of titanium and molybdenum as well as at the L2 L3 edges of tungsten are presented. The materials were prepared with Flame Spray Synthesis process by oxidation of metal-organic precursors. The Ti:K edge spectra in the XANES range show pre-edge and post-edge features characteristic for anatase. A decrease of the amplitude of the EXAFS function with doping is observed and attributed to a softening of the crystal lattice. The Mo EXAFS functions show a considerable decrease of the second-neighbour-shell peak with increasing Mo content, which is attributed to an increased number of cation vacancies. For tungsten a less pronounced effect is observed. The Mo and W XANES spectra do not show noticeable changes with doping level, which indicates their unchanged oxidation states.

  7. Optical spectroscopy of rare earth ion-doped TiO2 nanophosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyuan; Luo, Wenqin

    2010-03-01

    Trivalent rare-earth (RE3+) ion-doped TiO2 nanophosphors belong to one kind of novel optical materials and have attracted increasing attention. The luminescence properties of different RE3+ ions in various TiO2 nanomaterials have been reviewed. Much attention is paid to our recent progresses on the luminescence properties of RE3+ (RE = Eu, Er, Sm, Nd) ions in anatase TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by a sol-gel-solvothermal method. Using Eu3+ as a sensitive optical probe, three significantly different luminescence centers of Eu3+ in TiO2 nanoparticles were detected by means of site-selective spectroscopy at 10 K. Based on the crystal-field (CF) splitting of Eu3+ at each site, C2v and D2 symmetries were proposed for Eu3+ incorporated at two lattice sites. A structural model for the formation of multiple sites was proposed based on the optical behaviors of Eu3+ at different sites. Similar multi-site luminescence was observed in Sm(3+)- or Nd(3+)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. In Eu(3+)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, only weak energy transfer from the TiO2 host to the Eu3+ ions was observed at 10 K due to the mismatch of energy between the TiO2 band-gap and the Eu3+ excited states. On the contrary, efficient host-sensitized luminescences were realized in Sm(3+)- or Nd(3+)-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles due to the match of energy between TiO2 band-gap and the Sm3+ and Nd3+ excited states. The excitation spectra of both Sm(3+)- and Nd(3+)-doped samples exhibit a dominant broad peak centered at approximately 340 nm, which is associated with the band-gap of TiO2, indicating that sensitized emission is much more efficient than direct excitation of the Sm3+ and Nd3+ ions. Single lattice site emission of Er3+ in TiO2 nanocrystals can be achieved by modifying the experimental conditions. Upon excitation by a Ti: sapphire laser at 978 nm, intense green upconverted luminescence was observed. The characteristic emission of Er3+ ions was obtained both in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and near-infrared regions through the high-resolution experiments at 10 K. The CF experienced by Er3+ in TiO2 nanocrystal was systematically studied by means of the energy level fitting.

  8. In situ controlled synthesis of various TiO2 nanostructured materials via a facile hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hai; Liu Yong; Zhong Minyi; Xu Hongmei; Huang Hong; Shen Hui

    2011-01-01

    Various TiO 2 nanomaterials, such as nanosheets, nanoflowers, and nanowires were directly self assembled on titanium substrate on a large scale under hydrothermal conditions. The morphology of the formed TiO 2 nanomaterials could be easily tuned by varying the experimental parameters of temperature, reaction time, and the NaOH concentration. A possible formation mechanism was suggested on the basis of the shape evolution of TiO 2 nanostructures by SEM images in combination with XRD patterns of as-grown samples. The optical properties of TiO 2 nanosheets, nanoflowers, and nanowires were characterized by reflectance spectroscopy. The studies revealed that the absorption capability of visible light is obviously different for TiO 2 with different morphologies. Moreover, TiO 2 nanosheets exhibited better light trapping than TiO 2 nanoflowers and TiO 2 nanowires due to their unique nanostructure.

  9. Development of nanostructured porous TiO2 thick film with uniform spherical particles by a new polymeric gel process for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshayesh, A.M.; Mohammadi, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    A novel simple synthetic procedure for fabrication of high surface area nanostructured TiO 2 electrode with uniform particles for photovoltaic application is reported. Modifying the TiO 2 particulate sol by pH adjustment together with employment of a polymeric agent, so-called polymeric gel process, was developed. The polymeric gel process was used to deposit nanostructured thick electrode by dip coating incorporated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that deposited film was composed of primary nanoparticles with average crystallite size in the range 21-39 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images showed that deposited film had nanostructured and porous morphology containing uniform spherical particles with diameter about 2.5 μm. The spherical particles were made of small nanoparticles with average grain size of 60 nm improving light scattering and dye loading of the DSSC. Moreover, atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis verified that the roughness mean square of prepared electrode was low, enhancing electron transport to the counter electrode. Photovoltaic measurements showed that solar cell made of polymeric gel process had higher photovoltaic performance than that made of conventional paste. An enhancement of power conversion efficiency from 4.54%, for conventional paste, to 6.21%, for polymeric gel process, was achieved. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study showed that the recombination process in solar cell made of polymeric gel process was slower than that in solar cell made of conventional paste. The presented strategy would open up new insight into fabrication of low-cost TiO 2 DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency

  10. Three-dimensional TiO2 nanowire@NiMoO4 ultrathin nanosheet core-shell arrays for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minglei; Bu, Yi; Lv, Xiaowei; Jiang, Xingxing; Wang, Lichuan; Dai, Sirui; Wang, Mingkui; Shen, Yan

    2018-03-01

    This study reports a general and rational two-step hydrothermal strategy to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 nanowire@NiMoO4 ultrathin nanosheet core-shell arrays (TNAs-NMO) as additives-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The TNAs-NMO electrode delivers a reversible capacity of up to 446.6 mA h g-1 over 120 cycles at the current density of 0.2 A g-1 and a high rate capacity of 234.2 mA h g-1 at 2.0 A g-1. Impressively, the capacity retention efficiency is 74.7% after 2500 cycles at the high rate of 2.0 A g-1. In addition, the full cell consisting of TNAs-NMO anode and LCO cathode can afford a specific energy of up to 220.3 W h kg-1 (based on the entire mass of both electrodes). The high electrochemical performance of the TNAs-NMO electrode is ascribed to its 3D core-shell nanowire array architecture, in which the TiO2 nanowire arrays (TNAs) and the ultrathin NiMoO4 nanosheets exhibit strong synergistic effects. The TNAs maintain mechanical integrity of the electrode and the ultrathin NiMoO4 nanosheets contribute to high capacity and favorable electronic conductivity.

  11. Disruption of Autolysis in Bacillus subtilis using TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivney, Eric; Han, Linchen; Avellan, Astrid; VanBriesen, Jeanne; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2017-03-17

    In contrast to many nanotoxicity studies where nanoparticles (NPs) are observed to be toxic or reduce viable cells in a population of bacteria, we observed that increasing concentration of TiO 2 NPs increased the cell survival of Bacillus subtilis in autolysis-inducing buffer by 0.5 to 5 orders of magnitude over an 8 hour exposure. Molecular investigations revealed that TiO 2 NPs prevent or delay cell autolysis, an important survival and growth-regulating process in bacterial populations. Overall, the results suggest two potential mechanisms for the disruption of autolysis by TiO 2 NPs in a concentration dependent manner: (i) directly, through TiO 2 NP deposition on the cell wall, delaying the collapse of the protonmotive-force and preventing the onset of autolysis; and (ii) indirectly, through adsorption of autolysins on TiO 2 NP, limiting the activity of released autolysins and preventing further lytic activity. Enhanced darkfield microscopy coupled to hyperspectral analysis was used to map TiO 2 deposition on B. subtilis cell walls and released enzymes, supporting both mechanisms of autolysis interference. The disruption of autolysis in B. subtilis cultures by TiO 2 NPs suggests the mechanisms and kinetics of cell death may be influenced by nano-scale metal oxide materials, which are abundant in natural systems.

  12. Thiourea-Modified TiO2 Nanorods with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysis has attracted much attention due to its potential application in solving the problems of environmental pollution. In this paper, thiourea (CH4N2S modified anatase TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by calcination of the mixture of TiO2 nanorods and thiourea at 600 °C for 2 h. It was found that only N element was doped into the lattice of TiO2 nanorods. With increasing the weight ratio of thiourea to TiO2 (R from 0 to 8, the light-harvesting ability of the photocatalyst steady increases. Both the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods increase first and then decrease with increase in R value, and R2 sample showed the highest crystallization and photocatalytic activity in degradation of Brilliant Red X3B (X3B and Rhodamine B (RhB dyes under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm. The increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO2 nanorods is due to the synergistic effects of the enhanced crystallization, improved light-harvesting ability and reduced recombination rate of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Note that the enhanced visible photocatalytic activity of N-doped nanorods is not based on the scarification of their UV photocatalytic activity.

  13. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue on TiO_2-halloysite adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Pengwu

    2014-01-01

    TiO_2-halloysite (TiO_2-HNT) composites were fabricated by depositing anatase TiO_2 on the halloysite (HNT) surfaces with calcination treatment at 100, 200, 300 and 500 .deg. C. The obtained composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). HNT was attached with TiO_2 particles or clusters in sizes of 10-30 nm. With the increasing of calcination temperature, the crystalline of anatase became more perfect, but the structure of HNT could be destroyed at 500 .deg. C. The adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) by TiO_2-HNTs were investigated. The kinetic adsorption fit the pseudo second-order, and the isotherm data followed the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities of MB were in the range of 38.57 to 54.29 mg/g. TiO_2-HNTs exhibited an efficient photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of MB. For TiO_2-HNT calcined at 300 .deg. C, 81.6% MB were degraded after 4 h treatment of UV irradiation

  14. High-performance thermoelectric materials based on ternary TiO2/CNT/PANI composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Fuat; Li, Hui; Wang, Xizu; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2018-04-04

    In the present work, we report the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric materials using TiO2/CNT/PANI ternary composites. We showed that a conductivity of ∼2730 S cm-1 can be achieved for the binary CNT (70%)/PANI (30%) composite, which is the highest recorded value for the reported CNT/PANI composites. We further demonstrated that the Seebeck coefficient of CNT/PANI composites could be enhanced by incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into the binary CNT/PANI composites, which could be attributed to lower carrier density and the energy scattering of low-energy carriers at the interfaces of TiO2/a-CNT and TiO2/PANI. The resulting TiO2/a-CNT/PANI ternary system exhibits a higher Seebeck coefficient and enhanced thermoelectric power. Further optimization of the thermoelectric power was achieved by water treatment and by tuning the processing temperature. A high thermoelectric power factor of 114.5 μW mK-2 was obtained for the ternary composite of 30% TiO2/70% (a-CNT (70%)/PANI (30%)), which is the highest reported value among the reported PANI based ternary composites. The improvement of thermoelectric performance by incorporation of TiO2 suggests a promising approach to enhance power factor of organic thermoelectric materials by judicial tuning of the carrier concentration and electrical conductivity.

