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Sample records for nanotube arrays type

  1. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  2. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  3. Optical properties of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays

    Abdelmoula, Mohamed [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Department of Materials Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sokoloff, Jeffrey; Lu, Wen-Tao; Menon, Latika [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Close, Thomas; Richter, Christiaan, E-mail: christiaan.richter@rit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, 14623 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    We present experimental measurements and a theoretical analysis of the near UV to NIR optical properties of free standing titania nanotube arrays. An improved understanding of the optical physics of this type of nanostructure is important to several next generation solar energy conversion technologies. We measured the transmission, reflection, and absorption of the electromagnetic spectrum from 300 nm to 1000 nm (UV to NIR) of titania nanotube arrays. We measured the total, specular, and diffuse reflection and transmission using both single point detection and an integrating sphere spectrometer. We find that the transmission, but not the reflection, of light (UV to NIR) through the nanotube array is well-explained by classic geometric optics using an effective medium model taking into account the conical geometry of the nanotubes. For wavelengths shorter than ∼500 nm, we find the surprising result that the reflection coefficient for light incident on the open side of the nanotube array is greater than the reflection coefficient for light incident on the closed “floor” of the nanotube array. We consider theoretical models based on the eikonal approximation, photonic crystal band theory, and a statistical treatment of scattering to explain the observed data. We attribute the fact that light with wavelengths shorter than 500 nm is more highly reflected from the open than the closed tube side as being due to disorder scattering inside the nanotube array.

  4. Multiwall carbon nanotube microcavity arrays

    Ahmed, Rajib; Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rifat, Ahmmed A. [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Periodic highly dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays can act as photonic materials exhibiting band gaps in the visible regime and beyond terahertz range. MWCNT arrays in square arrangement for nanoscale lattice constants can be configured as a microcavity with predictable resonance frequencies. Here, computational analyses of compact square microcavities (≈0.8 × 0.8 μm{sup 2}) in MWCNT arrays were demonstrated to obtain enhanced quality factors (≈170–180) and narrow-band resonance peaks. Cavity resonances were rationally designed and optimized (nanotube geometry and cavity size) with finite element method. Series (1 × 2 and 1 × 3) and parallel (2 × 1 and 3 × 1) combinations of microcavities were modeled and resonance modes were analyzed. Higher order MWCNT microcavities showed enhanced resonance modes, which were red shifted with increasing Q-factors. Parallel microcavity geometries were also optimized to obtain narrow-band tunable filtering in low-loss communication windows (810, 1336, and 1558 nm). Compact series and parallel MWCNT microcavity arrays may have applications in optical filters and miniaturized optical communication devices.

  5. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  6. Ordered metal nanotube arrays fabricated by PVD.

    Marquez, F; Morant, C; Campo, T; Sanz, J M; Elizalde, E

    2010-02-01

    In this work we report a simple method to fabricate ordered arrays of metal nanotubes. This method is based on the deposition of a metal by PVD onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The dimensions of the synthesized nanotubes depend both on the AAO template and on the deposited metal. In fact, it is observed that the aspect ratios of the nanotubes clearly depend significantly on the metal, ranging from 0.6 (Fe) to at least 3 (Zr).

  7. Fabrication and characterization of CaP-coated nanotube arrays

    Kung, Kuan-Chen; Chen, Jia-Ling; Liu, Yen-Ting; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2015-01-01

    Modified anodization techniques have been shown to improve the biocompatibility of titanium. This study demonstrated the anodic formation of self-organized nanotube arrays on titanium from an electrolyte solution containing 1 M H 3 PO 4 and 1 wt% hydrofluoric acid (HF). Our aim was to investigate the effects of sputter-deposited CaP on nanotube arrays. SEM images revealed a surface with uniform morphology and an average pore diameter of 29 nm. XRD results indicated that the phase of the nanotube arrays was amorphous. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) confirmed that the nanotube arrays were coated with calcium and phosphorus. Cell culture experiments using human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells demonstrated that the CaP/nanotube arrays had a pronounced effect on initial cell attachment as well as on the number of cells at 1, 7, and 14 days. Compared to as-polished titanium, the CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated cell proliferation, attachment, and spreading. Our results demonstrate the pronounced effects of CaP/nanotube arrays on the biological responses of HOS cells. - Highlights: • Self-organized nanotube arrays were anodically formed on titanium. • Surfaces of nanotube arrays exhibited uniform morphology and pore size. • According to ESCA results, Ca and P were successfully coated on nanotube arrays. • CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated the attachment and spreading of cells. • CaP/nanotube arrays were shown to affect biological responses of cells

  8. Fabrication and characterization of CaP-coated nanotube arrays

    Kung, Kuan-Chen; Chen, Jia-Ling [Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Ting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzer-Min, E-mail: tmlee@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Medical Device Innovation Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-01

    Modified anodization techniques have been shown to improve the biocompatibility of titanium. This study demonstrated the anodic formation of self-organized nanotube arrays on titanium from an electrolyte solution containing 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and 1 wt% hydrofluoric acid (HF). Our aim was to investigate the effects of sputter-deposited CaP on nanotube arrays. SEM images revealed a surface with uniform morphology and an average pore diameter of 29 nm. XRD results indicated that the phase of the nanotube arrays was amorphous. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) confirmed that the nanotube arrays were coated with calcium and phosphorus. Cell culture experiments using human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells demonstrated that the CaP/nanotube arrays had a pronounced effect on initial cell attachment as well as on the number of cells at 1, 7, and 14 days. Compared to as-polished titanium, the CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated cell proliferation, attachment, and spreading. Our results demonstrate the pronounced effects of CaP/nanotube arrays on the biological responses of HOS cells. - Highlights: • Self-organized nanotube arrays were anodically formed on titanium. • Surfaces of nanotube arrays exhibited uniform morphology and pore size. • According to ESCA results, Ca and P were successfully coated on nanotube arrays. • CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated the attachment and spreading of cells. • CaP/nanotube arrays were shown to affect biological responses of cells.

  9. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  10. Influence of anodization parameters on the morphology of TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    Omidvar, Hamid; Goodarzi, Saba; Seif, Ahmad; Azadmehr, Amir R.

    2011-07-01

    TiO 2 nanotube arrays can be fabricated by electrochemical anodization in organic and inorganic electrolytes. Morphology of these nanotube arrays changes when anodization parameters such as applied voltage, type of electrolyte, time and temperature are varied. Nanotube arrays fabricated by anodization of commercial titanium in electrolytes containing NH 4F solution and either sulfuric or phosphoric acid were studied at room temperature; time of anodization was kept constant. Applied voltage, fluoride ion concentration, and acid concentrations were varied and their influences on TiO 2 nanotubes were investigated. The current density of anodizing was recorded by computer controlled digital multimeter. The surface morphology (top-view) of nanotube arrays were observed by SEM. The nanotube arrays in this study have inner diameters in range of 40-80 nm.

  11. Template-based fabrication of nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays

    Ye Zuxin; Liu Haidong; Schultz, Isabel; Wu Wenhao; Naugle, D G; Lyuksyutov, I

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication and structure characterization of ordered nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are reported. Arrays of TiO 2 nanotubes were first deposited into the pores of AAO membranes by a sol-gel technique. Co nanowires were then electrochemically deposited into the TiO 2 nanotubes to form the nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed a high nanowire filling factor and a clean interface between the Co nanowire and the TiO 2 nanotube. Application of these hybrids to the fabrication of ordered nanowire arrays with highly controllable geometric parameters is discussed

  12. Anodic Fabrication of Ti-Ni-O Nanotube Arrays on Shape Memory Alloy

    Qiang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification with oxide nanostructures is one of the efficient ways to improve physical or biomedical properties of shape memory alloys. This work reports a fabrication of highly ordered Ti-Ni-O nanotube arrays on Ti-Ni alloy substrates through pulse anodization in glycerol-based electrolytes. The effects of anodization parameters and the annealing process on the microstructures and surface morphology of Ti-Ni-O were studied using scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. The electrolyte type greatly affected the formation of nanotube arrays. A formation of anatase phase was found with the Ti-Ni-O nanotube arrays annealed at 450 °C. The oxide nanotubes could be crystallized to rutile phase after annealing treatment at 650 °C. The Ti-Ni-O nanotube arrays demonstrated an excellent thermal stability by keeping their nanotubular structures up to 650 °C.

  13. Fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites

    Geohegan, David B [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilya N [Knoxville, TN; Puretzky, Alexander A [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-27

    Methods and apparatus are described for fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites. A composition includes a vertically aligned nanotube array including a plurality of nanotubes characterized by a property across substantially all of the vertically aligned nanotube array. A method includes depositing a vertically aligned nanotube array that includes a plurality of nanotubes; and controlling a deposition rate of the vertically aligned nanotubes array as a function of an in situ monitored property of the plurality of nanotubes.

  14. Layered growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by pyrolysis

    Zhang Hongrui; Liang Erjun; Ding Pei; Chao Mingju

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study of reaction temperature and duration of the growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays, layered aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) films grown directly around a reaction quartz tube in an Ar/H 2 atmosphere by pyrolysis of ferrocene in xylene in a suitable reaction furnace with the help of cobalt powder. The scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope images indicated that the obtained arrays were composed of many separated layers with MWNTs. The reaction temperature significantly influenced the alignment of the MWNTs, and an appropriate reaction temperature range for growth was 800-900 deg. C. The diameter of the carbon nanotube increased from 46 to 75 nm with the growth temperature. Besides temperature, the reaction duration influenced the length of the well-aligned carbon nanotubes. There was no significant relation between the growth time and the diameter of the carbon nanotubes in the array

  15. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for microelectrode arrays applications.

    Castro Smirnov, J R; Jover, Eric; Amade, Roger; Gabriel, Gemma; Villa, Rosa; Bertran, Enric

    2012-09-01

    In this work a methodology to fabricate carbon nanotube based electrodes using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been explored and defined. The final integrated microelectrode based devices should present specific properties that make them suitable for microelectrode arrays applications. The methodology studied has been focused on the preparation of highly regular and dense vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) mat compatible with the standard lithography used for microelectrode arrays technology.

  16. Magnetization Reversal Mechanism for CoFeB Ferromagnetic Nanotube Arrays

    Hai-Rui, Liu; Qing-Feng, Lu; Shamaila, S.; Jun-Yang, Chen; Sharif, R.; Xiu-Feng, Han

    2009-01-01

    CoFeB nanotube arrays are fabricated in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes and track etched polycarbonate (PCTE) membranes by using an electrochemical method, and their magnetic properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry. The coercivity H c and remanent squareness S Q of these CoFeB nanotube arrays are derived from hysteresis loops as a function of angle between the field and tube axis. The H c (θ) curves for CoFeB nanotube arrays in AAO and PCTE membranes show M-type variation, while they change shape from M to mountain-type as the tube length increases. However, the overall easy axis perpendicular to tube axis does not change with tube length. The different angular dependences are attributed to different magnetization reversal mechanisms. (condensed matter: electronicstructure, electrical, magnetic, and opticalproperties)

  17. Growth of ZnO nanotube arrays and nanotube based piezoelectric nanogenerators

    Xi, Yi; Song, Jinhui; Xu, Sheng; Yang, Rusen; Gao, Zhiyuan; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the growth of hexagonal ZnO nanotube arrays using a solution chemical method by varying the growth temperature (<100 °C), time and solution concentration. A piezoelectric nanogenerator using the as-grown ZnO nanotube arrays has been demonstrated for the first time. The nanogenerator gives an output voltage up to 35 mV. The detailed profile of the observed electric output is understood based on the calculated piezoelectric potential in the nanotube with consideration of the Schottky contact formed between the metal tip and the nanotube; and the mechanism agrees with that proposed for nanowire based nanogenerator. Our study shows that ZnO nanotubes can also be used for harvesting mechanical energy. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Dipolar interaction in arrays of magnetic nanotubes

    Velázquez-Galván, Y; Martínez-Huerta, J M; Encinas, A; De La Torre Medina, J; Danlée, Y; Piraux, L

    2014-01-01

    The dipolar interaction field in arrays of nickel nanotubes has been investigated on the basis of expressions derived from the effective demagnetizing field of the assembly as well as magnetometry measurements. The model incorporates explicitly the wall thickness and aspect ratio, as well as the spatial order of the nanotubes. The model and experiment show that the interaction field in nanotubes is smaller than that in solid nanowires due to the packing fraction reduction in tubes related to their inner cavity. Finally, good agreement between the model and experiment is found for the variation of the interaction field as a function of the tube wall thickness. (paper)

  19. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    Huang Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting-dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension. Among short nanotubes, the self-organized patterns are consistent with the shape of the inherent openings, i.e. slender openings lead to elongated trench-like structures, and circular holes result in relatively round nest-like arrangements. Nanotubes in a relatively high mat are more connected, like in an elastic body, than those in a short mat. Small cracks often initialize themselves in a relatively high mat, along two or more adjacent round openings; each of the cracks evolves into a trench as liquid dries up. Self-organized pattern control with inherent openings needs to initiate the dewetting process above the nanotube tips. If there is no liquid on top, inherent openings barely enlarge themselves after the wetting-dewetting treatment

  20. Visible diffraction from quasi-crystalline arrays of carbon nanotubes

    Butler, Timothy P.; Butt, Haider; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2015-08-01

    Large area arrays of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are patterned in a quasi-crystalline Penrose tile arrangement through electron beam lithography definition of Ni catalyst dots and subsequent nanotube growth by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. When illuminated with a 532 nm laser beam high-quality and remarkable diffraction patterns are seen. The diffraction is well matched to theoretical calculations which assume apertures to be present at the location of the VACNTs for transmitted light. The results show that VACNTs act as diffractive elements in reflection and can be used as spatially phased arrays for producing tailored diffraction patterns.

  1. Fabrication of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays using organic electrolytes

    Yoriya, Sorachon

    This dissertation focuses on fabrication and improvement of morphological features of TiO2 nanotube arrays in the selected organic electrolytes including dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; see Chapter 4) and diethylene glycol (DEG; see Chapter 5). Using a polar dimethyl sulfoxide containing hydrofluoric acid, the vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays with well controlled morphologies, i.e. tube lengths ranging from few microns up to 101 microm, pore diameters from 100 nm to 150 nm, and wall thicknesses from 15 nm to 50 nm were achieved. Various anodization variables including fluoride ion concentration, voltage, anodization time, water content, and reuse of the anodized electrolyte could be manipulated under proper conditions to control the nanotube array morphology. Anodization current behaviors associated with evolution of nanotube length were analyzed in order to clarify and better understand the formation mechanism of nanotubes grown in the organic electrolytes. Typically observed for DMSO electrolyte, the behavior that anodization current density gradually decreases with time is a reflection of a constant growth rate of nanotube arrays. Large fluctuation of anodization current was significantly observed probably due to the large change in electrolyte properties during anodization, when anodizing in high conductivity electrolytes such as using high HF concentration and reusing the anodized electrolyte as a second time. It is believed that the electrolyte properties such as conductivity and polarity play important role in affecting ion solvation and interactions in the solution consequently determining the formation of oxide film. Fabrication of the TiO2 nanotube array films was extended to study in the more viscous diethylene glycol (DEG) electrolyte. The arrayed nanotubes achieved from DEG electrolytes containing either HF or NH4 F are fully separated, freely self-standing structure with open pores and a wide variation of tube-to-tube spacing ranging from

  2. Graphene quantum dots-carbon nanotube hybrid arrays for supercapacitors

    Hu, Yue; Zhao, Yang; Lu, Gewu; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Li, Hui; Shao, Huibo; Qu, Liangti

    2013-05-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been successfully deposited onto aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by a benign electrochemical method and the capacitive properties of the as-formed GQD/CNT hybrid arrays were evaluated in symmetrical supercapacitors. It was found that supercapacitors fabricated from GQD/CNT hybrid arrays exhibited a high capacitance of 44 mF cm-2, representing a more than 200% improvement over that of bare CNT electrodes.

  3. Piezoelectric Nanotube Array for Broadband High-Frequency Ultrasonic Transducer.

    Liew, Weng Heng; Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials are vital in determining ultrasonic transducer and imaging performance as they offer the function for conversion between mechanical and electrical energy. Ultrasonic transducers with high-frequency operation suffer from performance degradation and fabrication difficulty of the demanded piezoelectric materials. Hence, we propose 1-D polymeric piezoelectric nanostructure with controlled nanoscale features to overcome the technical limitations of high-frequency ultrasonic transducers. For the first time, we demonstrate the integration of a well-aligned piezoelectric nanotube array to produce a high-frequency ultrasonic transducer with outstanding performance. We find that nanoconfinement-induced polarization orientation and unique nanotube structure lead to significantly improved piezoelectric and ultrasonic transducing performance over the conventional piezoelectric thin film. A large bandwidth, 126% (-6 dB), is achieved at high center frequency, 108 MHz. Transmission sensitivity of nanotube array is found to be 46% higher than that of the monolithic thin film transducer attributed to the improved electromechanical coupling effectiveness and impedance match. We further demonstrate high-resolution scanning, ultrasonic imaging, and photoacoustic imaging using the obtained nanotube array transducers, which is valuable for biomedical imaging applications in the future.

  4. Biochips Containing Arrays of Carbon-Nanotube Electrodes

    Li, Jun; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica; Cassell, Alan; Chen, Hua

    2008-01-01

    Biochips containing arrays of nanoelectrodes based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are being developed as means of ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) biomarkers for purposes of medical diagnosis and bioenvironmental monitoring. In mass production, these biochips could be relatively inexpensive (hence, disposable). These biochips would be integrated with computer-controlled microfluidic and microelectronic devices in automated hand-held and bench-top instruments that could be used to perform rapid in vitro genetic analyses with simplified preparation of samples. Carbon nanotubes are attractive for use as nanoelectrodes for detection of biomolecules because of their nanoscale dimensions and their chemical properties.

  5. Force sensitive carbon nanotube arrays for biologically inspired airflow sensing

    Maschmann, Matthew R.; Dickinson, Ben; Ehlert, Gregory J.; Baur, Jeffery W.

    2012-09-01

    The compressive electromechanical response of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays is evaluated for use as an artificial hair sensor (AHS) transduction element. CNT arrays with heights of 12, 75, and 225 µm are examined. The quasi-static and dynamic sensitivity to force, response time, and signal drift are examined within the range of applied stresses predicted by a mechanical model applicable to the conceptual CNT array-based AHS (0-1 kPa). Each array is highly sensitive to compressive loading, with a maximum observed gauge factor of 114. The arrays demonstrate a repeatable response to dynamic cycling after a break-in period of approximately 50 cycles. Utilizing a four-wire measurement electrode configuration, the change in contact resistance between the array and the electrodes is observed to dominate the electromechanical response of the arrays. The response time of the CNT arrays is of the order of 10 ms. When the arrays are subjected to constant stress, mechanical creep is observed that results in a signal drift that generally diminishes the responsiveness of the arrays, particularly at stress approaching 1 kPa. The results of this study serve as a preliminary proof of concept for utilizing CNT arrays as a transduction mechanism for a proposed artificial hair sensor. Such a low profile and light-weight flow sensor is expected to have application in a number of applications including navigation and state awareness of small air vehicles, similar in function to natural hair cell receptors utilized by insects and bats.

  6. Drying induced upright sliding and reorganization of carbon nanotube arrays

    Li Qingwen; De Paula, Raymond; Zhang Xiefei; Zheng Lianxi; Arendt, Paul N; Mueller, Fred M; Zhu, Y T; Tu Yi

    2006-01-01

    Driven by capillary force, wet carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been found to reorganize into cellular structures upon drying. During the reorganization process, individual CNTs are firmly attached to the substrate and have to lie down on the substrate at cell bottoms, forming closed cells. Here we demonstrate that by modifying catalyst structures, the adhesion of CNTs to the substrate can be weakened. Upon drying such CNT arrays, CNTs may slide away from their original sites on the surface and self-assemble into cellular patterns with bottoms open. It is also found that the sliding distance of CNTs increases with array height, and drying millimetre tall arrays leads to the sliding of CNTs over a few hundred micrometres and the eventual self-assembly into discrete islands. By introducing regular vacancies in CNT arrays, CNTs may be manipulated into different patterns

  7. MnO{sub 2} nanotube and nanowire arrays by electrochemical deposition for supercapacitors

    Xia, Hui; Feng, Jinkui; Wang, Hailong; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2010-07-01

    Highly ordered MnO{sub 2} nanotube and nanowire arrays are successfully synthesized via a electrochemical deposition technique using porous alumina templates. The morphologies and microstructures of the MnO{sub 2} nanotube and nanowire arrays are investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the MnO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode has superior capacitive behaviour to that of the MnO{sub 2} nanowire array electrode. In addition to high specific capacitance, the MnO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode also exhibits good rate capability and good cycling stability, which makes it promising candidate for supercapacitors. (author)

  8. Fabrication and structural characterization of highly ordered titania nanotube arrays

    Shi, Hongtao; Ordonez, Rosita

    Titanium (Ti) dioxide nanotubes have drawn much attention in the past decade due to the fact that titania is an extremely versatile material with a variety of technological applications. Anodizing Ti in different electrolytes has proved to be quite successful so far in creating the nanotubes, however, their degree of order is still not nearly as good as nanoporous anodic alumina. In this work, we first deposit a thin layer of aluminum (Al) onto electropolished Ti substrates, using thermal evaporation. Such an Al layer is then anodized in 0.3 M oxalic acid, forming an ordered nanoporous alumina mask on top of Ti. Afterwards, the anodization of Ti is accomplished at 20 V in solutions containing 1 M NaH2PO4 and 0.5% HF or H2SO4, which results in the creation of ordered titania nanotube arrays. The inner pore diameter of the nanotubes can be tuned from ~50 nm to ~75 nm, depending on the anodization voltage applied to Al or Ti. X-ray diffractometry shows the as-grown titania nanotubes are amorphous. Samples annealed at different temperatures in ambient atmosphere will be also reported.

  9. Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Array by DC Glow Plasma Etching for Supercapacitor

    Yongfeng Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To open the end of carbon nanotubes and make these ends connect with functional carboxyl group, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs arrays was etched by DC glow oxygen-argon plasma. With these open-ended carbon nanotubes array as electrode materials to build supercapacitor, we found that the capacity (32.2 F/g increased significantly than that of pure carbon nanotubes (6.7 F/g.

  10. Self-assembled ordered carbon-nanotube arrays and membranes.

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Siegal, Michael P.; Yelton, William Graham

    2004-11-01

    Imagine free-standing flexible membranes with highly-aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) running through their thickness. Perhaps with both ends of the CNTs open for highly controlled nanofiltration? Or CNTs at heights uniformly above a polymer membrane for a flexible array of nanoelectrodes or field-emitters? How about CNT films with incredible amounts of accessible surface area for analyte adsorption? These self-assembled crystalline nanotubes consist of multiple layers of graphene sheets rolled into concentric cylinders. Tube diameters (3-300 nm), inner-bore diameters (2-15 nm), and lengths (nanometers - microns) are controlled to tailor physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. We proposed to explore growth and characterize nanotube arrays to help determine their exciting functionality for Sandia applications. Thermal chemical vapor deposition growth in a furnace nucleates from a metal catalyst. Ordered arrays grow using templates from self-assembled hexagonal arrays of nanopores in anodized-aluminum oxide. Polymeric-binders can mechanically hold the CNTs in place for polishing, lift-off, and membrane formation. The stiffness, electrical and thermal conductivities of CNTs make them ideally suited for a wide-variety of possible applications. Large-area, highly-accessible gas-adsorbing carbon surfaces, superb cold-cathode field-emission, and unique nanoscale geometries can lead to advanced microsensors using analyte adsorption, arrays of functionalized nanoelectrodes for enhanced electrochemical detection of biological/explosive compounds, or mass-ionizers for gas-phase detection. Materials studies involving membrane formation may lead to exciting breakthroughs in nanofiltration/nanochromatography for the separation of chemical and biological agents. With controlled nanofilter sizes, ultrafiltration will be viable to separate and preconcentrate viruses and many strains of bacteria for 'down-stream' analysis.

  11. Effects of carbon nanotube arrays on nucleate pool boiling

    Ujereh, Sebastine; Fisher, Timothy; Mudawar, Issam

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the impact coating silicon and copper substrates with nanotubes (CNTs) have on pool boiling performance. Different CNT array densities and area coverages were tested on 1.27 1.27 mm2 samples in FC-72. The CNT preparation techniques used provided strong adherence of CNTs to both substrate materials. Very small contact angle enabled deep penetration of FC-72 liquid inside surface cavities of smooth uncoated silicon surfaces, requiring unusually high surface...

  12. Highly aligned carbon nanotube arrays fabricated by bias sputtering

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Honda, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Keita; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Ikuno, Takashi; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Ohkura, Shigeharu; Katayama, Mitsuhiro; Oura, Kenjiro; Hirao, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been successfully grown on Si substrates by dc bias sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the resultant arrays consisted of dense CNTs with diameters of 40-60 nm and lengths of 300-400 nm. The CNTs were found to have a bamboo-like structure at the end of which metallic nanoparticle was formed, indicating tip growth mechanism. The energy enhancement of carbon particles is a key factor for synthesis of CNTs using dc bias sputtering system

  13. Nanoparticle fractionation using an aligned carbon nanotube array

    Lim Xiaodai [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS), Centre for Life Sciences (CeLS), 05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 (Singapore); Xu Hairuo; Chin, Wee Shong [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore); Nicole Chew, Yi Hui; Phua, Yi Hui [Dunman High School, 10 Tanjong Rhu Road, 436895 (Singapore); Sie, Edbert Jarvis; Sum, Tze Chien [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637371 (Singapore); Chia, Guo Hao; Sow, Chorng-Haur, E-mail: chmcws@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: physowch@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, Blk S12, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore)

    2010-07-23

    A technique utilizing the capillary assisted sieving capability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to achieve fractionation of nanoparticles of small size distribution is presented. By dipping aligned CNT arrays into a solution comprising different sized quantum dots (QDs), size-selective gradient decoration of QDs onto CNTs is achieved. The fractionating capability of CNTs is also demonstrated for poly-dispersed manganese doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles and QDs of varying sizes and chemical compositions, which we attribute to the size-selective sieving effect of CNTs. By controlling the terminating point for the flow of QDs across the CNT array, a QD size specific CNT/QD hybrid structure is achieved.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Intracellular Delivery and Biological Applications

    Golshadi, Masoud

    Introducing nucleic acids into mammalian cells is a crucial step to elucidate biochemical pathways, modify gene expression in immortalized cells, primary cells, and stem cells, and intoduces new approaches for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. Current gene transfer technologies, including lipofection, electroporation, and viral delivery, have enabled break-through advances in basic and translational science to enable derivation and programming of embryonic stem cells, advanced gene editing using CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), and development of targeted anti-tumor therapy using chimeric antigen receptors in T-cells (CAR-T). Despite these successes, current transfection technologies are time consuming and limited by the inefficient introduction of test molecules into large populations of target cells, and the cytotoxicity of the techniques. Moreover, many cell types cannot be consistently transfected by lipofection or electroporation (stem cells, T-cells) and viral delivery has limitations to the size of experimental DNA that can be packaged. In this dissertation, a novel coverslip-like platform consisting of an array of aligned hollow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in a sacrificial template is developed that enhances gene transfer capabilities, including high efficiency, low toxicity, in an expanded range of target cells, with the potential to transfer mixed combinations of protein and nucleic acids. The CNT array devices are fabricated by a scalable template-based manufacturing method using commercially available membranes, eliminating the need for nano-assembly. High efficient transfection has been demonstrated by delivering various cargos (nanoparticles, dye and plasmid DNA) into populations of cells, achieving 85% efficiency of plasmid DNA delivery into immortalized cells. Moreover, the CNT-mediated transfection of stem cells shows 3 times higher efficiency compared to current lipofection methods. Evaluating the cell

  15. Force sensitive carbon nanotube arrays for biologically inspired airflow sensing

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Ehlert, Gregory J; Baur, Jeffery W; Dickinson, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The compressive electromechanical response of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays is evaluated for use as an artificial hair sensor (AHS) transduction element. CNT arrays with heights of 12, 75, and 225 µm are examined. The quasi-static and dynamic sensitivity to force, response time, and signal drift are examined within the range of applied stresses predicted by a mechanical model applicable to the conceptual CNT array-based AHS (0–1 kPa). Each array is highly sensitive to compressive loading, with a maximum observed gauge factor of 114. The arrays demonstrate a repeatable response to dynamic cycling after a break-in period of approximately 50 cycles. Utilizing a four-wire measurement electrode configuration, the change in contact resistance between the array and the electrodes is observed to dominate the electromechanical response of the arrays. The response time of the CNT arrays is of the order of 10 ms. When the arrays are subjected to constant stress, mechanical creep is observed that results in a signal drift that generally diminishes the responsiveness of the arrays, particularly at stress approaching 1 kPa. The results of this study serve as a preliminary proof of concept for utilizing CNT arrays as a transduction mechanism for a proposed artificial hair sensor. Such a low profile and light-weight flow sensor is expected to have application in a number of applications including navigation and state awareness of small air vehicles, similar in function to natural hair cell receptors utilized by insects and bats. (paper)

  16. Copper-encapsulated vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    Stano, Kelly L; Chapla, Rachel; Carroll, Murphy; Nowak, Joshua; McCord, Marian; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-11-13

    A new procedure is described for the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) that are decorated, and even completely encapsulated, by a dense network of copper nanoparticles. The process involves the conformal deposition of pyrolytic carbon (Py-C) to stabilize the aligned carbon-nanotube structure during processing. The stabilized arrays are mildly functionalized using oxygen plasma treatment to improve wettability, and they are then infiltrated with an aqueous, supersaturated Cu salt solution. Once dried, the salt forms a stabilizing crystal network throughout the array. After calcination and H2 reduction, Cu nanoparticles are left decorating the CNT surfaces. Studies were carried out to determine the optimal processing parameters to maximize Cu content in the composite. These included the duration of Py-C deposition and system process pressure as well as the implementation of subsequent and multiple Cu salt solution infiltrations. The optimized procedure yielded a nanoscale hybrid material where the anisotropic alignment from the VACNT array was preserved, and the mass of the stabilized arrays was increased by over 24-fold because of the addition of Cu. The procedure has been adapted for other Cu salts and can also be used for other metal salts altogether, including Ni, Co, Fe, and Ag. The resulting composite is ideally suited for application in thermal management devices because of its low density, mechanical integrity, and potentially high thermal conductivity. Additionally, further processing of the material via pressing and sintering can yield consolidated, dense bulk composites.

  17. Anodic Fabrication of Ti-Nb-Zr-O Nanotube Arrays

    Qiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotube arrays were fabricated through pulse anodic oxidation of Ti-Nb-Zr alloy in 1 M NaH2PO4 containing 0.5 wt% HF electrolytes. The effect of anodization parameters and Zr content on the microstructure and composition of Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotubes was investigated using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was found that length of the Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotubes increased with increase of Zr contents. The diameter and the length of Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotubes could be controlled by pulse voltage. XRD analysis of Ti-Nb-Zr-O samples annealed at 500°C in air indicated that the (101 diffraction peaks shifted from 25.78° to 25.05° for annealed Ti-Nb-Zr-O samples with different Zr contents because of larger lattice parameter of Ti-Nb-Zr-O compared to that of undoped TiO2.

  18. Double-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array. Preparation and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Xue, Chaorui; Hu, Shengliang; Chang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan (China); Yang, Jinlong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2017-11-15

    This work demonstrates the formation of self-ordered double-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array via electrochemical anodization in glycerol-based electrolyte. Compared with its counterpart of single-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array, the tube wall of double-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube split into outer and inner layers for the decomposition of glycerol during anodization process. Moreover, the double-walled structure showed its advantage of achieving improved utilization of light and higher specific surface area of nanotube array. Due to the unique double-walled structure, the double-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array exhibited better photocatalytic activity than the single-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Hot spot dynamics in carbon nanotube array devices.

    Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Hersam, Mark C; Avouris, Phaedon

    2015-03-11

    We report on the dynamics of spatial temperature distributions in aligned semiconducting carbon nanotube array devices with submicrometer channel lengths. By using high-resolution optical microscopy in combination with electrical transport measurements, we observe under steady state bias conditions the emergence of time-variable, local temperature maxima with dimensions below 300 nm, and temperatures above 400 K. On the basis of time domain cross-correlation analysis, we investigate how the intensity fluctuations of the thermal radiation patterns are correlated with the overall device current. The analysis reveals the interdependence of electrical current fluctuations and time-variable hot spot formation that limits the overall device performance and, ultimately, may cause device degradation. The findings have implications for the future development of carbon nanotube-based technologies.

  20. Electrochemical properties of Ti3+ doped Ag-Ti nanotube arrays coated with hydroxyapatite

    Zhang, Hangzhou; Shi, Xiaoguo; Tian, Ang; Wang, Li; Liu, Chuangwei

    2018-04-01

    Ag-Ti nanotube array was prepared by simple anodic oxidation method and uniform hydroxyapatite were electrochemically deposited on the nanotubes, and then characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS and EIS. In order to investigate the influence of Ti3+ on the electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite on the nanotubes, the Ag-Ti nanotube array self-doped with Ti3+ was prepared by one step reduction method. The experiment results revealed that the Ti3+ can promote the grow rate of hydroxyapatite coatings on nanotube surface. The hydroxyapatite coated Ag-Ti nanotube arrays with Ti3+ exhibit excellent stability and higher corrosion resistance. Moreover, the compact and dense hydroxyapatite coating can also prevent the Ag atom erosion from the Ag-Ti nanotube.

  1. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    Cavoto, G.; Cirillo, E.N.M.; Cocina, F.; Ferretti, J.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (∼ 11 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with respect to CNT directions. New constraints are obtained on how to devise the CNT arrays to maximize the target channeling efficiency. (orig.)

  2. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    Cavoto, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Cirillo, E.N.M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento SBAI, Rome (Italy); Cocina, F. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Ferretti, J. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Polosa, A.D. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (∼ 11 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with respect to CNT directions. New constraints are obtained on how to devise the CNT arrays to maximize the target channeling efficiency. (orig.)

  3. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays.

    Cavoto, G; Cirillo, E N M; Cocina, F; Ferretti, J; Polosa, A D

    2016-01-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs ([Formula: see text] GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with respect to CNT directions. New constraints are obtained on how to devise the CNT arrays to maximize the target channeling efficiency.

  4. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet

  5. A fabrication method for field emitter array of carbon nanotubes with improved carbon nanotube rooting

    Chouhan, V., E-mail: vchouhan@post.kek.jp [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Noguchi, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kato, S. [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    We have developed a technique for fabrication of a field emitter array (FEA) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to obtain a high emission current along with a high current density. The FEA was prepared with many small equidistant circular emitters of randomly oriented multiwall carbon nanotubes. The fabrication of a FEA substrate followed with deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) film on a tantalum (Ta) substrate and circular titanium (Ti) islands on the TiN coated Ta substrate in a DC magnetron sputtering coater. CNTs were dispersed on the substrate and rooted into the circular Ti islands at a high temperature to prepare an array of circular emitters of CNTs. The TiN film was applied on a Ta substrate to make a reaction barrier between the Ta substrate and CNTs in order to root CNTs only into the Ti islands without a reaction with the Ta substrate at the high temperature. A high emission current of 31.7 mA with an effective current density of 34.5 A/cm{sup 2} was drawn at 6.5 V/μm from a FEA having 130 circular emitters in a diameter of 50 μm and with a pitch of 200 μm. The high emission current was ascribed to the good quality rooting of CNTs into the Ti islands and an edge effect, in which a high emission current was expected from the peripheries of the circular emitters. - Highlights: • We developed a method to fabricate a field emitter array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). • CNT rooting into array of titanium islands was improved at a high temperature. • Titanium nitride film was used to stop reaction between CNT and tantalum substrate. • Strong edge effect was achieved from an array of small circular emitters of CNTs. • The good quality CNT rooting and the edge effect enhanced an emission current.

  6. Real-time imaging of vertically aligned carbon nanotube array growth kinetics

    Puretzky, A A; Eres, G; Rouleau, C M; Ivanov, I N; Geohegan, D B

    2008-01-01

    In situ time-lapse photography and laser irradiation are applied to understand unusual coordinated growth kinetics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays including pauses in growth, retraction, and local equilibration in length. A model is presented which explains the measured kinetics and determines the conditions for diffusion-limited growth. Laser irradiation of the growing nanotube arrays is first used to prove that the nanotubes grow from catalyst particles at their bases, and then increase their growth rate and terminal lengths

  7. Modelling clustering of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    Schaber, Clemens F; Filippov, Alexander E; Heinlein, Thorsten; Schneider, Jörg J; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-08-06

    Previous research demonstrated that arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) exhibit strong frictional properties. Experiments indicated a strong decrease of the friction coefficient from the first to the second sliding cycle in repetitive measurements on the same VACNT spot, but stable values in consecutive cycles. VACNTs form clusters under shear applied during friction tests, and self-organization stabilizes the mechanical properties of the arrays. With increasing load in the range between 300 µN and 4 mN applied normally to the array surface during friction tests the size of the clusters increases, while the coefficient of friction decreases. To better understand the experimentally obtained results, we formulated and numerically studied a minimalistic model, which reproduces the main features of the system with a minimum of adjustable parameters. We calculate the van der Waals forces between the spherical friction probe and bunches of the arrays using the well-known Morse potential function to predict the number of clusters, their size, instantaneous and mean friction forces and the behaviour of the VACNTs during consecutive sliding cycles and at different normal loads. The data obtained by the model calculations coincide very well with the experimental data and can help in adapting VACNT arrays for biomimetic applications.

  8. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    Cavoto, G.; Cocina, F.; Ferretti, J.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-06-24

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (~ 10 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with ...

  9. Physicochemical characteristics and droplet impact dynamics of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays.

    Aria, Adrianus I; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-06-17

    The physicochemical and droplet impact dynamics of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays are investigated. These superhydrophobic arrays are fabricated simply by exposing the as-grown carbon nanotube arrays to a vacuum annealing treatment at a moderate temperature. This treatment, which allows a significant removal of oxygen adsorbates, leads to a dramatic change in wettability of the arrays, from mildly hydrophobic to superhydrophobic. Such change in wettability is also accompanied by a substantial change in surface charge and electrochemical properties. Here, the droplet impact dynamics are characterized in terms of critical Weber number, coefficient of restitution, spreading factor, and contact time. Based on these characteristics, it is found that superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays are among the best water-repellent surfaces ever reported. The results presented herein may pave a way for the utilization of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays in numerous industrial and practical applications, including inkjet printing, direct injection engines, steam turbines, and microelectronic fabrication.

  10. Embedded arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotube carpets and methods for making them

    Kim, Myung Jong; Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kittrell, W. Carter; Schmidt, Howard K.

    2015-06-30

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a system and method for supporting a carbon nanotube array that involve an entangled carbon nanotube mat integral with the array, where the mat is embedded in an embedding material. The embedding material may be depositable on a carbon nanotube. A depositable material may be metallic or nonmetallic. The embedding material may be an adhesive material. The adhesive material may optionally be mixed with a metal powder. The embedding material may be supported by a substrate or self-supportive. The embedding material may be conductive or nonconductive. The system and method provide superior mechanical and, when applicable, electrical, contact between the carbon nanotubes in the array and the embedding material. The optional use of a conductive material for the embedding material provides a mechanism useful for integration of carbon nanotube arrays into electronic devices.

  11. Amorphous and crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhanced Li-ion intercalation properties.

    Guan, Dongsheng; Cai, Chuan; Wang, Ying

    2011-04-01

    We have employed a simple process of anodizing Ti foils to prepare TiO2 nanotube arrays which show enhanced electrochemical properties for applications as Li-ion battery electrode materials. The lengths and pore diameters of TiO2 nanotubes can be finely tuned by varying voltage, electrolyte composition, or anodization time. The as-prepared nanotubes are amorphous and can be converted into anatase nanotubes with heat treatment at 480 degrees C. Rutile crystallites emerge in the anatase nanotube when the annealing temperature is increased to 580 degrees C, resulting in TiO2 nanotubes of mixed phases. The morphological features of nanotubes remain unchanged after annealing. Li-ion insertion performance has been studied for amorphous and crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays. Amorphous nanotubes with a length of 3.0 microm and an outer diameter of 125 nm deliver a capacity of 91.2 microA h cm(-2) at a current density of 400 microA cm(-2), while those with a length of 25 microm and an outer diameter of 158 nm display a capacity of 533 microA h cm-2. When the 3-microm long nanotubes become crystalline, they deliver lower capacities: the anatase nanotubes and nanotubes of mixed phases show capacities of 53.8 microA h cm-2 and 63.1 microA h cm(-2), respectively at the same current density. The amorphous nanotubes show excellent capacity retention ability over 50 cycles. The cycled nanotubes show little change in morphology compared to the nanotubes before electrochemical cycling. All the TiO2 nanotubes demonstrate higher capacities than amorphous TiO2 compact layer reported in literature. The amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with a length of 1.9 microm exhibit a capacity five times higher than that of TiO2 compact layer even when the nanotube array is cycled at a current density 80 times higher than that for the compact layer. These results suggest that anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays are promising electrode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries.

  12. Thin randomly aligned hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays as ultrablack metamaterials

    De Nicola, Francesco; Hines, Peter; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; Motta, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    Ultrablack metamaterials are artificial materials able to harvest all the incident light regardless of wavelength, angle, or polarization. Here, we show the ultrablack properties of randomly aligned hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays with thicknesses below 200 nm. The thin coatings are realized by solution processing and dry-transfer deposition on different substrates. The hierarchical surface morphology of the coatings is biomimetic and provides a large effective area that improves the film optical absorption. Also, such a morphology is responsible for the moth-eye effect, which leads to the omnidirectional and polarization-independent suppression of optical reflection. The films exhibit an emissivity up to 99.36% typical of an ideal black body, resulting in the thinnest ultrablack metamaterial ever reported. Such a material may be exploited for thermal, optical, and optoelectronic devices such as heat sinks, optical shields, solar cells, light and thermal sensors, and light-emitting diodes.

  13. Functionalized polypyrrole nanotube arrays as electrochemical biosensor for the determination of copper ions

    Lin Meng; Hu Xiaoke; Ma Zhaohu; Chen Lingxin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PPy nanotube arrays were electropolymerized using ZnO nanowire arrays as templates. ► PPy nanotube arrays were anchored onto ITO glass without any chemical linker. ► Using SWV, the biosensor was found to be highly sensitive and selective to Cu 2+ . ► The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of Cu 2+ in drinking water. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor based on functionalized polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays modified with a tripeptide (Gly-Gly-His) proved to be highly effective for electrochemical analysis of copper ions (Cu 2+ ). The vertically oriented PPy nanotube arrays were electropolymerized by using modified zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays as templates which were electrodeposited on indium–tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The electrodes were functionalized by appending pyrrole-α-carboxylic acid onto the surface of polypyrrole nanotube arrays by electrochemical polymerization. The carboxylic groups of the polymer were covalently coupled with the amine groups of the tripeptide, and its structural features were confirmed by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The tripeptide modified PPy nanotube arrays electrode was used for the electrochemical analysis of various trace copper ions by square wave voltammetry. The electrode was found to be highly sensitive and selective to Cu 2+ in the range of 0.1–30 μM. Furthermore, the developed biosensor exhibited a high stability and reproducibility, despite the repeated use of the biosensor electrode.

  14. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    Seo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yun, H.; McAllister, K.; Lee, S. W., E-mail: leesw@konkuk.ac.kr [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.; Kim, G. T. [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. J.; Jeong, G. H. [Department of Nano Applied Engineering, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, I.; Kim, K. S. [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems.

  15. Investigation on the Photoelectrocatalytic Activity of Well-Aligned TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    Xiaomeng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodizing Ti foil in viscous F− containing organic electrolytes, and the crystal structure and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube array were characterized and analyzed by XRD, SEM, and TEM, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanotube arrays was evaluated in the photocatalytic (PC and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC degradation of methylene blue (MB dye in different supporting solutions. The excellent performance of ca. 97% for color removal was reached after 90 min in the PEC process compared to that of PC process which indicates that a certain external potential bias favors the promotion of the electrode reaction rate on TiO2 nanotube array when it is under illumination. In addition, it is found that PEC process conducted in supporting solutions with low pH and containing Cl− is also beneficial to accelerate the degradation rate of MB.

  16. Preparation and elementary research on electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution of highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays

    Wu Qinglong; Liao Junsheng; Bai Yun

    2010-01-01

    Well ordered and uniform titanium dioxide nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodiaing process from a bath containing 1% NaF, 1mol/L Na 2 SO 4 , 0.5 mol/L H 2 SO 4 at room temperature. Surface morphology of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays were observed with SEM. The formation process of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays was suggested by current-time transient. Its catalytic hydrogen evolution behavior was studied by electrochemical measurements in a 5%(mass fraction) H 2 SO 4 solution. The results showed that the titanium dioxide nanotube arrays on titanium had better hydrogen evolution activity and trace palladium lead to the maximum electrocatalytic activity of hydrogen production. (authors)

  17. Photoelectrocatalytic properties of Ag nanoparticles loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared by pulse current deposition

    Xie Kunpeng; Sun Lan; Wang Chenglin; Lai Yuekun; Wang Mengye; Chen Hongbo; Lin Changjian

    2010-01-01

    A pulse current deposition technique was adopted to construct highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles on TiO 2 nanotube arrays which were prepared by the electrochemical anodization. The morphology, crystallinity, elemental composition, and UV-vis absorption of Ag/TiO 2 nanotube arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). In particular, the photoelectrochemical properties and photoelectrocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation and the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation for newly synthesized Ag/TiO 2 nanotube arrays were investigated. The maximum incident photon to charge carrier efficiency (IPCE) value of Ag/TiO 2 nanotube arrays was 51%, much higher than that of pure TiO 2 nanotube arrays. Ag/TiO 2 nanotube arrays exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than the pure TiO 2 nanotube arrays under both UV and visible light irradiation. The photoelectrocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO 2 nanotube arrays under UV light irradiation was 1.6-fold enhancement compared with pure TiO 2 nanotube arrays. This approach can be used in synthesizing various metal-loaded nanotube arrays materials.

  18. Preparation of FeS2 nanotube arrays based on layer-by-layer assembly and their photoelectrochemical properties

    Wang, Mudan; Xue, Dongpeng; Qin, Haiying; Zhang, Lei; Ling, Guoping; Liu, Jiabin; Fang, Youtong; Meng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous Fe 2 O 3 nanotube arrays are prepared via layer-by-layer assembly. • Pyrite FeS 2 nanotube arrays are obtained by sulfurizing Fe 2 O 3 nanotube arrays. • Various electrochemical properties are characterized. • A comparison between FeS 2 nanotube and nanoparticle films is conducted. • Nanotube arrays show enhanced corrosion resistance and photoresponse. - Abstract: Well-aligned one-dimensional iron pyrite FeS 2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly technique on ZnO nanorod arrays in combination with subsequent sulfurization. The as-prepared products were confirmed to be pure phase pyrite FeS 2 with Fe/S ratio approaching 1/2. Typical nanotube structure was observed for the FeS 2 with average outer diameter of 150 ± 20 nm and wall thickness of 50 ± 5 nm. Comparisons of photoelectrochemical properties between FeS 2 nanotubes and FeS 2 nanoparticles were conducted. Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that FeS 2 nanotubes possess high corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The J–V curves show that the photocurrent at 1.0 V for FeS 2 nanotubes is more than five times larger than that of FeS 2 nanoparticles, indicating enhanced photoresponse and rapid charge transfer performances of 1-D nanotube structure. The enhanced photoelectrochemical properties mainly benefit from the unique architecture features of nanotube array structure.

  19. Nanoindentation study of the mechanical behavior of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Xu, Y. N.; Wang, M. C.; Oloyede, A.; Bell, J. M.; Yan, C., E-mail: c2.yan@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Liu, M. N. [i-Lab, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou (China)

    2015-10-14

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotube arrays are attracting increasing attention for use in solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, and biomedical implants. To take full advantage of their unique physical properties, such arrays need to maintain adequate mechanical integrity in applications. However, the mechanical performance of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays is not well understood. In this work, we investigate the deformation and failure of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays using the nanoindentation technique. We found that the load–displacement response of the arrays strongly depends on the indentation depth and indenter shape. Substrate-independent elastic modulus and hardness can be obtained when the indentation depth is less than 2.5% of the array height. The deformation mechanisms of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by Berkovich and conical indenters are closely associated with the densification of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes under compression. A theoretical model for deformation of the arrays under a large-radius conical indenter is also proposed.

