WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanotube metrology nanomaterials

  1. Nanomanufacturing metrology for cellulosic nanomaterials: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.

    2014-08-01

    The development of the metrology and standards for advanced manufacturing of cellulosic nanomaterials (or basically, wood-based nanotechnology) is imperative to the success of this rising economic sector. Wood-based nanotechnology is a revolutionary technology that will create new jobs and strengthen America's forest-based economy through industrial development and expansion. It allows this, previously perceived, low-tech industry to leap-frog directly into high-tech products and processes and thus improves its current economic slump. Recent global investments in nanotechnology programs have led to a deeper appreciation of the high performance nature of cellulose nanomaterials. Cellulose, manufactured to the smallest possible-size ( 2 nm x 100 nm), is a high-value material that enables products to be lighter and stronger; have less embodied energy; utilize no catalysts in the manufacturing, are biologically compatible and, come from a readily renewable resource. In addition to the potential for a dramatic impact on the national economy - estimated to be as much as $250 billion worldwide by 2020 - cellulose-based nanotechnology creates a pathway for expanded and new markets utilizing these renewable materials. The installed capacity associated with the US pulp and paper industry represents an opportunity, with investment, to rapidly move to large scale production of nano-based materials. However, effective imaging, characterization and fundamental measurement science for process control and characterization are lacking at the present time. This talk will discuss some of these needed measurements and potential solutions.

  2. Comparative advantages and limitations of the basic metrology methods applied to the characterization of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Pavel; Artemyev, Mikhail; Efimov, Anton E; Nabiev, Igor

    2013-10-07

    Fabrication of modern nanomaterials and nanostructures with specific functional properties is both scientifically promising and commercially profitable. The preparation and use of nanomaterials require adequate methods for the control and characterization of their size, shape, chemical composition, crystalline structure, energy levels, pathways and dynamics of physical and chemical processes during their fabrication and further use. In this review, we discuss different instrumental methods for the analysis and metrology of materials and evaluate their advantages and limitations at the nanolevel.

  3. Carbon-nanotube-based liquids: a new class of nanomaterials and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Ngoc Minh; Nguyen, Manh Hong; Phan, Hong Khoi; Bui, Hung Thang

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-nanotube-based liquids—a new class of nanomaterials—have shown many interesting properties and distinctive features offering unprecedented potential for many applications. This paper summarizes the recent progress on the study of the preparation, characterization and properties of carbon-nanotube-based liquids including so-called nanofluids, nanolubricants and different kinds of nanosolutions containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes/single-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene. A broad range of current and future applications of these nanomaterials in the fields of energy saving, power electronic and optoelectronic devices, biotechnology and agriculture are presented. The paper also identifies challenges and opportunities for future research. (paper)

  4. Four- and eight-membered rings carbon nanotubes: A new class of carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfang; Lu, Junzhe; Zhu, Hengjiang; Lin, Xiang

    2018-06-01

    A new class of carbon nanomaterials composed of alternating four- and eight-membered rings is studied by density functional theory (DFT), including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and triple-walled CNTs (TWCNTs). The analysis of geometrical structure shows that carbon atoms' hybridization in novel carbon tubular clusters (CTCs) and the corresponding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are both sp2 hybridization; The thermal properties exhibit the high stability of these new CTCs. The results of energy band and density of state (DOS) indicate that the electronic properties of CNTs are independent of their diameter, number of walls and chirality, exhibit obvious metal properties.

  5. A graphene oxide-carbon nanotube grid for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lina; Zhang Haoxu; Zhou Ruifeng; Chen Zhuo; Li Qunqing; Fan Shoushan; Jiang Kaili; Ge Guanglu; Liu Renxiao

    2011-01-01

    A novel grid for use in transmission electron microscopy is developed. The supporting film of the grid is composed of thin graphene oxide films overlying a super-aligned carbon nanotube network. The composite film combines the advantages of graphene oxide and carbon nanotube networks and has the following properties: it is ultra-thin, it has a large flat and smooth effective supporting area with a homogeneous amorphous appearance, high stability, and good conductivity. The graphene oxide-carbon nanotube grid has a distinct advantage when characterizing the fine structure of a mass of nanomaterials over conventional amorphous carbon grids. Clear high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of various nanomaterials are obtained easily using the new grids.

  6. Graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold as elite nanomaterials for fabrication of biosensors for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Kumar, Rajesh; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2015-08-15

    Technological advancements worldwide at rapid pace in the area of materials science and nanotechnology have made it possible to synthesize nanoparticles with desirable properties not exhibited by the bulk material. Among variety of available nanomaterials, graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold nanopartilces proved to be elite and offered amazing electrochemical biosensing. This encourages us to write a review which highlights the recent achievements in the construction of genosensor, immunosensor and enzymatic biosensor based on the above nanomaterials. Carbon based nanomaterials offers a direct electron transfer between the functionalized nanomaterials and active site of bioreceptor without involvement of any mediator which not only amplifies the signal but also provide label free sensing. Gold shows affinity towards immunological molecules and is most routinely used for immunological sensing. Zinc oxide can easily immobilize proteins and hence offers a large group of enzyme based biosensor. Modification of the working electrode by introduction of these nanomaterials or combination of two/three of above nanomaterials together and forming a nanocomposite reflected the best results with excellent stability, reproducibility and enhanced sensitivity. Highly attractive electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity of these elite nanomaterials have facilitated achievement of enhanced signal amplification needed for the construction of ultrasensitive electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of glucose, cholesterol, Escherichia coli, influenza virus, cancer, human papillomavirus, dopamine, glutamic acid, IgG, IgE, uric acid, ascorbic acid, acetlycholine, cortisol, cytosome, sequence specific DNA and amino acids. Recent researches for bedside biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Four- and eight-membered rings carbon nanotubes: A new class of carbon nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of carbon nanomaterials composed of alternating four- and eight-membered rings is studied by density functional theory (DFT, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and triple-walled CNTs (TWCNTs. The analysis of geometrical structure shows that carbon atoms’ hybridization in novel carbon tubular clusters (CTCs and the corresponding carbon nanotubes (CNTs are both sp2 hybridization; The thermal properties exhibit the high stability of these new CTCs. The results of energy band and density of state (DOS indicate that the electronic properties of CNTs are independent of their diameter, number of walls and chirality, exhibit obvious metal properties. Keywords: Four- and eight-membered rings, Carbon nanotubes, Stability, Electronic properties

  8. Metal-filled carbon nanotubes as a novel class of photothermal nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossella, Francesco; Bellani, Vittorio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' and CNISM, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Soldano, Caterina [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Via Valotti 9, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Tommasini, Matteo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' ' G. Natta' ' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-08

    Metal-filled carbon nanotubes represent a novel class of photothermal nanomaterials: when illuminated by visible light they exhibit a strong enhancement of the temperature at the metal sites, due to the enhanced plasmonic light absorption at the metal surface, which behaves as a heat radiator. Potential applications include nanomedicine, heat-assisted magnetic recording, and light-activated thermal gradient-driven devices. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Chemistry of carbon nanomaterials: Uses of lithium nanotube salts in organic syntheses and functionalization of graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Jayanta

    The effective utilization of carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphite, has been hindered due to difficulties (poor solubility, poly-dispersity) in processing. Therefore, a high degree of sidewall functionalization, either covalent or non-covalent, is often required to overcome these difficulties as the functionalized nanomaterials exhibit better solubility (either in organic solvents or in water), dispersity, manipulation, and processibility. This thesis presents a series of convenient and efficient organic synthetic routes to functionalize carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanotube salts, prepared by treating SWNTs with lithium in liquid ammonia, react readily with aryl halides to yield aryl-functionalized SWNTs. These arylated SWNTs are soluble in methanol and water upon treatment with oleum. Similarly, SWNTs can be covalently functionalized by different heteroatoms (nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur). Using the reductive alkylation approach, a synthetic scheme is designed to prepare long chain carboxylic acid functionalized SWNTs [SWNTs-(RCOOH)] that can react with (1) amine-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains to yield water-soluble biocompatible PEGylated SWNTs that are likely to be useful in a variety of biomedical applications; (2) polyethyleneimine (PEI) to prepare a SWNTs-PEI based adsorbent material that shows a four-fold improvement in the adsorption capacity of carbon dioxide over commonly used materials, making it useful for regenerable carbon dioxide removal in spaceflight; (3) chemically modified SWNTs-(RCOOH) to permit covalent bonding to the nylon matrix, thus allowing the formation of nylon 6,10 and nylon 6,10/SWNTs-(RCOOH) nanocomposites. Furthermore, we find that the lithium salts of carbon nanotubes serve as a source of electrons to induce polymerization of simple alkenes and alkynes onto the surface of carbon nanotubes. In the presence of sulfide/disulfide bonds, SWNT salts can initiate the single electron

  10. Alternative mannosylation method for nanomaterials: application to oxidized debris-free multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Marcelo de; Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylation is a method commonly used to deliver nanomaterials to specific organs and tissues via cellular macrophage uptake. In this work, for the first time, we proposed a method that involves the binding of d-mannose to ethylenediamine to form mannosylated ethylenediamine, which is then coupled to oxidized and purified multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The advantage of this approach is that mannosylated ethylenediamine precipitates in methanol, which greatly facilitates the separation of this product in the synthesis process. Carbon nanotubes were oxidized using concentrated H_2SO_4 and HNO_3 by conventional reflux method. However, during this oxidation process, carbon nanotubes generated carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (oxidation debris). These by-products were removed from the oxidized carbon nanotubes to ensure that the functionalization would occur only on the carbon nanotube surface. The coupling of mannosylated ethylenediamine to debris-free carbon nanotubes was accomplished using n-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-n-ethylcarbodiimide and n-hydroxysuccinimide. Deconvoluted N1s spectra obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gave binding energies of 399.8 and 401.7 eV, which we attributed to the amide and amine groups, respectively, of carbon nanotubes functionalized with mannosylated ethylenediamine. Deconvoluted O1s spectra showed a binding energy of 532.4 eV, which we suggest is caused by an overlap in the binding energies of the aliphatic CO groups of d-mannose and the O=C group of the amide bond. The functionalization degree was approximately 3.4 %, according to the thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that an extended carbon nanotube morphology was preserved following the oxidation, purification, and functionalization steps.

  11. Alternative mannosylation method for nanomaterials: application to oxidized debris-free multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Marcelo de, E-mail: marcelosousap2@yahoo.com.br [University of Campinas (Unicamp), Solid State Chemistry Laboratory (LQES) and NanoBioss Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry (Brazil); Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro, E-mail: diego.martinez@lnnano.cnpem.br [Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano) (Brazil); Alves, Oswaldo Luiz, E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.br [University of Campinas (Unicamp), Solid State Chemistry Laboratory (LQES) and NanoBioss Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Mannosylation is a method commonly used to deliver nanomaterials to specific organs and tissues via cellular macrophage uptake. In this work, for the first time, we proposed a method that involves the binding of d-mannose to ethylenediamine to form mannosylated ethylenediamine, which is then coupled to oxidized and purified multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The advantage of this approach is that mannosylated ethylenediamine precipitates in methanol, which greatly facilitates the separation of this product in the synthesis process. Carbon nanotubes were oxidized using concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HNO{sub 3} by conventional reflux method. However, during this oxidation process, carbon nanotubes generated carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (oxidation debris). These by-products were removed from the oxidized carbon nanotubes to ensure that the functionalization would occur only on the carbon nanotube surface. The coupling of mannosylated ethylenediamine to debris-free carbon nanotubes was accomplished using n-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-n-ethylcarbodiimide and n-hydroxysuccinimide. Deconvoluted N1s spectra obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gave binding energies of 399.8 and 401.7 eV, which we attributed to the amide and amine groups, respectively, of carbon nanotubes functionalized with mannosylated ethylenediamine. Deconvoluted O1s spectra showed a binding energy of 532.4 eV, which we suggest is caused by an overlap in the binding energies of the aliphatic CO groups of d-mannose and the O=C group of the amide bond. The functionalization degree was approximately 3.4 %, according to the thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that an extended carbon nanotube morphology was preserved following the oxidation, purification, and functionalization steps.

  12. Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuanmei; Fang, Xiaoming; Xiong, Jian; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline TiO 2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO 2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO 2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO 2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

  13. Low-toxic and safe nanomaterials by surface-chemical design, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    YanEqual Contribution, Liang; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shoujian; Hu, Zhongbo; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-02-01

    The toxicity grade for a bulk material can be approximately determined by three factors (chemical composition, dose, and exposure route). However, for a nanomaterial it depends on more than ten factors. Interestingly, some nano-factors (like huge surface adsorbability, small size, etc.) that endow nanomaterials with new biomedical functions are also potential causes leading to toxicity or damage to the living organism. Is it possible to create safe nanomaterials if such a number of complicated factors need to be regulated? We herein try to find answers to this important question. We first discuss chemical processes that are applicable for nanosurface modifications, in order to improve biocompatibility, regulate ADME, and reduce the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and graphenes). Then the biological/toxicological effects of surface-modified and unmodified carbon nanomaterials are comparatively discussed from two aspects: the lowered toxic responses or the enhanced biomedical functions. We summarize the eight biggest challenges in creating low-toxicity and safer nanomaterials and some significant topics of future research needs: to find out safer nanofactors; to establish controllable surface modifications and simpler chemistries for low-toxic nanomaterials; to explore the nanotoxicity mechanisms; to justify the validity of current toxicological theories in nanotoxicology; to create standardized nanomaterials for toxicity tests; to build theoretical models for cellular and molecular interactions of nanoparticles; and to establish systematical knowledge frameworks for nanotoxicology.

  14. Measuring Nanomaterial Release from Carbon Nanotube Composites: Review of the State of the Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Stacey; Wohlleben, Wendel; Doa, Maria; Nowack, Bernd; Clancy, Shaun; Canady, Richard; Maynard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Hazard studies of “as-produced” nanomaterials are increasingly available, yet a critical gap exists in exposure science that may impede safe development of nanomaterials. The gap is that we do not understand what is actually released because nanomaterials can change when released in ways that are not understood. We also generally do not have methods capable of quantitatively measuring what is released to support dose assessment. This review presents a case study of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the measurement challenge to bridge this gap. As the use and value of MWCNTs increases, methods to measure what is released in ways relevant to risk evaluation are critically needed if products containing these materials are to be economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. This review draws on the input of over 50 experts engaged in a program of workshops and technical report writing to address the release of MWCNTs from nanocomposite materials across their life cycle. The expert analyses reveals that new and sophisticated methods are required to measure and assess MWCNT exposures for realistic exposure scenarios. Furthermore, method requirements vary with the materials and conditions of release across life cycle stages of products. While review shows that the likelihood of significant release of MWCNTs appears to be low for many stages of composite life cycle, measurement methods are needed so that exposures from MWCNT-composites are understood and managed. In addition, there is an immediate need to refocus attention from study of “as-produced” nanomaterials to coordinated research on actual release scenarios. (paper)

  15. Nanomaterial release characteristics in a single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    As carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in various applications, exposure assessment also increases in importance with other various toxicity tests for CNTs. We conducted 24-h continuous nanoaerosol measurements to identify possible nanomaterial release in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing workplace. Four real-time aerosol instruments were used to determine the nanosized and microsized particle numbers, particle surface area, and carbonaceous species. Task-based exposure assessment was carried out for SWCNT synthesis using the arc plasma and thermal decomposition processes to remove amorphous carbon components as impurities. During the SWCNT synthesis, the black carbon (BC) concentration was 2–12 μg/m 3 . The maximum BC mass concentrations occurred when the synthesis chamber was opened for harvesting the SWCNTs. The number concentrations of particles with sizes 10–420 nm were 10,000–40,000 particles/cm 3 during the tasks. The maximum number concentration existed when a vacuum pump was operated to remove exhaust air from the SWCNT synthesis chamber due to the penetration of highly concentrated oil mists through the window opened. We analyzed the particle mass size distribution and particle number size distribution for each peak episode. Using real-time aerosol detectors, we distinguished the SWCNT releases from background nanoaerosols such as oil mist and atmospheric photochemical smog particles. SWCNT aggregates with sizes of 1–10 μm were mainly released from the arc plasma synthesis. The harvesting process was the main release route of SWCNTs in the workplace

  16. Nanomaterial release characteristics in a single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jun Ho [EcoPictures Co., Ltd (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Bae, Gwi-Nam, E-mail: gnbae@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    As carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in various applications, exposure assessment also increases in importance with other various toxicity tests for CNTs. We conducted 24-h continuous nanoaerosol measurements to identify possible nanomaterial release in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing workplace. Four real-time aerosol instruments were used to determine the nanosized and microsized particle numbers, particle surface area, and carbonaceous species. Task-based exposure assessment was carried out for SWCNT synthesis using the arc plasma and thermal decomposition processes to remove amorphous carbon components as impurities. During the SWCNT synthesis, the black carbon (BC) concentration was 2–12 μg/m{sup 3}. The maximum BC mass concentrations occurred when the synthesis chamber was opened for harvesting the SWCNTs. The number concentrations of particles with sizes 10–420 nm were 10,000–40,000 particles/cm{sup 3} during the tasks. The maximum number concentration existed when a vacuum pump was operated to remove exhaust air from the SWCNT synthesis chamber due to the penetration of highly concentrated oil mists through the window opened. We analyzed the particle mass size distribution and particle number size distribution for each peak episode. Using real-time aerosol detectors, we distinguished the SWCNT releases from background nanoaerosols such as oil mist and atmospheric photochemical smog particles. SWCNT aggregates with sizes of 1–10 μm were mainly released from the arc plasma synthesis. The harvesting process was the main release route of SWCNTs in the workplace.

  17. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro...

  18. Systematic in vitro nanotoxicity study on anodic alumina nanotubes with engineered aspect ratio: understanding nanotoxicity by a nanomaterial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Kaur, Gagandeep; Zysk, Aneta; Liapis, Vasilios; Hay, Shelley; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report a detailed and systematic approach for studying the in vitro nanotoxicity study of high aspect ratio (HAR) nanomaterials using anodic alumina nanotubes (AANTs) as a nanomaterial model. AANTs with bio-inert properties and tailored aspect ratios ranging from 7.8 to 63.3 were synthesized by an electrochemical pulse anodization process. Cytotoxicity studies were conducted with RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells and MDA-MB 231-TXSA human breast cancer cells through several toxicity parameters, including cell viability and morphology, pro-inflammatory response, mitochondrial depolarization, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), induction of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The resulting toxicity patterns were cell-type dependent and strongly related with AANTs dose, length of time, and importantly the AR of AANTs. Long AANTs triggered enhanced cell death, morphological changes, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) release, LMP and ER stress than short AANTs. The toxic AR window of AANTs was determined to be 7.8, which is shorter than that of other previously reported HAR nanomaterials. This toxic AR window provides a promising opportunity to control the nanotoxicity of HAR nanomaterials for their advanced drug delivery application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of different types of nanomaterials on their bioaccumulation in a paddy microcosm: A comparison of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Min-Kyeong; Nam, Dong-Ha

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the environmental fate and bioaccumulation of TiO 2 nanomaterials in a simplified paddy microcosm over a period of 17 days. Two types of TiO 2 nanomaterials, nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NP) and nanotubes (TiO 2 -NT), were synthesized to have a negative surface charge. Ti concentrations in the environmental media (water, soil), crops (quillworts, water dropworts), and some lower and higher trophic organisms (biofilms, algae, plant-parasitic nematodes, white butterfly larva, mud snail, ricefish) were quantified after exposure periods of 0, 7, and 17 days. The titanium levels of the two nanomaterials were the highest in biofilms during the exposure periods. Bioaccumulation factors indicated that TiO 2 -NP and TiO 2 -NT were largely transferred from a prey (e.g., biofilm, water dropwort) to its consumer (e.g., nematodes, mud snail). Considering the potential entries of such TiO 2 nanomaterials in organisms, their bioaccumulation throughout the food chain should be regarded with great concern in terms of the overall health of the ecosystem. -- Highlights: •A high amount of nanomaterial was transferred within low trophic level organisms. •Nanomaterial transfer occurred from water dropwort roots to nematodes and snails. •Nanomaterial transfer occurred from the biofilm-consuming plankton to ricefish. •TiO 2 nanomaterials can accumulate in the organisms of an artificial ecosystem. -- TiO 2 nanomaterials can accumulate in the organisms of an artificial ecosystem

  20. Alginic Acid-Aided Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Boron Nitride Nanomaterials for Microbial Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Mortimer, Monika; Chang, Chong Hyun; Holden, Patricia A

    2018-01-30

    Robust evaluation of potential environmental and health risks of carbonaceous and boron nitride nanomaterials (NMs) is imperative. However, significant agglomeration of pristine carbonaceous and boron nitride NMs due to strong van der Waals forces renders them not suitable for direct toxicity testing in aqueous media. Here, the natural polysaccharide alginic acid (AA) was used as a nontoxic, environmentally relevant dispersant with defined composition to disperse seven types of carbonaceous and boron nitride NMs, including multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphene, boron nitride nanotubes, and hexagonal boron nitride flakes, with various physicochemical characteristics. AA's biocompatibility was confirmed by examining AA effects on viability and growth of two model microorganisms (the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa ). Using 400 mg·L -1 AA, comparably stable NM (200 mg·L -1 ) stock dispersions were obtained by 30-min probe ultrasonication. AA non-covalently interacted with NM surfaces and improved the dispersibility of NMs in water. The dispersion stability varied with NM morphology and size rather than chemistry. The optimized dispersion protocol established here can facilitate preparing homogeneous NM dispersions for reliable exposures during microbial toxicity testing, contributing to improved reproducibility of toxicity results.

  1. Alginic Acid-Aided Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Boron Nitride Nanomaterials for Microbial Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust evaluation of potential environmental and health risks of carbonaceous and boron nitride nanomaterials (NMs is imperative. However, significant agglomeration of pristine carbonaceous and boron nitride NMs due to strong van der Waals forces renders them not suitable for direct toxicity testing in aqueous media. Here, the natural polysaccharide alginic acid (AA was used as a nontoxic, environmentally relevant dispersant with defined composition to disperse seven types of carbonaceous and boron nitride NMs, including multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphene, boron nitride nanotubes, and hexagonal boron nitride flakes, with various physicochemical characteristics. AA’s biocompatibility was confirmed by examining AA effects on viability and growth of two model microorganisms (the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using 400 mg·L−1 AA, comparably stable NM (200 mg·L−1 stock dispersions were obtained by 30-min probe ultrasonication. AA non-covalently interacted with NM surfaces and improved the dispersibility of NMs in water. The dispersion stability varied with NM morphology and size rather than chemistry. The optimized dispersion protocol established here can facilitate preparing homogeneous NM dispersions for reliable exposures during microbial toxicity testing, contributing to improved reproducibility of toxicity results.

  2. Synthesis and non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes rings: new nanomaterials with lectin affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assali, Mohyeddin; Leal, Manuel Pernía; Khiar, Noureddine; Fernández, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    We present a mild and practical carbon nanotubes rings (CNRs) synthesis from non-covalent functionalized and water-soluble linear single-wall carbon nanotubes. The hemi-micellar–supramolecular self-organization of lactose-based glycolipid 1 on the ring surface, followed by photo-polymerization of the diacetylenic function triggered by UV light afforded the first water-soluble and biocompatible CNRs. The obtained donut-like nanoconstructs expose a high density of lactose moieties on their surface, and are able to engage specific interactions with Arachis hypogea lectin similar to glycoconjugates on the cell membrane. (paper)

  3. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube-Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites: An Instructional Experiment in Nanomaterials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Miguel; Salgueirino, Veronica; Perez-Lorenzo, Moises; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment is described to introduce advanced undergraduate students to an exciting area of nanotechnology that incorporates nanoparticles onto carbon nanotubes to produce systems that have valuable technological applications. The synthesis of such material has been easily achieved through a simple three-step procedure. Students explore…

  4. Thermal Resistance across Interfaces Comprising Dimensionally Mismatched Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Junctions in 3D Carbon Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungkyu Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is employed to study thermal resistance across interfaces comprising dimensionally mismatched junctions of single layer graphene floors with (6,6 single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT pillars in 3D carbon nanomaterials. Results obtained from unit cell analysis indicate the presence of notable interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction (along the longitudinal axis of the SWCNTs but negligible resistance in the in-plane direction along the graphene floor. The interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction is understood to be due to the change in dimensionality as well as phonon spectra mismatch as the phonons propagate from SWCNTs to the graphene sheet and then back again to the SWCNTs. The thermal conductivity of the unit cells was observed to increase nearly linearly with an increase in cell size, that is, pillar height as well as interpillar distance, and approaches a plateau as the pillar height and the interpillar distance approach the critical lengths for ballistic thermal transport in SWCNT and single layer graphene. The results indicate that the thermal transport characteristics of these SWCNT-graphene hybrid structures can be tuned by controlling the SWCNT-graphene junction characteristics as well as the unit cell dimensions.

  5. Liquid-phase synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and related nanomaterials on preheated alloy substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi

    2018-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and related nanocarbons were selectively synthesized on commercially available alloy substrates by a simple liquid-phase technique. Fe- and Ni-rich stainless-steel (JIS SUS316L and Inconel®600, respectively) and Ni-Cu alloy (Monel®400) substrates were used for the synthesis, and each substrate was preheated in air to promote the self-formation of catalyst nanolayers on the surface. The substrates were resistance heated in ethanol without any addition of catalysts to grow CNTs. The yield of the CNTs effectively increased when the preheating process was employed. Highly aligned CNT arrays grew on the SUS316L substrate, while non-aligned CNTs and distinctive twisted fibers were observed on the other substrates. An Fe oxide layer was selectively formed on the preheated SUS316L substrate promoting the growth of the CNT arrays. Characterizations including cyclic voltammetry for the arrays revealed that the CNTs possess a comparatively defect-rich surface, which is a desirable characteristic for its application such as electrode materials for capacitors.

  6. A multi-axis MEMS sensor with integrated carbon nanotube-based piezoresistors for nanonewton level force metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, Michael A; Panas, Robert M; Culpepper, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a multi-axis microelectromechanical system (MEMS) force sensor with integrated carbon nanotube (CNT)-based piezoresistive sensors. Through the use of proper CNT selection and sensor fabrication techniques, the performance of the CNT-based MEMS force sensor was increased by approximately two orders of magnitude as compared to current CNT-based sensor systems. The range and resolution of the force sensor were determined as 84 μN and 5.6 nN, respectively. The accuracy of the force sensor was measured to be better than 1% over the device’s full range. (paper)

  7. Electrocatalytic glucose oxidation via hybrid nanomaterial catalyst of multi-wall TiO2 nanotubes supported Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles: Optimization of the loading level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yingying; Liu, Yicheng; Yang, Haihong; Li, Benqiang; An, Yarui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-wall TiO 2 nanotube supported Ni(OH) 2 nanoparticles, Ni(OH) 2 /TNTs, was prepared and investigated as anode electro-catalysts for glucose oxidation. • Ni(OH) 2 -24.2%/TNTs obtains the best catalytic activity. • Compared with Ni(OH) 2, the current density of Ni(OH) 2 -24.2%/TNTs increased 5.9 times in 0.1 M NaOH solution. - Abstract: The novel hybrid nanomaterial catalyst of multi-wall TiO 2 nanotube supported Ni(OH) 2 nanoparticles (Ni(OH) 2 /TNTs) was prepared through hydrothermal method and investigated as anode electro-catalysts for glucose oxidation. The nanostructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption (BET-BJH). The electrochemical performance was measured by a range of electrochemical measurements. Compared with Ni(OH) 2 , the current density of Ni(OH) 2 /TNTs modified GC electrode increased 5.9 times in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The results indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles exhibited good electro-catalytic activity and stability for glucose oxidation. Meanwhile, the hybrid nanomaterial of Ni(OH) 2 /TNTs may be a potential candidate catalyst for direct glucose fuel cell

  8. The road for nanomaterials industry: a review of carbon nanotube production, post-treatment, and bulk applications for composites and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Qian, Wei-Zhong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wei, Fei

    2013-04-22

    The innovation on the low dimensional nanomaterials brings the rapid growth of nano community. Developing the controllable production and commercial applications of nanomaterials for sustainable society is highly concerned. Herein, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with sp(2) carbon bonding, excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal, as well as transport properties are selected as model nanomaterials to demonstrate the road of nanomaterials towards industry. The engineering principles of the mass production and recent progress in the area of CNT purification and dispersion are described, as well as its bulk application for nanocomposites and energy storage. The environmental, health, and safety considerations of CNTs, and recent progress in CNT commercialization are also included. With the effort from the CNT industry during the past 10 years, the price of multi-walled CNTs have decreased from 45 000 to 100 $ kg(-1) and the productivity increased to several hundred tons per year for commercial applications in Li ion battery and nanocomposites. When the prices of CNTs decrease to 10 $ kg(-1) , their applications as composites and conductive fillers at a million ton scale can be anticipated, replacing conventional carbon black fillers. Compared with traditional bulk chemicals, the controllable synthesis and applications of CNTs on a million ton scale are still far from being achieved due to the challenges in production, purification, dispersion, and commercial application. The basic knowledge of growth mechanisms, efficient and controllable routes for CNT production, the environmental and safety issues, and the commercialization models are still inadequate. The gap between the basic scientific research and industrial development should be bridged by multidisciplinary research for the rapid growth of CNT nano-industry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu Chun Ke [Laboratory of Single-Molecule Biophysics and Polymer Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Qiao Rui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2007-09-19

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment. (topical review)

  10. Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Chun Ke; Qiao Rui

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment. (topical review)

  11. Quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Guo-Yong; Guo Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    The statistical error is ineluctable in any measurement. Quantum techniques, especially with the development of quantum information, can help us squeeze the statistical error and enhance the precision of measurement. In a quantum system, there are some quantum parameters, such as the quantum state, quantum operator, and quantum dimension, which have no classical counterparts. So quantum metrology deals with not only the traditional parameters, but also the quantum parameters. Quantum metrology includes two important parts: measuring the physical parameters with a precision beating the classical physics limit and measuring the quantum parameters precisely. In this review, we will introduce how quantum characters (e.g., squeezed state and quantum entanglement) yield a higher precision, what the research areas are scientists most interesting in, and what the development status of quantum metrology and its perspectives are. (topical review - quantum information)

  12. Genotoxicity of nanomaterials: DNA damage and micronuclei induced by carbon nanotubes and graphite nanofibres in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Falck, Ghita C-M; Suhonen, Satu; Vippola, Minnamari; Vanhala, Esa; Catalán, Julia; Savolainen, Kai; Norppa, Hannu

    2009-05-08

    Despite the increasing industrial use of different nanomaterials, data on their genotoxicity are scant. In the present study, we examined the potential genotoxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs; >50% single-walled, approximately 40% other CNTs; 1.1 nm x 0.5-100 microm; Sigma-Aldrich) and graphite nanofibres (GNFs; 95%; outer diameter 80-200 nm, inner diameter 30-50 nm, length 5-20 microm; Sigma-Aldrich) in vitro. Genotoxicity was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and the micronucleus assay (cytokinesis-block method) in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells cultured for 24h, 48h, or 72h with various doses (1-100 microg/cm(2), corresponding to 3.8-380 microg/ml) of the carbon nanomaterials. In the comet assay, CNTs induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage at all treatment times, with a statistically significant effect starting at the lowest dose tested. GNFs increased DNA damage at all doses in the 24-h treatment, at two doses (40 and 100 microg/cm(2)) in the 48-h treatment (dose-dependent effect) and at four doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)) in the 72-h treatment. In the micronucleus assay, no increase in micronucleated cells was observed with either of the nanomaterials after the 24-h treatment or with CNTs after the 72-h treatment. The 48-h treatment caused a significant increase in micronucleated cells at three doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)) of CNTs and at two doses (5 and 10 microg/cm(2)) of GNFs. The 72-h treatment with GNFs increased micronucleated cells at four doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)). No dose-dependent effects were seen in the micronucleus assay. The presence of carbon nanomaterial on the microscopic slides disturbed the micronucleus analysis and made it impossible at levels higher than 20 microg/cm(2) of GNFs in the 24-h and 48-h treatments. In conclusion, our results suggest that both CNTs and GNFs are genotoxic in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro. This activity may be due to the fibrous nature

  13. Radioactivity metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the radioactivity metrology are reviewed. Radioactivity primary references; absolute methods of radioactivity measurements used in the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants; relative measurement methods; traceability through international comparisons and interlaboratory tests; production and distribution of secondary standards [fr

  14. Nanomaterials application for heavy metals recovery from polluted water: The combination of nano zero-valent iron and carbon nanotubes. Competitive adsorption non-linear modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardi, Giorgio; Mpouras, Thanasis; Dermatas, Dimitris; Verdone, Nicola; Polydera, Angeliki; Di Palma, Luca

    2018-06-01

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their point of zero charge and particle size distribution. CNTs were further analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to determine their morphology and structural properties. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the removal efficiency and the possible competitive interactions among metal ions. Adsorption was found to be the main removal mechanism, except for Cr(VI) treatment by nZVI, where reduction was the predominant mechanism. The removal efficiency was estimated in decreasing order as CNTs-nZVI > nZVI > CNTs > CNTs-nZVI* independently upon the tested heavy metal. In the case of competitive adsorption, Cr(VI) exhibited the highest affinity for every adsorbent. The preferable Cr(VI) removal was also observed using binary systems of the tested metals by means of the CNTs-nZVI nanocomposite. Single species adsorption was better described by the non-linear Sips model, whilst competitive adsorption followed the modified Langmuir model. The CNTs-nZVI nanocomposite was tested for its reusability, and showed high adsorption efficiency (the q max values decreased less than 50% with respect to the first use) even after three cycles of use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A standardized non-instrumental tool for characterizing workstations concerned with exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu I, Guseva; C, Ducros; S, Ducamp; L, Delabre; S, Audignon-Durand; C, Durand; Y, Iwatsubo; D, Jezewski-Serra; Bihan O, Le; S, Malard; A, Radauceanu; M, Reynier; M, Ricaud; O, Witschger

    2015-05-01

    The French national epidemiological surveillance program EpiNano aims at surveying mid- and long-term health effects possibly related with occupational exposure to either carbon nanotubes or titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2). EpiNano is limited to workers potentially exposed to these nanomaterials including their aggregates and agglomerates. In order to identify those workers during the in-field industrial hygiene visits, a standardized non-instrumental method is necessary especially for epidemiologists and occupational physicians unfamiliar with nanoparticle and nanomaterial exposure metrology. A working group, Quintet ExpoNano, including national experts in nanomaterial metrology and occupational hygiene reviewed available methods, resources and their practice in order to develop a standardized tool for conducting company industrial hygiene visits and collecting necessary information. This tool, entitled “Onsite technical logbook”, includes 3 parts: company, workplace, and workstation allowing a detailed description of each task, process and exposure surrounding conditions. This logbook is intended to be completed during the company industrial hygiene visit. Each visit is conducted jointly by an industrial hygienist and an epidemiologist of the program and lasts one or two days depending on the company size. When all collected information is computerized using friendly-using software, it is possible to classify workstations with respect to their potential direct and/or indirect exposure. Workers appointed to workstations classified as concerned with exposure are considered as eligible for EpiNano program and invited to participate. Since January 2014, the Onsite technical logbook has been used in ten company visits. The companies visited were mostly involved in research and development. A total of 53 workstations with potential exposure to nanomaterials were pre-selected and observed: 5 with TiO2, 16 with single-walled carbon nanotubes, 27 multiwalled

  16. A standardized non-instrumental tool for characterizing workstations concerned with exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I, Guseva Canu; S, Ducamp; L, Delabre; Y, Iwatsubo; D, Jezewski-Serra; C, Ducros; S, Audignon-Durand; C, Durand; O, Le Bihan; S, Malard; A, Radauceanu; M, Reynier; M, Ricaud; O, Witschger

    2015-01-01

    The French national epidemiological surveillance program EpiNano aims at surveying mid- and long-term health effects possibly related with occupational exposure to either carbon nanotubes or titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 ). EpiNano is limited to workers potentially exposed to these nanomaterials including their aggregates and agglomerates. In order to identify those workers during the in-field industrial hygiene visits, a standardized non-instrumental method is necessary especially for epidemiologists and occupational physicians unfamiliar with nanoparticle and nanomaterial exposure metrology. A working group, Quintet ExpoNano, including national experts in nanomaterial metrology and occupational hygiene reviewed available methods, resources and their practice in order to develop a standardized tool for conducting company industrial hygiene visits and collecting necessary information. This tool, entitled “Onsite technical logbook”, includes 3 parts: company, workplace, and workstation allowing a detailed description of each task, process and exposure surrounding conditions. This logbook is intended to be completed during the company industrial hygiene visit. Each visit is conducted jointly by an industrial hygienist and an epidemiologist of the program and lasts one or two days depending on the company size. When all collected information is computerized using friendly-using software, it is possible to classify workstations with respect to their potential direct and/or indirect exposure. Workers appointed to workstations classified as concerned with exposure are considered as eligible for EpiNano program and invited to participate. Since January 2014, the Onsite technical logbook has been used in ten company visits. The companies visited were mostly involved in research and development. A total of 53 workstations with potential exposure to nanomaterials were pre-selected and observed: 5 with TiO 2 , 16 with single-walled carbon nanotubes, 27 multiwalled

  17. Temperature metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J.; Fellmuth, B.

    2005-05-01

    The majority of the processes used by the manufacturing industry depend upon the accurate measurement and control of temperature. Thermal metrology is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and environmental impact of many high-energy industrial processes, the development of innovative products and the health and safety of the general population. Applications range from the processing, storage and shipment of perishable foodstuffs and biological materials to the development of more efficient and less environmentally polluting combustion processes for steel-making. Accurate measurement and control of temperature is, for instance, also important in areas such as the characterization of new materials used in the automotive, aerospace and semiconductor industries. This paper reviews the current status of temperature metrology. It starts with the determination of thermodynamic temperatures required on principle because temperature is an intensive quantity. Methods to determine thermodynamic temperatures are reviewed in detail to introduce the underlying physical basis. As these methods cannot usually be applied for practical measurements the need for a practical temperature scale for day-to-day work is motivated. The International Temperature Scale of 1990 and the Provisional Low Temperature Scale PLTS-2000 are described as important parts of the International System of Units to support science and technology. Its main importance becomes obvious in connection with industrial development and international markets. Every country is strongly interested in unique measures, in order to guarantee quality, reproducibility and functionability of products. The eventual realization of an international system, however, is only possible within the well-functioning organization of metrological laboratories. In developed countries the government established scientific institutes have certain metrological duties, as, for instance, the maintenance and dissemination of national

  18. Temperature metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J; Fellmuth, B

    2005-01-01

    The majority of the processes used by the manufacturing industry depend upon the accurate measurement and control of temperature. Thermal metrology is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and environmental impact of many high-energy industrial processes, the development of innovative products and the health and safety of the general population. Applications range from the processing, storage and shipment of perishable foodstuffs and biological materials to the development of more efficient and less environmentally polluting combustion processes for steel-making. Accurate measurement and control of temperature is, for instance, also important in areas such as the characterization of new materials used in the automotive, aerospace and semiconductor industries. This paper reviews the current status of temperature metrology. It starts with the determination of thermodynamic temperatures required on principle because temperature is an intensive quantity. Methods to determine thermodynamic temperatures are reviewed in detail to introduce the underlying physical basis. As these methods cannot usually be applied for practical measurements the need for a practical temperature scale for day-to-day work is motivated. The International Temperature Scale of 1990 and the Provisional Low Temperature Scale PLTS-2000 are described as important parts of the International System of Units to support science and technology. Its main importance becomes obvious in connection with industrial development and international markets. Every country is strongly interested in unique measures, in order to guarantee quality, reproducibility and functionability of products. The eventual realization of an international system, however, is only possible within the well-functioning organization of metrological laboratories. In developed countries the government established scientific institutes have certain metrological duties, as, for instance, the maintenance and dissemination of national

  19. Gas adsorption capacity in an all carbon nanomaterial composed of carbon nanohorns and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthusseri, Divya; Babu, Deepu J; Okeil, Sherif; Schneider, Jörg J

    2017-10-04

    Whereas vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) typically show a promising adsorption behavior at high pressures, carbon nanohorns (CNHs) exhibit superior gas adsorption properties in the low pressure regime due to their inherent microporosity. These adsorption characteristics are further enhanced when both materials are opened at their tips. The so prepared composite material allows one to investigate the effect of physical entrapment of CO 2 molecules within the specific adsorption sites of VACNTs composed of opened double walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and in specific adsorption sites created by spherically aggregated opened single walled carbon nanohorns. Combining 50 wt% of tip opened CNTs with tip opened CNHs increases the CO 2 adsorption capacity of this material by ∼24% at 30 bar and 298 K compared to opened CNHs alone.

  20. Purifying Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor); Hurst, Janet (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of purifying a nanomaterial and the resultant purified nanomaterial in which a salt, such as ferric chloride, at or near its liquid phase temperature, is used to penetrate and wet the internal surfaces of a nanomaterial to dissolve impurities that may be present, for example, from processes used in the manufacture of the nanomaterial.

  1. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  2. Applications of nanomaterials in sensors and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuantranont, Adisorn (ed.) [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Pathumthani (Thailand). Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory

    2013-11-01

    Recent progress in the synthesis of nanomaterials and our fundamental understanding of their properties has led to significant advances in nanomaterial-based gas, chemical and biological sensors. Leading experts around the world highlight the latest findings on a wide range of nanomaterials including nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, molecularly imprinted nanostructures or plastibodies, nanometals, DNA-based structures, smart nanomaterials, nanoprobes, magnetic nanomaterials, organic molecules like phthalocyanines and porphyrins, and the most amazing novel nanomaterial, called graphene. Various sensing techniques such as nanoscaled electrochemical detection, functional nanomaterial-amplified optical assays, colorimetry, fluorescence and electrochemiluminescence, as well as biomedical diagnosis applications, e.g. for cancer and bone disease, are thoroughly reviewed and explained in detail. This volume will provide an invaluable source of information for scientists working in the field of nanomaterial-based technology as well as for advanced students in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, electrochemistry, material science, micro- and nanotechnology.