  15. Toxicity of nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2-NP) on human monocytes and their mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbary, Fatemeh; Seydi, Enaytollah; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Salimi, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The effect of nanotitanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NP) in human monocytes is still unknown. Therefore, an understanding of probable cytotoxicity of TiO 2 -NP on human monocytes and underlining the mechanisms involved is of significant interest. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of TiO 2 -NP on human monocytes. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of TiO 2 -NP at 10 μg/ml concentration to monocytes induced cytotoxicity following 12 h. The TiO 2 -NP-induced cytotoxicity on monocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, TiO 2 -NP triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in monocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally, our findings suggest that use of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with TiO 2 -NP.

  16. Single-Nanoparticle Photoelectrochemistry at a Nanoparticulate TiO2 -Filmed Ultramicroelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue-Yi; Ma, Hui; Ma, Wei; Long, Yi-Tao; Tian, He

    2018-03-26

    An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical method for achieving real-time detection of single nanoparticle collision events is presented. Using a micrometer-thick nanoparticulate TiO 2 -filmed Au ultra-microelectrode (TiO 2 @Au UME), a sub-millisecond photocurrent transient was observed for an individual N719-tagged TiO 2 (N719@TiO 2 ) nanoparticle and is due to the instantaneous collision process. Owing to a trap-limited electron diffusion process as the rate-limiting step, a random three-dimensional diffusion model was developed to simulate electron transport dynamics in TiO 2 film. The combination of theoretical simulation and high-resolution photocurrent measurement allow electron-transfer information of a single N719@TiO 2 nanoparticle to be quantified at single-molecule accuracy and the electron diffusivity and the electron-collection efficiency of TiO 2 @Au UME to be estimated. This method provides a test for studies of photoinduced electron transfer at the single-nanoparticle level. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Simplified TiO2 force fields for studies of its interaction with biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Binquan; Huynh, Tien; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-06-01

    Engineered TiO2 nanoparticles have been routinely applied in nanotechnology, as well as in cosmetics and food industries. Despite active experimental studies intended to clarify TiO2's biological effects, including potential toxicity, the relation between experimentally inferred nanotoxicity and industry standards for safely applying nanoparticles remains somewhat ambiguous with justified concerns. Supplemental to experiments, molecular dynamics simulations have proven to be efficacious in investigating the molecular mechanism of a biological process occurring at nanoscale. In this article, to facilitate the nanotoxicity and nanomedicine research related to this important metal oxide, we provide a simplified force field, based on the original Matsui-Akaogi force field but compatible to the Lennard-Jones potentials normally used in modeling biomolecules, for simulating TiO2 nanoparticles interacting with biomolecules. The force field parameters were tested in simulating the bulk structure of TiO2, TiO2 nanoparticle-water interaction, as well as the adsorption of proteins on the TiO2 nanoparticle. We demonstrate that these simulation results are consistent with experimental data/observations. We expect that simulations will help to better understand the interaction between TiO2 and molecules.

  18. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseadi, Anwar Abdulaziz

    With the increasing global energy consumption and diminishing fossil fuels, various renewable and sustainable energies have been harvested in past decades and related devices have been fabricated. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are the most efficient third-generation solar cells to harvest solar energy into electricity directly. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) based DSSCs were invented in 1988 and have attracted more and more attention since then because of low-cost and high efficiency. TiO2 nanoparticles are one kind of popular anode materials of DSSC because of stability, abundance, environment safety, non-toxicity, and excellent photovoltaic properties. In the project, TiO2 nanoparticles with different crystallographic sizes were produced by ball-milling. Physical properties of the produced TiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Raman scattering. TiO2-based DSSCs were fabricated and their photovoltaic performances were tested. The effects of TiO2 layer thickness, crystallographic size, and microsphere fillings were investigated. The project enriched our understanding of TiO2-based DSSCs.

  19. Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties of Ag-Loaded N-Doped Tio2 Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Dawei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TiO2 NT arrays were prepared by anodic oxidizing method on the surface of the Ti substrate. Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube (N-TiO2 NT arrays were carried out by ammonia solution immersion, and Ag nanoparticles loaded N-doped TiO2 nanotube (Ag/N-TiO2 NT arrays were obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique. The samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, photoluminescence (PL emission spectra, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. The result indicated that the diameter and wall thickness of the TiO2 NT are 100–120 and 20–30 nm, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and structure of the highly ordered TiO2 NTs were not affected by N-doping. Furthermore, Ag nanoparticles were evenly deposited on the surface of TiO2 NTs in the form of elemental silver. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/N-TiO2 NTs was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO under visible-light irradiation. The Ag/N-TiO2 NTs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic properties, which could reach 95% after 90-min irradiation.

  20. Decolorization of dyeing wastewater in continuous photoreactors using tio2 coated glass tube media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with a decolorization development of malachite green (MG dyeing wastewater using TiO2 thin films coated glass tube media in photoreactor. The TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by three methods: TTIP sol-gel, TiO2 powder-modified sol, and TiO2 powder suspension coating on raschig ring glass tube media and was investigated crystallinity phase by SEM, XRD, and AFM. Degradation kinetics of the dyeing wastewater by photocatalytic was carried out under UV light irradiation. The Langmuir first-order model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The catalyst prepared by powder suspension technique and coated on glass tube had given the highest of decolorization kinetics and efficiency. Continuous photoreactor packed with the TiO2 coating media was designed and proven to be the high effectiveness for MG dyeing degradation and stable throughout the recyclability test. The light intensity, dye solution flow rate, and TiO2 loading were the most important parameters that response to decolorization efficiency. The optimum condition of photo decolorization of MG dye solution can be obtained from RSM model. Effectiveness of the synthesized TiO2 thin films using suspension technique and the continuous photoreactor design were obtained with a great potential to be proven for wastewater treatment at industrial scale.

  1. Light-induced antifungal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles/ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, N.; Abdi, Y.; Haghighi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal activity of TiO 2 /ZnO nanostructures under visible light irradiation was investigated. A simple chemical method was used to synthesize ZnO nanowires. Zinc acetate dihydrate, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and deionized water were used as precursor, capping and solvent, respectively. TiO 2 nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanowires using an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition system. X-ray diffraction pattern of TiO 2 /ZnO nano-composite has represented the diffraction peaks relating to the crystal planes of the TiO 2 (anatase and rutile) and ZnO. TiO 2 /ZnO nanostructure antifungal effect on Candida albicans biofilms was studied and compared with the activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles and ZnO nanowires. The high efficiency photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles leads to increased antifungal activity of ZnO nanowires. Scanning electron microscope was utilized to study the morphology of the as prepared nanostructures and the degradation of the yeast.

  2. Enhanced properties of nanostructured TiO2-graphene composites by rapid sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, In-Jin; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae

    2018-01-01

    Despite of many attractive properties of TiO2, the drawback of TiO2 ceramic is low fracture toughness for widely industrial application. The method to improve the fracture toughness and hardness has been reported by addition of reinforcing phase to fabricate a nanostructured composite. In this regard, graphene has been evaluated as an ideal second phase in ceramics. Nearly full density of nanostructured TiO2-graphene composite was achieved within one min using pulsed current activated sintering. The effect of graphene on microstructure, fracture toughness and hardness of TiO2-graphene composite was evaluated using Vickers hardness tester and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The grain size of TiO2 in the TiO2-x vol% (x = 0, 1, 3, and 5) graphene composite was greatly reduced with increase in addition of graphene. Both hardness and fracture toughness of TiO2-graphene composites simultaneously increased in the addition of graphene.

  3. ALMA observations of TiO2 around VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beck, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Muller, S.; Black, J. H.; O'Gorman, E.; Richards, A. M. S.; Baudry, A.; Maercker, M.; Decin, L.; Humphreys, E. M.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Titanium dioxide, TiO2, is a refractory species that could play a crucial role in the dust-condensation sequence around oxygen-rich evolved stars. To date, gas phase TiO2 has been detected only in the complex environment of the red supergiant VY CMa. Aims: We aim to constrain the distribution and excitation of TiO2 around VY CMa in order to clarify its role in dust formation. Methods: We analyse spectra and channel maps for TiO2 extracted from ALMA science verification data. Results: We detect 15 transitions of TiO2, and spatially resolve the emission for the first time. The maps demonstrate a highly clumpy, anisotropic outflow in which the TiO2 emission likely traces gas exposed to the stellar radiation field. An accelerating bipolar-like structure is found, oriented roughly east-west, of which the blue component runs into and breaks up around a solid continuum component. A distinct tail to the south-west is seen for some transitions, consistent with features seen in the optical and near-infrared. Conclusions: We find that a significant fraction of TiO2 remains in the gas phase outside the dust-formation zone and suggest that this species might play only a minor role in the dust-condensation process around extreme oxygen-rich evolved stars like VY CMa. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye using Fe doped TiO2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhade, Tejal; Banerjee, Indrani

    2018-05-01

    The unique properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) such as high photo catalytic activity, high chemical stability and low toxicity have made it a suitable photocatalyst in recent decades. The effect of modification of TiO2 with doping of iron on its characteristics and photo catalytic efficiency was studied. The change in band gap energy of TiO2 nanoparticles after doping with Fe has been studied. Significant enhancement in photo catalytic property of TiO2 after Fe doping under light exposure conditions has been investigated. Acute exposure to non-biodegradable Rhodamine B resulted in many health problems like burning of eyes, skin irritation, nasal burning, and chest pain etc. Therefore, degradation of this dye is needed to save environment and animals. Considering the similar radius of Fe3+ and Ti4+ ions (respectively 0.64 Å and 0.68 Å), titanium position in the lattice of TiO2 can be replaced by iron cations easily. The undoped and Fe doped TiO2 nano composites were synthesized by sol-gel method, in which 1.0M% of Fe was doped with TiO2 and then the samples were characterized by using FE-SEM, UV-Visible diffuse spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and FTIR. Photo catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye experiment was carried out in visible light range. After 90 min time duration pink colour of dye turned colourless, indicating significant degradation rate with time.

  5. Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene catalyzed by amorphous TiO2 in ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenshuai; Xu, Yehai; Li, Huaming; Dai, Bilian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Chao; Chao, Yanhong; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Three types of TiO 2 were synthesized by a hydrolysis and calcination method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), Raman spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD and Raman spectra indicated that amorphous TiO 2 was successfully obtained at 100 .deg. C. The results indicated that amorphous TiO 2 achieved the highest efficiency of desulfurization. The photocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT), benzothiophene (BT), 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) and dodecanethiol (RSH) in model oil was studied at room temperature (30 .deg. C) with three catalysts. The system contained amorphous TiO 2 , H 2 O 2 , and [Bmim]BF 4 ionic liquid, ultraviolet (UV), which played vitally important roles in the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization. Especially, the molar ratio of H 2 O 2 and sulfur (O/S) was only 2 : 1, which corresponded to the stoichiometric reaction. The sulfur removal of DBT-containing model oil with amorphous TiO 2 could reach 96.6%, which was apparently superior to a system with anatase TiO 2 (23.6%) or with anatase - rutile TiO 2 (18.2%). The system could be recycled seven times without a signicant decrease in photocatalytic activity

  6. NOx photocatalytic degradation on gypsum plates modified by TiO2-N,C photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In presented studies the photocatalytic decomposition of NOx on gypsum plates modified by TiO2-N,Cphotocatalysts were presented. The gypsum plates were obtained by addition of 10 or 20 wt.% of different types of titanium dioxide, such as: pure TiO2 and carbon and nitrogen co-modified TiO2 (TiO2-N,C to gypsum. TiO2-N,C photocatalysts were obtained by heating up the starting TiO2 (Grupa Azoty Zakłady Chemiczne Police S.A in the atmosphere of ammonia and carbon at the temperature: 100, 300 i 600ºC. Photocatalyst were characterized by FTIR/DRS, UVVis/DR, BET and XRD methods. Moreover the compressive strength tests of modified gypsum were also done. Photocatalytic activity of gypsum plates was done during NOx decomposition. The highest photocatalytic activity has gypsum with 20 wt.% addition of TiO2-N,C obtained at 300ºC.