  20. Nanoindentation study of the mechanical behavior of TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Xu, Y. N.; Wang, M. C.; Oloyede, A.; Bell, J. M.; Yan, C.; Liu, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotube arrays are attracting increasing attention for use in solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, and biomedical implants. To take full advantage of their unique physical properties, such arrays need to maintain adequate mechanical integrity in applications. However, the mechanical performance of TiO 2 nanotube arrays is not well understood. In this work, we investigate the deformation and failure of TiO 2 nanotube arrays using the nanoindentation technique. We found that the load–displacement response of the arrays strongly depends on the indentation depth and indenter shape. Substrate-independent elastic modulus and hardness can be obtained when the indentation depth is less than 2.5% of the array height. The deformation mechanisms of TiO 2 nanotube arrays by Berkovich and conical indenters are closely associated with the densification of TiO 2 nanotubes under compression. A theoretical model for deformation of the arrays under a large-radius conical indenter is also proposed

  1. Biophotofuel cell anode containing self-organized titanium dioxide nanotube array

    Gan, Yong X., E-mail: yong.gan@utoledo.edu [Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, 2801 W Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gan, Bo J. [Ottawa Hills High School, 2532 Evergreen Road, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Su Lusheng [Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, 2801 W Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: {center_dot} A photoactive anode containing highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array was made and the formation mechanism of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array on Ti was revealed. {center_dot} Effect of electrolyte concentration and voltage on the size distribution of the nanotubes was investigated. {center_dot} Self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array anode possesses good photo-catalytic behavior of biomass decomposition under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. {center_dot} The fuel cell generates electricity and hydrogen via photoelectrochemical decomposition of ethanol, apple vinegar, sugar and tissue paper. - Abstract: We made a biophotofuel cell consisting of a titanium dioxide nanotube array photosensitive anode for biomass decomposition, and a low-hydrogen overpotential metal, Pt, as the cathode for hydrogen production. The titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs) were prepared via electrochemical oxidation of pure Ti in NaF solutions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the morphology of the nanotubes. The average diameter, wall thickness and length of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NTs were 88 {+-} 16 nm, 10 {+-} 2 nm and 491 {+-} 56 nm, respectively. Such dimensions are affected by the NaF concentration and the applied voltage during processing. Higher NaF concentrations result in the formation of longer and thicker nanotubes. The higher the voltage is, the thicker the nanotubes. The photosensitive anode made from the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} NTs has good photo-catalytic property, as can be seen from the test results of ethanol, apple vinegar, sugar and tissue paper decomposition under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is concluded that the biophotofuel cell with the TiO{sub 2} nanotube photoanode and a Pt cathode can generate electricity, hydrogen and clean water depending on the pH value and the oxygen presence in the solutions.

  2. High-efficiency perovskite solar cells based on anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Huang, Yan, E-mail: huangyan@ecust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Wu, Jiamin; Gao, Di [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on one-dimensional anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by using a two-step deposition method to fill the arrays of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes in different lengths with perovskite. The photovoltaic performance of PSCs was found to be significantly dependent on the length of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, and the power conversion efficiency decreased as the length of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes increased from ~ 0.40 μm to ~ 0.65 and then to ~ 0.93 μm. The PSC fabricated with ~ 0.40 μm-long anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.3% and a fill factor of 0.68 under illumination of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} AM 1.5G simulated sunlight, which is significantly higher than previously reported solar cells based on 1-D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures. Incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements indicated that longer TiO{sub 2} nanotubes led to higher recombination losses of charge carriers, possibly due to poor filling of the nanotube arrays with perovskite. - Highlights: • 1D anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were used to fabricate perovskite solar cells. • The best efficiency of 11.3% was achieved with ~ 0.40 μm-long TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • The efficiency of the devices decreased with increasing TiO{sub 2} nanotube lengths.

  3. Large-scale aligned silicon carbonitride nanotube arrays: Synthesis, characterization, and field emission property

    Liao, L.; Xu, Z.; Liu, K. H.; Wang, W. L.; Liu, S.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.; Li, J. C.; Liu, C.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale aligned silicon carbonitride (SiCN) nanotube arrays have been synthesized by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition using SiH 4 , CH 4 , and N 2 as precursors. The three elements of Si, C, and N are chemically bonded with each other and the nanotube composition can be adjusted by varying the SiH 4 concentration, as revealed by electron energy loss spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The evolution of microstructure of the SiCN nanotubes with different Si concentrations was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of field emission characteristics of the SiCN nanotubes on the composition has been investigated. With the increasing Si concentration, the SiCN nanotube exhibits more favorable oxidation resistance, which suggests that SiCN nanotube is a promising candidate as stable field emitter

  4. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  5. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor.

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-02-18

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  6. Determination of the effective Young's modulus of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: a simple nanotube-based varactor

    Olofsson, Niklas; Eriksson, Anders; Ek-Weis, Johan; Campbell, Eleanor E B; Idda, Tonio

    2009-01-01

    The electromechanical properties of arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were studied in a parallel plate capacitor geometry. The electrostatic actuation was visualized using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and highly reproducible behaviour was achieved for actuation voltages below the pull-in voltage. The walls of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes behave as solid cohesive units. The effective Young's modulus for the carbon nanotube arrays was determined by comparing the actuation results with the results of electrostatic simulations and was found to be exceptionally low, of the order of 1-10 MPa. The capacitance change and Q-factor were determined by measuring the frequency dependence of the radio-frequency transmission. Capacitance changes of over 20% and Q-factors in the range 100-10 were achieved for a frequency range of 0.2-1.5 GHz.

  7. Synthesis and optical characterization of carbon nanotube arrays

    Rahman, Md. Mahfuzur, E-mail: mrahman@masdar.ac.ae [Institute Centre for Energy (iEnergy), Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Younes, Hammad [Institute Centre for Energy (iEnergy), Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ni, George [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zhang, TieJun [Institute Centre for Energy (iEnergy), Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Al Ghaferi, Amal, E-mail: aalghaferi@masdar.ac.ae [Institute Centre for Energy (iEnergy), Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Controlling metallicity and vertical alignment of CNT forest by changing hydrogen catalyst annealing time and growth pressure. • Verifying metallicity using Raman spectroscopy of top CNT layer. • Optical characterization of CNT forest using UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer. - Abstract: Catalyst annealing time and growth pressure play a crucial role in the chiral selective and high-efficiency growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) during low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). We achieved a high growth rates for SWCNTs and a change the chiral distribution towards metallic (n, m) increasing the catalyst annealing time in hydrogen. A strong correlation is revealed between the catalyst annealing time at lower growth pressures and the shape of the G band, which indicates the metallic or semiconducting nature of the SWCNT and predict the chirality distribution. Under a 15 min annealing time and 10 mbar of growth pressure, the bottom of the G band is broadened with a sharp G{sup −} peak, and the G-band exhibited asymmetrical Breit–Wigner–Fano (BWF) shape. In addition, the growth of SWCNTs with smaller diameters and rich in metallic character is confirmed by the shift of the G-band to a smaller Raman frequency. Homogeneity and vertical alignment of as-grown SWCNT arrays are optically studied using UV/vis/NIR Spectrophotometer. Wavelength-independent and low reflectance resulted from the growth of uniform arrays of SWCNTs. Because of their tunable electronic and optical properties, selective growth of SWCNTs promises great application potential, particularly in electronics and solar industries.

  8. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on TiO_2 Nanotube and Shelled Arrayed Structures

    Zhang, Jie; Kusumawati, Yuly; Pauporté, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Anatase TiO_2 nanostructure arrays were synthetized starting from a template made of self-standing ZnO NWs prepared by an electrodeposition technique. By controlling the liquid phase deposition step, the obtained structures could be varied from free-standing nanotube (NT) arrays with controlled morphology to hierarchical spiky radiating core-shell rods. The nanotubes were made of assembled nanocrystals with an average size of 7–8 nm. The structures were investigated as n-type layers in DSSCs. The efficiency was enhanced for the core-shell layer and by starting with longer initial ZnO NW templates. The limitation of the cell efficiency was shown related to the specific surface area and dye loading. The cell functioning was in-depth investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy over a large applied voltage range and compared to a cell based on a nanoparticle TO_2 mesoporous layer. A slow recombination rate was found. The enhancement of electron transport with nanocrystallite size explained the conductivity results. We also found that the prepared structures presented a high charge collection efficiency.

  9. Investigation of the influence of geometric parameters of carbon nanotube arrays on their adhesion properties

    Il’ina, M. V.; Konshin, A. A.; Il’in, O. I.; Rudyk, N. N.; Fedotov, A. A.; Ageev, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    The results of experimental studies of adhesion of carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with different geometric parameters and orientations using atomic-force microscopy are presented. The adhesion values of CNT arrays were determined, which were from 82 to 1315 nN depending on the parameters of the array. As a result, it was established that the adhesion of a CNT array increases with an increase in branching and disorientation of the array, as well as with the growth of the aspect ratio of CNTs in the array.

  10. Uniform, dense arrays of vertically aligned, large-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2012-04-04

    Precisely controlled reactive chemical vapor synthesis of highly uniform, dense arrays of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using tailored trilayered Fe/Al(2)O(3)/SiO(2) catalyst is demonstrated. More than 90% population of thick nanotubes (>3 nm in diameter) can be produced by tailoring the thickness and microstructure of the secondary catalyst supporting SiO(2) layer, which is commonly overlooked. The proposed model based on the atomic force microanalysis suggests that this tailoring leads to uniform and dense arrays of relatively large Fe catalyst nanoparticles on which the thick SWCNTs nucleate, while small nanotubes and amorphous carbon are effectively etched away. Our results resolve a persistent issue of selective (while avoiding multiwalled nanotubes and other carbon nanostructures) synthesis of thick vertically aligned SWCNTs whose easily switchable thickness-dependent electronic properties enable advanced applications in nanoelectronic, energy, drug delivery, and membrane technologies.

  11. Thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: Growth conditions and tube inhomogeneity

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Pham, Quang N.; Saltonstall, Christopher B.; Norris, Pamela M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4746 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    The thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VACNTAs) grown on silicon dioxide substrates via chemical vapor deposition is measured using a 3ω technique. For each sample, the VACNTA layer and substrate are pressed to a heating line at varying pressures to extract the sample's thermophysical properties. The nanotubes' structure is observed via transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of hydrogen and water vapor in the fabrication process is tuned to observe the effect on measured thermal properties. The presence of iron catalyst particles within the individual nanotubes prevents the array from achieving the overall thermal conductivity anticipated based on reported measurements of individual nanotubes and the packing density.

  12. Effect of Source, Surfactant, and Deposition Process on Electronic Properties of Nanotube Arrays

    Dheeraj Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of arrays of carbon nanotubes from several different sources differing in the manufacturing process used with a variety of average properties such as length, diameter, and chirality are studied. We used several common surfactants to disperse each of these nanotubes and then deposited them on Si wafers from their aqueous solutions using dielectrophoresis. Transport measurements were performed to compare and determine the effect of different surfactants, deposition processes, and synthesis processes on nanotubes synthesized using CVD, CoMoCAT, laser ablation, and HiPCO.

  13. Control of neuronal network organization by chemical surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    Liu Jie; Bibari, Olivier; Marchand, Gilles; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Sauter-Starace, Fabien; Appaix, Florence; De Waard, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube substrates are promising candidates for biological applications and devices. Interfacing of these carbon nanotubes with neurons can be controlled by chemical modifications. In this study, we investigated how chemical surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays (MWNT-A) influences neuronal adhesion and network organization. Functionalization of MWNT-A dramatically modifies the length of neurite fascicles, cluster inter-connection success rate, and the percentage of neurites that escape from the clusters. We propose that chemical functionalization represents a method of choice for developing applications in which neuronal patterning on MWNT-A substrates is required.

  14. Control of neuronal network organization by chemical surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    Liu Jie; Bibari, Olivier; Marchand, Gilles; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Sauter-Starace, Fabien [CEA, LETI-Minatec, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Appaix, Florence; De Waard, Michel, E-mail: fabien.sauter@cea.fr, E-mail: michel.dewaard@ujf-grenoble.fr [Inserm U836, Grenoble Institute of Neuroscience, Site Sante la Tronche, Batiment Edmond J Safra, Chemin Fortune Ferrini, BP170, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2011-05-13

    Carbon nanotube substrates are promising candidates for biological applications and devices. Interfacing of these carbon nanotubes with neurons can be controlled by chemical modifications. In this study, we investigated how chemical surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays (MWNT-A) influences neuronal adhesion and network organization. Functionalization of MWNT-A dramatically modifies the length of neurite fascicles, cluster inter-connection success rate, and the percentage of neurites that escape from the clusters. We propose that chemical functionalization represents a method of choice for developing applications in which neuronal patterning on MWNT-A substrates is required.

  15. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A., E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Li, Yuhang [Institute of Solid Mechanics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tomic, Bojan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Huang, Jiyuan [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burns, Branden [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Song, Jizhou [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Soft Matter Research Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang, Yonggang [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups.

  16. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A.; Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Li, Yuhang; Tomic, Bojan; Huang, Jiyuan; Burns, Branden; Song, Jizhou; Huang, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups

  17. Fabrication of DNA nanotubes with an array of exterior magnetic nanoparticles.

    Rafati, Adele; Zarrabi, Ali; Gill, Pooria

    2017-10-01

    Described here a methodology for arraying of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on the surface of DNA nanotubes (DNTs). Positioning of magnetic nanoparticles at exterior surface of DNTs were shaped after self-assembling of oligonucleotide staples within an M13mp18 DNA scaffold via an origami process. The staples were partially labeled with biotin to be arrayed at the surface of DNTs. Gel retardation assay of the DNTs carrying magnetic nanoparticles indicated a reversely behavioral electrophoretic movement in comparison to the nanotubes have been demonstrated previously. Also, high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed positioning magnetic nanoparticles at the exterior surface of DNTs, correctly. Ultrastructural characteristics of these DNA nanotubes using atomic force microscopy demonstrated topographic heights on their surfaces formed through positioning of magnetic nanoparticles outside the tubules. This nanoarchitecture would be potential for multiple arraying of nanoparticles that those be useful as functionalized chimeric nanocarriers for developing novel nanodrugs and nanobiosensors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A novel method for the fabrication of a high-density carbon nanotube microelectrode array

    Adam Khalifa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for fabricating a high-density carbon nanotube microelectrode array (MEA chip. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and thermal chemical vapor deposition. The device was characterized using electrochemical experiments such as cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and potential transient measurements. Through-silicon vias (TSVs were fabricated and partially filled with polycrystalline silicon to allow electrical connection from the high-density electrodes to a stimulator microchip. In response to the demand for higher resolution implants, we have developed a unique process to obtain a high-density electrode array by making the microelectrodes smaller in size and designing new ways of routing the electrodes to current sources. Keywords: Microelectrode array, Neural implant, Carbon nanotubes, Through-silicon via interconnects, Microfabrication

  19. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Liu Zhaoyue; Misra, Mano

    2010-01-01

    In this work we describe a novel bifacial design concept for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Bifacial DSCs are fabricated with ruthenium complex chemisorbed double-sided TiO 2 nanotube arrays on a Ti metal substrate, in combination with two electron-collecting counter electrodes. Our investigation shows that the present bifacial DSCs have similar conversion efficiencies when illuminated from either their front or rear side, and a summated output power when illuminated on both sides. Furthermore, this type of bifacial DSC is also able to summate the output power of each side when working at an 'unsymmetrical' mode, in which much different output powers are generated by the front and rear sides. Therefore, this bifacial design concept exhibits a promising potential to reduce the cost of solar electricity when DSCs are operated at a location where a high albedo radiation is available.

  20. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of Sn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Tu Yafang; Huang Shengyou [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Sang Jianping, E-mail: jpsang@acc-lab.whu.edu.c [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Department of Physics, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Zou Xianwu [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-08-12

    TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays doped by Sn up to 12 at% have been prepared using template-based liquid phase deposition method. Their morphologies, structures and optical properties have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the samples were evaluated with the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The result shows that doping an appropriate amount of Sn can effectively improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays, and the optimum dopant amount is found to be 5.6 at% in our experiments.

  1. Nanomanipulation of 2 inch wafer fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by nanoimprint lithography

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.; Eichhorn, Volkmar; Carlson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are typically defined by electron beam lithography (EBL), and hence limited to small areas due to the low throughput. To obtain wafer‐scale fabrication we propose large area thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL). A 2‐inch stamp master is defined using EBL for subsequent......, efficient production of wafer‐scale/larger arrays of CNTs has been achieved. The CNTs have been deposited by wafer‐scale plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of C2H2/NH3. Substrates containing such nanotubes have been used to automate nanorobotic manipulation sequences of individual CNTs...

  2. Magnetic behaviour of arrays of Ni nanowires by electrodeposition into self-aligned titania nanotubes

    Prida, V.M.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Cervera, M.; Pirota, K.; Sanz, R.; Navas, D.; Asenjo, A.; Aranda, P.; Ruiz-Hitzky, E.; Batallan, F.; Vazquez, M.; Hernando, B.; Menendez, A.; Bordel, N.; Pereiro, R.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of Ni nanowires electrodeposited into self-aligned and randomly disordered titania nanotube arrays grown by anodization process are investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM, rf-GDOES and VSM magnetometry. The titania nanotube outer diameter is about 160 nm, wall thickness ranging from 60 to 70 nm and 300 nm in depth. The so-obtained Ni nanowires reach above 100 nm diameter and 240 nm length, giving rise to coercive fields of 98 and 200 Oe in the perpendicular or parallel to the nanowires axis hysteresis loops, respectively. The formation of magnetic vortex domain states is also discussed

  3. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    In, Jung Bin

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Laser-assisted simultaneous transfer and patterning of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on polymer substrates for flexible devices.

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications.

  5. Growth of vertically aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes for high field emission

    Kim, D.; Lim, S.H.; Guilley, A.J.; Cojocaru, C.S.; Bouree, J.E.; Vila, L.; Ryu, J.H.; Park, K.C.; Jang, J.

    2008-01-01

    Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been grown on Ni-coated silicon substrates, by using either direct current diode or triode plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low temperature (around 620 deg. C). Acetylene gas has been used as the carbon source while ammonia and hydrogen have been used for etching. However densely packed (∼ 10 9 cm -2 ) CNTs were obtained when the pressure was ∼ 100 Pa. The alignment of nanotubes is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition in order to get an efficient electron emission: the growth of nanotubes should be controlled along regular arrays, in order to minimize the electrostatic interactions between them. So a three dimensional numerical simulation has been developed to calculate the local electric field in the vicinity of the tips for a finite square array of nanotubes and thus to calculate the maximum of the electron emission current density as a function of the spacing between nanotubes. Finally the triode plasma-enhanced process combined with pre-patterned catalyst films (using different lithography techniques) has been chosen in order to grow regular arrays of aligned CNTs with different pitches in the micrometer range. The comparison between the experimental and the simulation data permits to define the most efficient CNT-based electron field emitters

  6. Fabrication of doped TiO2 nanotube array films with enhanced photo-catalytic activity

    Peighambardoust, Naeimeh-Sadat; Khameneh-asl, Shahin; Khademi, Adib

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the N and Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube array film prepared by treating TiO2 nanotube array film with ammonia solution and anodizing in Fe(NO3)3 solution respectively. This method avoided the use of hazardous ammonia gas, or laborious ion implantation process. N and Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were prepared by electrochemical anodization process in 0.5 wt % HF aqueous solution. The anodization was performed at the conditions of 20 V and 20 min, Followed by a wet immersion in NH3.H2O (1M) for N-doping for 2 hr and annealing post-treatment at 450 °C. The morphology and structure of the nanotube films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and EDX. UV-vis. illumination test were done to observe photo-enhanced catalysis. The effect of different annealing temperature on the structure and photo-absorption property of the TiO2-TNTs was investigated. The results showed that N-TNTs nanotubes exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared whit the Fe-doped and pure TNTs, because doping N promoted the separation of the photogenerated electrons and holes.

  7. P25 nanoparticles decorated on titania nanotubes arrays as effective drug delivery system for ibuprofen

    Wang, Zhang; Xie, Chunlin; Luo, Fei; Li, Ping; Xiao, Xiufeng, E-mail: xfxiao@fjnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • P25 nanoparticles decorated on titania nanotube arrays were prepared by hydrothermal treatment. • P25 nanoparticles were conducive to improve the loading effect of ibuprofen into nanotube arrays. • The diameters of the decorated nanotubes were decrease markedly which led to an effective and prolonged drug release. - Abstract: In this study, uniformly distributed layer of P25 nanoparticles (NPs) decorated on titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes (TNTs) arrays was prepared in a teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave by the hydrothermal treatment. To investigate the influence of the P25 concentration, different concentrations of P25 NPs were added into the solution to obtain the optimal decorative effect. TNTs decorated with P25 (TNTs–P25) and TNTs without P25 decorated on its surface were loaded with ibuprofen (IBU) via vacuum drying and its release properties were investigated. The samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that P25 NPs were successfully decorated on the surface of TNTs by hydrothermal method and the optimal concentration was found to be 7.5 × 10{sup −4} M. P25 NPs decorated on TNTs led to a significant increase in the specific surface area of TNTs which was conducive to improve the loading effect of IBU. Importantly, the diameters of the decorated nanotubes were reduced to 100 ± 10 nm and the increase in roughness led to an effective and prolonged drug release.

  8. Guided proliferation and bone-forming functionality on highly ordered large diameter TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Zhang, Ruopeng; Wu, Hongliu; Ni, Jiahua; Zhao, Changli; Chen, Yifan; Zheng, Chengjunyi; Zhang, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    The significantly enhanced osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were observed on TiO 2 nanotube surface in recent studies in which the scale of nanotube diameter was restricted under 100 nm. In this paper, a series of highly ordered TiO 2 nanotube arrays with larger diameters ranging from 150 nm to 470 nm were fabricated via high voltage anodization. The behaviors of MC3T3-E1 cells in response to the diameter-controlled TiO 2 nanotubes were investigated. A contrast between the trend of proliferation and the trend of cell elongation was observed. The highest cell elongation (nearly 10:1) and the lowest cell number were observed on the TiO 2 nanotube arrays with 150 nm diameter. While, the lowest cell elongation and highest cell number were achieved on the TiO 2 nanotube arrays with 470 nm diameter. Furthermore, the ALP activity peaked on the 150 nm diameter TiO 2 nanotube arrays and decreased dramatically with the increase of nanotube diameter. Thus a narrow range of diameter (100–200 nm) that could induce the greatest bone-forming activity is determined. It is expected that more delicate design of orthopedic implant with regional abduction of cell proliferation or bone forming could be achieved by controlling the diameter of TiO 2 nanotubes. - Highlights: • Improved anodization methods leading to more ordered large diameter TiO 2 nanotubes • Significantly enhanced ALP activity was observed on 150 nm diameter TiO 2 nanotubes. • The highest cell density was observed on 470 nm diameter TiO 2 nanotube arrays. • Similar cell response was observed on the amorphous and anatase phased nanotube surface

  9. Transmission properties of terahertz waves through asymmetric rectangular aperture arrays on carbon nanotube films

    Yue Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transmission spectra of terahertz waves through a two-dimensional array of asymmetric rectangular apertures on super-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube films were obtained experimentally. In this way, the anisotropic transmission phenomena of carbon nanotube films were observed. For a terahertz wave polarization parallel to the orientation of the carbon nanotubes and along the aperture short axis, sharp resonances were observed and the resonance frequencies coincided well with the surface plasmon polariton theory. In addition, the minima of the transmission spectra were in agreement with the location predicted by the theory of Wood’s anomalies. Furthermore, it was found that the resonance profiles through the carbon nanotube films could be well described by the Fano model.

  10. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array (VANTA Biosensor for MEMS Lab-on-a-Chip

    Luke JOSEPH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the fabrication, functionalization and characterization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VANTAs for biological sensor applications. This structure is created using a standard MEMS process and chemical vapor deposition (CVD multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT post-processing. The device is well suited for full integration into microfluidic lab-on-a-chip solutions. Included is a spectroscopic characterization of the galvanostatic impedance of the device, as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of the pre- and post- functionalized device. Interferometric 3D profiling and X-ray spectroscopy were also used to check process assumptions. The work presented validates that this approach is an ideal candidate for low-cost, high-throughput manufacturing of biochemical sensors. Unlike previously published work [1, 2] using SWNT, the use of MWNT arrays allows functionalization over the entirety of the nanotubes. This approach maintains low baseline impedance and increases the surface area leveraging inherent benefits of the VANTA.

  11. Propagation of three-dimensional bipolar ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in an inhomogeneous array of carbon nanotubes

    Fedorov, Eduard G.; Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Timashkov, Alexander P.; Malomed, Boris A.; Leblond, Hervé; Mihalache, Dumitru; Rosanov, Nikolay N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-04-01

    We study the propagation of three-dimensional (3D) bipolar ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in an inhomogeneous array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes. The heterogeneity is represented by a planar region with an increased concentration of conduction electrons. The evolution of the electromagnetic field and electron concentration in the sample are governed by the Maxwell's equations and continuity equation. In particular, nonuniformity of the electromagnetic field along the axis of the nanotubes is taken into account. We demonstrate that depending on values of the parameters of the electromagnetic pulse approaching the region with the higher electron concentration, the pulse is either reflected from the region or passes it. Specifically, our simulations demonstrate that after interacting with the higher-concentration area, the pulse can propagate steadily, without significant spreading. The possibility of such ultrashort electromagnetic pulses propagating in arrays of carbon nanotubes over distances significantly exceeding characteristic dimensions of the pulses makes it possible to consider them as 3D solitons.

  12. Highly stable palladium-loaded TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode for the electrocatalytic hydrodehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Cui, Chunyue; Wu, Juan; Xin, Yanjun [Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao (China); Han, Yanhe [Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-15

    Palladized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode was prepared for the electrocatalytic hydrodehalogenation (HDH) of 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (2,4,5-PCB). The TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode was successfully fabricated by anodic oxidation method, and Pd was loaded onto the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes by electrochemical deposition. The morphology and structure of the nanotube array electrodes with and without Pd catalysts were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the diameters and lengths of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were 30-50 nm and 200-400 nm, respectively. The particle size of the Pd was about 12 nm. Electrocatalytic HDH of 2,4,5-PCB with the Pd/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode was performed in H-cell reactor. Under a constant potential of -1.0 V, the HDH efficiency of 2,4,5-PCB was 90% and the biphenyl yield was 83% (15% current efficiency) within 180min at the Pd/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode. Compared with the Pd/Ti electrode, the Pd/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode exhibited higher HDH efficiency and stability. Additionally, the effect of the primary HDH factors was also investigated.

  13. Fabrication of an artificial nanosucker device with a large area nanotube array of metallic glass.

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Manivannan, Karthikeyan; Yu, Chia-Chi; Chu, Jinn P; Chen, Jem-Kun

    2018-01-18

    The concurrent attachment and detachment movements of geckos on virtually any type of surface via their foot pads have inspired us to develop a thermal device with numerous arrangements of a multi-layer thin film together with electrodes that can help modify the temperature of the surface via application of a voltage. A sequential fabrication process was employed on a large-scale integration to generate well-defined contact hole arrays of photoresist for use as templates on the electrode-based device. The photoresist templates were then subjected to sputter deposition of the metallic glass Zr 55 Cu 30 Al 10 Ni 5 . Consequently, a metallic glass nanotube (MGNT) array having a nominal wall thickness of 100 nm was obtained after removal of the photoresist template. When a water droplet was placed on the MGNT array, close nanochambers of metallic glass were formed. By applying voltage, the surface was heated to increase the pressure inside the nanochambers; this generated an expanding force that raised the droplet; thus, the static water contact angle (SWCA) was increased. In contrast, a sucking force was generated during surface cooling, which decreased the SWCA. Our fabrication strategy exploits the MGNT array surface as nanosuckers, which can mimic the climbing aptitude of geckos as they attach to (>10 N m -2 ) and detach from (0.26 N m -2 ) surfaces at 0.5 and 3 V of applied voltage, respectively. Thus, the climbing aptitude of geckos can be mimicked by employing the processing strategy presented herein for the development of artificial foot pads.

  14. Fabrication of nickel hydroxide electrodes with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays for high capacitance supercapacitors.

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Huang, Kuo-Chih

    2011-11-28

    A nickel hydroxide electrode with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays, prepared by hydrolysis of nickel chloride in the presence of hexagonal ZnO nanorods, shows a very high capacitance of 1328 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) due to the significantly improved ion transport.

  15. Photocatalytic methane decomposition over vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays

    In, Su-il; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by the one-step anodic oxidation technique (on non-conductive supports such as Pyrex) and their photocatalytic performance for methane decomposition in a single-pass micro-fabricated reactor under UV light....

  16. Ti/TiO 2 nanotube array electrode as a new sensor to ...

    The Ti/TiO2 nanotube array (Ti-NTA) electrode was prepared by anodizing of the Ti foil ... and the pH=3.0 and =1.0 V (vs. reference electrode) were determined as the ... It was found that the photocurrent of EG was linearly dependent on the ...

  17. Novel iron oxide nanotube arrays as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Zhong, Yuan; Fan, Huiqing; Chang, Ling; Shao, Haibo; Wang, Jianming; Zhang, Jianqing; Cao, Chu-nan

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructured iron oxides can be promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, improvement on the rate capability and/or electrochemical cycling stability of iron oxide anode materials remains a key challenge because of their poor electrical conductivities and large volume expansion during cycling. Herein, the vertically aligned arrays of one-dimensional (1D) iron oxide nanotubes with 5.8 wt% carbon have been fabricated by a novel surfactant-free self-corrosion process and subsequent thermal treatment. The as-fabricated nanotube array electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 932 mAh g-1 after 50 charge-discharge cycles at a current of 0.6 A g-1. The electrode still shows a reversible capacity of 610 mAh g-1 even at a very high rate (8.0 A g-1), demonstrating its prominent rate capability. Furthermore, the nanotube array electrode also exhibits the excellent electrochemical cycling stability with a reversible capacity of 880 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current of 4 A g-1. The nanotube array electrode with superior lithium storage performance reveals the promising potential as a high-performance anode for LIBs.

  18. Fabrication of Arrays of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanotubes by Shadow Evaporation

    Dickey, Michael D.; Weiss, Emily A.; Smythe, Elizabeth J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Capasso, Federico; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The

  19. Microelectrode array fabrication for electrochemical detection with carbon nanotubes

    Clark, James

    Understanding how the brain works remains one of the key challenges for scientists. To further this understanding a wide variety of technologies and research methods have been developed. One such technology is conductive electrodes, used to measure the electrical signals elicited from neuronal cells and tissues. These electrodes can be fabricated as a singular electrode or as a multi-electrode array (MEA). This permits bio-electrical measurements from one particular area or simultaneous measurements from multiple areas, respectively. Studying electrical and chemical signals of individual cells in situ requires the use of electrodes with ≤20 µm diameter. However, electrodes of this size generally produce high impedance, perturbing recording of the small signals generated from individual cells. Nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), can be deposited to increase the real surface area of these electrodes, producing higher sensitivity measurements. This thesis investigates the potential for using photo-thermal chemical vapour deposition grown CNTs as the electrode material for a de novo fabricated MEA. This device aimed to measure electrochemical signals in the form of dopamine, an important mammalian neurotransmitter, as well as conventional bio-electrical signals that the device is designed for. Realising this aim began with improving CNT aqueous wetting behaviour via oxygen plasma functionalisation. This procedure demonstrated grafting of oxygen functional groups to the CNT structure, and dramatic improvements in aqueous wetting behaviour, with CNTs attached to the device. Subsequently, oxygen plasma functionalised CNT-based MEAs were fabricated and tested, allowing comparisons with a non-functionalised CNT MEA and a state-of-the-art commercial MEA. The functionalised CNT MEA demonstrated an order of magnitude improvement compared to commercial MEAs (2.75 kΩ vs. 25.6 kΩ), at the biologically relevant frequency of 1 kHz. This was followed by measurement

  20. MoSe2 modified TiO2 nanotube arrays with superior photoelectrochemical performance

    Zhang, Yaping; Zhu, Haifeng; Yu, Lianqing; He, Jiandong; Huang, Chengxing

    2018-04-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs) are first prepared by anodization Ti foils in ethylene glycol electrolyte. Then, MoSe2 deposites electrochemically on TNTs. The as-synthesized MoSe2/TiO2 composite has a much higher photocurrent density of 1.07 mA cm‑2 at 0 V than pure TNTs of 0.38 mA cm‑2, which suggests that the MoSe2/TiO2 composite film has optimum photoelectrocatalysis properties. The electron transport resistances of the MoSe2/TiO2 decreases to half of pure TiO2, at 295.6 ohm/cm2. Both photocurrent-time and Mott-Schottky plots indicate MoSe2 a p-type semiconductor characteristics. MoSe2/TiO2 composite can achieve a maximum 5 orders of magnitude enhancement in carrier density (4.650 × 1027 cm‑3) than that of pure TiO2 arrays. It can be attributed to p-n heterojunction formed between MoSe2 and TiO2, and the composite can be potentially applied in photoelectrochemical, photocatalysis fields.

  1. In-vitro bioactivity and electrochemical behavior of polyaniline encapsulated titania nanotube arrays for biomedical applications

    Agilan, P.; Rajendran, N.

    2018-05-01

    Titania nanotube arrays (TNTA) have attracted increasing attention due to their outstanding properties and potential applications in biomedical field. Fabrication of titania nanotubes on titanium surface enhances the biocompatibility. Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the best conducting polymers with remarkable corrosion resistance and reasonable biocompatibility. In this work, the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of polyaniline encapsulated TiO2 nanotubes for orthopaedic applications were investigated. The vertically oriented, highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated on titanium by electrochemical anodization process using fluoride containing electrolytes. The anodization parameters viz., voltage, pH, time and electrolyte concentration were optimized to get orderly arranged TNTA. Further, the conducting polymer PANI was encapsulated on TNTA by electropolymerization process to enhance the corrosion resistance. The nanostructure of the fabricated TNTA and polyaniline encapsulated titania nanotube arrays (PANI-TNTA) were investigated by HR SEM analysis. The formed phases and functional groups were find using XRD, ATR-FTIR. The hydrophilic surface of TNTA and PANI-TNTA was identified by water contact angle studies. The corrosion behavior of specimens was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization studies. In-vitro immersion studies were carried out in simulated body fluid solution (Hanks' solution) to evaluate the bioactivity of the TNTA and PANI-TNTA. The surface morphological studies revealed the formation of PANI on the TNTA surface. Formation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surfaces of TNTA and PANI-TNTA enhanced the bioactivity and corrosion resistance.

  2. Optical properties of TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by the electrochemical anodization method

    Ly, Ngoc Tai; Nguyen, Van Chien; Dao, Thi Hoa; Hoang To, Le Hong; Pham, Duy Long; Do, Hung Manh; Vu, Dinh Lam; Le, Van Hong

    2014-01-01

    Perpendicularly self-aligned TiO 2 nanotube samples of size of 3 × 5 cm 2 were fabricated by the electrochemical anodization method using a solution containing NH 4 F. Influences of the technological conditions such as NH 4 F concentration and anodization voltage were studied. It was found that NH 4 F concentration in the solution and anodization voltage significantly affect the diameter and length of a TiO 2 nanotube. The diameter and the length of a TiO 2 nanotube were observed and estimated by using scanning electron microscopy. It has shown that the largest diameter and the longest length of about 80 nm and 20 μm, respectively, were obtained for the sample anodized in a solution containing 0.4% of NH 4 F, under a voltage of 48 V. Photoluminescence spectra excited by laser lights having wavelengths of 325 and 442 nm (having energies higher and lower than the band gap energy of TiO 2 ) was recorded at room temperature for the TiO 2 nanotube arrays. An abnormal luminescence result was observed. It is experimental evidence that the manufactured TiO 2 nanotube array is an expected material for hydrogen splitting from water by photochemical effect under sunlight as well as for the nano solar cells. (paper)

  3. Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 Nanotube Array Films with High Photocurrent Density by Spotting Sample Method

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Peini; Zhang, Fanjun; Liu, Yuliang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-01-01

    Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 hybrid nanotube array films (Ag2S/CdS/TNTs) were prepared by selectively depositing a narrow-gap semiconductor—Ag2S (0.9 eV) quantum dots (QDs)—in the local domain of the CdS/TiO2 nanotube array films by spotting sample method (SSM). The improvement of sunlight absorption ability and photocurrent density of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array films (TNTs) which were obtained by anodic oxidation method was realized because of modifying semiconductor QDs. The CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNT...

  4. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays

    Slawomir Boncel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs. A mixture of toluene (main carbon source, pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source and ferrocene (catalyst precursor was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C, composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs. As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM, the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 108 nanotubes per mm2 (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor. In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a ‘bamboo’-like or ‘membrane’-like (multi-compartmental structure morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp2-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a ‘mixed base-and-tip’ (primarily of the base-type type as compared to the purely ‘base’-type

  5. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays.

    Boncel, Slawomir; Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 10(8) nanotubes per mm(2) (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a 'bamboo'-like or 'membrane'-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp(2)-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a 'mixed base-and-tip' (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely 'base'-type for undoped

  6. Effect of alignment on adsorption characteristics of self-oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    Zilli, D; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of self-oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays are examined from N 2 (-196 deg. C) adsorption measurements. The arrays were synthesized in a laboratory by in situ chemical vapour deposition of iron or cobalt phthalocyanines at 880 and 950 deg. C, under otherwise constant conditions, in an attempt to obtain different morphological structures. For both precursors, increasing the temperature leads to MWCNT arrays with lower Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and total pore volume, though the effect is more pronounced for those arising from the iron-based compound. Despite this, precursor yields of individual nanotubes of larger diameter, higher BET area and total pore volume characterize the resulting arrays compared to those arising from cobalt phthalocyanine for the same temperatures. As evidenced by SEM and TEM images, the arrays synthesized from iron phthalocyanine at 880 deg. C show better vertical alignment and denser structures than those obtained from this compound at 950 deg. C, and also from cobalt phthalocyanine at both temperatures. Further ultrasonication of the arrays produced from the iron compound brings about a significant reduction in their adsorption capacity, attributable to the pronounced disarrangement of the resulting structures. The present results demonstrate that the alignment of MWCNT arrays plays a crucial role in their N 2 adsorption characteristics

  7. Surface-restrained growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays with excellent thermal transport performance.

    Ping, Linquan; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jincheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ma, Chaoqun; Tai, Kaiping; Cong, Hongtao; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2017-06-22

    A vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array is a promising candidate for a high-performance thermal interface material in high-power microprocessors due to its excellent thermal transport property. However, its rough and entangled free tips always cause poor interfacial contact, which results in serious contact resistance dominating the total thermal resistance. Here, we employed a thin carbon cover to restrain the disorderly growth of the free tips of a VACNT array. As a result, all the free tips are seamlessly connected by this thin carbon cover and the top surface of the array is smoothed. This unique structure guarantees the participation of all the carbon nanotubes in the array in the heat transport. Consequently the VACNT array grown on a Cu substrate shows a record low thermal resistance of 0.8 mm 2 K W -1 including the two-sided contact resistances, which is 4 times lower than the best result previously reported. Remarkably, the VACNT array can be easily peeled away from the Cu substrate and act as a thermal pad with excellent flexibility, adhesive ability and heat transport capability. As a result the CNT array with a thin carbon cover shows great potential for use as a high-performance flexible thermal interface material.

  8. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field emitter arrays with Ohmic base contact to silicon by Fe-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition

    Morassutto, M.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Smithers, M.A.; Smithers, M.A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, dense arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes are obtained by thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition, using Fe catalyst dispersed on a thin Ta layer. Alignment of the carbon nanotubes depends on the original Fe layer thickness from which the catalyst dispersion is obtained by

  9. Improved electrochemical performances of CuO nanotube array prepared via electrodeposition as anode for lithium ion battery

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: CuO nanotube array electrodes prepared by electrodeposition method exhibit an excellent lithium ion storage ability as anode of Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • CuO nanotube arrays are synthesized by an electrodeposition method. • CuO nanotube shows a high-rate performance. • CuO nanotube shows an excellent cycling performance. - Abstract: We report a facile strategy to prepared CuO nanotube arrays directly grown on Cu plate through the electrodeposition method. The as-prepared CuO nanotubes show a quasi-cylinder nanostructure with internal diameters of ca. ∼100 nm, external diameters of ca. ∼120 nm, and average length of ∼3 μm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the CuO nanotube arrays are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Due to the unique nanotube nanostructure, the as-prepared CuO electrodes exhibit good rate performance (550 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 464 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C) and cycling performance (581 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 538 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C)

  10. Single-layer graphene-TiO{sub 2} nanotubes array heterojunction for ultraviolet photodetector application

    Zhang, Deng-Yue [School of Material Sciences and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Ge, Cai-Wang [School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Wang, Jiu-Zhen [School of Material Sciences and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Zhang, Teng-Fei [School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Wu, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Material Sciences and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Liang, Feng-Xia, E-mail: fxliang@hfut.edu.cn [School of Material Sciences and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Heterostructures comprised of a single-layer graphene and TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were constructed for ultraviolet detection. • The electrical properties of the fabricated heterostructures were dependent on the annealing atmospheres. • The effect of anodic TiO{sub 2} nanotube length on the performance of the photodetector were investigated. - Abstract: In this work, we reported on the fabrication of a single-layer graphene (SLG)-TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs) heterostructures ultraviolet photodetector (UVPD) by transferring chemical vapor deposition derived MLG on the surface of anodic TiO{sub 2}NTs array. Through varying the annealing atmosphere and anodization time in the TiO{sub 2} synthesis procedure, the electronic and optoelectronic properties of the as-fabricated Schottky junction UVPD were studied. It was revealed that the anodic TiO{sub 2}NTs annealed in air showed a better rectifying behavior and was highly sensitive to UV light irradiation. Further investigation found that the device performance of the UVPD can be readily modulated by the anodization time, and the anodic TiO{sub 2}NTs with a medium tube length of 9.6 μm exhibits the highest device performance. These results demonstrated that the present SLG-TiO{sub 2}NTs array hetero-junction UVPD will be highly promising for fabricating high-performance optoelectronic device and system in the future.

  11. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  12. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO 2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH 4 F and ethylene glycol with selective H 2 O content. The structural evolution of TiO 2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO 2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO 2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  13. ZnO nanorod–templated well-aligned ZrO2 nanotube arrays for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation

    Lu, Zhisong; Hu, Weihua; Ming Li, Chang; Zhu, Zhihong; Liu, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Cellular responses to porous tubular structures have recently been investigated in highly ordered ZrO 2 nanotube arrays fabricated with anodization. However, the potential applications of the nanotube arrays are hindered by instrument requirements and substrate limitations, as well as by the complicated processes needed for synthesis. In this work, ZrO 2 nanotube arrays were synthesized by in situ hydrolysis of zirconium propoxide with a zinc oxide nanorod array–based template. Fibroblast cells were able to grow on the nanotube array surface with produced elongated filopodia. Studies of the capability of cell growth and the expression of adhesion- and proliferation-related genes reveal that ZrO 2 nanotube arrays may provide a better environment for cell adhesion and growth than a flat titanium surface. These findings not only provide fundamental insight into cell response to nanostructures but also provide an opportunity to use a unique approach to fabricate ZrO 2 nanotube array structures for potential implant applications. (papers)

  14. Visible light photoelectrocatalysis with salicylic acid-modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode for p-nitrophenol degradation

    Wang Xin; Zhao Huimin; Quan Xie; Zhao Yazhi; Chen Shuo

    2009-01-01

    This research focused on immersion method synthesis of visible light active salicylic acid (SA)-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode and its photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity. The SA-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode was synthesized by immersing in SA solution with an anodized TiO 2 nanotube array electrode. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and Surface photovoltage (SPV) were used to characterize this electrode. It was found that SA-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode absorbed well into visible region and exhibited enhanced visible light PEC activity on the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP). The degradation efficiencies increased from 63 to 100% under UV light, and 79-100% under visible light (λ > 400 nm), compared with TiO 2 nanotube array electrode. The enhanced PEC activity of SA-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode was attributed to the amount of surface hydroxyl groups introduced by SA-modification and the extension of absorption wavelength range.

  15. Fast fabrication of long TiO2 nanotube array with high photoelectrochemical property on flexible stainless steel.

    Tao, Jie; Wu, Tao; Gao, Peng

    2012-03-01

    Oriented highly ordered long TiO2 nanotube array films with nanopore structure and high photoelectrochemical property were fabricated on flexible stainless steel substrate (50 microm) by anodization treatment of titanium thin films in a short time. The samples were characterized by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoelectrochemical methods, respectively. The results showed that Ti films deposited at the condition of 0.7 Pa Ar pressure and 96 W sputtering power at room temperature was uniform and dense with good homogeneity and high crystallinity. The voltage and the anodization time both played significant roles in the formation of TiO2 nanopore-nanotube array film. The optimal voltage was 60 V and the anodization time is less than 30 min by anodizing Ti films in ethylene glycerol containing 0.5% (w) NH4F and 3% (w) H2O. The growth rate of TiO2 nanotube array was as high as 340 nm/min. Moreover, the photocurrent-potential curves, photocurrent response curves and electrochemical impedance spectra results indicated that the TiO2 nanotube array film with the nanoporous structure exhibited a better photo-response ability and photoelectrochemical performance than the ordinary TiO2 nanotube array film. The reason is that the nanoporous structure on the surface of the nanotube array can separate the photo electron-hole pairs more efficiently and completely than the tubular structure.

  16. Using Ag-embedded TiO{sub 2} nanotubes array as recyclable SERS substrate

    Ling, Yunhan, E-mail: yhling@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Lab of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhuo, Yuqing; Huang, Liang [Lab of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mao, Duolu [School of Physical and Electronic Information Engineering, Qinghai Nationalities University, Xining, Qinghai 810007 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Ag embedded nanoparticles inside nanotube have better SERS enhancement than surface cap. • Ag NPs reconstruction via self-migration with UV and humidity control. • Self-cleaning effects both on organic molecule photo-oxidation as well as Ag ions photo-reduction. - Abstract: A simple strategy for synthesizing Ag-loaded TiO{sub 2} nanotube film for use as multifunctional photocatalyst and recyclable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is introduced. Highly aligned TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTA) prepared via electrochemical anodization were used as a 3D rough host for silver nanoparticles. Ag deposits were sputtered in a vacuum, and it was found that their morphologies were mainly influenced by the diameters of nanotubes and the UV irradiation induced aging process, especially the self-migration of silver along the tubular wall. SERS and the self-cleaning effect were observed using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the probe molecule. The results showed that narrow nanotube and silver nanoparticles embedment contributed significantly to both the phenomenal SERS and recyclability.

  17. Integrated high-efficiency Pt/carbon nanotube arrays for PEM fuel cells

    Zhang, Weimin; Minett, Andrew I.; Zhao, Jie; Razal, Joselito M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Romeo, Tony; Chen, Jun [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, AIIM Facility, Innovation Campus, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Gao, Mei [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, CSIRO, Bayview Ave, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    A facile strategy to deposit Pt nanoparticles with various metal-loading densities on vertically aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) arrays as electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is described. The deposition is achieved by electrostatic adsorption of the Pt precursor on the positively charged polyelectrolyte functionalized ACNT arrays and subsequent reduction by L-ascorbic acid. The application of the aligned electrocatalysts in fuel cells is realized by transferring from a quartz substrate to nafion membrane using a hot-press procedure to fabricate the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). It is shown that the MEA with vertically aligned structured electrocatalysts provides better Pt utilization than that with Pt on conventional carbon nanotubes or carbon black, resulting in higher fuel cell performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Synthesis of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanorod-nanotube arrays by filling TiO2 nanotubes with Fe

    Mohapatra, Susanta K; Banerjee, Subarna; Misra, Mano

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanostructures on a titania (TiO 2 ) nanotubular template is carried out using a pulsed electrodeposition technique. The TiO 2 nanotubes are prepared by the sonoelectrochemical anodization method and are filled with iron (Fe) by pulsed electrodeposition. The Fe/TiO 2 composite is then annealed in an O 2 atmosphere to convert it to Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The length of the Fe 2 O 3 inside the TiO 2 nanotubes can be tuned from 50 to 550 nm by changing the deposition time. The composite material is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible studies to confirm the formation of one-dimensional Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The present approach can be used for designing variable one-dimensional metal oxide heterostructures

  19. Tunable TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Flexible Bio-Sensitized Solar Cells

    2012-08-01

    microid extender followed by a colloidal silica /wetted imperial cloth. The foil was then cut into 1- × 2-cm samples. Then, the substrates were...17. Lei, B.; Liao, J.; Wang, R. J.; Su, C.; Kuang, D. Ordered Crystalline Ti02 Nanotube Arrays on Transparent FTO Glass for Efficient Dye...combined with a transparent , Indium Tin Dioxide coated PET film are attractive candidates for efficient, flexible DSSC’s. Flexible solar cells offer

  20. Self-Assembled TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with U-Shaped Profile by Controlling Anodization Temperature

    Jingfei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotube arrays with uniform diameter from top to bottom were fabricated. The synthesizing approach is based on the investigation of the influence of electrolyte temperature on the tube diameter. We found that the inner diameter of the tubes increased with the electrolyte temperature. Accordingly, we improved the tube profile from the general V shape to U shape by raising the electrolyte temperature gradually. This is a simple and fast approach to fabricate uniform TiO2 nanotubes in diameter. The improved TiO2 nanotube arrays may show better properties and have broad potential applications.

  1. A visible-light-driven composite photocatalyst of TiO2 nanotube arrays and graphene quantum dots

    Donald K. L. Chan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotube arrays are well-known efficient UV-driven photocatalysts. The incorporation of graphene quantum dots could extend the photo-response of the nanotubes to the visible-light range. Graphene quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays were synthesized by covalently coupling these two materials. The product was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The product exhibited high photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of methylene blue and enhanced photocurrent under visible light irradiation.

  2. Terahertz generation via laser coupling to anharmonic carbon nanotube array

    Sharma, Soni; Vijay, A.