  3. Environmental effects of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Brinch, Anna

    This report presents ecotoxicological data and Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for nine selected nanomaterials which are considered to be environmentally relevant due to high usage or how they are used. These data will together with data from other reports/projects be used in an overall...... assessment of the environmental risk of nanomaterials in Denmark. The nine investigated nanomaterials are: Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, Silver, Carbon Nanotubes, Copper Oxide, Nano Zero Valent Iron, Cerium Dioxide, Quantum Dots and Carbon Black. To support the assessment of the data found in the peer...

  4. Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials.

  5. Nanoelectronics: Metrology and Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstrom, Mark; Clark, Jason V.; Klimeck, Gerhard; Raman, Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Research in nanoelectronics poses new challenges for metrology, but advances in theory, simulation and computing and networking technology provide new opportunities to couple simulation and metrology. This paper begins with a brief overview of current work in computational nanoelectronics. Three examples of how computation can assist metrology will then be discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of how cyberinfrastructure can help connect computing and metrology using the nanoHUB (www.nanoHUB.org) as a specific example

  6. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...

  7. Advanced nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Elby; Ventura, João; Pedro Araújo, João; Campos Gil, João

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterials provide a remarkably novel outlook to the design and fabrication of materials. The know-how of designing, modelling and fabrication of nanomaterials demands sophisticated experimental and analytical techniques. The major impact of nanomaterials will be in the fields of electronics, energy and medicine. Nanoelectronics hold the promise of improving the quality of life of electronic devices through superior performance, weight reduction and lower power consumption. New energy production systems based on hydrogen, solar and nuclear sources have also benefited immensely from nanomaterials. In modern medicine, nanomaterials research will have great impact on public health care due to better diagnostic methods and design of novel drugs.

  8. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  9. Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramov, A. A.

    In this paper, various aspects of modern nanotechnologies and, as a result, risks of nanomaterials impact on an environment are considered. This very brief review of the First International Conference on Material and Information Sciences in High Technologies (2007, Baku, Azerbaijan) is given. The conference presented many reports that were devoted to nanotechnology in biology and business for the developing World, formation of charged nanoparticles for creation of functional nanostructures, nanoprocessing of carbon nanotubes, magnetic and optical properties of manganese-phosphorus nanowires, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanophotonics communications in Azerbaijan. The mathematical methods of simulation of the group, individual and social risks are considered for the purpose of nanomaterials risk reduction and remediation. Lastly, we have conducted studies at a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials), located near Baku. Assessments have been conducted on the individual risk of person affection and constructed the map of equal isolines and zones of individual risk for a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials).

  10. Bioengineered nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Many varieties of new, complex diseases are constantly being discovered, which leaves scientists with little choice but to embrace innovative methods for controlling the invasion of life-threatening problems. The use of nanotechnology has given scientists an opportunity to create nanomaterials that could help medical professionals in diagnosing and treating problems quickly and effectively. Bioengineered Nanomaterials presents in-depth information on bioengineered nanomaterials currently being developed in leading research laboratories around the world. In particular, the book focuses on nanom

  11. Metrology of image placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikov, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    Metrology of registration, overlay and alignment offset in microlithography are discussed. Requirements and limitations are traced to the device ground rules and the definitions of edge, linewidth and centerline. Precision, accuracy, system performance and metrology in applications are discussed. The impact of image acquisition and data handling on performance is elucidated. Much attention is given to the manufacturing environment and effects of processing. General new methods of metrology error diagnostics and technology characterization are introduced and illustrated. Applications of these diagnostics to tests of tool performance, error diagnostics and culling, as well as to process integration in manufacturing are described. Realistic overlay reference materials and results of accuracy evaluations are discussed. Requirements in primary standards and alternative metrology are explained. The role and capability of SEM based overlay metrology is described, along with applications to device overlay metrology

  12. Plasma processing of nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaran, R Mohan

    2014-01-01

    CRC Press author R. Mohan Sankaran is the winner of the 2011 Peter Mark Memorial Award "… for the development of a tandem plasma synthesis method to grow carbon nanotubes with unprecedented control over the nanotube properties and chirality." -2011 AVS Awards Committee"Readers who want to learn about how nanomaterials are processed, using the most recent methods, will benefit greatly from this book. It contains very recent technical details on plasma processing and synthesis methods used by current researchers developing new nano-based materials, with all the major plasma-based processing techniques used today being thoroughly discussed."-John J. Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2013, Vol. 29, No. 3.

  13. Nanometrology, Standardization and Regulation of Nanomaterials in Brazil: A Proposal for an Analytical-Prospective Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rusmerg Giménez Ledesma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to propose an analytical-prospective model as a tool to support decision-making processes concerning metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials in Brazil, based on international references and ongoing initiatives in the world. In the context of nanotechnology development in Brazil, the motivation for carrying out this research was to identify potential benefits of metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials production, from the perspective of future adoption of the model by the main stakeholders of development of these areas in Brazil. The main results can be summarized as follows: (i an overview of international studies on metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials, and nanoparticles, in special; (ii the analytical-prospective model; and (iii the survey questionnaire and the roadmapping tool for metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials in Brazil, based on international references and ongoing initiatives in the world.

  14. Metrology and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the Metrology Service of Ionizing Radiation (SEMRI), the Metrology Service of Radioisotopes (SEMRA), the External Individual Monitoring Service (SEMEX), the Internal Individual Monitoring Service (SEMIN) and the associated laboratories, the analysis of environmental samples, system for management of quality from IRD and the National Program for intercomparison results of environmental samples analysis to radioisotopes determination

  15. Toxicity of carboxylated carbon nanotubes in endothelial cells is attenuated by stimulation of the autophagic flux with the release of nanomaterial in autophagic vesicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orecna, M.; De Paoli, S. H.; Janoušková, Olga; Tegegn, T. Z.; Filipová, M.; Bonevich, J. E.; Holada, K.; Simak, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2014), s. 939-948 ISSN 1549-9634 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * autophagy * bafilomycin A1 Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 6.155, year: 2014

  16. Nanomaterial Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — By leveraging and developing a set of Minimal Information About Nanomaterials (MIAN), ontology and standards through a community effort, it has developed a data...

  17. Roles of Direct and Indirect Light-Induced Transformations of Carbon Nanomaterials in Exposures in Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene-based nanomaterials have a variety of useful characteristics such as extraordinary electron and heat conducting abilities, optical absorption and mechanical properties, and potential applications in tra...

  18. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2018-04-03

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  19. Performance Enhancement of Carbon Nanomaterials for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin M. Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene are exploited extensively due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and recently investigated for energy storage application (supercapacitor due to additional high specific surface area and chemical inertness properties. The supercapacitor is an energy storage device which, in addition to long cycle life (one million, can give energy density higher than parallel plate capacitor and power density higher than battery. In this paper, carbon nanomaterials and their composites are reviewed for prospective use as electrodes for supercapacitor. Moreover, different physical and chemical treatments on these nanomaterials which can potentially enhance the capacitance are also reviewed.

  20. Reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyukova, I.; Gusev, A.; Tkachev, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the current review, we assembled the experimental evidences of an association between carbon nanomaterials including carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets, graphene, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and fullerene exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in vitro and in vivo studies. It is shown that carbon nanomaterials reveal toxic effect on reproductive system and offspring development of the animals of various system groups to a certain degree depending on carbon crystal structure. Although this paper provides initial information about the potential male and female reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, further studies, using characterized nanoparticles, relevant routes of administration, and doses closely reflecting all the expected levels of exposure are needed.

  1. Generating Electricity from Water through Carbon Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Chen, Peining; Peng, Huisheng

    2018-01-09

    Over the past ten years, electricity generation from water in carbon-based materials has aroused increasing interest. Water-induced mechanical-to-electrical conversion has been discovered in carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes and graphene, through the interaction with flowing water as well as moisture. In this Concept article, we focus on the basic principles of electric energy harvesting from flowing water through carbon nanomaterials, and summarize the material modification and structural design of these nanogenerators. The current challenges and potential applications of power conversion with carbon nanomaterials are finally highlighted. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Nanomaterials for electrochemical sensing and biosensing

    CERN Document Server

    Pumera, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Nanomaterial-Based ElectrodesCarbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors, Martin Pumera, National Institute for Materials Science, JapanElectrochemistry on Single Carbon Nanotube, Pat Collier, Caltech, USATheory of Voltammetry at Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes, Richard G. Compton, Oxford University, UKMetal Oxide Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes, Frank Marken, University of Bath, UKSemiconductor Quantum Dots for Electrochemical Bioanalysis, Eugenii Katz, Clarkson University, USAN

  3. Carbon nanotubes : their synthesis and integration into nanofabricated structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druzhinina, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology has experienced constantly increasing interest over the past decades both from industry and academy. Commonly used nanomaterials include: nanoparticles, nanowires, quantum dots, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes, in particular, are promising building

  4. Organic nanomaterials: synthesis, characterization, and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology have given rise to a new generation of functional organic nanomaterials with controlled morphology and well-defined properties, which enable a broad range of useful applications. This book explores some of the most important of these organic nanomaterials, describing how they are synthesized and characterized. Moreover, the book explains how researchers have incorporated organic nanomaterials into devices for real-world applications.Featuring contributions from an international team of leading nanoscientists, Organic Nanomaterials is divided into five parts:Part One introduces the fundamentals of nanomaterials and self-assembled nanostructuresPart Two examines carbon nanostructures—from fullerenes to carbon nanotubes to graphene—reporting on properties, theoretical studies, and applicationsPart Three investigates key aspects of some inorganic materials, self-assembled monolayers,...

  5. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  6. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  7. EDITORIAL: Whither nanomaterials? Whither nanomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouk, Thomas E.; Pinkerton, Fred; Stetson, Ned

    2009-10-01

    As the journal Nanotechnology enters its third decade it is interesting to look back on the field and to think about where it may be headed in the future. The growth of the journal over the past twenty years mirrors that of the field, with exponentially rising numbers of citations and a widening diversity of topics that we identify as nanotechnology. In the early 1990s, Nanotechnology was focused primarily on nanoscale electronics and on scanning probe tools for fabricating and characterizing nanostructures. The synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials was already an active area in chemical research; however, it did not yet intersect strongly with the activities of the physics community, which was interested primarily in new phenomena that emerged on the nanoscale and on the devices that derived from them. In the 1990s there were several key advances that began to bridge this gap. Techniques were developed for making nanocrystals of compound semiconductors, oxides, and metals with very fine control over shape and superstructure. Carbon nanotubes were discovered and their unique electronic properties were demonstrated. Research on the self-assembly of organic molecules on surfaces led to the development of soft lithography and layer-by- layer assembly of materials. The potential to use DNA and then proteins as building blocks of precise assemblies of nanoparticles was explored. These bottom-up structures could not be made by top-down techniques, and their unique properties as components of sensors, electronic devices, biological imaging agents, and drug delivery vehicles began to change the definition of the field. Ten years ago, Inelke Malsch published a study on the scientific trends and organizational dynamics of nanotechology in Europe (1999 Nanotechnology 10 1-7). Scientists from a variety of disciplines were asked which areas of research they would include in the definition of nanotechnology. Although the article concluded with forward-looking thoughts in the

  8. Development of the metrology and imaging of cellulose nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András; Dagata, John; Farkas, Natalia; Ming, Bin; Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Moon, Robert J; Sabo, Ronald; Wegner, Theodore H; Beecher, James

    2011-01-01

    The development of metrology for nanoparticles is a significant challenge. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are one group of nanoparticles that have high potential economic value but present substantial challenges to the development of the measurement science. Even the largest trees owe their strength to this newly appreciated class of nanomaterials. Cellulose is the world's most abundant natural, renewable, biodegradable polymer. Cellulose occurs as whisker-like microfibrils that are biosynthesized and deposited in plant material in a continuous fashion. The nanocrystals are isolated by hydrolyzing away the amorphous segments leaving the acid resistant crystalline fragments. Therefore, the basic raw material for new nanomaterial products already abounds in nature and is available to be utilized in an array of future materials. However, commercialization requires the development of efficient manufacturing processes and nanometrology to monitor quality. This paper discusses some of the instrumentation, metrology and standards issues associated with the ramping up for production and use of CNCs

  9. Development of the metrology and imaging of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András; Dagata, John; Farkas, Natalia; Ming, Bin; Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Moon, Robert J.; Sabo, Ronald; Wegner, Theodore H.; Beecher, James

    2011-02-01

    The development of metrology for nanoparticles is a significant challenge. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are one group of nanoparticles that have high potential economic value but present substantial challenges to the development of the measurement science. Even the largest trees owe their strength to this newly appreciated class of nanomaterials. Cellulose is the world's most abundant natural, renewable, biodegradable polymer. Cellulose occurs as whisker-like microfibrils that are biosynthesized and deposited in plant material in a continuous fashion. The nanocrystals are isolated by hydrolyzing away the amorphous segments leaving the acid resistant crystalline fragments. Therefore, the basic raw material for new nanomaterial products already abounds in nature and is available to be utilized in an array of future materials. However, commercialization requires the development of efficient manufacturing processes and nanometrology to monitor quality. This paper discusses some of the instrumentation, metrology and standards issues associated with the ramping up for production and use of CNCs.

  10. Metrology of electrical quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camon, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1989 the electrical metrology laboratory of TPYCEA and the low temperature physics department of ICMA have been collaborating in the development of electrical quantum metrology. ICMA has been mainly dedicated to implement the state of the art quantum standards for which its experience on cryogenics, superconductivity and low noise instrumentation was essential. On the other hand TPYCEA concentrated its efforts on the metrological aspects, in which it has great experience. The complimentary knowledge of both laboratories, as well as the advice obtained from several prestigious metrology institutes was the key to successful completion of the two projects so far developed: i) The Josephson voltage standard (1989-1991) ii) The quantum Hall resistance standard (1991-1996) This report contains a description of both projects. Even though we can consider that the two projects are finished from the instrumental and metrological point of view, there is still a strong cooperation between ICMA and TPYCEA on the improvement of these standards, as well as on their international validation

  11. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  12. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  13. Radiation protection - quality and metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broutin, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation protection gathers three occupations: radiation protection agents; environment agents ( control and monitoring); metrology agents ( activities measurement and calibration). The quality and the metrology constitute a contribution in the technique competence and the guarantee of the service quality. This article, after a historical aspect of quality and metrology in France explains the advantages of such a policy. (N.C.)

  14. The potential of protein-nanomaterial interaction for advanced drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Qiang; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, like nanoparticles, micelles, nano-sheets, nanotubes and quantum dots, have great potentials in biomedical fields. However, their delivery is highly limited by the formation of protein corona upon interaction with endogenous proteins. This new identity, instead of nanomaterial itself...... of such interaction for advanced drug delivery are presented........ Therefore, protein-nanomaterial interaction is a great challenge for nanomaterial systems and should be inhibited. However, this interaction can also be used to functionalize nanomaterials by forming a selected protein corona. Unlike other decoration using exogenous molecules, nanomaterials functionalized...

  15. Metrology Department - DEMET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this report are presented the activities and purposes of the Metrology Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of Brazilian CNEN. It is also presented a list of services rendered by that Dept., the projects in course, personnel and publications.(J.A.M.M.)

  16. Metrology for Grayscale Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, Raghunath

    2007-01-01

    Three dimensional microstructures find applications in diffractive optical elements, photonic elements, etc. and can be efficiently fabricated by grayscale lithography. Good process control is important for achieving the desired structures. Metrology methods for grayscale lithography are discussed. Process optimization for grayscale e-beam lithography is explored and various process parameters that affect the grayscale process are discussed

  17. Magnetic nanoparticles. Metrological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, V N; Nikiforov, A V; Oxengendler, B L; Turaeva, N N; Sredin, V G

    2011-01-01

    The experiments on influence of the iron oxide cluster size on the specific magnetic moment are performed. Both free and covered clusters are investigated. The experiments are interpreted on the base of core-shell model by analogy to Weizsaecker formula in the nuclear physics. Metrological parameters for the cluster size investigation are obtained.

  18. Recent applications of nanomaterials in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Varela-Martínez, Diana Angélica; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials have found an important place in Analytical Chemistry and, in particular, in Separation Science. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. Concerning capillary electromigration techniques, these nanomaterials have also been used as both pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) and as stationary phases in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), as a result of their interesting and particular properties. This review article pretends to provide a general and critical revision of the most recent applications of nanomaterials in this field (period 2010-2017). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Carbon nanotubes in animal models: a systematic review on toxic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zande, M. van der; Junker, R.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Amongst the engineered nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received considerable attention for application in tissue engineering scaffolds. CNTs are considered promising on behalf of their physicochemical properties, yet such nanomaterials also have been associated with

  20. Modeling Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) Fate and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to perform new chemical reviews of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) identified in pre-manufacture notices. However, environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants are limited in their ability to simulate the environmental behavior of nanomaterials due to incomplete understanding and representation of the processes governing nanomaterial distribution in the environment and by scarce empirical data quantifying the interaction of nanomaterials with environmental surfaces. We have updated the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), version S, to incorporate nanomaterials as an explicitly simulated state variable. WASPS now has the capability to simulate nanomaterial fate and transport in surface waters and sediments using heteroaggregation, the kinetic process governing the attachment of nanomaterials to particles and subsequently ENM distribution in the aqueous and sediment phases. Unlike dissolved chemicals which use equilibrium partition coefficients, heteroaggregation consists of a particle collision rate and an attachment efficiency ( lXhet) that generally acts as a one direction process. To demonstrate, we used a derived a het value from sediment attachment studies to parameterize WASP for simulation of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) transport in Brier Creek, a coastal plain river located in central eastern Georgia, USA and a tr

  1. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U. Niemann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS2/MoS2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc. and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.

  2. Nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors for nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xueping; Hu, Hui; Wang, Shengfu; Hu, Shengshui

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensing has been demonstrated to represent an efficient way to quantify nitric oxide (NO) in challenging physiological environments. A sensing interface based on nanomaterials opens up new opportunities and broader prospects for electrochemical NO sensors. This review (with 141 refs.) gives a general view of recent advances in the development of electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials. It is subdivided into sections on (i) carbon derived nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphenes, fullerenes), (ii) metal nanoparticles (including gold, platinum and other metallic nanoparticles); (iii) semiconductor metal oxide nanomaterials (including the oxides of titanium, aluminum, iron, and ruthenium); and finally (iv) nanocomposites (such as those formed from carbon nanomaterials with nanoparticles of gold, platinum, NiO or TiO 2 ). The various strategies are discussed, and the advances of using nanomaterials and the trends in NO sensor technology are outlooked in the final section. (author)

  3. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  4. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  5. In-cell overlay metrology by using optical metrology tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Hong, Minhyung; Kim, Seungyoung; Lee, Jieun; Lee, DongYoung; Oh, Eungryong; Choi, Ahlin; Park, Hyowon; Liang, Waley; Choi, DongSub; Kim, Nakyoon; Lee, Jeongpyo; Pandev, Stilian; Jeon, Sanghuck; Robinson, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Overlay is one of the most critical process control steps of semiconductor manufacturing technology. A typical advanced scheme includes an overlay feedback loop based on after litho optical imaging overlay metrology on scribeline targets. The after litho control loop typically involves high frequency sampling: every lot or nearly every lot. An after etch overlay metrology step is often included, at a lower sampling frequency, in order to characterize and compensate for bias. The after etch metrology step often involves CD-SEM metrology, in this case in-cell and ondevice. This work explores an alternative approach using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) metrology and a machine learning analysis technique. Advanced 1x nm DRAM wafers were prepared, including both nominal (POR) wafers with mean overlay offsets, as well as DOE wafers with intentional across wafer overlay modulation. After litho metrology was measured using optical imaging metrology, as well as after etch metrology using both SE and CD-SEM for comparison. We investigate 2 types of machine learning techniques with SE data: model-less and model-based, showing excellent performance for after etch in-cell on-device overlay metrology.

  6. Advances in nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Zishan

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a review of the latest research findings and key applications in the field of nanomaterials. The book contains twelve chapters on different aspects of nanomaterials. It begins with key fundamental concepts to aid readers new to the discipline of nanomaterials, and then moves to the different types of nanomaterials studied. The book includes chapters based on the applications of nanomaterials for nano-biotechnology and solar energy. Overall, the book comprises chapters on a variety of topics on nanomaterials from expert authors across the globe. This book will appeal to researchers and professional alike, and may also be used as a reference for courses in nanomaterials.

  7. Optical response from functionalized atomically thin nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malic, Ermin; Berghaeuser, Gunnar; Feierabend, Maja [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Knorr, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Chemical functionalization of atomically thin nanostructures presents a promising strategy to create new hybrid nanomaterials with remarkable and externally controllable properties. Here, we review our research in the field of theoretical modeling of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and transition metal dichalcogenides located in molecular dipole fields. In particular, we provide a microscopic view on the change of the optical response of these technologically promising nanomaterials due to the presence of photo-active spiropyran molecules. The feature article presents a review of recent theoretical work providing microscopic view on the optical response of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes, graphene, and monolayered transition metal dichalcogenides. In particular, we propose a novel sensor mechanism based on the molecule-induced activation of dark excitons. This results in a pronounced additional peak presenting an unambiguous optical fingerprint for the attached molecules. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Carbon Nanomaterials in Biological Studies and Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teradal, Nagappa L; Jelinek, Raz

    2017-09-01

    The "carbon nano-world" has made over the past few decades huge contributions in diverse scientific disciplines and technological advances. While dramatic advances have been widely publicized in using carbon nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene in materials sciences, nano-electronics, and photonics, their contributions to biology and biomedicine have been noteworthy as well. This Review focuses on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and carbon quantum dots [encompassing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon dots (C-dots)] in biologically oriented materials and applications. Examples of these remarkable nanomaterials in bio-sensing, cell- and tissue-imaging, regenerative medicine, and other applications are presented and discussed, emphasizing the significance of their unique properties and their future potential. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Performance Enhancement of Carbon Nanomaterials for Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Amin M.; Desmaris, Vincent; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene are exploited extensively due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and recently investigated for energy storage application (supercapacitor) due to additional high specific surface area and chemical inertness properties. The supercapacitor is an energy storage device which, in addition to long cycle life (one million), can give energy density higher than parallel plate capacitor and power ...

  10. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Chen; Liming Dai

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their high energy density and power density, supercapacitors exhibit great potential as high-performance energy sources for advanced technologies. Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties. This article summarizes the recent progresses on the development of high-performance supercapacitors bas...

  11. Computed tomography for dimensional metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruth, J.P.; Bartscher, M.; Carmignato, S.

    2011-01-01

    metrology, putting emphasis on issues as accuracy, traceability to the unit of length (the meter) and measurement uncertainty. It provides a state of the art (anno 2011) and application examples, showing the aptitude of CT metrology to: (i) check internal dimensions that cannot be measured using traditional...

  12. Metrology's role in quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeederberg, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Metrology, the science of measurement, is playing an increasing role in modern industry as part of an on-going quality assurance programme. At Escom, quality assurance was critical during the construction of the Koeberg nuclear facility, and also a function in controlling services provided by Escom. This article deals with the role metrology plays in quality assurance

  13. Carbon nanomaterials for non-volatile memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ethan C.; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Pop, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Carbon can create various low-dimensional nanostructures with remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. These features make carbon nanomaterials especially interesting for next-generation memory and storage devices, such as resistive random access memory, phase-change memory, spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory and ferroelectric random access memory. Non-volatile memories greatly benefit from the use of carbon nanomaterials in terms of bit density and energy efficiency. In this Review, we discuss sp2-hybridized carbon-based low-dimensional nanostructures, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, in the context of non-volatile memory devices and architectures. Applications of carbon nanomaterials as memory electrodes, interfacial engineering layers, resistive-switching media, and scalable, high-performance memory selectors are investigated. Finally, we compare the different memory technologies in terms of writing energy and time, and highlight major challenges in the manufacturing, integration and understanding of the physical mechanisms and material properties.

  14. Metrology for ITER Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.

    2006-01-01

    The overall dimensions of the ITER Tokamak and the particular assembly sequence preclude the use of conventional optical metrology, mechanical jigs and traditional dimensional control equipment, as used for the assembly of smaller, previous generation, fusion devices. This paper describes the state of the art of the capabilities of available metrology systems, with reference to the previous experience in Fusion engineering and in other industries. Two complementary procedures of transferring datum from the primary datum network on the bioshield to the secondary datum s inside the VV with the desired accuracy of about 0.1 mm is described, one method using the access directly through the ports and the other using transfer techniques, developed during the co-operation with ITER/EFDA. Another important task described is the development of a method for the rapid and easy measurement of the gaps between sectors, required for the production of the customised splice plates between them. The scope of the paper includes the evaluation of the composition and cost of the systems and team of technical staff required to meet the requirements of the assembly procedure. The results from a practical, full-scale demonstration of the methodologies used, using the proposed equipment, is described. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving the necessary accuracies for the successful building of ITER. (author)

  15. Nanomaterials for Craniofacial and Dental Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Zhou, T; Lin, S; Shi, S; Lin, Y

    2017-07-01

    Tissue engineering shows great potential as a future treatment for the craniofacial and dental defects caused by trauma, tumor, and other diseases. Due to the biomimetic features and excellent physiochemical properties, nanomaterials are of vital importance in promoting cell growth and stimulating tissue regeneration in tissue engineering. For craniofacial and dental tissue engineering, the frequently used nanomaterials include nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets. Nanofibers are attractive for cell invasion and proliferation because of their resemblance to extracellular matrix and the presence of large pores, and they have been used as scaffolds in bone, cartilage, and tooth regeneration. Nanotubes and nanoparticles improve the mechanical and chemical properties of scaffold, increase cell attachment and migration, and facilitate tissue regeneration. In addition, nanofibers and nanoparticles are also used as a delivery system to carry the bioactive agent in bone and tooth regeneration, have better control of the release speed of agent upon degradation of the matrix, and promote tissue regeneration. Although applications of nanomaterials in tissue engineering remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to face, the current results indicate that nanomaterials have massive potential in craniofacial and dental tissue engineering.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes and Modern Nanoagriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2015-01-27

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have been prominent members of the nanomaterial family. Owing to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes have been proven to be a useful tool in the field of plant science. They were frequently perceived to bring about valuable biotechnological and agricultural applications that still remain beyond experimental realization. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the ability of carbon nanotubes to traverse different plant cell barriers. These studies, also, assessed the toxicity and environmental impacts of these nanomaterials. The knowledge provided by these studies is of practical and fundamental importance for diverse applications including intracellular labeling and imaging, genetic transformation, and for enhancing our knowledge of plant cell biology. Although different types of nanoparticles have been found to activate physiological processes in plants, carbon nanotubes received particular interest. Following addition to germination medium, carbon nanotubes enhanced root growth and elongation of some plants such as onion, cucumber and rye-grass. They, also, modulated the expression of some genes that are essential for cell division and plant development. In addition, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were evidenced to penetrate thick seed coats, stimulate germination, and to enhance growth of young tomato seedlings. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can penetrate deeply into the root system and further distribute into the leaves and the fruits. In recent studies, carbon nanotubes were reported to be chemically entrapped into the structure of plant tracheary elements. This should activate studies in the fields of plant defense and wood engineering. Although, all of these effects on plant physiology and plant developmental biology have not been fully understood, the valuable findings promises more research activity in the near future toward complete scientific understanding of

  17. Carbon nanomaterial based electrochemical sensors for biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao; He, Xiulan; Li, Fangping; Fei, Junjie; Feng, Bo; Ding, Yonglan

    2013-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in the use of carbon nanomaterials for electroanalytical detection of biogenic amines (BAs). It starts with a short introduction into carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, and their composites. Next, electrochemical sensing schemes are discussed for various BAs including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Examples are then given for methods for simultaneous detection of various BAs. Finally, we discuss the current and future challenges of carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for BAs. The review contains 175 references. (author)

  18. Energy Device Applications of Synthesized 1D Polymer Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long-Biao; Xu, Wei; Hao, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    1D polymer nanomaterials as emerging materials, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanopillars, have attracted extensive attention in academia and industry. The distinctive, various, and tunable structures in the nanoscale of 1D polymer nanomaterials present nanointerfaces, high surface-to-volume ratio, and large surface area, which can improve the performance of energy devices. In this review, representative fabrication techniques of 1D polymer nanomaterials are summarized, including electrospinning, template-assisted, template-free, and inductively coupled plasma methods. The recent advancements of 1D polymer nanomaterials in energy device applications are demonstrated. Lastly, existing challenges and prospects of 1D polymer nanomaterials for energy device applications are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A Reference Searching Related To Nanomaterials,Food Packaging and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Tonnie, Aruoture Onome

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on the study of nanomaterials as a packaging material for the food industries. Reviews were carried out and the various properties exhibited by various nanomaterial used in the packaging industry were looked into. An investigation was also done on carbon nanotubes which are used to a large extent as reinforcing materials in the development of new class of nanocomposites. This report also traces the cause of sustainability problems associated with the use of nanomaterials i...

  20. Modification of conductive polyaniline with carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Sajjad; Alavijeh, Mahdi Soleimani

    2014-08-01

    The synthesis of polyaniline/single-wall nanotube, polyaniline/multi-wall nanotube and polyaniline/single-wall nanotube/graphen nanosheets nanocomposites by in situ polymerization are reported in this study. The substrates were treated with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid before usage to functionalize with carboxylic and hydroxyl groups. Aniline monomers are adsorbed and polymerized on the surface of these fillers. Structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that nanomaterials dispersed into polymer matrix and made tubular structures with diameters several tens to hundreds nanometers depending on the polyaniline content. These nanocomposites can be used for production of excellent electrode materials applications in high-performance supercapacitors.

  1. Handbook of nanomaterials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Dan; Schricker, Scott R; Sigmund, Wolfgang; Zauscher, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials attract tremendous attention in recent researches. Although extensive research has been done in this field it still lacks a comprehensive reference work that presents data on properties of different Nanomaterials. This Handbook of Nanomaterials Properties will be the first single reference work that brings together the various properties with wide breadth and scope.

  2. Carbon Nanomaterials for Breast Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Casais-Molina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, breast cancer is considered as a health problem worldwide. Furthermore, current treatments neither are capable of stopping its propagation and/or recurrence nor are specific for cancer cells. Therefore, side effects on healthy tissues and cells are common. An increase in the efficiency of treatments, along with a reduction in their toxicity, is desirable to improve the life quality of patients affected by breast cancer. Nanotechnology offers new alternatives for the design and synthesis of nanomaterials that can be used in the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer and has now become a very promising tool for its use against this disease. Among the wide variety of nanomaterials, the scientific community is particularly interested in carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene due to their physical properties, versatile chemical functionalization, and biocompatibility. Recent scientific evidence shows the potential uses of carbon nanomaterials as therapeutic agents, systems for selective and controlled drug release, and contrast agents for diagnosing and locating tumors. This generates new possibilities for the development of innovative systems to treat breast cancer and can be used to detect this disease at much earlier stages. Thus, applications of carbon nanomaterials in breast cancer treatment are discussed in this article.

  3. Electron accelerators and nanomaterials - a symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Kavita P.; Mittal, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Electron Accelerators and Nanomaterials share a symbiotic relationship. While electron accelerators are fast emerging as popular tools in the field of nanomaterials, use of nanomaterials so developed for sub-systems of accelerators is being explored. Material damage studies, surface modification and lithography in the nanometre scale are some of the areas in which electron accelerators are being extensively used. New methods to characterize the structure of nanoparticles use intense X-ray sources, generated from electron accelerators. Enhancement of field emission properties of carbon nanotubes using electron accelerators is another important area that is being investigated. Research on nanomaterials for use in the field of accelerators is still in the laboratory stage. Yet, new trends and emerging technologies can effectively produce materials which can be of significant use in accelerators. Properties such as enhanced field emission can be put to use in cathodes of electron guns. Superconducting properties some materials may also be useful in accelerators. This paper focusses on the electron accelerators used for synthesis, characterization and property-enhancement of nanomaterials. The details of electron accelerators used for these applications will be highlighted. Some light will be thrown on properties of nano materials which can have potential use in accelerators. (author)

  4. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  5. Immobilization techniques in the fabrication of nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzbach, William; Ronkainen, Niina J

    2013-04-11

    The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.

  6. A Roadmap for Thermal Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovski, J.; Fischer, J.; Machin, G.; Pavese, F.; Peruzzi, A.; Renaot, E.; Tegeler, E.

    2009-02-01

    A provisional roadmap for thermal metrology was developed in Spring 2006 as part of the EUROMET iMERA activity toward increasing impact from national investment in European metrology R&D. This consisted of two parts: one addressing the influence of thermal metrology on society, industry, and science, and the other specifying the requirements of enabling thermal metrology to serve future needs. The roadmap represents the shared vision of the EUROMET TC Therm committee as to how thermal metrology should develop to meet future requirements over the next 15 years. It is important to stress that these documents are a first attempt to roadmap the whole of thermal metrology and will certainly need regular review and revision to remain relevant and useful to the community they seek to serve. The first part of the roadmap, “Thermal metrology for society, industry, and science,” identifies the main social and economic triggers driving developments in thermal metrology—notably citizen safety and security, new production technologies, environment and global climate change, energy, and health. Stemming from these triggers, key targets are identified that require improved thermal measurements. The second part of the roadmap, “Enabling thermal metrology to serve future needs” identifies another set of triggers, like global trade and interoperability, future needs in transport, and the earth radiation budget. Stemming from these triggers, key targets are identified, such as improved realizations and dissemination of the SI unit the kelvin, anchoring the kelvin to the Boltzmann constant, k B, and calculating thermal properties from first principles. To facilitate these outcomes, the roadmap identifies the technical advances required in thermal measurement standards.

  7. Multiscale Modeling with Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A

    2006-02-21

    Technologically important nanomaterials come in all shapes and sizes. They can range from small molecules to complex composites and mixtures. Depending upon the spatial dimensions of the system and properties under investigation computer modeling of such materials can range from equilibrium and nonequilibrium Quantum Mechanics, to force-field-based Molecular Mechanics and kinetic Monte Carlo, to Mesoscale simulation of evolving morphology, to Finite-Element computation of physical properties. This brief review illustrates some of the above modeling techniques through a number of recent applications with carbon nanotubes: nano electromechanical sensors (NEMS), chemical sensors, metal-nanotube contacts, and polymer-nanotube composites.

  8. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  9. Price tag in nanomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, D. A.; Vordos, N.; Nolan, J. W.; Mitropoulos, A. C.; Vansant, E. F.; Cool, P.; Braet, J.

    2017-05-01

    With the evolution of the field of nanomaterials in the past number of years, it has become apparent that it will be key to future technological developments. However, while there are unlimited research undertakings on nanomaterials, limited research results on nanomaterial costs exist; all in spite of the generous funding that nanotechnology projects have received. There has recently been an exponential increase in the number of studies concerning health-related nanomaterials, considering the various medical applications of nanomaterials that drive medical innovation. This work aims to analyze the effect of the cost factor on acceptability of health-related nanomaterials independently or in relation to material toxicity. It appears that, from the materials studied, those used for cancer treatment applications are more expensive than the ones for drug delivery. The ability to evaluate cost implications improves the ability to undertake research mapping and develop opinions on nanomaterials that can drive innovation.

  10. Nanomaterials for Electronics and Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes(CNTs), graphene, and inorganic nanowires(INWs) have shown interesting electronic, mechanical, optical, thermal, and other properties and therefore have been pursued for a variety of applications by the nanotechnology community ranging from electronics to nanocomposites. While the first two are carbon-based materials, the INWs in the literature include silicon, germanium, III-V, II-VI, a variety of oxides, nitrides, antimonides and others. In this talk, first an overview of growth of these three classes of materials by CVD and PECVD will be presented along with results from characterization. Then applications in development of chemical sensors, biosensors, energy storage devices and novel memory architectures will be discussed.

  11. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps.

  12. Community effects of carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzeboer, I.; Kupryianchyk, D.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic sediments form an important sink for manufactured nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) and fullerenes, thus potentially causing adverse effects to the aquatic environment, especially to benthic organisms. To date, most nanoparticle effect studies used single species tests in the

  13. Radical scavenging reaction kinetics with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuruoka, Shuji; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Koyama, Kenichi; Akiba, Eiji; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Cassee, Flemming R.; Saito, Naoto; Usui, Yuki; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Porter, Dale W.; Castranova, Vincent; Endo, Morinobu

    2015-01-01

    Progress in the development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has stimulated great interest among industries providing new applications. Meanwhile, toxicological evaluations on nanomaterials are advancing leading to a predictive exposure limit for CNTs, which implies the possibility of designing safer

  14. Nanomaterials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Rohrer

    2010-01-01

    interesting and daring research proposal, even if it interprets 'nano' somewhat too generously. After all, we want to promote top-class research and not average research just for the sake of 'nano'.Interfaces, material growth at given nano positions, shaping materials to a given nanosize and form, and bistability are key elements for functionalizing materials.InterfacesThe role of interfaces is rapidly increasing in science and technology. The number of interfaces increases with the square of the number of phases of materials. Even if the majority of them are impractical or useless, they are still much more abundant than the materials themselves, and they are the key to new functions. Think of the simple 'mechanical' interface responsible for the lotus effect where wetting is prevented by the rapidly changing surface curvature due to nanoparticles. Think of all the connections of a nanometer-sized area between very different materials, for example, for electron or spin transport. Think of the delicate interfaces that protect nanofunctional units from the environment but allow for communication of various types with other nanocomponents or with the macroscopic world. The solid–liquid interface plays a special role here. For me, it is the interface of the future, both for local growth and removal of nm3 quantities and for working with biological specimens requiring a liquid environment. Interfaces are the 'faces of action' and nanoscale materials science will be, to a great extent, 'interface science'. There is no need to change the name; attentive awareness suffices.Material growth at given nano positionsThis is the second central challenge in nanoscale materials science, but maybe still a futuristic one. We have heard much about the extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes. They do a great job in certain applications, like tips of scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopes or nanoinjection needles or as bundles for electron emission or electron transport. As single

  15. Nanomaterials as stationary phases and supports in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeram, Sandya R; Rodriguez, Elliott; Doddavenkatanna, Suresh; Li, Zhao; Pekarek, Allegra; Peev, Darin; Goerl, Kathryn; Trovato, Gianfranco; Hofmann, Tino; Hage, David S

    2017-10-01

    The development of various nanomaterials over the last few decades has led to many applications for these materials in liquid chromatography (LC). This review will look at the types of nanomaterials that have been incorporated into LC systems and the applications that have been explored for such systems. A number of carbon-based nanomaterials and inorganic nanomaterials have been considered for use in LC, ranging from carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and nanodiamonds to metal nanoparticles and nanostructures based on silica, alumina, zirconia and titanium dioxide. Many ways have been described for incorporating these nanomaterials into LC systems. These methods have included covalent immobilization, adsorption, entrapment, and the synthesis or direct development of nanomaterials as part of a chromatographic support. Nanomaterials have been used in many types of LC. These applications have included the reversed-phase, normal-phase, ion-exchange, and affinity modes of LC, as well as related methods such as chiral separations, ion-pair chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Both small and large analytes (e.g., dyes, drugs, amino acids, peptides and proteins) have been used to evaluate possible applications for these nanomaterial-based methods. The use of nanomaterials in columns, capillaries and planar chromatography has been considered as part of these efforts. Potential advantages of nanomaterials in these applications have included their good chemical and physical stabilities, the variety of interactions many nanomaterials can have with analytes, and their unique retention properties in some separation formats. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2016-01-01

    examples from industrial production, in which the added value of metrology in manufacturing is discussed and quantified. Case studies include: general manufacturing, forging, machining, and related metrology. The focus of the paper is on the improved effectiveness of metrology when used at product...... and process design stages, as well as on the improved accuracy and efficiency of manufacturing through better measuring equipment and process chains with integrated metrology for process control.......In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...

  17. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  18. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    daring research proposal, even if it interprets 'nano' somewhat too generously. After all, we want to promote top-class research and not average research just for the sake of 'nano'. Interfaces, material growth at given nano positions, shaping materials to a given nanosize and form, and bistability are key elements for functionalizing materials. InterfacesThe role of interfaces is rapidly increasing in science and technology. The number of interfaces increases with the square of the number of phases of materials. Even if the majority of them are impractical or useless, they are still much more abundant than the materials themselves, and they are the key to new functions. Think of the simple 'mechanical' interface responsible for the lotus effect where wetting is prevented by the rapidly changing surface curvature due to nanoparticles. Think of all the connections of a nanometer-sized area between very different materials, for example, for electron or spin transport. Think of the delicate interfaces that protect nanofunctional units from the environment but allow for communication of various types with other nanocomponents or with the macroscopic world. The solid-liquid interface plays a special role here. For me, it is the interface of the future, both for local growth and removal of nm3 quantities and for working with biological specimens requiring a liquid environment. Interfaces are the 'faces of action' and nanoscale materials science will be, to a great extent, 'interface science'. There is no need to change the name; attentive awareness suffices. Material growth at given nano positionsThis is the second central challenge in nanoscale materials science, but maybe still a futuristic one. We have heard much about the extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes. They do a great job in certain applications, like tips of scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopes or nanoinjection needles or as bundles for electron emission or electron transport. As single carbon

  19. Applications of radiotracer techniques for the toxicology studies of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuhui; Zhang Zhiyong; Zhang Yuan; He Xiao; Zhang Haifeng; Chai Zhifang

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanosciences and nanotechnology, a wide variety of manufactured nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. While nanomaterials possess more novel and unique physicochemical properties than bulk materials, they also have an unpredictable impact on human health. In the toxicology studies of nanomaterials, it is essential to know the basic behaviors in vivo, that is absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of these newly designed materials. Radiotracer techniques are especially well suited to such studies and has got the chance to demonstrate its enchantment. In this presentation, studies on radiotracer techniques used in nanotoxicology will be reviewed and new progresses at Institute of High Energy Physics, including the label methods and behaviors of labeled nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and nanometer metal oxide in animals and in aquatic environments will be reported. (authors)

  20. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  1. Critical issues in overlay metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Neal T.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, following an overview of overlay metrology, the difficult relationship of overlay with device performance and yield is discussed and supported with several examples. This is followed by a discussion of the impending collision of metrology equipment performance and 'real' process tolerances for sub 0.18 um technologies. This convergence of tolerance and performance is demonstrated to lead to the current emergence of real-time overlay modeling in a feed-forward/feedback process environment and the associated metrology/sampling implications. This modeling takes advantage of the wealth of understanding concerning the systematic behavior of overlay registration errors. Finally, the impact of new process technologies (RET, OAI, CPSM, CMP, and etc.) on the measurement target is discussed and shown to de-stabilize overlay performance on standard overlay measurement target designs

  2. Dimensional micro and nano metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Haitjema, Han

    2006-01-01

    The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer these chal......The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer...... these challenges. The developments have to include new measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration. The current paper describes issues and challenges in dimensional micro and nano metrology by reviewing typical measurement tasks and available...