  7. Facile synthesis of porous TiO_2 photocatalysts using waste sludge as the template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Huang, Shouqiang; Zhu, Nanwen; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Waste sludge is introduced to synthesize the waste sludge templated TiO_2 photocatalyst with porous structure, which possesses better photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO_2. - Highlights: • Waste sludge is introduced to synthesize the TiO_2 photocatalyst. • Waste sludge templated TiO_2 sample possesses porous structure. • Waste sludge templated TiO_2 sample exhibits high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A resource utilization method of waste sludge is present by the synthesis of waste sludge templated TiO_2 photocatalysts. The organic materials in waste sludge are used as the pore-forming agents, and the transition metals included in the remaining waste sludge through calcination (WSC) can serve as the dopants for the WSC-TiO_2 (WSCT) photocatalyst. The visible and UV–visible light driven photocatalytic activities of WSCT are much better compared to those of pure TiO_2 and WSC, and it is originated from the higher light absorption property and the efficient electron–hole pair separation provided by waste sludge.

  8. Probing Photocatalytic Characteristics of Sb-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

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    Lingjing Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticle with varied dopant concentrations was synthesized using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and antimony chloride (SbCl3 as the precursors. The properties of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, fluorescence spectrophotometer, and Uv-vis spectrophotometer. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles could be extended to visible region after doping with antimony, in contrast to the UV absorption of pure TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was much more active than pure TiO2. The 0.1% Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the best photocatalytic activity which was better than that of the Degussa P25 under visible light irradiation using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe. The effects of Sb dopant on the photocatalytic activity and the involved mechanism were extensively investigated in this work as well.

  9. W-doped TiO2 photoanode for high performance perovskite solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jinwang; Zhang, Jing; Yue, Guoqiang; Lu, Xingwei; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) with dispersed W-doping shows its capability for efficient electron collection from perovskite to TiO 2 in perovskite solar cell. The conduction band (CB) of TiO 2 moves downward (positive shift) with increasing the tungsten (W) content, which enlarges the energy gap between the CB of TiO 2 and the perovskite. Thus, the efficiency of electron injection from perovskite to TiO 2 is increased. Due to the increased electron injection, W-doped TiO 2 (≤0.2% W content) enhances the short-circuit photocurrent (J sc ) of perovskite solar cell and improves the performance of perovskite solar cell. Perovskite solar cell with 0.1% W-doped photoanode obtains the highest power conversion efficiency (η = 10.6%), which shows enhancement by 13% in J sc and by 17% in η, as compared with the undoped TiO 2 perovskite solar cell.

  10. TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis and its physiological effect on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Raliya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticle (NPs biosynthesis is a low cost, ecofriendly approach developed using the fungi Aspergillus flavus TFR 7. To determine whether TiO2 NPs is suitable for nutrient, we conducted a two part study; biosynthesis of TiO2 NP and evaluates their influence on mung bean. The characterized TiO2 NPs were foliar sprayed at 10 mgL−1 concentration on the leaves of 14 days old mung bean plants. A significant improvement was observed in shoot length (17.02%, root length (49.6%, root area (43%, root nodule (67.5%, chlorophyll content (46.4% and total soluble leaf protein (94% as a result of TiO2 NPs application. In the rhizosphere microbial population increased by 21.4–48.1% and activity of acid phosphatase (67.3%, alkaline phosphatase (72%, phytase (64% and dehydrogenase (108.7% enzyme was observed over control in six weeks old plants owing to application of TiO2 NPs. A possible mechanism has also been hypothesized for TiO2 NPs biosynthesis.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres on carbon fabric and FTO substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Jian; Zhang, Mengqi

    2018-06-01

    The wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres on carbon fabric (TiO2-CF) and FTO substrates (TiO2-FTO) have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in alkali environment, using commercial TiO2 (P25) as precursors. The XRD results indicate that the as-prepared TiO2 have good crystallinity. And the SEM images show that the wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2-3 μm are composed of TiO2 nanowires, which have a diameter of 50 nm. The photocatalytic behavior of the wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres, TiO2-CF and TiO2-FTO under ultraviolet light was investigated by a pseudo first-order kinetic model, using methyl orange (MO) as pollutant. The wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres obtained a degradation rate constant (Kap) of 6.91×10-3 min-1 . The Kap values of TiO2-FTO and TiO2-CF reach 13.97×10-3 min-1 and 11.80×10-3 min-1, which are 2.0 and 1.7 times higher than that of pristine wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres due to the "sum effect" between TiO2 and substrates. This study offers a facile hydrothermal method to prepare wool-ball-like TiO2 microspheres on CF and FTO substrates, which will improve the recyclability of phtocatalysts and can be extended to other fields.

  12. Photocatalytic and microwave absorbing properties of polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO2 composite by in situ polymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiaoling; Zhang Cunrui; Li Jianqiang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composite is prepared by in situ polymerization of pyrrole on the Fe-doped TiO 2 template. → The Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts are prepared by sol-gel method using the absorbent cotton template for the first time. → Then the Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts are used as template for the preparation of polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites. → The structure, morphology and properties of the composites are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), IR, Net-work Analyzer. → A possible formation mechanism of Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts and polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites has been proposed. → The effect of the mol ratio of pyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 on the photocatalysis properties and microwave loss properties of the composites is investigated. - Abstract: The Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts were prepared by sol-gel method using the absorbent cotton template for the first time. Then the Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts were used as templates for the preparation of polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites. Polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites were prepared by in situ polymerization of pyrrole on the Fe-doped TiO 2 template. The structure, morphology and properties of the composites were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR, Net-work Analyzer. The possible formation mechanisms of Fe-doped TiO 2 microbelts and polypyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 composites have been proposed. The effect of the molar ratio of pyrrole/Fe-doped TiO 2 on the photocatalytic properties and microwave loss properties of the composites was investigated.

  13. Adsorption and Recovery of Polyphenolic Flavonoids Using TiO_2-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Arif; Wallace, William T.; Islam, Syed Z.; Nagpure, Suraj; Strzalka, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Exploiting specific interactions with titania (TiO_2) has been proposed for the separation and recovery of a broad range of biomolecules and natural products, including therapeutic polyphenolic flavonoids which are susceptible to degradation, such as quercetin. Functionalizing mesoporous silica with TiO_2 has many potential advantages over bulk and mesoporous TiO_2 as an adsorbent for natural products, including robust synthetic approaches leading to high surface area, stable separation platforms. Here, TiO_2 surface functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) are synthesized and characterized as a function of TiO_2 content (up to 636 mg TiO2/g). The adsorption isotherms of two polyphenolic flavonoids, quercetin and rutin, were determined (0.05-10 mg/ml in ethanol), and a 100-fold increase in the adsorption capacity was observed relative to functionalized nonporous particles with similar TiO_2 surface coverage. An optimum extent of functionalization (approximately 440 mg TiO_2/g particles) is interpreted from characterization techniques including grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption, which examined the interplay between the extent of TiO_2 functionalization and the accessibility of the porous structures. The recovery of flavonoids is demonstrated using ligand displacement in ethanolic citric acid solution (20% w/v), in which greater than 90% recovery can be achieved in a multistep extraction process. The radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the recovered and particle-bound quercetin as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay demonstrates greater than 80% retention of antioxidant activity by both particle-bound and recovered quercetin. In conclusion, these mesoporous titanosilicate materials can serve as a synthetic platform to isolate, recover, and potentially deliver degradation-sensitive natural products to biological systems.

  14. TiO2-BASED Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Guan, Ling-Xiao; Feng, Ji-Jun; Li, Fang; Yao, Ming-Ming

    2015-02-01

    The spread of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) has been thought as a threat to the safety of drinking water. In this paper, the photocatalytic activity of the nanocrystalline Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 composite film for the degradation of OTC was studied. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and UV-Vis diffraction reflectance absorption spectra (DRS). The FE-SEM results indicated that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film was composed of smaller nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2 or TiO2-SiO2 film. The BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of the pure TiO2, TiO2-SiO2 and Ca2+/Fe3+ co-doped TiO2-SiO2 is 118.3 m2g-1, 294.3 m2g-1 and 393.7 m2g-1, respectively. The DRS and PL spectra revealed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film had strong visible light adsorption and diminished electrons/holes recombination. Experimental results showed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film is effective in the degradation of OTC under both UV and visible light irradiation.

  15. Preparation, Characterization and Analysis of Fouling Mechanisms of TiO2- Embedded PVDF Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoones Jafarzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2-embedded polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF mixed matrix membranes were prepared through a nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS method. The structure of the membranes was characterized by FESEM, EDX, water drop contact angle measurement, pure water flux and mean pore radius analysis. The results showed that the prepared membranes had asymmetric structures with macro-voids and the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles increased the size of macro-voids. Moreover, pure water flux increased from 41 kg/m2h to 162 kg/m2h the content of TiO2 nanoparticles increased from 1 wt% to 5 wt% as embedded membrane. The contact angle dropped from 100° for 1 wt% TiO2- embedded membrane to 69° for 5 wt% TiO2-embedded membrane, showing that the hydrophilicity of membranes increased by addition of inorganic TiO2 nanoparticles. The fouling behavior oftheprepared mixed matrix membranes was studied in filtration process of 1% humic acid solution. The results showed that fouling resistance of the membranes increased with higher content of TiO2 nanoparticles. The results of classic fouling modeling of membranes showed that for 2 and 5 wt% TiO2-embedded membranes the best fit of the data occurred with the intermediate blockage model whereas cake formation model was the dominant mechanism for other membranes. Moreover, the analysis of fouling mechanisms by combined models showed that cake filtration-intermediate blockage model was in good agreement with the experimental data for all membranes. Finally, the results showed that the rejection of membranes increased with the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles, and then decreased.