    2018-02-01

    A scheme of terahertz radiation generation employing a matrix of anharmonic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in silica is proposed. The matrix is irradiated by two collinear laser beams that induce large excursions on CNT electrons and exert a nonlinear force at the beat frequency ω = ω1-ω2. The force derives a nonlinear current producing THz radiation. The THz field is resonantly enhanced at the plasmon resource, ω = ω p ( 1 + β ) / √{ 2 } , where ωp is the plasma frequency and β is a characteristic parameter. Collisions are a limiting factor, suppressing the plasmon resonance. For typical values of plasma parameters, we obtain power conversion efficiency of the order of 10-6.

  3. Anisotropically functionalized carbon nanotube array based hygroscopic scaffolds.

    Ozden, Sehmus; Ge, Liehui; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Hart, Amelia H C; Yang, Hyunseung; Sridhar, Srividya; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2014-07-09

    Creating ordered microstructures with hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties that enable the collection and storage of small water droplets from the atmosphere, mimicking structures that exist in insects, such as the Stenocara beetle, which live in environments with limited amounts of water. Inspired by this approach, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube forests (NTFs) are asymmetrically end-functionalized to create hygroscopic scaffolds for water harvesting and storage from atmospheric air. One side of the NTF is made hydrophilic, which captures water from the atmosphere, and the other side is made superhydrophobic, which prevents water from escaping and the forest from collapsing. To understand how water penetrates into the NTF, the fundamentals of water/NTF surface interaction are discussed.

  4. Polyaniline nanowire array encapsulated in titania nanotubes as a superior electrode for supercapacitors

    Xie, Keyu; Li, Jie; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhi'an; Liu, Yexiang; Zhang, Guoge; Huang, Haitao

    2011-05-01

    Conducting polymer with 1D nanostructure exhibits excellent electrochemical performances but a poor cyclability that limits its use in supercapacitors. In this work, a novel composite electrode made of polyaniline nanowire-titania nanotube array was synthesized via a simple and inexpensive electrochemical route by electropolymerizing aniline onto an anodized titania nanotube array. The specific capacitance was as high as 732 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, which remained at 543 F g-1 when the current density was increased by 20 times. 74% of the maximum energy density (36.6 Wh kg-1) was maintained even at a high power density of 6000 W kg-1. An excellent long cycle life of the electrode was observed with a retention of ~86% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance was attributed to the unique microstructure of the electrode with disordered PANI nanowire arrays encapsulated inside the TiO2 nanotubes, providing high surface area, fast diffusion path for ions and long-term cycle stability. Such a nanocomposite electrode is attractive for supercapacitor applications.

  5. Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties of Ag-Loaded N-Doped Tio2 Nanotube Arrays

    Gao Dawei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TiO2 NT arrays were prepared by anodic oxidizing method on the surface of the Ti substrate. Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube (N-TiO2 NT arrays were carried out by ammonia solution immersion, and Ag nanoparticles loaded N-doped TiO2 nanotube (Ag/N-TiO2 NT arrays were obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique. The samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, photoluminescence (PL emission spectra, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. The result indicated that the diameter and wall thickness of the TiO2 NT are 100–120 and 20–30 nm, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and structure of the highly ordered TiO2 NTs were not affected by N-doping. Furthermore, Ag nanoparticles were evenly deposited on the surface of TiO2 NTs in the form of elemental silver. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/N-TiO2 NTs was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO under visible-light irradiation. The Ag/N-TiO2 NTs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic properties, which could reach 95% after 90-min irradiation.

  6. Ionic compounds lamination reaction and characteristics of photosensitive copper indium sulfide on titania nanotube arrays

    Chang, Horng-Yi, E-mail: hychang@mail.ntou.edu.tw [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Wei-Jei [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Syh-Yuh [Ceramic Microengineering Laboratory, Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung 31060, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Only good photocurrent density under UV irradiation for TiO{sub 2} (or TiCl{sub 4}) modified titania nanotubes (T-TNAs) demonstrates the response to visible light actually due to the CuInS{sub 2} photosensitivity on T-TNAs. > The suitable CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) film thickness can be completed to achieve the well crystallinity, coverage and high photosensitivity of CIS by combining the precursor concentration with deposition cycles. > An n-type CIS with a lower band gap (<1.5 eV) extending the absorption of the large solar spectrum into the infra-red range demonstrates the inorganic CIS potentially instead of organic dye to use in photosensitive solar cells by simple ionic compounds lamination reaction (ICLR) process. - Abstract: This study investigates using an inorganic photosensitive CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) coating instead of an organic dye on TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs). The stoichiometric characteristics by use of various deposition parameters such as precursor concentrations (0.1 M, 0.05 M, and 0.01 M) and deposition cycles (1-60 cycles) are then analyzed in relation to the crystallinity and photosensitivity. TNAs are synthesized by anodic oxidation of Ti metal, modified by the TiO{sub 2} film, and are subsequently annealed at 450 deg. C for 30 min, producing what are named T-TNAs. They show high photocatalytic efficiency and photosensitivity under UV-illumination. The photosensitive CIS coatings on the T-TNAs are processed by an ionic compounds lamination reaction (ICLR) method. The more immersion cycles and the higher the precursor concentration of copper sulfide, the more CIS peeled off as precipitates formed, which result in less indium sulfide deposition being required for reacting with the copper sulfide to reach stoichiometry. Near stoichiometric CIS can be obtained by controlling the precursor concentration and deposition cycles of the ICLR process. Good crystallinity and n-type characteristics are achieved by controlling

  7. Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B Dye by Aligned Arrays of Self-Assembled Hydrogen Titanate Nanotubes

    Sriparna Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that an aligned array of hydrothermally grown, multiwalled hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7 nanotubes—anchored to both faces of a metallic Ti foil—acts as an efficient photocatalyst. We studied the degradation of rhodamine B dye in the presence of the nanostructured photocatalyst under UV irradiation, by monitoring the optical absorption of the dye. Rhodamine B was chosen as a representative—and particularly harmful—industrial pollutant dye. The inner and outer diameters of the H2Ti3O7 nanotubes were 5 nm and 10 nm, respectively. The nanotube array catalyst is recyclable and structurally stable. Most importantly, it shows comparable or higher photodecomposition rate constant than those of both H2Ti3O7 nanotube powder and P-25 (Degussa. The enhanced photocatalytic performance may be ascribed to the nanotube array having a superhydrophilic surface with a high accessible surface area.

  8. Core-shell titanium dioxide-titanium nitride nanotube arrays with near-infrared plasmon resonances

    Farsinezhad, Samira; Shanavas, Thariq; Mahdi, Najia; Askar, Abdelrahman M.; Kar, Piyush; Sharma, Himani; Shankar, Karthik

    2018-04-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is a ceramic with high electrical conductivity which in nanoparticle form, exhibits localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The ceramic nature of TiN coupled with its dielectric loss factor being comparable to that of gold, render it attractive for CMOS polarizers, refractory plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and a whole host of sensing applications. We report core-shell TiO2-TiN nanotube arrays exhibiting LSPR peaks in the range 775-830 nm achieved by a simple, solution-based, low cost, large area-compatible fabrication route that does not involve laser-writing or lithography. Self-organized, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were grown by electrochemical anodization of Ti thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrates and then conformally coated with a thin layer of TiN using atomic layer deposition. The effects of varying the TiN layer thickness and thermal annealing on the LSPR profiles were also investigated. Modeling the TiO2-TiN core-shell nanotube structure using two different approaches, one employing effective medium approximations coupled with Fresnel coefficients, resulted in calculated optical spectra that closely matched the experimentally measured spectra. Modeling provided the insight that the observed near-infrared resonance was not collective in nature, and was mainly attributable to the longitudinal resonance of annular nanotube-like TiN particles redshifted due to the presence of the higher permittivity TiO2 matrix. The resulting TiO2-TiN core-shell nanotube structures also function as visible light responsive photocatalysts, as evidenced by their photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance under light emitting diode illumination using 400, 430 and 500 nm photons.

  9. Facile fabrication of organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Chen, Yingzhi; Li, Aoxiang; Yue, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lu-Ning; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Kang, Feiyu; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2016-07-01

    Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi) layer were fabricated for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this arrayed architecture, a PDi layer with a tunable thickness was coated on anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays by physical vapor deposition, which is advantageous for the formation of a uniform layer and an adequate interface contact between PDi and TiO2. The obtained PDi/TiO2 junction exhibited broadened visible light absorption, and an effective interface for enhanced photogenerated electron-hole separation, which is supported by the reduced charge transfer resistance and prolonged excitation lifetime via impedance spectroscopy analysis and fluorescence emission decay investigations. Consequently, such a heterojunction photoanode was photoresponsive to a wide visible light region of 400-600 nm, and thus demonstrated a highly enhanced photocurrent density at 1.23 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode. Additionally, the durability of such a photoanode can be guaranteed after long-time illumination because of the geometrical restraint imposed by the PDi aggregates. These results pave the way to discover new organic/inorganic assemblies for high-performance photoelectric applications and device integration.Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi

  10. Sol-gel auto-combustion synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanotubes array in porous alumina template

    Yuan Yuan; Liu Changsheng; Zhang Yuan; Shan Xiaoqian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an array of highly ordered hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanotubes was synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template for the first time. Based on thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the dried gel, derived from the sol solution with Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and PO(CH 3 O) 3 as precursors and ethylene glycol as the polymeric matrix, exhibited a typical self-propagating combustion behavior at low temperature, directly resulting in hexagonal crystalline HAP materials. The resultant HAP arrays fabricated from the above sol-gel in the AAO template were uniformly distributed, highly ordered nanotubes with uniform length and diameter according to the observations of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The electron diffraction (ED), XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) survey proved the formation of HAP phase with polycrystalline structure in the AAO template. Based on these results, a potential mechanism of 'an auto-combustion from dried gel to nanoparticles and a subsequent in situ reaction from nanoparticles to nanotubes' was proposed

  11. Multidirectional flexible force sensors based on confined, self-adjusting carbon nanotube arrays

    Lee, J.-I.; Pyo, Soonjae; Kim, Min-Ook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive force sensor based on self-adjusting carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. Aligned CNT arrays are directly synthesized on silicon microstructures by a space-confined growth technique which enables a facile self-adjusting contact. To afford flexibility and softness, the patterned microstructures with the integrated CNTs are embedded in polydimethylsiloxane structures. The sensing mechanism is based on variations in the contact resistance between the facing CNT arrays under the applied force. By finite element analysis, proper dimensions and positions for each component are determined. Further, high sensitivities up to 15.05%/mN of the proposed sensors were confirmed experimentally. Multidirectional sensing capability could also be achieved by designing multiple sets of sensing elements in a single sensor. The sensors show long-term operational stability, owing to the unique properties of the constituent CNTs, such as outstanding mechanical durability and elasticity.

  12. Surface-conduction electron-emitter characteristics and fabrication based on vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    Shih, Yi-Ting [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Li, Kuan-Wei [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Honda, Shin-ichi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Lin, Pao-Hung; Huang, Ying-Sheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuei-Yi, E-mail: kylee@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-01

    Graphical abstract: The pattern design provides a new structure of surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED). Delta-star shaped vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays with 20o tips can simultaneously provide three emitters to bombard the sides of equilateral triangles pattern of VACNT, which produces numerous secondary electrons and enhance the SED efficiency. - Highlights: • The carbon nanotube (CNT) has replaced palladium oxide (PdO) as the electrode material for surface-conduction electron-emitter (SCE) applications. • The vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays with 20° tips of the delta-star arrangement are used as cathodes that easily emit electrons. The cathode pattern simultaneously provides three emitters to bombard the sides of equilateral triangles pattern of VACNT. • The VACNT arrays were covered with magnesium oxide (MgO) nanostructures to promote the surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) efficiency (η). • The η was stably maintained in the 75–85% range. The proposed design provides a facile new method for developing SED applications. - Abstract: The carbon nanotube (CNT) has replaced palladium oxide (PdO) as the electrode material for surface-conduction electron-emitter (SCE) applications. Vertically aligned CNT arrays with a delta-star arrangement were patterned and synthesized onto a quartz substrate using photolithography and thermal chemical vapor deposition. Delta-star shaped VACNT arrays with 20° tips are used as cathodes that easily emit electrons because of their high electrical field gradient. In order to improve the field emission and secondary electrons (SEs) in SCE applications, magnesium oxide (MgO) nanostructures were coated onto the VACNT arrays to promote the surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) efficiency (η). According to the definition of η in SCE applications, in this study, the η was stably maintained in the 75–85% range. The proposed design provides a facile new method for

  13. Photoelectrochemical oxidation of ibuprofen via Cu_2O-doped TiO_2 nanotube arrays

    Sun, Qiannan; Peng, Yen-Ping; Chen, Hanlin; Chang, Ken-Lin; Qiu, Yang-Neng; Lai, Shiau-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A p–n junction material was synthesized to enhance photocatalytic ability. • Cu_2O-doped TiO_2 nanotube arrays works as a photoanode in a PEC system. • Recombination of photo-generated holes and electrons were greatly reduced. • Synergetic effect was quantified in PEC degradation. • Recombination of photogenerated holes and electrons was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: A p–n junction based Cu_2O-doped TiO_2 nanotube arrays (Cu_2O-TNAs) were synthesized and used as a working anode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system. The results revealed that the Cu_2O-TNAs were dominated by the anatase phase and responded significantly to visible light. XPS analyses indicated that with an amount of 24.79% Cu doping into the structure, the band gap of Cu_2O-TNAs was greatly reduced. SEM images revealed that the supported TiO_2 nanotubes had diameters of approximately 80 nm and lengths of about 2.63 μm. Upon doping with Cu_2O, the TiO_2 nanotubes maintained their structural integrity, exhibiting no significant morphological change, favoring PEC applications. Under illumination, the photocurrent from Cu_2O/TNAs was 2.4 times larger than that from TNAs, implying that doping with Cu_2O significantly improved electron mobility by reducing the rate of recombination of electron-hole pairs. The EIS and Bode plot revealed that the estimated electron lifetimes, τ_e_l, of TNAs and Cu_2O/TNAs were 6.91 and 26.26 ms, respectively. The efficiencies of degradation of Ibuprofen by photoelectrochemical, photocatalytic (PC), electrochemical (EC) and photolytic (P) methods were measured.

  14. Rational control on floating catalysts for the growth of carbon nanotube assemblies: From vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays to carbon nanotube films

    Chen, Hongyuan; Chen, Minghai; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Floating catalyst CVD for the growth of CNT films and arrays was investigated. • The structure of CNT array grown in floating catalyst CVD was revealed. • Temperature was proved as a key for the growth of different CNT assemblies. • The increase of growth temperature induced the growth of single-walled CNT film. - Abstract: Floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) has been widely used for the growth of various carbon nanotube (CNT) macrostructures, mainly including vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays and none-woven CNT films. However, it is still unclear for the reason why these CNT macrostructures with largely different morphologies were received via the similar method. In this research, it revealed that the growth temperature largely affected the nucleation status of floating catalysts and thus controlled the morphologies of CNT macrostructures from VACNT arrays to none-woven CNT films. In low temperatures (below 800 °C), VACNTs were grown by bottom-up mechanism with several CNTs, but not one individual from bottom to up along the array height direction. Furthermore, VACNT arrays were only grown on some substrates that can induce iron atoms aggregating to catalyst particles with a suitable size. When increasing the growth temperature higher than 800 °C, more catalyst particles were nucleated in the gas flow, which induced the formation of none-woven CNT films composed of thin CNTs (single-walled CNTs and double-walled CNTs). This research was significative for understanding CNT growth mechanism via FCCVD process and the synthesis of different CNT macrostructures by this strategy.

  15. Rational control on floating catalysts for the growth of carbon nanotube assemblies: From vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays to carbon nanotube films

    Chen, Hongyuan; Chen, Minghai, E-mail: mhchen2008@sinano.ac.cn; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Floating catalyst CVD for the growth of CNT films and arrays was investigated. • The structure of CNT array grown in floating catalyst CVD was revealed. • Temperature was proved as a key for the growth of different CNT assemblies. • The increase of growth temperature induced the growth of single-walled CNT film. - Abstract: Floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) has been widely used for the growth of various carbon nanotube (CNT) macrostructures, mainly including vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays and none-woven CNT films. However, it is still unclear for the reason why these CNT macrostructures with largely different morphologies were received via the similar method. In this research, it revealed that the growth temperature largely affected the nucleation status of floating catalysts and thus controlled the morphologies of CNT macrostructures from VACNT arrays to none-woven CNT films. In low temperatures (below 800 °C), VACNTs were grown by bottom-up mechanism with several CNTs, but not one individual from bottom to up along the array height direction. Furthermore, VACNT arrays were only grown on some substrates that can induce iron atoms aggregating to catalyst particles with a suitable size. When increasing the growth temperature higher than 800 °C, more catalyst particles were nucleated in the gas flow, which induced the formation of none-woven CNT films composed of thin CNTs (single-walled CNTs and double-walled CNTs). This research was significative for understanding CNT growth mechanism via FCCVD process and the synthesis of different CNT macrostructures by this strategy.

  16. Integrated ZnO nanotube arrays as efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Xi, Y., E-mail: yxi6@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Wu, W.Z.; Fang, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Hu, C.G. [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tuning the reaction parameters, we got the best reaction conditions on ITO glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduce ZnO NTs design of photoanode featuring high aspect ratio structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design strategy integrates the optical fibers or ITO with ZnO NTs grown. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconducting material and has been considered as an alternative material in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. A high-performance nanotube (NT) photoanode must have a large surface area for dye adsorption in order to enhance conversion efficiency. In this work, the way of hydrothermally grown ZnO NT arrays on the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate is presented by utilizing a systematic study. By adjusting the hydrothermal reaction parameters, we attained the optimizing reaction conditions on the ITO substrate. Moreover, ZnO NT arrays are introduced as a photoanode on various substrates, such as optical fiber and ITO glass, for DSSCs applications. We took the contrast test with conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on ZnO NT arrays versus ZnO nanowire arrays on the ITO substrate, which the DSSC based on ZnO NT arrays shows significantly enhanced power conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the conversion efficiency of DSSC based on the ZnO NT arrays grown on an optical fiber substrate is enhanced up to 1.44%.

  17. Extremely Black Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Solar Steam Generation.

    Yin, Zhe; Wang, Huimin; Jian, Muqiang; Li, Yanshen; Xia, Kailun; Zhang, Mingchao; Wang, Chunya; Wang, Qi; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Quan-Shui; Zhang, Yingying

    2017-08-30

    The unique structure of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array makes it behave most similarly to a blackbody. It is reported that the optical absorptivity of an extremely black VACNT array is about 0.98-0.99 over a large spectral range of 200 nm-200 μm, inspiring us to explore the performance of VACNT arrays in solar energy harvesting. In this work, we report the highly efficient steam generation simply by laminating a layer of VACNT array on the surface of water to harvest solar energy. It is found that under solar illumination the temperature of upper water can significantly increase with obvious water steam generated, indicating the efficient solar energy harvesting and local temperature rise by the thin layer of VACNTs. We found that the evaporation rate of water assisted by VACNT arrays is 10 times that of bare water, which is the highest ratio for solar-thermal-steam generation ever reported. Remarkably, the solar thermal conversion efficiency reached 90%. The excellent performance could be ascribed to the strong optical absorption and local temperature rise induced by the VACNT layer, as well as the ultrafast water transport through the VACNT layer due to the frictionless wall of CNTs. Based on the above, we further demonstrated the application of VACNT arrays in solar-driven desalination.

  18. Synthesis of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with tunable sizes

    Wang, Xian; Zha, Chenyang; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Liming; Wang, Yifeng; Gupta, Arunava; Yoriya, Sorachon; Bao, Ningzhong

    2014-09-01

    Vertically-oriented one-dimensional TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays have been fabricated by anodic oxidation using different electrolyte solvents, including ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in the presence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) or ammonium fluoride (NH4F). The influence of synthetic conditions, including the nature of the electrolyte and anodization voltage, on nanotube microstructure has been systematically investigated. Highly-ordered TNTs with tube length of ˜0.5-26.7 μm, inner diameter of ˜13-201 nm, and outer diameter of ˜28-250 nm have been obtained. The conversion of as-prepared TNT arrays from amorphous phase to crystalline structure has been achieved by a post-synthetic annealing at 500 °C for 3 h in oxygen ambient. The TNT arrays with tunable sizes and structures are attractive for use as electrode materials in fabrication of thin film solar cells and highly active photocatalysts.

  19. Synthesis of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with tunable sizes

    Wang, Xian; Zha, Chenyang; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Liming; Wang, Yifeng; Bao, Ningzhong; Gupta, Arunava; Yoriya, Sorachon

    2014-01-01

    Vertically-oriented one-dimensional TiO 2 nanotube (TNT) arrays have been fabricated by anodic oxidation using different electrolyte solvents, including ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in the presence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) or ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F). The influence of synthetic conditions, including the nature of the electrolyte and anodization voltage, on nanotube microstructure has been systematically investigated. Highly-ordered TNTs with tube length of ∼0.5–26.7 μm, inner diameter of ∼13–201 nm, and outer diameter of ∼28–250 nm have been obtained. The conversion of as-prepared TNT arrays from amorphous phase to crystalline structure has been achieved by a post-synthetic annealing at 500 °C for 3 h in oxygen ambient. The TNT arrays with tunable sizes and structures are attractive for use as electrode materials in fabrication of thin film solar cells and highly active photocatalysts. (paper)

  20. Interface feature characterization and Schottky interfacial layer confirmation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array film

    Li, Hongchao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China); Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Industry Corporation Limited, 341300 Ganzhou (China); Tang, Ningxin; Yang, Hongzhi; Leng, Xian [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China); Zou, Jianpeng, E-mail: zoujp@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Interfacial fusion of TiO{sub 2} nanotube film increases with annealing temperature. • Interface bonding force of the film increases with annealing temperature. • We report the forth stage of nanofibers formation in the growing mechanism. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes grow from Schottky interface layer rather than from Ti substrate. • Schottky interface layer's thickness of 35–45 nm is half the diameter of nanotube. - Abstract: We report here characterization of the interfacial microstructure and properties of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotube array films fabricated by anodization. Field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, atomic force microscopy (AFM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to characterize the interface of the film. With increasing annealing temperature from 200 °C to 800 °C, the interfacial fusion between the film and the Ti substrate increased. The phase transformation of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube film from amorphous to anatase to rutile took place gradually; as the phase transformation progressed, the force needed to break the film increased. The growth of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays occurs in four stages: barrier layer formation, penetrating micropore formation, regular nanotube formation, and nanofiber formation. The TiO{sub 2} nanotubes grow from the Schottky interface layer rather than from the Ti substrate. The Schottky interface layer's thickness of 35–45 nm was identified as half the diameter of the corresponding nanotube, which shows good agreement to the Schottky interface layer growth model. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube film was amorphous and the Ti substrate was highly crystallized with many dislocation walls.

  1. Fabrication of polyaniline/graphene/titania nanotube arrays nanocomposite and their application in supercapacitors

    Huang, Hua; Gan, Mengyu; Ma, Li, E-mail: mlsys607@126.com; Yu, Lei; Hu, Haifeng; Yang, Fangfang; Li, Yanjun; Ge, Chengqiang

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • The PANI/graphene/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were fabricated firstly. • The composite shows a high specific capacitance and superior rate capability. • A high capacity retention rate of 91% after 1000 cycles can be achieved. • The composite possesses a novel three-dimensional (3D) highly ordered nanostructure. • TiO{sub 2} NTs enhance the adhesion between PANI and substrate. - Abstract: Polyaniline/graphene/titania nanotube arrays (PGTNs) nanocomposite as a supercapacitor electrode is fabricated by in-situ polymerization for the first time. Herein, the PGTNs possesses a novel three-dimensional (3D) highly ordered hybrid nanostructure consisting of coaxial polyaniline (PANI)/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays and graphene coated with PANI on the surface of TiO{sub 2} in some degree. The synthesized three-dimensional PGTNs is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, and its electrochemical performance is measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The maximum specific capacitance of PGTNs is as high as 933 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.75 A g{sup −1} and the specific capacitance retains 91% of the initial after constant charge–discharge 1000 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is due to the 3D nanostructure, which effectively prevents the mechanical deformation during the fast charge/discharge process and favors the diffusion of the electrolyte ions into the inner region of active materials. The composite electrode material is very promising for the next generation of high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  2. Fabrication of polyaniline/graphene/titania nanotube arrays nanocomposite and their application in supercapacitors

    Huang, Hua; Gan, Mengyu; Ma, Li; Yu, Lei; Hu, Haifeng; Yang, Fangfang; Li, Yanjun; Ge, Chengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The PANI/graphene/TiO 2 nanotube arrays were fabricated firstly. • The composite shows a high specific capacitance and superior rate capability. • A high capacity retention rate of 91% after 1000 cycles can be achieved. • The composite possesses a novel three-dimensional (3D) highly ordered nanostructure. • TiO 2 NTs enhance the adhesion between PANI and substrate. - Abstract: Polyaniline/graphene/titania nanotube arrays (PGTNs) nanocomposite as a supercapacitor electrode is fabricated by in-situ polymerization for the first time. Herein, the PGTNs possesses a novel three-dimensional (3D) highly ordered hybrid nanostructure consisting of coaxial polyaniline (PANI)/TiO 2 nanotube arrays and graphene coated with PANI on the surface of TiO 2 in some degree. The synthesized three-dimensional PGTNs is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, and its electrochemical performance is measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The maximum specific capacitance of PGTNs is as high as 933 F g −1 at current density of 0.75 A g −1 and the specific capacitance retains 91% of the initial after constant charge–discharge 1000 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is due to the 3D nanostructure, which effectively prevents the mechanical deformation during the fast charge/discharge process and favors the diffusion of the electrolyte ions into the inner region of active materials. The composite electrode material is very promising for the next generation of high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors

  3. Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation.

    Dickey, Michael D; Weiss, Emily A; Smythe, Elizabeth J; Chiechi, Ryan C; Capasso, Federico; Whitesides, George M

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The evaporating material enters the porous openings of the AAO membrane and deposits onto the walls of the pores. The membrane is tilted with respect to the column of evaporating material, so the shadows cast by the openings of the pores onto the inside walls of the pores define the geometry of the tubes. Rotation of the membrane during evaporation ensures uniform deposition inside the pores. After evaporation, dissolution of the AAO in base easily removes the template to yield an array of nanotubes connected by a thin backing of the same metal or metal oxide. The diameter of the pores dictates the diameter of the tubes, and the incident angle of evaporation determines the height of the tubes. Tubes up to approximately 1.5 mum in height and 20-200 nm in diameter were fabricated. This method is adaptable to any material that can be vapor-deposited, including indium-tin oxide (ITO), a conductive, transparent material that is useful for many opto-electronic applications. An array of gold nanotubes produced by this technique served as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: the Raman signal (per molecule) from a monolayer of benzenethiolate was a factor of approximately 5 x 10(5) greater than that obtained using bulk liquid benzenethiol.

  4. A practical dimensionless equation for the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and CNT arrays

    Qiang Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results reported in the last decade on the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs have shown a fairly divergent behavior. An underlying intrinsic consistency was believed to exist in spite of the divergence in the thermal conductivity data of various CNTs. A dimenisonless equation that describes the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity was derived by introducing reduced forms relative to a chosen reference point. This equation can serve as a practical approximation to characterize the conductivity of individual CNT with different structural parameters as well as bulk CNT arrays with different bundle configurations. Comparison of predictions by the equation and historical measurements showed good agreements within their uncertainties.

  5. Multifunctional Material Structures Based on Laser-Etched Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Aline Emplit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-power electronics in the transportation and aerospace sectors need size and weight reduction. Multifunctional and multistructured materials are currently being developed to couple electromagnetic (EM and thermal properties, i.e., shielding against electromagnetic impulsions, and thermal management across the thermal interface material (TIM. In this work, we investigate laser-machined patterned carbon nanotube (CNT micro-brushes as an alternative to metallic structures for driving simultaneously EM and heat propagation. The thermal and electromagnetic response of the CNT array is expected to be sensitive to the micro-structured pattern etched in the CNT brush.

  6. Preparation of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays and their photocatalytic activities under visible light

    Tu, Ya-Fang; Huang, Sheng-You [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Sang, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpsang@acc-lab.whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Department of Physics, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Zou, Xian-Wu [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays have been prepared by the template-based liquid phase deposition method. Their morphologies, structures and optical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under visible light. The UV-vis absorption spectra of the Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays showed a red shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible region compared to the undoped sample. The Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays exhibited good photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation, and the optimum dopant amount was found to be 5.9 at% in our experiments.

  7. Interaction of a two-dimensional electromagnetic breather with an electron inhomogeneity in an array of carbon nanotubes

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Fedorov, E. G.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2014-01-01

    Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through various nano-objects has recently became an attractive topic for both theoretical and experimental studies due to its promising perspectives in a variety of problems of modern nanoelectronics. Here, we study the propagation of extremely short two-dimensional bipolar electromagnetic pulses in a heterogeneous array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes. Heterogeneity is defined as a region of enhanced electron density. The electromagnetic field in an array of nanotubes is described by Maxwell's equations, reduced to a multidimensional wave equation. Our numerical analysis shows the possibility of stable propagation of an electromagnetic pulse in a heterogeneous array of nanotubes. Furthermore, we establish that, depending on its speed of propagation, the pulse can pass through the area of increased electron concentration or be reflected therefrom.

  8. Conformal atomic layer deposition of alumina on millimeter tall, vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    Stano, Kelly L; Carroll, Murphy; Padbury, Richard; McCord, Marian; Jur, Jesse S; Bradford, Philip D

    2014-11-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to coat high aspect ratio and high surface area substrates with conformal and precisely controlled thin films. Vertically aligned arrays of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with lengths up to 1.5 mm were conformally coated with alumina from base to tip. The nucleation and growth behaviors of Al2O3 ALD precursors on the MWCNTs were studied as a function of CNT surface chemistry. CNT surfaces were modified through a series of post-treatments including pyrolytic carbon deposition, high temperature thermal annealing, and oxygen plasma functionalization. Conformal coatings were achieved where post-treatments resulted in increased defect density as well as the extent of functionalization, as characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using thermogravimetric analysis, it was determined that MWCNTs treated with pyrolytic carbon and plasma functionalization prior to ALD coating were more stable to thermal oxidation than pristine ALD coated samples. Functionalized and ALD coated arrays had a compressive modulus more than two times higher than a pristine array coated for the same number of cycles. Cross-sectional energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that Al2O3 could be uniformly deposited through the entire thickness of the vertically aligned MWCNT array by manipulating sample orientation and mounting techniques. Following the ALD coating, the MWCNT arrays demonstrated hydrophilic wetting behavior and also exhibited foam-like recovery following compressive strain.

  9. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical properties of ZnS/Au/TiO2 nanotube array films.

    Zhu, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Juan; Xu, Lu; Guo, Ya; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Du, Rong-Gui; Lin, Chang-Jian

    2013-03-21

    A highly ordered TiO(2) nanotube array film was fabricated by an anodic oxidation method. The film was modified by Au nanoparticles (NPs) formed by a deposition-precipitation technique and was covered with a thin ZnS shell prepared by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The photoelectrochemical properties of the prepared ZnS/Au/TiO(2) composite film were evaluated by incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), and photopotential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements under white light illumination. The results indicated that the Au NPs could expand the light sensitivity range of the film and suppress the electron-hole recombination, and the ZnS shell could inhibit the leakage of photogenerated electrons from the surface of Au NPs to the ZnS/electrolyte interface. When the 403 stainless steel in a 0.5 M NaCl solution was coupled to the ZnS/Au/TiO(2) nanotube film photoanode under illumination, its potential decreased by 400 mV, showing that the composite film had a better photocathodic protection effect on the steel than that of a pure TiO(2) nanotube film.

  10. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P., E-mail: pb-etc-besu@yahoo.com [Nano-Thin Films and Solid State Gas Sensor Devices Laboratory, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India); Chattopadhyay, P. P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India)

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  11. Morphological evolution of TiO2 nanotube arrays with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure

    Yu, Dongliang; Song, Ye; Zhu, Xufei; Yang, Ruiquan; Han, Aijun

    2013-07-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure have been fabricated by a modified two-step electrochemical anodization method. In the present work, different morphologies formed under different anodizing voltages are investigated in detail by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The results show that the concaves left by the first-step anodization can guide the uniform growth of TNAs in some degree as the second-step anodizing voltage is the same with that in the first step, however, when lower voltages are adopted in the second-step anodization, no guidance can be achieved, and different morphological TNAs with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure are fabricated. And we find that the nanotube diameters are directly proportional to the applied voltage in the second-step anodization. Furthermore, a possible mechanism for the growth of the TiO2 nanotubes with the special morphology is proposed for the first time, which depends on both the oxygen bubble mold and the viscous flow of the barrier oxide from the pore base to the pore wall.

  12. Double-sided anodic titania nanotube arrays: a lopsided growth process.

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Sun, Xiao Wei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cai, Yanli

    2010-12-07

    In the past decade, the pore diameter of anodic titania nanotubes was reported to be influenced by a number of factors in organic electrolyte, for example, applied potential, working distance, water content, and temperature. All these were closely related to potential drop in the organic electrolyte. In this work, the essential role of electric field originating from the potential drop was directly revealed for the first time using a simple two-electrode anodizing method. Anodic titania nanotube arrays were grown simultaneously at both sides of a titanium foil, with tube length being longer at the front side than that at the back side. This lopsided growth was attributed to the higher ionic flux induced by electric field at the front side. Accordingly, the nanotube length was further tailored to be comparable at both sides by modulating the electric field. These results are promising to be used in parallel configuration dye-sensitized solar cells, water splitting, and gas sensors, as a result of high surface area produced by the double-sided architecture.

  13. Morphological evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure

    Yu, Dongliang; Song, Ye; Zhu, Xufei, E-mail: zhuxufei.njust@163.com; Yang, Ruiquan; Han, Aijun

    2013-07-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs) with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure have been fabricated by a modified two-step electrochemical anodization method. In the present work, different morphologies formed under different anodizing voltages are investigated in detail by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The results show that the concaves left by the first-step anodization can guide the uniform growth of TNAs in some degree as the second-step anodizing voltage is the same with that in the first step, however, when lower voltages are adopted in the second-step anodization, no guidance can be achieved, and different morphological TNAs with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure are fabricated. And we find that the nanotube diameters are directly proportional to the applied voltage in the second-step anodization. Furthermore, a possible mechanism for the growth of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with the special morphology is proposed for the first time, which depends on both the oxygen bubble mold and the viscous flow of the barrier oxide from the pore base to the pore wall.

  14. Structure and dye-sensitized solar cell application of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays fabricated by the anodic oxidation method

    Ok, Seon-Yeong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won [School of Material Science and Engineering, ERI and i-cube center, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kwang-Sun, E-mail: kkcho66@gnu.ac.k [Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    Well-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were fabricated by the potentiostatic anodic oxidation method using pure Ti foil as a working electrode and ethylene glycol solution as an electrolyte with the small addition of NH{sub 4}F and H{sub 2}O. The influence of anodization temperature and time on the morphology and formation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays was examined. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were applied as a photoelectrode to dye-sensitized solar cells. Regardless of anodizing temperature and time, the average diameter and wall thickness of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays show a similar value, whereas the length increases with decreasing reaction temperature. The conversion efficiency is very low, which is due to a morphology breaking of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays in the manufacturing process of a photoelectrode.

  15. Structure and dye-sensitized solar cell application of TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by the anodic oxidation method

    Ok, Seon-Yeong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2010-05-01

    Well-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by the potentiostatic anodic oxidation method using pure Ti foil as a working electrode and ethylene glycol solution as an electrolyte with the small addition of NH4F and H2O. The influence of anodization temperature and time on the morphology and formation of TiO2 nanotube arrays was examined. The TiO2 nanotube arrays were applied as a photoelectrode to dye-sensitized solar cells. Regardless of anodizing temperature and time, the average diameter and wall thickness of TiO2 nanotube arrays show a similar value, whereas the length increases with decreasing reaction temperature. The conversion efficiency is very low, which is due to a morphology breaking of the TiO2 nanotube arrays in the manufacturing process of a photoelectrode.

  16. Effects of interfaces on nano-friction of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    Lou, J.; Kim, K.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Sliding friction properties of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (VAMWNT) arrays have been investigated in current study in a quantitative manner. The VAMWNT arrays have been fabricated on an anodic aluminum oxide template by chemical vapor deposition at 650 deg. C. Friction force was measured in air by a modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever-bead assembly with 15 μm diameter borosilicate sphere attached to the end of the regular AFM cantilever. Quantitative measurements were achieved by using a novel in situ calibration methods recently developed based on diamagnetic levitation [Q. Li, K.-S. Kim, A. Rydberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77 (2006) 065105-1-13]. The effects of different interfaces were studied using both cantilever-bead assembly coated with and without Al thin layer coatings. A reverse stick-slip behavior was observed in the current system as compared to the normal stick-slip behavior found in the literature

  17. Wafer-Level Patterned and Aligned Polymer Nanowire/Micro- and Nanotube Arrays on any Substrate

    Morber, Jenny Ruth

    2009-05-25

    A study was conducted to fabricate wafer-level patterned and aligned polymer nanowire (PNW), micro- and nanotube arrays (PNT), which were created by exposing the polymer material to plasma etching. The approach for producing wafer-level aligned PNWs involved a one-step inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactive ion etching process. The polymer nanowire array was fabricated in an ICP reactive ion milling chamber with a pressure of 10mTorr. Argon (Ar), O 2, and CF4 gases were released into the chamber as etchants at flow rates of 15 sccm, 10 sccm, and 40 sccm. Inert gasses, such as Ar-form positive ions were incorporated to serve as a physical component to assist in the material degradation process. One power source (400 W) was used to generate dense plasma from the input gases, while another power source applied a voltage of approximately 600V to accelerate the plasma toward the substrate.

  18. Femtosecond laser modification of an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes intercalated with Fe phase nanoparticles.

    Labunov, Vladimir; Prudnikava, Alena; Bushuk, Serguei; Filatov, Serguei; Shulitski, Boris; Tay, Beng Kang; Shaman, Yury; Basaev, Alexander

    2013-09-03

    Femtosecond lasers (FSL) are playing an increasingly important role in materials research, characterization, and modification. Due to an extremely short pulse width, interactions of FSL irradiation with solid surfaces attract special interest, and a number of unusual phenomena resulted in the formation of new materials are expected. Here, we report on a new nanostructure observed after the interaction of FSL irradiation with arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) intercalated with iron phase catalyst nanoparticles. It was revealed that the FSL laser ablation transforms the topmost layer of CNT array into iron phase nanospheres (40 to 680 nm in diameter) located at the tip of the CNT bundles of conical shape. Besides, the smaller nanospheres (10 to 30 nm in diameter) are found to be beaded at the sides of these bundles. Some of the larger nanospheres are encapsulated into carbon shells, which sometime are found to contain CNTs. The mechanism of creation of such nanostructures is proposed.

  19. Controllable 3D architectures of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by multi-step processes

    Huang, Shaoming

    2003-06-01

    An effective way to fabricate large area three-dimensional (3D) aligned CNTs pattern based on pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) by two-step processes is reported. The controllable generation of different lengths and selective growth of the aligned CNT arrays on metal-patterned (e.g., Ag and Au) substrate are the bases for generating such 3D aligned CNTs architectures. By controlling experimental conditions 3D aligned CNT arrays with different lengths/densities and morphologies/structures as well as multi-layered architectures can be fabricated in large scale by multi-step pyrolysis of FePc. These 3D architectures could have interesting properties and be applied for developing novel nanotube-based devices.

  20. Dysprosium-Catalyzed Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Substrates

    Qian Yong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this letter, we report that dysprosium is an effective catalyst for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs growth via a chemical vapor deposition (CVD process for the first time. Horizontally superlong well-oriented SWNT arrays on SiO2/Si wafer can be fabricated by EtOH-CVD under suitable conditions. The structure and properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results show that the SWNTs from dysprosium have better structural uniformity and better conductivity with fewer defects. This rare earth metal provides not only an alternative catalyst for SWNTs growth, but also a possible method to generate high percentage of superlong semiconducting SWNT arrays for various applications of nanoelectronic device.

  1. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized on unhybridized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays

    Wang, Wei; Xie, Yibing; Du, Hongxiu; Xia, Chi; Wang, Yong; Tian, Fang

    2014-01-01

    A glucose biosensor has been fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on unhybridized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays using an optimized cross-linking technique. The TiO 2 nanotube arrays were synthesized directly on a titanium substrate by anodic oxidation. The structure and morphology of electrode material were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performances of the glucose biosensor were conducted by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements. It gives a linear response to glucose in the 0.05 to 0.65 mM concentration range, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9981, a sensitivity of 199.6 μA mM −1 cm −2 , and a detection limit as low as 3.8 µM. This glucose biosensor exhibited high selectivity for glucose determination in the presence of ascorbic acid, sucrose and other common interfering substances. This glucose biosensor also performed good reproducibility and long-time storage stability. This optimized cross-linking technique could open a new avenue for other enzyme biosensors fabrication. (author)

  2. Synthesis and Investigation of Millimeter-Scale Vertically Aligned Boron Nitride Nanotube Arrays

    Tay, Roland; Li, Hongling; Tsang, Siu Hon; Jing, Lin; Tan, Dunlin; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have shown potential in a wide range of applications due to their superior properties such as exceptionally high mechanical strength, excellent chemical and thermal stabilities. However, previously reported methods to date only produced BNNTs with limited length/density and insufficient yield at high temperatures. Here we present a facile and effective two-step synthesis route involving template-assisted chemical vapor deposition at a relatively low temperature of 900 degree C and subsequent annealing process to fabricate vertically aligned (VA) BN coated carbon nanotube (VA-BN/CNT) and VA-BNNT arrays. By using this method, we achieve the longest VA-BN/CNTs and VA-BNNTs to date with lengths of over millimeters (exceeding two orders of magnitude longer than the previously reported length of VA-BNNTs). In addition, the morphology, chemical composition and microstructure of the resulting products, as well as the mechanism of coating process are systematically investigated. This versatile BN coating technique and the synthesis of millimeter-scale BN/CNT and BNNT arrays pave a way for new applications especially where the aligned geometry of the NTs is essential such as for field-emission, interconnects and thermal management.

  3. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Bonded to Solid Graphite Substrates: Thermal Analysis for Future Device Cooling Applications

    Betty T. Quinton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are known for high thermal conductivity and have potential use as nano-radiators or heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the thermal performance of carpet-like arrays of vertically aligned CNTs on solid graphite substrates with the idea of investigating their behavior as a function of carpet dimensions and predicting their performance as thermal interface material (TIM for electronic device cooling. Vertically aligned CNTs were grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG substrate, which creates a robust and durable all-carbon hierarchical structure. The multi-layer thermal analysis approach using Netzsch laser flash analysis system was used to evaluate their performance as a function of carpet height, from which their thermal properties can be determined. It was seen that the thermal resistance of the CNT array varies linearly with CNT carpet height, providing a unique way of decoupling the properties of the CNT carpet from its interface. This data was used to estimate the thermal conductivity of individual multi-walled nanotube strands in this carpet, which was about 35 W/m-K. The influence of CNT carpet parameters (aerial density, diameter, and length on thermal resistance of the CNT carpet and its potential advantages and limitations as an integrated TIM are discussed.

  4. Low-cost silver capped polystyrene nanotube arrays as super-hydrophobic substrates for SERS applications.

    Lovera, Pierre; Creedon, Niamh; Alatawi, Hanan; Mitchell, Micki; Burke, Micheal; Quinn, Aidan J; O'Riordan, Alan

    2014-05-02

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, simulation and characterization of dense arrays of freestanding silver capped polystyrene nanotubes, and demonstrate their suitability for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Substrates are fabricated in a rapid, low-cost and scalable way by melt wetting of polystyrene (PS) in an anodized alumina (AAO) template, followed by silver evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that substrates are composed of a dense array of freestanding polystyrene nanotubes topped by silver nanocaps. SERS characterization of the substrates, employing a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ABT) as a model molecule, exhibits an enhancement factor of ∼1.6 × 10(6), in agreement with 3D finite difference time domain simulations. Contact angle measurements of the substrates revealed super-hydrophobic properties, allowing pre-concentration of target analyte into a small volume. These super-hydrophobic properties of the samples are taken advantage of for sensitive detection of the organic pollutant crystal violet, with detection down to ∼400 ppt in a 2 μl aliquot demonstrated.

  5. Low-cost silver capped polystyrene nanotube arrays as super-hydrophobic substrates for SERS applications

    Lovera, Pierre; Creedon, Niamh; Alatawi, Hanan; Mitchell, Micki; Burke, Micheal; Quinn, Aidan J; O’Riordan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, simulation and characterization of dense arrays of freestanding silver capped polystyrene nanotubes, and demonstrate their suitability for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Substrates are fabricated in a rapid, low-cost and scalable way by melt wetting of polystyrene (PS) in an anodized alumina (AAO) template, followed by silver evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that substrates are composed of a dense array of freestanding polystyrene nanotubes topped by silver nanocaps. SERS characterization of the substrates, employing a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ABT) as a model molecule, exhibits an enhancement factor of ∼1.6 × 10 6 , in agreement with 3D finite difference time domain simulations. Contact angle measurements of the substrates revealed super-hydrophobic properties, allowing pre-concentration of target analyte into a small volume. These super-hydrophobic properties of the samples are taken advantage of for sensitive detection of the organic pollutant crystal violet, with detection down to ∼400 ppt in a 2 μl aliquot demonstrated. (paper)

  6. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 μm is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  7. Enhanced field emission properties of vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    Chen, Guohai; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Cheol Jin; Iwasaki, Takayuki; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotube (VA-DWCNT) arrays were synthesized by point-arc microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Cr/n-Si and SiO 2 /n-Si substrates. The outer tube diameters of VA-DWCNTs are in the range of 2.5-3.8 nm, and the average interlayer spacing is approximately 0.42 nm. The field emission properties of these VA-DWCNTs were studied. It was found that a VA-DWCNT array grown on a Cr/n-Si substrate had better field emission properties as compared with a VA-DWCNT array grown on a SiO 2 /n-Si substrate and randomly oriented DWCNTs, showing a turn-on field of about 0.85 V μm -1 at the emission current density of 0.1 μA cm -2 and a threshold field of 1.67 V μm -1 at the emission current density of 1.0 mA cm -2 . The better field emission performance of the VA-DWCNT array was mainly attributed to the vertical alignment of DWCNTs on the Cr/n-Si substrate and the low contact resistance between CNTs and the Cr/n-Si substrate

  8. On-Chip Sorting of Long Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes for Multiple Transistors along an Identical Array.

    Otsuka, Keigo; Inoue, Taiki; Maeda, Etsuo; Kometani, Reo; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2017-11-28

    Ballistic transport and sub-10 nm channel lengths have been achieved in transistors containing one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). To fill the gap between single-tube transistors and high-performance logic circuits for the replacement of silicon, large-area, high-density, and purely semiconducting (s-) SWNT arrays are highly desired. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of multiple transistors along a purely semiconducting SWNT array via an on-chip purification method. Water- and polymer-assisted burning from site-controlled nanogaps is developed for the reliable full-length removal of metallic SWNTs with the damage to s-SWNTs minimized even in high-density arrays. All the transistors with various channel lengths show large on-state current and excellent switching behavior in the off-state. Since our method potentially provides pure s-SWNT arrays over a large area with negligible damage, numerous transistors with arbitrary dimensions could be fabricated using a conventional semiconductor process, leading to SWNT-based logic, high-speed communication, and other next-generation electronic devices.

  9. Solution-processed single-wall carbon nanotube transistor arrays for wearable display backplanes

    Byeong-Cheol Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate solution-processed single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (SWCNT-TFT arrays with polymeric gate dielectrics on the polymeric substrates for wearable display backplanes, which can be directly attached to the human body. The optimized SWCNT-TFTs without any buffer layer on flexible substrates exhibit a linear field-effect mobility of 1.5cm2/V-s and a threshold voltage of around 0V. The statistical plot of the key device metrics extracted from 35 SWCNT-TFTs which were fabricated in different batches at different times conclusively support that we successfully demonstrated high-performance solution-processed SWCNT-TFT arrays which demand excellent uniformity in the device performance. We also investigate the operational stability of wearable SWCNT-TFT arrays against an applied strain of up to 40%, which is the essential for a harsh degree of strain on human body. We believe that the demonstration of flexible SWCNT-TFT arrays which were fabricated by all solution-process except the deposition of metal electrodes at process temperature below 130oC can open up new routes for wearable display backplanes.

  10. Fringing-field dielectrophoretic assembly of ultrahigh-density semiconducting nanotube arrays with a self-limited pitch

    Cao, Qing; Han, Shu-Jen; Tulevski, George S.

    2014-09-01

    One key challenge of realizing practical high-performance electronic devices based on single-walled carbon nanotubes is to produce electronically pure nanotube arrays with both a minuscule and uniform inter-tube pitch for sufficient device-packing density and homogeneity. Here we develop a method in which the alternating voltage-fringing electric field formed between surface microelectrodes and the substrate is utilized to assemble semiconducting nanotubes into well-aligned, ultrahigh-density and submonolayered arrays, with a consistent pitch as small as 21±6 nm determined by a self-limiting mechanism, based on the unique field focusing and screening effects of the fringing field. Field-effect transistors based on such nanotube arrays exhibit record high device transconductance (>50 μS μm-1) and decent on current per nanotube (~1 μA per tube) together with high on/off ratios at a drain bias of -1 V.