  3. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  4. Metrology challenges for high-rate nanomanufacturing of polymer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Joey; Barry, Carol; Busnaina, Ahmed; Isaacs, Jacqueline

    2012-10-01

    The transfer of nanoscience accomplishments into commercial products is hindered by the lack of understanding of barriers to nanoscale manufacturing. We have developed a number of nanomanufacturing processes that leverage available high-rate plastics fabrication technologies. These processes include directed assembly of a variety of nanoelements, such as nanoparticles and nanotubes, which are then transferred onto a polymer substrate for the fabrication of conformal/flexible electronic materials, among other applications. These assembly processes utilize both electric fields and/or chemical functionalization. Conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes have been successfully transferred to a polymer substrate in times less than 5 minutes, which is commercially relevant and can be utilized in a continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) process. Other processes include continuous high volume mixing of nanoelements (CNTs, etc) into polymers, multi-layer extrusion and 3D injection molding of polymer structures. These nanomanufacturing processes can be used for wide range of applications, including EMI shielding, flexible electronics, structural materials, and novel sensors (specifically for chem/bio detection). Current techniques to characterize the quality and efficacy of the processes are quite slow. Moreover, the instrumentation and metrology needs for these manufacturing processes are varied and challenging. Novel, rapid, in-line metrology to enable the commercialization of these processes is critically needed. This talk will explore the necessary measurement needs for polymer based nanomanufacturing processes for both step and continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) processes.

  5. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nano-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Eyler; Michel Junker; Emanuelle Breysse Carraboeuf; Laurent Allidieres; David Guichardot; Fabien Roy; Isabelle Verdier; Edward Mc Rae; Moulay Rachid Babaa; Gilles Flamant; David Luxembourg; Daniel Laplaze; Patrick Achard; Sandrine Berthon-Fabry; David Langohr; Laurent Fulcheri

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a French project related to hydrogen storage in carbon nano-materials. This 3 years project, co-funded by the ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and the Energy Management), aimed to assess the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nano-materials. Four different carbon materials were synthesized and characterized in the frame of present project: - Carbon Nano-tubes; - Carbon Nano-fibres; - Carbon Aerogel; - Carbon Black. All materials tested in the frame of this project present a hydrogen uptake of less than 1 wt% (-20 C to 20 C). A state of the art of hydrogen storage systems has been done in order to determine the research trends and the maturity of the different technologies. The choice and design of hydrogen storage systems regarding fuel cell specifications has also been studied. (authors)

  6. Toxicology of Nanomaterials: Permanent interactive learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castranova Vince

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particle and Fibre Toxicology wants to play a decisive role in a time where particle research is challenged and driven by the developments and applications of nanomaterials. This aim is not merely quantitative in publishing a given number of papers on nanomaterials, but also qualitatively since the field of nanotoxicology is rapidly emerging and benchmarks for good science are needed. Since then a number of things have happened that merit further analysis. The interactive learning issue is best shown by report and communications on the toxicology of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT. A special workshop on the CNT has now been organized twice in Nagano (Japan and this editorial contains a summary of the most important outcomes. Finally, we take the opportunity discuss some recent reports from the nanotech literature, and more specifically a Chinese study that claims severe consequences of nanoparticle exposure.

  7. Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.

  8. Celtiberian metrology and its romanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A. CURCHIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celtiberian metrology has scarcely been investigated until now, with the exception of coin weights. On the basis of measurements of pre-Roman mud bricks, a Celtiberian foot of 24 cm is proposed. With regard to weights, we can accept a module of 9 g for silver jewelry and some bronze coins; however, loom weights do not conform to any metrological system. Over time, Roman measures of length (as indicated by the dimensions of bricks, tiles and architectural monuments and weight were adopted.

  9. Metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arienzo, Marco; Capogni, Marco; Smyth, Vere; Cox, Maurice; Johansson, Lena; Bobin, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT), on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT) is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided. (authors)

  10. Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P. A.; Murashov, V.; Zumwalde, R.; Kuempel, E. D.; Geraci, C. L.

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials limits the number of specific OELs that are likely to be developed in the near future, but OELs could be developed more expeditiously for nanomaterials by applying dose-response data generated from animal studies for specific nanoparticles across categories of nanomaterials with similar properties and modes of action. This article reviews the history, context, and approaches for developing OELs for particles in general and nanoparticles in particular. Examples of approaches for developing OELs for titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are presented and interim OELs from various organizations for some nanomaterials are discussed. When adequate dose-response data are available in animals or humans, quantitative risk assessment methods can provide estimates of adverse health risk of nanomaterials in workers and, in conjunction with workplace exposure and control data, provide a basis for determining appropriate exposure limits. In the absence of adequate quantitative data, qualitative approaches to hazard assessment, exposure control, and safe work practices are prudent measures to reduce hazards in workers.

  11. Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Murashov, V.; Zumwalde, R.; Kuempel, E. D.; Geraci, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials limits the number of specific OELs that are likely to be developed in the near future, but OELs could be developed more expeditiously for nanomaterials by applying dose-response data generated from animal studies for specific nanoparticles across categories of nanomaterials with similar properties and modes of action. This article reviews the history, context, and approaches for developing OELs for particles in general and nanoparticles in particular. Examples of approaches for developing OELs for titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are presented and interim OELs from various organizations for some nanomaterials are discussed. When adequate dose-response data are available in animals or humans, quantitative risk assessment methods can provide estimates of adverse health risk of nanomaterials in workers and, in conjunction with workplace exposure and control data, provide a basis for determining appropriate exposure limits. In the absence of adequate quantitative data, qualitative approaches to hazard assessment, exposure control, and safe work practices are prudent measures to reduce hazards in workers.

  12. Biological interactions of carbon-based nanomaterials: From coronation to degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Mukherjee, Sourav P; Gallud, Audrey; Burkert, Seth C; Bistarelli, Silvia; Bellucci, Stefano; Bottini, Massimo; Star, Alexander; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, fullerenes and nanodiamonds are potential candidates for various applications in medicine such as drug delivery and imaging. However, the successful translation of nanomaterials for biomedical applications is predicated on a detailed understanding of the biological interactions of these materials. Indeed, the potential impact of the so-called bio-corona of proteins, lipids, and other biomolecules on the fate of nanomaterials in the body should not be ignored. Enzymatic degradation of carbon-based nanomaterials by immune-competent cells serves as a special case of bio-corona interactions with important implications for the medical use of such nanomaterials. In the present review, we highlight emerging biomedical applications of carbon-based nanomaterials. We also discuss recent studies on nanomaterial 'coronation' and how this impacts on biodistribution and targeting along with studies on the enzymatic degradation of carbon-based nanomaterials, and the role of surface modification of nanomaterials for these biological interactions. Advances in technology have produced many carbon-based nanomaterials. These are increasingly being investigated for the use in diagnostics and therapeutics. Nonetheless, there remains a knowledge gap in terms of the understanding of the biological interactions of these materials. In this paper, the authors provided a comprehensive review on the recent biomedical applications and the interactions of various carbon-based nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yanmei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  14. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qiu; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2008-08-01

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  15. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  16. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  17. Formula of an ideal carbon nanomaterial supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuilova, Larissa; Frenkel, Alexander; Samuilov, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Supercapacitors exhibit great potential as high-performance energy sources for a large variety of potential applications, ranging from consumer electronics through wearable optoelectronics to hybrid electric vehicles. We focuse on carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotube films, 3-D graphene, graphene oxide due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties. We have developed a simple approach to lower the equivalent series resistance by fabricating electrodes of arbitrary thickness using carbon nanotube films and reduced graphene oxide based composites. Besides of the problem of increasing of the capacitance, the minimization of the loss tangent (dissipation factor) is marginal for the future development of the supercapacitors. This means, not only a very well developed surface area of the electrodes, but the role of the good quality of the porous separator and the electrolyte are important. We address these factors as well.

  18. Neutron metrology in the HFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraakman, R.; Voorbraak, W.P.

    1993-04-01

    Additional to the in-core EXOTIC experiments, six irradiations of ceramic material, R212-001 to R212-006, have been performed in the PSF of the HFR. This note presents the neutron metrology results for these irradiations. (orig.)

  19. Towards Safer Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    As nanomaterials become more widespread in everything from industrial processes to consumer products, concerns about human and environmental safety are being taken increasingly more seriously. In our research we are working with minimizing the impact and risks of engineered nanomaterials by looking...... or the exposure and optimally both. Examples include the 5 SAFER principles (Morose, 2010) or screenings of early warning signs (Hansen et al., 2013). Taking the full life cycle of nanomaterials into account, the principles of Green chemistry and Green engineering could also prove useful to reduce...... the environmental impact of nanomaterials (Eckelman et al., 2008). Our research interests include the feasibility of “safer-­‐by-­‐design” approaches, the production of greener nanomaterials and operationalization, adaption and creation of frameworks to facilitate safety engineering. Research and insight...

  20. Metrology and ionospheric observation standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panshin, Evgeniy; Minligareev, Vladimir; Pronin, Anton

    Accuracy and ionospheric observation validity are urgent trends nowadays. WMO, URSI and national metrological and standardisation services bring forward requirements and descriptions of the ionospheric observation means. Researches in the sphere of metrological and standardisation observation moved to the next level in the Russian Federation. Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics (IAG) is in charge of ionospheric observation in the Russian Federation and the National Technical Committee, TC-101 , which was set up on the base of IAG- of the standardisation in the sphere. TC-101 can be the platform for initiation of the core international committee in the network of ISO The new type of the ionosounde “Parus-A” is engineered, which is up to the national requirements. “Parus-A” calibration and test were conducted by National metrological Institute (NMI) -D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), signed CIMP MRA in 1991. VNIIM is a basic NMI in the sphere of Space weather (including ionospheric observations), the founder of which was celebrated chemist and metrologist Dmitriy I. Mendeleyev. Tests and calibration were carried out for the 1st time throughout 50-year-history of ionosonde exploitation in Russia. The following metrological characteristics were tested: -measurement range of radiofrequency time delay 0.5-10 ms; -time measurement inaccuracy of radio- frequency pulse ±12mcs; -frequency range of radio impulse 1-20 MHz ; -measurement inaccuracy of radio impulse carrier frequency± 5KHz. For example, the sound impulse simulator that was built-in in the ionosounde was used for measurement range of radiofrequency time delay testing. The number of standards on different levels is developed. - “Ionospheric observation guidance”; - “The Earth ionosphere. Terms and definitions”.

  1. Carbon nanotube based stationary phases for microchip chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    already been demonstrated in more classical formats, for improved separation performance in gas and liquid chromatography, and for unique applications in solid phase extraction. Carbon nanotubes are now also entering the field of microfluidics, where there is a large potential to be able to provide......The objective of this article is to provide an overview and critical evaluation of the use of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microchip chromatography. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, such as a very high surface area and intriguing adsorptive behaviour, have...... integrated, tailor-made nanotube columns by means of catalytic growth of the nanotubes inside the fluidic channels. An evaluation of the different implementations of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microfluidic chromatography devices is given in terms of separation performance...

  2. Photo and radiation chemistry of polymeric systems and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaylov, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    New approaches of analytical ESR-spectroscopy to studying of free-radical and electron-transport processes at radiation-chemical and photochemical modification both fictionalization of polymeric systems and nanomaterials were surveyed. Measuring techniques using of ESR-spectroscopy of paramagnetic centers were fulfilled. The radiation-chemical processes of modification, microencapsulation and kinetic stabilization of thermodynamically incompatible systems and interfaces for nanomaterials including fullerenes, nanotubes, nanofibres, etc. and composites on the basis of synthetic and natural polymers including plant fibers, fluoropolymers, polyolefins, etc. were developed

  3. Nanomaterials application in electrochemical detection of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragay, Gemma; Merkoçi, Arben

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review the recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. ► Different types of nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, different carbon nanomaterials or nanochannels have been applied on the electrochemical analysis of heavy metals in various sensing formats/configurations. ► The great properties of nanomaterials allow the new devices to show advantages in terms of sensing performance (i.e. increase the sensitivity, decrease the detection limits and improve the stability). ► Between the various electrochemical techniques, voltammetric and potentiometric based ones are particularly taking interesting advantages by the incorporation of new nanomaterials due to the improved electrocatalytic properties beside the increase of the sensor's transducing area. - Abstract: Recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals are shown. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanochannels, graphene, etc. have been explored either as modifiers of electrodes or as new electrode materials with interest to be applied in electrochemical stripping analysis, ion-selective detection, field-effect transistors or other indirect heavy metals (bio)detection alternatives. The developed devices have shown increased sensitivity and decreased detection limits between other improvements of analytical performance data. The phenomena behind nanomaterials responses are also discussed and some typical responses data of the developed systems either in standard solutions or in real samples are given. The developed nanomaterials based electrochemical systems are giving new inputs to the existing devices or leading to the development of novel heavy metal detection tools with interest for applications in field such as diagnostics, environmental and safety and security controls or other industries.

  4. Silver nanoparticles: technological advances, societal impacts, and metrological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E.; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Murphy, Karen E.; Winchester, Michael R.; Vega Baudrit, José R.

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.

  5. Silver Nanoparticles: Technological Advances, Societal Impacts, and Metrological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Murphy, Karen E; Winchester, Michael R; Vega Baudrit, José R

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.

  6. SAQP pitch walk metrology using single target metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Herrera, Pedro; Kagalwala, Taher; Camp, Janay; Vaid, Alok; Pandev, Stilian; Zach, Franz

    2017-03-01

    Self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) processes have found widespread acceptance in advanced technology nodes to drive device scaling beyond the resolution limitations of immersion scanners. Of the four spaces generated in this process from one lithography pattern two tend to be equivalent as they are derived from the first spacer deposition. The three independent spaces are commonly labelled as α, β and γ. α, β and γ are controlled by multiple process steps including the initial lithographic patterning process, the two mandrel and spacer etches as well as the two spacer depositions. Scatterometry has been the preferred metrology approach, however is restricted to repetitive arrays. In these arrays independent measurements, in particular of alpha and gamma, are not possible due to degeneracy of the standard array targets. . In this work we present a single target approach which lifts the degeneracies commonly encountered while using product relevant layout geometries. We will first describe the metrology approach which includes the previously described SRM (signal response metrology) combined with reference data derived from CD SEM data. The performance of the methodology is shown in figures 1-3. In these figures the optically determined values for alpha, beta and gamma are compared to the CD SEM reference data. The variations are achieved using controlled process experiments varying Mandrel CD and Spacer deposition thicknesses.

  7. Reinforcement of cement-based matrices with graphite nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Muhammad Maqbool

    Cement-based materials offer a desirable balance of compressive strength, moisture resistance, durability, economy and energy-efficiency; their tensile strength, fracture energy and durability in aggressive environments, however, could benefit from further improvements. An option for realizing some of these improvements involves introduction of discrete fibers into concrete. When compared with today's micro-scale (steel, polypropylene, glass, etc.) fibers, graphite nanomaterials (carbon nanotube, nanofiber and graphite nanoplatelet) offer superior geometric, mechanical and physical characteristics. Graphite nanomaterials would realize their reinforcement potential as far as they are thoroughly dispersed within cement-based matrices, and effectively bond to cement hydrates. The research reported herein developed non-covalent and covalent surface modification techniques to improve the dispersion and interfacial interactions of graphite nanomaterials in cement-based matrices with a dense and well graded micro-structure. The most successful approach involved polymer wrapping of nanomaterials for increasing the density of hydrophilic groups on the nanomaterial surface without causing any damage to the their structure. The nanomaterials were characterized using various spectrometry techniques, and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The graphite nanomaterials were dispersed via selected sonication procedures in the mixing water of the cement-based matrix; conventional mixing and sample preparation techniques were then employed to prepare the cement-based nanocomposite samples, which were subjected to steam curing. Comprehensive engineering and durability characteristics of cement-based nanocomposites were determined and their chemical composition, microstructure and failure mechanisms were also assessed through various spectrometry, thermogravimetry, electron microscopy and elemental analyses. Both functionalized and non-functionalized nanomaterials as well as different

  8. Multi-functional carbon nanomaterials: Tailoring morphology for multidisciplinary applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dervishi, Enkeleda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Carbon based nanomaterials are being developed to have many new properties and applications. Graphene, is a mono-layer 2D atomic thick structure formed from hexagons of carbon atoms bound together by sp^2hybrid bonds. A carbon nanotube (CNT) can be viewed as a sheet of graphene rolled up into a cylinder, usually 1-2 nanometers in diameter and a few microns thick. A few applications of graphene and carbon nanotubes include the development of Nanoelectronics, nanocomposite materials, Hydrogen storage and Li⁺ battery, etc.

  9. Differential thermodynamic signature of carbon nanomaterials using amphiphilic micellar probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Tamoghna; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2018-04-01

    The thermodynamic signature of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (rG-O) using amphiphilic micellar probe has been explored. The study reveals an intricate correlation between nano-surface topology and calorimetric profile of SWCNTs, MWCNTs and rG-O. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is found to be sensitive to the topological diversity of nanomaterials. The study explores a thermodynamic approach to characterize the nano-surface topology of SWCNTs, MWCNTs and graphene surface.

  10. Synthesis and Application of Graphene Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei

    Graphene, a two-dimensional sp2-bonded carbon material, has recently attracted major attention due to its excellent electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Depending on different applications, graphene and its derived hybrid nanomaterials can be synthesized by either bottom-up chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for electronics, or various top-down chemical reaction methods for energy generation and storage devices. My thesis begins with the investigation of CVD synthesis of graphene thin films in Chapter 1, including the direct growth of bilayer graphene on insulating substrates and synthesis of "rebar graphene": a hybrid structure with graphene and carbon or boron nitride nanotubes. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis of nanoribbon-shaped materials and their applications, including splitting of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube carpets for supercapacitors, synthesis of dispersable ferromagnetic graphene nanoribbon stacks with enhanced electrical percolation properties in magnetic field, graphene nanoribbon/SnO 2 nanocomposite for lithium ion batteries, and enhanced electrocatalysis for hydrogen evolution reactions from WS2 nanoribbons. Next, Chapter 3 discusses graphene coated iron oxide nanomaterials and their use in energy storage applications. Finally, Chapter 4 introduces the development, characterization, and fabrication of laser induced graphene and its application as supercapacitors.

  11. Thermal Nanosystems and Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Volz, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Heat transfer laws for conduction, radiation and convection change when the dimensions of the systems in question shrink. The altered behaviours can be used efficiently in energy conversion, respectively bio- and high-performance materials to control microelectronic devices. To understand and model those thermal mechanisms, specific metrologies have to be established. This book provides an overview of actual devices and materials involving micro-nanoscale heat transfer mechanisms. These are clearly explained and exemplified by a large spectrum of relevant physical models, while the most advanced nanoscale thermal metrologies are presented.

  12. TSOM method for semiconductor metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attota, Ravikiran; Dixson, Ronald G.; Kramar, John A.; Potzick, James E.; Vladár, András E.; Bunday, Benjamin; Novak, Erik; Rudack, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) is a new metrology method that achieves 3D nanoscale measurement sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes; measurement sensitivities are comparable to what is typical when using scatterometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TSOM can be used in both reflection and transmission modes and is applicable to a variety of target materials and shapes. Nanometrology applications that have been demonstrated by experiments or simulations include defect analysis, inspection and process control; critical dimension, photomask, overlay, nanoparticle, thin film, and 3D interconnect metrologies; line-edge roughness measurements; and nanoscale movements of parts in MEMS/NEMS. Industries that could benefit include semiconductor, data storage, photonics, biotechnology, and nanomanufacturing. TSOM is relatively simple and inexpensive, has a high throughput, and provides nanoscale sensitivity for 3D measurements with potentially significant savings and yield improvements in manufacturing.

  13. Characterization of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montone, Amelia; Aurora, Annalisa; Di Girolamo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the main techniques used for the characterization of nanomaterials. The knowledge of some basic characteristics, inherent morphology, microstructure, the distribution phase and chemical composition, it is essential to evaluate the functional properties of nanomaterials and make predictions about their behavior in operation. For the characterization of nanomaterials can be used in both imaging techniques both analytic techniques. Among the first found wide application optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Among the latter some types of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For each type of material to characterize the choice of the most appropriate technique it is based on the type of details that you want to obtain, and on their scale. In this paper are discussed in detail some examples and the main methods used for the characterization of nanomaterials. [it

  14. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  15. Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) explores the unique properties of materials and processes at the nanoscale. The CFN is a user-oriented research center...

  16. Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bréchignac, Catherine; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanomaterials are a fast developing field of research and applications lie in many separate domains, such as in hi-tech (optics, electronics, biology, aeronautics), but also in consumer industries (automotive, concrete, surface treatments (including paints), cosmetics, etc.).

  17. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  18. Metrology and quality control handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, D.

    1983-01-01

    This book tries to present the fundamentals of metrology and quality control in brief surveys. Compromises had to be made in order to reduce the material available to a sensible volume for the sake of clarity. This becomes evident by the following two restrictions which had to made: First, in dealing with the theoretical principles of metrology and quality control, mere reference had to be made in many cases to the great variety of special literature without discussing it to explain further details. Second, in dealing with the application of metrology and quality control techniques in practice, only the basic qantities of the International System of Units (SI) could be taken into account as a rule. Some readers will note that many special measuring methods and equipment known to them are not included in this book. I do hope, however, that this short-coming will show to have a positive effect, too. This book will show the reader how to find the basic quantities and units from the derived quantities and units, and the steps that are necessary to solve any kind of measuring task. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Metrology at Philip Morris Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualandris R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the metrology function at Philip Morris Europe (PME, a multinational organisation producing at over 40 sites in the European, Middle Eastern and African Regions is presented. Standardisation of test methods and equipment as well as the traceability of calibration gauges to the same reference gauge are essential in order to obtain comparable results among the various production centers. The metrology function as well as the qualification of instruments and the drafting of test and calibration operating procedures for this region are conducted or co-ordinated by the Research and Development Department in Neuchatel, Switzerland. In this paper the metrology function within PME is presented based on the measurement of the resistance to draw for which the PME R&D laboratory is accredited (ISO/CEI 17025, as both a calibration and a testing laboratory. The following topics are addressed in this paper: traceability of calibration standards to national standards; comparison of results among manufacturing centres; the choice, the budget as well as the computation of uncertainties. Furthermore, some practical aspects related to the calibration and use of the glass multicapillary gauges are discussed.

  20. Flexible resources for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Nicolai; Orsucci, Davide; Skotiniotis, Michalis; Sekatski, Pavel; Dunjko, Vedran; Briegel, Hans J.; Dür, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Quantum metrology offers a quadratic advantage over classical approaches to parameter estimation problems by utilising entanglement and nonclassicality. However, the hurdle of actually implementing the necessary quantum probe states and measurements, which vary drastically for different metrological scenarios, is usually not taken into account. We show that for a wide range of tasks in metrology, 2D cluster states (a particular family of states useful for measurement-based quantum computation) can serve as flexible resources that allow one to efficiently prepare any required state for sensing, and perform appropriate (entangled) measurements using only single qubit operations. Crucially, the overhead in the number of qubits is less than quadratic, thus preserving the quantum scaling advantage. This is ensured by using a compression to a logarithmically sized space that contains all relevant information for sensing. We specifically demonstrate how our method can be used to obtain optimal scaling for phase and frequency estimation in local estimation problems, as well as for the Bayesian equivalents with Gaussian priors of varying widths. Furthermore, we show that in the paradigmatic case of local phase estimation 1D cluster states are sufficient for optimal state preparation and measurement.

  1. Flexible resources for quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friis, Nicolai; Orsucci, Davide; Skotiniotis, Michalis; Sekatski, Pavel; Dunjko, Vedran; Briegel, Hans J; Dür, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Quantum metrology offers a quadratic advantage over classical approaches to parameter estimation problems by utilising entanglement and nonclassicality. However, the hurdle of actually implementing the necessary quantum probe states and measurements, which vary drastically for different metrological scenarios, is usually not taken into account. We show that for a wide range of tasks in metrology, 2D cluster states (a particular family of states useful for measurement-based quantum computation) can serve as flexible resources that allow one to efficiently prepare any required state for sensing, and perform appropriate (entangled) measurements using only single qubit operations. Crucially, the overhead in the number of qubits is less than quadratic, thus preserving the quantum scaling advantage. This is ensured by using a compression to a logarithmically sized space that contains all relevant information for sensing. We specifically demonstrate how our method can be used to obtain optimal scaling for phase and frequency estimation in local estimation problems, as well as for the Bayesian equivalents with Gaussian priors of varying widths. Furthermore, we show that in the paradigmatic case of local phase estimation 1D cluster states are sufficient for optimal state preparation and measurement. (paper)

  2. Nanomaterials for biosensing applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHolzinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor device is defined by its biological, or bioinspired receptor unit with unique specificities towards corresponding analytes. These analytes are often of biological origin like DNAs or proteins from the immune system (antibodies, antigens of diseases or infections. Such analytes can also be simple molecules like glucose or pollutants when a biological receptor unit with particular specificity is available. One of many other challenges in biosensor development is the efficient signal capture of the biological recognition event (transduction. Such transducers translate the interaction of the analyte with the biological element into electrochemical, electrochemiluminescent, magnetic, gravimetric, or optical signals. In order to increase sensitivities and to lower detection limits down to even individual molecules, nanomaterials are promising candidates due to the possibility to immobilize an enhanced quantity of bioreceptor units at reduced volumes and even to act itself as transduction element. Among such nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles, semi-conductor quantum dots, polymer nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and graphene are intensively studied. Due to the vast evolution of this research field, this review summarizes in a non-exhaustive way the advantages of nanomaterials by focusing on nano-objects which provide further beneficial properties than just an enhanced surface area.

  3. Improving Metrological Reliability of Information-Measuring Systems Using Mathematical Modeling of Their Metrological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, R. Yu; Chernyshova, T. I.; Chernyshov, V. N.

    2018-05-01

    The algorithms for improving the metrological reliability of analogue blocks of measuring channels and information-measuring systems are developed. The proposed algorithms ensure the optimum values of their metrological reliability indices for a given analogue circuit block solution.

  4. Point and Line to Plane: The Ontography of Carbon Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Loeve , Sacha

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The carbons known today as fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene were all observed or theo-rized well before becoming emblematic nanomaterials. However, by the 1990s, their mode of existence was shifted from bench or brand objects to technoscientific objects. After focusing on the separate life-stories of these carbons, this chapter recounts how, by eventually interweaving their trajectories and mutually referring to each other, these objects have reborn as a family of l...

  5. Redox electrodes comprised of polymer-modified carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Emmett, Robert; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Physics Team; Clemson Chemical Engineering Team

    2013-03-01

    A shift in how we generate and use electricity requires new energy storage materials and systems compatible with hybrid electric transportation and the integration of renewable energy sources. Supercapacitors provide a solution to these needs by combining the high power, rapid switching, and exceptional cycle life of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Our research brings together nanotechnology and materials chemistry to address the limitations of electrode materials. Paper electrodes fabricated with various forms of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, are modified with redox-polymers to increase the electrode's energy density while maintaining rapid discharge rates. In these systems, the carbon nanomaterials provide the high surface area, electrical conductivity, nanoscale and porosity, while the redox polymers provide a mechanism for charge storage through Faradaic charge transfer. The design of redox polymers and their incorporation into nanomaterial electrodes will be discussed with a focus on enabling high power and high energy density electrodes.

  6. Introduction to nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanomaterials an introduction for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Vollath, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the demand for a readily understandable introduction to nanomaterials and nanotechnology, this textbook specifically addresses the needs of students - and engineers - who need to get the gist of nanoscale phenomena in materials without having to delve too deeply into the physical and chemical details. The book begins with an overview of the consequences of small particle size, such as the growing importance of surface effects, and covers successful, field-tested synthesis techniques of nanomaterials. The largest part of the book is devoted to the particular magnetic, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of materials at the nanoscale, leading on to emerging and already commercialized applications, such as nanofluids in magnetic resonance imaging, high-performance nanocomposites and carbon nanotube-based electronics. Based on the author's experience in teaching nanomaterials courses and adapted, in style and level, for students with only limited background knowledge, the textbook includes fur...

  7. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part I: TYPES OF CNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. The synthesis techniques are used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials such as zero-dimensional CNs (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nanodiamond, and onion-like carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene and carbon nanowalls.

  8. Metabolomic Analysis of Liver Cells Exposed to Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other graphenic nanomaterials are being used extensively in industrial, consumer, and mechanical applications based in part on their unique structural, optical and electronic properties. Due to the widespread use of these nanoparticles (NPs), human and...

  9. Biomedical Platforms Based on Composite Nanomaterials and Cellular Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Bergamaschi, A.; Bottini, M.; Magrini, A.; Mustelin, T.

    2007-03-01

    and diagnostic nanodevices. Our results suggest that carbon nanotubes indeed can be very toxic and induce massive loss of cell viability through programmed cell death at sufficiently high concentrations (>1ng/cell). The cytotoxicity of Carbon nanotubes does depend on many other factors than concentration, including their physical form, diameter, length, and the nature of attached molecules or nanomaterials: carbon black, for instance, is less toxic than pristine CNTs (what shows the relevance of structure and topology); oxidized CNTs are more toxic than pristine CNTs.

  10. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2018-01-30

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  11. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  12. Tools intented to nuclear metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munayco Tasayco, A.F.

    1980-08-01

    The study undertaken in the metrological laboratory of the C.E.N. Saclay Electronics Services is intended to improve the measurement methods in two fields concerning nuclear instrumentation: the current's measurement in the range 1pA to 0,01 pA and the study of a measurement's system for the linear circuits used in spectrometer gamma ray with semiconductor. Two systems are now working. Its permit an improvement of precision measurement, an automation of the measurement process and many possibilities in the choice of parameters and the laying-out of results [fr

  13. Primary calibration in acoustics metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhomem, T A Bacelar; Soares, Z M Defilippo

    2015-01-01

    SI unit in acoustics is realized by the reciprocity calibrations of laboratory standard microphones in pressure field, free field and diffuse field. Calibrations in pressure field and in free field are already consolidated and the Inmetro already done them. Calibration in diffuse field is not yet consolidated, however, some national metrology institutes, including Inmetro, are conducting researches on this subject. This paper presents the reciprocity calibration, the results of Inmetro in recent key comparisons and the research that is being developed for the implementation of reciprocity calibration in diffuse field

  14. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P. Barna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis.

  15. Opportunities and Risks in Semiconductor Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Peter

    2005-09-01

    New metrology opportunities are constantly emerging as the semiconductor industry attempts to meet scaling requirements. The paper summarizes some of the key FEOL and BEOL needs. These must be weighed against a number of considerations to ensure that they are good opportunities for the metrology equipment supplier. The paper discusses some of these considerations.

  16. Laboratorio de Metrología - LABM

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Ch., Zaira J.

    2011-01-01

    esos y transacciones de forma transparente y justa para todas las partes involucradas. Una herramienta necesaria para este propósito es la Metrología, ciencia que es utilizada en el Laboratorio de Metrología (LABM) del Centro Experimenta

  17. Emerging technology for astronomical optics metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Isaac; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kim, Dae Wook

    2018-05-01

    Next generation astronomical optics will enable science discoveries across all fields and impact the way we perceive the Universe in which we live. To build these systems, optical metrology tools have been developed that push the boundary of what is possible. We present a summary of a few key metrology technologies that we believe are critical for the coming generation of optical surfaces.

  18. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  19. LCA of Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Application of nanomaterials in products has led to an increase in number of nanoproducts introduced to the consumer market. However, along with new and improved products, there is a concern about the potential life cycle environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment is able to include a wide range...... of environmental impacts but, due to data limitations, it is commonly applied with focus on the cradle-to-gate part of the nanoproducts life cycle, neglecting use and disposal of the products. These studies conclude that nanomaterials are more energy demanding and have an inferior environmental profile than...

  20. Pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials: a critical comparison of published in vitro assays and in vivo inhalation or instillation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsiedel, Robert; Sauer, Ursula G; Ma-Hock, Lan; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Wiemann, Martin

    2014-11-01

    To date, guidance on how to incorporate in vitro assays into integrated approaches for testing and assessment of nanomaterials is unavailable. In addressing this shortage, this review compares data from in vitro studies to results from in vivo inhalation or intratracheal instillation studies. Globular nanomaterials (ion-shedding silver and zinc oxide, poorly soluble titanium dioxide and cerium dioxide, and partly soluble amorphous silicon dioxide) and nanomaterials with higher aspect ratios (multiwalled carbon nanotubes) were assessed focusing on the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) reference nanomaterials for these substances. If in vitro assays are performed with dosages that reflect effective in vivo dosages, the mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity can be assessed. In early tiers of integrated approaches for testing and assessment, knowledge on mechanisms of toxicity serves to group nanomaterials thereby reducing the need for animal testing.

  1. Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with graphite nanoparticles and carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang [Lexington, KY; Lockwood, Frances E [Georgetown, KY

    2008-03-25

    A fluid media such as oil or water, and a selected effective amount of carbon nanomaterials necessary to enhance the thermal conductivity of the fluid. One of the preferred carbon nanomaterials is a high thermal conductivity graphite, exceeding that of the neat fluid to be dispersed therein in thermal conductivity, and ground, milled, or naturally prepared with mean particle size less than 500 nm, and preferably less than 200 nm, and most preferably less than 100 nm. The graphite is dispersed in the fluid by one or more of various methods, including ultrasonication, milling, and chemical dispersion. Carbon nanotubes with graphitic structure is another preferred source of carbon nanomaterial, although other carbon nanomaterials are acceptable. To confer long term stability, the use of one or more chemical dispersants is preferred. The thermal conductivity enhancement, compared to the fluid without carbon nanomaterial, is proportional to the amount of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and/or graphite) added.

  2. Fractal Metrology for biogeosystems analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Torres-Argüelles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes of this complex system. In the present research, we studied the aggregation process as self-organizing and operating near a critical point. The structural pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate" Clay and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them measured in terms of standard deviation. Some of the applied methods are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc. while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM. We show the usefulness of FM for complex systems analysis through a case study of the soil's physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

  3. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  4. Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can be of crucial importance for the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways have also been shown to be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials, effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future.

  5. Exploring release and recovery of nanomaterials from commercial polymeric nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquets-Fité, Martí; Puntes, Víctor; Fernandez, Elisabet; Janer, Gemma; Vilar, Gemma; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro; Zanasca, R; Citterio, C; Mercante, L

    2013-01-01

    Much concern has been raised about the risks associated with the broad use of polymers containing nanomaterials. Much is known about degradation and aging of polymers and nanomaterials independently, but very few studies have been done in order to understand degradation of polymeric nanocomposites containing nanomaterials and the fate of these nanomaterials, which may occur in suffering many processes such as migration, release and physicochemical modifications. Throughout the UE funded FP7 project NANOPOLYTOX, studies on the migration, release and alteration of mechanical properties of commercial nanocomposites due to ageing and weathering have been performed along with studies on the feasibility of recovery and recycling of the nanomaterials. The project includes the use as model nanocomposites of Polyamide-6 (PA), Polypropylene (PP) and Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA) as polymeric matrix filled with a 3% in mass of a set of selected broadly used nanomaterials; from inorganic metal oxides nanoparticles (SiO2, TiO2 and ZnO) to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and Nanoclays. These model nanocomposites were then treated under accelerated ageing conditions in climatic chamber. To determine the degree of degradation of the whole nanocomposite and possible processes of migration, release and modification of the nanofillers, nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques. Additionally, recovery of the nanomaterials fro m the polymeric matrix was addressed, being successfully achieved for PA and PP based nanocomposites. In the case of PA, dissolution of the polymeric matrix using formic acid and further centrifugation steps was the chosen approach, while for PP based nanocomposites calcination was performed.

  6. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  7. Toxicity of nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Behzadi, Shahed; Laurent, Sophie; Forrest, M. Laird; Stroeve, Pieter; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There

  8. Predicted phototoxicities of carbon nano-material by quantum mechanical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research is to develop a predictive model for the phototoxicity potential of carbon nanomaterials (fullerenols and single-walled carbon nanotubes). This model is based on the quantum mechanical (ab initio) calculations on these carbon-based materials and compa...

  9. Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials as Active Layer Components in Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Tejas Attreya

    Thin-film photovoltaics offer the promise of cost-effective and scalable solar energy conversion, particularly for applications of semi-transparent solar cells where the poor absorption of commercially-available silicon is inadequate. Applications ranging from roof coatings that capture solar energy to semi-transparent windows that harvest the immense amount of incident sunlight on buildings could be realized with efficient and stable thin-film solar cells. However, the lifetime and efficiency of thin-film solar cells continue to trail their inorganic silicon counterparts. Low-dimensional nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides, have recently been explored as materials in thin-film solar cells due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties, solution-processability, and chemical inertness. Thus far, issues with the processing of these materials has held back their implementation in efficient photovoltaics. This dissertation reports processing advances that enable demonstrations of low-dimensional nanomaterials in thin-film solar cells. These low-dimensional photovoltaics show enhanced photovoltaic efficiency and environmental stability in comparison to previous devices, with a focus on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes as an active layer component. The introduction summarizes recent advances in the processing of carbon nanotubes and their implementation through the thin-film photovoltaic architecture, as well as the use of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides in photovoltaic applications and potential future directions for all-nanomaterial solar cells. The following chapter reports a study of the interaction between carbon nanotubes and surfactants that enables them to be sorted by electronic type via density gradient ultracentrifugation. These insights are utilized to construct of a broad distribution of carbon nanotubes that absorb throughout the solar spectrum. This polychiral distribution is then shown

  10. Future metrology needs for FEL reflective optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.

    2000-01-01

    An International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics has been held March 16-17, 2000, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois (USA). The workshop gathered engineers and scientists from both the U.S. and around the world to evaluate metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize surface figure and finish for long grazing incidence optics used in beamlines at synchrotrons radiation sources. This two-day workshop was motivated by the rapid evolution in the performance of x-ray and neutron sources along with requirements in optics figure and finish. More specifically, the performance of future light sources, such as free-electron laser (FEL)-based x-ray sources, is being pushed to new limits in term of both brilliance and coherence. As a consequence, tolerances on surface figure and finish of the next generation of optics are expected to become tighter. The timing of the workshop provided an excellent opportunity to study the problem, evaluate the state of the art in metrology instrumentation, and stimulate innovation on future metrology instruments and techniques to be used to characterize these optics. This paper focuses on FEL optics and metrology needs. (A more comprehensive summary of the workshop can be found elsewhere.) The performance and limitations of current metrology instrumentation will be discussed and recommendations from the workshop on future metrology development to meet the FEL challenges will be detailed

  11. Future metrology needs for FEL reflective optics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assoufid, L.

    2000-09-21

    An International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics has been held March 16-17, 2000, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois (USA). The workshop gathered engineers and scientists from both the U.S. and around the world to evaluate metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize surface figure and finish for long grazing incidence optics used in beamlines at synchrotrons radiation sources. This two-day workshop was motivated by the rapid evolution in the performance of x-ray and neutron sources along with requirements in optics figure and finish. More specifically, the performance of future light sources, such as free-electron laser (FEL)-based x-ray sources, is being pushed to new limits in term of both brilliance and coherence. As a consequence, tolerances on surface figure and finish of the next generation of optics are expected to become tighter. The timing of the workshop provided an excellent opportunity to study the problem, evaluate the state of the art in metrology instrumentation, and stimulate innovation on future metrology instruments and techniques to be used to characterize these optics. This paper focuses on FEL optics and metrology needs. (A more comprehensive summary of the workshop can be found elsewhere.) The performance and limitations of current metrology instrumentation will be discussed and recommendations from the workshop on future metrology development to meet the FEL challenges will be detailed.

  12. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance.

  13. Immobilization Techniques in the Fabrication of Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina J. Ronkainen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.