  16. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous – (001) facets TiO_2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yeshuo; Fei, Xuening; Zhou, Yongzhu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The (001) facets of TiO_2 single crystals with mesoporous structure. • The (010) and (100) facets of TiO_2 single crystals were covered by the flower – shaped TiO_2 crystals. • This special structure could promote charge separation and provide more active sites, which will lead to a substantial increase in photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, the mesoporous – (001) facets TiO_2 single crystals have been successfully synthesized through a two-step solvothermal route without any template. Their structure and morphology were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). Based on the different characteristics and atomic arrangements on each facet of anatase TiO_2 single crystals, we synthesized these mesoporous – (001) facets TiO_2 single crystals by controlling the interaction characteristics of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and isopropanol (i-PrOH) on the crystal facets. It can been seen that the (001) facets of these as-synthesized TiO_2 single crystals have a clear mesoporous structure through the SEM images and BET methods. Moreover, the other four facets were covered by the flower – shaped TiO_2 crystals with the generation of the mesoporous – (001) facets. This special and interesting morphology could promote charge separation and provide more active sites, which will lead to a substantial increase in photocatalytic activity. Moreover, it is more intuitive to reflect that the different crystal facets possess the different properties due to their atomic arrangement. Besides, according to the different synthetic routes, we proposed and discussed a plausible synthesis mechanism of these mesoporous – (001) facets TiO_2 single crystals.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Sized TiO2@Chitosan for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei JIANG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the development of genetic engineering, it is urgent to find a vector with high transfection efficiency and good biocompatibility for genes. We considered combining nano-TiO2 with chitosan (CTS in order to tap their respective advantages to make a better new nanoparticle as gene vector.Methods: TiO2@CTS was prepared using microemulsion method. The physicochemical property of TiO2@CTS was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and zeta potential. The safety and influence on MC3T3-E1 cells were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT, blood compatibility assay and flow cytometry.Results: TiO2@CTS was well prepared and it was safe to cells under concentration tests. TiO2@CTS particles had a fuzzy boundary with a particle size remaining in 20-30 nm. Besides, the results also showed that TiO2@CTS did better in cellular uptake than TiO2 at 2 h and 24 h, and had good biocompatibility. MTT assay proved that the MC3T3 cells remained good growth when treated with different concentrations of TiO2@CTS (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/mL. Moreover, transfection assay in vitro and electrophoretic mobility shift assay illustrated the high transfection efficiency of TiO2@CTS.Conclusion: TiO2@CTS is a good choice to gene transfection, with good biocompatibility, and it also provides a new thought for the application of nanotechnology in the field of aveolar bone graft material.

  18. Liquid phase deposition of WO3/TiO2 heterojunction films with high photoelectrocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Man; Yang, Changzhu; Pu, Wenhong; Tan, Yuanbin; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Jingdong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid phase deposition is developed for preparing WO 3 /TiO 2 heterojunction films. • TiO 2 film provides an excellent platform for WO 3 deposition. • WO 3 expands the absorption band edge of TiO 2 film to visible light region. • WO 3 /TiO 2 heterojunction film shows high photoelectrocatalytic activity. - ABSTRACT: The heterojunction films of WO 3 /TiO 2 were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) method via two-step processes. The scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that flower-like WO 3 film was successfully deposited on TiO 2 film with the LPD processes. The TiO 2 film provided an excellent platform for WO 3 deposition while WO 3 obviously expanded the absorption of TiO 2 film to visible light. As the result, the heterojunction film of WO 3 /TiO 2 exhibited higher photocurrent response to visible light illumination than pure TiO 2 or WO 3 film. The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity of WO 3 /TiO 2 film was evaluated by degrading Rhodamin B (RhB) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the LPD WO 3 /TiO 2 film possessed high PEC activity for efficient removal of various refractory organic pollutants

  19. Application of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vy Anh; Thinh Troung, Trieu; Pham Phan, Thu Anh

    2017-01-01

    Our research aimed to improve the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSCs by applying nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (N-TNT) for the preparation of DSCs photo-anodes. The none-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (TNTs) were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of Degussa P25 TiO2 particles in 10...

  20. Development and Application of TiO2 Nanoparticles Coupled with Silver Halide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is proposed to be effective photocatalyst for wastewater treatment, air purification, and self-cleaning ability, because of its strong oxidation and superhydrophilicity. In order to conquer the limits of TiO2, a variety of methods have been used. This paper presents a critical review of novel research and achievements in the modification of TiO2 nanoparticles with silver halide (AgX, X=Cl, Br, I, which aims at enhancing the visible light absorption and photosensitivity. Herein we study the synthesis, physical and chemical properties, and the mechanism of this composite photocatalyst.

  1. Fabrication and electrical characteristics for MIS diode by utilizing TiO2 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Metal insulator semiconductor diodes were made by utilizing TiO 2 ceramics. Tunnel field emission is here proposed as a model for rectification in TiO 2 diode. Measurements of junction depth show very satisfactory agreement with value obtained from the Richardson plot, thus serving as additional supporting evidence of field emission in TiO 2 ceramic. The measured junction area exceeds by a factor of 10 6 the value expected by assuming field emission. The Richardson plot shows a deviation from the emission theory at low voltage, which is probably due to leakage currents which are present in MIS rutile diode. (author)

  2. Effective Removal of Congo Red by Triarrhena Biochar Loading with TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A composite of pyrolytic Triarrhena biochar loading with TiO2 nanoparticles has been synthesized by the sol-gel method. The composite shows a well-developed hollow mesoporous and macropore structure as characterized by XRD, BET, and SEM. When used as an absorbent to remove Congo red from aqueous solution, it was found that as-prepared composite performed better absorption capacity than single biochar or TiO2. The results suggest that biochar loading with TiO2 could be promisingly implemented as an environmentally friendly and inexpensive adsorbent for Congo red removal from wastewater.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of mesoporous TiO2/polypyrrole-based nanocomposite for electrorheological fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Chuan; Zhu Yihua; Jin Yi; Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous TiO 2 /polypyrrole (PPy)-based nanocomposite for electrorheological fluid was synthesized through one-pot method. By exploiting the combination conductivity of PPy and high dielectric constant of TiO 2 , the ER fluid exhibited an enhanced effect. The shear stress was 3.3 times as high as that of mesoporous TiO 2 . Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the as-made samples. Using a modified rotational viscometer, the electrorheological effect was measured. Dielectric spectra were also given to explain the mechanism

  4. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using TiO2 Impregnated Diatomite

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Ranfang; Du, Gaoxiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Lianhua; Liu, Yanming; Mei, Lefu; Li, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    Nano-TiO2 showed a good catalytic activity, but it is easy to agglomerate, resulting in the reduction or even complete loss of photocatalytic activity. The dispersion of TiO2 particles on porous materials was a potential solution to this problem. Diatomite has high specific surface and absorbability because of its particular shell structure. Thus, TiO2/diatomite composite, prepared by loading TiO2 on the surface of diatomite, was a good photocatalyst, through absorbing organic compounds with ...

  5. Carbon and TiO_2 synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-01-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO_2 structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO_2/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO_2 structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO_2-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO_2 phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO_2 during the sol-gel step, with a TiO_2 structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO_2 based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO_2-Carbon composite. • The sol-gel synthesis was efficient to insert TiO_2 particles on carbon structure. • The TiO_2 nanoparticles presented mesopore area around the carbon structure. • The wedge shapes pores which were the main responsible for methylene blue removal. • A new TiO_2-Carbon materials can be used for removal of large pollutants molecules.

  6. FTIR study of formic acid interaction with TiO2 and TiO2 doped with Pd and Cu in photocatalytic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J.; Garriga i Cabo, C.; Dona-Rodriguez, J.M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, O.; Herrera-Melian, J.A.; Perez-Pena, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the different processes occurring on the TiO 2 and Pd and Cu doped TiO 2 surfaces during the photocatalytic formic acid degradation in the presence or absence of S 2 O 8 2- or H 2 O 2 have been investigated. FTIR studies have shown the relevance of the H-bounded hydroxyl groups. It has been observed that formate molecules interact simultaneously with the dopants and surfacial Ti atoms yielding an intermediate species which plays an important role in the phototacatalytic degradation mechanism. Also, it has been determined that Pd or Cu oxides may act as receptors or transmitters of the TiO 2 photogenerated electrons and thus modify the degradation mechanism. Different redox reactions have been proposed according to the obtained results

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol on TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/cellulosic fiber under UV and sunlight irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jallouli, Nabil; Elghniji, Kais; Trabelsi, Hassen; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen ((N-(4-hydroxyphe-nyl)acetamide)), an analgesic drug has been investigated in a batch reactor using TiO2 P25 as a photocatalyst in slurry and under UV light. Using TiO2 P25 nanoparticles, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred, more than 90% of 2.65 × 10−4 M paracetamol was degraded under UV irradiation. Changes in pH values affected the adsorption and the photodegradation of paracetam...

  8. Copper doping enhanced the oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, J; Siddiqui, M A; Akhtar, M J; Alhadlaq, H A; Alshamsan, A; Khan, S T; Wahab, R; Al-Khedhairy, A A; Al-Salim, A; Musarrat, J; Saquib, Q; Fareed, M; Ahamed, M

    2018-05-01

    Physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) can be tuned by doping with metals or nonmetals. Copper (Cu) doping improved the photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 NPs that can be applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and nanomedicine. However, interaction of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with human cells is scarce. This study was designed to explore the role of Cu doping in cytotoxic response of TiO 2 NPs in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Characterization data demonstrated the presence of both TiO 2 and Cu in Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with high-quality lattice fringes without any distortion. The size of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs (24 nm) was lower than pure TiO 2 NPs (30 nm). Biological results showed that both pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Low mitochondrial membrane potential and higher caspase-3 enzyme (apoptotic markers) activity were also observed in A549 cells exposed to pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. We further observed that cytotoxicity caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs was higher than pure TiO 2 NPs. Moreover, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine effectively prevented the reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione depletion, and cell viability reduction caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. This is the first report showing that Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in A549 cells. This study warranted further research to explore the role of Cu doping in toxicity mechanisms of TiO 2 NPs.

  9. Effects of TiO2 film thickness on photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cell and its enhanced performance by graphene combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenguang; Liu, Hui; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yiming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • DSSC based on TiO 2 film with 8 printing layers showed the highest efficiency. • The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC increased from 5.52% to 6.49% by graphene combination. • A mechanism for the enhanced performance of the DSSC was proposed. - Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO 2 films with different printing layers (6-10) were fabricated by screen printing method. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The effects of thickness on the photoelectric conversion performance of the as-fabricated DSSCs were investigated. An optimum photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.52% was obtained in a DSSC with 8 printing layers. Furthermore, after a moderate amount of graphene was combined with TiO 2 , the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on graphene/TiO 2 composite film rose from 5.52% to 6.49%, with an increase of η by 17.6%. The results indicated that graphene not only enhances the transport of electrons from the film to the fluorine doped tin oxide substrates and reduces the charge recombination rate, but also reduces the electrolyte–electrode interfacial resistance, clearly increasing the photoelectric conversion efficiency

  10. Anti-fish bacterial pathogen effect of visible light responsive Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized on glass using TiO2 sol–gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, N.; Lee, Y.C.; Chang, C.Y.; Cheng, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a fish pathogen reduction procedure that uses TiO 2 sol–gel coating Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 powder on glass substrate. Such procedure can effectively relieve two constraints that haunt TiO 2 sterilization applications: 1) the need for UV for overcoming the wide band gap of pure TiO 2 and 2) the difficulty of its recovering from water for reuse. In the process, visible light responsive Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 nanoparticles are synthesized and immobilized on glass using TiO 2 sol–gel as the binder for fish bacterial pathogen disinfection test. After 3 h of visible light irradiation, the immobilized Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 's inhibition efficiencies for fish bacterial pathogen are, respectively, 50% for Edwardsiella tarda (BCRC 10670) and 23% for Aeromonas hydrophila (BCRC 13018)

  11. ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION OF TIO2-MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITE COATINGS: MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. MAHMOUDI JOZEE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A homogenous TiO2 / multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs composite film were prepared by electrophoretic co-deposition from organic suspension on a stainless steel substrate.  In this study, MWCNTs was incorporated to the coating because of their long structure and their capability to be functionalized by different inorganic groups on the surface. FTIR spectroscopy showed the existence of carboxylic groups on the modified carbon nanotubes surface. The effect of applied electrical fields, deposition time and concentration of nanoparticulates on coatings morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that combination of MWCNTs within TiO2 matrix eliminating micro cracks presented on TiO2 coating. Also, by increasing the deposition voltages, micro cracks were increased. SEM observation of the coatings revealed that TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes coatings produced from optimized electric field was uniform and had good adhesive to the substrate.