  11. INFLUENCE OF IONIZING IRRADIATION ON THE PARAMETERS OF ZN NANOTUBES ARRAYS FOR DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS ELEMENTS

    D. B. Kadyrzhanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is establishing the possibility of using Zn nanotube arrays as a basis for design compact and lightweight elements of flexible electronics, including operating under influence of ionizing irradiation.The paper presents the results of the synthesis of Zn nanotubes obtained by electrochemical deposition in the pores of polymer matrices and the study of their structural and electrophysical properties after directional modification by ionizing radiation with different doses. Using the methods of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive analysis, the structure of nanotubes having a polycrystalline structure and completely consisting of zinc was studied and it was demonstrated that irradiation with Ar8+ ions with a dose from 1 × 109 to 5 × 1011 ion/cm2 and energy 1.75 MeV/nucleon has an effect on the crystal structure of nanotubes.At high doses, localized highly defect zones arise, leading to a critical change in the structure and physical properties of the nanotubes, respectively. It is shown that the consequence of the modification of the crystal structure is a change in the electrical conductivity of nanotubes: at low doses the electrical conductivity increases, but when the threshold value is reached, it sharply decreases. The change in the crystal structure and the corresponding changes in the conductive properties of Zn nanotubes due to irradiation determine the mechanism of ionizing radiation influence on nanomaterials and determine the possibility of using Zn nanotubes arrays as a basis for creating compact and lightweight elements of flexible electronics.

  12. Electrochemically synthesized visible light absorbing vertically aligned N-doped TiO2 nanotube array films

    Antony, Rajini P.; Mathews, Tom; Ajikumar, P.K.; Krishna, D. Nandagopala; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Single step electrochemical synthesis of N-doped TiO 2 nanotube array films. ► Effective substitutional N-doping achieved. ► Different N-concentrations were achieved by varying the N-precursor concentration in the electrolyte. ► Visible light absorption observed at high N-doping. -- Abstract: Visible light absorbing vertically aligned N-doped anatase nanotube array thin films were synthesized by anodizing Ti foils in ethylene glycol + NH 4 F + water mixture containing urea as nitrogen source. Different nitrogen concentrations were achieved by varying the urea content in the electrolyte. The structure, morphology, composition and optical band gap of the nanotube arrays were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The substitution of O 2− ions by N 3− ions in the anion sublattice as well as the formulae of the doped samples was confirmed from the results of XPS. The optical band gap of the nanotube arrays was found to decrease with N-concentration. The sample with the highest concentration corresponding to the formula TiO 1.83 N 0.14 showed two regions in the Tauc's plot indicating the presence of interband states.

  13. Directed assembly of carbon nanotubes on soft substrates for use as a flexible biosensor array

    Koh, Juntae; Yang Lee, Byung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Hong, Seunghun; Yi, Mihye; Jhon, Young Min

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for use as flexible biosensors. In this strategy, a thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and a linker-free assembly process was applied on the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited a typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neurotransmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  14. Quasi-ballistic carbon nanotube array transistors with current density exceeding Si and GaAs

    Brady, Gerald J.; Way, Austin J.; Safron, Nathaniel S.; Evensen, Harold T.; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are tantalizing candidates for semiconductor electronics because of their exceptional charge transport properties and one-dimensional electrostatics. Ballistic transport approaching the quantum conductance limit of 2G0 = 4e2/h has been achieved in field-effect transistors (FETs) containing one CNT. However, constraints in CNT sorting, processing, alignment, and contacts give rise to nonidealities when CNTs are implemented in densely packed parallel arrays such as those needed for technology, resulting in a conductance per CNT far from 2G0. The consequence has been that, whereas CNTs are ultimately expected to yield FETs that are more conductive than conventional semiconductors, CNTs, instead, have underperformed channel materials, such as Si, by sixfold or more. We report quasi-ballistic CNT array FETs at a density of 47 CNTs μm−1, fabricated through a combination of CNT purification, solution-based assembly, and CNT treatment. The conductance is as high as 0.46 G0 per CNT. In parallel, the conductance of the arrays reaches 1.7 mS μm−1, which is seven times higher than the previous state-of-the-art CNT array FETs made by other methods. The saturated on-state current density is as high as 900 μA μm−1 and is similar to or exceeds that of Si FETs when compared at and equivalent gate oxide thickness and at the same off-state current density. The on-state current density exceeds that of GaAs FETs as well. This breakthrough in CNT array performance is a critical advance toward the exploitation of CNTs in logic, high-speed communications, and other semiconductor electronics technologies. PMID:27617293

  15. Aligned carbon nanotube array functionalization for enhanced atomic layer deposition of platinum electrocatalysts

    Dameron, Arrelaine A., E-mail: arrelaine.dameron@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Pylypenko, Svitlana; Bult, Justin B.; Neyerlin, K.C.; Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Bochert, Christopher; Leong, G. Jeremy; Frisco, Sarah L.; Simpson, Lin; Dinh, Huyen N.; Pivovar, Bryan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Uniform metal deposition onto high surface area supports is a key challenge of developing successful efficient catalyst materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) circumvents permeation difficulties, but relies on gas-surface reactions to initiate growth. Our work demonstrates that modified surfaces within vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, from plasma and molecular precursor treatments, can lead to improved catalyst deposition. Gas phase functionalization influences the number of ALD nucleation sites and the onset of ALD growth and, in turn, affects the uniformity of the coating along the length of the CNTs within the aligned arrays. The induced chemical changes for each functionalization route are identified by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The most effective functionalization routes increase the prevalence of oxygen moieties at defect sites on the carbon surfaces. The striking effects of the functionalization are demonstrated with ALD Pt growth as a function of surface treatment and ALD cycles examined by electron microscopy of the arrays and the individual CNTs. Finally, we demonstrate applicability of these materials as fuel cell electrocatalysts and show that surface functionalization affects their performance towards oxygen reduction reaction.

  16. Optical properties of ordered vertical arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes from FDTD simulations.

    Bao, Hua; Ruan, Xiulin; Fisher, Timothy S

    2010-03-15

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to model thermal radiative properties of vertical arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Individual CNTs are treated as solid circular cylinders with an effective dielectric tensor. Consistent with experiments, the results confirm that CNT arrays are highly absorptive. Compared with the commonly used Maxwell-Garnett theory, the FDTD calculations generally predict larger reflectance and absorbance, and smaller transmittance, which are attributed to the diffraction and scattering within the cylinder array structure. The effects of volume fraction, tube length, tube distance, and incident angle on radiative properties are investigated systematically. Low volume fraction and long tubes are more favorable to achieve low reflectance and high absorbance. For a fixed volume fraction and finite tube length, larger periodicity results in larger reflectance and absorbance. The angular dependence studies reveal an optimum incident angle at which the reflectance can be minimized. The results also suggest that an even darker material could be achieved by using CNTs with good alignment on the top surface.

  17. Substrate morphology induced self-organization into carbon nanotube arrays, ropes, and agglomerates.

    Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Guang-Hui; Qian, Wei-Zhong; Wei, Fei

    2008-10-29

    In this paper, hydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, ropes, and agglomerates were synthesized through self-organization on quartz substrates with different micro-structures under the same growth condition. On a flat substrate, a uniform woven structure was formed which resulted in a synchronous growth into an array. When the substrate with 10 µm round concaves distributed on the surface was adopted, the woven structure was sporadic and a CNT cluster was grown in the concave. With further growth, CNT ropes were self-organized. Subsequently, when the substrate consisting of irregular ∼100 nm gaps was used, the initial woven structure was high density, thus resulting in the formation of CNT agglomerates. Study results showed that CNT arrays grown on the flat substrate were of the highest purity and had a contact angle of 153.8 ± 0.9°. Thus, the self-organization behavior among CNTs was in situ modulated by different substrate morphology without further treatments. This provides us with an additional understanding of the self-organization of CNTs during growth, as well as strategies for the controllable synthesis of CNTs with fixed properties.

  18. Substrate morphology induced self-organization into carbon nanotube arrays, ropes, and agglomerates

    Huang Jiaqi; Zhang Qiang; Xu Guanghui; Qian Weizhong; Wei Fei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, hydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, ropes, and agglomerates were synthesized through self-organization on quartz substrates with different micro-structures under the same growth condition. On a flat substrate, a uniform woven structure was formed which resulted in a synchronous growth into an array. When the substrate with 10 μm round concaves distributed on the surface was adopted, the woven structure was sporadic and a CNT cluster was grown in the concave. With further growth, CNT ropes were self-organized. Subsequently, when the substrate consisting of irregular ∼100 nm gaps was used, the initial woven structure was high density, thus resulting in the formation of CNT agglomerates. Study results showed that CNT arrays grown on the flat substrate were of the highest purity and had a contact angle of 153.8 ± 0.9 0 . Thus, the self-organization behavior among CNTs was in situ modulated by different substrate morphology without further treatments. This provides us with an additional understanding of the self-organization of CNTs during growth, as well as strategies for the controllable synthesis of CNTs with fixed properties.

  19. Investigations of two types of superconducting arrays

    Niu, M.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation has two parts. Part one studies the anisotropy effect on homogeneous superconducting wire-networks, by using the Abrikosov approach. The networks assumed to have an infinite square lattice geometry. An anisotropy parameter R is defined to be the cross sectional area ratio of the vertical and horizontal strands. Many limiting behaviors of the order parameter distribution as R → ∞ are obtained. Many anisotropy-induced vortex configurational transitions are found at several Φ/Φ 0 values studied, and are investigated in detail. Part two studies the ground-state vortex configurations of the Josephson-coupled arrays of superconducting islands. The Ginzburg-Landau Josephson array model is used. With arrays of Penrose tiling geometry, the authors have found negative evidences against a proposed mechanism, and positive evidences for a new mechanism for generating commensurate states. But the mechanisms for the majority of the nontrivial commensurate states remain to be investigated. With arrays of infinite square lattice geometry, a temperature-induced vortex configurational transition at Φ/Φ 0 = 1/6 is found. The authors discover that the equilibrium vortex ground state of an infinite square-lattice array can occur in a unit cell of size other than q by q, or 2q by 2q, which has been widely accepted and commonly used so far

  20. Channeling of protons in various types of radially compressed carbon nanotubes

    Karabarbounis, A.; Sarros, S.; Trikalinos, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Channeling of 10 MeV protons in various types of radially compressed chiral carbon nanotubes is considered. Monte Carlo simulation program is used for the calculation of the trajectories, energy losses and angular distributions of protons in nanotubes of various lengths, where the potential in Doyle–Turner approximation is used to describe the interaction between a proton and a nanotube. Carbon nanotubes, which are considered, are radially compressed at the centre or at both ends. The results show that in some cases a decreased angular distribution of the beam is observed, compared with propagation through a straight nanotube. Furthermore, the energy distribution of channeled protons in nanotubes present a series of small peaks besides a main one, the number of which depends on the nanotube length and the angle of incidence, which in some cases are significantly high

  1. Channeling of protons in various types of radially compressed carbon nanotubes

    Karabarbounis, A. [Department of Physics, Section of Nuclear and Particle Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilissia, 15771 Athens (Greece); Sarros, S., E-mail: stsarros@phys.uoa.gr [Department of Physics, Section of Nuclear and Particle Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilissia, 15771 Athens (Greece); Trikalinos, Ch. [Department of Philosophy and History of Science, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilissia, 15771 Athens (Greece)

    2015-07-15

    Channeling of 10 MeV protons in various types of radially compressed chiral carbon nanotubes is considered. Monte Carlo simulation program is used for the calculation of the trajectories, energy losses and angular distributions of protons in nanotubes of various lengths, where the potential in Doyle–Turner approximation is used to describe the interaction between a proton and a nanotube. Carbon nanotubes, which are considered, are radially compressed at the centre or at both ends. The results show that in some cases a decreased angular distribution of the beam is observed, compared with propagation through a straight nanotube. Furthermore, the energy distribution of channeled protons in nanotubes present a series of small peaks besides a main one, the number of which depends on the nanotube length and the angle of incidence, which in some cases are significantly high.

  2. Observation of high Tc one dimensional superconductivity in 4 angstrom carbon nanotube arrays

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Yang; Chen, Qihong; Lai, Zhiping; Sheng, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The only known approach to fabricate large, uniform arrays of 4-Å single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is by using zeolite crystals as the template, in which the nanotubes are formed by chemical vapor deposition inside the linear channels of the AlPO-5 (AFI for short) zeolite. However, up to now the pore filling factor has been very low, as evidenced by the weight percentage of carbon in thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. In this work, we show that by using a new, micro-platelet AFI crystals as the template, combined with the use of a new CVD process, we can increase the TGA result to 22.5wt%, which translates to a pore filling factor of 91%. We have observed one dimensional (1D) superconductivity in such samples. The temperature dependence of resistance shows a smooth decreasing trend below 60 K, and the differential resistance displays a gap that disappears above the 1D superconducting initiation temperature. The observed behaviour is shown to agree very well with the theoretical predictions of 1D superconductivity.

  3. Exploring aligned-carbon-nanotubes@polyaniline arrays on household Al as supercapacitors.

    Huang, Fan; Lou, Fengliu; Chen, De

    2012-05-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a new approach towards the construction of supercapacitors consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and conducting polymers (ECPs) with high specific power, high specific energy, and stable cycling performance through a 3D design of a thin film of polyaniline (PANI) on an aligned small carbon nanotube (ACNT) array on household Al foils. The thin-film strategy is used to fully exploit the specific capacitance of PANI, and obtain regular pores, strong interaction between PANI and CNTs, and reduced electrical resistance for the electrodes. A facile process is developed to fabricate a highly flexible supercapacitor using this binder-free composite on household Al foil as the current collector. It exhibits high specific energy of 18.9 Wh kg(-1) , high maximum specific power of 11.3 kW kg(-1) of the active material in an aqueous electrolyte at 1.0 A g(-1) , and excellent rate performance and cycling stability. A high specific energy of 72.4 Wh kg(-1) , a high maximum specific power of 24.9 kW kg(-1) , and a good cycling performance of the active material are obtained in an organic electrolyte. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Observation of high Tc one dimensional superconductivity in 4 angstrom carbon nanotube arrays

    Zhang, Bing

    2017-02-14

    The only known approach to fabricate large, uniform arrays of 4-Å single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is by using zeolite crystals as the template, in which the nanotubes are formed by chemical vapor deposition inside the linear channels of the AlPO-5 (AFI for short) zeolite. However, up to now the pore filling factor has been very low, as evidenced by the weight percentage of carbon in thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. In this work, we show that by using a new, micro-platelet AFI crystals as the template, combined with the use of a new CVD process, we can increase the TGA result to 22.5wt%, which translates to a pore filling factor of 91%. We have observed one dimensional (1D) superconductivity in such samples. The temperature dependence of resistance shows a smooth decreasing trend below 60 K, and the differential resistance displays a gap that disappears above the 1D superconducting initiation temperature. The observed behaviour is shown to agree very well with the theoretical predictions of 1D superconductivity.

  5. Bacterial Stress and Osteoblast Responses on Graphene Oxide-Hydroxyapatite Electrodeposited on Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays

    Yardnapar Parcharoen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop bone implant material with excellent antibacterial and biocompatible properties, nanotubular titanium surface was coated with hydroxyapatite (HA and graphene oxide (GO. Layer-by-layer deposition was achieved by coating HA on an anodic-grown titanium dioxide nanotube array (ATi with electrolytic deposition, followed by coating with GO using anodic-electrophoretic deposition. The antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was determined based on the percentage of surviving bacteria and the amount of ribonucleic acid (RNA leakage and correlated with membrane disruption. The oxidative stress induced in both strains of bacteria by GO was determined by cyclic voltammetry and is discussed. Importantly, the antibacterial GO coatings on HA-ATi were not cytotoxic to preosteoblasts and promoted osteoblast proliferation after 5 days and calcium deposition after 21 days in standard cell culture conditions.

  6. Lithium storage study on MoO3-grafted TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Tauseef Anwar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TNAs were fabricated via anodic ionization. Porous MoO3 was grafted on TNAs with the help of hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction was utilized for the confirmation of one dimensional morphology and phase identification. The porous MoO3 nanoflake-grafted TNAs (MoO3/TNAs electrode was used as anode material in lithium ion battery (LIB and it was found that the areal specific capacity of MoO3/TNAs (~797 µAh cm−2 was three times higher than those of anatase TNAs (~287 µAh cm−2 and porous MoO3 (~234 µAh cm−2 at 50 µA cm−2.

  7. Field emission from carbon nanotube bundle arrays grown on self-aligned ZnO nanorods

    Li Chun; Fang Guojia; Yuan Longyan; Liu Nishuang; Ai Lei; Xiang Qi; Zhao Dongshan; Pan Chunxu; Zhao Xingzhong

    2007-01-01

    The field emission (FE) properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle arrays grown on vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) are reported. The ZNRs were first synthesized on ZnO-seed-coated Si substrate by the vapour phase transport method, and then the radically grown CNTs were grown directly on the surface of the ZNRs from ethanol flames. The CNT/ZNR composite showed a turn-on field of 1.5 V μm -1 (at 0.1 μA cm -2 ), a threshold field of 4.5 V μm -1 (at 1 mA cm -2 ) and a stable emission current with fluctuations of 5%, demonstrating significantly enhanced FE of ZNRs due to the low work function and high aspect ratio of the CNTs, and large surface-to-volume ratio of the underlying ZNRs

  8. Parameter optimization for Ag-coated TiO2 nanotube arrays as recyclable SERS substrates

    Sun, Yuyang; Yang, Lulu; Liao, Fan; Dang, Qian; Shao, Mingwang

    2018-06-01

    The Ag-coated titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (Ag-coated TNTs) are obtained via the deposition of Ag nanoparticles on the two-step anodized TNTs. The wall thickness of TNTs is modulated via finite difference time domain simulation to get the favorable electromagnetic field for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Ag-coated TNTs with optimal wall thickness of 20 nm were employed as the SERS substrates to detect 2-mercaptobenzoxazole, which show superior detection sensitivity and uniformity. In addition, due to the photocatalysis of TNTs, the SERS substrates could clean themselves and be repeatedly used by photo-degradation of target molecules under the ultra-violet irradiation. The Ag-coated TNTs are a kind of bifunctional SERS substrates which can produce high-quality SERS signals and reuse to reduce the cost.

  9. Titania nanotube arrays surface-modified with ZnO for enhanced photocatalytic applications

    Nageri, Manoj; Kalarivalappil, Vijila; Vijayan, Baiju K.; Kumar, Viswanathan, E-mail: vkumar10@yahoo.co.in

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Heterostructures of TNA/ZnO synthesised through potentiostatic anodisation followed by hydrothermal method. • Evaluation of morphological features of the heterostructure with hydrothermal processing time. • Correlation of photocatalytic activity of the hetrostructure with its morphology and surface texture. - Abstract: Well ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TNA) of average diameter 129 nm and wall thickness of 25 nm were fabricated through potentiostatic anodisation of titanium (Ti) metal substrates. Such TNA were subsequently surface-modified with various amounts of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowders using hydrothermal technique to obtain heterogeneous TNA/ZnO nanostructures. The crystalline phase and surface microstructure of the heterostructures were determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The morphology of the heterostructures strongly depended on the hydrothermal conditions employed. The photocatalytic activity of the heterostructures have also been investigated and correlated with their surface morphology and texture.

  10. Combined antenna and localized plasmon resonance in Raman scattering from random arrays of silver-coated, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Dawson, P; Duenas, J A; Boyle, M G; Doherty, M D; Bell, S E J; Kern, A M; Martin, O J F; Teh, A-S; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I

    2011-02-09

    The electric field enhancement associated with detailed structure within novel optical antenna nanostructures is modeled using the surface integral equation technique in the context of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The antennae comprise random arrays of vertically aligned, multiwalled carbon nanotubes dressed with highly granular Ag. Different types of "hot-spot" underpinning the SERS are identified, but contrasting characteristics are revealed. Those at the outer edges of the Ag grains are antenna driven with field enhancement amplified in antenna antinodes while intergrain hotspots are largely independent of antenna activity. Hot-spots between the tops of antennae leaning towards each other also appear to benefit from antenna amplification.

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cells employing doubly or singly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays: structural geometry and charge transport.

    Choi, Jongmin; Song, Seulki; Kang, Gyeongho; Park, Taiho

    2014-09-10

    We systematically investigated the charge transport properties of doubly or singly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays (DNT and SNT, respectively) for their utility as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The SNT or DNT arrays were transferred in a bottom-up (B-up) or top-up (T-up) configuration onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate onto which had been deposited a 2 μm thick TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) interlayer. This process yielded four types of DSCs prepared with SNTs (B-up or T-up) or DNT (B-up or T-up). The photovoltaic performances of these DSCs were analyzed by measuring the dependence of the charge transport on the DSC geometry. High resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the electrode cross sections, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the electrical connection at the interface between the NT array and the TiO2 NP interlayer. We examined the effects of decorating the DNT or SNT arrays with small NPs (sNP@DNT and sNP@SNT, respectively) in an effort to increase the extent of dye loading. The DNT arrays decorated with small NPs performed better than the decorated SNT arrays, most likely because the Ti(OH)4 precursor solution flowed freely into the array through the open ends of the NTs in the DNT case but not in the SNT case. The sNP@DNT-based DSC exhibited a better PCE (10%) compared to the sNP@SNT-based DSCs (6.8%) because the electrolyte solution flow was not restricted, direct electron transport though the NT arrays was possible, the electrical connection at the interface between the NT array and the TiO2 NP interlayer was good, and the array provided efficient light harvesting.

  12. Exploring hierarchical FeS2/C composite nanotubes arrays as advanced cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Pan, G. X.; Cao, F.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-11-01

    Rational construction of advanced FeS2 cathode is one of research hotspots, and of great importance for developing high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report a facile hydrolysis-sulfurization method for fabrication of FeS2/C nanotubes arrays with the help of sacrificial Co2(OH)2CO3 nanowires template and glucose carbonization. Self-supported FeS2/C nanotubes consist of interconnected nanoburrs of 5-20 nm, and show hierarchical porous structure. The FeS2/C nanotubes arrays are demonstrated with enhanced cycling life and noticeable high-rate capability with capacities ranging from 735 mAh g-1 at 0.25 C to 482 mAh g-1 at 1.5 C, superior to those FeS2 counterparts in the literature. The composite nanotubes arrays architecture plays positive roles in the electrochemical enhancement due to combined advantages of large electrode-electrolyte contact area, good strain accommodation, improved electrical conductivity, and enhanced structural stability.

  13. Fabrication of nano-electrode arrays of free-standing carbon nanotubes on nano-patterned substrate by imprint method

    Chang, W.S., E-mail: paul@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.W. [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, 36 Goeyeon-dong, Yeongcheon, Gyeongbuk 770-170 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, D.G. [Department of Nano Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Han, C.S. [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, 36 Goeyeon-dong, Yeongcheon, Gyeongbuk 770-170 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The synthesis of isolated carbon nanotubes with uniform outer diameters and ordered spacing over wafer-scale areas was investigated for fabrication of nano-electrode arrays on silicon wafers for field emission and sensor devices. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grown on TiN electrode layer with iron catalyst patterned by nano-imprint lithography (NIL), which allows the precise placement of individual CNTs on a substrate. The proposed techniques, including plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and NIL, are simple, inexpensive, and reproducible methods for fabrication of nano-scale devices in large areas. The catalyst patterns were defined by an array of circles with 200 nm in diameter, and variable lengths of pitch. The nano-patterned master and Fe catalyst were observed with good pattern fidelity over a large area by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-electrodes of MWCNTs had diameters ranging from 50 nm to 100 nm and lengths of about 300 nm. Field emission tests showed the reducing ignition voltage as the geometry of nanotube arrays was controlled by catalyst patterning. These results showed a wafer-scale approach to the control of the size, pitch, and position of nano-electrodes of nanotubes for various applications including electron field-emission sources, electrochemical probes, functionalized sensor elements, and so on.

  14. Enhancement in photo-electrochemical efficiency by reducing recombination rate in branched TiO2 nanotube array on functionalizing with ZnO micro crystals

    Boda, Muzaffar Ahmad; Ashraf Shah, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In this study, branched TiO2 nanotube array were fabricated through electrochemical anodization process at constant voltage using third generation electrolyte. On account of morphological advantage, these nanotubes shows significant enhancement in photo-electrochemical property than compact or conventional titania nanotube array. However, their photo-electrochemical efficiency intensifies on coating with ZnO micro-crystals. ZnO coated branched TiO2 nanotube array shows a photocurrent density of 27.8 mA cm‑2 which is 1.55 times the photocurrent density (17.2 mA cm‑2) shown by bare branched titania nanotubes. The significant enhancement in photocurrent density shown by the resulting ZnO/TiO2 hybrid structure is attributed to suppression in electron–hole recombination phenomenon by offering smooth pathway to photo generated excitons on account of staggered band edge positions in individual semiconductors.

  15. Photoelectrochemical performance of cadmium sulfide quantum dots modified titania nanotube arrays

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    The cadmium sulfide quantum dots modified titania nanotube arrays (CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs) were prepared through a sequential sonication-assisted chemical bath deposition (CBD) process. The morphology and microstructure of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical performance of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs was investigated under solar light illumination. The affecting parameters were studied including the nanotube length of TiO{sub 2} NTAs, CBD cycles of CdS QDs and the annealing treatment of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs. CdS QDs synthesized through 8 CBD cycles could uniformly cover on the tube walls of TiO{sub 2} NTAs to form unique CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs with an open pore mouth. The appropriate annealing treatment at 400 °C for 60 min in N{sub 2} atmosphere could improve the crystallinity of CdS QDs, and accordingly enhance the photovoltaic properties of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs. Significantly, the nanotube length was the predominant factor affecting photoelectrochemical performance of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs. The unannealed CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs with an optimal nanotube length of 12 μm achieved a short-circuit photocurrent density of 4.37 mA cm{sup −2}, an open circuit photovoltage of 1.10 V and a top photoconversion efficiency of 3.56%. Comparatively, the annealed CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs with an optimal nanotube length of 4 μm achieved a short-circuit photocurrent density of 6.31 mA cm{sup −2}, an open circuit photovoltage of 1.23 V and a top photoconversion efficiency of 4.18%. The suitable modification of crystalline CdS QDs could well improve the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO{sub 2} NTAs photoanode. - Highlights: • CdS QDs are uniformly loaded into short and long TiO{sub 2} NTAs to form CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs.

  16. Preparation of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube heterojunction arrays electrode and investigation of its photoelectrochemical properties

    Li, Tingting [School of Environmental Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning (China); College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning (China); Zhao, Qidong; Teng, Wei [School of Environmental Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning (China)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the synthesis steps of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction arrays electrode. - Highlights: • CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube heterojunction arrays electrode was successfully fabricated via a modified SILAR method. • Morphology, chemical compositions and the photoelectrochemical properties were studied. • The formed heterojunction structure is demonstrated as n–n type heterojunction. - Abstract: CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube heterojunction arrays electrode was synthesized via a modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition of the composite electrode were characterized with field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), respectively. The optical properties were investigated by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as well as the photoelectrochemical measurements. Significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTs electrode were observed under visible light irradiation, which could be attributed to the high absorption coefficient of CuInS{sub 2} in visible region and the heterostructure formed between CuInS{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}.

  17. Stationary chest tomosynthesis using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array: a feasibility study

    Shan, Jing; Lee, Yueh Z; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Tucker, Andrew W; Heath, Michael D; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H

    2015-01-01

    Chest tomosynthesis is a low-dose, quasi-3D imaging modality that has been demonstrated to improve the detection sensitivity for small lung nodules, compared to 2D chest radiography. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility and system requirements of stationary chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) using a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, where the projection images are collected by electronically activating individual x-ray focal spots in the source array without mechanical motion of the x-ray source, detector, or the patient. A bench-top system was constructed using an existing CNT field emission source array and a flat panel detector. The tube output, beam quality, focal spot size, system in-plane and in-depth resolution were characterized. Tomosynthesis slices of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were reconstructed for image quality assessment. All 75 CNT sources in the source array were shown to operate reliably at 80 kVp and 5 mA tube current. Source-to-source consistency in the tube current and focal spot size was observed. The incident air kerma reading per mAs was measured as 74.47 uGy mAs −1 at 100 cm. The first half value layer of the beam was 3 mm aluminum. An average focal spot size of 2.5  ×  0.5 mm was measured. The system MTF was measured to be 1.7 cycles mm −1 along the scanning direction, and 3.4 cycles mm −1 perpendicular to the scanning direction. As the angular coverage of 11.6°–34°, the full width at half maximum of the artifact spread function improved greatly from 9.5 to 5.2 mm. The reconstructed tomosynthesis slices clearly show airways and pulmonary vascular structures in the anthropomorphic lung phantom. The results show the CNT source array is capable of generating sufficient dose for chest tomosynthesis imaging. The results obtained so far suggest an s-DCT using a distributed CNT x-ray source array is feasible. (paper)

  18. Broadband Light Collection Efficiency Enhancement of Carbon Nanotube Excitons Coupled to Metallo-Dielectric Antenna Arrays

    Shayan, Kamran [Department; Rabut, Claire [Department; Kong, Xiaoqing [Department; Li, Xiangzhi [Department; Luo, Yue [Department; Mistry, Kevin S. [National Renewable; Blackburn, Jeffrey L. [National Renewable; Lee, Stephanie S. [Department; Strauf, Stefan [Department

    2017-11-09

    The realization of on-chip quantum networks ideally requires lossless interfaces between photons and solid-state quantum emitters. We propose and demonstrate on-chip arrays of metallo-dielectric antennas (MDA) that are tailored toward efficient and broadband light collection from individual embedded carbon nanotube quantum emitters by trapping air gaps on chip that form cavity modes. Scalable implementation is realized by employing polymer layer dry-transfer techniques that avoid solvent incompatibility issues, as well as a planar design that avoids solid-immersion lenses. Cryogenic measurements demonstrate 7-fold enhanced exciton intensity when compared to emitters located on bare wafers, corresponding to a light collection efficiency (LCE) up to 92% in the best case (average LCE of 69%) into a narrow output cone of +/-15 degrees that enables a priori fiber-to-chip butt coupling. The demonstrated MDA arrays are directly compatible with other quantum systems, particularly 2D materials, toward enabling efficient on-chip quantum light sources or spin-photon interfaces requiring unity light collection, both at cryogenic or room temperature.

  19. Nano-engineering of three-dimensional core/shell nanotube arrays for high performance supercapacitors

    Grote, Fabian; Wen, Liaoyong; Lei, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Large-scale arrays of core/shell nanostructures are highly desirable to enhance the performance of supercapacitors. Here we demonstrate an innovative template-based fabrication technique with high structural controllability, which is capable of synthesizing well-ordered three-dimensional arrays of SnO2/MnO2 core/shell nanotubes for electrochemical energy storage in supercapacitor applications. The SnO2 core is fabricated by atomic layer deposition and provides a highly electrical conductive matrix. Subsequently a thin MnO2 shell is coated by electrochemical deposition onto the SnO2 core, which guarantees a short ion diffusion length within the shell. The core/shell structure shows an excellent electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance of 910 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and a good rate capability of remaining 217 F g-1 at 50 A g-1. These results shall pave the way to realize aqueous based asymmetric supercapacitors with high specific power and high specific energy.

  20. Porosimetry and packing morphology of vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays via impedance spectroscopy.

    Mutha, Heena K; Lu, Yuan; Stein, Itai; Cho, H Jeremy; Suss, Matthew; Laoui, Tahar; Thompson, Carl; Wardle, Brian; Wang, Evelyn

    2016-12-13

    Vertically aligned one-dimensional nanostructure arrays are promising in many applications such as electrochemical systems, solar cells, and electronics, taking advantage of high surface area per unit volume, nanometer length scale packing, and alignment leading to high conductivity. However, many devices need to optimize arrays for device performance by selecting an appropriate morphology. Developing a simple, non-invasive tool for understanding the role of pore volume distribution and interspacing would aid in the optimization of nanostructure morphologies in electrodes. In this work, we combined electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with capacitance measurements and porous electrode theory to conduct in situ porosimetry of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) non-destructively. We utilized the EIS measurements with a pore size distribution model to quantify the average and dispersion of inter-CNT spacing (Γ), stochastically, in carpets that were mechanically densified from 1.7 × 1010 tubes/cm2 to 4.5 × 1011 tubes/cm2. Our analysis predicts that the inter-CNT spacing ranges from over 100 ± 50 nm in sparse carpets to sub 10 ± 5 nm in packed carpets. Our results suggest that waviness of CNTs leads to variations in the inter-CNT spacing, which can be significant in sparse carpets. This methodology can be used to predict the performance of many nanostructured devices, including supercapacitors, batteries, solar cells, and semiconductor electronics. Copyright 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Far infrared thermal detectors for laser radiometry using a carbon nanotube array

    Lehman, John H.; Lee, Bob; Grossman, Erich N.

    2011-07-20

    We present a description of a 1.5 mm long, vertically aligned carbon nanotube array (VANTA) on a thermopile and separately on a pyroelectric detector. Three VANTA samples, having average lengths of 40 {mu}m, 150 {mu}m, and 1.5 mm were evaluated with respect to reflectance at a laser wavelength of 394 {mu}m(760 GHz), and we found that the reflectance decreases substantially with increasing tube length, ranging from 0.38 to 0.23 to 0.01, respectively. The responsivity of the thermopile by electrical heating (98.4 mA/W) was equal to that by optical heating (98.0 mA/W) within the uncertainty of the measurement. We analyzed the frequency response and temporal response and found a thermal decay period of 500 ms, which is consistent with the specific heat of comparable VANTAs in the literature. The extremely low (0.01) reflectance of the 1.5 mm VANTAs and the fact that the array is readily transferable to the detector's surface is, to our knowledge, unprecedented.

  2. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays as Efficient Supports for Faradaic Capacitive Electrodes

    Oguntoye, Moses; Holleran, Mary-Kate; Roberts, Katherine; Pesika, Noshir

    Supercapacitors are notable for their ability to deliver energy at higher power (compared to batteries) and store energy at higher density (compared to capacitors) as well as exhibit a long cycle life. In our efforts to further the development of supercapacitors, our focus is on using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) as supports for faradaic capacitive electrode materials. The objective is to develop electrodes functioning in an inexpensive aqueous environment with small potential windows, that store energy at a higher density than carbon materials alone. We describe the different approaches explored to overcome the challenges of non-uniform deposition, poor wetting and array collapse. Materials that are electrochemically anchored to VACNT supports include NiCo2O4, VOx, Fe2O3 and Co-Mn mixed oxides. In each case, the specific capacitance obtained using the VACNT arrays as supports is significantly more than that obtained by direct deposition onto current collectors or by using VACNT alone. The ease of VACNT growth and the degree of coating control achievable using electrodeposition means there is much potential in exploring them as supports for capacitive electrode materials.

  3. Ultrasound enhanced release of therapeutics from drug-releasing implants based on titania nanotube arrays.

    Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2013-02-25

    A non-invasive and external stimulus-driven local drug delivery system (DDS) based on titania nanotube (TNT) arrays loaded with drug encapsulated polymeric micelles as drug carriers and ultrasound generator is described. Ultrasound waves (USW) generated by a pulsating sonication probe (Sonotrode) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.2 as the medium for transmitting pressure waves, were used to release drug-loaded nano-carriers from the TNT arrays. It was demonstrated that a very rapid release in pulsatile mode can be achieved, controlled by several parameters on the ultrasonic generator. This includes pulse length, time, amplitude and power intensity. By optimization of these parameters, an immediate drug-micelles release of 100% that spans a desirable time of 5-50 min was achieved. It was shown that stimulated release can be generated and reproduced at any time throughout the TNT-Ti implant life, suggesting considerable potential of this approach as a feasible and tunable ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system in situ via drug-releasing implants. It is expected that this concept can be translated from an in vitro to in vivo regime for therapeutic applications using drug-releasing implants in orthopedic and coronary stents. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A one-step technique to prepare aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes

    Mahanandia, Pitamber [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)], E-mail: pitam@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2008-04-16

    A simple effective pyrolysis technique has been developed to synthesize aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without using any carrier gas in a single-stage furnace at 700 deg. C. This technique eliminates nearly the entire complex and expensive machinery associated with other extensively used methods for preparation of CNTs such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and pyrolysis. Carbon source materials such as xylene, cyclohexane, camphor, hexane, toluene, pyridine and benzene have been pyrolyzed separately with the catalyst source material ferrocene to obtain aligned arrays of MWCNTs. The synthesized CNTs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman spectroscopy. In this technique, the need for the tedious and time-consuming preparation of metal catalysts and continuously fed carbon source material containing carrier gas can be avoided. This method is a single-step process where not many parameters are required to be monitored in order to prepare aligned MWCNTs. For the production of CNTs, the technique has great advantages such as low cost and easy operation.

  5. Rate-independent dissipation and loading direction effects in compressed carbon nanotube arrays

    Raney, J R; Fraternali, F; Daraio, C

    2013-01-01

    Arrays of nominally-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under compression deform locally via buckling, exhibit a foam-like, dissipative response, and can often recover most of their original height. We synthesize millimeter-scale CNT arrays and report the results of compression experiments at different strain rates, from 10 −4 to 10 −1 s −1 , and for multiple compressive cycles to different strains. We observe that the stress–strain response proceeds independently of the strain rate for all tests, but that it is highly dependent on loading history. Additionally, we examine the effect of loading direction on the mechanical response of the system. The mechanical behavior is modeled using a multiscale series of bistable springs. This model captures the rate independence of the constitutive response, the local deformation, and the history-dependent effects. We develop here a macroscopic formulation of the model to represent a continuum limit of the mesoscale elements developed previously. Utilizing the model and our experimental observations we discuss various possible physical mechanisms contributing to the system’s dissipative response. (paper)

  6. Estimation of surface impedance using different types of microphone arrays

    Richard, Antoine Philippe André; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates microphone array methods to measure the angle dependent surface impedance of acoustic materials. The methods are based on the reconstruction of the sound field on the surface of the material, using a wave expansion formulation. The reconstruction of both the pressure...... and the particle velocity leads to an estimation of the surface impedance for a given angle of incidence. A porous type absorber sample is tested experimentally in anechoic conditions for different array geometries, sample sizes, incidence angles, and distances between the array and sample. In particular......, the performances of a rigid spherical array and a double layer planar array are examined. The use of sparse array processing methods and conventional regulariation approaches are studied. In addition, the influence of the size of the sample on the surface impedance estimation is investigated using both...

  7. Field emission from optimized structure of carbon nanotube field emitter array

    Chouhan, V.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S.

    2016-01-01

    The authors report a detail study on the emission properties of field emitter array (FEA) of micro-circular emitters of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The FEAs were fabricated on patterned substrates prepared with an array of circular titanium (Ti) islands on titanium nitride coated tantalum substrates. CNTs were rooted into these Ti islands to prepare an array of circular emitters. The circular emitters were prepared in different diameters and pitches in order to optimize their structure for acquiring a high emission current. The pitch was varied from 0 to 600 μm, while a diameter of circular emitters was kept constant to be 50 μm in order to optimize a pitch. For diameter optimization, a diameter was changed from 50 to 200 μm while keeping a constant edge-to-edge distance of 150 μm between the circular emitters. The FEA with a diameter of 50 μm and a pitch of 120 μm was found to be the best to achieve an emission current of 47 mA corresponding to an effective current density of 30.5 A/cm"2 at 7 V/μm. The excellent emission current was attributed to good quality of CNT rooting into the substrate and optimized FEA structure, which provided a high electric field on a whole circular emitter of 50 μm and the best combination of the strong edge effect and CNT coverage. The experimental results were confirmed with computer simulation.

  8. Field emission from optimized structure of carbon nanotube field emitter array

    Chouhan, V., E-mail: vchouhan@post.kek.jp, E-mail: vijaychouhan84@gmail.com [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Noguchi, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kato, S. [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-04-07

    The authors report a detail study on the emission properties of field emitter array (FEA) of micro-circular emitters of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The FEAs were fabricated on patterned substrates prepared with an array of circular titanium (Ti) islands on titanium nitride coated tantalum substrates. CNTs were rooted into these Ti islands to prepare an array of circular emitters. The circular emitters were prepared in different diameters and pitches in order to optimize their structure for acquiring a high emission current. The pitch was varied from 0 to 600 μm, while a diameter of circular emitters was kept constant to be 50 μm in order to optimize a pitch. For diameter optimization, a diameter was changed from 50 to 200 μm while keeping a constant edge-to-edge distance of 150 μm between the circular emitters. The FEA with a diameter of 50 μm and a pitch of 120 μm was found to be the best to achieve an emission current of 47 mA corresponding to an effective current density of 30.5 A/cm{sup 2} at 7 V/μm. The excellent emission current was attributed to good quality of CNT rooting into the substrate and optimized FEA structure, which provided a high electric field on a whole circular emitter of 50 μm and the best combination of the strong edge effect and CNT coverage. The experimental results were confirmed with computer simulation.

  9. Characteristics of N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by N{sub 2}-plasma for visible light-driven photocatalysis

    Liu Xu [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Liu Zhongqing, E-mail: 301zql@vip.sina.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zheng Jian; Yan Xin; Li Dandan; Chen Si [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chu Wei, E-mail: chuwei1965_scu@yahoo.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > A new pathway is provided to prepare N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays using N{sub 2}-plasma treatment. > N{sub 2}-plasma treatment did not wreck the structure of nanotube arrays. > Nitrogen doping promoted the phase transition to rutile phase at low annealing temperatures > Nitrogen doping narrow band gap of TiO{sub 2} and improve the photocatalytic activity of samples. - Abstract: N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by electrochemical anode oxidation of Ti foil followed by treatment with N{sub 2}-plasma and subsequent annealed under Ar atmosphere. The morphologies, composition and optical properties of N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction spectrometer (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis diffusion reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). Methylene blue (MB) solution was utilized as the degradation model to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the samples under visible light irradiation. The results suggested N{sub 2}-plasma treatment created doping of nitrogen onto the surface of photoelectrodes successfully and the N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays display a significantly enhancement of the photocatalytic activity comparing with the pure TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays under the visible light irradiation.

  10. 1D goes 2D: A Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in superconducting arrays of 4-Angstrom carbon nanotubes

    Wang, Zhe

    2010-10-01

    We report superconducting resistive transition characteristics for array(s) of coupled 4-Angstrom single wall carbon nanotubes embedded in aluminophosphate-five zeolite. The transition was observed to initiate at 15 K with a slow resistance decrease switching to a sharp, order of magnitude drop between 7.5 and 6.0 K with strong (anisotropic) magnetic field dependence. Both the sharp resistance drop and its attendant nonlinear IV characteristics are consistent with the manifestations of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition that establishes quasi long range order in the plane transverse to the c-axis of the nanotubes, leading to an inhomogeneous system comprising 3D superconducting regions connected by weak links. Global coherence is established at below 5 K with the appearance of a well-defined supercurrent gap/low resistance region at 2 K. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A Porous Perchlorate-Doped Polypyrrole Nanocoating on Nickel Nanotube Arrays for Stable Wide-Potential-Window Supercapacitors.

    Chen, Gao-Feng; Li, Xian-Xia; Zhang, Li-Yi; Li, Nan; Ma, Tian Yi; Liu, Zhao-Qing

    2016-09-01

    A bottom-up synthetic strategy is developed to fabricate a highly porous wave-superposed perchlorate-doped polypyrrole nanocoating on nickel nanotube arrays. The delicate nanostructure and the unique surface chemistry synergistically endow the obtained electrode with revealable pseudocapacitance, large operating potential window, and excellent cycling stability, which are highly promising for both asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Polyoxometalate-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode materials for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells

    Liu, Ran; Sun, Zhixia; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Xu, Lin; Li, Na

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we prepared for the first time the TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) photoanode with polyoxometalate(POMs)-modified TiO2 electron-transport layer for improving the performance of zinc phthalocyanine(ZnPc)-sensitized solar cells. The as-prepared POMs/TNAs/ZnPc composite photoanode exhibited higher photovoltaic performances than the TNAs/ZnPc photoanode, so that the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device based on the POMs/TNAs/ZnPc photoanode displayed a notable improvement of 45%. These results indicated that the POMs play a key role in reducing charge recombination in phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells, together with TiO2 nanotube arrays being helpful for electron transport. The mechanism of the performance improvement was demonstrated by the measurements of electrochemical impedance spectra and open-circuit voltage decay curves. Although the resulting performance is still below that of the state-of-the-art dye-sensitized solar cells, this study presents a new insight into improving the power conversion efficiency of phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells via polyoxometalate-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode.

  13. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications.

    Penza, M; Rossi, R; Alvisi, M; Serra, E

    2010-03-12

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) layers were synthesized on Fe-coated low-cost alumina substrates using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology. A miniaturized CNT-based gas sensor array was developed for monitoring landfill gas (LFG) at a temperature of 150 degrees C. The sensor array was composed of 4 sensing elements with unmodified CNT, and CNT loaded with 5 nm nominally thick sputtered nanoclusters of platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru) and silver (Ag). Chemical analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures constituted of CO(2), CH(4), H(2), NH(3), CO and NO(2) has been performed by the array sensor responses and pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA results demonstrate that the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor array is able to discriminate the NO(2) presence in the multicomponent mixture LFG. The NO(2) gas detection in the mixture LFG was proved to be very sensitive, e.g.: the CNT:Ru sensor shows a relative change in the resistance of 1.50% and 0.55% for NO(2) concentrations of 3.3 ppm and 330 ppb dispersed in the LFG, respectively, with a wide NO(2) gas concentration range measured from 0.33 to 3.3 ppm, at the sensor temperature of 150 degrees C. The morphology and structure of the CNT networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. A forest-like nanostructure of vertically aligned CNT bundles in the multi-walled form appeared with a height of about 10 microm and a single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5-35 nm. The intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy D-peak and G-peak indicates the presence of disorder and defects in the CNT networks. The size of the metal (Pt, Ru, Ag) nanoclusters decorating the CNT top surface varies in the range of 5-50 nm. Functional characterization based on electrical charge transfer sensing mechanisms in the metal-modified CNT-chemoresistor array

  14. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  15. Effect of hydrophilicity of carbon nanotube arrays on the release rate and activity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Han Zhaojun; Ostrikov, Kostya [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Tan, Cher Ming; Tay, Beng Kang [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Peel, Sean A F, E-mail: zhaojun.han@csiro.au [Department of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5G 1G6 (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Novel nanostructures such as vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have received increasing interest as drug delivery carriers. In the present study, two CNT arrays with extreme surface wettabilities are fabricated and their effects on the release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) are investigated. It is found that the superhydrophilic arrays retained a larger amount of rhBMP-2 than the superhydrophobic ones. Further use of a poloxamer diffusion layer delayed the initial burst and resulted in a greater total amount of rhBMP-2 released from both surfaces. In addition, rhBMP-2 bound to the superhydrophilic CNT arrays remained bioactive while they denatured on the superhydrophobic surfaces. These results are related to the combined effects of rhBMP-2 molecules interacting with poloxamer and the surface, which could be essential in the development of advanced carriers with tailored surface functionalities.

  16. Effect of density variation and non-covalent functionalization on the compressive behavior of carbon nanotube arrays

    Misra, A [Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Raney, J R; Craig, A E; Daraio, C, E-mail: daraio@caltech.edu [Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been proposed for different applications, including electrochemical energy storage and shock-absorbing materials. Understanding their mechanical response, in relation to their structural characteristics, is important for tailoring the synthesis method to the different operational conditions of the material. In this paper, we grow vertically aligned CNT arrays using a thermal chemical vapor deposition system, and we study the effects of precursor flow on the structural and mechanical properties of the CNT arrays. We show that the CNT growth process is inhomogeneous along the direction of the precursor flow, resulting in varying bulk density at different points on the growth substrate. We also study the effects of non-covalent functionalization of the CNTs after growth, using surfactant and nanoparticles, to vary the effective bulk density and structural arrangement of the arrays. We find that the stiffness and peak stress of the materials increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density.

  17. In situ synthesis of oriented NiS nanotube arrays on FTO as high-performance counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan-nwnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Chang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Zhao, Yun [Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-wei [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Oriented nickel sulfide (NiS) nanotube arrays were successfully in-situ fabricated on conductive glass substrate and used directly as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells without any post-processing. Compared with Pt counter electrode, for the beneficial effect of electronic transport along the axial direction through the arrays to the substrate, oriented NiS nanotube arrays exhibit both higher electrocatalytic activity for I{sub 3}{sup −} reduction and better electrochemical stability, resulting in a significantly improved power conversion efficiency of 9.8%. Such in-situ grown oriented sulfide semiconductor nanotube arrays is expected to lead a new class structure of composites for highly efficient cathode materials. - Highlights: • In-situ synthesis strategy was proposed to construct oriented NiS nanotube arrays. • Such oriented tube nanostructure benefits the electronic transport along the axial direction of the arrays. • As CE of DSSCs, NiS nanotube arrays exhibit both higher efficiency (9.8%) and electrochemical stability than Pt.