  14. Bayesian estimation methods in metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.G.; Forbes, A.B.; Harris, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    In metrology -- the science of measurement -- a measurement result must be accompanied by a statement of its associated uncertainty. The degree of validity of a measurement result is determined by the validity of the uncertainty statement. In recognition of the importance of uncertainty evaluation, the International Standardization Organization in 1995 published the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and the Guide has been widely adopted. The validity of uncertainty statements is tested in interlaboratory comparisons in which an artefact is measured by a number of laboratories and their measurement results compared. Since the introduction of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement, key comparisons are being undertaken to determine the degree of equivalence of laboratories for particular measurement tasks. In this paper, we discuss the possible development of the Guide to reflect Bayesian approaches and the evaluation of key comparison data using Bayesian estimation methods

  15. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  16. Neutron metrology in the HFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polle, A.N.; Voorbraak, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The experiment R-139-416 for testing the stainless steel type 316L(N) has been irradiated in the HFR Petten. This report presents the final metrology results obtained from activation monitors near the CT-specimen (Compact Tension). Data about the helium production as well as the number of displacements per atom are also included. The irradiation conditions for this experiment, carried out in a REFA-170 type capsule in the HFR position H8, are as close as possible to the conditions of the EFR (European Fast Reactor) above-core structures. The main results of the thermal and fast neutron fluence measurements are presented in table 1 and in figure 1. (author). 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

  17. Metrological aspects of enzyme production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerber, T M; Pereira-Meirelles, F V; Dellamora-Ortiz, G M

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes are frequently used in biotechnology to carry out specific biological reactions, either in industrial processes or for the production of bioproducts and drugs. Microbial lipases are an important group of biotechnologically valuable enzymes that present widely diversified applications. Lipase production by microorganisms is described in several published papers; however, none of them refer to metrological evaluation and the estimation of the uncertainty in measurement. Moreover, few of them refer to process optimization through experimental design. The objectives of this work were to enhance lipase production in shaken-flasks with Yarrowia lipolytica cells employing experimental design and to evaluate the uncertainty in measurement of lipase activity. The highest lipolytic activity obtained was about three- and fivefold higher than the reported activities of CRMs BCR-693 and BCR-694, respectively. Lipase production by Y. lipolytica cells aiming the classification as certified reference material is recommended after further purification and stability studies

  18. Context-based virtual metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Peter; Urbanowicz, Adam M.; Likhachev, Dmitriy; Hartig, Carsten; Shifrin, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid and data feed forward methodologies are well established for advanced optical process control solutions in highvolume semiconductor manufacturing. Appropriate information from previous measurements, transferred into advanced optical model(s) at following step(s), provides enhanced accuracy and exactness of the measured topographic (thicknesses, critical dimensions, etc.) and material parameters. In some cases, hybrid or feed-forward data are missed or invalid for dies or for a whole wafer. We focus on approaches of virtual metrology to re-create hybrid or feed-forward data inputs in high-volume manufacturing. We discuss missing data inputs reconstruction which is based on various interpolation and extrapolation schemes and uses information about wafer's process history. Moreover, we demonstrate data reconstruction approach based on machine learning techniques utilizing optical model and measured spectra. And finally, we investigate metrics that allow one to assess error margin of virtual data input.

  19. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mostofizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanomaterials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials such as zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nanodiamond, and onion-like carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene and carbon nanowalls are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nanomaterials.

  20. The potential of protein-nanomaterial interaction for advanced drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiang; Mu, Huiling

    2016-03-10

    Nanomaterials, like nanoparticles, micelles, nano-sheets, nanotubes and quantum dots, have great potentials in biomedical fields. However, their delivery is highly limited by the formation of protein corona upon interaction with endogenous proteins. This new identity, instead of nanomaterial itself, would be the real substance the organs and cells firstly encounter. Consequently, the behavior of nanomaterials in vivo is uncontrollable and some undesired effects may occur, like rapid clearance from blood stream; risk of capillary blockage; loss of targeting capacity; and potential toxicity. Therefore, protein-nanomaterial interaction is a great challenge for nanomaterial systems and should be inhibited. However, this interaction can also be used to functionalize nanomaterials by forming a selected protein corona. Unlike other decoration using exogenous molecules, nanomaterials functionalized by selected protein corona using endogenous proteins would have greater promise for clinical use. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of protein-nanomaterial interaction. Importantly, a discussion about how to use such interaction is launched and some possible applications of such interaction for advanced drug delivery are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  2. Functionalization and large scale assembly of carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Assembly of nanoparticles provides effective building blocks for physical, chemical and biological systems which have surprisingly collective intrinsic physical properties. One-dimensional nanomaterials are one of the most spectacular and promising candidates for technological application in the field of nanotechnology. Single-walled carbon nanotubes represent an anisotropic and perfectly one-dimensional group of nanomaterials with extraordinary electronic, mechanical, chemical and thermal pr...

  3. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area. (paper)

  4. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Makoto, E-mail: ema-makoto@aist.go.jp; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-05-15

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in rodents. The developmental toxicity of ENMs included not only structural abnormalities, but also death, growth retardation, and behavioral and functional abnormalities. Most studies were performed on mice using an injection route of exposure. Teratogenic effects were indicated when multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles were administered to mice during early gestation. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in placentas and malformed fetuses and their placentas after prenatal exposure to MWCNTs and SWCNTs, respectively. The pre- and postnatal mortalities and growth retardation in offspring increased after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Histopathological and functional abnormalities were also induced in placentas after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Maternal exposure to ENMs induced behavioral alterations, histopathological and biochemical changes in the central nervous system, increased susceptibility to allergy, transplacental genotoxicity, and vascular, immunological, and reproductive effects in offspring. The size- and developmental stage-dependent placental transfer of ENMs was noted after maternal exposure. Silver accumulated in the visceral yolk sac after being injected with Ag-NPs during early gestation. Although currently available data has provided initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of ENMs, that on the developmental toxicity of ENMs is still very limited. Further studies using well-characterized ENMs, state-of the-art study protocols, and appropriate routes of exposure are required in order to clarify these developmental effects and provide information suitable for risk assessments of ENMs. - Highlights: • We review the developmental toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). • Various developmental endpoints have been

  5. Applied spectroscopy and the science of nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on several areas of intense topical interest related to applied spectroscopy and the science of nanomaterials. The eleven chapters in the book cover the following areas of interest relating to applied spectroscopy and nanoscience: ·         Raman spectroscopic characterization, modeling and simulation studies of carbon nanotubes, ·         Characterization of plasma discharges using laser optogalvanic spectroscopy, ·         Fluorescence anisotropy in understanding protein conformational disorder and aggregation, ·         Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in nanomedicine, ·         Calculation of Van der Waals interactions at the nanoscale, ·         Theory and simulation associated with adsorption of gases in nanomaterials, ·         Atom-precise metal nanoclusters, ·         Plasmonic properties of metallic nanostructures, two-dimensional materials, and their composites, ·         Applications of graphe...

  6. Non-quantum electronic responses of zinc oxide nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hansoo; Kim, Younghyun

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the high surface-to-volume ratio of ZnO nanomaterials, whose sizes are large enough to exclude the quantum effect, on electronic properties was investigated by spatially resolved valence electron energy loss spectroscopy. ZnO nanowires, nanoplates, and nanotubes with different sizes were fabricated and characterized. Both the reduced volume and the increased surface area of the large ZnO nanomaterials were found to be able to modify electronic properties significantly. Hence, a nanoplate and a nanotube with very small volumes show unique energy loss functions and dielectric functions different from those of bulk ZnO at all the probe points. On the other hand, a nanowire with a relatively large diameter (70 nm) has electronic properties similar to those of bulk ZnO at the center. However, they are dissimilar at the edge of the nanowire due to the component of surface parallel to the electron path and the reduced interaction volume. Moreover, some interband transitions shift positions and bulk plasmons change oscillator strength depending upon the size of the volume and the geometry of the surface. These empirical results demonstrate that semiconducting nanomaterials larger than the exciton Bohr radius can still behave differently from bulk materials due to the high ratio between surface area and volume. (paper)

  7. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  9. Preparation and thermal properties characterization of carbonate salt/carbon nanomaterial composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.B.; Lin, C.H.; He, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite phase change materials were prepared and characterized. • Larger specific surface area is more efficient to enhance specific heat. • Columnar structure is more efficient to enhance thermal conductivity. • Thermal conductivity enhancement is the key. • Single walled carbon nanotube is the optimal nanomaterial additive. - Abstract: To enhance the performance of high temperature salt phase change material, four kinds of carbon nanomaterials with different microstructures were mixed into binary carbonate eutectic salts to prepare carbonate salt/nanomaterial composite phase change material. The microstructures of the nanomaterial and composite phase change material were characterized by scanning electron microscope. The thermal properties such as melting point, melting enthalpy, specific heat, thermal conductivity and total thermal energy storage capacity were characterized. The results show that the nanomaterial microstructure has great effects on composite phase change material thermal properties. The sheet structure Graphene is the best additive to enhance specific heat, which could be enhanced up to 18.57%. The single walled carbon nanotube with columnar structure is the best additive to enhance thermal conductivity, which could be enhanced up to 56.98%. Melting point increases but melting enthalpy decreases with nanomaterial specific surface area increase. Although the additives decrease the melting enthalpy of composite phase change material, they also enhance the specific heat. As a combined result, the additives have little effects on thermal energy storage capacity. So, for phase change material performance enhancement, more emphasis should be placed on thermal conductivity enhancement and single walled carbon nanotube is the optimal nanomaterial additive

  10. The quality of measurements a metrological reference

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, A E

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a detailed discussion and commentary on the fundamentals of metrology. The fundamentals of metrology, the principles underlying the design of the SI International System of units, the theory of measurement error, a new methodology for estimation of measurement accuracy based on uncertainty, and methods for reduction of measured results and estimation of measurement uncertainty are all discussed from a modern point of view. The concept of uncertainty is shown to be consistent with the classical theory of accuracy. The theory of random measurement errors is supplemented by a very general description based on the generalized normal distribution; systematic instrumental error is described in terms of a methodology for normalizing the metrological characteristics of measuring instruments. A new international system for assuring uniformity of measurements based on agreements between national metrological institutes is discussed, in addition to the role and procedure for performance of key compari...

  11. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  12. UPWIND 1A2 Metrology. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eecen, P.J.; Wagenaar, J.W.; Stefanatos, N.

    . Since this problem covers many areas of wind energy, the work package is defined as a crosscutting activity. The objectives of the metrology work package are to develop metrology tools in wind energy to significantly enhance the quality of measurement and testing techniques. The first deliverable...... is a valuable tool for the further assessment and interest has been shown from other work packages, such as Training. This report describes the activities that have been carried out in the Work Package 1A2 Metrology of the UpWind project. Activities from Risø are described in a separate report: T.F. Pedersen...... was to perform a state of the art assessment to identify all relevant measurands. The required accuracies and required sampling frequencies have been identified from the perspective of the users of the data (the other work packages in UpWind). This work led to the definition of the Metrology Database, which...

  13. Tissue-specific direct microtransfer of nanomaterials into Drosophila embryos as a versatile in vivo test bed for nanomaterial toxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega-Alvarez S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sasha Vega-Alvarez,1 Adriana Herrera,2 Carlos Rinaldi,2–4 Franklin A Carrero-Martínez1,5 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico; 3J Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico Abstract: Nanomaterials are the subject of intense research, focused on their synthesis, modification, and biomedical applications. Increased nanomaterial production and their wide range of applications imply a higher risk of human and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, neither environmental effects nor toxicity of nanomaterials to organisms are fully understood. Cost-effective, rapid toxicity assays requiring minimal amounts of materials are needed to establish both their biomedical potential and environmental safety standards. Drosophila exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective model organism with a vast repertoire of in vivo tools and techniques, all with high-throughput scalability and screening feasibility throughout its life cycle. Here we report tissue specific nanomaterial assessment through direct microtransfer into target tissues. We tested several nanomaterials with potential biomedical applications such as single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide nanoparticles. Assessment of nanomaterial toxicity was conducted by evaluating progression through developmental morphological milestones in Drosophila. This cost-effective assessment method is amenable to high-throughput screening. Keywords: nanotoxicity, Drosophila, microtransfer, nanoparticle, iron oxide, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, carbon nanotube

  14. Nanomaterials in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    This paper considers engineered nanomaterials, deliberately engineered and manufactured to have certain properties and have at least one primary dimension of less than 100 nm. Materials produced with the aid of nanotechnologies are used in many areas of everyday life. Researches with nanomaterials have shown that the physiochemical characteristic of particles can influence their effects in biological systems. The field of nanotechnology has created risk for environment and human health. The toxicity of nanoparticles may be affected by different physicochemical properties, including size, shape, chemistry, surface properties, agglomeration, solubility, and charge, as well as effects from attached functional groups and crystalline structure. The greater surface-area-to-mass ratio of nanoparticles makes them generally more reactive than their macro-sized counterparts. Exposure to nanomaterials can occur at different life-cycle stages of the materials and/or products. The knowledge gaps limiting the understanding of the human and environment hazard and risk of nanotechnology should be explained by the scientific investigations for help to protect human and environmental health and to ensure the benefits of the nanotechnology products without excessive risk of this new technology. In this review are presented the proposal measurement methods for NMs characteristic.

  15. Smart nanomaterials for biomedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonmo; Tripathi, Anuj; Singh, Deepti

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology has become important in various disciplines of technology and science. It has proven to be a potential candidate for various applications ranging from biosensors to the delivery of genes and therapeutic agents to tissue engineering. Scaffolds for every application can be tailor made to have the appropriate physicochemical properties that will influence the in vivo system in the desired way. For highly sensitive and precise detection of specific signals or pathogenic markers, or for sensing the levels of particular analytes, fabricating target-specific nanomaterials can be very useful. Multi-functional nano-devices can be fabricated using different approaches to achieve multi-directional patterning in a scaffold with the ability to alter topographical cues at scale of less than or equal to 100 nm. Smart nanomaterials are made to understand the surrounding environment and act accordingly by either protecting the drug in hostile conditions or releasing the "payload" at the intended intracellular target site. All of this is achieved by exploiting polymers for their functional groups or incorporating conducting materials into a natural biopolymer to obtain a "smart material" that can be used for detection of circulating tumor cells, detection of differences in the body analytes, or repair of damaged tissue by acting as a cell culture scaffold. Nanotechnology has changed the nature of diagnosis and treatment in the biomedical field, and this review aims to bring together the most recent advances in smart nanomaterials.

  16. Impact of the ITRS Metrology Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, Alain C.

    2001-01-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) provides the semiconductor industry with the timing of critical technology needs for future generations of integrated circuits. The Metrology roadmap in the ITRS describes the measurement needs based on the process requirements found in the Lithography, Front End Processes, Interconnect, and Packaging Roadmaps. This paper illustrates the impact of the Metrology Roadmap on the development of key measurement technology

  17. Slovak Institute of Metrology. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bily, M.

    2002-03-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) in 2001 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Organisation identification; (2) Mission and medium-term perspectives; (3) Contract with Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing of the Slovak Republic; (4) SMU activities ; (5) Economic results; (6) Personnel management; (7) Aims and results of their fulfilment; (8) Evaluation and analysis of SMU development in 2001; (9) Main group of outputs users; (10) Conclusion

  18. Objectives and functions of ionizing radiation metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, H.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamental objectives of ionizing radiation metrology, the main tasks of metrological research and assurances of accurate measurements in dosimetry and activity determination are summarized. With a view to the technical performance of these tasks the state-of-the-art and the trends in reproduction and dissemination of dosimetric and activity units are outlined. Problems are derived that should be solved within the framework of the CMEA Standing Commissions on Standardization and on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. (author)

  19. Capillary electrophoresis and nanomaterials - Part I: Capillary electrophoresis of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials are in analytical science used for a broad range of purposes, covering the area of sample pretreatment as well as separation, detection, and identification of target molecules. This part of the review covers capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nanomaterials and focuses on the application of CE as a method for characterization used during nanomaterial synthesis and modification as well as the monitoring of their properties and interactions with other molecules. The heterogeneity of the nanomaterial family is extremely large. Depending on different definitions of the term Nanomaterial/Nanoparticle, the group may cover metal and polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, liposomes and even dendrimers. Moreover, these nanomaterials are usually subjected to some kind of surface modification or functionalization, which broadens the diversity even more. Not only for purposes of verification of nanomaterial synthesis and batch-to-batch quality check, but also for determination the polydispersity and for functionality characterization on the nanoparticle surface, has CE offered very beneficial capabilities. Finally, the monitoring of interactions between nanomaterials and other (bio)molecules is easily performed by some kind of capillary electromigration technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electrochemically Active Biofilms Assisted Nanomaterial Synthesis for Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Elaf

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterials have a great potential for environmental applications due to their high surface areas and high reactivity. This dissertation investigated the use of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) as a synthesis approach for the fabrication and environmental applications of different nanomaterials. Bacteria in EABs generate electrons upon consuming electron donor and have the ability to transport these electrons to solid or insoluble substrates through extracellular electron transport (EET) mechanism. The extracellularly transported electrons, once utilized, can lead to nanoparticle synthesis. In this dissertation, noble metal (i.e., Au, Pd, and Pt) ultra-small nanoparticles (USNPs) were first synthesized with the assistance by the EABs. The assynthesized USNPs had a size range between 2 and 7 nm and exhibited excellent catalytic performance in dye decomposition. Also in this research, a two-dimensional (2D) cobalt nanosheet was successfully synthesized in the presence of EABs. A simple biogenic route led to the transformation of cobalt acetate to produce a green, toxic free homogeneous 2D cobalt nanosheet structure. Further, TiO2 nanotubes were successfully combined with the noble metal USNPs to enhance their photocatalytic activity. In this work, for the first time, the noble metal USNPs were directly reduced and decorated on the internal surfaces of the TiO2 nanotubes structure assisted by the EABs. The USNPs modified TiO2 nanotubes generated significantly improved photoelectrocatatlyic performances. This dissertation shines lights on the use of EABs in ultra-small nanoparticle synthesis.

  1. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  2. Comparative Study of the Electrochemical, Biomedical, and Thermal Properties of Natural and Synthetic Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Ferial; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Kargarzadeh, Hanieh; Abdi, Mahnaz M.; Azli, Nur Farhana Waheeda Mohd; Abbasian, Maryam

    2018-04-01

    In this research, natural nanomaterials including cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), nanofiber cellulose (NFC), and synthetic nanoparticles such as carbon nanofiber (CNF) and carbon nanotube (CNT) with different structures, sizes, and surface areas were produced and analyzed. The most significant contribution of this study is to evaluate and compare these nanomaterials based on the effects of their structures and morphologies on their electrochemical, biomedical, and thermal properties. Based on the obtained results, the natural nanomaterials with low dimension and surface area have zero cytotoxicity effects on the living cells at 12.5 and 3.125 μg/ml concentrations of NFC and CNC, respectively. Meanwhile, synthetic nanomaterials with the high surface area around 15.3-21.1 m2/g and significant thermal stability (480 °C-600 °C) enhance the output of electrode by creating a higher surface area and decreasing the current flow resistance.

  3. Theranostic applications of carbon nanomaterials in cancer: Focus on imaging and cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A; Zhu, Kaicheng; Hong, Hao

    2015-07-28

    Carbon based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention over the past decades due to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanomaterials in cancer imaging and drug delivery/therapy. The carbon nanomaterials will be categorized into fullerenes, nanotubes, nanohorns, nanodiamonds, nanodots and graphene derivatives based on their morphologies. The chemical conjugation/functionalization strategies of each category will be introduced before focusing on their applications in cancer imaging (fluorescence/bioluminescence, magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), photoacoustic, Raman imaging, etc.) and cargo (chemo/gene/therapy) delivery. The advantages and limitations of each category and the potential clinical utilization of these carbon nanomaterials will be discussed. Multifunctional carbon nanoplatforms have the potential to serve as optimal candidates for image-guided delivery vectors for cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The CFN at Brookhaven National Laboratory focuses on understanding the chemical and physical response of nanomaterials to make functional materials such as sensors,...

  5. Integrating Transition Metals into Nanomaterials: Strategies and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fhayli, Karim

    2016-04-14

    Transition metals complexes have been involved in various catalytic, biomedical and industrial applications, but only lately they have been associated with nanomaterials to produce innovative and well-defined new hybrid systems. The introduction of transition metals into nanomaterials is important to bear the advantages of metals to nanoscale and also to raise the stability of nanomaterials. In this dissertation, we study two approaches of associating transition metals into nanomaterials. The first approach is via spontaneous self-organization based assembly of small molecule amphiphiles and bulky hydrophilic polymers to produce organic-inorganic hybrid materials that have nanoscale features and can be precisely controlled depending on the experimental conditions used. These hybrid materials can successfully act as templates to design new porous material with interesting architecture. The second approach studied is via electroless reduction of transition metals on the surface of nanocarbons (nanotubes and nanodiamonds) without using any reducing agents or catalysts. The synthesis of these systems is highly efficient and facile resulting in stable and mechanically robust new materials with promising applications in catalysis.

  6. Carbon nanomaterials for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liming; Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom; Lu, Wen

    2012-04-23

    It is estimated that the world will need to double its energy supply by 2050. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. Comparing to conventional energy materials, carbon nanomaterials possess unique size-/surface-dependent (e.g., morphological, electrical, optical, and mechanical) properties useful for enhancing the energy-conversion and storage performances. During the past 25 years or so, therefore, considerable efforts have been made to utilize the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, as energy materials, and tremendous progress has been achieved in developing high-performance energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) devices. This article reviews progress in the research and development of carbon nanomaterials during the past twenty years or so for advanced energy conversion and storage, along with some discussions on challenges and perspectives in this exciting field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Integrating Transition Metals into Nanomaterials: Strategies and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fhayli, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Transition metals complexes have been involved in various catalytic, biomedical and industrial applications, but only lately they have been associated with nanomaterials to produce innovative and well-defined new hybrid systems. The introduction of transition metals into nanomaterials is important to bear the advantages of metals to nanoscale and also to raise the stability of nanomaterials. In this dissertation, we study two approaches of associating transition metals into nanomaterials. The first approach is via spontaneous self-organization based assembly of small molecule amphiphiles and bulky hydrophilic polymers to produce organic-inorganic hybrid materials that have nanoscale features and can be precisely controlled depending on the experimental conditions used. These hybrid materials can successfully act as templates to design new porous material with interesting architecture. The second approach studied is via electroless reduction of transition metals on the surface of nanocarbons (nanotubes and nanodiamonds) without using any reducing agents or catalysts. The synthesis of these systems is highly efficient and facile resulting in stable and mechanically robust new materials with promising applications in catalysis.

  8. Optical vortex metrology: Are phase singularities foes or friends in optical metrology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, M.; Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2008-01-01

    We raise an issue whether phase singularities are foes or friends in optical metrology, and give an answer by introducing the principle and applications of a new technique which we recently proposed for displacement and flow measurements. The technique is called optical vortex metrology because i...

  9. Design, demonstration and performance of a versatile electrospray aerosol generator for nanomaterial research and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennerjohn, Nancy; Fung, David C; Hirakawa, Karen S; Hinds, William; Kennedy, Nola J; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu; Prikhodko, Sergey; Zavala-Mendez, Jose D

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are difficult to aerosolize in a controlled manner. We present a method for generating aerosols not only of carbon nanotubes, but also of many reference and proprietary materials including quantum dots, diesel particulate matter, urban dust, and their mixtures, using electrospraying. This method can be used as a teaching tool, or as the starting point for advanced research, or to deliver nanomaterials in animal exposure studies. This electrospray system generates 180 μg of nanotubes per m 3 of carrier gas, and thus aerosolizes an occupationally relevant mass concentration of nanotubes. The efficiency achievable for single-walled carbon nanotubes is 9.4%. This system is simple and quick to construct using ordinary lab techniques and affordable materials. Since it is easy to replace soiled parts with clean ones, experiments on different types of nanomaterial can be performed back to back without contamination from previous experiments. In this paper, the design, fabrication, operation and characterization of our versatile electrospray method are presented. Also, the morphological changes that carbon nanotubes undergo as they make the transition from dry powders to aerosol particles are presented.

  10. Biomedical nanomaterials from design to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical Nanomaterials brings together the engineering applications and challenges of using nanostructured surfaces and nanomaterials in healthcare in a single source. Each chapter covers important and new information in the biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

  11. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    , microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis......The use of nanomaterials in separation science has increased rapidly in the last decade. The reason for this is to take advantage of the unique properties of these materials, such as a very high surface-to-volume ratio and favourable sorbent behaviour. Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon...

  12. Simulating Exposure Concentrations of Engineered Nanomaterials in Surface Water Systems: Release of WASP8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, C. D.; Bouchard, D.; Zepp, R. G.; Henderson, W. M.; Han, Y.; Hsieh, H. S.; Avant, B. K.; Acrey, B.; Spear, J.

    2017-12-01

    The unique properties of engineered nanomaterials led to their increased production and potential release into the environment. Currently available environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants are limited in their ability to simulate nanomaterials' environmental behavior. This is due to an incomplete understanding and representation of the processes governing nanomaterial distribution in the environment and by scarce empirical data quantifying the interaction of nanomaterials with environmental surfaces. The well-known Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was updated to incorporate nanomaterial-specific processes, specifically hetero-aggregation with particulate matter. In parallel with this effort, laboratory studies were used to quantify parameter values parameters necessary for governing processes in surface waters. This presentation will discuss the recent developments in the new architecture for WASP8 and the newly constructed Advanced Toxicant Module. The module includes advanced algorithms for increased numbers of state variables: chemicals, solids, dissolved organic matter, pathogens, temperature, and salinity. This presentation will focus specifically on the incorporation of nanomaterials, with the applications of the fate and transport of hypothetical releases of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and Graphene Oxide (GO) into the headwaters of a southeastern US coastal plains river. While this presentation focuses on nanomaterials, the advanced toxicant module can also simulate metals and organic contaminants.

  13. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  14. Nanomaterials for practical functional uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lines, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    The term nanotechnology, which enjoys wide public use, is a concept that covers a wide range of developments in the field of nanoscale electronic components, along with its decades-old application in nanocarbon-black particles or silicates manufactured using the sol-gel process. When we refer to nanotechnology today, the term is limited to dealing with particles or assemblies whose dimensions range in size from a few nanometres up to around 100 nm. Intensive development work is now being carried out in new fields in many industrial and university research facilities, with the help of nanoscale particles or subassemblies. Along with the already familiar items, this applications-oriented research has covered such new developments as carbon nanotubes or electronic circuits. All materials are composed of grains, which consist of many atoms. Grains of conventional materials vary in size from tens of microns to one or more millimetres. Nanomaterials are no longer merely a laboratory curiosity and have now reached the stage of commercialization being lead by activity, often government supported, in the USA, UK, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan, Korea, Germany and in recent years China and Australia. This is the opening of a whole new science in some respects, and the usefulness to our everyday lives will become increasingly apparent. The potential of nanominerals, as just one sector of nanomaterials technology have some very real and useful outcomes: ·Production of materials and products with new properties. ·Contribution to solutions of environmental problems. ·Improvement of existing technologies and development of new applications. ·Optimisation of primary conditions for practical applications. These materials are revolutionizing the functionality of material systems. Due to the materials very small size, they have some remarkable, and in some cases, novel properties. Significant enhancement of optical, mechanical, electrical, structural and magnetic properties

  15. Carbon nanotube biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîlmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites, or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we describe their structural and physical properties, functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers. PMID:26579509

  16. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mihaela eTilmaciu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  17. 99mTc labeling of carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Ying; Li Qingnuan; Li Wenxin; Li Yufeng; Zhang Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The effects of experimental conditions on preparation of 99m Tc-labeled carbon nanotubes and nanocarbon blacks by SnCl 2 were investigated. At given conditions the labeling yields were over 90%. In a culture medium, the radiochemical purity of the labeling compounds kept (86 ± 4)% within 2.5 h. The 99m Tc-labeled MWNTs and NCBs obtained in this work meet satisfactory experimental demands for study of cellular uptake and toxicity. The experiments showed that labeling process was based on physical adsorption of low valent technetium resulted from reduction reaction on the surface of the carbon nanomaterials. (authors)

  18. A 3-dimensional in vitro model of epithelioid granulomas induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurt Robert H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of granulomatous inflammation are persistent pathogens and poorly-degradable irritating materials. A characteristic pathological reaction to intratracheal instillation, pharyngeal aspiration, or inhalation of carbon nanotubes is formation of epithelioid granulomas accompanied by interstitial fibrosis in the lungs. In the mesothelium, a similar response is induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials, including asbestos fibers, following intraperitoneal injection. This asbestos-like behaviour of some engineered nanomaterials is a concern for their potential adverse health effects in the lungs and mesothelium. We hypothesize that high aspect ratio nanomaterials will induce epithelioid granulomas in nonadherent macrophages in 3D cultures. Results Carbon black particles (Printex 90 and crocidolite asbestos fibers were used as well-characterized reference materials and compared with three commercial samples of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. Doses were identified in 2D and 3D cultures in order to minimize acute toxicity and to reflect realistic occupational exposures in humans and in previous inhalation studies in rodents. Under serum-free conditions, exposure of nonadherent primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages to 0.5 μg/ml (0.38 μg/cm2 of crocidolite asbestos fibers or MWCNTs, but not carbon black, induced macrophage differentiation into epithelioid cells and formation of stable aggregates with the characteristic morphology of granulomas. Formation of multinucleated giant cells was also induced by asbestos fibers or MWCNTs in this 3D in vitro model. After 7-14 days, macrophages exposed to high aspect ratio nanomaterials co-expressed proinflammatory (M1 as well as profibrotic (M2 phenotypic markers. Conclusions Induction of epithelioid granulomas appears to correlate with high aspect ratio and complex 3D structure of carbon nanotubes, not with their iron content or surface area. This model

  19. Terahertz Dynamics in Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2012-02-01

    This NSF Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) project supports a unique interdisciplinary and international partnership investigating terahertz (THz) dynamics in nanostructures. The 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum is where electrical transport and optical transitions merge, offering exciting opportunities to study a variety of novel physical phenomena in condensed matter. By combining THz technology and nanotechnology, we can advance our understanding of THz physics while improving and developing THz devices. Specifically, this PIRE research explores THz dynamics of electrons in carbon nanomaterials, namely, nanotubes and graphene --- low-dimensional, sp^2-bonded carbon systems with unique finite-frequency properties. Japan and the U.S. are global leaders in both THz research and carbon research, and stimulating cooperation is critical to further advance THz science and to commercialize products developed in the lab. However, obstacles exist for international collaboration --- primarily linguistic and cultural barriers --- and this PIRE project aims to address these barriers through the integration of our research and education programs. Our strong educational portfolio endeavours to cultivate interest in nanotechnology amongst young U.S. undergraduate students and encourage them to pursue graduate study and academic research in the physical sciences, especially those from underrepresented groups. Our award-winning International Research Experience for Undergraduates Program, NanoJapan, provides structured research internships in Japanese university laboratories with Japanese mentors --- recognized as a model international education program for science and engineering students. The project builds the skill sets of nanoscience researchers and students by cultivating international and inter-cultural awareness, research expertise, and specific academic interests in nanotechnology. U.S. project partners include Rice

  20. Nanomaterials and Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar BASU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials and nanosensors are two most important iconic words of the modern science & Technology. Though nano technology is relatively a new area of research & development it will soon be included in the most modern electronic circuitry used for advanced computing systems. Since it will provide the potential link between the nanotechnology and the macroscopic world the development is primarily directed towards exploitation of nanotechnology to computer chip miniaturization and vast storage capacity. However, for implementation in the consumer products the present high cost of production must be overcome. There are different ways to make nanosensors e.g. top-down lithography, bottom-up assembly, and self molecular assembly. Consequently, nanomaterials & nanosensors have to be made compatible with the consumer technologies. The progress in detecting and sensing different chemical species with increased accuracy may transform the human society from uncertainty and inaccuracy to more precise and definite world of information. For example, extremely low concentrations of air pollutants or toxic materials in air & water around us can be accurately and economically detected in no time to save the human beings from the serious illnesses. Also, the medical sensors will help in diagnoses of the diseases, their treatment and in predicting the future profile of the individual so that the health insurance companies may exploit the opportunity to grant or to deny the health coverage. Other social issues like privacy invasion and security may be best monitored by the widespread use of the surveillance devices using nanosensors.

  1. Selenium and tellurium nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Zonaro, Emanuele; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last 40 years, the rapid and exponential growth of nanotechnology led to the development of various synthesis methodologies to generate nanomaterials different in size, shape and composition to be applied in various fields. In particular, nanostructures composed of Selenium (Se) or Tellurium (Te) have attracted increasing interest, due to their intermediate nature between metallic and non-metallic elements, being defined as metalloids. Indeed, this key shared feature of Se and Te allows us the use of their compounds in a variety of applications fields, such as for manufacturing photocells, photographic exposure meters, piezoelectric devices, and thermoelectric materials, to name a few. Considering also that the chemical-physical properties of elements result to be much more emphasized when they are assembled at the nanoscale range, huge efforts have been made to develop highly effective synthesis methods to generate Se- or Te-nanomaterials. In this context, the present book chapter will explore the most used chemical and/or physical methods exploited to generate different morphologies of metalloid-nanostructures, focusing also the attention on the major advantages, drawbacks as well as the safety related to these synthetic procedures.

  2. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  3. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  4. A boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, G. C.; Baillargeat, D.

    2014-01-01

    The precise guidance of heat from one specific location to another is paramount in many industrial and commercial applications, including thermal management and thermoelectric generation. One of the cardinal requirements is a preferential conduction of thermal energy, also known as thermal rectification, in the materials. This study introduces a novel nanomaterial for rectifying heat—the boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier. Classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are performed on this nanomaterial, and interestingly, the strength of the rectification phenomenon is dissimilar at different operating temperatures. This is due to the contingence of the thermal flux on the conductance at the localized region around the scatterer, which varies with temperature. The rectification performance of the peapod rectifier is inherently dependent on its asymmetry. Last but not least, the favourable rectifying direction in the nanomaterial is established.

  5. A boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, G. C., E-mail: jgloh@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Baillargeat, D. [CNRS-International-NTU-Thales Research Alliance (CINTRA), 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-06-28

    The precise guidance of heat from one specific location to another is paramount in many industrial and commercial applications, including thermal management and thermoelectric generation. One of the cardinal requirements is a preferential conduction of thermal energy, also known as thermal rectification, in the materials. This study introduces a novel nanomaterial for rectifying heat—the boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier. Classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are performed on this nanomaterial, and interestingly, the strength of the rectification phenomenon is dissimilar at different operating temperatures. This is due to the contingence of the thermal flux on the conductance at the localized region around the scatterer, which varies with temperature. The rectification performance of the peapod rectifier is inherently dependent on its asymmetry. Last but not least, the favourable rectifying direction in the nanomaterial is established.

  6. Parameterizing A Surface Water Model for Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique electronic, mechanical, and structural properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has lead to increasing production of these versatile materials; currently, the use of carbon-based nanomaterials in consumer products is second only to that of nano-scale silver. Although ther...

  7. Joint Research on Scatterometry and AFM Wafer Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodermann, B.; Buhr, E.; Danzebrink, H.U.; Bär, M.; Scholze, F.; Krumrey, M.; Wurm, M.; Klapetek, P.; Hansen, P.E.; Korpelainen, V.; Van Veghel, M.; Yacoot, A.; Siitonen, S.; El Gawhary, O.; Burger, S.; Saastamoinen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology. Both

  8. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  9. Metrology and properties of engineering surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, J; Chetwynd, D

    2001-01-01

    Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces provides in a single volume a comprehensive and authoritative treatment of the crucial topics involved in the metrology and properties of engineering surfaces. The subject matter is a central issue in manufacturing technology, since the quality and reliability of manufactured components depend greatly upon the selection and qualities of the appropriate materials as ascertained through measurement. The book can in broad terms be split into two parts; the first deals with the metrology of engineering surfaces and covers the important issues relating to the measurement and characterization of surfaces in both two and three dimensions. This covers topics such as filtering, power spectral densities, autocorrelation functions and the use of Fractals in topography. A significant proportion is dedicated to the calibration of scanning probe microscopes using the latest techniques. The remainder of the book deals with the properties of engineering surfaces and covers a w...

  10. Metrological AFMs and its application for versatile nano-dimensional metrology tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Dziomba, T.; Pohlenz, F.; Danzebrink, H.-U.; Koenders, L.

    2010-08-01

    Traceable calibrations of various micro and nano measurement devices are crucial tasks for ensuring reliable measurements for micro and nanotechnology. Today metrological AFM are widely used for traceable calibrations of nano dimensional standards. In this paper, we introduced the developments of metrological force microscopes at PTB. Of the three metrological AFMs described here, one is capable of measuring in a volume of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm. All instruments feature interferometers and the three-dimensional position measurements are thus directly traceable to the metre definition. Some calibration examples on, for instance, flatness standards, step height standards, one and two dimensional gratings are demonstrated.

  11. Interoperability: linking design and tolerancing with metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Edward; Heysiattalab, Saeed; Barnard-Feeney, Allison; Hedberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    On October 30, 2014 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved QIF v 2.0 (Quality Information Framework, version 2.0) as an American National Standard. Subsequently in early 2016 QIF version 2.1 was approved. This paper describes how the QIF standard models the information necessary for quality workflow across the full metrology enterprise. After a brief description of the XML 'language' used in the standard, the paper reports on how the standard enables information exchange among four major activities in the metrology enterprise (product definition; measurement planning; measurement execution; and the analysis and reporting of the quality data).

  12. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2010-01-01

    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  13. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the thin film to build a thin film device for measurements and analyses. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial had a significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNTs. Moreover, the hybrid nanomaterial thin film devices exhibited a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which could be further enhanced up to ten times with asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials was demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. In addition, CuS nanoparticles have great optical absorption especially in the near-infrared region. Therefore, the hybrid nanomaterial thin films also have the potential for IR sensing applications. The first application to be covered in this dissertation is the IR sensing application. IR thin film sensors based on the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated. The IR response in the photocurrent of the hybrid thin film sensor was significantly enhanced, increasing the photocurrent by 300% when the IR light illuminates the thin film device asymmetrically. The detection limit could be as low as 48mW mm-2. The dramatically enhanced

  14. The current state of engineered nanomaterials in consumer goods and waste streams: the need to develop nanoproperty-quantifiable sensors for monitoring engineered nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Kelsey Wise, Murphy BrasuelDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO, USAAbstract: As nanomaterials are harnessed for medicine and other technological advances, an understanding of the toxicology of these new materials is required to inform our use. This toxicological knowledge will be required to establish the medical and environmental regulations required to protect consumers and those involved in nanomaterial manufacturing. Nanoparticles of titanium oxide, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor quantum dots, gold, and silver represent a high percentage of the nanotechnology currently available or currently poised to reach consumers. For these nanoparticles, this review aims to identify current applications, the current methods used for characterization and quantification, current environmental concentrations (if known, and an introduction to the toxicology research. Continued development of analytical tools for the characterization and quantification of nanomaterials in complex environmental and biological samples will be required for our understanding of the toxicology and environmental impact of nanomaterials. Nearly all materials exhibit toxicity at a high enough concentration. Robust, rapid, and cost effective analytical techniques will be required to determine current background levels of anthropogenic, accidental, and engineered nanoparticles in air, water, and soil. The impact of the growing number of engineered nanoparticles used in consumer goods and medical applications can then be estimated. This will allow toxicological profiles relevant to the demonstrated or predicted environmental concentrations to be determined.Keywords: titanium dioxide nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, nanoparticles environmental concentrations

  15. A viable way to tailor carbon nanomaterials by irradiation-induced transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudillo, R.; Troiani, H.E.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Marques, M.A.L.; Rubio, A.; Yacaman, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNT), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been the most important tool in their investigation. It is possible to use electron irradiation in a TEM to construct a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) from an amorphous carbon film. Here we show that such a synthesis method creates a large number of carbon ad-atoms, which after some critical amount of radiation act to restore the system by reconstructing the carbon film. The behavior of the ad-atoms can be controlled by adjusting the current density in the microscope, suggesting that carbon nanomaterials can be tailored by electron irradiation

  16. Adsorption of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions by Carbon Nanomaterials of One and Two Dimensions: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Luz-Asunción

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials have a great potential in environmental studies; they are considered as superior adsorbents of pollutants due to their physical and chemical properties. Functionalization and dimension play an important role in many functions of these nanomaterials including adsorption. In this research, adsorption process was achieved with one-dimension nanomaterials: single walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as received and after oxidation treatment also two-dimensional nanomaterials were used: graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Carbon nanotubes were modified by hydrogen peroxide under microwave irradiation. The reduction of graphene oxide was achieved by using ascorbic acid. R2 values obtained with the pseudo-second-order model are higher than 0.99. The results demonstrate that Freundlich isotherm provides the best fit for the equilibrium data (R2>0.94. RL values are between 0 and 1; this represents favorable adsorption between carbon nanomaterials and phenol. The adsorption process occurs by π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding and not by electrostatic interactions. The results indicate that the adsorption of phenol on carbon nanomaterials depends on the adsorbents’ surface area, and it is negatively influenced by the presence of oxygenated groups.

  17. Metrological traceability of holmium oxide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D. E. F.; Gomes, J. F. S.; Alvarenga, A. P. D.; Borges, P. P.; Araujo, T. O.

    2018-03-01

    Holmium oxide solution was prepared as a candidate of certified reference material for spectrophotometer wavelength scale calibration. Here is presented the necessary steps for evaluation of the uncertainty and the establishment of metrological traceability for the production of this material. Preliminary results from the first produced batch are shown.

  18. Metrology Sampling Strategies for Process Monitoring Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Vincent, Tyrone L.; Stirton, James Broc; Poolla, Kameshwar

    2011-01-01

    , economic pressures prompt a reduction in metrology, for both capital and cycle-time reasons. This paper explores the use of modeling and minimum-variance prediction as a method to select the sites for measurement on each wafer. The models are developed

  19. Laser metrology applied to the nuclear maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido Garcia, J.; Sarti Fernandez, F.

    2012-01-01

    The development of this paper focuses on providing an overview of the state of the art about laser metrology. This type of equipment combines the measurement philosophy of laser scanning with the great precision of the robotic equipment of auscultation. Getting micron.