  12. Effect of chemisorbed surface species on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticulate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yaan; Yang Wensheng; Chen Yongmei; Du Hui; Yue, Polock

    2004-01-01

    TiO 2 sols prepared in acidic and basic medium were deposited into films by a spin coating method. Photodegradation experiments showed that photocatalytic activity of the films prepared from acidic sol was much higher than that from basic sol. It is identified that there are more chemisorbed species of CO 2 on the surface of the TiO 2 films from the basic sol than on the surface of the TiO 2 films from the acidic sol. The chemisorbed species of CO 2 reduce the concentration of active species such as hydroxyl group and bridging oxygen on surface of the TiO 2 film and contribute to the formation of surface electron traps in the band gap which are detrimental to charge separation, thus lowering the photocatalytic activity

  13. The properties of transparent TiO2 films for Schottky photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this data, the properties of transparent TiO2 film for Schottky photodetector are presented for the research article, entitled as “High-performing transparent photodetectors based on Schottky contacts” (Patel et al., 2017 [1]. The transparent photoelectric device was demonstrated by using various Schottky metals, such as Cu, Mo and Ni. This article mainly shows the optical transmittance of the Ni-transparent Schottky photodetector, analyzed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy and interfacial TEM images for transparency to observe the interface between NiO and TiO2 film. The observation and analyses clearly show that no pinhole formation in the TiO2 film by Ni diffusion. The rapid thermal process is an effective way to form the quality TiO2 film formation without degradation, such as pinholes (Qiu et al., 2015 [2]. This thermal process may apply to form functional metal oxide layers for solar cells and photodetectors.

  14. Synthesis of nanocomposite coating based on TiO2/ZnAl layer double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanov, V.; Rudic, O.; Ranogajec, J.; Fidanchevska, E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was the synthesis of nanocomposite coatings based on Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDH) and TiO2. The Zn-Al LDH material, which acted as the catalyst support of the active TiO2 component (in the content of 3 and 10 wt. %), was synthesized by a low super saturation co-precipitation method. The interaction between the Zn-Al LDH and the active TiO2 component was accomplished by using vacuum evaporation prior to the mechanical activation and only by mechanical activation. The final suspension based on Zn-Al LDH and 10wt. % TiO2, impregnated only by mechanical activation, showed the optimal characteristics from the aspect of particle size distribution and XRD analysis. These properties had a positive effect on the functional properties of the coatings (photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning efficiency) after the water rinsing procedure. [es

  15. Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Growth, Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Fennel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, M.S.; Osman, Y.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is carried out to evaluate the effect of TiO 2 nanoparticles treatments on fennel (Feoniculum Vulgare Mill) plants. The plants were sprayed with different concentrations of TiO 2 nanoparticles 2, 4 and 6 ppm. In most cases, the tallest plants, the highest number of branches , the highest fruit yield per plant and the highest values of Pigments, Carbohydrates, Sugars nitrogen , phosphorus , potassium were obtained from the treatment of 6 ppm TiO 2 nanoparticles of fennel . Results showed that sprayed fennel plant with concentrations of TiO 2 nanoparticles 0, 2, 4 and 6 ppm is safe and enhanced chlorophyll synthesis and consequently enhanced photosynthesis

  16. ADSORCIÓN DE ALDEHÍDOS INSATURADOS SOBRE TiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Ortega; Oswaldo Núñez

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudió la adsorción de aldehídos insaturados sobre la superficie del TiO2. Para evaluar su eficiencia como catalizador, se realizaron experimentos de fotocatálisis heterogénea de p-nitrofenol (PNF) y una muestra proveniente de efluentes industriales. Se empleó un simulador solar y cuatro sistemas de TiO2: el TiO2-sólo (sin modificar) y los sistemas TiO2-dienal constituidos por la adsorción química de 2,4 hexadienal, 2,4 heptadienal y el trans-cinamaldehído sobre la ...

  17. Molecular design of TiO2 for gigantic red shift via sublattice substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guosheng; Deng, Quanrong; Wan, Lin; Guo, Meilan; Xia, Xiaohong; Gao, Yun

    2010-11-01

    The effects of 3d transition metal doping in TiO2 phases have been simulated in detail. The results of modelling indicate that Mn has the biggest potential among 3d transition metals, for the reduction of energy gap and the introduction of effective intermediate bands to allow multi-band optical absorption. On the basis of theoretical formulation, we have incorporated considerable amount of Mn in nano-crystalline TiO2 materials. Mn doped samples demonstrate significant red shift in the optical absorption edge, with a secondary absorption edge corresponding to theoretically predicted intermediate bands/states. The gigantic red shift achievable in Mn-doped TiO2 is expected to extend the useful TiO2 functionalities well beyond the UV threshold via the optical absorption of both visible and infrared photon irradiance.

  18. Control of Electron Transfer from Lead-Salt Nanocrystals to TiO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, A. C.; Sun, Liangfeng; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, F. W.

    2011-01-01

    The roles of solvent reorganization energy and electronic coupling strength on the transfer of photoexcited electrons from PbS nanocrystals to TiO 2 nanoparticles are investigated. We find that the electron transfer depends only weakly

  19. GW quasiparticle bandgaps of anatase TiO2 starting from DFT + U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher E; Giustino, Feliciano

    2012-05-23

    We investigate the quasiparticle band structure of anatase TiO(2), a wide gap semiconductor widely employed in photovoltaics and photocatalysis. We obtain GW quasiparticle energies starting from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations including Hubbard U corrections. Using a simple iterative procedure we determine the value of the Hubbard parameter yielding a vanishing quasiparticle correction to the fundamental bandgap of anatase TiO(2). The bandgap (3.3 eV) calculated using this optimal Hubbard parameter is smaller than the value obtained by applying many-body perturbation theory to standard DFT eigenstates and eigenvalues (3.7 eV). We extend our analysis to the rutile polymorph of TiO(2) and reach similar conclusions. Our work highlights the role of the starting non-interacting Hamiltonian in the calculation of GW quasiparticle energies in TiO(2) and suggests an optimal Hubbard parameter for future calculations.

  20. Recent Progress in TiO2-Mediated Solar Photocatalysis for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews the application of TiO2-mediated solar photocatalysis for industrial wastewater treatment, starting with a brief introduction on the background of industrial wastewater and the development of wastewater treatment processes, especially advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. We, then, discuss the application of solar TiO2 photocatalysis in treating different kinds of industrial wastewater, such as paper mill wastewater, textile wastewater, and olive mill wastewater. In the end, we compare solar TiO2 photocatalysis with other AOPs in terms of effectiveness, energy, and chemical consumption. Personal perspectives are also given, which may provide new insights to the future development of TiO2 photocatalysis for industrial wastewater.

  1. Synthesis of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube in malonic acid solution by anodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2008-10-01

    We synthesized TiO2 nanotube array by anodizing in a solution of malonic acid (HOOCCH2COOH) and NH4F, and analyzed the morphology of the nanotube using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of TiO2 nanotube was largely affected by anodizing time, anodizing voltage, and malonic acid concentration. With increasing the anodizing voltage from 5 V to 20 V, the diameter of TiO2 nanotube was increased from about 20 nm to 110 nm and its length from about 10 nm to 700 nm. In addition, the length of TiO2 nanotube was increased with increasing anodizing time up to 6 h at 20 V. We obtained the longest and the most highly ordered nanotube structure when anodizing Ti in a solution of 0.5 wt% NH4F and 1 M malonic acid at 20 V for 6 h.

  2. Novel bamboo structured TiO2 nanotubes for energy storage/production applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, J. J.; Beh, K. P.; Cheong, Y. L.; Yusuf, W. A. A.; Yam, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 received much attention owing to its high surface-to-volume ratio, which can be advantageous in energy storage and production applications. However, the increase in energy consumption at present and possibly the foreseeable future has demanded energy storage and production devices of even higher performance. A direct approach would be manipulating the physical aspects of TiO2 nanostructures, particularly, nanotubes. In this work, dual voltage anodization system has been implemented to fabricate bamboo shaped TiO2 nanotubes, which offers even greater surface area. This unique nanostructure would be used in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) fabrication and its performance will be evaluated and compared along other forms of TiO2 nanotubes. The results showed that bamboo shaped nanotubes indeed are superior morphologically, with an increase of efficiency of 107% at 1.130% efficiency when compared to smooth walled nanotubes at 0.546% efficiency.

  3. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO 2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH 4 F and ethylene glycol with selective H 2 O content. The structural evolution of TiO 2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO 2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO 2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  4. Studies on Nano-Engineered TiO2 Photo Catalyst for Effective Degradation of Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, S. R.; Madhu, G. M.; Hashir, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    All Heterogeneous photo catalysis employing efficient photo-catalyst is the advanced dye degradation technology for the purification of textile effluent. The present work focuses on Congo red dye degradation employing synthesized Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles as photocatalyst which is characterized using SEM, XRD and FTIR. Studies are conducted to study the effect of various parameters such as initial dye concentration, catalyst loading and pH of solution. Ag Doped TiO2 photocatalyst improve the efficacy of TiO2 by reducing high band gap and electron hole recombination of TiO2. The reaction kinetics is analyzed and the process is found to follow pseudo first order kinetics.

  5. Amine functionalized TiO2-carbon nanotube composite: synthesis, characterization and application to glucose biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasviri, Mahboubeh; Rafiee-Pour, Hossain-Ali; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2011-12-01

    The synthesis of amine functionalized TiO2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NH2-TiO2-CNTs) using sol-gel method was investigated. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized with XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, BET test and SEM imaging. The results demonstrated a unique nanostructure with no destruction of the CNTs' shape. In addition, the presence of amine groups on the composite surface was confirmed by FTIR. This nanocomposite was used for one-step immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) to sense glucose. The result of cyclic voltammetry showed a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible peaks for direct electron transfer of GOx in the absence of glucose. Also, the result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that GOx was successfully immobilized on the surface of NH2-TiO2-CNTs. Furthermore, good amperometric response showed that immobilized GOx on the NH2-TiO2-CNTs exhibits exceptional bioelectrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation.

  6. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  7. 1 composite mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes in dye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. TiO2-based nanotubes (NTs), nanoparticles (NPs) and composite structural film (50% NP + 50% ... of faster electron injection ratio compared with other .... exist in this system. .... the open circuit voltage, Im the maximum current and.