  18. High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array.

    Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Shan, Jing; Yang, Guang; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of increasing the system spatial resolution and scanning speed of Hologic Selenia Dimensions digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner by replacing the rotating mammography x-ray tube with a specially designed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, which generates all the projection images needed for tomosynthesis reconstruction by electronically activating individual x-ray sources without any mechanical motion. The stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) design aims to (i) increase the system spatial resolution by eliminating image blurring due to x-ray tube motion and (ii) reduce the scanning time. Low spatial resolution and long scanning time are the two main technical limitations of current DBT technology. A CNT x-ray source array was designed and evaluated against a set of targeted system performance parameters. Simulations were performed to determine the maximum anode heat load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics. Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended period of time to determine the stable life time of CNT cathode for an expected clinical operation scenario. The source array was manufactured, tested, and integrated with a Selenia scanner. An electronic control unit was developed to interface the source array with the detection system and to scan and regulate x-ray beams. The performance of the s-DBT system was evaluated using physical phantoms. The spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array comprised 31 individually addressable x-ray sources covering a 30 angular span with 1 pitch and an isotropic focal spot size of 0.6 mm at full width at half-maximum. Stable operation at 28 kV(peak) anode voltage and 38 mA tube current was demonstrated with extended lifetime and good source-to-source consistency. For the standard imaging protocol of 15 views over 14, 100 mAs dose, and 2 × 2 detector binning, the projection

  19. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting performance of anodic TiO(2) nanotube arrays by surface passivation.

    Gui, Qunfang; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Haifeng; Cheng, Chuanwei; Zhu, Xufei; Yin, Min; Song, Ye; Lu, Linfeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-08

    One-dimensional anodic titanium oxide nanotube (TONT) arrays provide a direct pathway for charge transport, and thus hold great potential as working electrodes for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices. However, the prominent surface recombination due to the large amount surface defects hinders the performance improvement. In this work, the surface states of TONTs were passivated by conformal coating of high-quality Al2O3 onto the tubular structures using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The modified TONT films were subsequently employed as anodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The photocurrent (0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl) recorded under air mass 1.5 global illumination presented 0.8 times enhancement on the electrode with passivation coating. The reduction of surface recombination rate is responsible for the substantially improved performance, which is proposed to have originated from a decreased interface defect density in combination with a field-effect passivation induced by a negative fixed charge in the Al2O3 shells. These results not only provide a physical insight into the passivation effect, but also can be utilized as a guideline to design other energy conversion devices.

  20. Near-field radiation between graphene-covered carbon nanotube arrays

    Zhang, Richard Z.; Liu, Xianglei; Zhang, Zhuomin M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    It has been shown that at small separation distances, thermal radiation between hyperbolic metamaterials is enhanced over blackbodies. This theoretical study considers near-field radiation when graphene is covered on the surfaces of two semi-infinite vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays separated by a sub-micron vacuum gap. Doped graphene is found to improve photon tunneling in a broad hyperbolic frequency range, due to the interaction with graphene-graphene surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). In order to elucidate the SPP resonance between graphene on hyperbolic substrates, vacuum-suspended graphene sheets separated by similar gap distances are compared. Increasing the Fermi energy through doping shifts the spectral heat flux peak toward higher frequencies. Although the presence of graphene on VACNT does not offer huge near-field heat flux enhancement over uncovered VACNT, this study identifies conditions (i.e., gap distance and doping level) that best utilize graphene to augment near-field radiation. Through the investigation of spatial Poynting vectors, heavily doped graphene is found to increase penetration depths in hyperbolic modes and the result is sensitive to the frequency regime. This study may have an impact on designing carbon-based vacuum thermophotovoltaics and thermal switches.

  1. Stationary intraoral digital tomosynthesis using a carbon nanotube X-ray source array.

    Shan, J; Tucker, A W; Gaalaas, L R; Wu, G; Platin, E; Mol, A; Lu, J; Zhou, O

    2015-01-01

    Intraoral dental tomosynthesis and closely related tuned-aperture CT (TACT) are low-dose three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities that have shown improved detection of multiple dental diseases. Clinical interest in implementing these technologies waned owing to their time-consuming nature. Recently developed carbon nanotube (CNT) X-ray sources allow rapid multi-image acquisition without mechanical motion, making tomosynthesis a clinically viable technique. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the feasibility of and produce high-quality images from a digital tomosynthesis system employing CNT X-ray technology. A test-bed stationary intraoral tomosynthesis unit was constructed using a CNT X-ray source array and a digital intraoral sensor. The source-to-image distance was modified to make the system comparable in image resolution to current two-dimensional intraoral radiography imaging systems. Anthropomorphic phantoms containing teeth with simulated and real caries lesions were imaged using a dose comparable to D-speed film dose with a rectangular collimation. Images were reconstructed and analysed. Tomosynthesis images of the phantom and teeth specimen demonstrated perceived image quality equivalent or superior to standard digital images with the added benefit of 3D information. The ability to "scroll" through slices in a buccal-lingual direction significantly improved visualization of anatomical details. In addition, the subjective visibility of dental caries was increased. Feasibility of the stationary intraoral tomosynthesis is demonstrated. The results show clinical promise and suitability for more robust observer and clinical studies.

  2. Oriented Polyaniline Nanowire Arrays Grown on Dendrimer (PAMAM) Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Jin, Lin; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Mengjie; Li, Honglong; Xiao, Linghan; Li, Ming; Ao, Yuhui

    2018-04-19

    At present, PANI/MWNT composites have been paid more attention as promising electrode materials in supercapacitors. Yet some shortcomings still limit the widely application of PANI/MWNT electrolytes. In this work, in order to improve capacitance ability and long-term stability of electrode, a multi-amino dendrimer (PAMAM) had been covalently linked onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as a bridge to facilitating covalent graft of polyaniline (PANI), affording P-MWNT/PANI electrode composites for supercapacitor. Surprisingly, ordered arrays of PANI nanowires on MWNT (setaria-like morphology) had been observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical properties of P-MWNT/PANI electrode had been characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge technique. The specific capacitance and long cycle life of P-MWNT-PANI electrode material were both much higher than MWNT/PANI. These interesting results indicate that multi-amino dendrimer, PAMAM, covalently linked on MWNT provides more reaction sites for in-situ polymerization of ordered PANI, which could efficiently shorten the ion diffusion length in electrolytes and lead to making fully use of conducting materials.

  3. Fabrication of PANI/C-TiO2 Composite Nanotube Arrays Electrode for Supercapacitor

    Chengcheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline/carbon doped TiO2 composite nanotube arrays (PANI/C-TiO2 NTAs have been prepared successfully by electrodepositing PANI in C-TiO2 NTAs which were prepared by directly annealing the as-anodized TiO2 NTAs under Ar atmosphere. The organic residual in the TiO2 NTAs during the process of anodization acts as carbon source and is carbonized in Ar atmosphere to manufacture the C-TiO2 NTAs. The specific capacitance of the PANI/C-TiO2 electrode is 120.8 mF cm−2 at a current density of 0.1 mA cm−2 and remains 104.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 with the calculated rate performance of 86.3%. After 5000 times of charge-discharge cycling at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2, the specific capacitance retains 88.7% compared to the first cycle. All these outstanding performances of the as-prepared PANI/C-TiO2 NTAs indicate it will be a promising electrode for supercapacitor.

  4. Cellular Homeostasis and Antioxidant Response in Epithelial HT29 Cells on Titania Nanotube Arrays Surface

    Rabiatul Basria SMN Mydin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell growth and proliferative activities on titania nanotube arrays (TNA have raised alerts on genotoxicity risk. Present toxicogenomic approach focused on epithelial HT29 cells with TNA surface. Fledgling cell-TNA interaction has triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrests and initiates DNA damage surveillance checkpoint, which possibly indicated the cellular stress stimuli. A profound gene regulation was observed to be involved in cellular growth and survival signals such as p53 and AKT expressions. Interestingly, the activation of redox regulator pathways (antioxidant defense was observed through the cascade interactions of GADD45, MYC, CHECK1, and ATR genes. These mechanisms furnish to protect DNA during cellular division from an oxidative challenge, set in motion with XRRC5 and RAD50 genes for DNA damage and repair activities. The cell fate decision on TNA-nanoenvironment has been reported to possibly regulate proliferative activities via expression of p27 and BCL2 tumor suppressor proteins, cogent with SKP2 and BCL2 oncogenic proteins suppression. Findings suggested that epithelial HT29 cells on the surface of TNA may have a positive regulation via cell-homeostasis mechanisms: a careful circadian orchestration between cell proliferation, survival, and death. This nanomolecular knowledge could be beneficial for advanced medical applications such as in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutics.

  5. Structural and morphological transformations of TiO2 nanotube arrays induced by excimer laser treatment

    Hsu, Ming-Yi; Thang, Nguyen Van; Wang Chih; Leu Jihperng

    2012-01-01

    The structural and morphological transformations of TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) were investigated as a function of the laser fluence using parallel and tilted modes. Results showed that the crystallinity of the ELA-treated TNAs reached only about 50% relative to that of TNAs treated by furnace anneal at 400 °C for 1 h. The phase transformation starts from the top surface of the TNAs with surface damage resulting from short penetration depth and limited one-dimensional heat transport from the surface to the bottom under extremely short pulse duration (25 ns) of the excimer laser. When a tilted mode was used, the crystallinity of TNAs treated by ELA at 85° was increased to 90% relative to that by the furnace anneal. This can be attributed to the increased area of the laser energy interaction zone and better heat conduction to both ends of the TNAs. - Highlights: ► We examined the morphology and microstructure of TNAs treated by ELA. ► Crystallinity of parallel ELA-treated TNAs reached ∼50% of furnace anneal. ► Tilted ELA at 85o enhanced the degree of crystallization in TNAs to 90%.

  6. Design of Pd/PANI/Pd sandwich-structured nanotube array catalysts with special shape effects and synergistic effects for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Wang, An-Liang; Xu, Han; Feng, Jin-Xian; Ding, Liang-Xin; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-07-24

    Low cost, high activity, and long-term durability are the main requirements for commercializing fuel cell electrocatalysts. Despite tremendous efforts, developing non-Pt anode electrocatalysts with high activity and long-term durability at low cost remains a significant technical challenge. Here we report a new type of hybrid Pd/PANI/Pd sandwich-structured nanotube array (SNTA) to exploit shape effects and synergistic effects of Pd-PANI composites for the oxidation of small organic molecules for direct alcohol fuel cells. These synthesized Pd/PANI/Pd SNTAs exhibit significantly improved electrocatalytic activity and durability compared with Pd NTAs and commercial Pd/C catalysts. The unique SNTAs provide fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species and high utilization rate of catalysts. Besides the merits of nanotube arrays, the improved electrocatalytic activity and durability are especially attributed to the special Pd/PANI/Pd sandwich-like nanostructures, which results in electron delocalization between Pd d orbitals and PANI π-conjugated ligands and in electron transfer from Pd to PANI.

  7. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-28

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (∼1470 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability with ∼98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg(-1)), a high power density (27.5 kW kg(-1)) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.

  8. Direct electrodeposition of gold nanotube arrays of rough and porous wall by cyclic voltammetry and its applications of simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    Yang Guangming; Li Ling; Jiang Jinhe; Yang Yunhui

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanotube arrays of rough and porous wall has been synthesized by direct electrodeposition with cyclic voltammetry utilizing anodic aluminum oxide template (AAO) and polycarbonate membrane (PC) during short time (only 3 min and 2 min, respectively). The mechanism of the direct electrodeposition of gold nanotube arrays by cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been discussed. The morphological characterizations of the gold nanotube arrays have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was constructed by attaching gold nanotube arrays (using AAO) onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behavior of AA and UA at this modified electrode has been studied by CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The sensor offers an excellent response for AA and UA and the linear response range for AA and UA were 1.02 × 10 −7 –5.23 × 10 −4 mol L −1 and 1.43 × 10 −7 –4.64 × 10 −4 mol L −1 , the detection limits were 1.12 × 10 −8 mol L −1 and 2.24 × 10 −8 mol L −1 , respectively. This sensor shows good regeneration, stability and selectivity and has been used for the determination of AA and UA in real human urine and serum samples with satisfied results. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram of formation of Au nanotube arrays (a) and the stepwise procedure of the sensor (b). Highlights: ► Gold nanotubes array has been synthesized by cyclic voltammetry. ► The mechanism of deposition of gold nanotube has been discussed. ► A determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid was constructed by gold array. ► A satisfied determination of samples can be obtained by this sensor.

  9. Direct electrodeposition of highly ordered gold nanotube arrays for use in non-enzymatic amperometric sensing of glucose

    Tian, Taolei; Dong, Junping; Xu, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe vertically aligned gold nanotube arrays (Au-NTAs) and gold nanowire arrays (Au-NWAs) that were directly grown in alumina oxide templates by galvanostatic deposition. The morphology of the gold arrays can be controlled by adjusting the pH value of the plating bath. Scanning electron microscopy shows the nanoarrays to be highly ordered (with an average length of around 2 μm), and the opening width of the gold nanotube arrays to be uniform (with diameters of around 50 nm). The electrocatalytic activities of the Au-NTAs and Au-NWAs deposited on a glassy carbon electrode toward glucose oxidation were compared by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry at pH 7.2. The Au-NTAs yield higher amperometric currents. The respective glucose sensor, when operated at a working potential of 0.25 V (vs. SCE), exhibits a linear range that extends from 5 μM to 16.4 mM concentrations of glucose, a sensitivity of 44.2 μA mM"−"1 cm"−"2, and a detection limit of 2.1 μM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The excellent sensing performance is attributed to the large surface area and the fast electron transfer rate for the one-dimensional gold nanoarrays (author)

  10. Dependently typed array programs don’t go wrong

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2009-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  11. Dependently typed array programs don't go wrong

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2008-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  12. Visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of Cr-doped SrTiO3/TiO2 heterostructured nanotube arrays.

    Jiao, Zhengbo; Chen, Tao; Xiong, Jinyan; Wang, Teng; Lu, Gongxuan; Ye, Jinhua; Bi, Yingpu

    2013-01-01

    Well-aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have become of increasing significance because of their unique highly ordered array structure, high specific surface area, unidirectional charge transfer and transportation features. However, their poor visible light utilization as well as the high recombination rate of photoexcited electron-hole pairs greatly limited their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of visible-light-responsive heterostructured Cr-doped SrTiO3/TiO2 nanotube arrays by a simple hydrothermal method, which facilitate efficient charge separation and thus improve the photoelectrochemical as well as photocatalytic performances.

  13. Effect of the geometry of the anodized titania nanotube array on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Sun, Xiaowei; He, Xiaodong

    2010-07-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays are superior photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) due to reduced intertube connections, vectorial electron transport, suppressed electron recombination, and enhanced light scattering. Performance of the cells is greatly affected by tube geometry, such as wall thickness, length, inner diameter and intertube spacing. In this paper, effect of geometry on the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs is reviewed. The nanotube wall has to be thick enough for a space charge layer to form for faster electron transportation and reduced recombination. When the tube wall is too thin to support the space charge layer, electron transport in the nanotubes will be hindered and reduced to that similar in a typical nanoparticle photoanode, and recombination will easily take place. Length of the nanotubes also plays a role: longer tube length is desired because of more dye loading, however, tube length longer than the electron diffusion length results in low collecting efficiency, which in turn, results in low short-circuit current density and thus low overall conversion efficiency. The tube inner diameter (pore size) affects the conversion efficiency through effective surface area, i.e., larger pore size gives rise to smaller surface area for dye adsorption, which results in low short-circuit current density under the same light soaking. Another issue that may seriously affect the conversion efficiency is whether each of the tube stands alone (free from connecting to the neighboring tubes) to facilitate infiltration of dye and fully use the outer surface area.

  14. Origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Murat, Altynbek; Rungger, Ivan; Jin, Chengjun; Sanvito, Stefano; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated using first-principles self-interaction corrected density functional theory (DFT). Recent DFT calculations suggest that the p

  15. Polypyrrole/titanium oxide nanotube arrays composites as an active material for supercapacitors.

    Kim, Min Seok; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2011-05-01

    The authors present the first reported use of vertically oriented titanium oxide nanotube/polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposites to increase the specific capacitance of TiO2 based energy storage devices. To increase their electrical storage capacity, titanium oxide nanotubes were coated with PPy and their morphologies were characterized. The incorporation of PPy increased the specific capacitance of the titanium oxide nanotube based supercapacitor system, due to their increased surface area and additional pseudo-capacitance.

  16. Effects of Titanium Oxide Nanotube Arrays with Different Lengths on the Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Chin-Guo Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-aligned highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TNT arrays were fabricated by potentiostatic anodization of Ti foil, and we found that the TNT-array length and diameter were dependent on the electrolyte (NH4F concentration in ethylene glycol and anodization time. The characteristics of the fabricated TNT arrays were characterized by XRD pattern, FESEM, and absorption spectrum. As the electrolyte NH4F concentration in the presence of H2O (2 vol% with anodization was changed from 0.25 to 0.75 wt% and the anodization period was increased from 1 to 5 h, the TNT-array length was changed from 9.55 to 30.2 μm and the TNT-array diameter also increased. As NH4F concentration was 0.5 wt%, the prepared TNT arrays were also used to fabricate the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. We would show that the measured photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs was dependent on the TNT-array length.

  17. Photoelectrochemical oxidation of ibuprofen via Cu{sub 2}O-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Sun, Qiannan [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Peng, Yen-Ping, E-mail: yppeng@thu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hanlin [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Chang, Ken-Lin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering and Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 51006 China (China); Qiu, Yang-Neng; Lai, Shiau-Wu [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2016-12-05

    Highlights: • A p–n junction material was synthesized to enhance photocatalytic ability. • Cu{sub 2}O-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays works as a photoanode in a PEC system. • Recombination of photo-generated holes and electrons were greatly reduced. • Synergetic effect was quantified in PEC degradation. • Recombination of photogenerated holes and electrons was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: A p–n junction based Cu{sub 2}O-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (Cu{sub 2}O-TNAs) were synthesized and used as a working anode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system. The results revealed that the Cu{sub 2}O-TNAs were dominated by the anatase phase and responded significantly to visible light. XPS analyses indicated that with an amount of 24.79% Cu doping into the structure, the band gap of Cu{sub 2}O-TNAs was greatly reduced. SEM images revealed that the supported TiO{sub 2} nanotubes had diameters of approximately 80 nm and lengths of about 2.63 μm. Upon doping with Cu{sub 2}O, the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes maintained their structural integrity, exhibiting no significant morphological change, favoring PEC applications. Under illumination, the photocurrent from Cu{sub 2}O/TNAs was 2.4 times larger than that from TNAs, implying that doping with Cu{sub 2}O significantly improved electron mobility by reducing the rate of recombination of electron-hole pairs. The EIS and Bode plot revealed that the estimated electron lifetimes, τ{sub el}, of TNAs and Cu{sub 2}O/TNAs were 6.91 and 26.26 ms, respectively. The efficiencies of degradation of Ibuprofen by photoelectrochemical, photocatalytic (PC), electrochemical (EC) and photolytic (P) methods were measured.

  18. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  19. Length Dependent Foam-Like Mechanical Response of Axially Indented Vertically Oriented Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    2011-01-01

    Sands T, Xu X, Fisher T. Dendrimer -assisted controlled growth of carbon nanotubes for enhanced thermal interface conductance. Nanotechnology 2007;18...surfaces. Rev Sci Instrum 2006;77(9):095105-1–3. [11] Allaoui A, Hoa S, Evesque P, Bai J. Electronic transport in carbon nanotube tangles under compression

  20. Antibacterial ability and angiogenic activity of Cu-Ti-O nanotube arrays

    Zong, Mingxiang; Bai, Long; Liu, Yanlian; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Hang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infection and loosening of orthopedic implants remain two disastrously postoperative complications. Angiogenesis is critical important to facilitate implant osseointegration in vivo. TiO 2 nanotubes arrays (NTAs) with proper dimensions possess good osseointegration ability. Accordingly, the present work incorporated copper (Cu) into TiO 2 NTAs (Cu-Ti-O NTAs) to enhance their antibacterial ability and angiogenesis activity, which was realized through anodizing magnetron-sputtered TiCu coatings with different Cu contents on pure titanium (Ti). Our results show ordered Cu-Ti-O NTAs can be produced under proper Cu content (< 15.14%) in TiCu coatings. The NTAs possess excellent long-term antibacterial ability against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which may be ascribed to sustained release of Cu 2+ . The cytotoxicity of Cu-Ti-O NTAs to endothelial cells (ECs) could be negligible and can even promote cell proliferation as revealed by live/dead staining and MTT. Meanwhile, Cu-Ti-O NTAs can up-regulate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) secretion of ECs on the sample surfaces compared with that of pure TiO 2 NTAs (control). Furthermore, the angiogenic activity is also enhanced in ionic extracts of Cu-Ti-O NTAs compared with the control. The excellent long-term antibacterial ability and favorable angiogenic activity render Cu-Ti-O NTAs to be promising implant coatings. - Highlights: • Cu-Ti-O NTAs possess long-term antibacterial ability against Staphylococcus aureus. • Cu-Ti-O NTAs can up-regulate nitric oxide synthesis and vascular endothelial growth factors secretion of endothelial cells. • Cu-Ti-O NTAs can enhance in vitro angiogenesis activity of endothelial cells.

  1. Antibacterial ability and angiogenic activity of Cu-Ti-O nanotube arrays

    Zong, Mingxiang; Bai, Long; Liu, Yanlian; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Hang, Ruiqiang, E-mail: hangruiqiang@tyut.edu.cn; Tang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial infection and loosening of orthopedic implants remain two disastrously postoperative complications. Angiogenesis is critical important to facilitate implant osseointegration in vivo. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes arrays (NTAs) with proper dimensions possess good osseointegration ability. Accordingly, the present work incorporated copper (Cu) into TiO{sub 2} NTAs (Cu-Ti-O NTAs) to enhance their antibacterial ability and angiogenesis activity, which was realized through anodizing magnetron-sputtered TiCu coatings with different Cu contents on pure titanium (Ti). Our results show ordered Cu-Ti-O NTAs can be produced under proper Cu content (< 15.14%) in TiCu coatings. The NTAs possess excellent long-term antibacterial ability against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which may be ascribed to sustained release of Cu{sup 2+}. The cytotoxicity of Cu-Ti-O NTAs to endothelial cells (ECs) could be negligible and can even promote cell proliferation as revealed by live/dead staining and MTT. Meanwhile, Cu-Ti-O NTAs can up-regulate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) secretion of ECs on the sample surfaces compared with that of pure TiO{sub 2} NTAs (control). Furthermore, the angiogenic activity is also enhanced in ionic extracts of Cu-Ti-O NTAs compared with the control. The excellent long-term antibacterial ability and favorable angiogenic activity render Cu-Ti-O NTAs to be promising implant coatings. - Highlights: • Cu-Ti-O NTAs possess long-term antibacterial ability against Staphylococcus aureus. • Cu-Ti-O NTAs can up-regulate nitric oxide synthesis and vascular endothelial growth factors secretion of endothelial cells. • Cu-Ti-O NTAs can enhance in vitro angiogenesis activity of endothelial cells.

  2. Preparation and characterization of SiO2:Sm3+ nanotube arrays with 1.06 μm laser antireflective property

    Tan, Wei-min; Huang, Ning; Wang, Li-jun; Song, Tian-shun; Lu, Chun-hua; Wang, Liu-fang; Zhang, Jun-zhi

    2013-01-01

    SiO 2 : Sm 3+ nanotube arrays with excellent antireflective property at 1.06 μm were synthesized by a template-assisted sol–gel process. The molecular structure, morphology and optical properties of the fabricated SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays were investigated by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), a Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a spectro-fluorometer, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays were formed via the AAO membrane during the sol–gel process. The remarkable antireflective characteristic of about 0.166% at 1.06 μm was attributed to the drastic decrease of effective refraction index which enhances the matching effect between air and substrate. As well as the absorption performance of Sm3+ at 1.06 μm which consumes the energies of incident light. - Graphical abstract: Directional aligned SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays were synthesized in AAO template by sol–gel process, and the antiflective performance of arrays is prominent comparing to the blank AAO template. Highlights: ► SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays are synthesized by a template-assisted sol–gel process. ► SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays have remarkable antireflective properties at 1.06 μm. ► The subwavelength structure results in a decrease of effective refraction index. ► The absorption performance of Sm 3+ at 1.06 μm consume the energies of incident light

  3. Spectroscopic and nonlinear photophysical characterization of organic octupolar-compounds supported by anodic-alumina nanotube-arrays

    Morales-Saavedra, O.G.; Ontiveros-Barrera, F.G.; Hennrich, G.; Mata-Zamora, M.E.; Rodriguez-Rosales, A.A.; Banuelos, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Preparation of organic-inorganic nanostructured hybrid materials. → Insertion of octupolar compounds in alumina nanotube arrays. → Linear and nonlinear photophysical characterization of solid-state hybrid structures. → Fabrication of photonic materials. - Abstract: Amorphous anodic alumina membranes (AAM) comprising highly ordered nanometric porous arrays (porous anodic aluminas: PAA) with 1D-nanotube dimensions of ∼75 nm in diameter and 45 microns in depth were successfully prepared and used as nanostructured host networks for different functionalized octupolar chromophores (named here Oct-(n)). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies performed on the developed hybrid systems confirmed a homogeneous insertion of these organic molecules into the PAA nanotube-arrays. Samples with high structural quality were selected for several photophysical characterizations: Comprehensive X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical spectroscopic characterizations performed according to UV-vis absorption, photoluminescent (PL) and Raman measurements revealed the structural and optical performance of these molecules within the PAA-confinement. Since the implemented optical chromophores were specifically functionalized for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications, the obtained Oct-(n)/PAA-based amorphous hybrids were also characterized according to cubic NLO-techniques such as third harmonic generation (THG) and the Z-Scan method. PAA-confined octupolar chromophores have shown interesting linear and NLO optical properties which have not yet been intensively investigated in bulk hybrid systems; hence, the obtained hybrid nanostructures represent a promising field of investigation in the route to functional octupolar-based materials, where different self-assembled molecular structures may be formed, giving rise to enhanced linear and NLO-properties.

  4. Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 Nanotube Array Films with High Photocurrent Density by Spotting Sample Method.

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Peini; Zhang, Fanjun; Liu, Yuliang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-12-01

    Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 hybrid nanotube array films (Ag2S/CdS/TNTs) were prepared by selectively depositing a narrow-gap semiconductor-Ag2S (0.9 eV) quantum dots (QDs)-in the local domain of the CdS/TiO2 nanotube array films by spotting sample method (SSM). The improvement of sunlight absorption ability and photocurrent density of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array films (TNTs) which were obtained by anodic oxidation method was realized because of modifying semiconductor QDs. The CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs fabricated by uniformly depositing the QDs into the TNTs via the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were synthesized, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) results demonstrated that the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM and other films were successfully prepared. In comparison with the four films of TNTs, CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SILAR, the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM showed much better absorption capability and the highest photocurrent density in UV-vis range (320~800 nm). The cycles of local deposition have great influence on their photoelectric properties. The photocurrent density of Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SSM with optimum deposition cycles of 6 was about 37 times that of TNTs without modification, demonstrating their great prospective applications in solar energy utilization fields.

  5. Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane Photoelectrochemical (PEM-PEC Cell with a Web of Titania Nanotube Arrays as Photoanode and Gaseous Reactants

    Tsampas M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Photoanodes of titania nanotube arrays, TNTAs, were developed, for the first time, on a Ti-web of microfiber substrates, by electrochemical anodization. The performance of TNTAs/Ti-web photoanodes were evaluated in both gaseous and liquid reactants. Due to the presence of reliable reference electrode in gas phase direct comparison of the results was possible. Gas phase operation with He or Air as carrier gases and only 2.5% of water content exhibits very promising photoefficiency in comparison with conventional PEC cells.

  6. Anatase TiO2 nanotube arrays and titania films on titanium mesh for photocatalytic NOx removal and water cleaning

    Motola, M.; Satrapinskyy, L.; Roch, T.; Šubrt, Jan; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Klementová, Mariana; Jakubičková, M.; Peterka, F.; Plesch, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 287, JUN (2017), s. 59-64 ISSN 0920-5861. [European meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis: Environmental Applications (SPEA) /9./. Strasbourg, 13.06.2016-17.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20744S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK178 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Titanium mesh * Anatase nanotubes array * Liquid state deposition * NOx removal * Photocatalysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.636, year: 2016

  7. TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Composite Film as Photoanode for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Jinghua Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-layered photoanode made of hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNT-arrays as the overlayer and commercial-grade TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 as the underlayer is designed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Crystallized free-standing TNT-arrays films are prepared by two-step anodization process. For photovoltaic applications, DSSCs based on double-layered photoanodes produce a remarkably enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE of up to 6.32% compared with the DSSCs solely composed of TNT-arrays (5.18% or nanoparticles (3.65% with a similar thickness (24 μm at a constant irradiation of 100 mW cm−2. This is mainly attributed to the fast charge transport paths and superior light-scattering ability of TNT-arrays overlayer and good electronic contact with F-doped tin oxide (FTO glass provided from P25 nanoparticles as a bonding layer.

  8. Fabrication of Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array/Ti heterojunctions with low resistance state for broadband photodetectors

    Chen, Yan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Mianyang Teachers’ College (Mianyang Normal University), Mianyang 621000 (China); Zhang, Guowei; Dong, Zhanmin [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Wei, Jinquan [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Zhu, Jia-Lin [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Sun, Jia-Lin, E-mail: jlsun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-01

    A broadband photodetector based on Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array /Ti multilayer heterojunction structures has been fabricated. A pre-electroforming process at a voltage bias of 35 V was used to switch the photodetector from a high resistance state to a low resistance state. At a voltage bias of 1 V under 532-nm laser illumination in air, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 15.41 mA W{sup −1}, which is enhanced by approximately 1.91 times when compared with that of device before deposition of Au nanoparticles. In addition, in a vacuum under a voltage bias of 1 V, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 23.29 mA W{sup −1} and 6.85 mA W{sup −1} at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. The surface plasmon polaritons of the Au nanoparticles allowed extension of the sensitivity of the photosensitive regions into the mid-infrared range. The experimental results show that the device photoresponsivity reached 2.26 mA W{sup −1} at a voltage bias of 1 V under 10.6-µm laser illumination in air.

  9. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  10. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    Zhang, Z.

    2012-02-10

    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  11. A three-dimensional microelectrode array composed of vertically aligned ultra-dense carbon nanotube networks

    Nick, C.; Yadav, S.; Joshi, R.; Schneider, J. J.; Thielemann, C.

    2015-07-01

    Electrodes based on carbon nanotubes are a promising approach to manufacture highly sensitive sensors with a low limit of signal detection and a high signal-to-noise ratio. This is achieved by dramatically increasing the electrochemical active surface area without increasing the overall geometrical dimensions. Typically, carbon nanotube electrodes are nearly planar and composed of randomly distributed carbon nanotube networks having a limited surface gain for a specific geometrical surface area. To overcome this limitation, we have introduced vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) networks as electrodes, which are arranged in a microelectrode pattern of 60 single electrodes. Each microelectrode features a very high aspect ratio of more than 300 and thus a dramatically increased surface area. These microelectrodes composed of VACNT networks display dramatically decreased impedance over the entire frequency range compared to planar microelectrodes caused by the enormous capacity increase. This is experimentally verified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.

  12. Synthesis of Large Arrays of Well-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on Glass

    Bush, P. Siegal, M.P.; Huang, Z.P.; Provencio, P.N.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H.; Xu, J.W.

    1998-11-10

    Free-standing aligned carbon nanotubes have previously been grown above 7000C on mesoporous silica embedded with iron nanoparticles. Here, carbon nanotubes aligned over areas up to several square centimeters were grown on nickel-coated glass below 666oC by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Acetylene (C2H2) gas was used as the carbon source and ammonia (NH3) gas was used as a catalyst and dilution gas. Nanotubes with controllable diameters from 20 to 400 nanometers and lengths from 0.1 to 50 micrometers were obtained. Using this method, large panels of aligned carbon nanotubes can be made under conditions that are suitable for device fabrication.

  13. Highly efficient photoelectrochemical performance of SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction nanotube array thin film

    Zhang Yan [Qingdao University, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Environments (China); Bu Yuyu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Engineering Center of Marine Corrosion Protection, Institute of Oceanology (China); Yu Jianqiang, E-mail: yjq@licp.cas.cn; Li Ping [Qingdao University, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Environments (China)

    2013-06-15

    SrTiO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} heterojunction thin-film nanotube arrays (SNTs, the average inner diameter is about 50 nm) was fabricated via electrochemical anodization followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The photo-to-current conversion properties and the photoelectrochemical performance for cathodic protection of carbon steel in 0.5 M of sodium chloride solution under white light illumination were investigated. The results showed that the highly ordered nanotube arrays could provide very excellent cathodic protection for carbon steel under white light irradiation.

  14. Fabrication, Modification, and Emerging Applications of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays by Electrochemical Synthesis: A Review

    Jian-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania nanotube arrays (TNAs as a hot nanomaterial have a unique highly ordered array structure and good mechanical and chemical stability, as well as excellent anticorrosion, biocompatible, and photocatalytic performance. It has been fabricated by a facile electrochemical anodization in electrolytes containing small amounts of fluoric ions. In combination with our research work, we review the recent progress of the new research achievements of TNAs on the preparation processes, forming mechanism, and modification. In addition, we will review the potential and significant applications in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, solar cells, water splitting, and other aspects. Finally, the existing problems and further prospects of this renascent and rapidly developing field are also briefly addressed and discussed.

  15. SERS activity of Au nanoparticles coated on an array of carbon nanotube nested into silicon nanoporous pillar

    Jiang Weifen; Zhang Yanfeng; Wang Yusheng; Xu Lei; Li Xinjian

    2011-01-01

    A novel composite structure, Au nanoparticles coated on a nest-shaped array of carbon nanotube nested into a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Au/NACNT/Si-NPA), was fabricated for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The morphology of the Au/NACNT/Si-NPA composite structure was characterized with the aid of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction instrumentation and Transmission electron microscopy. Compared with SERS of rhodamine 6G (R6G) adsorbed on SERS-active Au substrate reported, the SERS signals of R6G adsorbed on these gold nanoparticles were obviously improved. This was attributed to the enlarged specific surface area for adsorption of target molecules brought by the nest-shaped CNTs structure.

  16. Imperceptible and Ultraflexible p-Type Transistors and Macroelectronics Based on Carbon Nanotubes.

    Cao, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-01-26

    Flexible thin-film transistors based on semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are promising for flexible digital circuits, artificial skins, radio frequency devices, active-matrix-based displays, and sensors due to the outstanding electrical properties and intrinsic mechanical strength of carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, previous research effort only led to nanotube thin-film transistors with the smallest bending radius down to 1 mm. In this paper, we have realized the full potential of carbon nanotubes by making ultraflexible and imperceptible p-type transistors and circuits with a bending radius down to 40 μm. In addition, the resulted transistors show mobility up to 12.04 cm(2) V(-1) S(-1), high on-off ratio (∼10(6)), ultralight weight (transistors and circuits have great potential to work as indispensable components for ultraflexible complementary electronics.

  17. Capacitive performance of molybdenum nitride/titanium nitride nanotube array for supercapacitor

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn; Tian, Fang

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA is fully converted from MoO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTA by one-step nitridation process. • MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA is used as feasible electrode material of high-performance supercapacitor. • MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA shows high capacitance, rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: Molybdenum nitride (MoN{sub x}) depositing on titanium nitride nanotube array (TiN NTA) was designed as MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA for supercapacitor electrode material. MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA was fabricated by electrodepositing molybdenum oxide onto titanium dioxide NTA and one-step nitridation treatment in ammonia. MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA involved top-surface layer of MoN{sub x} nanoparticles and underlying layer of TiN NTA, which contributed to electric double layer capacitance in aqueous lithium-ion electrolyte solution. The specific capacitance was increased from 69.05 mF cm{sup −2} for TiN NTA to 121.50 mF cm{sup −2} for MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA at 0.3 mA cm{sup −2}, presenting the improved capacitance performance. MoN{sub x} exhibited the capacitance of 174.83 F g{sup −1} at 1.5 A g{sup −1} and slightly declined to 109.13 F g{sup −1} at 30 A g{sup −1}, presenting high rate capability. MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA exhibited the capacitance retention ratio of 93.8% at 3.0 mA cm{sup −2} after 1000 cycles, presenting high cycling stability. MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA could act as a promising electrode material of supercapacitor.

  18. Photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Modified with BiOCl nanosheets

    Liu, Haipeng; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Jinwen; Lv, Jun; Zheng, Zhixiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • BiOCl were deposited on TiO2 NTAs by sequential chemical bath deposition. • BiOCl can decrease background photocurrent and increase current response. • High sensitivity BiOCl/TiO2 is due to the direct oxidation of organics on BiOCl. - Abstract: BiOCl nanosheets were deposited on anodized TiO 2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) by sequential chemical bath deposition method to get BiOCl/TiO 2 NTAs for photoelectrochemical detection of organic compounds (represented by glucose). The structures, elemental components and morphologies of TiO 2 and BiOCl/TiO 2 NTAs were characterized by using X-ray diffraction diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The photoelectrochemical behaviors of TiO 2 and BiOCl/TiO 2 NTAs in the buffer and glucose solutions were measured by cyclic votammetry and amperometry with different optical powers. The modification of BiOCl nanosheets on TiO 2 NTAs decreases the photocurrents of TiO 2 NTAs in the buffer solution and increases the current response to glucose. Both of the background photocurrent decrease and current response increase are benefit for photoelectrochemical detection of organic compounds. When glucose was used as the target organic compound, the optimized BiOCl/TiO 2 NTAs sensor achieved a sensitivity of 0.327 μA/μM (0.417 μA·cm −2 ·μM −1 ), linear range from 0 to 1300 μM and calculated detection limit of 5.7 μM. Mechanisms of BiOCl modification were studied by measuring the optical absorption and hydroxyl radical HO· productivity. The transfer of holes from TiO 2 to BiOCl and the direct oxidation of organic compounds on BiOCl nanosheets led to the decrease of background photocurrent (lower reaction rate of water splitting on BiOCl nanosheets) and the increase of current response to organic compounds (higher reaction rate of direct oxidation of organic compounds)

  19. Highly efficient biosensors by using well-ordered ZnO/ZnS core/shell nanotube arrays

    Tarish, Samar; Xu, Yang; Wang, Zhijie; Mate, Faten; Al-Haddad, Ahmed; Wang, Wenxin; Lei, Yong

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the fabrication of highly efficient glucose sensors using well-ordered heterogeneous ZnO/ZnS core/shell nanotube arrays (CSNAs). The modified electrodes exhibit a superior electrochemical response towards ferrocyanide/ferricyanide and in glucose sensing. Further, the fabricated glucose biosensor exhibited good performance over an acceptable linear range from 2.39 × 10-5 to 2.66 × 10-4 mM, with a sensitivity of 188.34 mA mM-1 cm-2, which is higher than that of the ZnO nanotube array counterpart. A low limit of detection was realized (24 μM), which is good compared with electrodes based on conventional structures. In addition, the enhanced direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase indicates the fast electron transfer of ZnO/ZnS CSNA electrodes, with a heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (K s) of 1.69 s-1. The fast electron transfer is attributed to the high conductivity of the modified electrodes. The presented ZnS shell can facilitate the construction of future sensors and enhance the ZnO surface in a biological environment.

  20. Ni nanotube array-based electrodes by electrochemical alloying and de-alloying for efficient water splitting.

    Teng, Xue; Wang, Jianying; Ji, Lvlv; Lv, Yaokang; Chen, Zuofeng

    2018-05-17

    The design of cost-efficient earth-abundant catalysts with superior performance for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is extremely important for future renewable energy production. Herein, we report a facile strategy for constructing Ni nanotube arrays (NTAs) on a Ni foam (NF) substrate through cathodic deposition of NiCu alloy followed by anodic stripping of metallic Cu. Based on Ni NTAs, the as-prepared NiSe2 NTA electrode by NiSe2 electrodeposition and the NiFeOx NTA electrode by dipping in Fe3+ solution exhibit excellent HER and OER performance in alkaline conditions. In these systems, Ni NTAs act as a binder-free multifunctional inner layer to support the electrocatalysts, offer a large specific surface area and serve as a fast electron transport pathway. Moreover, an alkaline electrolyzer has been constructed using NiFeOx NTAs as the anode and NiSe2 NTAs as the cathode, which only demands a cell voltage of 1.78 V to deliver a water-splitting current density of 500 mA cm-2, and demonstrates remarkable stability during long-term electrolysis. This work provides an attractive method for the design and fabrication of nanotube array-based catalyst electrodes for highly efficient water-splitting.

  1. Investigating the antifungal activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles deposited on branched carbon nanotube arrays

    Darbari, S; Abdi, Y; Haghighi, N [Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi, F [Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerzadeh, S, E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [Thin Film Laboratory, ECE Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-22

    Branched carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on a silicon substrate. Ni was used as the catalyst and played an important role in the realization of branches in vertically aligned nanotubes. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the branched CNTs were produced by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition followed by a 500 {sup 0}C annealing step. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic techniques were used to study the morphology of the TiO{sub 2}/branched CNT structures while x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to verify the characteristics of the prepared nanostructures. Their antifungal effect on Candida albicans biofilms under visible light was investigated and compared with the activity of TiO{sub 2}/CNT arrays and thin films of TiO{sub 2}. The TiO{sub 2}/branched CNTs showed a highly improved photocatalytic antifungal activity in comparison with the TiO{sub 2}/CNTs and TiO{sub 2} film. The excellent visible light-induced photocatalytic antifungal activity of the TiO{sub 2}/branched CNTs was attributed to the generation of electron-hole pairs by visible light excitation with a low recombination rate, in addition to the high surface area provided for the interaction between the cells and the nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the resulting morphological changes in the cell body of the biofilms existing on the antifungal samples.

  2. Synthesis and enhanced photoelectrocatalytic activity of p–n junction Co3O4/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Dai Gaopeng; Liu Suqin; Liang Ying; Luo Tianxiong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co 3 O 4 /TiO 2 nanotube arrays (NTs) were prepared by an impregnating–deposition–decompostion method treatment. ► Co 3 O 4 /TiO 2 NTs exhibit high photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity. ► The high PEC activity was attribute to the formation of p–n junction between Co 3 O 4 and TiO 2 . - Abstract: Co 3 O 4 /TiO 2 nanotube arrays (NTs) were prepared by depositing Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs) on the tube wall of the self-organized TiO 2 NTs using an impregnating–deposition–decompostion method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity is evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution. The prepared Co 3 O 4 /TiO 2 NTs exhibit much higher PEC activity than TiO 2 NTs due to the p–n junction formed between Co 3 O 4 and TiO 2 .

  3. Photoelectric Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals/P3HT Bulk-Heterojunction Ordered in Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays

    Švrček Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs conjugated-polymer-based bulk-heterojunction represents a promising approach for low-cost hybrid solar cells. In this contribution, the bulk-heterojunction is based on Si-ncs prepared by electrochemical etching and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT polymer. Photoelectric properties in parallel and vertical device-like configuration were investigated. Electronic interaction between the polymer and surfactant-free Si-ncs is achieved. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and transport properties were studied and the ratio between the photo- and dark-conductivity of 1.7 was achieved at ambient conditions. Furthermore the porous titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanotubes’ template was used for vertical order of photosensitive Si-ncs/P3HT-based blend. The anodization of titanium foil in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte containing fluoride ions and subsequent thermal annealing were used to prepare anatase TiO2nanotube arrays. The arrays with nanotube inner diameter of 90 and 50 nm were used for vertical ordering of the Si-ncs/P3HT bulk-heterojunction.

  4. Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Tm{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Wang, Mingli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Zhao, Jianling, E-mail: hebutzhaoj@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Xu, Rongqing [Tianjin Zhonghuan Advanced Material & Technology Co., LTD, Tianjin 300384 (China); Fu, Ning [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Xixin, E-mail: xixinwang@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2016-07-25

    Tm{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization of a Zr–Tm alloy (3 at.% Tm) obtained by a powder metallurgical method. The morphologies, structures, elemental valence, and photoluminescence properties were characterized by using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and photoluminescence analyser, respectively. Results show that preparing conditions and annealing temperatures have significant effects on the crystalline structure and photoluminescence performance. The sample TmZNT-Org prepared in formamide + glycerol organic solution is mainly monoclinic phase and the sample TmZNT-Aq prepared in aqueous solution is mainly tetragonal phase. The sample TmZNT-Org had the strongest photoluminescence peak when annealed at 800 °C, whereas both TmZNT-Aq samples annealed at 600 °C and 800 °C had the strongest photoluminescence peak. The monoclinic phase was conductive to the emission at 454 nm while the tetragonal phase was conductive to the emission at 460 nm. - Highlights: • Tm{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization of a Zr-Tm alloy. • Crystal structure had remarkable effects on the photoluminescence properties. • The monoclinic phase was conductive to the emission at 454 nm. • The tetragonal phase was conductive to the emission at 460 nm.

  5. ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays

    Meško, Marcel; Ou, Qiongrong; Matsuda, Takafumi; Ishikawa, Tomokazu; Veis, Martin; Antoš, Roman; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2009-06-01

    We report on ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays. We observed a significant reduction of the internal multiple light scattering phenomena, which are characteristic for ZnO micropowders. The microsized grains of the commercially available ZnO:Zn (P 15) were reduced to the nanometre scale by pulsed laser ablation at an oxygen ambient pressure of 10 kPa. Our investigations show no crystalline change and no shift of the broad green emission peak at 500 nm for the ZnO nanopowder. For the application in field emission displays, we demonstrate the possibility of achieving cathodoluminescence with a fine pitch size of 100 µm of the patterned pixels without requiring additional electron beam focusing and without a black matrix. Moreover, the presented results show the feasibility of employing ZnO nanopowder as a detection material for the phosphorus screen method, which is able to localize emission sites of carbon nanotube films and arrays with an accuracy comparable to scanning anode field emission microscopy.

  6. ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays

    Mesko, Marcel; Ou Qiongrong; Matsuda, Takafumi; Ishikawa, Tomokazu; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Veis, Martin; Antos, Roman

    2009-01-01

    We report on ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays. We observed a significant reduction of the internal multiple light scattering phenomena, which are characteristic for ZnO micropowders. The microsized grains of the commercially available ZnO:Zn (P 15) were reduced to the nanometre scale by pulsed laser ablation at an oxygen ambient pressure of 10 kPa. Our investigations show no crystalline change and no shift of the broad green emission peak at 500 nm for the ZnO nanopowder. For the application in field emission displays, we demonstrate the possibility of achieving cathodoluminescence with a fine pitch size of 100 μm of the patterned pixels without requiring additional electron beam focusing and without a black matrix. Moreover, the presented results show the feasibility of employing ZnO nanopowder as a detection material for the phosphorus screen method, which is able to localize emission sites of carbon nanotube films and arrays with an accuracy comparable to scanning anode field emission microscopy.

  7. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-01

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg-1), a high power density (27.5 kW kg-1) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and

  8. Flexible nanohybrid microelectrode based on carbon fiber wrapped by gold nanoparticles decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanotube arrays: In situ electrochemical detection in live cancer cells.

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Jian; Sun, Yimin; Wang, Lu; Dong, Xulin; Ren, Jinghua; He, Wenshan; Xiao, Fei

    2018-02-15

    The rapidly growing demand for in situ real-time monitoring of chemical information in vitro and in vivo has attracted tremendous research efforts into the design and construction of high-performance biosensor devices. Herein, we develop a new type of flexible nanohybrid microelectrode based on carbon fiber wrapped by gold nanoparticles decorated nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays, and explore its practical application in in situ electrochemical detection of cancer biomarker H 2 O 2 secreted from live cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that carbon fiber material with microscale size and fascinating mechanical properties can be used as a robust and flexible microelectrode substrate in the electrochemical biosensor system. And the highly ordered nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays that grown on carbon fiber possess high surface area-to-volume ratio and abundant active sites, which facilitate the loading of high-density and uniformly dispersed gold nanoparticles on it. Benefited from the unique microstructure and excellent electrocatalytic properties of different components in the nanohybrid fiber microelectrode, an effective electrochemical sensing platform based on it has been built up for the sensitive and selective detection of H 2 O 2 , the detection limit is calculated to be 50nM when the signal-to-noise ratio is 3:1, and the linear dynamic range is up to 4.3mM, with a high sensitivity of 142µAcm -2 mM -1 . These good sensing performances, coupled with its intrinsic mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility, allow for its use in in situ real-time tracking H 2 O 2 secreted from breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MBA-MD-231, and evaluating the sensitivity of different cancer cells to chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatments, which hold great promise for clinic application in cancer diagnose and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene oxide) in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array.

    Sheng, Jiadong; Zhou, Shenglin; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2018-03-27

    We investigate the effect of the presence of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the orientation of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) lamellae and PEO crystallinity. The high alignment of carbon nanotubes acting as templates probably governs the orientation of PEO lamellae. This templating effect might result in the lamella planes of PEO crystals oriented along a direction parallel to the long axis of the nanotubes. The presence of aligned carbon nanotubes also gives rise to the decreases in PEO crystallinity, crystallization temperature, and melting temperature due to the perturbation of carbon nanotubes to the crystallization of PEO. These effects have significant implications for controlling the orientation of PEO lamellae and decreasing the crystallinity of PEO and thickness of PEO lamellae, which have significant impacts on ion transport in PEO/CNT composite and the capacitive performance of PEO/CNT composite. Both the decreased PEO crystallinity and the orientation of PEO lamellae along the long axes of vertically aligned CNTs give rise to the decrease in the charge transfer resistance, which is associated with the improvements in the ion transport and capacitive performance of PEO/CNT composite.