  20. Activities of IPEN Nuclear Metrology Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.S.; Koskinas, M.F.; Pocobi, E.; Silva, C.A.M.; Machado, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The activities of IPEN Nuclear Metrology Laboratory, which the principal objective is radionuclides activities determination for supplying sources and standard radioactive solutions in activity are presented. The systems installed, the activity bands and some of standards radionuclides are shown. (C.G.C.) [pt

  1. Electrostatic Assembly of Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electrodes and Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Electrostatic assembly methods have been used to generate a range of new materials systems of interest for electrochemical energy and storage applications. Over the past several years, it has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes, metals, metal oxides, polymeric nanomaterials, and biotemplated materials systems can be incorporated into ultrathin films to generate supercapacitors and battery electrodes that illustrate significant energy density and power. The unique ability to control the incorporation of such a broad range of materials at the nanometer length scale allows tailoring of the final properties of these unique composite systems, as well as the capability of creating complex micron-scale to nanoporous morphologies based on the scale of the nanomaterial that is absorbed within the structure, or the conditions of self-assembly. Recently we have expanded these capabilities to achieve new electrodes that are templated atop electrospun polmer fiber scaffolds, in which the polymer can be selectively removed to achieve highly porous materials. Spray-layer-by-layer and filtration methods of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers enable the generation of electrode systems with unusually high surface. Incorporation of psuedocapacitive nanoparticles can enhance capacitive properties, and other catalytic or metallic nanoparticles can be implemented to enhance electrochemical or catalytic function.

  2. An efficient analysis of nanomaterial cytotoxicity based on bioimpedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sanghyo; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2010-01-01

    In the emerging nanotechnology field, there is an urgent need for the development of a significant and sensitive method that can be used to analyse and compare the cytotoxicities of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), since such materials can be applied as contrast agents or drug delivery carriers. The bioimpedance system possesses great potential in many medical research fields including nanotechnology. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is a particular bioimpedance system that offers a real-time, non-invasive, and quantitative measurement method for the cytotoxicity of various materials. The present work compared the cytotoxicity of AuNPs to that of purchased single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The size-controlled and monodispersed AuNPs were synthesized under autoclaved conditions and reduced by ascorbic acid (AA) whereas the purchased SWCNTs were used without any surface modifications. Bioimpedance results were validated by conventional WST-1 and trypan blue assays, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were performed to examine nanomaterials inside the VERO cells. This research evaluates the ability of the ECIS system compared to those of conventional methods in analyzing the cytotoxicity of AuNPs and SWCNTs with higher sensitivity under real-time conditions.

  3. A comparative study of lung toxicity in rats induced by three types of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiqing; Ma, Li; X, Zhu-ge; Zhang, Huashan; Lin, Bencheng

    2013-12-01

    The public is increasingly exposed to various engineered nanomaterials because of their mass production and wide application. Even when the biological effects of nanomaterials have been assessed, the underlying mechanisms of action in vivo are poorly understood. The present study was designed to seek a simple, effective, and oxidative stress-based biomarker system used for screening toxicity of nanomaterials. Nano-ferroso-ferric oxide (nano-Fe3O4), nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed in corn oil and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rats were exposed to the three nanomaterials by intratracheal instillation once every 2 days for 5 weeks. We investigated their lung oxidative and inflammatory damage by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) detection and comparative proteomics by lung tissue. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of proteins isolated from the lung tissue, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was performed. In the present study, we chose to detect lactate dehydrogenase, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde as the biomarker system for screening the oxidative stress of nanomaterials and IL-6 as the inflammatory biomarker in BALF. Proteomics analysis revealed 17 differentially expressed proteins compared with the control group: nine were upregulated and eight were downregulated. Our results indicated that exposure by intratracheal instillation to any of the three typical nanomaterials may cause lung damage through oxidative damage and/or an inflammatory reaction.

  4. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for speciation, quantitation and nano-eco-toxicology of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J R; Swerhone, G D W; Dynes, J J; Korber, D R; Hitchcock, A P

    2016-02-01

    There is a critical need for methods that provide simultaneous detection, identification, quantitation and visualization of nanomaterials at their interface with biological and environmental systems. The approach should allow speciation as well as elemental analysis. Using the intrinsic X-ray absorption properties, soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) allows characterization and imaging of a broad range of nanomaterials, including metals, oxides and organic materials, and at the same time is able to provide detailed mapping of biological components. Thus, STXM offers considerable potential for application to research on nanomaterials in biology and the environment. The potential and limitations of STXM in this context are discussed using a range of examples, focusing on the interaction of nanomaterials with microbial cells, biofilms and extracellular polymers. The studies outlined include speciation and mapping of metal-containing nanomaterials (Ti, Ni, Cu) and carbon-based nanomaterials (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, C60 fullerene). The benefits of X-ray fluorescence detection in soft X-ray STXM are illustrated with a study of low levels of Ni in a natural river biofilm. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Carbon nanotubes in neuroregeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Prato, Maurizio; Ballerini, Laura

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, we have experienced an increasing interest and an improved understanding of the application of nanotechnology to the nervous system. The aim of such studies is that of developing future strategies for tissue repair to promote functional recovery after brain damage. In this framework, carbon nanotube based technologies are emerging as particularly innovative tools due to the outstanding physical properties of these nanomaterials together with their recently documented ability to interface neuronal circuits, synapses and membranes. This review will discuss the state of the art in carbon nanotube technology applied to the development of devices able to drive nerve tissue repair; we will highlight the most exciting findings addressing the impact of carbon nanotubes in nerve tissue engineering, focusing in particular on neuronal differentiation, growth and network reconstruction. © 2013.

  6. Optical Properties of Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    owner

    K. George Thomas. Photosciences & Photonics Group. National Institute for Interdisciplinary. Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR,. Trivandrum- 695 019, INDIA. (kgt@vsnl.com). Optical Properties of Hybrid. Nanomaterials ...

  7. Printing nanotube/nanowire for flexible microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorich, Ryan P.; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Printing has become an emerging manufacturing technology for mechanics, electronics, and consumer products. Additionally, both nanotubes and nanowires have recently been used as materials for sensors and electrodes due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties. Printed electrodes and conductive traces particularly offer versatility of fabricating low-cost, disposable, and flexible electrical devices and microsystems. While various printing methods such as screen printing have been conventional methods for printing conductive traces and electrodes, inkjet printing has recently attracted great attention due to its unique advantages including no template requirement, rapid printing at low cost, on-demand printing capability, and precise control of the printed material. Computer generated conductive traces or electrode patterns can simply be printed on a thin film substrate with proper conductive ink consisting of nanotubes or nanowires. However, in order to develop nanotube or nanowire ink, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed. The most difficult obstacle to overcome is that of nanotube/nanowire dispersion within a solution. Other challenges include adjusting surface tension and controlling viscosity of the ink as well as treating the surface of the printing substrate. In an attempt to pave the way for nanomaterial inkjet printing, we present a method for preparing carbon nanotube ink as well as its printing technique. A fully printed electrochemical sensor using inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes is also demonstrated as an example of the possibilities for this technology.

  8. Overlay metrology for double patterning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Laidler, David; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Polli, Marco; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

    2009-03-01

    The double patterning (DPT) process is foreseen by the industry to be the main solution for the 32 nm technology node and even beyond. Meanwhile process compatibility has to be maintained and the performance of overlay metrology has to improve. To achieve this for Image Based Overlay (IBO), usually the optics of overlay tools are improved. It was also demonstrated that these requirements are achievable with a Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) technique named SCOLTM [1]. In addition, we believe that overlay measurements with respect to a reference grid are required to achieve the required overlay control [2]. This induces at least a three-fold increase in the number of measurements (2 for double patterned layers to the reference grid and 1 between the double patterned layers). The requirements of process compatibility, enhanced performance and large number of measurements make the choice of overlay metrology for DPT very challenging. In this work we use different flavors of the standard overlay metrology technique (IBO) as well as the new technique (SCOL) to address these three requirements. The compatibility of the corresponding overlay targets with double patterning processes (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE); Litho-Freeze-Litho-Etch (LFLE), Spacer defined) is tested. The process impact on different target types is discussed (CD bias LELE, Contrast for LFLE). We compare the standard imaging overlay metrology with non-standard imaging techniques dedicated to double patterning processes (multilayer imaging targets allowing one overlay target instead of three, very small imaging targets). In addition to standard designs already discussed [1], we investigate SCOL target designs specific to double patterning processes. The feedback to the scanner is determined using the different techniques. The final overlay results obtained are compared accordingly. We conclude with the pros and cons of each technique and suggest the optimal metrology strategy for overlay control in double

  9. Advanced metrology by offline SEM data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakcher, Amine; Schneider, Loïc.; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Ducoté, Julien; Farys, Vincent; Besacier, Maxime

    2017-06-01

    Today's technology nodes contain more and more complex designs bringing increasing challenges to chip manufacturing process steps. It is necessary to have an efficient metrology to assess process variability of these complex patterns and thus extract relevant data to generate process aware design rules and to improve OPC models. Today process variability is mostly addressed through the analysis of in-line monitoring features which are often designed to support robust measurements and as a consequence are not always very representative of critical design rules. CD-SEM is the main CD metrology technique used in chip manufacturing process but it is challenged when it comes to measure metrics like tip to tip, tip to line, areas or necking in high quantity and with robustness. CD-SEM images contain a lot of information that is not always used in metrology. Suppliers have provided tools that allow engineers to extract the SEM contours of their features and to convert them into a GDS. Contours can be seen as the signature of the shape as it contains all the dimensional data. Thus the methodology is to use the CD-SEM to take high quality images then generate SEM contours and create a data base out of them. Contours are used to feed an offline metrology tool that will process them to extract different metrics. It was shown in two previous papers that it is possible to perform complex measurements on hotspots at different process steps (lithography, etch, copper CMP) by using SEM contours with an in-house offline metrology tool. In the current paper, the methodology presented previously will be expanded to improve its robustness and combined with the use of phylogeny to classify the SEM images according to their geometrical proximities.

  10. Engineering the heart: Evaluation of conductive nanomaterials for improving implant integration and cardiac function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Chen, Jun; Sun, Hongyu; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Mou, Yongchao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuwei; Li, Xia; Han, Yao; Duan, Cuimi; Tang, Rongyu; Wang, Chunlan; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Jie; Luo, Ying; (Mengqiu) Xing, Malcolm; Wang, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, carbon nanotubes together with other types of conductive materials have been used to enhance the viability and function of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Here we demonstrated a paradigm to construct ECTs for cardiac repair using conductive nanomaterials. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were incorporated into gelatin hydrogel scaffolds to construct three-dimensional ECTs. We found that SWNTs could provide cellular microenvironment in vitro favorable for cardiac contraction and the expression of electrochemical associated proteins. Upon implantation into the infarct hearts in rats, ECTs structurally integrated with the host myocardium, with different types of cells observed to mutually invade into implants and host tissues. The functional measurements showed that SWNTs were essential to improve the performance of ECTs in inhibiting pathological deterioration of myocardium. This work suggested that conductive nanomaterials hold therapeutic potential in engineering cardiac tissues to repair myocardial infarction. PMID:24429673

  11. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  12. An alternative method to achieve metrological confirmation in measurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.

    2012-04-01

    Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.

  13. Recent Development of Nanomaterial-Doped Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyraf, Mohammad; Anwar, Mahmood; Sheng, Law Ming; Danquah, Michael K.

    2017-12-01

    Conductive polymers (CPs) have received significant research attention in material engineering for applications in microelectronics, micro-scale sensors, electromagnetic shielding, and micro actuators. Numerous research efforts have been focused on enhancing the conductivity of CPs by doping. Various conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon-based nanoparticles, and structures, such as silver nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets, have been converted into polypyrrole and polypyrrole compounds as the precursors to developing hybrids, conjugates, or crystal nodes within the matrix to enhance the various structural properties, particularly the electrical conductivity. This article reviews nanomaterial doping of conductive polymers alongside technological advancements in the development and application of nanomaterial-doped polymeric systems. Emphasis is given to conductive nanomaterials such as nano-silver particles and carbon-based nanoparticles, graphene nano-sheets, fullerene, and carbon nanotubes (CNT) as dopants for polypyrrole-based CPs. The nature of induced electrical properties including electromagnetic absorption, electrical capacitance, and conductivities of polypyrrole systems is also discussed. The prospects and challenges associated with the development and application of CPs are also presented.

  14. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Corazzari, Ingrid; Viola, Franca; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  15. Synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from different pyrolysis techniques: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer Zahid, Muhammad; Pervaiz, Erum; Hussain, Arshad; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran; Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan

    2018-05-01

    In the current age, the significance of carbon-based nanomaterials for many applications has made the efforts for the facile synthesis methods from abundantly available wastes in a cost-effective way. Pyrolysis in a broad spectrum is commonly employed for the synthesis of carbon nanostructures by thermally treating the organic waste. The mechanism of growth of the nanoparticles determines the functional distribution of nanoparticles based on the growing size, medium, and physio-chemical properties. Carbon nanomaterial’s growth is a complicated process which is profoundly influenced by temperature, catalyst, and type of precursor. Nowadays, significant progress has been made in improving nanomaterial’s growth techniques, opening new paths for commercial production of carbon-based nanomaterials. The most promising are the methods involving hydrocarbon-rich organic waste as the feed source. In this review, synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials, specifically carbon nanotubes (CNTs), Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and Graphene (G) are discussed by different pyrolysis techniques. Furthermore, the review explores recent advancements made in the context of pyrolysis.

  16. Plasmonic Nanomaterial-Based Optical Biosensing Platforms for Virus Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanomaterials (P-NM are receiving attention due to their excellent properties, which include surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR effects, plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET, and magneto optical (MO effects. To obtain such plasmonic properties, many nanomaterials have been developed, including metal nanoparticles (MNP, bimetallic nanoparticles (bMNP, MNP-decorated carbon nanotubes, (MNP-CNT, and MNP-modified graphene (MNP-GRP. These P-NMs may eventually be applied to optical biosensing systems due to their unique properties. Here, probe biomolecules, such as antibodies (Ab, probe DNA, and probe aptamers, were modified on the surface of plasmonic materials by chemical conjugation and thiol chemistry. The optical property change in the plasmonic nanomaterials was monitored based on the interaction between the probe biomolecules and target virus. After bioconjugation, several optical properties, including fluorescence, plasmonic absorbance, and diffraction angle, were changed to detect the target biomolecules. This review describes several P-NMs as potential candidates of optical sensing platforms and introduces various applications in the optical biosensing field.

  17. Dispersion of Nanomaterials in Aqueous Media: Towards Protocol Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Inder; Ellis, Laura-Jayne; Romer, Isabella; Tantra, Ratna; Carriere, Marie; Allard, Soline; Mayne-L'Hermite, Martine; Minelli, Caterina; Unger, Wolfgang; Potthoff, Annegret; Rades, Steffi; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2017-12-25

    The sonication process is commonly used for de-agglomerating and dispersing nanomaterials in aqueous based media, necessary to improve homogeneity and stability of the suspension. In this study, a systematic step-wise approach is carried out to identify optimal sonication conditions in order to achieve a stable dispersion. This approach has been adopted and shown to be suitable for several nanomaterials (cerium oxide, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes) dispersed in deionized (DI) water. However, with any change in either the nanomaterial type or dispersing medium, there needs to be optimization of the basic protocol by adjusting various factors such as sonication time, power, and sonicator type as well as temperature rise during the process. The approach records the dispersion process in detail. This is necessary to identify the time points as well as other above-mentioned conditions during the sonication process in which there may be undesirable changes, such as damage to the particle surface thus affecting surface properties. Our goal is to offer a harmonized approach that can control the quality of the final, produced dispersion. Such a guideline is instrumental in ensuring dispersion quality repeatability in the nanoscience community, particularly in the field of nanotoxicology.

  18. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Corazzari, Ingrid; Fenoglio, Ivana; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Viola, Franca

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  19. Plasma nanofabrication and nanomaterials safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Z J; Levchenko, I; Kumar, S; Yajadda, M M A; Yick, S; Seo, D H; Martin, P J; Ostrikov, K; Peel, S; Kuncic, Z

    2011-01-01

    The fast advances in nanotechnology have raised increasing concerns related to the safety of nanomaterials when exposed to humans, animals and the environment. However, despite several years of research, the nanomaterials safety field is still in its infancy owing to the complexities of structural and surface properties of these nanomaterials and organism-specific responses to them. Recently, plasma-based technology has been demonstrated as a versatile and effective way for nanofabrication, yet its health and environment-benign nature has not been widely recognized. Here we address the environmental and occupational health and safety effects of various zero- and one-dimensional nanomaterials and elaborate the advantages of using plasmas as a safe nanofabrication tool. These advantages include but are not limited to the production of substrate-bound nanomaterials, the isolation of humans from harmful nanomaterials, and the effective reforming of toxic and flammable gases. It is concluded that plasma nanofabrication can minimize the hazards in the workplace and represents a safe way for future nanofabrication technologies.

  20. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liming, E-mail: wangliming@ihep.ac.cn; Chen, Chunying, E-mail: chenchy@nanoctr.cn

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs.

  1. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs

  2. Nanomaterials for In Vivo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan Ronain; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2017-02-08

    In vivo imaging, which enables us to peer deeply within living subjects, is producing tremendous opportunities both for clinical diagnostics and as a research tool. Contrast material is often required to clearly visualize the functional architecture of physiological structures. Recent advances in nanomaterials are becoming pivotal to generate the high-resolution, high-contrast images needed for accurate, precision diagnostics. Nanomaterials are playing major roles in imaging by delivering large imaging payloads, yielding improved sensitivity, multiplexing capacity, and modularity of design. Indeed, for several imaging modalities, nanomaterials are now not simply ancillary contrast entities, but are instead the original and sole source of image signal that make possible the modality's existence. We address the physicochemical makeup/design of nanomaterials through the lens of the physical properties that produce contrast signal for the cognate imaging modality-we stratify nanomaterials on the basis of their (i) magnetic, (ii) optical, (iii) acoustic, and/or (iv) nuclear properties. We evaluate them for their ability to provide relevant information under preclinical and clinical circumstances, their in vivo safety profiles (which are being incorporated into their chemical design), their modularity in being fused to create multimodal nanomaterials (spanning multiple different physical imaging modalities and therapeutic/theranostic capabilities), their key properties, and critically their likelihood to be clinically translated.

  3. The Effects of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes on the Physiology, Morphology, and Rhizoshpere Microbial Community of Medicago Sative and Pteris Vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications of nanomaterials are increasing due to their noble physical structures. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most widely used carbon nanomaterial at present, however the fate, transport and toxicity of CNTs is still not well understood. Potential concern has been raised regarding fut...

  4. Biodegradation of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Their Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Qin, Xiaosheng; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene (GRA), and their derivatives are promising materials for a wide range of applications such as pollutant removal, enzyme immobilization, bioimaging, biosensors, and drug delivery and are rapidly increasing in use and increasingly mass produced. The biodegradation of carbon nanomaterials by microbes and enzymes is now of great importance for both reducing their toxicity to living organisms and removing them from the environment. Here we review recent progress in the biodegradation field from the point of view of the primary microbes and enzymes that can degrade these nanomaterials, along with experimental and molecular simulation methods for the exploration of nanomaterial degradation. Further efforts should primarily aim toward expanding the repertoire of microbes and enzymes and exploring optimal conditions for the degradation of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Operationalization and application of “early warning signs” to screen nanomaterials for harmful properties operationalizationand application of “early warning signs” to screen nanomaterials for harmful properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Nielsen, K. N.; Knudsen, N.

    endeavors. This paper explores ho w the first lesson - “Acknowledge and respond to ignorance, uncertainty and risk in techn ology appraisal” could be applied to screen nanomaterials. In cases of ignorance, uncertainty a nd risk, the EEA recommends paying particular attention to important warning signs suc h...... as novelty, persistency, whether materials are readily dispersed in the environment, whether t hey bioaccumulate or lead to potentially irreversible action. Through an analysis of these c riteria using five well-known nanomaterials (titanium dioxide, carbon nanotubes, liposomes, pol y(lactic-co-glycolic acid....... Finally, we discuss how these warning sig ns can be used by different stakeholders such as nanomaterial researchers and developers, compani es and regulators to design benign nanomaterials, communicate what is known about nano -risks and decide on whether to implement precautionary regulatory measures....

  6. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change

  7. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesarič, Tina, E-mail: tina.mesaric84@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gambardella, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.gambardella@ge.ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Milivojević, Tamara, E-mail: milivojevictamara@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faimali, Marco, E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Drobne, Damjana, E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CO Nanocentre), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Falugi, Carla, E-mail: carlafalugi@hotmail.it [Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Makovec, Darko, E-mail: darko.makovec@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sepčić, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.sepcic@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change.

  8. Langmuir hydrogen dissociation approach in radiolabeling carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Eremina, Elena A.; Egorov, Alexander V.; Grigorieva, Anastasia V.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have piqued the interest of several researchers. At the same time, radioactive labeling is a powerful tool for studying processes in different systems, including biological and organic; however, the introduction of radioactive isotopes into carbon-based nanomaterial remains a great challenge. We have used the Langmuir hydrogen dissociation method to introduce tritium in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. The technique allows us to achieve a specific radioactivity of 107 and 27 Ci/g for single-layer graphene oxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. Based on the analysis of characteristic Raman modes at 1350 and 1580 cm -1 , a minimal amount of structural changes to the nanomaterials due to radiolabeling was observed. The availability of a simple, nondestructive, and economic technique for the introduction of radiolabels to single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide will ultimately expand the applicability of these materials.

  9. Langmuir hydrogen dissociation approach in radiolabeling carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Eremina, Elena A.; Egorov, Alexander V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Grigorieva, Anastasia V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Materials Science

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have piqued the interest of several researchers. At the same time, radioactive labeling is a powerful tool for studying processes in different systems, including biological and organic; however, the introduction of radioactive isotopes into carbon-based nanomaterial remains a great challenge. We have used the Langmuir hydrogen dissociation method to introduce tritium in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. The technique allows us to achieve a specific radioactivity of 107 and 27 Ci/g for single-layer graphene oxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. Based on the analysis of characteristic Raman modes at 1350 and 1580 cm{sup -1}, a minimal amount of structural changes to the nanomaterials due to radiolabeling was observed. The availability of a simple, nondestructive, and economic technique for the introduction of radiolabels to single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide will ultimately expand the applicability of these materials.

  10. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  11. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F. [Department of Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH{sub 2} and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI)

  12. Key physicochemical properties of nanomaterials in view of their toxicity: an exploratory systematic investigation for the example of carbon-based nanomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salieri, Beatrice; Pasteris, Andrea; Netkueakul, Woranan; Hischier, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Currently, a noncomprehensive understanding of the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial (CBNs), which may affect toxic effects, is still observable. In this study, an exploratory systematic investigation into the key physicochemical properties of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), and C_6_0-fullerene on their ecotoxicity has been undertaken. We undertook an extensive survey of the literature pertaining to the ecotoxicity of organism representative of the trophic level of algae, crustaceans, and fish. Based on this, a set of data reporting both the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial and the observed toxic effect has been established. The relationship between physicochemical properties and observed toxic effect was investigated based on various statistical approaches. Specifically, analysis of variance by one-way ANOVA was used to assess the effect of categorical properties (use of a dispersant or treatments in the test medium, type of carbon-based nanomaterial, i.e., SWCNT, MWCNT, C_6_0-fullerene, functionalization), while multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of quantitative properties (i.e., diameter length of nanotubes, secondary size) on the toxicity values. The here described investigations revealed significant relationships among the physicochemical properties and observed toxic effects. The research was mainly affected by the low availability of data and also by the low variability of the studies collected. Overall, our results demonstrate that the here proposed and applied approach could have a major role in identifying the physicochemical properties of relevance for the toxicity of nanomaterial. However, the future success of the approach would require that the ENMs and the experimental conditions used in the toxicity studies are fully characterized.

  13. Key physicochemical properties of nanomaterials in view of their toxicity: an exploratory systematic investigation for the example of carbon-based nanomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salieri, Beatrice, E-mail: Beatrice.salieri@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab (Switzerland); Pasteris, Andrea [University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences (Italy); Netkueakul, Woranan; Hischier, Roland [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    Currently, a noncomprehensive understanding of the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial (CBNs), which may affect toxic effects, is still observable. In this study, an exploratory systematic investigation into the key physicochemical properties of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), and C{sub 60}-fullerene on their ecotoxicity has been undertaken. We undertook an extensive survey of the literature pertaining to the ecotoxicity of organism representative of the trophic level of algae, crustaceans, and fish. Based on this, a set of data reporting both the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial and the observed toxic effect has been established. The relationship between physicochemical properties and observed toxic effect was investigated based on various statistical approaches. Specifically, analysis of variance by one-way ANOVA was used to assess the effect of categorical properties (use of a dispersant or treatments in the test medium, type of carbon-based nanomaterial, i.e., SWCNT, MWCNT, C{sub 60}-fullerene, functionalization), while multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of quantitative properties (i.e., diameter length of nanotubes, secondary size) on the toxicity values. The here described investigations revealed significant relationships among the physicochemical properties and observed toxic effects. The research was mainly affected by the low availability of data and also by the low variability of the studies collected. Overall, our results demonstrate that the here proposed and applied approach could have a major role in identifying the physicochemical properties of relevance for the toxicity of nanomaterial. However, the future success of the approach would require that the ENMs and the experimental conditions used in the toxicity studies are fully characterized.

  14. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Ram Adhikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, reduced graphene oxide (rGO, SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH, and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics.

  15. Preventive strategy for nanomaterials. Special report; Vorsorgestrategien fuer Nanomaterialien. Sondergutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In this special report the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU) gives recommendations for a responsible, precautionary manner of use of this technology. The goal is to permit innovation while at the same time identifying and mitigating risks at an early stage. The SRU sees an urgent need for regulatory action in regard to nanomaterials and demands greater transparency concerning their use in consumer products. In the event of substantiated concerns these must be acted upon in accordance with the precautionary principle with due consideration to the risks and opportunities involved. Making this possible will require much legal reform. Nanomaterials and nanoproducts are in principle subject to materials and product-related as well as environmental legislation. Due to the special features of nanomaterials, however, not all of these legal instruments can be applied in practice. For example, procedures for chemicals registration and product approval do not provide for a separate identification, nor, consequently, for an assessment of nanomaterials. The SRU recommends a quick closure of these regulatory gaps currently existing for nanomaterials. For this it will be necessary to give a binding definition of what constitutes a nanomaterial, treat nanomaterials as a class of their own in the risk assessment of chemicals and provide for their registration on the basis of a suitably designed data record. Any generalisation in regard to the risks associated with nanomaterials should be avoided, since some materials are safe according to present knowledge, while others have a risk potential. The SRU sees particular reason for concern regarding the use of nanomaterials in sprays readily available to consumers, the increasing marketing of nanosilver products and the manufacture of and subsequent processing of carbon nanotubes suspected of causing cancer, especially those with a large length to cross-section ratio. Public authorities and consumers often have no

  16. Cytotoxic and inflammatory responses of human lung cells exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    AbstractWith the emergence of the nanotechnology industry, there has been a rapid expansion of different types and numbers of nanomaterials to be used in various applications. However, little is known of their potential to cause harmful effects on human health. Among other nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, are found to harbor attractive characteristics that can be used in many applications. However, the same properties may cause harmful effects on human health that has raised serious concerns....

  17. Experimental investigation of interactions between proteins and carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Bishwambhar

    The global market for nanomaterials based products is forecasted to reach $1 trillion per annum per annum for 2015. Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exhibit unique physicochemical properties with potential to impact diverse aspects of society through applications in electronics, renewable energy, and medicine. While the research and proposed applications of ENMs continue to grow rapidly, the health and safety of ENMs still remains a major concern to the public as well as to policy makers and funding agencies. It is now widely accepted that focused efforts are needed for identifying the list of physicochemical descriptors of ENM before they can be evaluated for nanotoxicity and biological response. This task is surprisingly challenging, as many physicochemical properties of ENMs are closely inter related and cannot be varied independently (e.g. increasing the size of an ENM can introduce additional defects). For example, varying toxic response may ensue due to different methods of nanomaterial preparation, dissimilar impurities and defects. Furthermore, the inadvertent coating of proteins on ENM surface in any biological milieu results in the formation of the so-called "protein/bio-corona" which can in turn alter the fate of ENMs and their biological response. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide are widely used ENMs. It is now known that defects in CNMs play an important role not only in materials properties but also in the determination of how materials interact at the nano-bio interface. In this regard, this work investigates the influence of defect-induced hydrophilicity on the bio-corona formation using micro Raman, photoluminescence, infrared spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that the interaction of proteins (albumin and fibrinogen) with CNMs is strongly influenced by charge transfer between them, inducing protein unfolding which enhances conformational entropy and

  18. Machine tool metrology an industrial handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Graham T

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the key scientific disciplines of Machine Tool Metrology, this text will prove useful for the industrial-practitioner and those interested in the operation of machine tools. Within this current level of industrial-content, this book incorporates significant usage of the existing published literature and valid information obtained from a wide-spectrum of manufacturers of plant, equipment and instrumentation before putting forward novel ideas and methodologies. Providing easy to understand bullet points and lucid descriptions of metrological and calibration subjects, this book aids reader understanding of the topics discussed whilst adding a voluminous-amount of footnotes utilised throughout all of the chapters, which adds some additional detail to the subject. Featuring an extensive amount of photographic-support, this book will serve as a key reference text for all those involved in the field. .

  19. Quantum metrology foundation of units and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Ernst O

    2015-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is the world's most widely used system of measurement, used every day in commerce and science, and is the modern form of the metric system. It currently comprises the meter (m), the kilogram (kg), the second (s), the ampere (A), the kelvin (K), the candela (cd) and the mole (mol)). The system is changing though, units and unit definitions are modified through international agreements as the technology of measurement progresses, and as the precision of measurements improves. The SI is now being redefined based on constants of nature and their realization by quantum standards. Therefore, the underlying physics and technologies will receive increasing interest, and not only in the metrology community but in all fields of science. This book introduces and explains the applications of modern physics concepts to metrology, the science and the applications of measurements. A special focus is made on the use of quantum standards for the realization of the forthcoming new SI (the...

  20. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  1. Coordinate Metrology by Traceable Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel

    is an important factor for decision making about manufactured parts. However, due to many influences in CT, estimation of the uncertainty is a challenge, also because standardized procedures and guidelines are not available yet. In this thesis, several methods for uncertainty estimation were applied in connection......, characterization and correction of measurement errors in the CT volume. Their application appeared to be suitable for this task. Because the two objects consist of ruby spheres and carbon fibre, CT scans did not produce image artifacts, and evaluation of sphere-to-sphere distances was robust. Several methods...... metrology and coordinate metrology and is currently becoming more and more important measuring technique for dimensional measurements. This is mainly due to the fact that with CT, a complete three-dimensional model of the scanned part is in a relatively short time visualized using a computer...

  2. Gloss evaluation from soft and hard metrologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zihao; Xu, Lihao; Hu, Yu; Mirjalili, Fereshteh; Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) acquisitions have provided a novel approach for appearance measurement and analysis. In particular, since gloss appearance is dependent on the directional reflective properties of surfaces, it is reasonable to leverage the BRDF for gloss evaluation. In this paper, we investigate gloss appearance from both soft metrology and hard metrology. A psychophysical experiment was conducted for the gloss assessment of 47 neutral-color samples. In the evaluation of gloss perception from gloss meter measurements, we report several ambiguous correspondences in the medium gloss range. In order to analyze and explain this phenomenon, the BRDF was acquired and examined using a commercial BRDF measuring device. With an improved correlation-to-visual perception, we propose a two-dimensional gloss model by combining a parameter, the standard deviation of the specular lobe, from Ward's BRDF model with measured gloss values.

  3. Nanomaterials Work at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2005-01-01

    Nanomaterials activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center focus on single wall carbon nanotube production, characterization and their applications for aerospace. Nanotubes are produced by arc and laser methods and the growth process is monitored by in-situ diagnostics using time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence of the active species. Parametric study of both these processes are conducted to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, laser fluence and arc current. Characterization of the nanotube material is performed using the NASA-JSC protocol developed by combining analytical techniques of SEM, TEM, UV-VIS-NIR absorption, Raman, and TGA. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymernanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

  4. Efficiency improvements of offline metrology job creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Victor J.; Carlson, Alan; Podlesny, John C.; Knutrud, Paul C.

    1999-06-01

    Progress of the first lot of a new design through the production line is watched very closely. All performance metrics, cycle-time, in-line measurement results and final electrical performance are critical. Rapid movement of this lot through the line has serious time-to-market implications. Having this material waiting at a metrology operation for an engineer to create a measurement job plan wastes valuable turnaround time. Further, efficient use of a metrology system is compromised by the time required to create and maintain these measurement job plans. Thus, having a method to develop metrology job plans prior to the actual running of the material through the manufacture area can significantly improve both cycle time and overall equipment efficiency. Motorola and Schlumberger have worked together to develop and test such a system. The Remote Job Generator (RJG) created job plans for new device sin a manufacturing process from an NT host or workstation, offline. This increases available system tim effort making production measurements, decreases turnaround time on job plan creation and editing, and improves consistency across job plans. Most importantly this allows job plans for new devices to be available before the first wafers of the device arrive at the tool for measurement. The software also includes a database manager which allows updates of existing job plans to incorporate measurement changes required by process changes or measurement optimization. This paper will review the result of productivity enhancements through the increased metrology utilization and decreased cycle time associated with the use of RJG. Finally, improvements in process control through better control of Job Plans across different devices and layers will be discussed.

  5. Measurement capabilities of the Bendix Metrology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to communicate the measurement and calibration capabilities of the Metrology Organization of the Bendix Kansas City Division. Included is a listing of the measurement types and ranges available, and the accuracies normally attainable under conditions at the Kansas City Division. Also described are currently used standards and measurement devices. The manual is divided into four major sections, each describing a broad general area of measurement: mechanical; environmental, gas, liquid; electrical; and optical and radiation

  6. Digital holography for MEMS and microsystem metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Asundi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Approaching the topic of digital holography from the practical perspective of industrial inspection, Digital Holography for MEMS and Microsystem Metrology describes the process of digital holography and its growing applications for MEMS characterization, residual stress measurement, design and evaluation, and device testing and inspection. Asundi also provides a thorough theoretical grounding that enables the reader to understand basic concepts and thus identify areas where this technique can be adopted. This combination of both practical and theoretical approach will ensure the

  7. Implementation of the Brazilian radiation metrology network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Araujo, Margareth M. de

    1998-01-01

    The ever increasing need for calibration of survey, personal, and contamination meters in Brazil are not completely satisfied by the two operating laboratories. To overcome this deficiency a radiation metrology network is being implemented with the support of IAEA. In a near future this network will count other three calibration laboratories which are being installed in different regions of the country, and accredited through INMETRO. (author)

  8. Traceability and uncertainty estimation in coordinate metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    National and international standards have defined performance verification procedures for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) that typically involve their ability to measure calibrated lengths and to a certain extent form. It is recognised that, without further analysis or testing, these results...... are required. Depending on the requirements for uncertainty level, different approaches may be adopted to achieve traceability. Especially in the case of complex measurement situations and workpieces the procedures are not trivial. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability in coordinate metrology...

  9. Regional Knowledge Production in Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Patuelli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials are seen as a key technology for the twenty-first century, and much is expected of them in terms of innovation and economic growth. They could open the way to many radically new applications, which would form the basis of innovative products. As nanomaterials are still in their infa......Nanomaterials are seen as a key technology for the twenty-first century, and much is expected of them in terms of innovation and economic growth. They could open the way to many radically new applications, which would form the basis of innovative products. As nanomaterials are still...... in their infancy, universities, public research institutes and private businesses seem to play a vital role in the innovation process. Existing literature points to the importance of knowledge spillovers between these actors and suggests that the opportunities for these depend on proximity, with increasing...... on nanomaterial patenting. Based on European Patent Office data at the German district level (NUTS-3), we estimate two negative binomial models in a knowledge production function framework and include a spatial filtering approach to adjust for spatial autocorrelation. Our results indicate...

  10. Health hazards associated with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattan, Gurulingappa; Kaul, Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area and presents a variety of hazards for human health and environment. It is widely believed that engineered nanomaterials will be increasingly used in biomedical applications (as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools). However, before these novel materials can be safely applied in a clinical setting, their toxicity needs to be carefully assessed. Nanoscale materials often behave different from the materials with a larger structure, even when the basic material is same. Many mammals get exposed to these nanomaterials, which can reach almost every cell of the mammalian body, causing the cells to respond against nanoparticles (NPs) resulting in cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. The important key to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials is that their minute size, smaller than cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate the basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. There is a wealth of evidence for the noxious and harmful effects of engineered NPs as well as other nanomaterials. The rapid commercialization of nanotechnology field requires thoughtful, attentive environmental, animal and human health safety research and should be an open discussion for broader societal impacts and urgent toxicological oversight action. While 'nanotoxicity' is a relatively new concept to science, this comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body. © The Author(s) 2012.

  11. Metrology Techniques for the Assembly of NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priniski, C.; Dodson, T.; Duco, M.; Raftopoulos, S.; Ellis, R.; Brooks, A.

    2009-01-01

    In support of the National Compact Stellerator Experiment (NCSX), stellerator assembly activities continued this past year at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in partnership with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The construction program saw the completion of the first two Half Field-Period Assemblies (HPA), each consisting of three modular coils. The full machine includes six such sub-assemblies. A single HPA consists of three of the NCSX modular coils wound and assembled at PPPL. These geometrically-complex three dimensional coils were wound using computer-aided metrology and CAD models to tolerances within +/- 0.5mm. The assembly of these coils required similar accuracy on a larger scale with the added complexity of more individual parts and fewer degrees of freedom for correction. Several new potential positioning issues developed for which measurement and control techniques were developed. To accomplish this, CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and software similar to the solutions employed for winding the modular coils was used. Given the size of the assemblies, the primary tools were both interferometer aided and Absolute Distance Measurement (ADM)-only based laser trackers. In addition, portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms and some novel indirect measurement techniques were employed. This paper will detail both the use of CAD coordinate-based metrology technology and the techniques developed and employed for dimensional control of NSCX subassemblies. The results achieved and possible improvements to techniques will be discussed.

  12. Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing of the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction by the President of the Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing; (2) The Vice-president's Unit Standardization and Quality; (3) The President's Office; (4) Chief Inspector Department; (5) Legislative-juridical Department; (6) Department of Economy; (7) Department of International Co-operation; (8) Department of European Integration; (9) Department of Metrology; (10) Department of Testing; (11) Department of the Cyclotron Centre SR; (12) Slovak Institute of Metrology; (13) Slovak Standards Institution; (14) Slovak Metrology Inspectorate; (15) Slovak Legal Metrology; (16) Measuring Techniques - Technocentre - MTT; Abbreviations; (17) Technical Testing Institute Piestany; (18) Testing Institute of Transport and Earthmoving Machinery - SUDST

  13. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imagi...

  14. Growth of uranyl hydroxide nanowires and nanotubes with electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Yuan Liyong; Chai Zhifang; Shi Weiqun

    2013-01-01

    Actinides nanomaterials have great potential applications in fabrication of novel nuclear fuel and spent fuel reprocessing in advanced nuclear energy system. However, the relative research so far still lacks systematic investigation on the synthetic methods for actinides nanomaterials. In this work, we use track-etched membranes as hard templates to synthesize uranium based nanomaterials with novel structures by electrodeposition method. Through electrochemical behavior investigations and subsequent product characterizations such as energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the chemical composition of deposition products have been confirmed as the uranyl hydroxide. More importantly, accurate control of morphology and structures (nanowires and nanotubes) could be achieved by carefully adjusting the growth parameters such as deposition time and deposition current density. It was found that the preferred morphology of electrodeposition products is nanowire when a low current density was applied, whereas nanotubes could be formed only under conditions of high current density and the short deposition time. The mechanism for the formation of nanowires in track-etched membranes is based on the precipitation of uranyl hydroxide from uranyl nitrate solution, according to the previous researches about obtaining nanostructures of hydroxides from nitrate salt solutions. And we have concluded that the formation of nanotubes is attributed to the hydrogen bubbles generated by water electrolysis under the condition of over-potential electro-reduction. The conveying of hydrogen bubbles plays the role of dynamic template which can prevent the complete filling of uranyl hydroxide in the channels. Additionally, we transform the chemical composition of deposition products from uranyl hydroxide to triuranium octoxide by calcining them at 500 and 800 degree centigrade, respectively, and SEM results show the morphologies of nanowires and

  15. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  16. Engineered Nanomaterials Elicit Cellular Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials are being developed continuously and incorporated into consumer products, resulting in increased human exposures. The study of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on toxicity endpoints without further investigating potential mechanisms or pathway...

  17. Nanomaterials: Opportunities and Challenges for Aerospace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obieta, Isabel; Marcos, J

    2005-01-01

    Nanomaterials are regarded world-wide as key materials of the 21st Century. Also, in aerospace a high potential for nanomaterials applications is postulated and technological breakthroughs are expected in this area...

  18. How Do Enzymes 'Meet' Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Piao; Lai, Cui; Tang, Lin

    2017-11-01

    Enzymes are fundamental biological catalysts responsible for biological regulation and metabolism. The opportunity for enzymes to 'meet' nanoparticles and nanomaterials is rapidly increasing due to growing demands for applications in nanomaterial design, environmental monitoring, biochemical engineering, and biomedicine. Therefore, understanding the nature of nanomaterial-enzyme interactions is becoming important. Since 2014, enzymes have been used to modify, degrade, or make nanoparticles/nanomaterials, while numerous nanoparticles/nanomaterials have been used as materials for enzymatic immobilization and biosensors and as enzyme mimicry. Among the various nanoparticles and nanomaterials, metal nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials have received extensive attention due to their fascinating properties. This review provides an overview about how enzymes meet nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanotube cathodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  20. Nanotube cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  1. Metrology for radioactive waste management. (WP2, WP3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suran, J.