  8. Production of TiO_2 particles by sol-gel ultrasound assisted for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Rojas, Vanessa; Solis Veliz, Jose; Gomez Leon, Monica; Matejova, Lenka; Lopez, Alcides; Cruz, Gerardo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of TiO_2 particles was made by sol-gel technique assisted of ultrasonic radiation from an alcoholic solution of titanium isopropoxide. Then was subjected to a heat treatment in air at 350 °C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the size of the crystalline domains is between 10 and 37 nm. Infrared spectroscopy study confirms the presence of -OH groups on the surface of TiO_2. Modification of the morphology and surface area, due to the influence of exposure time to the ultrasonic radiation, is evidenced by studies of SEM and BET respectively. Properties of TiO_2 obtained were studied by monitoring the degradation of solutions of methyl orange in the presence of UV-A radiation. It was observed that larger the ultrasonic radiation exposure during the TiO_2 synthesis larger the constant velocity for the photocatalytic reaction for the methyl orange. (author)

  9. High-temperature interaction in the ZrSiO4-TiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, F.A.; Melekhova, T.F.; Samsonova, T.I.

    1976-01-01

    The solid phase interaction in the ZrSiO 4 - TiO 2 system in the region of lower concentrations of TiO 2 (between 0-30%) when heating in the range 1400-1600 0 C is investigated. The different mechanism of the interaction of zircon and titanium dioxide with a content of titanium dioxide of 10% and higher is shown. In compounds with a TiO 2 content to 10%, a solid solution of titanium dioxide and zircon arises, with a limiting value of TiO 2 dissolving in zircon of 1% at 1400 0 C and 2% at 1500-1600 0 C. The partial decomposition of zircon giving crystobalite and the solid solution of separated zirconium dioxide with rutile occurs when the content of titanium dioxide is higher than 10%

  10. TiO2 Nanoparticles as a Soft X-ray Molecular Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larabell, Carolyn; Ashcroft, Jared M.; Gu, Weiwei; Zhang, Tierui; Hughes, Steven M.; Hartman, Keith B.; Hofmann, Cristina; Kanaras, Antonios G.; Kilcoyne, David A.; Le Gros, Mark; Yin, Yadong; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2007-06-30

    With the emergence of soft x-ray techniques for imaging cells, there is a pressing need to develop protein localization probes that can be unambiguously identified within the region of x-ray spectrum used for imaging. TiO2 nanocrystal colloids, which have a strong absorption cross-section within the "water-window" region of x-rays, areideally suited as soft x-ray microscopy probes. To demonstrate their efficacy, TiO2-streptavidin nanoconjugates were prepared and subsequently labeled microtubules polymerized from biotinylated tubulin. The microtubules were imaged using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and the TiO2 nanoparticle tags were specifically identified using x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). These experiments demonstrate that TiO2 nanoparticles are potential probes for protein localization analyses using soft x-ray microscopy.

  11. Non-equilibrium nitrogen DC-arc plasma treatment of TiO2 nanopowder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Gonzalez-Aguilar, José; Traisnel, Noel; Berger, Marie-Hélène; Repoux, Monique; Fulcheri, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Non-equilibrium nitrogen DC-arc plasma treatment of a commercial TiO2 anatase nanopowder was examined to obtain nitrogen-doped TiO2. By using a non-thermal discharge at low current (150 mA) and high voltage (1200 V) using pure N2 gas, light yellowish-gray TiO2 powder was successfully obtained within a short period of 5-10 min. XPS and TEM-EELS studies confirmed the existence of doped nitrogen. Due to the relatively mild conditions (plasma power of 180 W), metastable anatase structure and fine crystallite size of TiO2 (ca. 10 nm) were maintained after the plasma treatment. The in-flight powder treatment system used in this study is promising for various type of powder treatment.

  12. One-step preparation and photocatalytic performance of vanadium doped TiO2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilić, R.; Stojadinović, S.; Radić, N.; Stefanov, P.; Dohčević-Mitrović, Z.; Grbić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated one-step preparation of vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium in electrolyte containing 10 g/L Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O + 0.5 g/L NH 4 VO 3 . The morphology, phase structure, and elemental composition of the formed coatings were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS) was employed to evaluate the band gap energy of obtained coatings. Vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of anatase phase TiO 2 , with up to about 2 wt% of vanadium present in the surface layer of the oxide. The valence band photoelectron spectra and UV–Vis DRS showed that vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings exhibit notable red shift with respect to the pure TiO 2 coatings. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight conditions. Photocatalytic activity of vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings increases with PEO time. Prolonged PEO times result in higher roughness of obtained coatings, thus increasing surface area available for methyl orange degradation. Vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings obtained after 180 s of PEO time exhibit the best photocatalytic activity and about 67% of methyl orange is degraded after 12 h of irradiation under simulated sunlight. - Highlights: • One-step preparation of V-doped TiO 2 coatings in 10 g/L Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O + 0.5 g/L NH 4 VO 3 . • Properties of obtained coatings strongly depend on microdischarge characteristics. • Band gap of V-doped TiO 2 coatings is shifted towards red side of the spectrum. • V-doped TiO 2 coatings have better photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 . • After 12 h of simulated sunlight irradiation, 67% of methyl orange was decomposed

  13. Stability of Anthocyanin Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical (PEC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar cells fabricated from these electrodes gave overall conversion efficiencies of 3.16% for delphinidin purple and 2.97% for C35D. RuL dye sensitized solar cell gave 4.84%. The cells\\' stability performance in terms of photovoltage was found to drop with time of exposure. However the cells still exhibited I-V characteristics ...

  14. Application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 for Resistive-Type SO2 Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 (VWT as the sensitive material for resistive-type SO2 sensor was conducted, based on the fact that VWT is a well-known catalyst material for good selective catalytic nitrogen oxide reduction with a proven excellent durability in exhaust gases. The sensors fabricated in this study are planar ones with interdigitated electrodes of Au or Pt. The vanadium content of the utilized VWT is 1.5 or 3.0 wt%. The resistance of VWT decreases with an increasing SO2 concentration in the range from 20 ppm to 5,000 ppm. The best sensor response to SO2 occurs at 400 °C using Au electrodes. The sensor response value is independent on the amount of added vanadium but dependent on the electrode materials at 400 °C. These results are discussed and a sensing mechanism is discussed.

  15. Karakteristik Pasta TiO2 Suhu Rendah untuk Aplikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Al Qibtiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada tulisan ini, diuraikan karakteristik pasta TiO2 suhu rendah untuk aplikasi sel surya berbasis dye-sensitized yang dipreparasi dengan penambahan serbuk TiO2 reflektor. Penambahan TiO2 reflektor sebagai light scattering layer pada pasta dilakukan untuk melihat pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik listrik sel surya yang dihasilkan. Preparasi pasta dilakukan menggunakan bahan komersial yaitu pasta T-Nanooxide D-L (Solaronix dan serbuk pasta WER2-O (Dyesiol sebagai bahan reflector. Bahan tersebut dianalisis struktur kristalnya. Hasil karakterisasi X-Ray Diffraction (XRD menunjukan bahwa bahan TiO2 serbuk yang digunakan adalah nanokristal dengan struktur kristal anatase. Pasta ini dideposisi di atas permukaan plastik dan kaca konduktif (ITO-PET dan FTO dengan metode doctor blade printing. Proses sintering lapisan TiO2 dilakukan pada suhu rendah yaitu 120 ˚C selama 4 jam. Morfologi permukaan lapisan TiO2 dianalisa menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Lapisan TiO2 yang terbentuk diaplikasikan pada DSSC sebagai fotoelektroda. Pewarnaan dengan larutan N-719 (Ruthenium Complex, lapisan elektroda kerja platina dan larutan elektrolit iodine. Karakteristik kurva I-V dengan ukuran sel daerah aktif 1 cm2 diukur menggunakan Sun Simulator AM1,5 dengan sumber cahaya Xenon dan intensitas 50 mW/cm2. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan penambahan serbuk TiO2 reflektor dapat meningkatkan unjuk kerja sel surya fleksibel yang dihasilkan. Efisiensi terbaik DSSC yang dihasilkan adalah 0,166% untuk substrat plastik dan 0,167% untuk substrat kaca.

  16. TiO2-Based Nanomaterials for Gas Sensing-Influence of Anatase and Rutile Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, K; Radecka, M

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with application of three nanomaterial systems: undoped TiO 2 , chromium-doped TiO 2 :Cr and TiO 2 -SnO 2 synthesized by flame spray synthesis (FSS) technique for hydrogen sensing. The emphasis is put on the role of anatase and rutile polymorphic forms of TiO 2 in enhancing sensitivity towards reducing gases. Anatase-to-rutile transformation is achieved by annealing of undoped TiO 2 in air at 700 °C, specific Cr doping and modification with SnO 2 . Undoped TiO 2 and TiO 2 -SnO 2 exhibit n-type behaviour and while TiO 2 : 5 at.% Cr is a p-type semiconductor. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been applied to determine anatase-to-rutile weight ratio as well as anatase and rutile crystal size. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to characterize the structure and morphological parameters. Optical reflectometry enabled to find and compare the band gaps E g of anatase and rutile predominated compositions. Electrical properties, i.e. the electrical conductivity and values of constant phase element (CPE), have been established on the basis of impedance spectroscopy. Dynamic responses of the electrical resistance as a function of hydrogen concentration revealed that predominance of rutile in anatase/rutile mixture is beneficial for gas sensing. Partial transformation to rutile in all three material systems under study resulted in an increased sensitivity towards hydrogen. It is proposed that this effect can be explained in a similar way as in photocatalysis, i.e. by specific band alignment and electron transfer from rutile to anatase to facilitate oxygen preadsorption on the surface of anatase grains.

  17. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of green synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Fatih Doğan; Duman, Fatih

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, nanomaterials that are smaller than 100 nm in size are very attractive owing to their enhanced physicochemical properties. Although they have been used widely for industrial applications, their toxicity still remains a problem. This article is a new record of the synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) by a Mentha aquatica leaf extract and determination of its toxicity to rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we aimed to determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of biologically synthetized TiO2 NPs. The characteristic peak of the nanomaterial was observed at 354 nm. The mean size of the nanomaterial was measured to be 69 nm from SEM images. According to zeta analysis, the surface charge of the nanomaterial was - 37.6 mV. The crystalline structure of the nanomaterial was determined using XRD analysis. It was concluded that the obtained nanomaterial was TiO2 The results of the FT-IR analysis showed that the functional groups that were found in the plant extract could play an important role in the formation and stabilization of TiO2 NPs. The effective size of the TiO2 NPs was found to be 304 nm using DLS analysis. The TGA analysis results showed that the total mass loss was 4% at 900 °C. According to DNA cleavage analysis results, TiO2 NPs cause damage to the plasmid pBR322 DNA in a concentration-dependant matter. It has been noted that TiO2 NPs lead to decreased cell viability during increased time and concentration of applications on rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. It has also been determined that bulk TiO2 causes a greater reduction in the stem cell viability compared to the biosynthesized NPs. The obtained results could be useful for further application and toxicity studies.

  18. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of TiO2/CuInS2 heterojunctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanu, M.; Boulch, F.; Schoonman, J.; Goossens, A.