  10. Carbon treated self-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with enhanced lithium-ion intercalation performance

    Kim, Hyun Sik [Energy Material Group, Lotte Chemical, 115, Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-726 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Center for Energy Conversion and Storage, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soon Hyung, E-mail: skang@jnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • C-doped TONT was prepared by anodization, followed by acetylene treatment. • C-doped TONT exhibited the superior cycle performance and electrochemical kinetics. • It was attributed from the enhanced electrical conductivity from carbon doping. - Abstract: Vertically aligned TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TONT) arrays on titanium substrate developed by facile electrochemical anodization in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 0.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, 0.2 M sodium citrate, and 0.5 wt% NaF were prepared having a pore diameter and thickness of 100 nm and 1.2 μm, respectively. The undoped (u-doped) TONT arrays possessing an anatase phase were again annealed at 500 °C under a mixed gas flux of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), to induce the enhancement of electrical conductivity. It was designated as carbon-doped (c-doped) TONT arrays. Undoped and c-doped TONT arrays were compared using various characterization tools, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, based on several electrochemical tests (galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)), it was observed that c-doped TONT arrays revealed improved charge/discharge capacity, cycle stability, and rate capability, due to the enhanced electrical conductivity of c-doped TONT arrays.

  11. Fabrication of CdS/H-TiO2 Nanotube Arrays and Their Application for the Degradation of Methyl Orange in Aqueous Solutions

    Xiaosong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and characterization of heterogeneous structures based on CdS and self-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (H-TNTs are reported for the first time. CdS was conformally deposited onto TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs using a simple method of electrochemical atomic layer deposition. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-Vis diffusion reflection spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS, and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL techniques. Compared with pure TNTs, CdS/H-TNTs exhibit enhanced photoelectrochemical properties and photocatalytic activity under visible light. Self-doping introduces oxygen vacancies and Ti3+ species, and the electrochemical deposition technique promotes the deposition of CdS onto TiO2 nanotube walls, forming a heterojunction compact structure and resulting in decrease in photocatalytic activity under visible light.

  12. Nanotube phonon waveguide

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2013-10-29

    Disclosed are methods and devices in which certain types of nanotubes (e.g., carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes conduct heat with high efficiency and are therefore useful in electronic-type devices.

  13. Solar fuel production in a novel polymeric electrolyte membrane photoelectrochemical (PEM-PEC) cell with a web of titania nanotube arrays as photoanode and gaseous reactants

    Stoll, T.; Zafeiropoulos, G.; Tsampas, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell design is proposed and investigated for H-2 production with gaseous reactants. The core of the cell is a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that consists of a TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode, a Pt/C cathode, a Pt/C reference electrode and a proton conducting

  14. Direct electrodeposition of gold nanotube arrays of rough and porous wall by cyclic voltammetry and its applications of simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    Yang Guangming, E-mail: yangguangmingbs@126.com [Department of Resources and Environment, Baoshan University, Baoshan 678000 (China); Ling, Li [Department of Resources and Environment, Baoshan University, Baoshan 678000 (China); Jinhe, Jiang; Yunhui, Yang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Gold nanotube arrays of rough and porous wall has been synthesized by direct electrodeposition with cyclic voltammetry utilizing anodic aluminum oxide template (AAO) and polycarbonate membrane (PC) during short time (only 3 min and 2 min, respectively). The mechanism of the direct electrodeposition of gold nanotube arrays by cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been discussed. The morphological characterizations of the gold nanotube arrays have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was constructed by attaching gold nanotube arrays (using AAO) onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behavior of AA and UA at this modified electrode has been studied by CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The sensor offers an excellent response for AA and UA and the linear response range for AA and UA were 1.02 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-5.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} and 1.43 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-4.64 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, the detection limits were 1.12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} and 2.24 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. This sensor shows good regeneration, stability and selectivity and has been used for the determination of AA and UA in real human urine and serum samples with satisfied results. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram of formation of Au nanotube arrays (a) and the stepwise procedure of the sensor (b). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gold nanotubes array has been synthesized by cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of deposition of gold nanotube has been discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid was constructed by gold array. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A satisfied determination of samples can be obtained by this sensor.

  15. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of heat treated TiO2 nanotubes arrays obtained by anodic oxidation

    Naranjo, D. I.; García-Vergara, S. J.; Blanco, S.

    2017-12-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the anatase-rutile transformation of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes obtained on titanium foil by anodizing and subsequent heat treatment. The anodizing was carried out at 20V in an 1% v/v HF acid and ethylene glycol:water (50:50) electrolyte at room temperature. The anodized samples were initially pre-heat treated at 450°C for 4 hours to modify the amorphous structure of TiO2 nanotubes into anatase structure. Then, the samples were heated between 600 to 800°C for different times, in order to promote the transformation to rutile structure. The formation of TiO2 nanotubes is evident by SEM images. Notably, when the samples are treated at high temperature, the formation of rutile crystals starts to become evident at the nanotubes located on the originally grain boundaries of the titanium. Thus, the anatase - rutile transformation has a close relationship with the microstructure of the titanium, more exactly with grain boundaries.

  17. Carbon nanotubes growing on rapid thermal annealed Ni and their application to a triode-type field emission device

    Uh, Hyung Soo; Park, Sang Sik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new triode-type field emitter arrays using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an electron emitter source. In the proposed structure, the gate electrode is located underneath the cathode electrode and the extractor electrode is surrounded by CNT emitters. CNTs were selectively grown on the patterned Ni catalyst layer by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Vertically aligned CNTs were grown with gas mixture of acetylene and ammonia under external DC bias. Compared with a conventional under-gate structure, the proposed structure reduced the turn-on voltage by about 30%. In addition, with a view to controlling the density of CNTs, Ni catalyst thickness was varied and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment was optionally adopted before CNT growth. With controlled Ni thickness and RTA condition, field emission efficiency was greatly improved by reducing the density of CNTs, which is due to the reduction of the electric field screening effect caused by dense CNTs

  18. A Facile Method for Loading CeO2 Nanoparticles on Anodic TiO2 Nanotube Arrays.

    Liao, Yulong; Yuan, Botao; Zhang, Dainan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Li, Yuanxun; Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2018-04-03

    In this paper, a facile method was proposed to load CeO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) on anodic TiO 2 nanotube (NT) arrays, which leads to a formation of CeO 2 /TiO 2 heterojunctions. Highly ordered anatase phase TiO 2 NT arrays were fabricated by using anodic oxidation method, then these individual TiO 2 NTs were used as tiny "nano-containers" to load a small amount of Ce(NO 3 ) 3 solutions. The loaded anodic TiO 2 NTs were baked and heated to a high temperature of 450 °C, under which the Ce(NO 3 ) 3 would be thermally decomposed inside those nano-containers. After the thermal decomposition of Ce(NO 3 ) 3 , cubic crystal CeO 2 NPs were obtained and successfully loaded into the anodic TiO 2 NT arrays. The prepared CeO 2 /TiO 2 heterojunction structures were characterized by a variety of analytical technologies, including XRD, SEM, and Raman spectra. This study provides a facile approach to prepare CeO 2 /TiO 2 films, which could be very useful for environmental and energy-related areas.

  19. Controlled Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Micropatterned Au/Cr Composite Film and Field Emission from Their Arrays

    Kamide, Koichi; Araki, Hisashi; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2003-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with a controlled density are prepared on a micropatterned Au/Cr composite film formed on a quartz glass plate by pyrolysis of Ni-phthalocyanine at 800°C. It is clarified from characteristic X-ray analyses for those samples that a catalytic Ni nanoparticle is not contained within the base of the whisker-like CNT in contrast to that of the bamboo-like CNT, suggesting that the growth process of the present novel CNT is incompatible with that of the bamboo-like CNT. In the Au/Cr composite film, both the Cr atomic content of approximately 30% and the presence of the Ni catalyst devoid of a particle-like shape are important factors for the growth of CNTs. Field emission from the novel CNT arrays exhibits a lower turn-on voltage and a higher current density compared with that from the bamboo-like arrays formed on a quartz plate.

  20. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of atrazine by boron-fluorine co-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    Wang, He-Xuan; Zhu, Li-Nan; Guo, Fu-Qiao

    2018-06-23

    Atrazine, one of the most widespread herbicides in the world, is considered as an environmental estrogen and has potential carcinogenicity. In this study, atrazine was degraded on boron-fluorine co-doped TiO 2 nanotube arrays (B, F-TiO 2 NTAs), which had similar morphology with the pristine TiO 2 NTAs. The structure and morphology of TiO 2 nanotube samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). It showed that the decoration of fluorine and boron made both the absorption in the visible region enhanced and the band edge absorption shifted. The efficiency of atrazine degradation by B, F-TiO 2 NTAs through photoelectrocatalysis was investigated by current, solution pH, and electrolyte concentration, respectively. The atrazine removal rate reached 76% through photoelectrocatalytic reaction by B, F-TiO 2 NTAs, which was 46% higher than that under the photocatalysis process. Moreover, the maximum degradation rate was achieved at pH of 6 in 0.01 M of Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte solution under a current of 0.02 A and visible light for 2 h in the presence of B, F-TiO 2 NTAs. These results showed that B, F-TiO 2 NTAs exhibit remarkable photoelectrocatalytic activity in degradation of atrazine.

  1. Au Nanoparticles Decorated TiO2 Nanotube Arrays as a Recyclable Sensor for Photoenhanced Electrochemical Detection of Bisphenol A.

    Hu, Liangsheng; Fong, Chi-Chun; Zhang, Xuming; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul K S; Chu, Paul K; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Yang, Mengsu

    2016-04-19

    A photorefreshable and photoenhanced electrochemical sensing platform for bisphenol A (BPA) detection based on Au nanoparticles (NPs) decorated carbon doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2/Au NTAs) is described. The TiO2/Au NTAs were prepared by quick annealing of anodized nanotubes in argon, followed by controllable electrodeposition of Au NPs. The decoration of Au NPs not only improved photoelectrochemical behavior but also enhanced electrocatalytic activities of the resulted hybrid NTAs. Meanwhile, the high photocatalytic activity of the NTAs allowed the electrode to be readily renewed without damaging the microstructures and surface states after a short UV treatment. The electrochemical detection of BPA on TiO2/Au NTAs electrode was significantly improved under UV irradiation as the electrode could provide fresh reaction surface continuously and the further increased photocurrent resulting from the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs derived from the consumption of holes by BPA. The results showed that the refreshable TiO2/Au NTAs electrode is a promising sensor for long-term BPA monitoring with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 6.2 nM and the sensitivity of 2.8 μA·μM(-1)·cm(-2).

  2. Ultra-Low-Power Smart Electronic Nose System Based on Three-Dimensional Tin Oxide Nanotube Arrays.

    Chen, Jiaqi; Chen, Zhuo; Boussaid, Farid; Zhang, Daquan; Pan, Xiaofang; Zhao, Huijuan; Bermak, Amine; Tsui, Chi-Ying; Wang, Xinran; Fan, Zhiyong

    2018-06-04

    In this work, we present a high-performance smart electronic nose (E-nose) system consisting of a multiplexed tin oxide (SnO 2 ) nanotube sensor array, read-out circuit, wireless data transmission unit, mobile phone receiver, and data processing application (App). Using the designed nanotube sensor device structure in conjunction with multiple electrode materials, high-sensitivity gas detection and discrimination have been achieved at room temperature, enabling a 1000 times reduction of the sensor's power consumption as compared to a conventional device using thin film SnO 2 . The experimental results demonstrate that the developed E-nose can identify indoor target gases using a simple vector-matching gas recognition algorithm. In addition, the fabricated E-nose has achieved state-of-the-art sensitivity for H 2 and benzene detection at room temperature with metal oxide sensors. Such a smart E-nose system can address the imperative needs for distributed environmental monitoring in smart homes, smart buildings, and smart cities.

  3. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells

    Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions.

  4. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells

    Jeong, Du Won; Jin Kim, Ju; Jung, Jongjin; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Jeong-O; Hwa Kim, Gook; Don Jung, Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV–ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions. (paper)

  5. Vertically Aligned Co9 S8 Nanotube Arrays onto Graphene Papers as High-Performance Flexible Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Xiong, Dongbin; Li, Xifei; Bai, Zhimin; Li, Jianwei; Han, Yan; Li, Dejun

    2018-02-16

    Paper-like electrodes are emerging as a new category of advanced electrodes for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). Graphene, a promising two-dimensional material with high conductivity, can be easily processed into papers. Here, we report a rational design of flexible architecture with Co 9 S 8 nanotube arrays (NAs) grown onto graphene paper (GP) via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. When employed as flexible free-standing electrode for SCs, the proposed architectured Co 9 S 8 /GPs exhibits superior electrochemical performance with ultrahigh capacitance and outstanding rate capability (469 F g -1 at 10 A g -1 ). These results demonstrate that the new nanostructured Co 9 S 8 /GPs can be potentially applied in high performance flexible supercapacitors. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Influence of the catalyst type on the growth of carbon nanotubes via methane chemical vapor deposition

    Jodin, Lucie; Dupuis, Anne-Claire; Rouvière, Emmanuelle; Reiss, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of the catalyst is one of the key parameters which governs the quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We investigated the influence of three different procedures of catalyst preparation on the type and diameter of CNTs formed under

  7. Fabrication and photocatalytic activity of high-efficiency visible-light-responsive photocatalyst ZnTe/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Liu Yutang; Zhang Xilin; Liu Ronghua; Yang Renbin; Liu Chengbin; Cai Qingyun

    2011-01-01

    A new ZnTe modified TiO 2 nanotube (NT) array catalyst was prepared by pulse potential electrodeposition of ZnTe nanoparticles (NPs) onto TiO 2 NT arrays, and its application for photocatalytic degradation of anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AnCOOH) was investigated. The even distribution of ZnTe NPs was well-proportionately grown on the top surface of the TiO 2 NT while without clogging the tube entrances. Compared with the unmodified TiO 2 NT, the ZnTe modified TiO 2 NT (ZnTe/TiO 2 NT) showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity towards 9-AnCOOH under simulated solar light. After 70 min of irradiation, 9-AnCOOH was degraded with the removal ratio of 45% on the bare TiO 2 NT, much lower than 80%, 90%, and 100% on the ZnTe/TiO 2 NT with the ZnTe NPs prepared under the pulsed 'on' potentials of -0.8, -1.0, and -2.0 V, respectively. The increased photodegradation efficiency mainly results from the improved photocurrent density as results of enhanced visible-light absorption and decreased hole-electron recombination due to the presence of narrow-band-gap p-type semiconductor ZnTe. -- Graphical abstract: Surface-view SEM images of ZnTe/TiO 2 NT prepared under -2.0 V, and the inset is the corresponding enlarged drawings. Display Omitted Research highlights: → A new method to deposit chalcogenides of transition metals on the TiO 2 nanotubes. → The even distribution of ZnTe nanoparticles was well-proportionedly grown onto TiO 2 NT arrays. → ZnTe/TiO 2 NT showed remarkably increased photocurrent density. → ZnTe/TiO 2 NT showed good photocatalytic performance. → The prepared new catalyst has a promising application in practical systems.

  8. Angular dependent anisotropic terahertz response of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays with spatial dispersion

    Zhou, Yixuan; Yiwen, E.; Xu, Xinlong; Li, Weilong; Wang, Huan; Zhu, Lipeng; Bai, Jintao; Ren, Zhaoyu; Wang, Li

    2016-12-01

    Spatial dispersion effect of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the terahertz (THz) region has significance for both theoretical and applied consideration due to the unique intrinsically anisotropic physical properties of CNTs. Herein, we report the angular dependent reflection of p-polarized THz wave from vertically aligned multi-walled CNT arrays in both experiment and theory. The spectra indicate that the reflection depends on the film thickness of vertically aligned CNTs, the incident angle, and the frequency. The calculation model is based on the spatial dispersion effect of aligned CNTs and performed with effective impedance method and the Maxwell-Garnett approximation. The results fit well with the experiment when the thickness of CNT film is thin, which reveals a coherent superposition mechanism of the CNT surface reflection and CNTs/Si interface reflection. For thick CNT films, the CNTs/Si interface response determines the reflection at small incident angles, while the CNTs surface effect dominates at large incident angles. This work investigates the spatial dispersion effect of vertically aligned CNT arrays in the THz region, and paves a way for potential anisotropic THz applications based on CNTs with oblique incidence requirements.

  9. Innovative Columnar Type of Grid Array SJ BIST HALT Method, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop will develop a superior method for testing and qualifying columnar type of grid arrays such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) packaged in column...

  10. The Surface Interface Characteristics of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube and Graphitic Carbon Fiber Arrays Grown by Thermal and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Delzeit, Lance; Nguyen, Cattien; Li, Jun; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nano-arrays for sensors and devices requires the growth of arrays with the proper characteristics. One such application is the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic carbon fibers (GCFs) for the chemical attachment of probe molecules. The effectiveness of such an array is dependent not only upon the effectiveness of the probe and the interface between that probe and the array, but also the array and the underlaying substrate. If that array is a growth of vertically aligned CNTs or GCFs then the attachment of that array to the surface is of the utmost importance. This attachment provides the mechanical stability and durability of the array, as well as, the electrical properties of that array. If the detection is to be acquired through an electrical measurement, then the appropriate resistance between the array and the surface need to be fabricated into the device. I will present data on CNTs and GCFs grown from both thermal and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The focus will be on the characteristics of the metal film from which the CNTs and GCFs are grown and the changes that occur due to changes within the growth process.

  11. Influence of sol–gel parameters in the fabrication of ferromagnetic La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 nanotube arrays

    Kumaresavanji, M.; Sousa, C.T.; Apolinario, A.; Lopes, A.M.L.; Araujo, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 nanotube arrays were fabricated by the alumina template assisted sol–gel method. • By varying molarity, viscosity and pH values of sol–gels, their influence was studied. • Sol–gel with 0.8 M, 29 mPa s and 4 pH is found to be suitable for the fabrication of nanotubes. • Such condition can also be applicable to the fabrication of other multicomponent oxide materials. - Abstract: Highly ordered La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 nanotube arrays have been synthesized by porous anodic alumina template assisted sol–gel method. Precursor sol–gels with different molar concentration, viscosity and pH values have been used in the fabrication process in order to find the suitable conditions for the fabrication of such multi component oxides. Diverse characterizations such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were done to verify the structural and morphological behavior of as prepared nanotubes. Magnetic properties were also characterized with respect to temperature and field. Based on the obtained results, a possible nanotubes formation mechanism has been discussed. Depends on the percentage of nanopore filling and the morphology of nanotubes, the sol–gel parameters such as molarity, viscosity and pH have been determined as the key factors in the fabrication of nanostructured manganites which can also be applicable to the fabrication process of other multicomponent nanostructured materials

  12. Enhanced field emission properties of tilted graphene nanoribbons on aggregated TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Hung, Shang-Chao, E-mail: schung99@gmail.com [Department of Information Technology & Communication, Shih Chien University Kaohsiung Campus, Neimen, Kaohsiung 845, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Jyun [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering & Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Graphene nanoribbons (GNBs) slanted on aggregate TiO{sub 2} nanotube (A-TNTs) as field-emitters. • Turn-on electric field and field enhancement factor β are dependent on the substrate morphology. • Various quantities of GNRs are deposited on top of A-TNTs (GNRs/A-TNTs) with different morphologies. • With an increase of GNBs compositions, the specimens' turn-on electric field is reduced to 2.8 V/μm. • The field enhancement factor increased rapidly to about 1964 with the addition of GNRs. - Abstract: Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) slanted on aggregate TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (A-TNTs) with various compositions as field-emitters are reported. The morphology, crystalline structure, and composition of the as-obtained specimens were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. The dependence of the turn-on electric field and the field enhancement factor β on substrate morphology was studied. An increase of GNRs reduces the specimens’ turn-on electric field to 2.8 V/μm and the field enhancement factor increased rapidly to about 1964 with the addition of GNRs. Results show a strong dependence of the field emission on GNR composition aligned with the gradient on the top of the A-TNT substrate. Enhanced FE properties of the modified TNTs can be mainly attributed to their improved electrical properties and rougher surface morphology.

  13. Investigation on the influence of pH on structure and photoelectrochemical properties of CdSe electrolytically deposited into TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Xue, Jinbo; Shen, Qianqian; Yang, Fei; Liang, Wei; Liu, Xuguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • There-dimensional CdSe-TiO 2 multijunction was fabricated by electrochemical method. • CdSe nanoparticles had a good bonding with the walls of TiO 2 nanotube. • pH value played an important role in the quality of CdSe-TiO 2 interfaces. - Abstract: In this work, we fabricated CdSe/TiO 2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) by electrochemical method. In electrodeposition, the pH value of the electrolyte played an important role in formation of CdSe nanoparticles. As the pH value decreased, more CdSe deposited on TiO 2 NTAs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy characterization shows that the CdSe nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on and into TiO 2 nanotubes when the pH value was 3, and this structure fully utilized the three-dimensional (3D) space of TiO 2 nanotubes to form 3D multijunction heterostructures. According to the photoelectrochemical test, the CdSe/TiO 2 NTAs sample prepared at pH = 3 exhibited maximum photocurrent and open circuit potential. This is because that the deposited CdSe nanoparticles had better bond with the walls of TiO 2 nanotube than the samples deposited at other pH values, which facilitated the propagation and kinetic separation of photogenerated charges

  14. Heterostructured ZnFe2O4/Fe2TiO5/TiO2 Composite Nanotube Arrays with an Improved Photocatalysis Degradation Efficiency Under Simulated Sunlight Irradiation

    Xiong, Kun; Wang, Kunzhou; Chen, Lin; Wang, Xinqing; Fan, Qingbo; Courtois, Jérémie; Liu, Yuliang; Tuo, Xianguo; Yan, Minhao

    2018-03-01

    To improve the visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TONTAs), ZnFe2O4 (ZFO) nanocrystals were perfused into pristine TONTA pipelines using a novel bias voltage-assisted perfusion method. ZFO nanocrystals were well anchored on the inner walls of the pristine TONTAs when the ZFO suspensions (0.025 mg mL-1) were kept under a 60 V bias voltage for 1 h. After annealing at 750 °C for 2 h, the heterostructured ZFO/Fe2TiO5 (FTO)/TiO2 composite nanotube arrays were successfully obtained. Furthermore, Fe3+ was reduced to Fe2+ when solid solution reactions occurred at the interface of ZFO and the pristine TONTAs. Introducing ZFO significantly enhanced the visible light absorption of the ZFO/FTO/TONTAs relative to that of the annealed TONTAs. The coexistence of type I and staggered type II band alignment in the ZFO/FTO/TONTAs facilitated the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, thereby improving the efficiency of the ZFO/FTO/TONTAs for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue when irradiated with simulated sunlight. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Antibacterial and microstructure properties of titanium surfaces modified with Ag-incorporated nanotube arrays

    Li, Guangzhong; Cheng, Li [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (China); Yang, Hui-lin [Department of Orthopaedics, Wuxi People' s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhao, Quan-ming, E-mail: abc8385@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2016-07-15

    Although titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been widely used as implants in clinical settings, failures still occur mainly due to poor bioactivity and implant-associated infections. Here, we coated Ti implants with TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNTs) incorporated with the antibacterial agent Ag to produce Ag-TNTs, through anodization in AgNO{sub 3} and xenon light irradiation. We characterized surface morphology and composition of the coating with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. We investigated surface topography of the coatings by atomic force microscopy (AFM) operated in the tapping mode. The results indicate that Ag was successfully doped onto the TNTs, and that the nanoparticles were mainly distributed on the surface of TNTs. Finally, our antibacterial experiments reveal that Ag-TNTs on Ti implants exhibit excellent antibacterial activities, which promises to have significant clinical applications as implants. (author)

  16. Growth kinetics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays in clean oxygen-free conditions.

    In, Jung Bin; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Chernov, Alexander A; Noy, Aleksandr

    2011-12-27

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an important technological system, as well as a fascinating system for studying basic principles of nanomaterials synthesis; yet despite continuing efforts for the past decade many important questions about this process remain largely unexplained. We present a series of parametric ethylene chemical vapor deposition growth studies in a "hot-wall" reactor using ultrapure process gases that reveal the fundamental kinetics of the CNT growth. Our data show that the growth rate is proportional to the concentration of the carbon feedstock and monotonically decreases with the concentration of hydrogen gas and that the most important parameter determining the rate of the CNT growth is the production rate of active carbon precursor in the gas phase reaction. The growth termination times obtained with the purified gas mixtures were strikingly insensitive to variations in both hydrogen and ethylene pressures ruling out the carbon encapsulation of the catalyst as the main process termination cause.

  17. Defect engineering in 1D Ti-W oxide nanotube arrays and their correlated photoelectrochemical performance.

    Abdelhafiz, Ali A; Ganzoury, Mohamed A; Amer, Ahmad W; Faiad, Azza A; Khalifa, Ahmed M; AlQaradawi, Siham Y; El-Sayed, Mostafa A; Alamgir, Faisal M; Allam, Nageh K

    2018-04-18

    Understanding the nature of interfacial defects of materials is a critical undertaking for the design of high-performance hybrid electrodes for photocatalysis applications. Theoretical and computational endeavors to achieve this have touched boundaries far ahead of their experimental counterparts. However, to achieve any industrial benefit out of such studies, experimental validation needs to be systematically undertaken. In this sense, we present herein experimental insights into the synergistic relationship between the lattice position and oxidation state of tungsten ions inside a TiO2 lattice, and the respective nature of the created defect states. Consequently, a roadmap to tune the defect states in anodically-fabricated, ultrathin-walled W-doped TiO2 nanotubes is proposed. Annealing the nanotubes in different gas streams enabled the engineering of defects in such structures, as confirmed by XRD and XPS measurements. While annealing under hydrogen stream resulted in the formation of abundant Wn+ (n < 6) ions at the interstitial sites of the TiO2 lattice, oxygen- and air-annealing induced W6+ ions at substitutional sites. EIS and Mott-Schottky analyses indicated the formation of deep-natured trap states in the hydrogen-annealed samples, and predominantly shallow donating defect states in the oxygen- and air-annealed samples. Consequently, the photocatalytic performance of the latter was significantly higher than those of the hydrogen-annealed counterparts. Upon increasing the W content, photoelectrochemical performance deteriorated due to the formation of WO3 crystallites that hindered charge transfer through the photoanode, as evident from the structural and chemical characterization. To this end, this study validates the previous theoretical predictions on the detrimental effect of interstitial W ions. In addition, it sheds light on the importance of defect states and their nature for tuning the photoelectrochemical performance of the investigated materials.

  18. Effects of substrate microstructure on the formation of oriented oxide nanotube arrays on Ti and Ti alloys

    Ferreira, C.P. [State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Department of Materials Engineering (Dema/FEM), CP 6122, Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, M.C. [State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Instituto de Química, CP 6154, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Caram, R. [State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Department of Materials Engineering (Dema/FEM), CP 6122, Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Bertazzoli, R., E-mail: rbertazzoli@fem.unicamp.br [State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Department of Materials Engineering (Dema/FEM), CP 6122, Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, C.A. [Federal University of São Paulo – Campus Diadema (UNIFESP – Campus Diadema), Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Rua São Nicolau n° 210, 09913-030 Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The formation of nanotubular oxide layers on Ti and Ti alloys has been widely investigated for the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds due to their excellent catalytic efficiency, chemical stability, and low cost and toxicity. Aiming to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of this nanostructured oxide, this work investigated the influence of substrate grain size on the growth of nanotubular oxide layers. Ti and Ti alloys (Ti–6Al, Ti–6Al–7Nb) were produced by arc melting with non-consumable tungsten electrode and water-cooled copper hearth under argon atmosphere. Some of the ingots were heat-treated at 1000 °C for 12 and 24 h in argon atmosphere, followed by slow cooling rates to reduce crystalline defects and increase the grain size of their microstructures. Three types of samples were anodized: commercial substrate, as-prepared and heat-treated samples. The anodization was performed using fluoride solution and a cell potential of 20 V. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The heat treatment preceding the anodization process increased the grain size of pure Ti and Ti alloys and promoted the formation of Widmanstätten structures in Ti{sub 6}Al{sub 7}Nb. The nanotubes layers grown on smaller grain and thermally untreated samples were more regular and homogeneous. In the case of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy, which presents a α + β phase microstructure, the morphology of nanotubes nucleated on α matrix was more regular than those of nanotubes nucleated on β phase. After the annealing process, the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy presented full diffusion process and the growth of equilibrium phases resulting in the appearance of regions containing higher concentrations of Nb, i.e. beta phase. In those regions the dissolution rate of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is lower than that of TiO{sub 2}, resulting in a nanoporous layer. In general, heat treating reduces crystalline defects and promotes

  19. Wafer-Level Patterned and Aligned Polymer Nanowire/Micro- and Nanotube Arrays on any Substrate

    Morber, Jenny Ruth; Wang, Xudong; Liu, Jin; Snyder, Robert L.; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    involved a one-step inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactive ion etching process. The polymer nanowire array was fabricated in an ICP reactive ion milling chamber with a pressure of 10mTorr. Argon (Ar), O 2, and CF4 gases were released into the chamber

  20. Micro-dressing of a carbon nanotube array with MoS2 gauze

    Lim, Sharon Xiaodai; Woo, Kah Whye; Ng, Junju; Lu, Junpeng; Kwang, Siu Yi; Zhang, Zheng; Tok, Eng Soon; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2015-10-01

    Few-layer MoS2 film has been successfully assembled over an array of CNTs. Using different focused laser beams with different wavelengths, site selective patterning of either the MoS2 film or the supporting CNT array is achieved. This paves the way for applications and investigations into the fundamental properties of the hybrid MoS2/CNT material with a controlled architecture. Through Raman mapping, straining and electron doping of the MoS2 film as a result of interaction with the supporting CNT array are detected. The role of the MoS2 film was further emphasized with a lower work function being detected from Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectrsocopy (UPS) measurements of the hybrid material, compared to the CNT array. The effect of the changes in the work function was illustrated through the optoelectronic behavior of the hybrid material. At 0 V, 3.49 nA of current is measured upon illuminating the sample with a broad laser beam emitting laser light with a wavelength of 532 nm. With a strong response to external irradiation of different wavelengths, and changes to the power of the excitation source, the hybrid material has shown potential for applications in optoelectronic devices.

  1. Comparison of Thrust Characteristics in Pencil Sized Cylinder-type Linear Motors with Different Magnet Arrays

    Nakaiwa, K; Yamada, A; Tashiro, K; Wakiwaka, H

    2009-01-01

    From a strong demand on the miniaturization of a chip mounter or a semiconductor device, the thrust improvement considering the magnets arrangement is studied. We accept a core stator with a Halbach type magnet array for a current linear motor. The thrust characteristics are compared with two kinds of mover, a NS magnet array and a Halbach magnet array.

  2. Design and array signal suggestion of array type pulsed eddy current probe for health monitoring of metal tubes

    Shin, Young Kil [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    An array type probe for monitoring metal tubes is proposed in this paper which utilizes peak value and peak time of a pulsed eddy current(PEC) signal. The probe consists of an array of encircling coils along a tube and the outside of coils is shielded by ferrite to prevent source magnetic fields from directly affecting sensor signals since it is the magnetic fields produced by eddy currents that reflect the condition of metal tubes. The positions of both exciter and sensor coils are consecutively moved automatically so that manual scanning is not necessary. At one position of send-receive coils, peak value and peak time are extracted from a sensor PEC signal and these data are accumulated for all positions to form an array type peak value signal and an array type peak time signal. Numerical simulation was performed using the backward difference method in time and the finite element method for spatial analysis. Simulation results showed that peak value increases and the peak appears earlier as the defect depth or length increases. The proposed array signals are shown to be excellent in reflecting the defect location as well as variations of defect depth and length within the array probe.

  3. Comparison of blind imaging performance of Fizeau and Michelson type arrays for a partially resolved object

    Van der Avoort, C.; Den Herder, J.W.; Braat, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares two well-known types of interferometer arrays for optical aperture synthesis. An analytical model for both types describes the expected output, in terms of photon counts. The goal is to characterize the performance of both types of array for blind imaging of a wide-field or

  4. Microstructure and pseudocapacitive properties of electrodes constructed of oriented NiO-TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Zhu, Kai; Yan, Yanfa; Perkins, Craig L; Frank, Arthur J

    2010-10-13

    We report on the synthesis and electrochemical properties of oriented NiO-TiO(2) nanotube (NT) arrays as electrodes for supercapacitors. The morphology of the films prepared by electrochemically anodizing Ni-Ti alloy foils was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction, and photoelectron spectroscopies. The morphology, crystal structure, and composition of the NT films were found to depend on the preparation conditions (anodization voltage and postgrowth annealing temperature). Annealing the as-grown NT arrays to a temperature of 600 °C transformed them from an amorphous phase to a mixture of crystalline rock salt NiO and rutile TiO(2). Changes in the morphology and crystal structure strongly influenced the electrochemical properties of the NT electrodes. Electrodes composed of NT films annealed at 600 °C displayed pseudocapacitor (redox-capacitor) behavior, including rapid charge/discharge kinetics and stable long-term cycling performance. At similar film thicknesses and surface areas, the NT-based electrodes showed a higher rate capability than the randomly packed nanoparticle-based electrodes. Even at the highest scan rate (500 mV/s), the capacitance of the NT electrodes was not much smaller (within 12%) than the capacitance measured at the slowest scan rate (5 mV/s). The faster charge/discharge kinetics of NT electrodes at high scan rates is attributed to the more ordered NT film architecture, which is expected to facilitate electron and ion transport during the charge-discharge reactions.

  5. When Al-Doped Cobalt Sulfide Nanosheets Meet Nickel Nanotube Arrays: A Highly Efficient and Stable Cathode for Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Huang, Jun; Wei, Junchao; Xiao, Yingbo; Xu, Yazhou; Xiao, Yujuan; Wang, Ying; Tan, Licheng; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Yiwang

    2018-03-27

    Although cobalt sulfide is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors, its wide application is limited by relative poor electrochemical performance, low electrical conductivity, and inefficient nanostructure. Here, we demonstrated that the electrochemical activity of cobalt sulfide could be significantly improved by Al doping. We designed and fabricated hierarchical core-branch Al-doped cobalt sulfide nanosheets anchored on Ni nanotube arrays combined with carbon cloth (denoted as CC/H-Ni@Al-Co-S) as an excellent self-standing cathode for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The combination of structural and compositional advantages endows the CC/H-Ni@Al-Co-S electrode with superior electrochemical performance with high specific capacitance (1830 F g -1 /2434 F g -1 at 5 mV s -1 /1 A g -1 ) and excellent rate capability (57.2%/72.3% retention at 1000 mV s -1 /100 A g -1 ). The corresponding all-solid-state ASCs with CC/H-Ni@Al-Co-S and multilayer graphene/CNT film as cathode and anode, respectively, achieve a high energy density up to 65.7 W h kg -1 as well as superb cycling stability (90.6% retention after 10 000 cycles). Moreover, the ASCs also exhibit good flexibility and stability under different bending conditions. This work provides a general, effective route to prepare high-performance electrode materials for flexible all-solid-state energy storage devices.

  6. Electrochemically conductive treatment of TiO2 nanotube arrays in AlCl3 aqueous solution for supercapacitors

    Zhong, Wenjie; Sang, Shangbin; Liu, Yingying; Wu, Qiumei; Liu, Kaiyu; Liu, Hongtao

    2015-10-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) with excellent stability and large specific surface area make them competitive using as supercapacitor materials. Improving the conductivity of TiO2 is of great concern for the construction of high-performance supercapacitors. In this work, we developed a novel approach to improve the performance of TiO2 materials, involving the fabrication of Al-doped TiO2 NTAs by a simple electrochemical cathodic polarization treatment in AlCl3 aqueous solution. The prepared Al-doped TiO2 NTAs exhibited excellent electrochemical performances, attributing to the remarkably improved electrical conductivity (i.e., from approx. 10 kΩ to 20 Ω). Further analysis showed that Al3+ ions rather than H+ protons doped into TiO2 lattice cause this high conductivity. A MnO2/Al-TiO2 composite was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and achieved the specific capacitance of 544 F g-1, and the Ragone plot of the sample showed a high power density but less reduction of energy density. These results indicate that the MnO2/Al-TiO2 NTAs sample could be served as a promising electrode material for high -performance supercapacitors.

  7. Hydrothermal solid-gas route to TiO2 nanoparticles/nanotube arrays for high-performance supercapacitors

    Fan, Haowen; Zhang, He; Luo, Xiaolei; Liao, Maoying; Zhu, Xufei; Ma, Jing; Song, Ye

    2017-07-01

    Although TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) have shown great promise as supercapacitor materials, their specific capacitances are still not comparable with some typical materials. Here, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs)/TNTAs hybrid structure has been derived from the anodized TNTAs by a facile hydrothermal solid-gas method (HSGM), which can avoid cracking or curling of the TNTAs from Ti substrate. The obtained NPs/TNTAs hybrid structure can exhibit a ∼4.90 times increase in surface area and a ∼5.49 times increase in areal specific capacitance compared to the TNTAs without HSGM treatment. Besides, the argon-atmosphere annealing can offer improved areal capacitance and cycling stability relative to the air-atmosphere annealing. The hydrothermal vapor pressure is a key factor for controlling microscopic morphologies of TNTAs, the morphology transformations of TNTAs during the HSGM treatment can be accelerated under enhanced vapor pressures. The highest areal capacitance of HSGM-treated TNTAs is up to 76.12 mF cm-2 at 0.5 mA cm-2, well above that of any TiO2 materials reported to date.

  8. Photoelectrochemical Performances and Potential Applications of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Modified with Ag and Pt Nanoparticles

    Xu, Guangqing; Liu, Haipeng; Wang, Jinwen; Lv, Jun; Zheng, Zhixiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) modified with Ag (Ag/TiO 2 ) and Pt (Pt/TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were fabricated by anodic oxidation combined with photoreduction and hydrothermal methods, respectively. Structures, element components and morphologies of TiO 2 , Ag/TiO 2 and Pt/TiO 2 NTAs were measured by X-ray diffraction diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The photoeletrochemical performances of TiO 2 , Pt/TiO 2 and Ag/TiO 2 NTAs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry in phosphate buffer solution in absence and presence of glucose. Modifications of Ag and Pt nanoparticles play different roles in the photoelectrochemical process and have different potential applications. Ag nanoparticles decrease the photocurrent in buffer solution but increase the photocurrent response to organic compounds, which is fit for electrochemical detection of organic compounds due to the low background photocurrent and high photocurrent response. Ag/TiO 2 NTAs achieve the best detection performance with sensitivity of 0.152 μA/μM and detection limit of 0.53 μM. On the contrary, Pt nanoparticles can enhance the photocurrent of TiO 2 NTAs in buffer solution but decrease the photocurrent response to organic compounds, which are benefit for photocatalytic water splitting but not for photoelectrochemical detection

  9. Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of visible light responsive TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays/graphene oxide heterostructure

    Chen, Ying; Gao, Hongyan; Wei, Danming; Dong, Xinju; Cao, Yan, E-mail: yan.cao@wku.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • First to report a heterostructure of TNA with GO prepared by LB assembly. • Much better photocurrent (32 μAcm{sup −2}) of TNA-GO, contrasting to TNA (12 μAcm{sup −2}). • Schottky junction formed between TNA and GO enhanced the photocurrent. • GO on TNA improved the hydrophilicity of TNA-GO. - Abstract: The hybrid nanocomposites of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) with graphene oxide (GO) have recently garnered much attention as electronic devices, energy conversion devices, photocatalysts and other applications. In this study, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) assembly method was firstly reported to prepare a TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNA)-GO heterostructure. The as-prepared TNA-GO sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The promising characteristics of this TNA-GO material, the inexpensive, nontoxic and highly visible-light responsiveness, may raise the potential uses in many, various photocatalytic applications.

  10. Effects of ion insertion on cycling performance of miniaturized electrochemical capacitor of carbon nanotubes array.

    Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Chang, Chuan-hua; Chiang, Wei-Wen; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Ying-Sheng

    2014-10-24

    Capacity degradation and ion insertion of a miniaturized electrochemical capacitor are studied using ionic liquid [EMI] [TFSI] as the electrolyte. This capacitor is featured with two comb-like electrodes of vertical carbon nanotubes, ∼70 μm in height and 20 μm in interelectrode gap. We quantify the levels of ion insertion damage with Raman spectroscopy after the electrode experiences 120 consecutive voltammetric cycles to various potential limits. Distinct structural damage emerges due to [EMI] when the negative potential reaches -1.7 V, and those due to [TFSI] arise when the positive potential reaches 1.7 V vs. RHE. Judging from the peak broadenings, [EMI] is more detrimental than [TFSI]. When the voltage window ΔU is set as less than or equal to 2.8 V, both electrode potentials are within the two intercalation limits, little or no decay is observed in 10(4) charge/discharge cycles. When ΔU is 3.4 V, the positive potential exceeds the upper limit, but the negative potential stays within the lower limit, the cell capacitance decreases moderately. When ΔU increases to 3.8 V, both electrodes suffer from damages because of exceeding the intercalation limits. And the cell capacitance decreases substantially, even leading to a premature failure.

  11. High-performance and renewable supercapacitors based on TiO2 nanotube array electrodes treated by an electrochemical doping approach

    Wu, Hui; Li, Dongdong; Zhu, Xufei; Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Dongfang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Song, Ye; Lu, Linfeng

    2014-01-01

    Although one-dimensional anodic TiO 2 nanotube arrays have shown promise as supercapacitor electrode materials, their poor electronic conductivity embarrasses the practical applications. Here, we develop a simple electrochemical doping method to significantly improve the electronic conductivity and the electrochemical performances of TiO 2 nanotube electrodes. These TiO 2 nanotube electrodes treated by the electrochemical hydrogenation doping (TiO 2 -H) exhibit a very high average specific capacitance of 20.08 mF cm −2 at a current density of 0.05 mA cm −2 , ∼20 times more than the pristine TiO 2 nanotube electrodes. The improved electrochemical performances can be attributed to ultrahigh conductivity of TiO 2 -H due to the introduction of interstitial hydrogen ions and oxygen vacancies by the doping. The supercapacitor device assembled by the doped electrodes delivers a specific capacitance of 5.42 mF cm −2 and power density of 27.66 mW cm −2 , on average, at the current density of 0.05 mA cm −2 . The device also shows an outstanding rate capability with 60% specific capacitance retained when the current density increases from 0.05 to 4.00 mA cm −2 . More interestingly, the electrochemical performances of the supercapacitor after cycling can be recovered by the same doping process. This strategy boosts the performances of the supercapacitor, especially cycling stability

  12. Electrodeposition synthesis of MnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays nanocomposites and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    Xu, Xuyao [School of Chemistry Science and Technology, and Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Zhou, Xiaosong, E-mail: zxs801213@163.com [School of Chemistry Science and Technology, and Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Li, Xiaoyu, E-mail: lixiaoyu@iga.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130012 (China); Yang, Fei [The State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Jin, Bei; Xu, Tan; Li, Guosheng; Li, Manyi [School of Chemistry Science and Technology, and Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays nanocomposites are prepared by electrodeposition. • MnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} exhibits high visible light photocatalytic activity. • The results of XRD show the depositions are attributed to α-MnO{sub 2}. • A photocatalytic mechanism is discussed under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: MnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays nanocomposite photocatalysts have been synthesized through an electrodeposition method. X-ray powder diffraction analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal that the products of electrodeposition method are MnO{sub 2}. Scanning electron microscopy measurements suggest that the depositions are deposited on the surface or internal of the nanotube. UV–vis light absorbance spectra demonstrate the excellent adsorption properties of MnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} over the whole region of visible light, which enables this novel photocatalytic material to possess remarkable activity in the photocatalytic degradation of acid Orange II under visible light radiation. Moreover, a possible photocatalytic mechanism is discussed.

  13. Anodic Titania Nanotube Arrays Sensitized with Mn- or Co-Doped CdS Nanocrystals

    Smith, York R.; Gakhar, Ruchi; Merwin, Augustus; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Chidambaram, Dev; Misra, Mano

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mn or Co doped CdS where synthesized and deposited onto TiO 2 nanotubular arrays. • Synthesis and deposition were achieved simultaneously using SILAR method. • Various characterization techniques demonstrate lattice incorporation of dopant. • Photoelectrochemical performance was analyzed using AM 1.5 irradiation. • Dopants increases depletion width of CdS and increase photoelectrochemical responses. - Abstract: The use of doped luminescent nanocrystals or quantum dots have mainly been explored for imaging applications; however, recently they have gained interest in solar energy conversion applications due to long electron lifetimes, tunable band gaps and emission by compositional control. In this study, we have examined the application of Mn or Co doped CdS nanocrystals as a sensitizing layer over titania nanotubular arrays synthesized via electrochemical anodization in photoelectrochemical applications. The doped and undoped CdS nanocrystals were simultaneously synthesized and deposited onto the titania surface by adoption of a successive ion layer adsorption-reaction (SILAR) method. Various characterization methods indicate lattice incorporation of the dopant within CdS. The addition of dopants to CdS was found to improve the photoelectrochemical performance by increasing the depletion width of the CdS nanocrystals and reducing recombination losses of charge carriers

  14. Enhanced graphitization of c-CVD grown multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays assisted by removal of encapsulated iron-based phases under thermal treatment in argon

    Boncel, Slawomir; Koziol, Krzysztof K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Annealing of the c-CVD MWCNT arrays toward complete removal of iron nanoparticles. • The ICP-AES protocol established for quantitative analysis of Fe-content in MWCNTs. • The vertical alignment from the as-grown MWCNT arrays found intact after annealing. • A route to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the MWCNT graphene walls. • A foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs. - Abstract: The effect of annealing on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays grown via catalytic Chemical Vapour Deposition (c-CVD) was studied. The treatment enabled to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the graphene walls of MWCNTs’, which was reflected in Raman spectroscopy by reduction of the I D /I G ratio by 27%. Moreover, the vertical alignment from the as-synthesized nanotube arrays was found intact after annealing. Not only graphitization of the nanotube walls occurred under annealing, but the amount of metal iron-based catalyst residues (interfering with numerous physicochemical properties, and hence applications of MWCNTs) was reduced from 9.00 wt.% (for pristine MWCNTs) to 0.02 wt.% as detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This value, established by a new analytical protocol, is the lowest recorded by now for purified c-CVD MWCNTs and, due to operating under atmospheric pressure, medium temperature regime (as for annealing processes), reasonable time-scale and metal residue non-specificity, it could lay the foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs

  15. Enhanced graphitization of c-CVD grown multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays assisted by removal of encapsulated iron-based phases under thermal treatment in argon

    Boncel, Slawomir, E-mail: slawomir.boncel@polsl.pl [Department of Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 4, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koziol, Krzysztof K.K., E-mail: kk292@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Annealing of the c-CVD MWCNT arrays toward complete removal of iron nanoparticles. • The ICP-AES protocol established for quantitative analysis of Fe-content in MWCNTs. • The vertical alignment from the as-grown MWCNT arrays found intact after annealing. • A route to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the MWCNT graphene walls. • A foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs. - Abstract: The effect of annealing on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays grown via catalytic Chemical Vapour Deposition (c-CVD) was studied. The treatment enabled to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the graphene walls of MWCNTs’, which was reflected in Raman spectroscopy by reduction of the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio by 27%. Moreover, the vertical alignment from the as-synthesized nanotube arrays was found intact after annealing. Not only graphitization of the nanotube walls occurred under annealing, but the amount of metal iron-based catalyst residues (interfering with numerous physicochemical properties, and hence applications of MWCNTs) was reduced from 9.00 wt.% (for pristine MWCNTs) to 0.02 wt.% as detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This value, established by a new analytical protocol, is the lowest recorded by now for purified c-CVD MWCNTs and, due to operating under atmospheric pressure, medium temperature regime (as for annealing processes), reasonable time-scale and metal residue non-specificity, it could lay the foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs.

  16. Synthesis and magnetotransport studies of CrO2 films grown on TiO2 nanotube arrays by chemical vapor deposition

    Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Caiping; Wang, Lu; Lin, Tao; Wen, Gehui

    2018-04-01

    The CrO2 films have been prepared on the TiO2 nanotube array template via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition method. And the growth procedure was studied. In the beginning of the deposition process, the CrO2 grows on the cross section of the TiO2 nanotubes wall, forms a nanonet-like layer. And the grain size of CrO2 is very small. With the increase of the deposition time, the grain size of CrO2 also increases, and the nanonet-like layer changes into porous film. With the further increase of the deposition time, all the nanotubes are covered by CrO2 grains and the surface structure becomes polycrystalline film. The average grain size on the surface of the CrO2 films deposited for 1 h, 2 h and 5 h is about 190 nm, 300 nm and 470 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals that the rutile CrO2 film has been synthesized on the TiO2 nanotube array template. The CrO2 films show large magnetoresistance (MR) at low temperature, which should originate from spin-dependent tunneling through grain boundaries between CrO2 grains. And the tunneling mechanism of the CrO2 films can be well described by the fluctuation-induced tunneling (FIT) model. The CrO2 film deposited for 2 h shows insulator behavior from 5 k to 300 K, but the CrO2 film deposited for 5 h shows insulator-metal transition around 140 K. The reason is briefly discussed.