    2014-01-01

    The three-year European research project M etrology for Radioactive Waste Management' was launched in October 2011 under the EMRP (European Metrology Research Programme). It involves 13 European national metrology institutes and a total budget exceeds four million Euros. The project is coordinated by the Czech Metrology Institute and is divided into five working groups. In this presentation the Project is described. (author)

  2. Side-by-side comparison of Raman spectra of anchored and suspended carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, Anton N; Pabba, Santosh; Cohn, Robert W; Sumanasekera, G U; Hewaparakrama, Kapila P

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectra of ordered carbon nanomaterials are quite sensitive to surface perturbations, including trace residues, structural defects and residual stress. This is demonstrated by a series of experiments with carbon nanotubes and graphene. Their spectra change due to subtle changes in preparation and attachment to the substrate and to each other. Differences are most clearly seen by forming a material into an air bridge and probing it in the air gap and at the anchor points. A monolayer graphene sheet, shows a larger disorder band at the anchor points than in the air gap. However, a bundle or rope of parallel-aligned single-wall nanotubes shows a larger disorder band in the gap than at the anchor points. For the graphene sheet the substrate surface deforms the graphene, leading to increases in the disorder band. For the rope, the close proximity of the nanotubes to each other appears to produce a larger stress than the rope resting on the substrate

  3. PREFACE: Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Volkmar; Kramer, Bernhard

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 70th PTB Seminar which, the second on the subject "Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology", was held at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig from October 21 to 22, 1985. About 100 participants from the universities and various research institutes of the Federal Republic of Germany participated in the meeting. Besides a number of review lectures on various broader subjects there was a poster session which contained a variety of topical contributed papers ranging from the theory of the quantum Hall effect to reports on the status of the metrological experiments at the PTB. In addition, the participants were also offered the possibility to visit the PTB laboratories during the course of the seminar. During the preparation of the meeting we noticed that even most of the general subjects which were going to be discussed in the lectures are of great importance in connection with metrological experiments and should be made accessible to the scientific community. This eventually resulted in the idea of the publication of the papers in a regular journal. We are grateful to the editor of Metrologia for providing this opportunity. We have included quite a number of papers from basic physical research. For example, certain aspects of high-energy physics and quantum optics, as well as the many-faceted role of Sommerfeld's fine-structure constant, are covered. We think that questions such as "What are the intrinsic fundamental parameters of nature?" or "What are we doing when we perform an experiment?" can shed new light on the art of metrology, and do, potentially, lead to new ideas. This appears to be especially necessary when we notice the increasing importance of the role of the fundamental constants and macroscopic quantum effects for the definition and the realization of the physical units. In some cases we have reached a point where the limitations of our knowledge of a fundamental constant and

  4. Progress in electronics and photonics with nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Murugan, Arul; Kotakoski, Jani

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials have been at the center of attraction for almost five decades as their contributions to different disciplines such as electronics, photonics and medicine are enormous. Various kinds of nanomaterials have been developed and are currently utilized in innumerable applications. Neverthe......Nanomaterials have been at the center of attraction for almost five decades as their contributions to different disciplines such as electronics, photonics and medicine are enormous. Various kinds of nanomaterials have been developed and are currently utilized in innumerable applications...

  5. LCA of metal nanomaterial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Diaz, Elsa Gabriela Alvarado; Olsen, Stig Irving

    The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial product has reached a new stage, where consumers in their daily life are frequently encountered with products containing this new material class. Metal and metal-oxide nanomaterials are among the most commonly used ENMs in products. Potential......(OH)2 applied as additives in polypropylene (PP), and the production of PP with conventional additives that provide similar properties as the ENMs. Different scenarios of nanoproducts consisting of metal ENMs and PP were compared with current use of additives in PP products through a detailed cradle...

  6. Carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption

    CERN Document Server

    Terranova, Maria Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Research in adsorption of gases by carbon nanomaterials has experienced considerable growth in recent years, with increasing interest for practical applications. Many research groups are now producing or using such materials for gas adsorption, storage, purification, and sensing. This book provides a selected overview of some of the most interesting scientific results regarding the outstanding properties of carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption and of interest both for basic research and technological applications. Topics receiving special attention in this book include storage of H, purific

  7. Problems of metrological supply of carbon materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, G.V.; Bazilevskij, L.P.; Cherkashina, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon materials and products contain internal residual stresses and have an anisotropy of properties therefore special methods of tests are required to control their quality. The main metrological problems during development, production and application of carbon products are: metrological supply of production forms and records during the development of production conditions; metrological supply of quality control of the product; metrological supply of methods for the tests of products and the methods to forecast the characteristics of product quality for the period of quaranteed service life

  8. Relative risk analysis of several manufactured nanomaterials: an insurance industry context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Christine Ogilvie; Tanzil, Dicksen; Weilenmann, Ulrich; Wiesner, Mark R

    2005-11-15

    A relative risk assessment is presented for the industrial fabrication of several nanomaterials. The production processes for five nanomaterials were selected for this analysis, based on their current or near-term potential for large-scale production and commercialization: single-walled carbon nanotubes, bucky balls (C60), one variety of quantum dots, alumoxane nanoparticles, and nano-titanium dioxide. The assessment focused on the activities surrounding the fabrication of nanomaterials, exclusive of any impacts or risks with the nanomaterials themselves. A representative synthesis method was selected for each nanomaterial based on its potential for scaleup. A list of input materials, output materials, and waste streams for each step of fabrication was developed and entered into a database that included key process characteristics such as temperature and pressure. The physical-chemical properties and quantities of the inventoried materials were used to assess relative risk based on factors such as volatility, carcinogenicity, flammability, toxicity, and persistence. These factors were first used to qualitatively rank risk, then combined using an actuarial protocol developed by the insurance industry for the purpose of calculating insurance premiums for chemical manufacturers. This protocol ranks three categories of risk relative to a 100 point scale (where 100 represents maximum risk): incident risk, normal operations risk, and latent contamination risk. Results from this analysis determined that relative environmental risk from manufacturing each of these five materials was comparatively low in relation to other common industrial manufacturing processes.

  9. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hua Kun, E-mail: hua@uow.edu.au

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  10. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  11. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. - Highlights: • We review the types of carbon nanomaterials used in electrochemical sensors. • Different materials and sensor designs are compared for classes of biomolecules. • Future challenges of better sensor design and implementation are assessed

  12. Functionalization and Dispersion of Carbon Nanomaterials Using an Environmentally Friendly Ultrasonicated Ozonolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eudora S Y; Mathys, Gary I; Brack, Narelle; Thostenson, Erik T; Rider, Andrew N

    2017-05-30

    Functionalization of carbon nanomaterials is often a critical step that facilitates their integration into larger material systems and devices. In the as-received form, carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), may contain large agglomerates. Both agglomerates and impurities will diminish the benefits of the unique electrical and mechanical properties offered when CNTs or GNPs are incorporated into polymers or composite material systems. Whilst a variety of methods exist to functionalize carbon nanomaterials and to create stable dispersions, many the processes use harsh chemicals, organic solvents, or surfactants, which are environmentally unfriendly and may increase the processing burden when isolating the nanomaterials for subsequent use. The current research details the use of an alternative, environmentally friendly technique for functionalizing CNTs and GNPs. It produces stable, aqueous dispersions free of harmful chemicals. Both CNTs and GNPs can be added to water at concentrations up to 5 g/L and can be recirculated through a high-powered ultrasonic cell. The simultaneous injection of ozone into the cell progressively oxidizes the carbon nanomaterials, and the combined ultrasonication breaks down agglomerates and immediately exposes fresh material for functionalization. The prepared dispersions are ideally suited for the deposition of thin films onto solid substrates using electrophoretic deposition (EPD). CNTs and GNPs from the aqueous dispersions can be readily used to coat carbon- and glass-reinforcing fibers using EPD for the preparation of hierarchical composite materials.

  13. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill, E-mail: jventon@virginia.edu

    2015-08-05

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. - Highlights: • We review the types of carbon nanomaterials used in electrochemical sensors. • Different materials and sensor designs are compared for classes of biomolecules. • Future challenges of better sensor design and implementation are assessed.

  14. Molecular interactions and thermal transport in ionic liquids with carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, João M P; Nieto de Castro, Carlos A; Pádua, Agílio A H

    2017-07-05

    We used molecular dynamics simulation to study the effect of suspended carbon nanomaterials, nanotubes and graphene sheets, on the thermal conductivity of ionic liquids, an issue related to understanding the properties of nanofluids. One important aspect that we developed is an atomistic model of the interactions between the organic ions and carbon nanomaterials, so we did not rely on existing force fields for small organic molecules or assume simple combining rules to describe the interactions at the liquid/material interface. Instead, we used quantum calculations with a density functional suitable for non-covalent interactions to parameterize an interaction model, including van der Waals terms and also atomic partial charges on the materials. We fitted a n-m interaction potential function with n values of 9 or 10 and m values between 5 and 8, so a 12-6 Lennard-Jones function would not fit the quantum calculations. For the atoms of ionic liquids and carbon nanomaterials interacting among themselves, we adopted existing models from the literature. We studied the imidazolium ionic liquids [C 4 C 1 im][SCN], [C 4 C 1 im][N(CN) 2 ], [C 4 C 1 im][C(CN) 3 ] and [C 4 C 1 im][(CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N]. Attraction is stronger for cations (than for anions) above and below the π-system of the nanomaterials, whereas anions show stronger attraction for the hydrogenated edges. The ordering of ions around and inside (7,7) and (10,10) single-walled nanotubes, and near a stack of graphene sheets, was analysed in terms of density distribution functions. We verified that anions are found, as well as cations, in the first interfacial layer interacting with the materials, which is surprising given the interaction potential surfaces. The thermal conductivity of the ionic liquids and of composite systems containing one nanotube or one graphene stack in suspension was calculated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. Thermal conductivity was calculated along the axis of the nanotube and

  15. Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , the Water Framework Directive, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the Novel Foods Regulation. Current regulation of nanomaterials entail three overall challenges: 1) limitations in regard to terminology and definitions of key terms such as a “substance,” “novel food,” etc.; 2) safety assessment requirements...

  16. Computational design of safer nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burello, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are expected to find applications in numerous consumer products, posing the challenge to guarantee their safety and environmental sustainability before they can be transferred from research labs to end-consumer products. One emerging solution, called safe design, relies on the

  17. Magnetic characterization techniques for nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Sixth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Magnetic Characterization Techniques for Nanomaterials. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  18. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  19. Chemical Design of Functional Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten

    This thesis deals with a very specific class of functional nanomaterials known as mesoporous zeolites. Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicate minerals characterized by featuring pores or cavities of molecular dimensions as part of their crystal structure. Mesoporous zeolites are zeol...

  20. Risk of dust explosions of combustible nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Ritsu

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials have several valuable properties and are widely used for various practical applications. However, safety matters are suspected such as the influence on health and environment, and fire and explosion hazards. To minimize the risk of nanomaterials, appropriate understanding of these hazards is indispensable. Nanoparticles of combustible materials have potential hazard of dust explosion accidents. However, the explosion risk of nanomaterials has not yet been understood adequately because of the lack of data for nanomaterials. In this presentation, the risk of dust explosions of nanomaterials is discussed.

  1. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  2. Nanotube phonon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2013-10-29

    Disclosed are methods and devices in which certain types of nanotubes (e.g., carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes conduct heat with high efficiency and are therefore useful in electronic-type devices.

  3. Investigations of carbon nanotubes and polyacrylonitrile composites for flexible textronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiński, J.; Wróblewski, G.; Janczak, D.; Jakubowska, M.

    2017-08-01

    Thin composite layers based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) were fabricated by means of spray coating with pneumatic atomization. Research was conducted to achieve transparent and flexible electrodes. Prepared suspensions in different proportions of functional phase provided good dispersion quality of CNTs and the stability. The carbon nanotubes were dispersed in dimethylformamide and then added to polyacrylonitrile solution. Suspension was sprayed onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil. After thermal treatment, samples were mechanically and electrically tested. Thanks to carbon nanomaterials used in prepared coatings, high electrical conductivity and mechanical resistance was observed. Use of a polyacrylonitrile guarantee the flexibility of electrodes and high potential in integration with polyacrylonitrile based fabrics.

  4. 222Rn gas metrology in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogucarska, T.; Lapenas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The measurements of radon gas provides in Latvia according with the State radiation monitoring program. The national standard/reference level for the protection of employees and population from exposure to radon Latvia has been accepted. The facilities for calibration of the radon gas measurement instruments and detectors have been established on basic of the Radiation Metrology and Testing Center which is the local SSDL for Baltic Region. The radon measurement instruments and detectors calibration can be performed at the 170-4000 Bq/m 3 range. (author)

  5. Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K

    2010-11-16

    Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.

  6. Aerosol metrology: aerodynamic and electrostatic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodi, V.

    1988-01-01

    Aerosols play an ever increasing role in science, engineering and especially in industrial and environmental hygiene. They are being studied since a long time, but only recently the progress in aerosol instrumentation has made it possible to pose of aerosol metrology, especially the problem of absolute measurements, as based directly on measurements of fundamental quantities. On the basis of absolute measurements, the hierarchy of standards can be prepared and adequately disseminated. In the aerosol field, the quantities to be measured are mainly size, charge, density, and shape. In this paper a possible standardisation framework for aerosols is proposed, for the main physical quantities

  7. Virtual overlay metrology for fault detection supported with integrated metrology and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Goo; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kim, Min-Suk; Han, Sang-Jun; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Ryan, Kevin; Theeuwes, Thomas; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Slotboom, Daan; Kubis, Michael; Staecker, Jens

    2015-03-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing moves toward the 7nm node for logic and 15nm node for memory, an increased emphasis has been placed on reducing the influence known contributors have toward the on product overlay budget. With a machine learning technique known as function approximation, we use a neural network to gain insight to how known contributors, such as those collected with scanner metrology, influence the on product overlay budget. The result is a sufficiently trained function that can approximate overlay for all wafers exposed with the lithography system. As a real world application, inline metrology can be used to measure overlay for a few wafers while using the trained function to approximate overlay vector maps for the entire lot of wafers. With the approximated overlay vector maps for all wafers coming off the track, a process engineer can redirect wafers or lots with overlay signatures outside the standard population to offline metrology for excursion validation. With this added flexibility, engineers will be given more opportunities to catch wafers that need to be reworked, resulting in improved yield. The quality of the derived corrections from measured overlay metrology feedback can be improved using the approximated overlay to trigger, which wafers should or shouldn't be, measured inline. As a development or integration engineer the approximated overlay can be used to gain insight into lots and wafers used for design of experiments (DOE) troubleshooting. In this paper we will present the results of a case study that follows the machine learning function approximation approach to data analysis, with production overlay measured on an inline metrology system at SK hynix.

  8. Carbon-based smart nanomaterials in biomedicine and neuroengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina M. Monaco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The search for advanced biomimetic materials that are capable of offering a scaffold for biological tissues during regeneration or of electrically connecting artificial devices with cellular structures to restore damaged brain functions is at the forefront of interdisciplinary research in materials science. Bioactive nanoparticles for drug delivery, substrates for nerve regeneration and active guidance, as well as supramolecular architectures mimicking the extracellular environment to reduce inflammatory responses in brain implants, are within reach thanks to the advancements in nanotechnology. In particular, carbon-based nanostructured materials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanodiamonds (NDs, have demonstrated to be highly promising materials for designing and fabricating nanoelectrodes and substrates for cell growth, by virtue of their peerless optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this review we discuss the state-of-the-art in the applications of nanomaterials in biological and biomedical fields, with a particular emphasis on neuroengineering.

  9. Functional nanomaterials and devices for electronics, sensors and energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, Francis; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Flandre, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This book contains reviews of recent experimental and theoretical results related to nanomaterials. It focuses on novel functional materials and nanostructures in combination with silicon on insulator (SOI) devices, as well as on the physics of new devices and sensors, nanostructured materials and nano scaled device characterization. Special attention is paid to fabrication and properties of modern low-power, high-performance, miniaturized, portable sensors in a wide range of applications such as telecommunications, radiation control, biomedical instrumentation and chemical analysis. In this book, new approaches exploiting nanotechnologies (such as UTBB FD SOI, Fin FETs, nanowires, graphene or carbon nanotubes on dielectric) to pave a way between “More Moore” and “More than Moore” are considered, in order to create different kinds of sensors and devices which will consume less electrical power, be more portable and totally compatible with modern microelectronics products.

  10. La metrología en nuestras vidas

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Zaira

    2010-01-01

    A primera vista, la palabra "Metrología" nos trae a la mente la idea de condiciones meteorológicas. Nada más alejado de la realidad, porque la Meteorología es la disciplina que se encarga de estudiar las condiciones del tiempo y la Metrología se encarga de estudiar las mediciones.

  11. Comparison of asphere measurements by tactile and optical metrological instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, R.H.; Nieuwenkamp, H.J.; Kok, G.J.P.; Blobel, G.; Nouira, H.; Küng, A.; Baas, M.; Voert, M.J.A. te; Baer, G.; Stuerwald, S.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of topography measurements of aspherical surfaces was carried out by European metrology institutes, other research institutes and a company as part of an European metrology research project. In this paper the results of this comparison are presented. Two artefacts were circulated, a

  12. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs

  13. Differential Evolution for Many-Particle Adaptive Quantum Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovett, N.B.; Crosnier, C.; Perarnau- Llobet, M.; Sanders, B.

    2013-01-01

    We devise powerful algorithms based on differential evolution for adaptive many-particle quantum metrology. Our new approach delivers adaptive quantum metrology policies for feedback control that are orders-of-magnitude more efficient and surpass the few-dozen-particle limitation arising in methods

  14. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  15. Modeling of carbon nanotubes, graphene and their composites

    CERN Document Server

    Silvestre, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    This book contains ten chapters, authored by world experts in the field of simulation at nano-scale and aims to demonstrate the potentialities of computational techniques to model the mechanical behavior of nano-materials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and their composites. A large part of the research currently being conducted in the fields of materials science and engineering mechanics is devoted to carbon nanotubes, graphene and their applications. In this process, computational modeling is a very attractive research tool due to the difficulties in manufacturing and testing of nano-materials. Both atomistic modeling methods, such as molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics, and continuum modeling methods are being intensively used. Continuum modeling offers significant advantages over atomistic modeling such as the reduced computational effort, the capability of modeling complex structures and bridging different analysis scales, thus enabling modeling from the nano- to the macro-scale. On the oth...

  16. In silico assembly and nanomechanical characterization of carbon nanotube buckypaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranford, Steven W; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotube sheets or films, also known as 'buckypaper', have been proposed for use in actuating, structural and filtration systems, based in part on their unique and robust mechanical properties. Computational modeling of such a fibrous nanostructure is hindered by both the random arrangement of the constituent elements as well as the time- and length-scales accessible to atomistic level molecular dynamics modeling. Here we present a novel in silico assembly procedure based on a coarse-grain model of carbon nanotubes, used to attain a representative mesoscopic buckypaper model that circumvents the need for probabilistic approaches. By variation in assembly parameters, including the initial nanotube density and ratio of nanotube type (single- and double-walled), the porosity of the resulting buckypaper can be varied threefold, from approximately 0.3 to 0.9. Further, through simulation of nanoindentation, the Young's modulus is shown to be tunable through manipulation of nanotube type and density over a range of approximately 0.2-3.1 GPa, in good agreement with experimental findings of the modulus of assembled carbon nanotube films. In addition to carbon nanotubes, the coarse-grain model and assembly process can be adapted for other fibrous nanostructures such as electrospun polymeric composites, high performance nonwoven ballistic materials, or fibrous protein aggregates, facilitating the development and characterization of novel nanomaterials and composites as well as the analysis of biological materials such as protein fiber films and bulk structures.

  17. Surface functionalization of aluminosilicate nanotubes with organic molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface functionalization of inorganic nanostructures is an effective approach for enriching the potential applications of existing nanomaterials. Inorganic nanotubes attract great research interest due to their one-dimensional structure and reactive surfaces. In this review paper, recent developments in surface functionalization of an aluminosilicate nanotube, “imogolite”, are introduced. The functionalization processes are based on the robust affinity between phosphate groups of organic molecules and the aluminol (AlOH surface of imogolite nanotubes. An aqueous modification process employing a water soluble ammonium salt of alkyl phosphate led to chemisorption of molecules on imogolite at the nanotube level. Polymer-chain-grafted imogolite nanotubes were prepared through surface-initiated polymerization. In addition, the assembly of conjugated molecules, 2-(5’’-hexyl-2,2’:5’,2’’-terthiophen-5-ylethylphosphonic acid (HT3P and 2-(5’’-hexyl-2,2’:5’,2’’-terthiophen-5-ylethylphosphonic acid 1,1-dioxide (HT3OP, on the imogolite nanotube surface was achieved by introducing a phosphonic acid group to the corresponding molecules. The optical and photophysical properties of these conjugated-molecule-decorated imogolite nanotubes were characterized. Moreover, poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT chains were further hybridized with HT3P modified imogolite to form a nanofiber hybrid.

  18. Consultative committee on ionizing radiation: Impact on radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Ratel, G.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the CIPM MRA, and to improve radioactivity measurements in the face of advancing technologies, the CIPM's consultative committee on ionizing radiation developed a strategic approach to the realization and validation of measurement traceability for radionuclide metrology. As a consequence, measurement institutions throughout the world have devoted no small effort to establish radionuclide metrology capabilities, supported by active quality management systems and validated through prioritized participation in international comparisons, providing a varied stakeholder community with measurement confidence. - Highlights: • Influence of CIPM MRA on radionuclide metrology at laboratories around the world. • CCRI strategy: to be the “undisputed hub for ionizing radiation global metrology.” • CCRI Strategic Plan stresses importance of measurement confidence for stakeholder. • NMIs increasing role in radionuclide metrology by designating institutions (DIs). • NMIs and DIs establish quality systems; validate capabilities through comparisons.

  19. Carbon nanotubes and graphene in analytical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, B.; Merkoci, A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanosized carbon materials are offering great opportunities in various areas of nanotechnology. Carbon nanotubes and graphene, due to their unique mechanical, electronic, chemical, optical and electrochemical properties, represent the most interesting building blocks in various applications where analytical chemistry is of special importance. The possibility of conjugating carbon nanomaterials with biomolecules has received particular attention with respect to the design of chemical sensors and biosensors. This review describes the trends in this field as reported in the last 6 years in (bio)analytical chemistry in general, and in biosensing in particular. (author)

  20. Carbon nanotubes for high-performance logic

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhihong; Wong, H.S. Phillip; Mitra, Subhasish; Bol, Aggeth; Peng, Lianmao; Hills, Gage; Thissen, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past decade, more attention has been shifted toward making use of this unique nanomaterial in real-world applications. In this article, we focus on potential applications of CNTs in the high-performanc...

  1. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress-strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  2. Metrology of reflection optics for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1985-09-01

    Recent years have seen an almost explosive growth in the number of beam lines on new and existing synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world. The need for optical components to utilize the unique characteristics of synchrotron radiation has increased accordingly. Unfortunately, the technology to manufacture and measure the large, smooth, exotic optical surfaces required to focus and steer the synchrotron radiation beam has not progressed as rapidly as the operational demands on these components. Most companies do not wish to become involved with a project that requires producing a single, very expensive, aspheric optic with surface roughness and figure tolerances that are beyond their capabilities to measure. This paper will review some of the experiences of the National Synchrotron Light Source in procuring grazing incidence optical components over the past several years. We will review the specification process - how it is related to the function of the optic, and how it relates to the metrology available during the manufacturing process and after delivery to the user's laboratory. We will also discuss practical aspects of our experience with new technologies, such as single point diamond turning of metal mirrors and the use of SiC as a mirror material. Recent advances in metrology instrumentation have the potential to move the measurement of surface figure and finish from the research laboratory into the optical shop, which should stimulate growth and interest in the manufacturing of optics to meet the needs of the synchrotron radiation user community

  3. Optics for Processes, Products and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George

    1999-04-01

    Optical physics has a variety of applications in industry, including process inspection, coatings development, vision instrumentation, spectroscopy, and many others. Optics has been used extensively in the design of solar energy collection systems and coatings, for example. Also, with the availability of good CCD cameras and fast computers, it has become possible to develop real-time inspection and metrology devices that can accommodate the high throughputs encountered in modern production processes. More recently, developments in moiré interferometry show great promise for applications in the basic metals and electronics industries. The talk will illustrate applications of optics by discussing process inspection techniques for defect detection, part dimensioning, birefringence measurement, and the analysis of optical coatings in the automotive, glass, and optical disc industries. In particular, examples of optical techniques for the quality control of CD-R, MO, and CD-RW discs will be presented. In addition, the application of optical concepts to solar energy collector design and to metrology by moiré techniques will be discussed. Finally, some of the modern techniques and instruments used for qualitative and quantitative material analysis will be presented.

  4. A metrology solution for the orthopaedic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, P; Brown, L; Jiang, X; Blunt, L

    2005-01-01

    Total joint replacement is one of the most common elective surgical procedures performed worldwide, with an estimate of 1.5 million operations performed annually. Currently joint replacements are expected to function for 10-15 years, however, with an increase in life expectancy, and a greater call for knee replacement due to increased activity levels, there is a requirement to improve their function to offer longer term improved quality of life for patients. The amount of wear that a joint incurs is seen as a good indicator of performance, with higher wear rates typically leading to reduced function and premature failure. New technologies and materials are pushing traditional wear assessment methods to their limits, and novel metrology solutions are required to assess wear of joints following in vivo and in vitro use. This paper presents one such measurement technique; a scanning co-ordinate metrology machine for geometrical assessment. A case study is presented to show the application of this technology to a real orthopaedic measurement problem: the wear of components in total knee replacement. This technique shows good results and provides a basis for further developing techniques for geometrical wear assessment of total joint replacements

  5. Metrological challenges introduced by new tolerancing standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Edward; Peng, Yue; Srinivasan, Vijay; Shakarji, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The recent release of ISO 14405-1 has provided designers with a richer set of specification tools for the size of part features, so that various functional requirements can be captured with greater fidelity. However, these tools also bring new challenges and pitfalls to an inspector using a coordinate metrology system. A sampling strategy that might have worked well in the past could lead to erroneous results that go undetected when used to evaluate these new specifications. In this paper we investigate how measurement strategies for sampled coordinate metrology systems influence different algorithms for the evaluation of these new specifications. Of particular interest are those specifications where the order statistics of feature cross-sections are required. Here the inspector must decide not only how many points are required for an individual cross-section, but the number and spacing of cross-sections measured on the feature. The results of these decisions are compared with an analytic estimate of the ‘true value’ of the measurand specified using this new standard. (paper)

  6. Regional metrology organisations and the JCRB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) from some 39 countries signed the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) in Paris. The MRA, drawn up by the CIPM, under the authority given to it in the Metre Convention, was in response to requirements of Governments and Regulators to provide a sound technical foundation for trade agreements. Core objectives of the MRA are to allow for the establishment of the degree of equivalence of national measurement standards and to provide for mutual recognition of calibration certificates issued by NMIs. This presentation will detail the evolution of the MRA. Globally, NMIs are affiliated to Regional Metrology Organisations (RMOs). The key role of the RMOs in the MRA process will be discussed along with the structure and objectives of the various RMOs worldwide. The Joint Committee of the RMOs and the BIPM (JCRB) plays a central part in the effective operation of the MRA. Its tasks, membership and output will also be described

  7. Biophysical influence of airborne carbon nanomaterials on natural pulmonary surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Russell P; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y

    2015-05-26

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air-water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handle NP-PS interactions in the liquid phase. This technical limitation, inherent in current in vitro methodologies, makes it impossible to simulate how airborne NP deposit at the PS film and interact with it. Existing in vitro NP-PS studies using liquid-suspended particles have been shown to artificially inflate the no-observed adverse effect level of NP exposure when compared to in vivo inhalation studies and international occupational exposure limits (OELs). Here, we developed an in vitro methodology called the constrained drop surfactometer (CDS) to quantitatively study PS inhibition by airborne CNM. We show that airborne multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets induce a concentration-dependent PS inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. The CNM aerosol concentrations controlled in the CDS are comparable to those defined in international OELs. Development of the CDS has the potential to advance our understanding of how submicron airborne nanomaterials affect the PS lining of the lung.

  8. [New toxicological patterns of nanomaterials, nanostructures and nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, M; Mazzotta, A D; Fernández, M; Tamborino, B; De Filippis, G

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials engineered as nanotubes, quantum-dots, dendrimers or hybrid systems are increasing themselves by an annual mean rate of 4-5%, with rapid spread in various sectors e.g. biomedical. The liposolubility through membranes and the hydrosolubility through active transport do not interfere with nanoparticles below a certain size, which without activation processes and carrier, transport through thanks to capillaries, to intracellular pores (60 - 70 nm) and fissures (4 - 6 nm) in the same membranes. Conversely, in the processes of pinocytosis/endocytosis energy and carrier are required and endocytosis clathrin/caveolae mediated,is respectively for nanoparticles higher or lower than 200 nm. In occupational hazard nanostructures ranging from a few nm up to 100 - 150 nm have the ability to affect several organs through inhalation, intestinal, parental or dermal route of access. New toxicological aspects are associated to the capacity of nanomaterials of being more or less biocompatible or hydrosoluble, of creating bonds with proteins or to determine accumulation in the cells due to an incomplete elimination process.

  9. Nanofabrication and Nanopatterning of Carbon Nanomaterials for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junjun

    Stretchable electrodes have increasingly drawn attention as a vital component for flexible electronic devices. Carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit properties such as high mechanical flexibility and strength, optical transparency, and electrical conductivity which are naturally required for stretchable electrodes. Graphene growth, nanopatterning, and transfer processes are important steps to use graphene as flexible electrodes. However, advances in the large-area nanofabrication and nanopatterning of carbon nanomaterials such as graphene are necessary to realize the full potential of this technology. In particular, laser interference lithography (LIL), a fast and low cost large-area nanoscale patterning technique, shows tremendous promise for the patterning of graphene and other nanostructures for numerous applications. First, it was demonstrated that large-area nanopatterning and the transfer of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene via LIL and plasma etching provide a reliable method to provide large area nanoengineered graphene on various target substrates. Then, to improve the electrode performance under large strain (naturally CVD grown graphene sheet will crack at tensile strains larger than 1%), a corrugated graphene structure on PDMS was designed, fabricated, and tested, with experimental results indicating that this approach successfully allows the graphene sheets to withstand cyclic tensile strains up to 15%. Lastly, to further enhance the performance of carbon-based stretchable electrodes, an approach was developed which coupled graphene and vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) on a flexible PDMS substrate. Characterization of the graphene-VACNT hybrid shows high electrical conductivity and durability through 50 cycles of loading up to 100% tensile strain. While flexible electronics promise tremendous advances in important technological areas such as healthcare, sensing, energy, and wearable electronics, continued

  10. Oxidized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNs-COOH) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nano-materials are considered as suitable heterogeneous catalysts for many organic reactions. Herein oxidized carbon nanotube (SWCNTs-COOH) has been reported as a heterogeneous catalyst, for protection of carbonyl groups as hydrazones in EtOH at 80 °C. The reactions proceed smoothly with good to excellent ...

  11. Techno-economics of carbon nanotubes produced by open air arc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    method, a continuous and mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be achieved with ... CNTs are the most promising of all nanomaterials and have been studied for ... generated with a current of 150 A with 40V and the arc gap between the ... X- ray diffraction is a best method for characterization of CNT structures.

  12. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarianni, Marco; Liu, Jinzhang; Vernon, Kristy; Motta, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage - the key to the portable electronics of the future.

  13. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Notarianni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage – the key to the portable electronics of the future.

  14. Toxicity and efficacy of carbon nanotubes and graphene: the utility of carbon-based nanoparticles in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbin; Petibone, Dayton; Xu, Yang; Mahmood, Meena; Karmakar, Alokita; Casciano, Dan; Ali, Syed; Biris, Alexandru S

    2014-05-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted great interest in biomedical applications such as advanced imaging, tissue regeneration, and drug or gene delivery. The toxicity of the carbon nanotubes and graphene remains a debated issue although many toxicological studies have been reported in the scientific community. In this review, we summarize the biological effects of carbon nanotubes and graphene in terms of in vitro and in vivo toxicity, genotoxicity and toxicokinetics. The dose, shape, surface chemistry, exposure route and purity play important roles in the metabolism of carbon-based nanomaterials resulting in differential toxicity. Careful examination of the physico-chemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials is considered a basic approach to correlate the toxicological response with the unique properties of the carbon nanomaterials. The reactive oxygen species-mediated toxic mechanism of carbon nanotubes has been extensively discussed and strategies, such as surface modification, have been proposed to reduce the toxicity of these materials. Carbon-based nanomaterials used in photothermal therapy, drug delivery and tissue regeneration are also discussed in this review. The toxicokinetics, toxicity and efficacy of carbon-based nanotubes and graphene still need to be investigated further to pave a way for biomedical applications and a better understanding of their potential applications to humans.

  15. Final Report: ''Energetics of Nanomaterials''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra; Ross, Nancy; Woodfield, Brian F

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, solids with very small particle size, form the basis of new technologies that are revolutionizing fields such as energy, lighting, electronics, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. These nanoparticles are different from conventional bulk materials in many ways we do not yet fully understand. This project focused on their structure and thermodynamics and emphasized the role of water in nanoparticle surfaces. Using a unique and synergistic combination of high-tech techniques-namely oxide melt solution calorimetry, cryogenic heat capacity measurements, and inelastic neutron scattering-this work has identified differences in structure, thermodynamic stability, and water behavior on nanoparticles as a function of composition and particle size. The systematics obtained increase the fundamental understanding needed to synthesize, retain, and apply these technologically important nanomaterials and to predict and tailor new materials for enhanced functionality, eventually leading to a more sustainable way of life. Highlights are reported on the following topics: surface energies, thermochemistry of nanoparticles, and changes in stability at the nanoscale; heat capacity models and the gapped phonon spectrum; control of pore structure, acid sites, and thermal stability in synthetic γ-aluminas; the lattice contribution is the same for bulk and nanomaterials; and inelastic neutron scattering studies of water on nanoparticle surfaces.

  16. REACH and nanomaterials: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia; Castelli, Stefano; Pettirossi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    New challenges for regulators are emerging about a specific assessment and appropriate management of the potential risks of nanomaterials. In the framework of European legislation on chemicals, Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 REACH aims to ensure the safety of human health and the environment through the collection of information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the substances and on their profile (eco) toxicological and the identification of appropriate risk management linked to 'exposure to these substances without impeding scientific progress and the competitiveness of industry. In order to cover the current shortage of information on the safety of nanomaterials and tackle the acknowledged legal vacuum, are being a rich activities, carried out both by regulators both by stake holders, and discussions on the proposals for adapting the European regulatory framework for chemicals . The European Commission is geared to strengthen the REACH Regulation by means of updates of its annexes. The importance of responding to the regulatory requirements has highlighted the need for cooperation between European organizations, scientists and industries to promote and ensure the safe use of nanomaterials. [it

  17. Atherosclerosis and vasomotor dysfunction in arteries of animals after exposure to combustion-derived particulate matter or nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Christophersen, Daniel Vest; Raun Jacobsen, Nicklas

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) from traffic vehicles is hazardous to the vascular system, leading to clinical manifestations and mortality due to ischemic heart disease. By analogy, nanomaterials may also be associated with the same outcomes. Here, the effects of exposure to PM from ambient......O2, carbon black and carbon nanotubes, have similar hazards to the vascular system as combustion-derived PM....

  18. Advanced applications of scatterometry based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Dhairya; Keller, Nick; Kagalwala, Taher; Recchia, Fiona; Lifshitz, Yevgeny; Elia, Alexander; Todi, Vinit; Fronheiser, Jody; Vaid, Alok

    2017-03-01

    The semiconductor industry continues to drive patterning solutions that enable devices with higher memory storage capacity, faster computing performance, and lower cost per transistor. These developments in the field of semiconductor manufacturing along with the overall minimization of the size of transistors require continuous development of metrology tools used for characterization of these complex 3D device architectures. Optical scatterometry or optical critical dimension (OCD) is one of the most prevalent inline metrology techniques in semiconductor manufacturing because it is a quick, precise and non-destructive metrology technique. However, at present OCD is predominantly used to measure the feature dimensions such as line-width, height, side-wall angle, etc. of the patterned nano structures. Use of optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay, line edge roughness, etc. is fairly limited. Inspection of process induced abnormalities is a fundamental part of process yield improvement. It provides process engineers with important information about process errors, and consequently helps optimize materials and process parameters. Scatterometry is an averaging technique and extending it to measure the position of local process induced defectivity and feature-to-feature variation is extremely challenging. This report is an overview of applications and benefits of using optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay and fin bending for advanced technology nodes beyond 7nm. Currently, the optical scatterometry is based on conventional spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectroscopic reflectometry measurements, but generalized ellipsometry or Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry data provides important, additional information about complex structures that exhibit anisotropy and depolarization effects. In addition the symmetry-antisymmetry properties associated with Mueller matrix (MM) elements

  19. Analysis of key technologies for virtual instruments metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guixiong; Xu, Qingui; Gao, Furong; Guan, Qiuju; Fang, Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Virtual instruments (VIs) require metrological verification when applied as measuring instruments. Owing to the software-centered architecture, metrological evaluation of VIs includes two aspects: measurement functions and software characteristics. Complexity of software imposes difficulties on metrological testing of VIs. Key approaches and technologies for metrology evaluation of virtual instruments are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The principal issue is evaluation of measurement uncertainty. The nature and regularity of measurement uncertainty caused by software and algorithms can be evaluated by modeling, simulation, analysis, testing and statistics with support of powerful computing capability of PC. Another concern is evaluation of software features like correctness, reliability, stability, security and real-time of VIs. Technologies from software engineering, software testing and computer security domain can be used for these purposes. For example, a variety of black-box testing, white-box testing and modeling approaches can be used to evaluate the reliability of modules, components, applications and the whole VI software. The security of a VI can be assessed by methods like vulnerability scanning and penetration analysis. In order to facilitate metrology institutions to perform metrological verification of VIs efficiently, an automatic metrological tool for the above validation is essential. Based on technologies of numerical simulation, software testing and system benchmarking, a framework for the automatic tool is proposed in this paper. Investigation on implementation of existing automatic tools that perform calculation of measurement uncertainty, software testing and security assessment demonstrates the feasibility of the automatic framework advanced.

  20. Improving OCD time to solution using Signal Response Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Vaid, Alok; Pandev, Stilian; Sanko, Dimitry; Ramanathan, Vidya; Venkataraman, Kartik; Haupt, Ronny

    2016-03-01

    In recent technology nodes, advanced process and novel integration scheme have challenged the precision limits of conventional metrology; with critical dimensions (CD) of device reduce to sub-nanometer region. Optical metrology has proved its capability to precisely detect intricate details on the complex structures, however, conventional RCWA-based (rigorous coupled wave analysis) scatterometry has the limitations of long time-to-results and lack of flexibility to adapt to wide process variations. Signal Response Metrology (SRM) is a new metrology technique targeted to alleviate the consumption of engineering and computation resources by eliminating geometric/dispersion modeling and spectral simulation from the workflow. This is achieved by directly correlating the spectra acquired from a set of wafers with known process variations encoded. In SPIE 2015, we presented the results of SRM application in lithography metrology and control [1], accomplished the mission of setting up a new measurement recipe of focus/dose monitoring in hours. This work will demonstrate our recent field exploration of SRM implementation in 20nm technology and beyond, including focus metrology for scanner control; post etch geometric profile measurement, and actual device profile metrology.

  1. Metrology for WEST components design and integration optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, C.; Archambeau, G.; Blanc, L.; Bucalossi, J.; Chantant, M.; Gargiulo, L.; Hermenier, A.; Le, R.; Pilia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Metrology methods. • Interests of metrology campaign to optimize margins by reducing uncertainties. • Assembly problems are solved and validated on a numerical mock up. • Post treatment of full 3DScan of the vacuum vessel. - Abstract: On WEST new components will be implemented in an existing environment, emphasis has to be put on the metrology to optimize the design and the assembly. Hence, at a particular stage of the project, several components have to coexist in the limited vessel. Therefore, all the difficulty consists in validating the mechanical interfaces between existing components and new one; minimize the risk of the assembling and to maximize the plasma volume. The CEA/IRFM takes the opportunity of the ambitious project to sign a partnership with an industrial specialized in multipurpose metrology domains. To optimize the assembly procedure, the IRFM Assembly group works in strong collaboration with its industrial, to define and plan the campaigns of metrology. The paper will illustrate the organization, methods and results of the dedicated metrology campaigns have been defined and carried out in the WEST dis/assembly phase. To conclude, the future needs of metrology at CEA/IRFM will be exposed to define the next steps.

  2. Optical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gugang

    This thesis addresses the optical properties of novel carbon filamentary nanomaterials: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs), and SWNTs with interior C60 molecules ("peapods"). Optical reflectance spectra of bundled SWNTs are discussed in terms of their electronic energy band structure. An Effective Medium Model for a composite material was found to provide a reasonable description of the spectra. Furthermore, we have learned from optical absorption studies of DWNTs and C60-peapods that the host tube and the encapsulant interact weakly; small shifts in interband absorption structure were observed. Resonant Raman scattering studies on SWNTs synthesized via the HiPCO process show that the "zone-folding" approximation for phonons and electrons works reasonably well, even for small diameter (d effect, rather than the vdW interaction. Finally, we studied the chemical doping of DWNTs, where the dopant (Br anions) is chemically bound to the outside of the outer tube. The doped DWNT system is a model for a cylindrical molecular capacitor. We found experimentally that 90% of the positive charge resides on the outer tube, so that most of electric field on the inner tube is screened, i.e., we have observed a molecular Faraday cage effect. A self-consistent theoretical model in the tight-binding approximation with a classical electrostatic energy term is in good agreement with our experimental results.