    2005-01-01

    Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to measure the concentration and energy position of deep electronic states in CuInS2. Flat TiO2?CuInS2 heterojunctions as well as TiO2-CuInS2 nanocomposites have been investigated. Subband-gap electronic states in CuInS2 films are mostly due to

  19. Catalytic Study on TiO2 Photo catalyst Synthesised Via Microemulsion Method on Atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslimie, C.A.; Hasmizam Razali; Khairul, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide photo catalyst was synthesised by microemulsions method under controlled hydrolysis of titanium butoxide, Ti(O(CH 2 ) 3 )CH 3 . The synthesised TiO 2 photo catalyst was compared with Sigma-commercial TiO 2 by carrying out the investigation on its properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The photo catalytic activities for both photo catalysts were studied for atrazine photodegradation. (author)

  20. Physicochemical Study of Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Supported Palygorskite Clay Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Bouna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the influence of physicochemical parameters, namely, the photocatalyst loading, dye concentration, and pH of polluted solutions, on the degradation efficiency of Orange G (OG solutions containing TiO2 nanoparticles supported on palygorskite clay mineral (TiO2-Pal. The TiO2 photocatalyst attached to natural palygorskite fibers was elaborated by colloidal sol-gel route. It exhibits the anatase structure that is the most photoactive crystallographic form. The highest performances of supported photocatalyst on OG degradation were found using an optimum amount of TiO2-Pal around 0.8 g·L−1, which corresponds properly to ca. 0.4 g·L−1 of TiO2. This amount is interestingly lower than the 2.5 g·L−1 generally reported when using pure unsupported TiO2 powder. The photodegradation rate increases by decreasing OG initial concentration, and it was found significantly higher when the OG solution is either acidic (pH<4 or basic (pH≈11. For OG concentrations in the range 5×10-6– 5×10-4 M, the kinetic law of the OG degradation in presence of TiO2-Pal is similar to that reported for unsupported TiO2 nanopowder. It follows a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model with a first-order reaction and an apparent rate constant of about 2.9×10-2 min−1.

  1. TiO2 nanoparticles in seawater: Aggregation and interactions with the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Bonomini, Alessandra; Tognotti, Danika; Grassi, Giacomo; Corsi, Ilaria

    2018-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) have been widely employed in industrial applications, thus rising concern about their impact in the aquatic environment. In this study we investigated the chemical behaviour of TiO 2 NPs in the culture medium and its effect on the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, in terms of growth inhibition, oxidative stress, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) accumulation and chlorophyll content. In addition, the influence of exopolymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the microalgae on the stability of NPs has been evaluated. The physicochemical characterization showed a high propensity of TiO 2 NPs to form micrometric-sized aggregates within 30min, large enough to partially settle to the bottom of the test vessel. Indeed, an increasing amount of TiO 2 particles settled out with time, but the presence of EPS seemed to mitigate this behaviour in the first 6h of exposure where the main effects in D. tertiolecta were observed. TiO 2 NPs did not inhibit the 72-h growth rate of D. tertiolecta, nor affected the cellular chlorophyll concentration in the range 0.01-10mgL -1 . The time-course of ROS production showed an initial transient increase of ROS in TiO 2 NP-exposed algae compared to the control, concomitant with an enhancement of catalase activity. Interestingly, intracellular ROS was a small fraction of total ROS, the highest amount being extracellular. The occurrence of cell-mediated chemical transformations of TiO 2 NPs in the external medium, related to the presence of EPS, has been evaluated. Our results showed that carbohydrates were the major component of EPS, whereas proteins of medium molecular weight (20-80kDa) were preferentially bound to TiO 2 NPs, likely influencing their biological fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microglial cells (BV-2) internalize titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: toxicity and cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihane, Naima; Nury, Thomas; M'rad, Imen; El Mir, Lassaad; Sakly, Mohsen; Amara, Salem; Lizard, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    Because of their whitening and photocatalytic effects, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are widely used in daily life. These NPs can be found in paints, plastics, papers, sunscreens, foods, medicines (pills), toothpastes, and cosmetics. However, the biological effect of TiO2-NPs on the human body, especially on the central nervous system, is still unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the brain is one of the target organs in acute or chronic TiO2-NPs toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of TiO2-NPs at different concentrations (0.1 to 200 μg/mL) on murine microglial cells (BV-2) to assess their activity on cell growth and viability, as well as their neurotoxicity. Different parameters were measured: cell viability, cell proliferation and DNA content (SubG1 peak), mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (especially superoxide anions), and ultrastructural changes. Results showed that TiO2-NPs induced some cytotoxic effects with a slight inhibition of cell growth. Thus, at high concentrations, TiO2-NPs were not only able to inhibit cell adhesion but also enhanced cytoplasmic membrane permeability to propidium iodide associated with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and an overproduction of superoxide anions. No induction of apoptosis based on the presence of a SubG1 peak was detected. The microscopic observations also indicated that small groups of nanosized particles and micron-sized aggregates were engulfed by the BV-2 cells and sequestered as intracytoplasmic aggregates after 24-h exposure to TiO2-NPs. Altogether, our data show that the accumulation TiO2-NPs in microglial BV-2 cells favors mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress.

  4. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  5. Preparation, characterization of Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles and their application for immunoassay of biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Hongbo; Yang, Chunming; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2013-03-15

    Novel Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and developed for a new nanoparticle-based immunosensor for electrochemical quantification of organophosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma, a specific biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) agents. The Fe3O4 at TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres, and characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectra, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The functional Fe3O4 at TiO2 nanoparticles were performed as capture antibody to selectively enrich phosphorylated moiety instead of phosphoserine antibody in the traditional sandwich immunoassays. The secondary recognition was served by quantum dots (QDs)-tagged anti-BChE antibody (QDs-anti-BChE). With the help of a magnet, the resulting sandwich-like complex, Fe3O4 at TiO2/OP-BChE/QDs-anti-BChE, was easily isolated from sample solutions and the released cadmium ions were detected on a disposable screen-printed electrode (SPE). The binding affinities were investigated by both surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). This method not only avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody but also amplifies detection signal by QDs-tags together with easy separation of samples by magnetic forces. The proposed immunosensor yields a linear response over a broad OP-BChE concentrations range from 0.02 to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.01 nM. Moreover, the disposable nanoparticle-based immunosensor has been validated with human plasma samples. It offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive screening/evaluating exposure to OP pesticides.

  6. Characteristics of TiO_2/ZnO bilayer film towards pH sensitivity prepared by different spin coating deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Rohanieza Abdul; Zulkefle, Muhammad Al Hadi; Abdullah, Wan Fazlida Hanim; Rusop, M.; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO_2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) bilayer film for pH sensing application will be presented. TiO_2/ZnO bilayer film with different speed of spin-coating process was deposited on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), prepared by sol-gel method. This fabricated bilayer film was used as sensing membrane for Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing application. Experimental results indicated that the sensor is able to detect the sensitivity towards pH buffer solution. In order to obtained the result, sensitivity measurement was done by using the EGFET setup equipment with constant-current (100 µA) and constant-voltage (0.3 V) biasing interfacing circuit. TiO_2/ZnO bilayer film which the working electrode, act as the pH-sensitive membrane was connected to a commercial metal-oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET). This MOSFET then was connected to the interfacing circuit. The sensitivity of the TiO2 thin film towards pH buffer solution was measured by dipping the sensing membrane in pH4, pH7 and pH10 buffer solution. These thin films were characterized by using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) to obtain the surface morphology of the composite bilayer films. In addition, I-V measurement was done in order to determine the electrical properties of the bilayer films. According to the result obtained in this experiment, bilayer film that spin at 4000 rpm, gave highest sensitivity which is 52.1 mV/pH. Relating the I-V characteristic of the thin films and sensitivity, the sensing membrane with higher conductivity gave better sensitivity.

  7. Wet-Chemical Preparation of TiO2-Based Composites with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-based composites have been paid significant attention in the photocatalysis field. The size, crystallinity and nanomorphology of TiO2 materials have an important effect on the photocatalytic efficiency. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based materials have been widely investigated in past decades. Based on our group’s research works on TiO2 materials, this review introduces several methods for the fabrication of TiO2, rare-earth-doped TiO2 and noble-metal-decorated TiO2 particles with different morphologies. We focused on the preparation and the formation mechanism of TiO2-based materials with unique structures including spheres, hollow spheres, porous spheres, hollow porous spheres and urchin-like spheres. The photocatalytical activity of urchin-like TiO2, noble metal nanoparticle-decorated 3D (three-dimensional urchin-like TiO2 and bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle-decorated urchin-like hierarchical TiO2 are briefly discussed.

  8. Effect of dissolved ozone or ferric ions on photodegradation of thiacloprid in presence of different TiO2 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernigoj, Urh; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Jirkovsky, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Combining TiO 2 photocatalysis with inorganic oxidants (such as O 3 and H 2 O 2 ) or transition metal ions (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ and Ag + ) often leads to a synergic effect. Electron transfer between TiO 2 and the oxidant is usually involved. Accordingly, the degree of synergy could be influenced by TiO 2 surface area. With this in mind, the disappearance of thiacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, was studied applying various photochemical AOPs and different TiO 2 photocatalysts. In photocatalytic ozonation experiments, synergic effect of three different TiO 2 photocatalysts was quantified. Higher surface area resulted in a more pronounced synergic effect but an increasing amount of TiO 2 did not influence the degree of the synergy. This supports the theory that the synergy is a consequence of adsorption of ozone on the TiO 2 surface. No synergy was observed in photocatalytic degradation of thiacloprid in the presence of dissolved iron(III) species performed under varied experimental conditions (concentration, age of iron(III) solution, different TiO 2 films, usage of TiO 2 slurries). This goes against the literature for different organic compounds (i.e., monuron). It indicates different roles of iron(III) in the photodegradation of different organic molecules. Moreover, TiO 2 surface area did not affect photodegradation efficiency in iron(III)-based experiments which could confirm absence of electron transfer between TiO 2 photocatalyst and iron(III).

  9. Photocatalytic Study of New Immobilized TiO2 Technique Towards Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Dye

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    Ain S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on TiO2 for wastewater remediation has gained interest among researchers. However, the application of this photocatalyst is limited due to non-recyclability of conventional TiO2. Thus, immobilization technique has been developed to solve this issue. Hence, a comparison study between two types of immobilized photocatalysts namely titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA has been conducted in this work to observe the significant effect of PVA polymer in photocatalysis reaction of reactive red 4 (RR4 dye. Double sided adhesive tape (DSAT was used as thin layer binder in this immobilization system. The result shows that the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-PVA/DSAT was higher than that of TiO2/DSAT under both normal UV and visible light irradiations due to the conjugated unsaturated polymer from PVA serve as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Besides, TiO2-PVA/DSAT was also found to possess much better adhesion strength to the support material compared to TiO2/DSAT. Based on the findings, this TiO2 immobilization system is expected to be beneficial in the industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, further study to improve the photocatalytic activity of this immobilized TiO2 will be in our future work.

  10. Degradation of organic dyes using spray deposited nanocrystalline stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrodes under sunlight illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunge, Y. M.; Yadav, A. A.; Mahadik, M. A.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Shim, J. J.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhosale, C. H.