  17. Effects of Hydroxylation on PbS Quantum Dot Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Array Photoelectrodes

    Liu, Zhongqing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Jianchun; Dong, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xu, He

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The contact state at the heterojunction interfaces greatly influences the interfacial kinetics of the photoinduced charge carriers. In this study, we used a facile NaOH pretreatment to replenish the hydroxyl groups lost during the heat treatment for crystallization of TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) prepared via anodic oxidization. By reacting the carboxylic acid groups of thioglycolic acid (TGA) with the TiO 2 surface hydroxyl groups, TGA molecules were covalently linked to the TiO 2 surface and then PbS quantum dots (QDs) were anchored onto the TNAs via the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The sample microstructure and photoelectrochemical properties were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM),current–voltage characteristics (J–V), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), transient photovoltage plots and Mott-Schottky curves. The contact state and electrostatic potential distribution between TiO 2 {1 0 1} and PbS {1 1 1} planes were estimated by using first principle simulation. It was found that the NaOH pretreatment could enhance the crystallization degree of PbS QDs, decrease the crystal face mismatch, dangling bond density and the interfacial resistance between PbS QDs and TiO 2 , and accelerate the interfacial separation and transfer of photoinduced charge carriers. The first principle calculations demonstrated that the PbS QDs and TiO 2 interfacial contact was strengthened, and the built-in electric field was induced from TiO 2 {1 0 1} towards PbS {1 1 1}. These combined effects apparently improved the device photoelectrochemical performance. Compared to the sample without pretreatment, the specimen pretreated with NaOH demonstrated 19.96% and 29.93% increases in peak photoconversion efficiency after five and ten cycles of SILAR deposition, respectively.

  18. Supported noble metals on hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube arrays as highly ordered electrodes for fuel cells.

    Zhang, Changkun; Yu, Hongmei; Li, Yongkun; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yun; Song, Wei; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube (H-TNT) arrays serve as highly ordered nanostructured electrode supports, which are able to significantly improve the electrochemical performance and durability of fuel cells. The electrical conductivity of H-TNTs increases by approximately one order of magnitude in comparison to air-treated TNTs. The increase in the number of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups on the H-TNTs help to anchor a greater number of Pt atoms during Pt electrodeposition. The H-TNTs are pretreated by using a successive ion adsorption and reaction (SIAR) method that enhances the loading and dispersion of Pt catalysts when electrodeposited. In the SIAR method a Pd activator can be used to provide uniform nucleation sites for Pt and leads to increased Pt loading on the H-TNTs. Furthermore, fabricated Pt nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.4 nm are located uniformly around the pretreated H-TNT support. The as-prepared and highly ordered electrodes exhibit excellent stability during accelerated durability tests, particularly for the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts that have been annealed in ultrahigh purity H2 for a second time. There is minimal decrease in the electrochemical surface area of the as-prepared electrode after 1000 cycles compared to a 68 % decrease for the commercial JM 20 % Pt/C electrode after 800 cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that after the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts are annealed in H2 for the second time, the strong metal-support interaction between the H-TNTs and the Pt catalysts enhances the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. Fuel-cell testing shows that the power density reaches a maximum of 500 mWcm(-2) when this highly ordered electrode is used as the anode. When used as the cathode in a fuel cell with extra-low Pt loading, the new electrode generates a specific power density of 2.68 kWg(Pt) (-1) . It is indicated that H-TNT arrays, which have highly ordered nanostructures, could be used as ordered electrode supports

  19. Nanotubes based neutron generator for calibration of neutrino and dark matter detectors

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Ionidi, V. Y.; Kirsanov, M. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Klenin, A. A.; Kubankin, A. S.; Oleinik, A. N.; Pavlov, A. A.; Shchagin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The compact 2.45 MeV fast neutron generator with a reduced supply voltage for calibration of low-background neutrino and dark matter detectors was tested. The generator is based on an array of carbon nanotubes. Neutron generation is carried out by applying a high voltage in the range of +10 to + 25 kV to a nanotube array, which cause an ionization of deuterium molecules with the following acceleration of ions in the direction of the grounded target covered by a deuterated polyethylene film. The d(d,n)3He nuclear reaction happens as the result of ions collisions with the target. The dependences of the neutron yield as functions of the applied voltage were obtained for two different types of carbon nanotubes array. It is shown that the type of nanotubes array does not influence significantly on the neutron yield.

  20. Fabrication of uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles loaded TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for enhancing photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances under visible light irradiation

    Yi, Junhui; Zhang, Shengsen; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Peng, Feng, E-mail: cefpeng@scut.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully loaded on both the outer and inner surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs) through a simple polyol method, which exhibited the enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances under visible-light irradiation due to the more effective separation of photo-generated electron–hole pairs and faster interfacial charge transfer. - Highlights: • Highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are successfully prepared by polyol method. • Ag NPs are uniformly loaded on the surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs). • Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs exhibit the enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light. • The enhanced photocurrent is explained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. - Abstract: Uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully loaded on both the outer and inner surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs) through a simple polyol method. The as-prepared Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical behaviors were investigated via photocurrent response and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs was evaluated by degradation of acid orange II under visible light irradiation. The results showed that photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs is more than 5 times higher than that of pure TiO{sub 2} NTs. Comparing with the electrochemical deposition method, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs prepared by polyol method has been obviously increased.

  1. Origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Murat, Altynbek

    2014-02-13

    The microscopic origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated using first-principles self-interaction corrected density functional theory (DFT). Recent DFT calculations suggest that the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs is due to the Cl atoms adsorbed on the CNTs. We test this hypothesis and show that adsorbed Cl atoms only lead to a p-type character for very specific concentrations and arrangements of the Cl atoms, which furthermore are not the lowest energy configurations. We therefore investigate alternative mechanisms and conclude that the p-type character is due to the adsorption of AuCl4 molecules. The unraveling of the exact nature of the p-doping adsorbates is a key step for further development of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs in water sensor applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Selective microwave sensors exploiting the interaction of analytes with trap states in TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Zarifi, M. H.; Farsinezhad, S.; Abdolrazzaghi, M.; Daneshmand, M.; Shankar, K.

    2016-03-01

    Sensing of molecular analytes by probing the effects of their interaction with microwaves is emerging as a cheap, compact, label-free and highly sensitive detection and quantification technique. Microstrip ring-type resonators are particularly favored for this purpose due to their planar sensing geometry, electromagnetic field enhancements in the coupling gap and compatibility with established printed circuit board manufacturing. However, the lack of selectivity in what is essentially a permittivity-sensing method is an impediment to wider adoption and implementation of this sensing platform. By placing a polycrystalline anatase-phase TiO2 nanotube membrane in the coupling gap of a microwave resonator, we engineer selectivity for the detection and differentiation of methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol. The scavenging of reactive trapped holes by aliphatic alcohols adsorbed on TiO2 is responsible for the alcohol-specific detection while the different short chain alcohols are distinguished on the basis of differences in their microwave response. Electrodeless microwave sensors which allow spectral and time-dependent monitoring of the resonance frequency and quality factor provide a wealth of information in comparison with electrode-based resistive sensors for the detection of volatile organic compounds. A high dynamic range (400 ppm-10 000 ppm) is demonstrated for methanol detection.Sensing of molecular analytes by probing the effects of their interaction with microwaves is emerging as a cheap, compact, label-free and highly sensitive detection and quantification technique. Microstrip ring-type resonators are particularly favored for this purpose due to their planar sensing geometry, electromagnetic field enhancements in the coupling gap and compatibility with established printed circuit board manufacturing. However, the lack of selectivity in what is essentially a permittivity-sensing method is an impediment to wider adoption and implementation of this sensing platform

  3. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by CuInS2 nanoparticles deposition onto TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Liu Ronghua; Liu Yutang; Liu Chengbin; Luo Shenglian; Teng Yarong; Yang Lixia; Yang Renbin; Cai Qingyun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic application of CuInS 2 with a direct band gap of about 1.5 eV and a high absorption coefficient remains unknown. → We describe an impulse electrodeposition approach to deposit CuInS 2 nanoparticles in uniform size of about 20 nm onto the top surface of the highly oriented TiO 2 NT arrays while minimizing the clogging of the tube entrances. → The novel photocatalyst exhibits a highly visible-light photocatalytic degradation activity for the target organic pollutant. → Moreover, the stability of the modified TiO 2 NT is good. → Therefore, CuInS 2 nanoparticles modified TiO 2 NT photocatalysts have potential utility in practical purification of organic wastewater. - Abstract: Surface modification of TiO 2 nanotube (NT) arrays with CuInS 2 nanoparticles (NPs) for photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was reported. A pulse electrodeposition technique was used to prepare the CuInS 2 NPs, and the resulted CuInS 2 NPs, with a uniform size of about 20 nm, were found to deposit on the top surface of the highly oriented TiO 2 NT while without clogging the tube entrances. Compared with the unmodified TiO 2 NT, the CuInS 2 NPs modified TiO 2 NT (CuInS 2 -TiO 2 NT) showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity towards 2,4-D under visible light. After 160 min irradiation, the removal rate of 2,4-D is 100% by using CuInS 2 -TiO 2 NT, much higher than 65.2% by using the unmodified TiO 2 NT in photoelectrocatalytic process. The increased photodegradation efficiency mainly results from the improved photocurrent density as results of enhanced visible-light absorption and decreased hole-electron recombination due to the presence of narrow-band-gap p-type semiconductor CuInS 2 .

  4. Hydrogenation of Very Long Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Based on Type II Superlattices, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance the Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type II superlattice (T2SL) materials technology for very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) by...

  5. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of gaseous N,N-dimethylformamide in tannery waste gas using doubly open-ended Ag/TiO2 nanotube array membranes

    Zhao, Yang; Ma, Lin; Chang, Wenkai; Huang, Zhiding; Feng, Xugen; Qi, Xiaoxia; Li, Zenghe

    2018-06-01

    Gaseous N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), typical volatile organic compound exhausted from manufacturing factories, may damage the health of workers under long-term exposure even at low levels. The defined geometry, porous surface and highly ordered channels make the free-standing anodic TiO2 nanotube (TiNT) arrays particularly suitable for applications of practical air purification by flow-through photocatalysis. In the present work, crystallized doubly open-ended Ag/TiNT array membranes were designed and prepared by employing a lift-off process based on an anodization-annealing-anodization-etching sequence, followed by uniform Ag nanoparticles decoration. For the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous DMF at low concentration levels close to that found in realistic pollutant air, an analytical methodology for the monitoring and determination of degradation process was developed based on the coupling of headspace sampling with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). The doubly open-ended Ag/TiNT arrays exhibited higher removal efficiency of gaseous DMF from air compared with conventional bottom-closed Ag/TiNT arrays and pure bottomless TiNT arrays. These results indicated that the photocatalytic properties of TiNT arrays were improved with the open-bottom morphology and the Ag nanoparticles decoration. Based on the analysis with GC-MS and high performance ion chromatography (HPIC), it was found that demethylation is the main pathway of DMF degradation in photocatalytic reactions. Furthermore, decontamination of actual polluted tannery waste gas collected in leather factory proved that the photocatalysis on doubly open-ended Ag/TiNT array membrane is an efficient way and a promising application to treat air contaminated by DMF despite the complexity of various volatile organic compounds.

  6. Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO_2 nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light

    Su, Jingyang; Zhu, Lin; Geng, Ping; Chen, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon nitride quantum dots (CNQDs) were decorated onto TiO_2 nanotube arrays (NTAs). • The CNQDs/TiO_2 NTAs exhibits much improved photoelectrochemical activity. • The heterojunction displays efficient removal efficiencies for RhB and phenol. • Pollutants degradation mechanism over CNQDs/TiO_2 NTAs was clarified. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO_2 nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO_2. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO_2, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation.

  7. Three types of pulses delivered from a nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser

    Yao, X K

    2015-01-01

    Three types of pulses are experimentally investigated in a switchable normal-dispersion nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser by adjusting polarizer controller and pump power. They are a standard dissipative-soliton (DS), conventional soliton (CS)-like pulse, and noiselike pulse, which correspond to three mode-locking states. The standard DS with a rectangular spectrum possesses a Gaussian-shape pulse. The CS-like operation has a Lorenz shape, and the spectrum involves several sidebands similar to the CS case. For the noiselike pulse with a bell-shaped spectrum, a 317 fs peak rides upon the 132.5 ps pedestal in the autocorrelation trace. The spectra of these three pulse operations are centered at three close wavelengths. The generation of three such different types of pulses in one identical normal- dispersion laser cavity may find an important application for the future of mode-locked laser research. (paper)

  8. Distinguishing between deep trapping transients of electrons and holes in TiO2 nanotube arrays using planar microwave resonator sensor.

    Zarifi, Mohammad H; Wiltshire, Benjamin Daniel; Mahdi, Najia; Shankar, Karthik; Daneshmand, Mojgan

    2018-05-16

    A large signal DC bias and a small signal microwave bias were simultaneously applied to TiO2 nanotube membranes mounted on a planar microwave resonator. The DC bias modulated the electron concentration in the TiO2 nanotubes, and was varied between 0 and 120 V in this study. Transients immediately following the application and removal of DC bias were measured by monitoring the S-parameters of the resonator as a function of time. The DC bias stimulated Poole-Frenkel type trap-mediated electrical injection of excess carriers into TiO2 nanotubes which resulted in a near constant resonant frequency but a pronounced decrease in the microwave amplitude due to free electron absorption. When ultraviolet illumination and DC bias were both present and then step-wise removed, the resonant frequency shifted due to trapping -mediated change in the dielectric constant of the nanotube membranes. Characteristic lifetimes of 60-80 s, 300-800 s and ~3000 s were present regardless of whether light or bias was applied and are also observed in the presence of a hole scavenger, which we attribute to oxygen adsorption and deep electron traps while another characteristic lifetime > 9000 s was only present when illumination was applied, and is attributed to the presence of hole traps.

  9. Fabrication of a gas sensor array with micro-wells for VOCs gas sensing based on polymer/carbon nanotube thin films

    Xie, Guangzhong; Xie, Tao; Zhu, Tao; Jiang, Yadong; Tai, Huiling

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, gas sensor array with micro-well was designed and prepared by Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The micro-well and interdigital electrodes of sensor array were prepared using photolithography process, reactive ion etching (RIE) process, wet etching and conventional vacuum evaporation. In the manufacture process of the gas sensor array, KOH wet etching process was mainly discussed. The optimum etching processing parameters were as follows: 30 wt% KOH solution at 80 °C, a cooling back-flow device and a magnetic stirrer. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-polyethyleneoxide (PEO) and MWNTs-Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) composite films were utilized as sensitive layers to test gas-sensing properties. Response performances of MWCNTs- PEO and MWNTs-PVP composite films to toluene vapor and methanol vapor at room temperature were investigated. The results revealed that the sensor array showed a larger sensitivity to toluene vapor than to methanol vapor. In addition, the sensing mechanisms were studied as well.

  10. N-type doping effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes with aromatic amines

    Koizhaiganova, Raushan B.; Hwang, Doo Hee; Lee, Cheol Jin; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, Urszula [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Roth, Siegmar [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Sineurop Nanotech GmbH, Nobelstreet15, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    We investigated the chemical doping of the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) networks by a treatment with aromatic amines. Adsorption and intercalation of amine molecules in bundled SWCNTs leads to typical n-type doping observed already for alkali metals. The electron donation to SWCNTs is demonstrated by the X-ray-induced photoelectron spectra (XPS), where the carbon C 1s peak observed at 284.4 eV for the sp{sup 2} carbon in pristine samples is shifted by up to 0.3 eV to higher binding energy upon chemical treatment. The development of a Breit-Wigner-Fano component on the lower energy side of the G{sup -} mode in the Raman spectrum as well as a shift of the G{sup +} to lower frequency provide evidence for charge accumulation in the nanotube {pi} system, and indication for the n-type doping. The spectroscopic changes are accompanied by the modification of the electrical properties of the SWCNTs. A reduction of conductivity depends on the doping level and implies the decreasing concentration of the charge carriers in the naturally p-doped tubes. Comparing the two selected n-type dopants, the tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, shows more pronounced changes in the XPS and the Raman spectra than tetramethylpyrazine, indicating that the sp{sup 3} hybridization of nitrogen in the amine groups attached to phenyl ring is much more effective in interaction with the tube {pi} system than the sp{sup 2} hybridization of nitrogen in the aromatic pyrazine ring. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Effect of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes for improving hydrogen storage behaviors

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Yop Rhee, Kyong; Nahm, Seung-Hoon; Park, Soo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the hydrogen storage behaviors of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were investigated through the surface modification of MWNTs by immersing them in sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at various ratios. The presence of acceptor-functional groups on the p-type MWNT surfaces was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Measurement of the zeta-potential determined the surface charge transfer and dispersion of the p-type MWMTs, and the hydrogen storage capacity was evaluated at 77 K and 1 bar. From the results obtained, it was found that acceptor-functional groups were introduced onto the MWNT surfaces, and the dispersion of MWNTs could be improved depending on the acid-mixed treatment conditions. The hydrogen storage was increased by acid-mixed treatments of up to 0.36 wt% in the p-type MWNTs, compared with 0.18 wt% in the As-received MWNTs. Consequently, the hydrogen storage capacities were greatly influenced by the acceptor-functional groups of p-type MWNT surfaces, resulting in increased electron acceptor–donor interaction at the interfaces. - Graphical abstract: Hydrogen storage behaviors of the p-type MWNTs with the acid-mixed treatments are described. Display Omitted Display Omitted

  12. A pH sensor based on the TiO{sub 2} nanotube array modified Ti electrode

    Zhao Rongrong; Xu Meizhu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China); Wang Jian, E-mail: jwang@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China); Chen Guonan, E-mail: guonanchen@126.co [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China)

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a novel solid state pH sensor was fabricated by anodization of titanium substrate electrode. The relationship between pH sensitivity and hydrophilicity or surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} film was investigated. Amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotube has better pH response than anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube. After being irradiated by ultraviolet light (UV), the potential response of the electrode modified by amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotube was close to Nernst equation (59 mV/pH). SEM, XRD, and XPS were used to characterize electrodes. Possible mechanism was discussed by analyzing surface hydroxyl groups, crystal structure and hydrophilicity of the electrodes. The electrode has been used to detect some kinds of soft drinks and shows good response.

  13. In situ growth of NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays on Ni foam for supercapacitors: Maximizing utilization efficiency at high mass loading to achieve ultrahigh areal pseudocapacitance

    Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Dandan; Zhao, Yuandong; Guo, Danqing; Qi, Tong; Wan, Houzhao

    2014-05-01

    Self-standing NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays have been in situ grown on Ni foam by the anion-exchange reaction and directly used as the electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2S4 nanotube in the arrays effectively reduces the inactive material and increases the electroactive surface area because of the ultrathin wall, which is quite competent to achieve high utilization efficiency at high electroactive materials mass loading. The NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays hybrid electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 14.39 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with excellent rate performance (67.7% retention for current increases 30 times) and cycling stability (92% retention after 5000 cycles) at a high mass loading of 6 mg cm-2. High areal capacitance (4.68 F cm-2 at 10 mA cm-2), high energy density (31.5 Wh kg-1 at 156.6 W kg-1) and high power density (2348.5 W kg-1 at 16.6 Wh kg-1) can be achieved by assembling asymmetric supercapacitor with reduced graphene oxide at a total active material mass loading as high as 49.5 mg. This work demonstrates that NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays structure is a superior electroactive material for high-performance supercapacitors even at a mass loading of potential application-specific scale.

  14. Solar cell array for driving MOS type FET gate. MOS gata EFT gate kudoyo taiyo denchi array

    Murakami, S; Yoshida, K; Yoshiki, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Nakayama, T; Owada, Y

    1990-03-12

    There has been a semiconductor relay utilizing MOS type FET (field effect transistor). Concerning the solar cells used for a semiconductor relay, it is required to separate the cells by forming insulating oxide films first and to form semiconductor layers by using many mask patterns, since a crystal semiconductor is used. Thereby its manufacturing process becomes complicated and laminification as well as thin film formation are difficult, In view of the above, this invention proposes a solar cell array for driving a MOS type FET gate consisting of amorphous silicon semiconductor cells, which are used for a semiconductor relay with solar cells generating electromotive power by the light of a light emitting diode and a MOS type FET that the power output of the above solar cells is supplied to its gate, and which are connected in series with many steps. 9 figs.

  15. Rational design of coaxial mesoporous birnessite manganese dioxide/amorphous-carbon nanotubes arrays for advanced asymmetric supercapacitors

    Zhu, Shijin; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Junjun; Zhang, Yuxin; Yao, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    Coaxial mesoporous MnO2/amorphous-carbon nanotubes have been synthesized via a facile and cost-effective strategy at room temperature. The coaxial double nanotubes of inner (outer) MnO2 and outer (inner) amorphous carbon can be obtained via fine tuning the preparative factors (e.g., deposition order and processing temperature). Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of the coaxial nanotubes were evaluated by cycle voltammetric (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GC) measurements. The as-prepared coaxial double nanotubes of outer MnO2 and inner amorphous carbon exhibit the optimized pseudocapacitance performance (362 F g-1) with good cycling stability, and ideal rate capability owning to the unique nanostructures. When assembled into two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor, an energy density of 22.56 W h kg-1 at a power density of 224.9 W kg-1 is obtained. These findings provide a new and facile approach to fabricate high-performance electrode for supercapacitors.

  16. Rational design of coaxial mesoporous birnessite manganese dioxide/amorphous-carbon nanotubes arrays for advanced asymmetric supercapacitors

    Zhu, Shijin

    2015-03-01

    Coaxial mesoporous MnO2/amorphous-carbon nanotubes have been synthesized via a facile and cost-effective strategy at room temperature. The coaxial double nanotubes of inner (outer) MnO2 and outer (inner) amorphous carbon can be obtained via fine tuning the preparative factors (e.g., deposition order and processing temperature). Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of the coaxial nanotubes were evaluated by cycle voltammetric (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GC) measurements. The as-prepared coaxial double nanotubes of outer MnO2 and inner amorphous carbon exhibit the optimized pseudocapacitance performance (362 F g-1) with good cycling stability, and ideal rate capability owning to the unique nanostructures. When assembled into two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor, an energy density of 22.56 W h kg-1 at a power density of 224.9 W kg-1 is obtained. These findings provide a new and facile approach to fabricate high-performance electrode for supercapacitors.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdS nanorods anchored on α-Fe2O3 nanotube arrays with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic properties.

    Lei, Rui; Ni, Hongwei; Chen, Rongsheng; Gu, Huazhi; Zhang, Bowei; Zhan, Weiting

    2018-03-15

    As an n-type semiconductor with an excellent physicochemical properties, iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) has been extensively used in the fields of environmental pollution control and solar energy conversion. However, the high recombination rate of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs and poor charge mobility for Fe 2 O 3 nanomaterial generally result in low photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, an uniform CdS nanorods grown directly on one-dimensional α-Fe 2 O 3 nanotube arrays (NTAs) are successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method and the constructed heterojunction can be a kind of efficient and recyclable photocatalysts. Successful deposition of CdS nanorods onto the α-Fe 2 O 3 NTAs is verified by field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates that α-Fe 2 O 3 /CdS NTAs possess the intense visible light absorption and also display a red-shift of the band-edge compared with the pure α-Fe 2 O 3 NTAs. The as-obtained α-Fe 2 O 3 /CdS NTAs display excellent photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and phenol under visible light illumination. Among all the tested photocatalysts, the film synthesized for 3h with good stability exhibits the best photocatalytic properties and produces the highest photocurrent of 1.43 mA/cm 2 at 0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode, owing to its well formed heterojunction structure, effective electron-hole pair separation and direct electron transfer pathway along the CdS nanorods and α-Fe 2 O 3 NTAs. Besides, the photogenerated holes (h + ) and superoxide radicals (O 2 - ) play dominant roles in the photocatalytic process. On the basis of the photocatalytic results and energy band diagram, the photocatalytic process mechanism is proposed. Considering the easy preparation and excellent performance, α-Fe 2 O 3 /CdS NTAs could

  18. Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Using p-Type ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    Lu, Ming-Pei; Song, Jinhui; Lu, Ming-Yen; Chen, Min-Teng; Gao, Yifan; Chen, Lih-Juann; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    Using phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays grown on silicon substrate, energy conversion using the p-type ZnO NWs has been demonstrated for the first time. The p-type ZnO NWs produce positive output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive

  19. Effect of cross-type bias in a two-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions

    Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Wiesenfeld, K.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate numerically the effect of cross-type bias on two-dimensional arrays of short Josephson junctions. We have demonstrated that, for the simplest circuit, this type of bias is able to phase lock the junctions yielding a substantial improvement over ordinary biasing schemes. (C) 1998...

  20. Nanotube cathodes.

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  1. Nanotube cathodes

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  2. Oriented nanotube electrodes for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Frank, Arthur J.; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Qing

    2013-03-05

    An electrode having an oriented array of multiple nanotubes is disclosed. Individual nanotubes have a lengthwise inner pore defined by interior tube walls which extends at least partially through the length of the nanotube. The nanotubes of the array may be oriented according to any identifiable pattern. Also disclosed is a device featuring an electrode and methods of fabrication.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanotubes arrays modified with Cu, AgCu and Bi nanoparticles obtained via radiolytic reduction

    Nischk, Michał; Mazierski, Paweł; Wei, Zhishun; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Kouame, Natalie Amoin; Kowalska, Ewa; Remita, Hynd; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 nanotubes were modified with Cu, AgCu, Bi nanoparticles via gamma radiolysis. • Excessive amount of deposited metal decreased photocatalytic activity. • AgCu-modified samples were more active than Cu-modified (with the same Cu content). • AgCu nanoparticles exist in a core (Ag) -shell (Cu) form. • Examined photocatalysts were resistant towards photocorrosion processes. - Abstract: TiO 2 nanotubes arrays (NTs), obtained via electrochemical anodization of Ti foil, were modified with monometallic (Cu, Bi) and bimetallic (AgCu) nanoparticles. Different amounts of metals’ precursors were deposited on the surface of NTs by the spin-coating technique, and the reduction of metals was performed via gamma radiolysis. Surface modification of titania was studied by EDS and XPS analysis. The results show that AgCu nanoparticles exist in a Ag core -Cu shell form. Photocatalytic activity was examined under UV irradiation and phenol was used as a model pollutant of water. Over 95% of phenol degradation was achieved after 60 min of irradiation for almost all examined samples, but only slight difference in degradation efficiency (about 3%) between modified and bare NTs was observed. However, the initial phenol degradation rate and TOC removal efficiency was significantly enhanced for the samples modified with 0.31 and 0.63 mol% of Bi as well as for all the samples modified with Cu and AgCu nanoparticles in comparison with bare titania nanotubes. The saturated photocurrent, under the influence of simulated solar light irradiation, for the most active Bi- and AgCu-modified samples, was over two times higher than for pristine NTs. All the examined materials were resistant towards photocorrosion processes that enables their application for long term processes induced by light.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes arrays modified with Cu, AgCu and Bi nanoparticles obtained via radiolytic reduction

    Nischk, Michał [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza 11/12 St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, 63 Wita Stwosza St., 80-308 Gdansk (Poland); Mazierski, Paweł [Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, 63 Wita Stwosza St., 80-308 Gdansk (Poland); Wei, Zhishun [Institute for Catalysis, Hokkaido University, N21, W10, 001-0021, Sapporo (Japan); Siuzdak, Katarzyna [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St., 80-231 Gdansk (Poland); Kouame, Natalie Amoin [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS—UMR 8000,Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bâtiment 349, 91405 Orsay (France); Kowalska, Ewa [Institute for Catalysis, Hokkaido University, N21, W10, 001-0021, Sapporo (Japan); Remita, Hynd [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS—UMR 8000,Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bâtiment 349, 91405 Orsay (France); Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana, E-mail: adriana.zaleska@ug.edu.pl [Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, 63 Wita Stwosza St., 80-308 Gdansk (Poland)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were modified with Cu, AgCu, Bi nanoparticles via gamma radiolysis. • Excessive amount of deposited metal decreased photocatalytic activity. • AgCu-modified samples were more active than Cu-modified (with the same Cu content). • AgCu nanoparticles exist in a core{sub (Ag)}-shell{sub (Cu)} form. • Examined photocatalysts were resistant towards photocorrosion processes. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanotubes arrays (NTs), obtained via electrochemical anodization of Ti foil, were modified with monometallic (Cu, Bi) and bimetallic (AgCu) nanoparticles. Different amounts of metals’ precursors were deposited on the surface of NTs by the spin-coating technique, and the reduction of metals was performed via gamma radiolysis. Surface modification of titania was studied by EDS and XPS analysis. The results show that AgCu nanoparticles exist in a Ag{sub core}-Cu{sub shell} form. Photocatalytic activity was examined under UV irradiation and phenol was used as a model pollutant of water. Over 95% of phenol degradation was achieved after 60 min of irradiation for almost all examined samples, but only slight difference in degradation efficiency (about 3%) between modified and bare NTs was observed. However, the initial phenol degradation rate and TOC removal efficiency was significantly enhanced for the samples modified with 0.31 and 0.63 mol% of Bi as well as for all the samples modified with Cu and AgCu nanoparticles in comparison with bare titania nanotubes. The saturated photocurrent, under the influence of simulated solar light irradiation, for the most active Bi- and AgCu-modified samples, was over two times higher than for pristine NTs. All the examined materials were resistant towards photocorrosion processes that enables their application for long term processes induced by light.

  5. Effect of distribution, interface property and density of hydrogel-embedded vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on the properties of a flexible solid state supercapacitor

    Zhu, Qi; Yuan, Xietao; Zhu, Yihao; Ni, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yang, Zhaohui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we fabricate a robust flexible solid-state supercapacitor (FSC) device by embedding a conductive poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel into aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. We carefully investigate the effect of distribution, interface properties and densification of CNTs in the gel matrix on the electrochemical properties of an FSC. The total electrochemical capacitance of the device is measured to be 227 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.02 mWh cm‑3, which is dramatically enhanced compared with a similar device composed of non-parallel CNTs. Additionally, controllable in situ electrochemical oxidation greatly improved the compatibility between the hydrophobic CNTs and the hydrophilic hydrogel, which decreased the resistance of the device and introduced extra pseudocapacitance. After such oxidation treatment the energy storage ability further doubled to 430 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.04 mWh cm‑3 . The FSCs based on densified CNT arrays exhibited a much higher volumetric capacitance of 1140 mF cm‑3 and a larger energy density of 0.1 mWh cm‑3, with a large power density of 14 mW cm‑3. All devices show excellent stability of capacitance after at least 10 000 charge–discharge cycles with a loss of less than 2%. These easy-to-assemble hybrid arrays thus potentially provide a new method for manufacturing wearable devices and implantable medical devices.

  6. Flexible symmetric supercapacitors based on vertical TiO2 and carbon nanotubes

    Chien, C. J.; Chang, Pai-Chun; Lu, Jia G.

    2010-03-01

    Highly conducting and porous carbon nanotubes are widely used as electrodes in double-layer-effect supercapacitors. In this presentation, vertical TiO2 nanotube array is fabricated by anodization process and used as supercapacitor electrode utilizing its compact density, high surface area and porous structure. By spin coating carbon nanotube networks on vertical TiO2 nanotube array as electrodes with 1M H2SO4 electrolyte in between, the specific capacitance can be enhanced by 30% compared to using pure carbon nanotube network alone because of the combination of double layer effect and redox reaction from metal oxide materials. Based on cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, this type of hybrid electrode has proven to be suitable for high performance supercapacitor application and maintain desirable cycling stability. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique shows that the electrode has good electrical conductivity. Furthermore, we will discuss the prospect of extending this energy storage approach in flexible electronics.

  7. Interfacial Engineered Polyaniline/Sulfur-doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Ultralong Cycle Lifetime Fiber-Shaped, Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Li, Chun; Wang, Zhuanpei; Li, Shengwen; Cheng, Jianli; Zhang, Yanning; Zhou, Jingwen; Yang, Dan; Tong, Dong-Ge; Wang, Bin

    2018-05-04

    Fiber-shaped supercapacitors (FSCs) have great potential in wearable electronics applications. However, the limited specific surface area and inadequate structural stability caused by the weak interfacial interactions of the electrodes result in relatively low specific capacitance and unsatisfactory cycle lifetime. Herein, solid-state FSCs with high energy density and ultralong cycle lifetime based on polyaniline (PANI)/sulfur-doped TiO2 nanotubes array (PANI/S-TiO2) are fabricated by interfacial engineering. The experimental results and ab initio calculations reveal that S doping can effectively promote the conductivity of titania nanotubes and increase the binding energy of PANI anchored on the electrode surface, leading to much stronger binding of PANI on the surface of the electrode and excellent electrode structure stability. As a result, the FSCs using the PANI/S-TiO2 electrodes deliver a high specific capacitance of 91.9 mF cm-2, a capacitance retention of 93.78% after 12,000 charge/discharge cycles, and an areal energy density of 3.2 µWh cm-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the all-solid-state FSC device retains its excellent flexibility and stable electrochemical capacitance even after bending 150 cycles. The enhanced performances of FSCs could be attributed to the large surface area, short ion diffusion path, high electrical conductivity and engineered interfacial interaction of the rationally designed electrodes.

  8. The influence of geometrical characteristics on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotube arrays for degradation of refractory organic pollutants in wastewater.

    Noeiaghaei, T; Yun, J-H; Nam, S W; Zoh, K D; Gomes, V G; Kim, J O; Chae, S R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of geometrical characteristics such as surface area (SA) and porosity of TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) on its photocatalytic activity were investigated by applying variable voltages and reaction times for the anodization of Ti substrates. While larger SA of nanotubes was observed under higher applied potential, the porosity of TNAs decreased by increasing anodizing voltage. Under applied potential of 80 V, the SA of TNAs increased from 0.164 to 0.471 m2/g as anodization time increased from 1 to 5 hours, respectively. However, no significant effect on the porosity of TNAs was observed. On the other hand, both SA and porosity of TNAs, synthesized at 60 V, increased by augmenting the anodization time from 1 to 3 hours. But further increasing of anodization time to 5 hours resulted in a decreased SA of TNAs with no effect on their porosity. Accordingly, the TNAs with SA of 0.368 m2/g and porosity of 47% showed the highest photocatalytic activity for degradation of 4-chlorobenzoic acid (4CBA). Finally, the degradation of refractory model compounds such as carbamazepine and bisphenol-A was tested and more than 50% of both compounds could be degraded under UV-A irradiation (λmax=365 nm).

  9. Influence of energy band alignment in mixed crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays: good for photocatalysis, bad for electron transfer

    Mohammadpour, Raheleh

    2017-12-01

    Despite the wide application ranges of TiO2, the precise explanation of the charge transport dynamic through a mixed crystal phase of this semiconductor has remained elusive. Here, in this research, mixed-phase TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) consisting of anatase and 0-15% rutile phases has been formed through various annealing processes and employed as a photoelectrode of a photovoltaic cell. Wide ranges of optoelectronic experiments have been employed to explore the band alignment position, as well as the depth and density of trap states in TNTAs. Short circuit potential, as well as open circuit potential measurements specified that the band alignment of more than 0.2 eV exists between the anatase and rutile phase Fermi levels, with a higher electron affinity for anatase; this can result in a potential barrier in crystallite interfaces and the deterioration of electron mobility through mixed phase structures. Moreover, a higher density of shallow localized trap states below the conduction band with more depth (133 meV in anatase to 247 meV in 15% rutile phase) and also deep oxygen vacancy traps have been explored upon introducing the rutile phase. Based on our results, employing TiO2 nanotubes as just the electron transport medium in mixed crystalline phases can deteriorate the charge transport mechanism, however, in photocatalytic applications when both electrons and holes are present, a robust charge separation in crystalline anatase/rutile interphases will result in better performances.

  10. Effect of ZnS layers on optical properties of prepared CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for photocatalyst

    Zhang, Miao; Gong, Zezhou; Tao, Jiajia; Wang, Xingzhi; Wang, Zhuang; Yang, Lei; He, Gang [Anhui University, School of Physics and Material Science (China); Lv, Jianguo [Hefei Normal University, School of Electronic and Information Engineering (China); Wang, Peihong; Ding, Zongling [Anhui University, School of Physics and Material Science (China); Chen, Xiaoshuang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics (China); Sun, Zhaoqi, E-mail: szq@ahu.edu.cn [Anhui University, School of Physics and Material Science (China)

    2017-03-15

    The TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TiO{sub 2} NTAs) prepared by re-oxidation were chosen as basement. The NTAs prepared through re-oxidation show smoother surface and more uniform tube mouth on large scale compared with the first as-grown one. We use successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to deposit quantum dots (ZnS and CdS) onto the sample successively. The findings reveal that two kinds of quantum dots (∼10 nm) distribute regularly and the nanotube mouth is open. From the UV–Vis absorption spectrum of samples, the red shift occurs after the sedimentation of the two quantum dots, which proves that the double modification can expand the absorption to 650 nm. Among all specimens, the sample produced by co-deposition has the highest speed of catalytic efficiency of 90.7% compared with bare TiO{sub 2} NTAs (52.9%) and just CdS QDs sensitized sample (65.8%). In the test of photocatalysis durability, the decay percentages of CdS/TiO{sub 2} NTAs and ZnS/CdS/TiO{sub 2} NTAs were 35.8 and 48.4%, respectively, which means that the ZnS passivation layer plays a crucial role in enhancing photocatalytic activities.

  11. A bamboo-inspired hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Ag/CuO/TiO_2 nanotube array for highly photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol

    Zhang, Xuhong; Wang, Longlu; Liu, Chengbin; Ding, Yangbin; Zhang, Shuqu; Zeng, Yunxiong; Liu, Yutang; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bamboo-like architecture of ternary photocatalyst. • High simulated solar light photocatalytic activity. • Integration of p-n heterojunction and Schottky junction. • Excellent stable recycling performance. - Abstract: The optimized geometrical configuration of muitiple active materials into hierarchical nanoarchitecture is essential for the creation of photocatalytic degradation system that can mimic natural photosynthesis. A bamboo-like architecture, CuO nanosheets and Ag nanoparticles co-decorated TiO_2 nanotube arrays (Ag/CuO/TiO_2), was fabricated by using simple solution-immersion and electrodeposition process. Under simulated solar light irradiation, the 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) photocatalytic degradation rate over Ag/CuO/TiO_2 was about 2.0, 1.5 and 1.2 times that over TiO_2 nanotubes, CuO/TiO_2 and Ag/TiO_2, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of ternary Ag/CuO/TiO_2 photocatalyst was ascribed to improved light absorption, reduced carrier recombination and more exposed active sites. Moreover, the excellent stability and reliability of the Ag/CuO/TiO_2 photocatalyst demonstrated a promising application for organic pollutant removal from water.

  12. A bamboo-inspired hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array for highly photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol

    Zhang, Xuhong; Wang, Longlu [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Chengbin, E-mail: chem_cbliu@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ding, Yangbin; Zhang, Shuqu; Zeng, Yunxiong [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Yutang, E-mail: liuyutang@126.com [Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Shenglian [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Bamboo-like architecture of ternary photocatalyst. • High simulated solar light photocatalytic activity. • Integration of p-n heterojunction and Schottky junction. • Excellent stable recycling performance. - Abstract: The optimized geometrical configuration of muitiple active materials into hierarchical nanoarchitecture is essential for the creation of photocatalytic degradation system that can mimic natural photosynthesis. A bamboo-like architecture, CuO nanosheets and Ag nanoparticles co-decorated TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2}), was fabricated by using simple solution-immersion and electrodeposition process. Under simulated solar light irradiation, the 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) photocatalytic degradation rate over Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} was about 2.0, 1.5 and 1.2 times that over TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, CuO/TiO{sub 2} and Ag/TiO{sub 2}, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of ternary Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was ascribed to improved light absorption, reduced carrier recombination and more exposed active sites. Moreover, the excellent stability and reliability of the Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst demonstrated a promising application for organic pollutant removal from water.

  13. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: using TiO2-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Jagadale, Pravin; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-10-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO2/MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO2/MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (Paligned MWCNT network. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Deposition of copper indium sulfide on TiO2 nanotube arrays and its application for photocatalytic decomposition of gaseous IPA

    Young Ku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs were modified with copper indium sulfide (Cu/In/S by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the presence of copper indium sulfide nanoparticles on the surface of the modified TNTs. The Cu/In/S-modified TNTs exhibited higher photocurrent density and photocatalytic activity than plain TNTs. The concentration of sulfur precursor was found to be an important factor on the composition of modified Cu/In/S films by SILAR. Some composition deviations were observed on the stoichiometry of the Cu/In/S-modified TNTs, which evidently affected the electrochemical characteristics of the modified TNTs. Experiments using the modified TNTs of composition close to the stoichiometric ratio of CuInS2 usually delivered higher photocatalytic decomposition of gaseous isopropyl alcohol in air streams and exhibited better stability during operation.

  15. Synthesis and photoelectrical performance of nanoscale PbS and Bi2S3 co-sensitized on Ti02 nanotube arrays

    Fanggong Cai; Min Pan; Yong Feng; Guo Yan; Yong Zhang; Yong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 films have been widely applied in photovoltaic conversion techniques.TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NAs) can be grown directly on the surface of metal Ti by the anodic oxidation method.Bi2S3 and PbS nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly co-sensitized on TiO2 NAs (denoted as PbS/Bi2S3(n)/TiO2 NAs) by a two-step process containing hydrothermal and sonication-assisted SILAR method.When the concentration of Bi3+ is 5 mmol/L,the best photoelectrical performance was obtained under simulated solar irradiation.The short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) and photoconversion efficiency (η) of PbS/Bi2S3(5)/TiO2 NAs electrode were 4.70 mA/cm and 1.13 %,respectively.

  16. A photoelectrochemical study of CdS modified TiO2 nanotube arrays as photoanodes for cathodic protection of stainless steel

    L, Jing; Lin Changjian; Li Juntao; Lin Zequan

    2011-01-01

    An electrodeposited CdS nanoparticles-modified highly-ordered TiO 2 nanotube arrays (CdS-TNs) photoelectrode and its performance of photocathodic protection are reported. The self-organized TiO 2 nanotube arrays are fabricated by electrochemical anodization in an organic-inorganic mixed electrolyte and sensitized with CdS nanoparticles by electrodeposition via a single-step direct current. The morphology, crystalline phase, and composition of the CdS-TNs films were characterized systematically by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, respectively. The photoelectrochemical performances of the CdS-TNs film under illumination and dark conditions in 0.5 M NaCl solution were evaluated through the electrochemical measurements. It is indicated that the TNs incorporated by CdS effectively harvest solar light in the UV as well as the visible light (up to 480 nm) region. It is supposed that the high photoelectro-response activity of the CdS-TNs is attributed to the increased efficiency of charge separation and transport of electrons. The electrode potentials of 304 stainless steel coupled with the CdS-TNs is found to be negatively shifted for about 246 mV and 215 mV under UV and white light irradiation, respectively, which can be remained for 24 h even in darkness. It is implied that the CdS-TNs are able to effectively function a photogenerated cathodic protection for metals both under the UV and visible light illumination.

  17. A photoelectrochemical study of CdS modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays as photoanodes for cathodic protection of stainless steel

    L, Jing; Lin Changjian, E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn; Li Juntao; Lin Zequan

    2011-06-01

    An electrodeposited CdS nanoparticles-modified highly-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (CdS-TNs) photoelectrode and its performance of photocathodic protection are reported. The self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays are fabricated by electrochemical anodization in an organic-inorganic mixed electrolyte and sensitized with CdS nanoparticles by electrodeposition via a single-step direct current. The morphology, crystalline phase, and composition of the CdS-TNs films were characterized systematically by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, respectively. The photoelectrochemical performances of the CdS-TNs film under illumination and dark conditions in 0.5 M NaCl solution were evaluated through the electrochemical measurements. It is indicated that the TNs incorporated by CdS effectively harvest solar light in the UV as well as the visible light (up to 480 nm) region. It is supposed that the high photoelectro-response activity of the CdS-TNs is attributed to the increased efficiency of charge separation and transport of electrons. The electrode potentials of 304 stainless steel coupled with the CdS-TNs is found to be negatively shifted for about 246 mV and 215 mV under UV and white light irradiation, respectively, which can be remained for 24 h even in darkness. It is implied that the CdS-TNs are able to effectively function a photogenerated cathodic protection for metals both under the UV and visible light illumination.

  18. Synthesis of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays: Microstructural, stereoscopic, and topographic studies

    Quiroz, Heiddy P., E-mail: hpquirozg@unal.edu.co; Dussan, A., E-mail: adussanc@unal.edu.co [Department of Physis, Grupo de Materiales Nanoestructurados y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá 11001 (Colombia)

    2016-08-07

    In this work, titanium dioxide nanotubes were prepared by using titanium foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol solutions containing different amounts of water and fluoride in the ranges of 1%–3% and 0.15%–0.5%, respectively, to determine their effects on morphology, optical, and crystalline structure properties. Annealing processes were performed on all samples in the range between 273 and 723 K. Morphology and structure properties of the samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes, through anodization method, are strongly influenced by conditions, like fluoride concentration and applied voltages. Tube lengths between 2 and 7 μm were obtained, exhibiting different diameters and wall thicknesses. When alternating voltage was applied, the outer surface of the nanotubes exhibited evenly spaced ring-shaped regions, while smooth tubes were observed when constant voltage was applied. Reflection peaks, corresponding to Brookite, Anatase, and Rutile, of TiO{sub 2} phases, were observed from the XRD pattern. These phases were corroborated via μXRD measurements, and the Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} phase was also observed in detail. Absorption coefficient (α), optical band gap (Eg), and extinction coefficient (ε) of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were calculated by transmittance spectra in the UV–Vis range. Strong absorption was noted in the UV region from reflectance and absorbance measurements. A correlation between synthesis parameters and physical properties is presented.

  19. Understanding the effect of morphology on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotube array electrodes

    Adán, C.; Marugán, J.; Sánchez, E.; Pablos, C.; Grieken, R. van

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive report on the correlation between the morphology and the photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity of TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs) electrodes is presented. New insights are provided to support the effect of the anodization conditions on the photon-to-current efficiency of the electrodes based on the dimensional characteristics of the TiO 2 -NTs. Electrodes with promising properties based on the characterization data were scaled-up to test their activity on the PC and PEC oxidation of methanol. Results indicate that the length of the nanotubes significantly influences the photodegradation efficiency. The enhancement achieved in both PC and PEC processes with longer nanotubes can be explained by the higher surface area in contact with the electrolyte and the increase in the light absorption as the TiO 2 layer becomes thicker. However, as the length of the nanotubes increases, a reduction in the enhancement achieved by the application of a potential bias is observed. Kinetic constants of both reactions (PC and PEC) tend to get closer and the charge separation effect diminishes. In relative terms, the effect of the electric potential is more pronounced for electrodes with the shorter NTs. The reason is that once the TiO 2 layer is thick enough to absorb the available radiation, a further increase in the NTs length increases the resistance of the electrons to reach the back contact and the diffusional restrictions to the mass transport of the reactants/products along the tubes. Consequently, the existence of a compromise between reactivity and transport properties lead to the existence of an optimal NTs length.

  20. Effect of van der Waals forces on thermal conductance at the interface of a single-wall carbon nanotube array and silicon

    Ya Feng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to evaluate the effect of van der Waals forces among single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs on the interfacial thermal conductance between a SWNT array and silicon substrate. First, samples of SWNTs vertically aligned on silicon substrate are simulated, where both the number and arrangement of SWNTs are varied. Results reveal that the interfacial thermal conductance of a SWNT array/Si with van der Waals forces present is higher than when they are absent. To better understand how van der Waals forces affect heat transfer through the interface between SWNTs and silicon, further constructs of one SWNT surrounded by different numbers of other ones are studied, and the results show that the interfacial thermal conductance of the central SWNT increases with increasing van der Waals forces. Through analysis of the covalent bonds and vibrational density of states at the interface, we find that heat transfer across the interface is enhanced with a greater number of chemical bonds and that improved vibrational coupling of the two sides of the interface results in higher interfacial thermal conductance. Van der Waals forces stimulate heat transfer at the interface.

  1. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: Using TiO2-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Jagadale, Pravin; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO 2 /MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM–EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO 2 /MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (P < 0.05) as compared to TiO 2 /MWCNT coated ceramic. The photocatalytic killing rate constant for TiO 2 -ceramic and MWCNT/TiO 2 -ceramic under fluorescent light was found be 1.45 × 10 −2 min −1 and 2.23 × 10 −2 min −1 respectively. Further, when I–V characteristics were performed for TiO 2 /MWCNT composite, it was corroborated that the current under light irradiation is comparatively higher than that in dark, thus proving it to be photocatalytically efficient system. The enhanced photocatalysis may be a contribution of increased surface area and charge transfer rate as a consequence of aligned MWCNT network. - Highlights: • Coating of vertically aligned MWCNT on ceramic candle filter • Surface orchestration of TiO 2 on MWCNT arrays • I–V characteristic studies are performed under dark and illumination. • Photocatalytic efficiency of TiO 2 /MWCNT arrays is determined using E. coli O157:H7. • Proposed a mechanism of bacterial killing due to free radical formation

  2. Effect of Hydrogen Concentration on the Growth of Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Gecko-Inspired Adhesive Applications

    Yang Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs have extraordinary structural and mechanical properties, and have been considered as potential candidates for creating dry adhesives inspired by adhesive structures in nature. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition is widely used to grow VACNTs; however, the influential mechanism of VACNT preparation parameters (such as H2 concentration on its adhesion property is not clear, making accurate control over the structure of VACNTs adhesive an ongoing challenge. In this article, we use electron beam-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 as a support layer, Fe as catalyst, and C2H4/H2 gas mixtures as a feed gas to prepare VACNTs, while varying the ratio of the reducing atmosphere (H2 from 0% to 35%. VACNTs synthesized at a 15% H2 concentration (5 mm × 5 mm in size can support a maximal weight of 856 g, which indicates a macroscopic shear adhesive strength of 34 N/cm2. We propose a hydrogen-concentration-dependent model for the shear adhesive performance of VACNTs. By adjusting the amount of hydrogen present during the reaction, the morphology and quality of the prepared VACNTs can be precisely controlled, which significantly influences its shear adhesive performance. These results are advantageous for the application of carbon nanotubes as dry adhesives.