  3. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  4. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method to produce body of oriented carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate (RU 2561616» refers to the technologies for production of body of carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate. The flow of actuation gas is formed in the reaction chamber. The flow contains carrying gas, gas hydrocarbon and predecessor of catalyst for synthesis of carbon nanotubes. In some cases, when implementing invention, the flow of inert gas is directed to the surface of the base plate. This gas flow shades the zone of synthesis of carbon nanotubes from air when its pressure exceeds the pressure of actuation gas flow. The method provides the body of oriented carbon nanotubes on the base plates with big surface: up to several square metres. The invention «Composition of mixture for asphaltic concrete (RU 2561435» refers to the construction production in highway industry and can be applied in manufacture of asphaltic concrete including nanotechnologies. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to modify carbon nanomaterials (RU 2548083; nanofiber polymer material (RU 2543377; the method to produce nanosuspensions for manufacture of polymer nanocomposite (RU 2500695; the method to strengthen metal products to obtain nanostructured surface layers (RU 2527511; the method to form heat-resistant nanocomposite coating on the surface of the products made of heat-resistant nickel alloys (RU 2549813; the method to apply nanodiamond material by means of combined electromechanical treatment (RU 2530432; the method to produce soot with content of fullerens and nanotubes made of gas carbon raw material (RU 2531291; the method to produce powders of zinc oxide with surface modification for usage in construction sealing materials (RU

  5. Metrology network: a case study on the metrology network of defense and security from SIBRATEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marisa Ferraz Figueira

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on understanding the effects of the infrastructure improvement of these laboratories and the role of network management in offering support and metrological services to the defense and security sector enterprises, within the project purposes. It is also aimed identify gaps on offering calibration and, or testing services to supply demands of the defense and security industries, and analyze adequacy of RDS project to demands of defense and security industries, with the purpose to contribute with information for future actions. The experimental research is qualitative type, with exploratory research characteristics, based on case study. It was structured in two parts, involving primary data collection and secondary data. In order to collect the primary data two questionnaires were prepared, one (Questionnaire A) to the five RDS laboratories representatives and other (Questionnaire B) to the contacts of 63 defense and security enterprises which need calibration and test services, possible customers of RDS laboratories. Answers from four representatives of RDS laboratories and from 26 defense and security enterprises were obtained. The collection of secondary data was obtained from documentary research. The analysis was made based on five dimensions defined in order to organize and improve the understanding of the research setting. They are RDS project coverage, regional, network management, metrological traceability and importance and visibility of RDS. The results indicated that the performance of RDS does not interfere, by that time, in the metrological traceability of the products of the defense and security enterprises that participated in the research. (author)

  6. The applications of nanomaterials in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinjian; Liu Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, nanotechnology and nanomaterials have gained rapid development in medical application, especially in targeted drug delivery and gene transfer vector domain, and nano-materials are also beginning to applied in nuclear medicine. This paper is to make a view of the application research of several types of nanomaterials in nuclear medicine, and discuss some problems and the main direction of future development. (authors)

  7. Radionuclide metrology research for nuclear site decommissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, S. M.; Regan, P. H.

    2017-11-01

    The safe and cost-effective decommissioning of legacy nuclear sites relies on accurate measurement of the radioactivity content of the waste materials, so that the waste can be assigned to the most appropriate disposal route. Such measurements are a new challenge for the science of radionuclide metrology which was established largely to support routine measurements on operating nuclear sites and other applications such as nuclear medicine. In this paper, we provide a brief summary of the international measurement system that is established to enable nuclear site operators to demonstrate that measurements are accurate, independent and fit for purpose, and highlight some of the projects that are underway to adapt the measurement system to meet the changing demands from the industry.

  8. Plant equipment services with laser metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.H.; Kreitman, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new industrial metrology process is now being applied to support PWR Nuclear Plant Steam Generator Replacement Projects. The method uses laser tracking interferometry to perform as built surveys of existing and replacement plant equipment. This method provides precision data with a minimum of setup when compared to alternative methods available. In addition there is no post processing required to ascertain validity. The data is obtained quickly, processed in real time and displayed during the survey in the desired coordinate system. These capabilities make this method of industrial measure ideal for various data acquisition needs throughout the power industry, from internal/external equipment templating to area mapping. Laser tracking interferometry is an improvement on the present use of optical instruments and surveying technique. In order to describe the laser tracking interferometry measurement process, previous methods of templating and surveying are first reviewed

  9. Coordinate metrology accuracy of systems and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sładek, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on effective methods for assessing the accuracy of both coordinate measuring systems and coordinate measurements. It mainly reports on original research work conducted by Sladek’s team at Cracow University of Technology’s Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology. The book describes the implementation of different methods, including artificial neural networks, the Matrix Method, the Monte Carlo method and the virtual CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), and demonstrates how these methods can be effectively used in practice to gauge the accuracy of coordinate measurements. Moreover, the book includes an introduction to the theory of measurement uncertainty and to key techniques for assessing measurement accuracy. All methods and tools are presented in detail, using suitable mathematical formulations and illustrated with numerous examples. The book fills an important gap in the literature, providing readers with an advanced text on a topic that has been rapidly developing in recent years. The book...

  10. Ionising radiation metrology for the metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Toraño E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions tons of steel are produced worldwide from recycled scrap loads. Although the detection systems in the steelworks prevent most orphan radioactive sources from entering the furnace, there is still the possibility of accidentally melting a radioactive source. The MetroMetal project, carried out in the frame of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP, addresses this problem by studying the existing measurement systems, developing sets of reference sources in various matrices (cast steel, slag, fume dust and proposing new detection instruments. This paper presents the key lines of the project and describes the preparation of radioactive sources as well as the intercomparison exercises used to test the calibration and correction methods proposed within the project.

  11. X-ray metrology for ULSI structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D. K.; Matney, K. M.; Wormington, M.

    1998-01-01

    Non-destructive X-ray metrological methods are discussed for application to both process development and process control of ULSI structures. X-ray methods can (a) detect the unacceptable levels of internal defects generated by RTA processes in large wafers, (b) accurately measure the thickness and roughness of layers between 1 and 1000 nm thick and (c) can monitor parameters such as crystallographic texture and the roughness of buried interfaces. In this paper we review transmission X-ray topography, thin film texture measurement, grazing-incidence X-ray reflectivity and high-resolution X-ray diffraction. We discuss in particular their suitability as on-line sensors for process control

  12. Photocatalytic decouloration of malachite green dye by application of TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Alexandre G.S.; Costa, Leonardo L.

    2009-01-01

    The nanotubes of titania were synthesized in a hydrothermal system and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, FT-Raman, and surface charge density by surface area analyzer. These nanomaterials were applied to photocatalyse malachite green dye degradation. Photodegradation capacity of TiO 2 nanotubes was compared to TiO 2 anatase photoactivity. Malachite dye was completely degraded in 75 and 105 min of reaction photocatalysed by TiO 2 nanotubes and TiO 2 anatase, respectively. Catalysts displayed high photodegradation activity at pH 4. TiO 2 nanotubes were easily recycled whereas the reuse of TiO 2 anatase was not effective. Nanotubes maintained 80% of their activity after 10 catalytic cycles and TiO 2 anatase presented only 8% of its activity after 10 cycles.

  13. Applications of surface metrology in firearm identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X; Soons, J; Vorburger, T V; Song, J; Renegar, T; Thompson, R

    2014-01-01

    Surface metrology is commonly used to characterize functional engineering surfaces. The technologies developed offer opportunities to improve forensic toolmark identification. Toolmarks are created when a hard surface, the tool, comes into contact with a softer surface and causes plastic deformation. Toolmarks are commonly found on fired bullets and cartridge cases. Trained firearms examiners use these toolmarks to link an evidence bullet or cartridge case to a specific firearm, which can lead to a criminal conviction. Currently, identification is typically based on qualitative visual comparison by a trained examiner using a comparison microscope. In 2009, a report by the National Academies called this method into question. Amongst other issues, they questioned the objectivity of visual toolmark identification by firearms examiners. The National Academies recommended the development of objective toolmark identification criteria and confidence limits. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have applied its experience in surface metrology to develop objective identification criteria, measurement methods, and reference artefacts for toolmark identification. NIST developed the Standard Reference Material SRM 2460 standard bullet and SRM 2461 standard cartridge case to facilitate quality control and traceability of identifications performed in crime laboratories. Objectivity is improved through measurement of surface topography and application of unambiguous surface similarity metrics, such as the maximum value (ACCF MAX ) of the areal cross correlation function. Case studies were performed on consecutively manufactured tools, such as gun barrels and breech faces, to demonstrate that, even in this worst case scenario, all the tested tools imparted unique surface topographies that were identifiable. These studies provide scientific support for toolmark evidence admissibility in criminal court cases. (paper)

  14. Plutonium glove boxes - metrology and operational states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyer, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective was to undertake a literature review in support of NII's ongoing work in improving safety in the nuclear industry to help define suitable standards of cleanliness for plutonium glove boxes. This is to cover the following areas: existing or proposed national/international standards relating to plutonium glove box cleanliness management; practicable metrology options for assessing the plutonium content of glove boxes; any available dose information relating to the operation of modern and 'old design'; current contamination levels of specific significance (i.e. any accepted level in decommissioning/waste terms, typical criticality limits (if available), any box plutonium loadings that are documented with corresponding operator doses etc.); and, techniques for the decontamination of plutonium glove boxes and their relative effectiveness. This should then form the basis of any further development work undertaken by the UK nuclear industry. Main recommendations are as follows: 1) No information could be found in open literature on acceptable levels of contamination in boxes and action levels for cleanup. If these are not available in closed publications the 2) Where possible, the decontamination methods identified should be tested and dose information recorded against each method to allow informed decisions on which is the optimum technique for a particular form of contamination. 3) Consideration should be given to utilisation of metrology options which have the lowest potential for exposure of operators. Preferred options, may be detection from the outside of boxes using hand-held or permanently located radiation detectors, or semi-intrusive methods such as air-ionisation readings which would require one-off installation of detectors in ductwork

  15. Carbon nanomaterials as counter electrodes for dye solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitola, K.

    2012-05-15

    The dye solar cell (DSC) is an interesting emerging technology for photovoltaic conversion of solar electromagnetic energy to electrical energy. The DSC is based mainly on cheap starting materials and it can be manufactured by roll-to-roll deposition techniques on flexible substrates, which is considered as one option for cost-effective large-scale solar cell production. The most expensive component of the DSC is the transparent conductive oxide glass substrate, and considerable cost reductions can be achieved by changing it to e.g. a plastic substrate. Plastic substrates are very flexible, lightweight and transparent. The state of the art DSC catalyst is thermally deposited or sputtered platinum, but platinum is a rare and expensive metal. Carbon, on the other hand, is widely available and some of its nanomaterials conduct electricity and are catalytic toward the DSC counter electrode (CE) reduction reaction. In this work, carbon nanomaterials and their composites were studied as the DSC CE active material. The materials were random network single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film on glass and plastic substrate, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube 'forest' film on steel and quartz substrate and carbon nanoparticle composite film on indium tin oxidepolyethylene terephthalate (ITO-PET) substrate. After comparison of the materials, the SWCNT network film on PET was chosen as the main CE type of this study, since it offers superior conductivity, transparency and flexibility over the other carbon-based CEs, it is also the thinnest and contains only one active material component. When a 30 % transparent SWCNT network film on PET was tested as a DSC CE, it was found out that such a film is not catalytic and conductive enough for a full 1 sun illumination DSC device, but the film could be suitable for a indoor illumination level application. The catalytic properties of a 10 % transparent SWCNT film were improved by depositing conductive PEDOT

  16. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  17. IT Security Standards and Legal Metrology - Transfer and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, F.; Hartmann, V.; Grottker, U.; Richter, D.

    2014-08-01

    Legal Metrology's requirements can be transferred into the IT security domain applying a generic set of standardized rules provided by the Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408). We will outline the transfer and cross validation of such an approach. As an example serves the integration of Legal Metrology's requirements into a recently developed Common Criteria based Protection Profile for a Smart Meter Gateway designed under the leadership of the Germany's Federal Office for Information Security. The requirements on utility meters laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive (MID) are incorporated. A verification approach to check for meeting Legal Metrology's requirements by their interpretation through Common Criteria's generic requirements is also presented.

  18. Developing Xenopus Embryos Recover by Compacting and Expelling Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brian D.; Shawky, Joseph H.; Dahl, Kris Noel; Davidson, Lance A.; Islam, Mohammad F.

    2015-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes are high aspect ratio nanomaterials that are being developed for use in materials, technological and biological applications due to their high mechanical stiffness, optical properties, and chemical inertness. Because of their prevalence, it is inevitable that biological systems will be exposed to nanotubes, yet studies of the effects of nanotubes on developing embryos have been inconclusive and are lacking for single-wall carbon nanotubes exposed to the widely studied model organism Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog). Microinjection of experimental substances into the Xenopus embryo is a standard technique for toxicology studies and cellular lineage tracing. Here we report the surprising finding that superficial (12.5 ± 7.5 μm below the membrane) microinjection of nanotubes dispersed with Pluronic F127 into one-to-two cell Xenopus embryos resulted in the formation and expulsion of compacted, nanotube-filled, punctate masses, at the blastula to mid-gastrula developmental stages, which we call “boluses”. Such expulsion of microinjected materials by Xenopus embryos has not been reported before and is dramatically different from the typical distribution of the materials throughout the progeny of the microinjected cells. Previous studies of microinjections of nanomaterials such as nanodiamonds, quantum dots or spherical nanoparticles report that nanomaterials often induce toxicity and remain localized within the embryos. In contrast, our results demonstrate an active recovery pathway for embryos after exposure to Pluronic F127-coated nanotubes, which we speculate is due to a combined effect of the membrane activity of the dispersing agent, Pluronic F127, and the large aspect ratio of nanotubes. PMID:26153061

  19. Developing Xenopus embryos recover by compacting and expelling single wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brian D; Shawky, Joseph H; Dahl, Kris Noel; Davidson, Lance A; Islam, Mohammad F

    2016-04-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes are high aspect ratio nanomaterials being developed for use in materials, technological and biological applications due to their high mechanical stiffness, optical properties and chemical inertness. Because of their prevalence, it is inevitable that biological systems will be exposed to nanotubes, yet studies of the effects of nanotubes on developing embryos have been inconclusive and are lacking for single wall carbon nanotubes exposed to the widely studied model organism Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog). Microinjection of experimental substances into the Xenopus embryo is a standard technique for toxicology studies and cellular lineage tracing. Here we report the surprising finding that superficial (12.5 ± 7.5 µm below the membrane) microinjection of nanotubes dispersed with Pluronic F127 into one- to two-cell Xenopus embryos resulted in the formation and expulsion of compacted, nanotube-filled, punctate masses, at the blastula to mid-gastrula developmental stages, which we call "boluses." Such expulsion of microinjected materials by Xenopus embryos has not been reported before and is dramatically different from the typical distribution of the materials throughout the progeny of the microinjected cells. Previous studies of microinjections of nanomaterials such as nanodiamonds, quantum dots or spherical nanoparticles report that nanomaterials often induce toxicity and remain localized within the embryos. In contrast, our results demonstrate an active recovery pathway for embryos after exposure to Pluronic F127-coated nanotubes, which we speculate is due to a combined effect of the membrane activity of the dispersing agent, Pluronic F127, and the large aspect ratio of nanotubes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A Review of the Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Hybrid ZnO and Carbon Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protima Rauwel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescent ZnO carbon nanomaterials are an emerging class of nanomaterials with unique optical properties. They each, ZnO and carbon nanomaterials, have an advantage of being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. Their cost-effective production methods along with simple synthesis routes are also of interest. Moreover, ZnO presents photoluminescence emission in the UV and visible region depending on the synthesis routes, shape, size, deep level, and surface defects. When combined with carbon nanomaterials, modification of surface defects in ZnO allows tuning of these photoluminescence properties to produce, for example, white light. Moreover, efficient energy transfer from the ZnO to carbon nanostructures makes them suitable candidates not only in energy harvesting applications but also in biosensors, photodetectors, and low temperature thermal imaging. This work reviews the synthesis and photoluminescence properties of 3 carbon allotropes: carbon quantum or nanodots, graphene, and carbon nanotubes when hybridized with ZnO nanostructures. Various synthesis routes for the hybrid materials with different morphologies of ZnO are presented. Moreover, differences in photoluminescence emission when combining ZnO with each of the three different allotropes are analysed.

  1. Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds from Hospital Wastewaters Using Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bagheri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, residual pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antipyretics drugs, hormones have begun to be considered as emerging environmental pollutants due to their continuous input and persistence to aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Therefore, the development of efficient, cost-effective, and stable methods and materials for the wastewaters treatment have gained more recognition in recent years. In the path of meeting these developments, nanomaterials have attracted much attention as economical, convenient and ecofriendly tools for removing of pharmaceuticals from the hospital wastewaters because of their unique properties. The present review deals with recent advances in removal and/or destruction of residual pharmaceutical in wastewater samples using nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and nanofilters. In spite of using a variety of nanomaterials to remove the residual of pharmaceuticals, there is still a dearth of successful applicability of them in industrial processes. Therefore, some defects of nanomaterials to be used for the removal of pharmaceutical contaminate in environmental samples and their impacts on human health and environment is briefly discussed.

  2. Effect of the graphite electrode material on the characteristics of molten salt electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali, Ali Reza; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical erosion of a graphite cathode during the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride salt may be used for the preparation of nano-structured carbon materials. It has been found that the structures and morphologies of these carbon nanomaterials are dependent on those of the graphite cathodes employed. A combination of tubular and spherical carbon nanostructures has been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of predominantly planar micro-sized grains and a minor fraction of more irregular nano-sized grains, whilst only spherical carbon nanostructures have been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of primarily nano-sized grains. Based on the experimental results, a best-fit regression equation is proposed that relates the crystalline domain size of the graphite reactants and the carbon products. The carbon nanomaterials prepared possess a fairly uniform mesoporosity with a sharp peak in pore size distribution at around 4 nm. The results are of crucial importance to the production of carbon nanomaterials by way of the molten salt electrolytic method. - Highlights: → Carbon nanomaterials are synthesised by LiCl electrolysis with graphite electrodes. → The degree of crystallinity of graphite reactant and carbon product are related. → A graphite reactant is identified that enables the preparation of carbon nanotubes. → The carbon products possess uniform mesoporosity with narrow pore size distribution.

  3. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. PMID:26320782

  4. Emerging Carbon and Post-Carbon Nanomaterial Inks for Printed Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Hersam, Mark C

    2015-02-19

    Carbon and post-carbon nanomaterials present desirable electrical, optical, chemical, and mechanical attributes for printed electronics, offering low-cost, large-area functionality on flexible substrates. In this Perspective, recent developments in carbon nanomaterial inks are highlighted. Monodisperse semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes compatible with inkjet and aerosol jet printing are ideal channels for thin-film transistors, while inkjet, gravure, and screen-printable graphene-based inks are better-suited for electrodes and interconnects. Despite the high performance achieved in prototype devices, additional effort is required to address materials integration issues encountered in more complex systems. In this regard, post-carbon nanomaterial inks (e.g., electrically insulating boron nitride and optically active transition-metal dichalcogenides) present promising opportunities. Finally, emerging work to extend these nanomaterial inks to three-dimensional printing provides a path toward nonplanar devices. Overall, the superlative properties of these materials, coupled with versatile assembly by printing techniques, offer a powerful platform for next-generation printed electronics.

  5. Regulation of catalytic behaviour of hydrolases through interactions with functionalized carbon-based nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlidis, Ioannis V.; Vorhaben, Torge; Gournis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, George K.; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of enzymes with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) is crucial for the function of biomolecules and therefore for the design and development of effective nanobiocatalytic systems. In this study, the effect of functionalized CBNs, such as graphene oxide (GO) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the catalytic behaviour of various hydrolases of biotechnological interest was monitored and the interactions between CBNs and proteins were investigated. The enzyme–nanomaterial interactions significantly affect the catalytic behaviour of enzymes, resulting in an increase up to 60 % of the catalytic efficiency of lipases and a decrease up to 30 % of the esterase. Moreover, the use of CNTs and GO derivatives, especially those that are amine-functionalized, led to increased thermal stability of most the hydrolases tested. Fluorescence and circular dichroism studies indicated that the altered catalytic behaviour of enzymes in the presence of CBNs arises from specific enzyme–nanomaterial interactions, which can lead to significant conformational changes. In the case of lipases, the conformational changes led to a more active and rigid structure, while in the case of esterases this led to destabilization and unfolding. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies indicated that the extent of the interactions between CBNs and hydrolases can be mainly controlled by the functionalization of nanomaterials than by their geometry.

  6. Regulation of catalytic behaviour of hydrolases through interactions with functionalized carbon-based nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlidis, Ioannis V. [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies (Greece); Vorhaben, Torge [Institute of Biochemistry, Greifswald University, Department of Biotechnology and Enzyme Catalysis (Germany); Gournis, Dimitrios [University of Ioannina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Greece); Papadopoulos, George K. [Epirus Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Faculty of Agricultural Technology (Greece); Bornscheuer, Uwe T. [Institute of Biochemistry, Greifswald University, Department of Biotechnology and Enzyme Catalysis (Germany); Stamatis, Haralambos, E-mail: hstamati@cc.uoi.gr [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies (Greece)

    2012-05-15

    The interaction of enzymes with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) is crucial for the function of biomolecules and therefore for the design and development of effective nanobiocatalytic systems. In this study, the effect of functionalized CBNs, such as graphene oxide (GO) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the catalytic behaviour of various hydrolases of biotechnological interest was monitored and the interactions between CBNs and proteins were investigated. The enzyme-nanomaterial interactions significantly affect the catalytic behaviour of enzymes, resulting in an increase up to 60 % of the catalytic efficiency of lipases and a decrease up to 30 % of the esterase. Moreover, the use of CNTs and GO derivatives, especially those that are amine-functionalized, led to increased thermal stability of most the hydrolases tested. Fluorescence and circular dichroism studies indicated that the altered catalytic behaviour of enzymes in the presence of CBNs arises from specific enzyme-nanomaterial interactions, which can lead to significant conformational changes. In the case of lipases, the conformational changes led to a more active and rigid structure, while in the case of esterases this led to destabilization and unfolding. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies indicated that the extent of the interactions between CBNs and hydrolases can be mainly controlled by the functionalization of nanomaterials than by their geometry.

  7. Identification of Gene Transcription Start Sites and Enhancers Responding to Pulmonary Carbon Nanotube Exposure in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jette; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lilje, Bait

    2017-01-01

    Increased use of nanomaterials in industry, medicine, and consumer products has raised concerns over their toxicity. To ensure safe use of nanomaterials, understanding their biological effects at the molecular level is crucial. In particular, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the cascade...... of genes activated by nanomaterial exposure are not well-characterized. To this end, we profiled the genome-wide usage of gene transcription start sites and linked active enhancer regions in lungs of C57BL/6 mice 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of the multiwalled carbon nanotube...

  8. Self-assembling Synthesis of Vanadium Oxide Nanotubes and Simple Determination of the Content of Ⅴ(Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAI Li-qiang; CHEN Wen; XU Qing; ZHU Quan-yao; HAN Chun-hua; PENG Jun-feng

    2003-01-01

    High-yielding low-cost vanadium oxide nanotubes were prepared by the hydrothermal self-assembling process from vanadium pentoxide and organic molecules as structure-directing templates. Moreover, a new method was discovered for determining the content of V (Ⅳ) in vanadium oxide nanotubes by thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ). This method is simple, precise and feasible and can be extended to determine the content of low oxidation state in the other transition metal oxide nanomaterials.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Three Dimensional Nanostructures Based on Interconnected Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Ryota

    This thesis addresses various types of synthetic methods for novel three dimensional nanomaterials and nanostructures based on interconnected carbon nanomaterials using solution chemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. Carbon nanotube (CNT) spheres with porous and scaffold structures consisting of interconnected CNTs were synthesized by solution chemistry followed by freeze-drying, which have high elasticity under nano-indentation tests. This allows the CNT spheres to be potentially applied to mechanical dampers. CNTs were also grown on two dimensional materials--such as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)--by CVD methods, which are chemically interconnected. CNTs on rGO and h-BN interconnected structures performed well as electrodes for supercapacitors. Furthermore, unique interconnected flake structures of alpha-phase molybdenum carbide were developed by a CVD method. The molybdenum carbide can be used for a catalyst of hydrogen evolution reaction activity as well as an electrode for supercapacitors.

  10. Nanomaterials and the environment: A review for the biennium 2008-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Zhao Lijuan; Lopez-Moreno, Martha L.; Rosa, Guadalupe de la; Hong Jie; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of nanotechnology are touching almost every aspect of modern life. The increased use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products, chemical and medical equipment, information technology, and energy, among others, has increased the number of publications (informative and scientific) on ENMs. By the 1950s, very few papers were committed to nanomaterials (NMs), but in 2009, more than 80,000 journal articles included the concept nanotechnology. The objective of this review is to compile and analyze publications on NMs in the biennium 2008-2010. This review includes the most recent publications in risk assessment/toxicity, characterization and stability, toxicity, fate and transport of NMs in terrestrial ecosystems, and new ENMs. Carbon nanotubes, metallic, metal oxides and hydroxides nanoparticles, quantum dots, and polystyrene NPs are included.

  11. Nanomaterial categorization for assessing risk potential to facilitate regulatory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Hilary; Nameth, Catherine; Avery, David; Bergeson, Lynn L; Bernard, Daniel; Beryt, Elizabeth; Boyes, William; Brown, Scott; Clippinger, Amy J; Cohen, Yoram; Doa, Maria; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Holden, Patricia; Houck, Keith; Kane, Agnes B; Klaessig, Frederick; Kodas, Toivo; Landsiedel, Robert; Lynch, Iseult; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Muller, Julie; Oberdorster, Gunter; Petersen, Elijah J; Pleus, Richard C; Sayre, Philip; Stone, Vicki; Sullivan, Kristie M; Tentschert, Jutta; Wallis, Philip; Nel, Andre E

    2015-01-01

    For nanotechnology to meet its potential as a game-changing and sustainable technology, it is important to ensure that the engineered nanomaterials and nanoenabled products that gain entry to the marketplace are safe and effective. Tools and methods are needed for regulatory purposes to allow rapid material categorization according to human health and environmental risk potential, so that materials of high concern can be targeted for additional scrutiny, while material categories that pose the least risk can receive expedited review. Using carbon nanotubes as an example, we discuss how data from alternative testing strategies can be used to facilitate engineered nanomaterial categorization according to risk potential and how such an approach could facilitate regulatory decision-making in the future.

  12. Effect of the Addition of Carbon Nanomaterials on Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs are a new generation of green composites that could optimize the use of harvested trees and increase the entire value chain. In this study, the electrical and mechanical properties of WPCs containing carbon blacks (CB, flake graphite (FG and carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been investigated. The electrical property of WPCs is improved significantly owing to the introduction of these carbon nanomaterial fillers. The volume and surface resistivity values of the investigated composites all obviously decreased with the increase in filler content, especially CNTs, which displayed the most satisfactory results. Based on a series of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the mechanical performance, it can be concluded that the addition of the carbon nanomaterial fillers decreases the mechanical properties of WPCs slightly with the increase in filler content because of the weak interfacial interactions between the fillers and polymer matrix.

  13. The applications of carbon nanomaterials in fiber-shaped energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingxia; Hong, Yang; Wang, Bingjie

    2018-01-01

    As a promising candidate for future demand, fiber-shaped electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have obtained considerable attention from academy to industry. Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotube and graphene, have been widely investigated as electrode materials due to their merits of light weight, flexibility and high capacitance. In this review, recent progress of carbon nanomaterials in flexible fiber-shaped energy storage devices has been summarized in accordance with the development of fibrous electrodes, including the diversified electrode preparation, functional and intelligent device structure, and large-scale production of fibrous electrodes or devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21634003, 21604012).

  14. Nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors for pesticide detection: advances and challenges in food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Cinti, Stefano; Scognamiglio, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    This overview (with 114 refs.) covers the progress made between 2010 and 2015 in the field of nanomaterial based electrochemical biosensors for pesticides in food. Its main focus is on strategies to analyze real samples. The review first gives a short introduction into the most often used bio recognition elements. These include (a) enzymes (resulting in inhibition-based and direct catalytic biosensors), (b) antibodies (resulting in immunosensors), and (c) aptamers (resulting in aptasensors). The next main section covers the various kinds of nanomaterials for use in biosensors and includes carbonaceous species (carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black and others), and non-carbonaceous species in the form of nanoparticles, rods, or porous materials. Aspects of sample treatment and real sample analysis are treated next before discussing vanguard technologies in tailor-made food analysis. (author)

  15. Mechanics of nanowire/nanotube in-surface buckling on elastomeric substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J; Huang, Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ryu, S Y; Paik, U [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Hangdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, K-C [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Rogers, J A, E-mail: y-huang@northwestern.edu, E-mail: jrogers@uiuc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick-Seitz Materials Research Laboratory and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2010-02-26

    A continuum mechanics theory is established for the in-surface buckling of one-dimensional nanomaterials on compliant substrates, such as silicon nanowires on elastomeric substrates observed in experiments. Simple analytical expressions are obtained for the buckling wavelength, amplitude and critical buckling strain in terms of the bending and tension stiffness of the nanomaterial and the substrate elastic properties. The analysis is applied to silicon nanowires, single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanotube bundles. For silicon nanowires, the measured buckling wavelength gives Young's modulus to be 140 GPa, which agrees well with the prior experimental studies. It is shown that the energy for in-surface buckling is lower than that for normal (out-of-surface) buckling, and is therefore energetically favorable.

  16. Mechanics of nanowire/nanotube in-surface buckling on elastomeric substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J; Huang, Y; Ryu, S Y; Paik, U; Hwang, K-C; Rogers, J A

    2010-01-01

    A continuum mechanics theory is established for the in-surface buckling of one-dimensional nanomaterials on compliant substrates, such as silicon nanowires on elastomeric substrates observed in experiments. Simple analytical expressions are obtained for the buckling wavelength, amplitude and critical buckling strain in terms of the bending and tension stiffness of the nanomaterial and the substrate elastic properties. The analysis is applied to silicon nanowires, single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanotube bundles. For silicon nanowires, the measured buckling wavelength gives Young's modulus to be 140 GPa, which agrees well with the prior experimental studies. It is shown that the energy for in-surface buckling is lower than that for normal (out-of-surface) buckling, and is therefore energetically favorable.

  17. Biological and ecological responses to carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A.

    This dissertation examines the biological and ecological responses to carbon nanoparticles, a major class of nanomaterials which have been mass produced and extensively studied for their rich physical properties and commercial values. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review on the structures, properties, applications, and implications of carbon nanomaterials, especially related to the perspectives of biological and ecosystems. Given that there are many types of carbon nanomaterials available, this chapter is focused on three major types of carbon-based nanomaterials only, namely, fullerenes, single walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. On the whole organism level, specifically, Chapter II presents a first study on the fate of fullerenes and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in rice plants, which was facilitated by the self assembly of these nanomaterials with NOM. The aspects of fullerene uptake, translocation, biodistribution, and generational transfer in the plants were examined and quantified using bright field and electron microscopy, FT-Raman, and FTIR spectroscopy. The uptake and transport of fullerene in the plant vascular system were attributed to water transpiration, convection, capillary force, and the fullerene concentration gradient from the roots to the leaves of the plants. On the cellular level, Chapter III documents the differential uptake of hydrophilic C60(OH)20 vs. amphiphilic C70-NOM complex in Allium cepa plant cells and HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. This study was conducted using a plant cell viability assay, and complemented by bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy imaging. In particular, C60(OH)20 and C70-NOM showed contrasting uptake in both the plant and mammalian cells, due to their significant differences in physicochemistry and the presence of an extra hydrophobic plant cell wall in the plant cells. Consequently, C60(OH)20 was found to induce toxicity in Allium cepa cells but not in HT-29 cells, while C70

  18. Development of a conceptual framework for evaluation of nanomaterials release from nanocomposites: Environmental and toxicological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ging, James; Tejerina-Anton, Raul; Ramakrishnan, Girish [Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Nielsen, Mark; Murphy, Kyle [University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Gorham, Justin M.; Nguyen, Tinh [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Orlov, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.orlov@stonybrook.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Despite the fact that nanomaterials are considered potentially hazardous in a freely dispersed form, they are often considered safe when encapsulated into a polymer matrix. However, systematic research to confirm the abovementioned paradigm is lacking. Our data indicates that there are possible mechanisms of nanomaterial release from nanocomposites due to exposure to environmental conditions, especially UV radiation. The degradation of the polymer matrix and potential release of nanomaterials depend on the nature of the nanofillers and the polymer matrix, as well as on the nature of environmental exposure, such as the combination of UV, moisture, mechanical stress and other factors. To the best of our knowledge there is no systematic study that addresses all these effects. We present here an initial study of the stability of nanocomposites exposed to environmental conditions, where carbon nanotube (CNT) containing polymer composites were evaluated with various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. This work discusses various degradation mechanisms of CNT polymer nanocomposites, including such factors as UV, moisture and mechanical damage. An in vivo ingestion study with Drosophila showed reduced survivorship at each dose tested with free amine-functionalized CNTs, while there was no toxicity when these CNTs were embedded in epoxy. In addition to developing new paradigms in terms of safety of nanocomposites, the outcomes of this research can lead to recommendations on safer design strategies for the next generation of CNT-containing products. - Highlights: • The UV-induced degradation of multiple carbon nanotube-epoxy composites is studied. • The toxicology of these materials is explored with a Drosophila model. • A life cycle analysis of carbon nanotube release from composites is proposed.

  19. Development of a conceptual framework for evaluation of nanomaterials release from nanocomposites: Environmental and toxicological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ging, James; Tejerina-Anton, Raul; Ramakrishnan, Girish; Nielsen, Mark; Murphy, Kyle; Gorham, Justin M.; Nguyen, Tinh; Orlov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that nanomaterials are considered potentially hazardous in a freely dispersed form, they are often considered safe when encapsulated into a polymer matrix. However, systematic research to confirm the abovementioned paradigm is lacking. Our data indicates that there are possible mechanisms of nanomaterial release from nanocomposites due to exposure to environmental conditions, especially UV radiation. The degradation of the polymer matrix and potential release of nanomaterials depend on the nature of the nanofillers and the polymer matrix, as well as on the nature of environmental exposure, such as the combination of UV, moisture, mechanical stress and other factors. To the best of our knowledge there is no systematic study that addresses all these effects. We present here an initial study of the stability of nanocomposites exposed to environmental conditions, where carbon nanotube (CNT) containing polymer composites were evaluated with various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. This work discusses various degradation mechanisms of CNT polymer nanocomposites, including such factors as UV, moisture and mechanical damage. An in vivo ingestion study with Drosophila showed reduced survivorship at each dose tested with free amine-functionalized CNTs, while there was no toxicity when these CNTs were embedded in epoxy. In addition to developing new paradigms in terms of safety of nanocomposites, the outcomes of this research can lead to recommendations on safer design strategies for the next generation of CNT-containing products. - Highlights: • The UV-induced degradation of multiple carbon nanotube-epoxy composites is studied. • The toxicology of these materials is explored with a Drosophila model. • A life cycle analysis of carbon nanotube release from composites is proposed

  20. Transparent Electrodes with Nanotubes and Graphene for Printed Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Słoma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here on printed electroluminescent structures containing transparent electrodes made of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets. Screen-printing and spray-coating techniques were employed. Electrodes and structures were examined towards optical parameters using spectrophotometer and irradiation meter. Electromechanical properties of transparent electrodes are exterminated with cyclical bending test. Accelerated aging process was conducted according to EN 62137 standard for reliability tests of electronics. We observed significant negative influence of mechanical bending on sheet resistivity of ITO, while resistivity of nanotube and graphene based electrodes remained stable. Aging process has also negative influence on ITO based structures resulting in delamination of printed layers, while those based on carbon nanomaterials remained intact. We observe negligible changes in irradiation for structures with carbon nanotube electrodes after accelerated aging process. Such materials demonstrate a high application potential in general purpose electroluminescent devices.

  1. A new cataluminescence gas sensor based on SiO2 nanotubes fabricated using carbon nanotube templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yali; Cao, Xiaoan; Li, Jinwen; Chen, Nan

    2011-05-15

    In the present work, two morphologies of SiO(2) nanomaterials (SiO(2) nanotubes and nanoparticles) have been successfully synthesized in supercritical fluids (SCFs). The cataluminescence (CTL) features of the two SiO(2) nanomaterials to some common harmful gases were compared, and the results showed that SiO(2) nanotubes had better CTL sensing characteristic to some common harmful gases. The SiO(2) nanotubes not only had uniform size and shape with a high specific surface area, but also exhibited superior sensitivity and selectivity to ethyl acetate vapor. Using the SiO(2) nanotubes as sensing material, a CTL sensor for ethyl acetate vapor was developed. The proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and specificity to ethyl acetate at optimal temperature of 293°C, a wavelength of 425 nm and a flow rate of 345 mL/min. With a detection limit of 0.85 ppm, the linear range of CTL intensity versus concentrations of ethyl acetate vapor was 2.0-2000 ppm. None or only very low levels of interference were observed while the foreign substances such as acetone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, formaldehyde, ammonia, ethanol, benzene and methanol were passing through the sensor. This method allows rapid determination of gaseous ethyl acetate at workshop. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration-dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5mg/mL carbon black and 0.1mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metrology for environment and climate; Metrologie fuer Umwelt und Klima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Klaus-Dieter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. ' Chemische Physik und Explosionsschutz' ; Spitzer, Petra [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Elektrochemie'

    2012-12-15

    The author describes the observation and monitoring systems developed by the EU and the Federal Republic of Germany. In this connection the metrological aims are described in connection with the activities of the PTB. (HSI)

  4. Surface tension effect on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenot, Stéphane; Frétigny, Christian; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard

    2004-04-01

    The effect of reduced size on the elastic properties measured on silver and lead nanowires and on polypyrrole nanotubes with an outer diameter ranging between 30 and 250 nm is presented and discussed. Resonant-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to measure their apparent elastic modulus. The measured modulus of the nanomaterials with smaller diameters is significantly higher than that of the larger ones. The latter is comparable to the macroscopic modulus of the materials. The increase of the apparent elastic modulus for the smaller diameters is attributed to surface tension effects. The surface tension of the probed material may be experimentally determined from these AFM measurements.

  5. Joint Research on Scatterometry and AFM Wafer Metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Bodermann, B.; Buhr, E.; Danzebrink, H.U.; Bär, M.; Scholze, F.; Krumrey, M.; Wurm, M.; Klapetek, P.; Hansen, P.E.; Korpelainen, V.; Van Veghel, M.; Yacoot, A.; Siitonen, S.; El Gawhary, O.; Burger, S.

    2011-01-01

    Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology. Both experimental and modelling methods will be enhanced and different methods will be compared with each other and with specially adapted atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) m...

  6. Metrology of radiation protection. Pt. 1. Physical requirements and terminology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S R

    1979-10-01

    Starting from a general consideration of the needs for radiation protection the physical requirements of a relevant metrology are developed. The expedient physical quantities are introduced and problems in the realization and dissemination of their units discussed. It is shown that owing to these difficulties, derived or operational quantities have to be developed for the construction and calibration of practical measuring instruments. Finally the relations between the metrology of radiation protection and of medical radiology are pointed out and commented. (orig.).

  7. Optical vortex metrology for non-destructive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2009-01-01

    Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis.......Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis....

  8. Multi-metal oxide ceramic nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Liu, Shuangyi; Huang, Limin

    2016-06-07

    A convenient and versatile method for preparing complex metal oxides is disclosed. The method uses a low temperature, environmentally friendly gel-collection method to form a single phase nanomaterial. In one embodiment, the nanomaterial consists of Ba.sub.AMn.sub.BTi.sub.CO.sub.D in a controlled stoichiometry.

  9. Environmental fate and behaviour of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    In the current report, the existing knowledge on the fate of nanomaterials in the environment is reviewed and the major knowledge gaps are identified.......In the current report, the existing knowledge on the fate of nanomaterials in the environment is reviewed and the major knowledge gaps are identified....

  10. Nanomaterials Toxicity and Cell Death Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the nanotechnology advancement has developed a plethora of novel and intriguing nanomaterial application in many sectors, including research and medicine. However, many risks have been highlighted in their use, particularly related to their unexpected toxicity in vitro and in vivo experimental models. This paper proposes an overview concerning the cell death modalities induced by the major nanomaterials.

  11. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  12. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Linkov, Igor; Figueira, Jose Rui; Steevens, Jeffery; Chappell, Mark; Merad, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  13. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-07

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  14. Antimicrobial and biocompatible properties of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Islam, M; Shehzad, A; Khan, S; Khattak, W A; Ullah, M W; Park, J K

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of drug-resistant characteristics in pathogenic viral, bacterial, and fungal species and the consequent spread of infectious diseases are currently receiving serious attention. Indeed, there is a pressing demand to explore novel materials and develop new strategies that can address these issues of serious concern. Nanomaterials are currently proving to be the most capable therapeutic agents to cope with such hazards. The exceptional physiochemical properties and impressive antimicrobial capabilities of nanoparticles have provoked their utilization in biomedical fields. Nanomaterials of both organic and inorganic nature have shown the capabilities of disrupting microbial cells through different mechanisms. Along with the direct influence on the microbial cell membrane, DNA and proteins, these nanomaterials produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cell components and viruses. Currently, a serious hazard associated with these antimicrobial nanomaterials is their toxicity to human and animal cells. Extensive studies have reported the dose, time, and cell-dependent toxicology of various nanomaterials, and some have shown excellent biocompatible properties. Nevertheless, there is still debate regarding the use of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, in this review, the antimicrobial activities of various nanomaterials with details of their acting mechanisms were compiled. The relative toxic and biocompatible behavior of nanomaterials emphasized in this study provides information pertaining to their practical applicability in medical fields.