    2018-02-01

    The need to utilize TiO2 based metal oxide hetero nanostructures for the degradation of environmental pollutants like Rhodamine B and reactive red 152 from the wastewater using stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst under sunlight illumination. WO3, TiO2 and stratified WO3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by a spray pyrolysis method. It was found that the stratified WO3/TiO2 heterostructure has high crystallinity, no mixed phase formation occurs, strong optical absorption in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and large surface area. The photocatalytic activity was tested for degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) and reactive red 152 in an aqueous medium. TiO2 layer in stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst helps to extend its absorption spectrum in the solar light region. Rh B and Reactive red 152is eliminated up to 98 and 94% within the 30 and 40 min respectively at optimum experimental condition by stratified WO3/TiO2. Moreover, stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode has good stability and reusability than individual TiO2 and WO3 thin film in the degradation of Rh B and reactive red 152. The photoelectrocatalytic experimental results indicate that stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode is a promising material for dye removal.

  11. TiO2 thin-films on polymer substrates and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae-Hun; Han, Yang-Su; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We have developed dip-coating process for TiO 2 -thin film on polymer substrates (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer: ABS, polystyrene: PS). At first, a monodispersed and transparent TiO 2 nano-sol solution was prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide in the presence of acetylacetone and nitric acid catalyst at 80 deg. C. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the dried particles are indicative of crystalline TiO 2 with anatase-type structure. According to the XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, the mean particle size was estimated to be ca. 5 nm. The transparent thin films on ABS and PS substrates were fabricated by dip-coating process by changing the processing variables, such as the number of dip-coating and TiO 2 concentration in nano-sol solution. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis for the thin film samples reveals that the acetylacetone-modified TiO 2 nano-sol particles are effective for enhancing the interfacial adherence between films and polymeric substrates compared to the unmodified one. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) on the TiO 2 thin-films has also been systematically investigated

  12. Photoetching of Immobilized TiO2-ENR50-PVC Composite for Improved Photocatalytic Activity

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    M. A. Nawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially acquired TiO2 photocatalyst (99% anatase powder was mixed with epoxidized natural rubber-50 (ENR50/polyvinyl chloride (PVC blend by ultrasonication and immobilized onto glass plates as TiO2-ENR50-PVC composite via a dip-coating method. Photoetching of the immobilized TiO2-ENR50-PVC composite was investigated under the irradiation of a 45 W compact fluorescent lamp and characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX spectrometry, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The BET surface area of the photoetched TiO2 composite was observed to be larger than the original TiO2 powder due to the systematic removal of ENR50 while PVC was retained within the composite. It also exhibited better photocatalytic efficiency than the TiO2 powder in a slurry mode and was highly reproducible and reusable. More than 98% of MB removal was consistently achieved for 10 repeated runs of the photo-etched photocatalyst system. About 93% of the 20 mg L−1 MB was mineralized over a period of 480 min. The presence of SO42−, NO3−, and Cl− anions was detected in the mineralized solution where the solution pH was reduced from 7 to 4.

  13. The Effects of Doping Copper and Mesoporous Structure on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2

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    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for the synthesis of Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method at relatively low temperatures. The technique used is to dope the as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 system with copper. In this method, the copper species with the form of Cu1+, which was attributed to the reduction effect of dehydroxylation and evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD, was well dispersed in the optimal concentration 1 wt.% Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2. In this as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 system, original particles with a size of approximately 20 nm are aggregated together to shapes of approximately 1100 nm, which resulted in the porous aggregate structure. More importantly, the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was discussed as effects due to the formation of stable Cu(I and the mesoporous structure in the Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2. Among them, Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2 shows the highest degradation rate of methyl orange (MO. In addition, the effects of initial solution pH on degradation of MO had also been investigated. As a result, the optimum values of initial solution pH were found to be 3.

  14. Effect of Graphite Doped TiO_2 Nanoparticles on Smoke Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshasnorlyza Hazan; Mohamad Shahrizal Md Zain; Natrah Syafiqah Rosli

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke affects in the same way as regular smoker. The best solution is to purify the air efficiently and effectively. In this study, we were successfully doped TiO_2 nanoparticle with graphite to accelerate the degradation of cigarette smoke. The graphite doped and undoped TiO_2 nanoparticles were prepared from synthetic rutile using alkaline fusion method and their photo catalytic activity were investigated under visible light irradiation. The photo catalytic activity of the TiO_2 nanoparticles was analyzed in terms of their particle size analysis, crystallization and optical band gap. TiO_2 nanoparticle act as photo catalyzer by utilization of light energy to excite electron-hole pairs in smoke degradation processes. With the aided from graphite in TiO_2 nanoparticles, the smoke degradation was accelerate up to 44.4 %. In this case, graphite helps to reduce optical band gap of TiO_2 nanoparticle, thus increasing excitation of electron from valence band to conduction band. (author)

  15. Enhanced oxidation of naphthalene using plasma activation of TiO2/diatomite catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuliang; Zhu, Zhoubin; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhou, Weili; Han, Jingyi; Tang, Xiujuan; Yao, Shuiliang; Zhang, Xuming

    2018-04-05

    Non-thermal plasma technology has great potential in reducing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission. But in plasma-alone process, various undesired by-products are produced, which causes secondary pollutions. Here, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the oxidation of naphthalene over a TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst at low temperature. In comparison to plasma-alone process, the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst significantly enhanced naphthalene conversion (up to 40%) and CO x selectivity (up to 92%), and substantially reduced the formation of aerosol (up to 90%) and secondary volatile organic compounds (up to near 100%). The mechanistic study suggested that the presence of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst intensified the electron energy in the DBD. Meantime, the energized electrons generated in the discharge activated TiO 2 , while the presence of ozone enhanced the activity of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst. This plasma-catalyst interaction led to the synergetic effect resulting from the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst, consequently enhanced the oxidation of naphthalene. Importantly, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of plasma to activate the photocatalyst for the deep oxidation of PAH without external heating, which is potentially valuable in the development of cost-effective gas cleaning process for the removal of PAHs in vehicle applications during cold start conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of tributyltin degradation under natural light by N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangkedphol, S.; Keenan, H.E.; Davidson, C.M.; Sakultantimetha, A.; Sirisaksoontorn, W.; Songsasen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Photo-degradation of tributyltin (TBT) has been enhanced by TiO 2 nanoparticles doped with nitrogen (N-doped TiO 2 ). The N-doped catalyst was prepared by a sol-gel reaction of titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide with 25% ammonia solution and calcined at various temperatures from 300 to 600 deg. C. X-ray diffraction results showed that N-doped TiO 2 remained amorphous at 300 deg. C. At 400 deg. C the anatase phase occurred then transformed to the rutile phase at 600 deg. C. The crystallite size calculated from Scherrer's equation was in the range of 16-51 nm which depended on the calcination temperature. N-doped TiO 2 calcined at 400 deg. C which contained 0.054% nitrogen, demonstrated the highest photocatalytic degradation of TBT at 28% in 3 h under natural light when compared with undoped TiO 2 and commercial photocatalyst, P25-TiO 2 which gave 14.8 and 18% conversion, respectively.

  17. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Photocatalysis of Au/Pt-decorated TiO2 Nanopillar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Shuang; Lv, Ruitao; Xie, Zheng; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-05-01

    The low quantum yields and lack of visible light utilization hinder the practical application of TiO2 in high-performance photocatalysis. Herein, we present a design of TiO2 nanopillar arrays (NPAs) decorated with both Au and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) directly synthesized through successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) at room temperature. Au/Pt NPs with sizes of ~4 nm are well-dispersed on the TiO2 NPAs as evidenced by electron microscopic analyses. The present design of Au/Pt co-decoration on the TiO2 NPAs shows much higher visible and ultraviolet (UV) light absorption response, which leads to remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities on both the dye degradation and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. Its photocatalytic reaction efficiency is 21 and 13 times higher than that of pure TiO2 sample under UV-vis and visible light, respectively. This great enhancement can be attributed to the synergy of electron-sink function of Pt and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au NPs, which significantly improves charge separation of photoexcited TiO2. Our studies demonstrate that through rational design of composite nanostructures one can harvest visible light through the SPR effect to enhance the photocatalytic activities initiated by UV-light, and thus realize more effectively utilization of the whole solar spectrum for energy conversion.

  18. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using TiO2 Impregnated Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranfang Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-TiO2 showed a good catalytic activity, but it is easy to agglomerate, resulting in the reduction or even complete loss of photocatalytic activity. The dispersion of TiO2 particles on porous materials was a potential solution to this problem. Diatomite has high specific surface and absorbability because of its particular shell structure. Thus, TiO2/diatomite composite, prepared by loading TiO2 on the surface of diatomite, was a good photocatalyst, through absorbing organic compounds with diatomite and degrading them with TiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, chemical analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR indicated that TiO2 was impregnated well on the surface of diatomite. Furthermore, TiO2/diatomite was more active than nano-TiO2 for the degradation of methylene blue (MB in solution. MB at concentrations of 15 and 35 ppm can be completely degraded in 20 and 40 min, respectively.

  19. Photocatalytic decolorization of basic dye by TiO2 nanoparticle in photoreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn1

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic decolorization of rhodamine B (RB and malachite green (MG basic dyes in aqueous solution wasevaluated using TiO2 powder as a semiconductor photocatalyst under UV black light irradiation. A 0.5 L batch photoreactorcontaining dyeing solution was installed in a stainless steel chamber with air cooling under irradiation. The TiO2 powder wascharacterized by XRD observation and it was shown that the nanoparticles could be identified as 73 nm anatase crystals. Theeffects of operational parameters such as light intensity (0-114 W/m2, initial dye concentration (10-30 mg/L, and TiO2 powderloading (0.5-1.5 g/L on the decolorization of dye samples were examined. The photocatalytic decolorization rate depended onthe pollutant’s structure, such that the MG dye could be removed faster than the RB dye. Decolorization efficiency (% of thephotocatalytic system increased with increasing TiO2 loading and light intensity; however, it decreased with increasing initialdye concentration. A loading of 1.5 g TiO2/L, initial dye concentration of 20 mg/L, and light intensity of 114 W/m2 were foundto yield the highest removal efficiency of dye solution based on time requirement. The kinetics are of first order and dependon the TiO2 powder loading and dye structure. The research had a perfect application foreground.

  20. Phosphorus doped TiO2 as oxygen sensor with low operating temperature and sensing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhizhong; Wang, Jiejie; Liao, Lan; Pan, Haibo; Shen, Shuifa; Chen, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Nano-scale TiO 2 powders doped with phosphorus were prepared by sol–gel method. The characterization of the materials was performed by XRD, BET, FT-IR spectroscopy, Zeta potential measurement and XPS analysis. The results indicate that the phosphorus suppresses the crystal growth and phase transformation and, at the same time, increases the surface area and enhances the sensitivity and selectivity for the P-doped TiO 2 oxygen sensors. In this system, the operating temperature is low, only 116 °C, and the response time is short. The spectra of FT-IR and XPS show that the phosphorus dopant presents as the pentavalent-oxidation state in TiO 2 , further phosphorus can connect with Ti 4+ through the bond of Ti-O-P. The positive shifts of XPS peaks indicate that electron depleted layer of P-doped TiO 2 is narrowed compared with that of pure TiO 2 , and the results of Zeta potential illuminate that the density of surface charge carrier is intensified. The adsorptive active site and Lewis acid characteristics of the surface are reinforced by phosphorus doping, where phosphorus ions act as a new active site. Thus, the sensitivity of P-doped TiO 2 is improved, and the 5 mol% P-doped sample has the optimal oxygen sensing properties.