  15. Managing the Life Cycle Risks of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Nanomaterials Report Research to date focuses predominantly on aquatic organisms of the oceans or seas; no groundwater or soil exposure scenarios have been...pollution, create medical innovations, or develop new materials based on old concepts (e.g., plastics , thin films, and transistors). As already...Risks of Nanomaterials Report consumption, land use, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification , eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation

  16. In vitro assessments of nanomaterial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clinton F; Grainger, David W

    2009-06-21

    Nanotechnology has grown from a scientific interest to a major industry with both commodity and specialty nanomaterial exposure to global populations and ecosystems. Sub-micron materials are currently used in a wide variety of consumer products and in clinical trials as drug delivery carriers and imaging agents. Due to the expected growth in this field and the increasing public exposure to nanomaterials, both from intentional administration and inadvertent contact, improved characterization and reliable toxicity screening tools are required for new and existing nanomaterials. This review discusses current methodologies used to assess nanomaterial physicochemical properties and their in vitro effects. Current methods lack the desired sensitivity, reliability, correlation and sophistication to provide more than limited, often equivocal, pieces of the overall nanomaterial performance parameter space, particularly in realistic physiological or environmental models containing cells, proteins and solutes. Therefore, improved physicochemical nanomaterial assays are needed to provide accurate exposure risk assessments and genuine predictions of in vivo behavior and therapeutic value. Simpler model nanomaterial systems in buffer do not accurately duplicate this complexity or predict in vivo behavior. A diverse portfolio of complementary material characterization tools and bioassays are required to validate nanomaterial properties in physiology.

  17. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, Tommi, E-mail: t.p.tervonen@rug.n [University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics and Business (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor, E-mail: igor.linkov@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Figueira, Jose Rui, E-mail: figueira@ist.utl.p [Technical University of Lisbon, CEG-IST, Centre for Management Studies, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Steevens, Jeffery, E-mail: jeffery.a.steevens@usace.army.mil; Chappell, Mark, E-mail: mark.a.chappell@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Merad, Myriam, E-mail: myriam.merad@ineris.f [INERIS BP 2, Societal Management of Risks Unit/Accidental Risks Division (France)

    2009-05-15

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  18. Metrology in electricity and magnetism: EURAMET activities today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal, F.; Jeckelmann, B.; Callegaro, L.; Hällström, J.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Melcher, J.; Rietveld, G.; Siegner, U.; Wright, P.; Zeier, M.

    2017-10-01

    Metrology dedicated to electricity and magnetism has changed considerably in recent years. It encompasses almost all modern scientific, industrial, and societal challenges, e.g. the revision of the International System of Units, the profound transformation of industry, changes in energy use and generation, health, and environment, as well as nanotechnologies (including graphene and 2D materials) and quantum engineering. Over the same period, driven by the globalization of worldwide trade, the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (referred to as the CIPM MRA) was set up. As a result, the regional metrology organizations (RMOs) of national metrology institutes have grown in significance. EURAMET is the European RMO and has been very prominent in developing a strategic research agenda (SRA) and has established a comprehensive research programme. This paper reviews the highlights of EURAMET in electrical metrology within the European Metrology Research Programme and its main contributions to the CIPM MRA. In 2012 EURAMET undertook an extensive roadmapping exercise for proposed activities for the next decade which will also be discussed in this paper. This work has resulted in a new SRA of the second largest European funding programme: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research.

  19. Influence of Nanomaterial Compatibilization Strategies on Polyamide Nanocomposites Properties and Nanomaterial Release during the Use Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rosas, Elisabet; Vilar, Gemma; Janer, Gemma; González-Gálvez, David; Puntes, Victor; Jamier, Vincent; Aubouy, Laurent; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro

    2016-03-01

    The incorporation of small amounts of nanofillers in polymeric matrices has enabled new applications in several industrial sectors. The nanofiller dispersion can be improved by modifying the nanomaterial (NM) surface or predispersing the NMs to enhance compatibility. This study evaluates the effect of these compatibilization strategies on migration/release of the nanofiller and transformation of polyamide-6 (PA6), a thermoplastic polymer widely used in industry during simulated outdoors use. Two nanocomposites (NCs) containing SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with different surface properties and two multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) NCs obtained by different addition methods were produced and characterized, before and after accelerated wet aging conditions. Octyl-modified SiO2 NPs, though initially more aggregated than uncoated SiO2 NPs, reduced PA6 hydrolysis and, consequently, NM release. Although no clear differences in dispersion were observed between the two types of MWCNT NCs (masterbatch vs direct addition) after manufacture, the use of the MWCNT masterbatch reduced PA6 degradation during aging, preventing MWCNT accumulation on the surface and further release or potential exposure by direct contact. The amounts of NM released were lower for MWCNTs (36 and 108 mg/m(2)) than for SiO2 NPs (167 and 730 mg/m(2)), being lower in those samples where the NC was designed to improve the nanofiller-matrix interaction. Hence, this study shows that optimal compatibilization between NM and matrix can improve NC performance, reducing polymer degradation and exposure and/or release of the nanofiller.

  20. Welcome to Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard

    2013-11-01

    I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface topography and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its topography is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this

  1. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods.

  2. One-dimensional nanomaterials for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Fan, Yuqi; Gu, Jianhang; Wu, Liming; Passerini, Stefano; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-03-01

    The search for higher energy density, safer, and longer cycling-life energy storage systems is progressing quickly. One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have a large length-to-diameter ratio, resulting in their unique electrical, mechanical, magnetic and chemical properties, and have wide applications as electrode materials in different systems. This article reviews the latest hot topics in applying 1D nanomaterials, covering both their synthesis and their applications. 1D nanomaterials can be grouped into the categories: carbon, silicon, metal oxides, and conducting polymers, and we structure our discussion accordingly. Then, we survey the unique properties and application of 1D nanomaterials in batteries and supercapacitors, and provide comments on the progress and advantages of those systems, paving the way for a better understanding of employing 1D nanomaterials for energy storage.

  3. Environmental assessment of nanomaterial use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølholt, Jesper; Gottschalk, Fadri; Brinch, Anna

    This is the concluding report of the project "Nanomaterials – occurrence and effects in the Danish environment" (abbreviated NanoDEN), which part the Danish Government's initiative "Better Control of Nanomaterials" (“Bedre styr på nanomaterialer”) which is administered by the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency. The projects in NanoDEN have aimed to investigate and generate new environmentally relevant knowledge on of nanomaterials on the Danish market and to assess the possible associated risks to the environment. The results from the sub-projects are summarized in the current report...... and it is assessed whether and how nanomaterials may pose a risk for the environment in Denmark. The assessment is based on investigations of nine selected nanomaterials, which are expected to be environmentally relevant based on knowledge of consumption quantities or how they are used. These data contribute...

  4. Application of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissokov, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In the present report, we give a brief description of the present state, development, and application of nanotechnologies (NT) and nanomaterials (NM) in some key industries, such as chemical industry and power industry (nanocatalysts, and nanocatalysis, hydrogen storage and fuel cells, artificial photosynthesis and Gratzel's cell, energy efficiency, energy storage); fabrication of consolidated nanostructures (ceramic nano-materials, nanostructured coatings, production of low-combustibility plastics, nanostructured hard materials, nanostructures with colossal magnetoresistance); fabrication of ultra-high strength carbon fibres; nano-technologies for environmental protection (adsorption of heavy metals by self-ordered self-organized nano-structure ensembles, photocatalyric purification of liquids, fabrication of mesoporous materials, application of nanoporous polymers for water purification, nanoparticles and environment); medical applications; military applications and fight against terrorism; household applications; energetic and some other [1-7].; In 2010, the European Union and the governments of the USA and Japan each invested over $ 2 billion in nanoscience, which is ample evidence to substantiate the claim that the 21 st century will be the century of nanotechnologies. Some of the optimistic forecasts predict that in 2014 the total revenues from NT will exceed those brought by the information technologies and telecommunications combined. At present, more than 800 companies are involved in R&TD in this field (including giants such as Intel, IBM, Samsung, and Mitsubishi) while more than ten Nobel prizes were awarded for research in nanoscience

  5. Recent trends in nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems for the speciation of trace elements: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chang; Hsu, Keng-Chang; Shiea, Christopher Stephen; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2015-07-16

    Trace element speciation in biomedical and environmental science has gained increasing attention over the past decade as researchers have begun to realize its importance in toxicological studies. Several nanomaterials, including titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), have been used as sorbents to separate and preconcentrate trace element species prior to detection through mass spectrometry or optical spectroscopy. Recently, these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques have been integrated with microfluidics to minimize sample and reagent consumption and simplify analyses. This review provides a critical look into the present state and recent applications of nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems in the speciation of trace elements. The adsorption and preconcentration efficiencies, sample volume requirements, and detection limits of these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques are detailed, and their applications in environmental and biological analyses are discussed. Current perspectives and future trends into the increasing use of nanomaterial-based microfluidic techniques for trace element speciation are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical metrology, strategic job for the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Nuri; Munoz, Luis; Cortes, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The National Standardization Institute's (INN) Metrology unit prepared a study in 1996 to evaluate the impact of metrological activity in Chile. This study was based on a survey of the supply and demand of metrological services and on studies of the behavior of the production system and technological services in Chile during the period 1990-1996. With the information obtained in this study the economic impact resulting from the lack of a national metrology system could be evaluated. This impact was estimated to be a 5% loss in gross national product equal to 125-500 million dollars because of direct product rejection in the mining, fisheries, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Chemical measurements are responsible for 50% of these losses. In response to this need and coordinated by the INN, a metrological network of reference laboratories began to operate in 1997 for the principal physical magnitudes (mass, temperature, longitude and force) and a CORFO-FDI project began in 2001 that includes the chemical magnitudes. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, aware of the problem's importance and the amount of economic damage that the country may suffer, as a result of these deficiencies, has formed a Chemical Metrology Unit to provide technical support. It aims to raise the standards of local analytical laboratories by providing international recognition to the export sector. Nuclear analytical techniques are used as reference methods. This work describes the laboratories that are included in this Chemical Metrology Unit and the historical contribution to the development of local analytical chemistry. The national and international projects are described together with the publications they have generated. The quality assurance program applied to the laboratories is described as well, which has led to the accreditation of the analytical chemical assays. The procedures used for validation and calculation of uncertain nuclear methodologies are described together with

  7. Studies on possibilities of polymer composites with conductive nanomaterials application in wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralczyk, Kinga; Janczak, D.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Ł.; Lepak, S.; Wróblewski, G.; Jakubowska, M.

    2017-08-01

    In the last few years there has been a growing interest in wearable electronic products, which are generating considerable interest especially in sport and medical industries. But rigid electronics is not comfortable to wear, so things like stretchable substrates, interconnects and electronic devices might help. Flexible electronics could adjust to the curves of a human body and allow the users to move freely. The objective of this paper is to study possibilities of polymer composites with conductive nanomaterials application in wearable electronics. Pastes with graphene, silver nanoplates and carbon nanotubes were manufactured and then interconnects were screen-printed on the surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and fabric. Afterwards, the resistance and mechanical properties of samples were examined, also after washing them in a washing machine. It has been found that the best material for the conductive phase is silver. Traces printed directly on the fabric using conductive composites with one functional phase (silver nanoplates or graphene or carbon nanotubes) are too fragile to use them as a common solution in wearable electronics. Mechanical properties can be improved not only by adding carbon nanotubes or graphene to the silver paste, but also by printing additional layer of graphene paste or carbon nanotube paste onto silver layer. In fact, these solutions are not sufficient enough to solve a problem of using these composites in wearable electronics.

  8. Metrology Sampling Strategies for Process Monitoring Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Vincent, Tyrone L.

    2011-11-01

    Shrinking process windows in very large scale integration semiconductor manufacturing have already necessitated the development of control systems capable of addressing sub-lot-level variation. Within-wafer control is the next milestone in the evolution of advanced process control from lot-based and wafer-based control. In order to adequately comprehend and control within-wafer spatial variation, inline measurements must be performed at multiple locations across the wafer. At the same time, economic pressures prompt a reduction in metrology, for both capital and cycle-time reasons. This paper explores the use of modeling and minimum-variance prediction as a method to select the sites for measurement on each wafer. The models are developed using the standard statistical tools of principle component analysis and canonical correlation analysis. The proposed selection method is validated using real manufacturing data, and results indicate that it is possible to significantly reduce the number of measurements with little loss in the information obtained for the process control systems. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; De Pasquale, Antonella; Adesso, Gerardo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited.

  10. Metrology of ionizing radiations and environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2008-01-01

    The subject of radiation protection covers all measurements taken by the authorities to ensure protection of the population and its environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Dosimetry occupies an important place in this field, because it makes it possible to consider and to quantify the risk of using radiations in accordance with the prescribed limits. In this course, we will review the fundamental concepts used in the metrology and dosimetry of ionizing radiations. After classification of ionizing radiations according to their interactions with biological matter, we will present the various quantities and units brought into play and in particular the new operational quantities that are good estimators raising protection standards. They are directly connected to the annual limits of effective dose and of equivalent dose defined in the French regulation relating to the protection of the population and of workers against ionizing radiations. The average natural exposure of the population in France varies between 2 to 2.5 mSv per year, depending on geographic location. It comes principally from three sources: cosmic radiation, radioactive elements contained in the ground and radioactive elements that we absorb when breathing or eating. Radon, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is a public health risk and represents 30% of the exposure. Finally, we will give some applications of dosimetry and environmental measurements developed recently at RaMsEs/IPHC laboratory of Strasbourg. (author)

  11. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  12. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, Alessandro; Pasquale, Antonella De; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited. (paper)

  13. Advanced overlay analysis through design based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sunkeun; Yoo, Gyun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    As design rule shrink, overlay has been critical factor for semiconductor manufacturing. However, the overlay error which is determined by a conventional measurement with an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion caused by etching or CMP also can be a source of the mismatch. In 2014, we have demonstrated that method of overlay measurement in the cell area by using DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool has more accurate overlay value than conventional method by using an overlay mark. We have verified the reproducibility by measuring repeatable patterns in the cell area, and also demonstrated the reliability by comparing with CD-SEM data. We have focused overlay mismatching between overlay mark and cell area until now, further more we have concerned with the cell area having different pattern density and etch loading. There appears a phenomenon which has different overlay values on the cells with diverse patterning environment. In this paper, the overlay error was investigated from cell edge to center. For this experiment, we have verified several critical layers in DRAM by using improved(Better resolution and speed) DBM tool, NGR3520.

  14. TSOM Method for Nanoelectronics Dimensional Metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attota, Ravikiran

    2011-01-01

    Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) is a relatively new method that transforms conventional optical microscopes into truly three-dimensional metrology tools for nanoscale to microscale dimensional analysis. TSOM achieves this by acquiring and analyzing a set of optical images collected at various focus positions going through focus (from above-focus to under-focus). The measurement resolution is comparable to what is possible with typical light scatterometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TSOM method is able to identify nanometer scale difference, type of the difference and magnitude of the difference between two nano/micro scale targets using a conventional optical microscope with visible wavelength illumination. Numerous industries could benefit from the TSOM method--such as the semiconductor industry, MEMS, NEMS, biotechnology, nanomanufacturing, data storage, and photonics. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive, has a high throughput, provides nanoscale sensitivity for 3D measurements and could enable significant savings and yield improvements in nanometrology and nanomanufacturing. Potential applications are demonstrated using experiments and simulations.

  15. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A., E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for {sup 137}Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  16. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for 137 Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  17. Effect of measurement error budgets and hybrid metrology on qualification metrology sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbach, Matthew; Sarig, Niv; Wakamoto, Koichi; Kim, Hyang Kyun (Helen); Isbester, Paul; Asano, Masafumi; Matsuki, Kazuto; Osorio, Carmen; Archie, Chas

    2014-10-01

    Until now, metrologists had no statistics-based method to determine the sampling needed for an experiment before the start that accuracy experiment. We show a solution to this problem called inverse total measurement uncertainty (TMU) analysis, by presenting statistically based equations that allow the user to estimate the needed sampling after providing appropriate inputs, allowing him to make important "risk versus reward" sampling, cost, and equipment decisions. Application examples using experimental data from scatterometry and critical dimension scanning electron microscope tools are used first to demonstrate how the inverse TMU analysis methodology can be used to make intelligent sampling decisions and then to reveal why low sampling can lead to unstable and misleading results. One model is developed that can help experimenters minimize sampling costs. A second cost model reveals the inadequacy of some current sampling practices-and the enormous costs associated with sampling that provides reasonable levels of certainty in the result. We introduce the strategies on how to manage and mitigate these costs and begin the discussion on how fabs are able to manufacture devices using minimal reference sampling when qualifying metrology steps. Finally, the relationship between inverse TMU analysis and hybrid metrology is explored.

  18. Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerativitayanan, Punyavee; Carrow, James K; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-05

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Synergistic interactions between nanomaterials and stem cell engineering offer numerous possibilities to address some of the daunting challenges in regenerative medicine, such as controlling trigger differentiation, immune reactions, limited supply of stem cells, and engineering complex tissue structures. Specifically, the interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment play key roles in controlling stem cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. However, the interactions between nanomaterials and stem cells are not well understood, and the effects of the nanomaterials shape, surface morphology, and chemical functionality on cellular processes need critical evaluation. In this Review, focus is put on recent development in nanomaterial-stem cell interactions, with specific emphasis on their application in regenerative medicine. Further, the emerging technologies based on nanomaterials developed over the past decade for stem cell engineering are reviewed, as well as the potential applications of these nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, stem cell isolation, and drug/gene delivery. It is anticipated that the enhanced understanding of nanomaterial-stem cell interactions will facilitate improved biomaterial design for a range of biomedical and biotechnological applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nanotubes and nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    junction nanotubes by the pyrolysis of appropriate organic precursors. ... By making use of carbon nanotubes, nanowires of metals, metal ..... The use of activated carbon in place of ..... required for the complete removal of the carbon template.

  20. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  1. Assembly of ordered carbon shells on semiconducting nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2012-10-02

    In some embodiments of the invention, encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described. In certain embodiments the nanostructures described are semiconducting nanomaterials encapsulated with ordered carbon shells. In some aspects a method for producing encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials is disclosed. In some embodiments applications of encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described.

  2. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  3. Biogenic nanomaterials from photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Rorrer, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The use of algal cell cultures represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly platform for the biogenic production of nanobiomaterials and biocatalysts. For example, advances in the production of biogeneic nanomaterials from algal cell cultures, such as crystalline β-chitin nanofibrils and gold and silver nanoparticles, could enable the 'green' production of biomaterials such as tissue-engineering scaffolds or drug carriers, supercapacitors and optoelectric materials. The in vivo functionalization, as well as newly demonstrated methods of production and modification, of biogenic diatom biosilica have led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic systems as well as new biomaterials for drug delivery, biosensors and heavy-metal adsorbents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evanescent wave assisted nanomaterial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Samir K; Pal, Sudipta Sarkar; Kumbhakar, Dharmadas; Tiwari, Umesh; Bhatnagar, Randhir

    2013-08-01

    In this work we present a novel nanomaterial coating technique using evanescent wave (EW). The gradient force in the EW is used as an optical tweezer for tweezing and self-assembling nanoparticles on the source of EW. As a proof of the concept, we have used a laser coupled etched multimode optical fiber, which generates EW for the EW assisted coating. The section-wise etched multimode optical fiber is horizontally and superficially dipped into a silver/gold nanoparticles solution while the laser is switched on. The fiber is left until the solution recedes due to evaporation leaving the fiber in air. The coating time usually takes 40-50 min at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope image shows uniform and thin coating of self-assembled nanoparticles due to EW around the etched section. A coating thickness optical fiber probes and other plasmonic circuits.

  5. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials: review of inventions. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOV Leonid Alexeevich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new technical solutions including inventions in the area of nanotechnology and nanomaterials are efficiently applied in communal and housing services as well as in construction and other joint fields. The invention «Protection system of urban housing and the method to build it (RU 2604933» refers to construction including environmental structures and can be used to protect cities, objects of national economy from destruction, floods and other types of natural and antropogenic disasters. Reinforcement of basements of city buildings is performed with barrels with fillers and flexible dampener-ties that receive natural and antropogenic impacts thus providing safety, including ecological one, for urban housing. The system is equipped with solar accumulators that supply energy to people in case of emergencies and additional monitoring system to inform people about emergencies. Storm discharge facilities protect cities and towns from floods. All that provides safety of inhabitants’ lives and functioning of enterprises when natural and antropogenic disasters such as floods, mud-and-stone flows and other types occur. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce hardening mortar (RU 2601885, increase of durability of basalt fiber concrete by nanostructural additives, the method to treat surface and underground waters from titanium and its compounds by means of carbon nanotubes and ultrasound (RU 2575029, material on polymer basis for combined radio- and radiation protection (RU 2605696, thermoelectric heat pump with nanofilm semiconductor sides (RU 2595911, polymer composite nanomaterial (RU 2605590, the method to produce compositions from polymer and nanosize fillers (RU 2586979, the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for highstrength concrete (RU 2563264 et al.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes: A Review on Structure and Their Interaction with Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are allotropes of carbon with a nanostructure that can have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than 1,000,000. Techniques have been developed to produce nanotubes in sizeable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition. Developments in the past few years have illustrated the potentially revolutionizing impact of nanomaterials, especially in biomedical imaging, drug delivery, biosensing, and the design of functional nanocomposites. Methods to effectively interface proteins with nanomaterials for realizing these applications continue to evolve. The high surface-to-volume ratio offered by nanoparticles resulted in the concentration of the immobilized entity being considerably higher than that afforded by other materials. There has also been an increasing interest in understanding the influence of nanomaterials on the structure and function of proteins. Various immobilization methods have been developed, and in particular, specific attachment of enzymes on carbon nanotubes has been an important focus of attention. With the growing attention paid to cascade enzymatic reaction, it is possible that multienzyme coimmobilization would be one of the next goals in the future. In this paper, we focus on advances in methodology for enzyme immobilization on carbon nanotubes.

  7. Toxicology and cellular effect of manufactured nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanqing

    2014-07-22

    The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Herein are described methods and assays to predict and evaluate the cellular effects of nanomaterial exposure. Exposing cells to nanomaterials at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis, activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Certain nanomaterials induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the described multiwall carbon nanoonions (MWCNOs) can be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of cancer due to its cytotoxicity.

  8. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  9. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  10. Remote metrology system (RMS) design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A 3D remote metrology system (RMS) is needed to map the interior plasma-facing components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The performance and survival of these components within the reactor vessel are strongly dependent on their precise alignment and positioning with respect to the plasma edge. Without proper positioning and alignment, plasma-facing surfaces will erode rapidly. A RMS design involving Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) fiber optic coherent laser radar (CLR) technology is examined in this study. The fiber optic CLR approach was selected because its high precision should be able to meet the ITER 0.1 mm accuracy requirement and because the CLR's fiber optic implementation allows a 3D scanner to operate remotely from the RMS system's vulnerable components. This design study has largely verified that a fiber optic CLR based RMS can survive the ITER environment and map the ITER interior at the required accuracy at a one measurement/cm 2 density with a total measurement time of less than one hour from each of six or more vertically deployed measurement probes. The design approach employs a sealed and pressurized measurement probe which is attached with an umbilical spiral bellows conduit. This conduit bears fiber optic and electronic links plus a stream of air to lower the temperature in the interior of the probe. Lowering the probe temperature is desirable because probe electromechanical components which could survive the radiation environment often were not rated for the 200 C temperature. The tip of the probe whose outer shell has a flexible bellows joint can swivel in two degrees of freedom to allow mapping operations at each probe deployment level. This design study has concluded that the most successful scanner design will involve a hybrid AO beam deflector and mechanical scanner

  11. Reconstruction of freeform surfaces for metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hayek, N; Nouira, H; Anwer, N; Damak, M; Gibaru, O

    2014-01-01

    The application of freeform surfaces has increased since their complex shapes closely express a product's functional specifications and their machining is obtained with higher accuracy. In particular, optical surfaces exhibit enhanced performance especially when they take aspheric forms or more complex forms with multi-undulations. This study is mainly focused on the reconstruction of complex shapes such as freeform optical surfaces, and on the characterization of their form. The computer graphics community has proposed various algorithms for constructing a mesh based on the cloud of sample points. The mesh is a piecewise linear approximation of the surface and an interpolation of the point set. The mesh can further be processed for fitting parametric surfaces (Polyworks ® or Geomagic ® ). The metrology community investigates direct fitting approaches. If the surface mathematical model is given, fitting is a straight forward task. Nonetheless, if the surface model is unknown, fitting is only possible through the association of polynomial Spline parametric surfaces. In this paper, a comparative study carried out on methods proposed by the computer graphics community will be presented to elucidate the advantages of these approaches. We stress the importance of the pre-processing phase as well as the significance of initial conditions. We further emphasize the importance of the meshing phase by stating that a proper mesh has two major advantages. First, it organizes the initially unstructured point set and it provides an insight of orientation, neighbourhood and curvature, and infers information on both its geometry and topology. Second, it conveys a better segmentation of the space, leading to a correct patching and association of parametric surfaces

  12. Remote metrology system (RMS) design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-19

    A 3D remote metrology system (RMS) is needed to map the interior plasma-facing components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The performance and survival of these components within the reactor vessel are strongly dependent on their precise alignment and positioning with respect to the plasma edge. Without proper positioning and alignment, plasma-facing surfaces will erode rapidly. A RMS design involving Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) fiber optic coherent laser radar (CLR) technology is examined in this study. The fiber optic CLR approach was selected because its high precision should be able to meet the ITER 0.1 mm accuracy requirement and because the CLR`s fiber optic implementation allows a 3D scanner to operate remotely from the RMS system`s vulnerable components. This design study has largely verified that a fiber optic CLR based RMS can survive the ITER environment and map the ITER interior at the required accuracy at a one measurement/cm{sup 2} density with a total measurement time of less than one hour from each of six or more vertically deployed measurement probes. The design approach employs a sealed and pressurized measurement probe which is attached with an umbilical spiral bellows conduit. This conduit bears fiber optic and electronic links plus a stream of air to lower the temperature in the interior of the probe. Lowering the probe temperature is desirable because probe electromechanical components which could survive the radiation environment often were not rated for the 200 C temperature. The tip of the probe whose outer shell has a flexible bellows joint can swivel in two degrees of freedom to allow mapping operations at each probe deployment level. This design study has concluded that the most successful scanner design will involve a hybrid AO beam deflector and mechanical scanner.

  13. Effects of doped copper on electrochemical performance of the raw carbon nanotubes anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhanhong; Simard, Benoit [SIMS, National Research Council, 100 Sussex Dr., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Li, Zaifeng [ICPET, National Research Council, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Wu, Haoqing [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2003-07-01

    The raw carbon nanotubes pre-doped with copper are used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Constant current discharge and charge tests using the raw carbon nanotubes pre-doped with copper as Li{sup +} storage compounds show lower specific capacities than that of the acid-oxidized carbon nanotubes. The acids play an important role; H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HNO{sub 3} can easily permeate through the graphene sheets, then they will make the defects or pores in the graphene sheets, and this reaction can make the expansion of the graphite. Meanwhile, Cu{sup 2+} will diffuse into the pores and onto the outer surfaces of the carbon nanotubes. Cu{sup 2+} can be easily turned into Cu at high temperature in the presence of the carbon nanomaterial. So parts of the pores and the surfaces of the carbon nanotubes will be filled with the Cu atom. Once the space positions of the nanotubes were occupied, lithium cannot intercalate into the pores and onto the outer surface of the carbon nanotubes, thus the doped carbon nanotubes will have a low specific capacity.

  14. [The EFS metrology: From the production to the reason].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberg, J-M; Riout, E; Leroy, A; Begue, S

    2014-06-01

    In order to answer statutory requirements and to anticipate the future needs and standards, the EFS is committed, since a few years, in a process of harmonization of its metrology function. In particular, the institution has opted for the skills development by internalizing the metrological traceability of the main critical quantities (temperature, volumetric) measurements. The development of metrology so resulted in a significant increase in calibration and testing activities. Methods are homogenized and improved through accreditations. The investment strategies are based on more and more demanding specifications. The performance of the equipments is better known and mastered. Technical expertise and maturity of the national metrology function today are assets to review in more informed ways the appropriateness of the applied periodicities. Analysis of numerous information and data in the calibration and testing reports could be pooled and operated on behalf of the unique establishment. The objective of this article is to illustrate these reflections with a few examples from of a feedback of the EFS Pyrénées Méditerranée. The analysis of some methods of qualification, the exploitation of the historical metrology in order to quantify the risk of non-compliance, and to adapt the control strategy, analysis of the criticality of an instrument in a measurement process, risk analyses are tools that deserve to be more widely exploited for that discipline wins in efficiency at the national level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Introduction to quantum metrology quantum standards and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Nawrocki, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the theory of quantum effects used in metrology and results of the author’s own research in the field of quantum electronics. The book provides also quantum measurement standards used in many branches of metrology for electrical quantities, mass, length, time and frequency. This book represents the first comprehensive survey of quantum metrology problems. As a scientific survey, it propagates a new approach to metrology with more emphasis on its connection with physics. This is of importance for the constantly developing technologies and nanotechnologies in particular. Providing a presentation of practical applications of the effects used in quantum metrology for the construction of quantum standards and sensitive electronic components, the book is useful for a wide audience of physicists and metrologists in the broad sense of both terms. In 2014 a new system of units, the so called  Quantum SI, is introduced. This book helps to understand and approve the new system to both technology a...

  16. Laser metrology for a next generation gravimetric mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottini, Sergio; Biondetti, Giorgio; Cesare, Stefano; Castorina, Giuseppe; Musso, Fabio; Pisani, Marco; Leone, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    Within the ESA technology research project "Laser Interferometer High Precision tracking for LEO", Thales Alenia Space Italia is developing a laser metrology system for a Next Generation Gravimetric Mission (NGGM) based on satellite-to-satellite tracking. This technique is based on the precise measurement of the displacement between two satellites flying in formation at low altitude for monitoring the variations of Earth's gravity field at high resolution over a long time period. The laser metrology system that has been defined for this mission consists of the following elements: • an heterodyne Michelson interferometer for measuring the distance variation between retroreflectors positioned on the two satellites; • an angle metrology for measuring the orientation of the laser beam in the reference frames of the two satellites; • a lateral displacement metrology for measuring the deviations of the laser beam axis from the target retro-reflector. The laser interferometer makes use of a chopped measurement beam to avoid spurious signals and nonlinearity caused by the unbalance between the strong local beam and the weak return beam. The main results of the design, development and test activities performed on the breadboard of the metrology system are summarized in this paper.

  17. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junhong [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  18. M-Polynomial and Degree-Based Topological Indices of Polyhex Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Munir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new nanomaterials adds new dimensions to industry, electronics, and pharmaceutical and biological therapeutics. In this article, we first find closed forms of M-polynomials of polyhex nanotubes. We also compute closed forms of various degree-based topological indices of these tubes. These indices are numerical tendencies that often depict quantitative structural activity/property/toxicity relationships and correlate certain physico-chemical properties, such as boiling point, stability, and strain energy, of respective nanomaterial. To conclude, we plot surfaces associated to M-polynomials and characterize some facts about these tubes.

  19. High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

    2012-10-09

    The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

  20. Sustainability Impact of Nanomaterial Enhanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Matthew

    Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes, relating the results to thermal conductivity and surface area effects. The EOL management of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries was studied and a novel

  1. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Nanotubes as Biomimetic Nanoreactors for Calcium Carbonate Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Möhwald, Helmuth; Li, Junbai

    2009-09-17

    Enzyme-loaded magnetic polyelectrolyte multilayer nanotubes prepared by layer-by-layer assembly combined with the porous template could be used as biomimetic nanoreactors. It is demonstrated that calcium carbonate can be biomimetically synthesized inside the cavities of the polyelectrolyte nanotubes by the catalysis of urease, and the size of the calcium carbonate precipitates was controlled by the cavity dimensions. The metastable structure of the calcium carbonate precipitates inside the nanotubes was protected by the outer shell of the polyelectrolyte multilayers. These features may allow polyelectrolyte nanotubes to be applied in the fields of nanomaterials synthesis, controlled release, and drug delivery. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High activity of novel Pd/TiO2 nanotube catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Guo Daojun; Li Hulin

    2005-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of methanol in sulfuric acid solution was studied using palladium well-dispersed on titanium nanotubes, in relation to methanol oxidation processes in the direct oxidation methanol fuel cell. Pd dispersed on titania nanotubes, which leads to high surface area substrates, showed excellent catalytic activities compared to those of pure Pd and Pd-TiO 2 nanoparticles. TEM results show a narrow distribution of TiO 2 nanoparticles whose particle size is about 10nm, and uniform nano-sized TiO 2 nanotubes with 10nm in diameters are seen from HRTEM . A homogeneous structure in the composite nanomaterials is indicated by XRD analysis. The composite electrode activities were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and at 25 deg. C it was found that 3wt% Pd in titania nanotubes had the best activity for methanol oxidation

  3. Modification and characterization of (energetic) nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Peppel, R.J.E. van de; Abadjieva, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nanomaterials are a topic of increased interest, since they have properties which differ from their macroscopic counterparts. Many applications nowadays take advantage of the new functionalities which natural and manufactured nanoparticles possess. Based on these developments, also the research on

  4. Nanomaterial-Enabled Wearable Sensors for Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Swetha, Puchakayala; Zhu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive wearable sensors that can be conformably attached to human skin or integrated with textiles to monitor the physiological parameters of human body or the surrounding environment have garnered tremendous interest. Owing to the large surface area and outstanding material properties, nanomaterials are promising building blocks for wearable sensors. Recent advances in the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors including temperature, electrophysiological, strain, tactile, electrochemical, and environmental sensors are presented in this review. Integration of multiple sensors for multimodal sensing and integration with other components into wearable systems are summarized. Representative applications of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors for healthcare, including continuous health monitoring, daily and sports activity tracking, and multifunctional electronic skin are highlighted. Finally, challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives in the field of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the use of nanomaterials to prevent corrosion. The first section deals with the fundamentals of corrosion prevention using nanomaterials. Part two includes a series of case studies and applications of nanomaterials for corrosion control.$bCorrosion is an expensive and potentially dangerous problem in many industries. The potential application of different nanostructured materials in corrosion protection, prevention and control is a subject of increasing interest. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials explores the potential use of nanotechnology in corrosion control. The book is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the fundamentals of corrosion behaviour and the manufacture of nanocrystalline materials. Chapters discuss the impact of nanotechnology in reducing corrosion cost, and investigate the influence of various factors including thermodynamics, kinetics and grain size on the corrosion behaviour of nanocrystalline materials. There are also chapters on electrodeposition ...

  6. Review of ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a letter report from the Executive Committee of the BOSC concerning the review of the ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide.

  7. Engineered nanomaterials: Exposures, hazards and risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public) are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). However, understanding of the health and sa...

  8. Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

  9. Techniques for physicochemical characterization of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping-Chang; Lin, Stephen; Wang, Paul C.; Sridhar, Rajagopalan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have opened up a new era of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases and traumatic injuries. Nanomaterials, including those with potential for clinical applications, possess novel physicochemical properties that have an impact on their physiological interactions, from the molecular level to the systemic level. There is a lack of standardized methodologies or regulatory protocols for detection or characterization of nanomaterials. This review summarizes the techniques that are commonly used to study the size, shape, surface properties, composition, purity and stability of nanomaterials, along with their advantages and disadvantages. At present there are no FDA guidelines that have been developed specifically for nanomaterial based formulations for diagnostic or therapeutic use. There is an urgent need for standardized protocols and procedures for the characterization of nanoparticles, especially those that are intended for use as theranostics. PMID:24252561

  10. Assessing the Environmental Safety of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology research in the United States is coordinated under the National Nano-technology Initiative with the goal of fostering development and implementation of nanomaterials and products that incorporate them and assuring that they are environmentally safe. The environmen...

  11. Method to synthesize metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2016-12-13

    Metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials can be synthesized from metal alkoxide precursors by solution precipitation or solvothermal processing. The synthesis routes are more scalable, less complex and easier to implement than other synthesis routes.

  12. Dynamic Length Metrology (DLM) for measurements with sub-micrometre uncertainty in a production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Conventional length metrology for traceable accurate measurements requires costly temperature controlled facilities, long waiting time for part acclimatisation, and separate part material characterisation. This work describes a method called Dynamic Length Metrology (DLM) developed to achieve sub...

  13. Laser metrology and optic active control system for GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, F.; Bonino, L.; Cesare, S.; Castorina, G.; Mottini, S.; Bertinetto, F.; Bisi, M.; Canuto, E.; Musso, F.

    2017-11-01

    The Laser Metrology and Optic Active Control (LM&OAC) program has been carried out under ESA contract with the purpose to design and validate a laser metrology system and an actuation mechanism to monitor and control at microarcsec level the stability of the Basic Angle (angle between the lines of sight of the two telescopes) of GAIA satellite. As part of the program, a breadboard (including some EQM elements) of the laser metrology and control system has been built and submitted to functional, performance and environmental tests. In the followings we describe the mission requirements, the system architecture, the breadboard design, and finally the performed validation tests. Conclusion and appraisals from this experience are also reported.

  14. Metrology/viewing system for next generation fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.; Barry, R.E.; Chesser, J.B.; Menon, M.M.; Dagher, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Next generation fusion reactors require accurate measuring systems to verify sub-millimeter alignment of plasma-facing components in the reactor vessel. A metrology system capable of achieving such accuracy must be compatible with the vessel environment of high gamma radiation, high vacuum, elevated temperature, and magnetic field. This environment requires that the system must be remotely deployed. A coherent, frequency modulated laser radar system is being integrated with a remotely operated deployment system to meet these requirements. The metrology/viewing system consists of a compact laser transceiver optics module which is linked through fiber optics to the laser source and imaging units that are located outside of the harsh environment. The deployment mechanism is a telescopic-mast positioning system. This paper identifies the requirements for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor metrology and viewing system, and describes a remotely operated precision ranging and surface mapping system

  15. Automation of testing the metrological reliability of nondestructive control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, Yu.A.; Isakov, V.B.; Karlov, Yu.K.; Kovalevskij, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Opportunities of microcomputers are used to solve the problem of testing control-measuring systems. Besides the main program the program of data processing when characterizing the nondestructive control systems is written in the microcomputer. The program includes two modules. The first module contains tests-programs, by which accuracy of functional elements of the microcomputer and interface elements with issuing a message to the operator on readiness of the elements for operation and failure of a certain element are determined. The second module includes: calculational programs when determining metrological reliability of measuring channel reliability, a calculational subprogram for random statistical measuring error, time instability and ''dead time''. Automation of testing metrological reliability of the nondestructive control systems increases reliability of determining metrological parameters and reduces time of system testing

  16. Joint Research on Scatterometry and AFM Wafer Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodermann, Bernd; Buhr, Egbert; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Bär, Markus; Scholze, Frank; Krumrey, Michael; Wurm, Matthias; Klapetek, Petr; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Korpelainen, Virpi; van Veghel, Marijn; Yacoot, Andrew; Siitonen, Samuli; El Gawhary, Omar; Burger, Sven; Saastamoinen, Toni

    2011-11-01

    Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology. Both experimental and modelling methods will be enhanced and different methods will be compared with each other and with specially adapted atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement systems in measurement comparisons. Additionally novel methods for sophisticated data analysis will be developed and investigated to reach significant reductions of the measurement uncertainties in critical dimension (CD) metrology. One final goal will be the realisation of a wafer based reference standard material for calibration of scatterometers.

  17. Magnetic nanomaterials undamentals, synthesis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David J

    2017-01-01

    Timely and comprehensive, this book presents recent advances in magnetic nanomaterials research, covering the latest developments, including the design and preparation of magnetic nanoparticles, their physical and chemical properties as well as their applications in different fields, including biomedicine, magnetic energy storage, wave–absorbing and water remediation. By allowing researchers to get to the forefront developments related to magnetic nanomaterials in various disciplines, this is invaluable reading for the nano, magnetic, energy, medical, and environmental communities.

  18. Systemic Absorption of Nanomaterials by Oral Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Bredsdorff, Lea; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches.......This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches....

  19. Influence of carbon nanotube length on toxicity to zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Cheng,1,2 Shuk Han Cheng11Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: There is currently a large difference of opinion in nanotoxicology studies of nanomaterials. There is concern about why some studies have indicated that there is strong toxicity, while others have not. In this study, the length of carbon nanotubes greatly affected their toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were sonicated in a nitric acid solution for 24 hours and 48 hours. The modified MWCNTs were tested in early developing zebrafish embryo. MWCNTs prepared with the longer sonication time resulted in severe developmental toxicity; however, the shorter sonication time did not induce any obvious toxicity in the tested developing zebrafish embryos. The cellular and molecular changes of the affected zebrafish embryos were studied and the observed phenotypes scored. This study suggests that length plays an important role in the in vivo toxicity of functionalized CNTs. This study will help in furthering the understanding on current differences in toxicity studies of nanomaterials.Keywords: length, carbon nanotubes, sonication, developmental toxicity, zebrafish

  20. A multi-endpoint, high-throughput study of nanomaterial toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Qu, Xiaolei; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Wang, Tianxiao; Riepe, Celeste; Liu, Zheng; Li, Qilin; Zhong, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The booming nanotech industry has raised public concerns about the environmental health and safety impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). High-throughput assays are needed to obtain toxicity data for the rapidly increasing number of ENMs. Here we present a suite of high-throughput methods to study nanotoxicity in intact animals using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. At the population level, our system measures food consumption of thousands of animals to evaluate population fitness. At the organism level, our automated system analyzes hundreds of individual animals for body length, locomotion speed, and lifespan. To demonstrate the utility of our system, we applied this technology to test the toxicity of 20 nanomaterials under four concentrations. Only fullerene nanoparticles (nC60), fullerol, TiO2, and CeO2 showed little or no toxicity. Various degrees of toxicity were detected from different forms of carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black, Ag, and fumed SiO2 nanoparticles. Aminofullerene and UV irradiated nC60 also showed small but significant toxicity. We further investigated the effects of nanomaterial size, shape, surface chemistry, and exposure conditions on toxicity. Our data are publicly available at the open-access nanotoxicity database www.QuantWorm.org/nano. PMID:25611253