  3. Lifshitz-type formulas for graphene and single-wall carbon nanotubes: van der Waals and Casimir interactions

    Bordag, M.; Geyer, B.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Lifshitz-type formulas are obtained for the van der Waals and Casimir interaction between graphene and a material plate, graphene and an atom or a molecule, and between a single-wall carbon nanotube and a plate. The reflection properties of electromagnetic oscillations on graphene are governed by the specific boundary conditions imposed on the infinitely thin positively charged plasma sheet, carrying a continuous fluid with some mass and charge density. The obtained formulas are applied to graphene interacting with Au and Si plates, to hydrogen atoms and molecules interacting with graphene, and to single-wall carbon nanotubes interacting with Au and Si plates. The generalizations to more complicated carbon nanostructures are discussed

  4. Uniformly dispersed CdS nanoparticles sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability

    Liu, Lingjuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei 230009 (China); Lv, Jun, E-mail: lvjun117@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei 230009 (China); Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Yan; Xie, Kui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, Zhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue 639798 (Singapore); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In this study, TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TiO{sub 2}-NTs) with various intertube spaces were fabricated in the electrolyte with different water contents and the CdS nanoparticles (CdS NPs) were further deposited onto the TiO{sub 2}-NTs as a sensitizer via a sequential chemical bath deposition (S-CBD) method. The FE-SEM, TEM, XRD and XPS results demonstrated that the CdS NPs were uniformly deposited onto the surface of TiO{sub 2}-NTs. It was found that higher water content in electrolyte was in favor of large intertube space and pore size and the uniform deposition of CdS NPs. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was tested with the as-prepared CdS/TiO{sub 2}-NTs under visible light (λ>400 nm). It was found that the photodegradation rate reached as high as 96.7% under visible irradiation for 180 min. In addition, a reasonable degradation rate of 75.8% was achieved even after 5 cycles, suggesting a good photocatalytic stability of the as-prepared CdS/TiO{sub 2}-NTs. - Graphical abstract: The whole sheet of CdS NPs sensitized TiO{sub 2}-NTs with the Ti subtract was used for degradation of methyl orange under visible light (λ>400 nm) on a XPA-7 photochemical reactor. - Highlights: • Intertube space, pore size were controlled by changing water content in electrolyte. • CdS nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • The catalyst with Ti substrate used as a whole was very convenient for recycling. • Visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability were highly enhanced.

  5. Improving photoelectrochemical performance on quantum dots co-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays using ZnO energy barrier by atomic layer deposition

    Zeng, Min [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Materials in Tropical Island Resources, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Zeng, Xi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, 650500 (China); Peng, Xiange; Zhu, Zhuo; Liao, Jianjun; Liu, Kai; Wang, Guizhen [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Materials in Tropical Island Resources, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Lin, Shiwei, E-mail: linsw@hainu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Materials in Tropical Island Resources, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The length of TNTAs has a balance between the charge recombination and the QDs loading. • The introduction of ZnO interlayer by ALD could improve the QDs absorption. • The optimal thickness of ZnO interlayer is 1.5 nm prepared by 10 cycles ALD. - Abstract: PbS and CdS quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited onto TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTAs) in turn via a sonication-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. This method could uniformly decorate TNTAs with QDs, avoiding QDs aggregation at the mouth of TiO{sub 2} nanotube. The loading amounts of QDs on TNTAs could be controlled by adjusting the TNTAs length. Under one sun illumination, the QDs co-sensitized TNTAs (TNTAs/QDs) with the length of about 2.4 μm displayed the highest photocurrent of 4.32 mA cm{sup −2}, which is 27 times higher than that of the bare TNTAs. Introduction of a thin ZnO energy barrier by atomic layer deposition (ALD) between the TNTAs and QDs can further improve the photocurrent of TNTAs/QDs. And the TNTAs/QDs with 10 ALD cycles of ZnO interlayer exhibits the highest photocurrent of 5.24 mA cm{sup −2} and best photoconversion efficiency of 4.9%, a more than 20% enhancement over the bare TNTAs/QDs. Such enhanced photoelectrochemical performance may be ascribed to the increased amounts of QDs on the TNTAs due to the introduction of ZnO interlayer. The benefits of ALD layers play a crucial role in development and optimization of high-performance photoelectrodes in the near future.

  6. A simple preparation method and characterization of B and N co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance

    Georgieva, J., E-mail: jenia@ipc.bas.bg [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Valova, E.; Armyanov, S.; Tatchev, D. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Sotiropoulos, S. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Avramova, I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Dimitrova, N. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Hubin, A.; Steenhaut, O. [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • An environment-sparing method for preparation of B,N-co-doped TNTA is realized. • N and B promote additionally the reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III) during the crystallization annealing. • N and B dopants are predominantly in interstitial positions. • B,N-TNTA exhibited better photoelectrochemical performance and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of MO. - Abstract: Highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTA) have attracted much attention due to the excellent photocatalytic, optical and electrical properties. However, their absorption range is limited to ultraviolet (UV) spectrum only due to the wide band gap (3.2 eV). One of the strategies to overcome this problem is doping with boron and nitrogen. They are produced via titanium sheet anodization and subsequent electrochemical treatment of titania in an electrolyte containing boric acid. The as-prepared B-TNTA are annealed in N{sub 2} atmosphere at 500 °C for 2 h to obtain B,N-TNTA. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The B,N-TNTA consist of uniform and well aligned nanotubes with an average inner diameter of 80–100 nm and a length not exceeding 1 μm. The photocurrent response measurements of undoped TNTA, N-doped and B,N-co-doped samples are performed under UV and visible light (Vis) illumination and a comparison is made. The obtained results show that the B,N-doping leads to remarkable photocurrent enhancement and better photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) degradation due to the synergistic effects of B,N-co-doping and lower electron-hole recombination rates.

  7. Improving photoelectrochemical performance on quantum dots co-sensitized TiO_2 nanotube arrays using ZnO energy barrier by atomic layer deposition

    Zeng, Min; Zeng, Xi; Peng, Xiange; Zhu, Zhuo; Liao, Jianjun; Liu, Kai; Wang, Guizhen; Lin, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The length of TNTAs has a balance between the charge recombination and the QDs loading. • The introduction of ZnO interlayer by ALD could improve the QDs absorption. • The optimal thickness of ZnO interlayer is 1.5 nm prepared by 10 cycles ALD. - Abstract: PbS and CdS quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited onto TiO_2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) in turn via a sonication-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. This method could uniformly decorate TNTAs with QDs, avoiding QDs aggregation at the mouth of TiO_2 nanotube. The loading amounts of QDs on TNTAs could be controlled by adjusting the TNTAs length. Under one sun illumination, the QDs co-sensitized TNTAs (TNTAs/QDs) with the length of about 2.4 μm displayed the highest photocurrent of 4.32 mA cm"−"2, which is 27 times higher than that of the bare TNTAs. Introduction of a thin ZnO energy barrier by atomic layer deposition (ALD) between the TNTAs and QDs can further improve the photocurrent of TNTAs/QDs. And the TNTAs/QDs with 10 ALD cycles of ZnO interlayer exhibits the highest photocurrent of 5.24 mA cm"−"2 and best photoconversion efficiency of 4.9%, a more than 20% enhancement over the bare TNTAs/QDs. Such enhanced photoelectrochemical performance may be ascribed to the increased amounts of QDs on the TNTAs due to the introduction of ZnO interlayer. The benefits of ALD layers play a crucial role in development and optimization of high-performance photoelectrodes in the near future.

  8. Electronically type-sorted carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensors with glucose oxidase and dehydrogenase.

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Nowaki, Kohei

    2015-01-14

    An electrochemical enzyme biosensor with electronically type-sorted (metallic and semiconducting) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for use in aqueous media is presented. This research investigates how the electronic types of SWNTs influence the amperometric response of enzyme biosensors. To conduct a clear evaluation, a simple layer-by-layer process based on a plasma-polymerized nano thin film (PPF) was adopted because a PPF is an inactive matrix that can form a well-defined nanostructure composed of SWNTs and enzyme. For a biosensor with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme in the presence of oxygen, the response of a metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was 2 times larger than that of a semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode. In contrast, in the absence of oxygen, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode was retained, whereas that of the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was significantly reduced. This indicates that direct electron transfer occurred with the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode, whereas the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was dominated by a hydrogen peroxide pathway caused by an enzymatic reaction. For a biosensor with the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; oxygen-independent catalysis) enzyme, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GDH electrode was 4 times larger than that of the metallic SWNT-GDH electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to show that the semiconducting SWNT network has less resistance for electron transfer than the metallic SWNT network. Therefore, it was concluded that semiconducting SWNTs are more suitable than metallic SWNTs for electrochemical enzyme biosensors in terms of direct electron transfer as a detection mechanism. This study makes a valuable contribution toward the development of electrochemical biosensors that employ sorted SWNTs and various enzymes.

  9. Synthesis of Nickel-Encapsulated Carbon Nanocapsules and Cup-Stacked-Type Carbon Nanotubes via Nickel-Doped Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Tokushi Kizuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel- (Ni doped C60 nanowhiskers (NWs were synthesized by a liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method using a C60-saturated toluene solution and isopropanol with Ni nitrate hexahydrate Ni(NO32·6H2O. By varying the heating temperature of Ni-doped C60 NWs, two types of one-dimensional carbon nanostructures were produced. By heating the NWs at 973 and 1173 K, carbon nanocapsules (CNCs that encapsulated Ni nanoparticles were produced. The Ni-encapsulated CNCs joined one dimensionally to form chain structures. Upon heating the NWs to 1373 K, cup-stacked-type carbon nanotubes were synthesized.

  10. Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Improving Efficiency: TiO2 Nanotube Arrays in Active Layer

    Won-Yeop Rho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have been widely studied due to several advantages, such as low cost-to-performance ratio, low cost of fabrication, functionality at wide angles and low intensities of incident light, mechanical robustness, and low weight. This paper summarizes the recent progress in DSSC technology for improving efficiency, focusing on the active layer in the photoanode, with a part of the DSSC consisting of dyes and a TiO2 film layer. In particular, this review highlights a huge pool of studies that report improvements in the efficiency of DSSCs using TiO2 nanotubes, which exhibit better electron transport. Finally, this paper suggests opportunities for future research.

  11. Decoration of TiO_2 nanotube arrays by graphitic-C_3N_4 quantum dots with improved photoelectrocatalytic performance

    Sun, Bo; Lu, Na; Su, Yan; Yu, Hongtao; Meng, Xiangyu; Gao, Zhanming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2 nanotube arrays/graphitic-C_3N_4 quantum dots heterojunction was prepared via a facile dipping method. • The optimized dipping duration and concentration of heterojunction were investigated. • The prepared heterojunction extends optical absorption and reduces the recombination of charge carriers. • The photocurrent generated by the optimal g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs photoanode is 4.3 times that of pristine TNTAs. • 98.6% of phenol is degraded in 120 min and the degradation rate is 4.9 times as great as that of pristine TNTAs. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel method to improve the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) property of TiO_2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) by way of decorating it with visible-light-respond graphitic-C_3N_4 quantum dots (g-C_3N_4 QDs). The g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is successfully prepared using a facile dipping method. The optimal condition of preparing g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is found as 60 min of dipping duration and 0.2 mg mL"−"1 of g-C_3N_4 QDs dipping solution. The fabricated g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction shows improved PEC activity comparing to TNTAs due to its better separation capability of photo-generated charges and wider optical absorption. And the photocurrent generated by the optimal g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs photoanode is 4.3 times than that of pristine TNTAs. Besides, the g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction also exhibits superior PEC activities in degradation of phenol. 98.6% of phenol is successfully degraded in 120 min and the pseudo-first-order kinetic constant of phenol degradation is 4.9 times as great as that of pristine TNTAs. This work indicates that the g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is expected to be a promising nanomaterial for pollutant degradation and further application in solar energy conversion.

  12. Decoration of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} quantum dots with improved photoelectrocatalytic performance

    Sun, Bo [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lu, Na, E-mail: luna@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Yan, E-mail: susu@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yu, Hongtao, E-mail: yuhongtao@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Meng, Xiangyu; Gao, Zhanming [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays/graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} quantum dots heterojunction was prepared via a facile dipping method. • The optimized dipping duration and concentration of heterojunction were investigated. • The prepared heterojunction extends optical absorption and reduces the recombination of charge carriers. • The photocurrent generated by the optimal g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs photoanode is 4.3 times that of pristine TNTAs. • 98.6% of phenol is degraded in 120 min and the degradation rate is 4.9 times as great as that of pristine TNTAs. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel method to improve the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) property of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTAs) by way of decorating it with visible-light-respond graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} quantum dots (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs). The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is successfully prepared using a facile dipping method. The optimal condition of preparing g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is found as 60 min of dipping duration and 0.2 mg mL{sup −1} of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs dipping solution. The fabricated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction shows improved PEC activity comparing to TNTAs due to its better separation capability of photo-generated charges and wider optical absorption. And the photocurrent generated by the optimal g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs photoanode is 4.3 times than that of pristine TNTAs. Besides, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction also exhibits superior PEC activities in degradation of phenol. 98.6% of phenol is successfully degraded in 120 min and the pseudo-first-order kinetic constant of phenol degradation is 4.9 times as great as that of pristine TNTAs. This work indicates that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is expected to be a promising nanomaterial for pollutant degradation and further application in solar energy conversion.

  13. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of an Array-Type MEMS Piezoresistive Intelligent Pressure Sensor System

    Jiahong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the radiosonde requirement of high sensitivity and linearity, this study designs and implements a monolithically integrated array-type piezoresistive intelligent pressure sensor system which is made up of two groups of four pressure sensors with the pressure range of 0–50 kPa and 0–100 kPa respectively. First, theoretical models and ANSYS (version 14.5, Canonsburg, PA, USA finite element method (FEM are adopted to optimize the parameters of array sensor structure. Combing with FEM stress distribution results, the size and material characteristics of the array-type sensor are determined according to the analysis of the sensitivity and the ratio of signal to noise (SNR. Based on the optimized parameters, the manufacture and packaging of array-type sensor chips are then realized by using the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS and microelectromechanical system (MEMS process. Furthermore, an intelligent acquisition and processing system for pressure and temperature signals is achieved. The S3C2440A microprocessor (Samsung, Seoul, Korea is regarded as the core part which can be applied to collect and process data. In particular, digital signal storage, display and transmission are realized by the application of a graphical user interface (GUI written in QT/E. Besides, for the sake of compensating the temperature drift and nonlinear error, the data fusion technique is proposed based on a wavelet neural network improved by genetic algorithm (GA-WNN for average measuring signal. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using a S3C2440A microprocessor. Finally, the results of calibration and test experiments achieved with the temperature ranges from −20 to 20 °C show that: (1 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity of the array-type pressure sensor are 8330 × 10−4 and 0.052 mV/V/kPa in the range of 0–50 kPa, respectively; (2 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity are 8129 × 10−4 and 0.020 mV/V/kPa in the

  14. Fabrication of air-stable n-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrates using bilayer dielectrics.

    Li, Guanhong; Li, Qunqing; Jin, Yuanhao; Zhao, Yudan; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-11-14

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin-film transistors hold great potential for flexible electronics. However, fabrication of air-stable n-type devices by methods compatible with standard photolithography on flexible substrates is challenging. Here, we demonstrated that by using a bilayer dielectric structure of MgO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 or HfO2, air-stable n-type devices can be obtained. The mechanism for conduction type conversion was elucidated and attributed to the hole depletion in SWNT, the decrease of the trap state density by MgO assimilating adsorbed water molecules in the vicinity of SWNT, and the energy band bending because of the positive fixed charges in the ALD layer. The key advantage of the method is the relatively low temperature (120 or 90 °C) required here for the ALD process because we need not employ this step to totally remove the absorbates on the SWNTs. This advantage facilitates the integration of both p-type and n-type transistors through a simple lift off process and compact CMOS inverters were demonstrated. We also demonstrated that the doping of SWNTs in the channel plays a more important role than the Schottky barriers at the metal contacts in carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, unlike the situation in individual SWNT-based transistors.

  15. Synthesis of Ag-loaded SrTiO_3/TiO_2 heterostructure nanotube arrays for enhanced photocatalytic performances

    Hu, Zijun; Chen, Da; Zhan, Xiaqiang; Wang, Fang; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the effect of loading Ag nanoparticles on the photocatalytic activity of SrTiO_3/TiO_2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) was investigated. TNTAs were partially transformed to SrTiO_3 through a hydrothermal treatment, which could preserve the tubular structure of TNTAs, and then, Ag nanoparticles were well deposited on the surface of SrTiO_3/TNTAs heterostructure by a chemical reduction process. Compared to the TNTAs sample, the Ag-loaded SrTiO_3/TNTAs sample showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activities for photodegradation of rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag-loaded SrTiO_3/TNTAs could be attributed to the increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer and separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs induced by the SrTiO_3/TNTAs heterojunction and the Schottky barrier between metallic Ag and SrTiO_3/TNTAs. On the basis of the trapping experiments, the possible photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Synthesis of Ag-loaded SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} heterostructure nanotube arrays for enhanced photocatalytic performances

    Hu, Zijun; Chen, Da; Zhan, Xiaqiang; Wang, Fang; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang [China Jiliang University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this work, the effect of loading Ag nanoparticles on the photocatalytic activity of SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTAs) was investigated. TNTAs were partially transformed to SrTiO{sub 3} through a hydrothermal treatment, which could preserve the tubular structure of TNTAs, and then, Ag nanoparticles were well deposited on the surface of SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs heterostructure by a chemical reduction process. Compared to the TNTAs sample, the Ag-loaded SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs sample showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activities for photodegradation of rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag-loaded SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs could be attributed to the increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer and separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs induced by the SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs heterojunction and the Schottky barrier between metallic Ag and SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs. On the basis of the trapping experiments, the possible photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Proof of Concept Coded Aperture Miniature Mass Spectrometer Using a Cycloidal Sector Mass Analyzer, a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Field Emission Electron Ionization Source, and an Array Detector

    Amsden, Jason J.; Herr, Philip J.; Landry, David M. W.; Kim, William; Vyas, Raul; Parker, Charles B.; Kirley, Matthew P.; Keil, Adam D.; Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Radauscher, Erich J.; Hall, Stephen D.; Carlson, James B.; Baldasaro, Nicholas; Stokes, David; Di Dona, Shane T.; Russell, Zachary E.; Grego, Sonia; Edwards, Steven J.; Sperline, Roger P.; Denton, M. Bonner; Stoner, Brian R.; Gehm, Michael E.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2018-02-01

    Despite many potential applications, miniature mass spectrometers have had limited adoption in the field due to the tradeoff between throughput and resolution that limits their performance relative to laboratory instruments. Recently, a solution to this tradeoff has been demonstrated by using spatially coded apertures in magnetic sector mass spectrometers, enabling throughput and signal-to-background improvements of greater than an order of magnitude with no loss of resolution. This paper describes a proof of concept demonstration of a cycloidal coded aperture miniature mass spectrometer (C-CAMMS) demonstrating use of spatially coded apertures in a cycloidal sector mass analyzer for the first time. C-CAMMS also incorporates a miniature carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron ionization source and a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) ion array detector. Results confirm the cycloidal mass analyzer's compatibility with aperture coding. A >10× increase in throughput was achieved without loss of resolution compared with a single slit instrument. Several areas where additional improvement can be realized are identified.

  18. A significant reduction of ice adhesion on nanostructured surfaces that consist of an array of single-walled carbon nanotubes: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Bao, Luyao; Huang, Zhaoyuan; Priezjev, Nikolai V.; Chen, Shaoqiang; Luo, Kai; Hu, Haibao

    2018-04-01

    It is well recognized that excessive ice accumulation at low-temperature conditions can cause significant damage to civil infrastructure. The passive anti-icing surfaces provide a promising solution to suppress ice nucleation and enhance ice removal. However, despite extensive efforts, it remains a challenge to design anti-icing surfaces with low ice adhesion. Using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that surfaces with single-walled carbon nanotube array (CNTA) significantly reduce ice adhesion due to the extremely low solid areal fraction. It was found that the CNTA surface exhibits up to a 45% decrease in the ice adhesion strength in comparison with the atomically smooth graphene surface. The details of the ice detachment from the CNTA surface were examined for different water-carbon interaction energies and temperatures of the ice cube. Remarkably, the results of MD simulations demonstrate that the ice detaching strength depends linearly on the ratio of the ice-surface interaction energy and the ice temperature. These results open the possibility for designing novel robust surfaces with low ice adhesion for passive anti-icing applications.

  19. High-performance Li-ion Sn anodes with enhanced electrochemical properties using highly conductive TiN nanotubes array as a 3D multifunctional support

    Pu, Jun; Du, Hongxiu; Wang, Jian; Wu, Wenlu; Shen, Zihan; Liu, Jinyun; Zhang, Huigang

    2017-08-01

    High capacity electrodes are demanded to increase the energy and power density of lithium ion batteries. However, the cycling and rate properties are severely affected by the large volume changes caused by the lithium insertion and extraction. Structured electrodes with mechanically stable scaffolds are widely developed to mitigate the adverse effects of volume changes. Tin, as a promising anode material, receives great attentions because of its high theoretic capacity. There is a critical value of tin particle size above which tin anodes readily crack, leading to low cyclability. The electrode design using mechanical scaffolds must retain tin particles below the critical size and concurrently enable high volumetric capacity. It is a challenge to guarantee the critical size for high cyclability and space utilization for high volumetric capacity. This study provides a highly conductive TiN nanotubes array with submicron diameters, which enable thin tin coating without sacrificing the volumetric capacity. Such a structured electrode delivers a capacity of 795 mAh gSn-1 (Sn basis) and 1812 mAh cmel-3 (electrode basis). The long-term cycling shows only 0.04% capacity decay per cycle.

  20. Determination of phthalate esters from environmental water samples by micro-solid-phase extraction using TiO2 nanotube arrays before high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Fang, Zhi; Liao, Xiangkun

    2015-07-01

    We describe a highly sensitive micro-solid-phase extraction method for the pre-concentration of six phthalate esters utilizing a TiO2 nanotube array coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with a variable-wavelength ultraviolet visible detector. The selected phthalate esters included dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and dioctyl phthalate. The factors that would affect the enrichment, such as desorption solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, extraction time and desorption time, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of the proposed method was 0.3-200 μg/L. The limits of detection were 0.04-0.2 μg/L (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of six phthalate esters in water samples and satisfied spiked recoveries were achieved. These results indicated that the proposed method was appropriate for the determination of trace phthalate esters in environmental water samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Sensitive and selective electrochemical detection of chromium(VI) based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanotube arrays.

    Jin, Wei; Wu, Guosheng; Chen, Aicheng

    2014-01-07

    Owing to the severe toxicity and mobility of Cr(VI) in biological and environmental systems, it is of great importance to develop convenient and reliable methods for its detection. Here we report on a facile and effective electrochemical technique for monitoring Cr(VI) concentrations based on the utilization of Au nanoparticle-decorated titania nanotubes (TiO2NTs) grown on a titanium substrate. It was found that the electrochemical reduction of Cr(VI) at the Ti/TiO2NT/Au electrode exhibited an almost 23 fold improvement in activity as compared to a polycrystalline gold electrode, due to its nanoparticle/nanotubular heterojunction infrastructure. As a result, the Ti/TiO2NT/Au electrode demonstrated a wide linear concentration range from 0.10 μM to 105 μM, a low detection limit of 0.03 μM, and a high sensitivity of 6.91 μA μM(-1) Cr(VI) via amperometry, satisfying the detection requirements of the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the Ti/TiO2NT/Au electrode exhibited good resistance against interference from coexisting Cr(III) and other metal ions, and excellent recovery for Cr(VI) detection in both tap and lake water samples. These attributes suggest that this hybrid sensor has strong potential in applications for the selective detection of Cr(VI).

  2. Geometric calibration of a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system based on distributed carbon nanotube X-ray source arrays.

    Changhui Jiang

    Full Text Available Stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (sDBT with distributed X-ray sources based on carbon nanotube (CNT field emission cathodes has been recently proposed as an approach that can prevent motion blur produced by traditional DBT systems. In this paper, we simulate a geometric calibration method based on a proposed multi-source CNT X-ray sDBT system. This method is a projection matrix-based approach with seven geometric parameters, all of which can be obtained from only one projection datum of the phantom. To our knowledge, this study reports the first application of this approach in a CNT-based multi-beam X-ray sDBT system. The simulation results showed that the extracted geometric parameters from the calculated projection matrix are extremely close to the input values and that the proposed method is effective and reliable for a square sDBT system. In addition, a traditional cone-beam computed tomography (CT system was also simulated, and the uncalibrated and calibrated geometric parameters were used in image reconstruction based on the filtered back-projection (FBP method. The results indicated that the images reconstructed with calibrated geometric parameters have fewer artifacts and are closer to the reference image. All the simulation tests showed that this geometric calibration method is optimized for sDBT systems but can also be applied to other application-specific CT imaging systems.

  3. Geometric calibration of a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system based on distributed carbon nanotube X-ray source arrays.

    Jiang, Changhui; Zhang, Na; Gao, Juan; Hu, Zhanli

    2017-01-01

    Stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (sDBT) with distributed X-ray sources based on carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes has been recently proposed as an approach that can prevent motion blur produced by traditional DBT systems. In this paper, we simulate a geometric calibration method based on a proposed multi-source CNT X-ray sDBT system. This method is a projection matrix-based approach with seven geometric parameters, all of which can be obtained from only one projection datum of the phantom. To our knowledge, this study reports the first application of this approach in a CNT-based multi-beam X-ray sDBT system. The simulation results showed that the extracted geometric parameters from the calculated projection matrix are extremely close to the input values and that the proposed method is effective and reliable for a square sDBT system. In addition, a traditional cone-beam computed tomography (CT) system was also simulated, and the uncalibrated and calibrated geometric parameters were used in image reconstruction based on the filtered back-projection (FBP) method. The results indicated that the images reconstructed with calibrated geometric parameters have fewer artifacts and are closer to the reference image. All the simulation tests showed that this geometric calibration method is optimized for sDBT systems but can also be applied to other application-specific CT imaging systems.

  4. Investigation of illumination efficiency on the LED therapy with different array types

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Liou, Cheng-Jyun

    2009-08-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a major discovery in twenty-one century for its advantages including small size, long lifetime, low voltage, high response and good mechanical properties. It is an environment-friendly product and maybe becomes a lighting source in future. In the other way LED lighting also is used for the lighting source of cosmetology. LED phototherapy provided medicine with a new tool capable of delivering light deep into tissues of the body, at wavelengths that are biologically optimal for pain treatment and holistic healing. The illumination efficiency is one of the key indexes for the LED phototherapy. LEDs were arranged on a disk of diameter of 100mm with different array types: a radial, a rhombus, an octagon, and a square. Then the LEDs with view angle of 120 degree were used for the lighting sources. Trace-Pro software was used for the optical simulation. The array types of radial and square were better than those of rhombus and octagon for illumination efficiency. In the mixture efficiency of a radial array was observed by different distances from 1mm to 100mm. However lighting could reach the well mixture after the treatment distance of 30mm by optical simulation. The view angle could reach +/-60 degree at the treatment distance of 50 mm for the LED phototherapy mockup.

  5. Phase diagram of a QED-cavity array coupled via a N-type level scheme

    Jin, Jiasen; Rossini, Davide [CNR, NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto di Nanoscienze, Pisa (Italy); Fazio, Rosario [CNR, NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto di Nanoscienze, Pisa (Italy); National University of Singapore, Center for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-01-01

    We study the zero-temperature phase diagram of a one-dimensional array of QED cavities where, besides the single-photon hopping, an additional coupling between neighboring cavities is mediated by an N-type four-level system. By varying the relative strength of the various couplings, the array is shown to exhibit a variety of quantum phases including a polaritonic Mott insulator, a density-wave and a superfluid phase. Our results have been obtained by means of numerical density-matrix renormalization group calculations. The phase diagram was obtained by analyzing the energy gaps for the polaritons, as well as through a study of two-point correlation functions. (orig.)

  6. Vortex lattice in effective type-I superconducting films with periodic arrays of submicron holes

    Berdiyorov, G.R.; Milosevic, M.V.; Peeters, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    The vortex matter and related phenomena in superconducting films with periodic arrays of microholes (antidots) are studied within the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. By varying the GL parameter κ, the vortex-vortex interaction is fine tuned, from repulsive to attractive behavior. This interaction is of crucial importance for equilibrium vortex structures, the saturation number of the antidots, and the related quantities, such as critical current. Due to vortex attraction in effectively type-I samples, the giant-vortex state becomes energetically favorable (contrary to the type-II behavior). For the same reason, the number of vortices which can be captured by antidots, increases with decreasing κ. As a result, for given magnetic field, the critical current is larger for effectively type-I superconductors than in conventional type-II cases

  7. Multi-walled carbon nano-tubes for energy storage and production applications

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Likpa, S.; Qian, D.; Rantell, T.; Anthony, J.

    2005-01-01

    pattern both n-type and p-type MWNTs on suitable electrode substrates, with most effort concentrated on patterning these nano-tube arrays on transparent or flexible substrates. Work bas included the preparation of inter-digitated arrays of p-type and n-type nano-tubes, or arrays of n-type nano-tubes intermixed with p-type organic semiconductor, for studies of photovoltaic properties of such systems. In this presentation, the synthesis, characterization and use of differing types of nano-tube materials will be described, as well as their performance in photovoltaic applications. Particular emphasis will be placed on large scale growth methods for in situ device formation, control of the nano-tube interface, and chemical functionalization of nano-tubes to improve system performance. (authors)

  8. Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Using p-Type ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    Lu, Ming-Pei

    2009-03-11

    Using phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays grown on silicon substrate, energy conversion using the p-type ZnO NWs has been demonstrated for the first time. The p-type ZnO NWs produce positive output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope (AFM) in contact mode. The output voltage pulse is generated when the tip contacts the stretched side (positive piezoelectric potential side) of the NW. In contrast, the n-type ZnO NW produces negative output voltage when scanned by the AFM tip, and the output voltage pulse is generated when the tip contacts the compressed side (negative potential side) of the NW. In reference to theoretical simulation, these experimentally observed phenomena have been systematically explained based on the mechanism proposed for a nanogenerator. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Array-type sensor to determine corrosive conditions in high temperature water under gamma rays irradiation

    Satoh, T.; Tsukada, T.; Uchida, S.; Katoh, C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems to determine electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in high temperature water under irradiation is to apply long-lived and reliable reference electrodes. In order to avoid troubles due to the reference electrode, a new concept to determine ECP without the reference electrode has been proposed. Several metal plates are applied as working electrodes and at the same time as the reference electrodes. Potential of the metal plates with stable oxide films on their surfaces show stable values in high temperature water. As a result of the combination of their potential values, ECP of each metal can be determined without any specific reference electrode. Array-type sensors consisting of several metal plates, e.g., Fe, Ni, Cr, Zr, Pt, Pd, Re, Ir, with well developed oxide films on their surface were prepared for ECP measurement in high temperature water under neutron/gamma ray irradiations. In order to confirm the feasibility of this concept, responses of the redox potentials of the pure metals to changes in the simulated BWR reactor water conditions were measured and the ECP was determined by the differences in potentials between a couple of metal plates. Major conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) The redox potentials of the Fe, Pt, Zr, Ir, Pd, and Re electrodes showed the different dependences on the changes in O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations. The redox potentials of the electrodes increased as the oxidant concentrations increased except for Zr electrode. The potential of the Zr electrode was kept the very low potential at the wide range of O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations differed form the other electrodes. 2) It was estimated that the redox potential of highly soluble metal may be increased, while that of low soluble metal may be decreased by an oxide film. The stable oxide film would cause the stable potential response of the electrode with oxide film. 3) The relationship between the oxidant concentrations and the redox potentials of the

  10. Electrochemically Obtained TiO2/CuxOy Nanotube Arrays Presenting a Photocatalytic Response in Processes of Pollutants Degradation and Bacteria Inactivation in Aqueous Phase

    Magda Kozak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2/CuxOy nanotube (NT arrays were synthesized using the anodization method in the presence of ethylene glycol and different parameters applied. The presence, morphology, and chemical character of the obtained structures was characterized using a variety of methods—SEM (scanning electron microscopy, XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray crystallography, PL (photoluminescence, and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A p-n mixed oxide heterojunction of Ti-Cu was created with a proved response to the visible light range and the stable form that were in contact with Ti. TiO2/CuxOy NTs presented the appearance of both Cu2O (mainly and CuO components influencing the dimensions of the NTs (1.1–1.3 µm. Additionally, changes in voltage have been proven to affect the NTs’ length, which reached a value of 3.5 µm for Ti90Cu10_50V. Degradation of phenol in the aqueous phase was observed in 16% of Ti85Cu15_30V after 1 h of visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm. Scavenger tests for phenol degradation process in presence of NT samples exposed the responsibility of superoxide radicals for degradation of organic compounds in Vis light region. Inactivation of bacteria strains Escherichia coli (E. coli, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, and Clostridium sp. in presence of obtained TiO2/CuxOy NT photocatalysts, and Vis light has been studied showing a great improvement in inactivation efficiency with a response rate of 97% inactivation for E. coli and 98% for Clostridium sp. in 60 min. Evidently, TEM (transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the bacteria cells’ damage.

  11. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of PbS sensitized Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays electrode under visible light illumination

    Wu, Jia; Tang, Chengli [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Hao, E-mail: xuhao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Yan, Wei, E-mail: yanwei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Sb–SnO{sub 2} is used to modify TiO{sub 2} NTAs by microwave method. • PbS is employed to sensitive Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs by S-SILAR method. • Sb–SnO{sub 2} improves electrons transfer and PbS enhances visible light absorption. • The composite electrode shows enhanced photoelectrochemical properties. • The composite electrode exhibits high hydrogen evolution and high QE. - Abstract: The novel PbS sensitized Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTAs) composite electrode (PbS/Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs) was fabricated by microwave combined with sonication-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique (S-SILAR). The obtained electrodes were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra techniques. Enhanced photocurrent (15.52 mA/cm{sup 2}) of the PbS/Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs electrode was observed and can be attributed to the facile photo-generated electrons transfer and enhanced charge separation efficiency. Furthermore, the PbS/Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs composite electrode shows a higher H{sub 2} production rate than the Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs electrode and PbS/TiO{sub 2} NTAs electrode. The results indicate that the PbS/Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs electrode is a promising photoanode in visible photocatalytic water splitting.

  12. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance for degradation of diclofenac and mechanism with TiO2 nano-particles decorated TiO2 nano-tubes arrays photoelectrode

    Cheng, Xiuwen; Liu, Huiling; Chen, Qinghua; Li, Junjing; Wang, Pu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, TiO 2 nano-particles decorated TiO 2 nano-tubes arrays (TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs) photoelectrodes have been successfully prepared through anodization, combined with ultrasonic strategy, followed by annealing post-treatment. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoelectrodes were characterized by scanning electrons microscopy (SEM), N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–visible light diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). In addition, the generation of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) was detected by a photoluminescence (PL) spectra using terephthalic acid (TA) as a probe molecule. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical (PECH) properties of TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoanode were investigated through transient open circuit potential (OCP), photocurrent response (PCR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoelectrode exhibited a distinct decrease of OCP of −0.219 mV cm −2 and PCR of 0.049 mA cm −2 , while a significantly enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) efficiency of 63.6% (0.4 V vs. SCE) for the degradation of diclofenac. Moreover, the enhanced PEC mechanism of TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoanode was proposed. The high PEC performance could be attributed to the decoration of TiO 2 NPs, which could improve the mobility and separation efficiency of photoinduced charge carriers under external potential

  13. Rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide/Pt–TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2}

    Sim, Lan Ching [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak (Malaysia); Leong, Kah Hon [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saravanan, Pichiah, E-mail: saravananpichiah@um.edu.my [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Shaliza [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enhanced visible light character of TNTs was imparted by RGO/Pt via facile route. • Pt NPs contribute exemplary visible light harvesting nature through plasmon effect. • Engulfed RGO promoted enhanced charge-carriers separation. • Synergistic effect of RGO, Pt photoreduced CO{sub 2} to CH{sub 4} with max. of 10.96 μmol m{sup −2}. - Abstract: In this study, a complicate natural photosynthesis process was prototyped through a photocatalysis process by reducing CO{sub 2} to light hydrocarbon, CH{sub 4}. The composite photocatalyst employed for this study utilized Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) and rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide (RGO) deposited over the surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTs). The existence and contribution of both Pt NPs and RGO in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, Raman, FTIR, XPS, UV-DRS and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The TNTs in the composite exhibited pure anatase phase. The absorption bands at around 450 nm obtained from UV-DRS spectrum supported the existence of LSPR phenomenon of Pt NPs. The promising lower work function of RGO promoted the electrons transfer from TNTs to RGO efficiently. The successful depositions of Pt and RGO onto the surface of TNTs contributed for the improved photocatalytic activity (total CH{sub 4} yield of 10.96 μmol m{sup −2}) in the reduction of CO{sub 2} over TNTs and Pt–TNTs. Both of RGO and Pt NPs are equally important to exert a significant impact on the improvement of CH{sub 4} production rates.

  14. Rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide/Pt–TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic reduction of CO2

    Sim, Lan Ching; Leong, Kah Hon; Saravanan, Pichiah; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enhanced visible light character of TNTs was imparted by RGO/Pt via facile route. • Pt NPs contribute exemplary visible light harvesting nature through plasmon effect. • Engulfed RGO promoted enhanced charge-carriers separation. • Synergistic effect of RGO, Pt photoreduced CO 2 to CH 4 with max. of 10.96 μmol m −2 . - Abstract: In this study, a complicate natural photosynthesis process was prototyped through a photocatalysis process by reducing CO 2 to light hydrocarbon, CH 4 . The composite photocatalyst employed for this study utilized Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) and rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide (RGO) deposited over the surface of the TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNTs). The existence and contribution of both Pt NPs and RGO in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, Raman, FTIR, XPS, UV-DRS and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The TNTs in the composite exhibited pure anatase phase. The absorption bands at around 450 nm obtained from UV-DRS spectrum supported the existence of LSPR phenomenon of Pt NPs. The promising lower work function of RGO promoted the electrons transfer from TNTs to RGO efficiently. The successful depositions of Pt and RGO onto the surface of TNTs contributed for the improved photocatalytic activity (total CH 4 yield of 10.96 μmol m −2 ) in the reduction of CO 2 over TNTs and Pt–TNTs. Both of RGO and Pt NPs are equally important to exert a significant impact on the improvement of CH 4 production rates.

  15. PtNi alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays for photo-assisted methanol oxidation

    He, Huichao; Xiao, Peng; Zhou, Ming; Liu, Feila; Yu, Shujuan; Qiao, Lei; Zhang, Yunhuai

    2013-01-01

    To develop anode catalysts for photo-assisted direct methanol fuel cell (PDMFC), carbon-doped TiO 2 nanotube arrays-supported PtNi alloy nanoparticles with different Pt/Ni atomic ratio (PtNi/C-TiO 2 NTs) prepared by pulsed electrodeposition method are evaluated as catalysts for photo-assisted methanol oxidation. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry results show that the PtNi/C-TiO 2 NTs prepared at t onPt :t onNi : = 10:7 (t on is the current-on time) with a Pt:Ni atomic ratio of 6.1:5.7 presents the highest catalytic activity for methanol oxidation both in the dark and under illumination. In addition, according to the results obtained from the CO stripping voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests, it was found that the light play an accelerative role in the oxidation of methanol on PtNi/C-TiO 2 NTs under illumination. The effect of illumination which enhancing the catalytic activity of PtNi/C-TiO 2 NTs are attributed to (1) methanol and the intermediates be oxidized directly on C-TiO 2 NTs for the light-induced catalytic effect; (2) more abundant oxygen-donating species be produced on C-TiO 2 NTs in the presence of light; (3) less CO ads adsorbing on catalysts due to the presence of stronger metal–support interactions between PtNi alloy nanoparticles and C-TiO 2 NTs under illumination

  16. Photoelectrocatalytic Glucose Oxidation to Promote Hydrogen Production over Periodically Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Assembled of Pd Quantum Dots

    Zhang, Yajun; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Huijie; Zhang, Ya-nan; Huang, Wenna; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar-driven PEC glucose oxidation to promote hydrogen production was presented. • The excellent PEC activity of Pd QDs@TNTAs was investigated. • The rate of hydrogen production from glucose was about 15 times than water. • A low-cost and efficient method in renewables-to-hydrogen conversion was put forward. - Abstract: The development of highly efficient and low-cost approaches for catalytic hydrogen production from renewable energy is of tremendous importance for a truly sustainable hydrogen-based energy carrier in future life. Herein, the probability of utilizing solar light to product hydrogen from biomass derivative, glucose, was systematically demonstrated by using the periodically ordered TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) assembled of Palladium quantum dots (Pd QDs), i.e. Pd QDs@ TNTAs as photoanode. The results showed that remarkably increased photocurrent density was obtained in the glucose solution compared to the pure KOH electrolyte over as-prepared photoelectrode, which indicated that the glucose could be faster oxidized than water oxidation, and thus could promote the hydrogen production on Pt cathode. The yield of hydrogen production from glucose oxidation reached as high as 164.8 μmol cm −1 over Pd QDs@TNTAs photoanode and Pt cathode system (denoted as Pd QDs@TNTAs/Pt) under the solar light irradiation for 6 h, which was about 15 times higher than that from pure water splitting. The superior hydrogen production performance could be attributed to the less endergonic process of the glucose oxidation than water, as well as the efficient synergistic photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) glucose oxidation over Pd QDs@TNTAs photoanode which possesses excellent photoelectrochemical performance and structure characteristics. Moreover, a probable mechanism for the PEC hydrogen production from biomass derivatives oxidation was proposed and discussed

  17. Change in carrier type in high-k gate carbon nanotube field-effect transistors by interface fixed charges

    Moriyama, N; Ohno, Y; Kitamura, T; Kishimoto, S; Mizutani, T

    2010-01-01

    We study the phenomenon of change in carrier type in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) caused by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a HfO 2 gate insulator. When a HfO 2 layer is deposited on a CNFET, the type of carrier changes from p-type to n-type. The so-obtained n-type device has good performance and stability in air. The conductivity of such a device with a channel length of 0.7 μm is 11% of the quantum conductance 4e 2 /h. The contact resistance for electron current is estimated to be 14 kΩ. The n-type conduction of this CNFET is maintained for more than 100 days. The change in carrier type is attributed to positive fixed charges introduced at the interface between the HfO 2 and SiO 2 layers. We also propose a novel technique to control the type of conduction by utilizing interface fixed charges; this technique is compatible with Si CMOS process technology.

  18. A Portable Array-Type Optical Fiber Sensing Instrument for Real-Time Gas Detection

    San-Shan Hung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel optical fiber array-type of sensing instrument with temperature compensation for real-time detection was developed to measure oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia simultaneously. The proposed instrument is multi-sensing array integrated with real-time measurement module for portable applications. The sensing optical fibers were etched and polished before coating to increase sensitivities. The ammonia and temperature sensors were each composed of a dye-coated single-mode fiber with constructing a fiber Bragg grating and a long-period filter grating for detecting light intensity. Both carbon dioxide and oxygen sensing structures use multimode fibers where 1-hydroxy-3,6,8-pyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt is coated for carbon dioxide sensing and Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl dichlororuthenium(II hexahydrate and Tris(bipyridineruthenium(II chloride are coated for oxygen sensing. Gas-induced fluorescent light intensity variation was applied to detect gas concentration. The portable gas sensing array was set up by integrating with photo-electronic measurement modules and a human-machine interface to detect gases in real time. The measured data have been processed using piecewise-linear method. The sensitivity of the oxygen sensor were 1.54%/V and 9.62%/V for concentrations less than 1.5% and for concentrations between 1.5% and 6%, respectively. The sensitivity of the carbon dioxide sensor were 8.33%/V and 9.62%/V for concentrations less than 2% and for concentrations between 2% and 5%, respectively. For the ammonia sensor, the sensitivity was 27.78%/V, while ammonia concentration was less than 2%.

  19. A Portable Array-Type Optical Fiber Sensing Instrument for Real-Time Gas Detection.

    Hung, San-Shan; Chang, Hsing-Cheng; Chang, I-Nan

    2016-12-08

    A novel optical fiber array-type of sensing instrument with temperature compensation for real-time detection was developed to measure oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia simultaneously. The proposed instrument is multi-sensing array integrated with real-time measurement module for portable applications. The sensing optical fibers were etched and polished before coating to increase sensitivities. The ammonia and temperature sensors were each composed of a dye-coated single-mode fiber with constructing a fiber Bragg grating and a long-period filter grating for detecting light intensity. Both carbon dioxide and oxygen sensing structures use multimode fibers where 1-hydroxy-3,6,8-pyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt is coated for carbon dioxide sensing and Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate and Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride are coated for oxygen sensing. Gas-induced fluorescent light intensity variation was applied to detect gas concentration. The portable gas sensing array was set up by integrating with photo-electronic measurement modules and a human-machine interface to detect gases in real time. The measured data have been processed using piecewise-linear method. The sensitivity of the oxygen sensor were 1.54%/V and 9.62%/V for concentrations less than 1.5% and for concentrations between 1.5% and 6%, respectively. The sensitivity of the carbon dioxide sensor were 8.33%/V and 9.62%/V for concentrations less than 2% and for concentrations between 2% and 5%, respectively. For the ammonia sensor, the sensitivity was 27.78%/V, while ammonia concentration was less than 2%.

  20. Harnessing light energy with a planar transparent hybrid of graphene/single wall carbon nanotube/n-type silicon heterojunction solar cell

    Chen, Leifeng; Yu, Hua; Zhong, Jiasong

    2015-01-01

    The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a solar cell fabricated by a simple electrophoretic method with a planar transparent hybrid of graphenes (GPs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SCNTs)/n-type silicon heterojunction was significantly increased compared to GPs/n-Si and SCNTs/n-Si solar cells...

  1. Influence of different types of carbon nanotubes on muscle cell response

    Fraczek-Szczypta, Aneta, E-mail: afraczek@agh.edu.pl [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Menaszek, Elzbieta [Department of Cytobiology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-068 Krakow (Poland); Blazewicz, Stanislaw [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Adu, Jimi; Shevchenko, Ross [Pharmidex Pharmaceutical Services, 72 New Bond Street, Mayfair London, W1S 1RR (United Kingdom); Syeda, Tahmina Bahar; Misra, Anil; Alavijeh, Mohammad [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Huxley Building, University of Brighton, Brighton, BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), before and after chemical surface functionalization on muscle cell response in vitro and in vivo conditions. Prior to biological tests the surface physicochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) deposited on a polymer membrane were investigated. To 'evaluate microstructure and structure of CNTs scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used. During in vitro study CNTs deposited on polymer membrane were contacted directly with myoblast cells, and after 7 days of culture cytotoxicity of samples was analyzed. Moreover, cell morphology in contact with CNTs was observed using SEM and fluorescence microscopy. The cytotoxicity of CNTs modified in a different way was comparable and significantly lower in comparison with pure polymer membrane. Microscopy analysis of cultured myoblasts confirms intense cell proliferation of all investigated samples with CNTs while for two kinds of CNTs myoblasts' differentiation into myotubes was observed. Histochemical reactions for the activity of enzymes such as acid phosphatase, cytochrome C oxidase, and non-specific esterase allowed the analysis of the extent of inflammation, degree of regeneration process of the muscle fibers resulting from the presence of the satellite cells and the neuromuscular junction on muscle fibers in contact with CNTs after implantation of CNTs into gluteal muscle of rat.

  2. Calibration of a novel type of bolometer arrays for the Herschel space observatory

    Billot, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The Herschel mission is a major project at the core of the European Space Agency (ESA) scientific program. The space telescope will perform observations of the universes in the far-infrared regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, which still remains little-known today. Among the many research institutes involved in the development and exploitation of this challenging observatory, the CEA designed a novel type of bolometric detectors to equip the photometer of the PACS instrument on-board the Herschel satellite. During my thesis, my task was twofold, I developed a characterisation procedure that takes advantage of unique features of CEA filled bolometer arrays and I applied it to calibrate the PACS photometer and optimize its performances in the various observing modes open to the scientific community. In this manuscript, I present the basics of infrared astronomy from its very beginning in 1800 to the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory. Then, I describe past and present developments in cryogenic bolometers, emphasising new concepts introduced by CEA. I follow with an explanation of the working principles of CEA bolometer arrays, a prerequisite to grasp the strategy of the characterisation procedure that we developed. Then I expose and analyse thoroughly the results that we obtained during the calibration campaign of the PACS photometer. Finally, I express detector performances in terms of 'observational' performances that future PACS users can comprehend. (author) [fr

  3. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays.

    Johnen, Sandra; Meißner, Frank; Krug, Mario; Baltz, Thomas; Endler, Ingolf; Mokwa, Wilfried; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe) or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt) and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti) acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28) cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue.

  4. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays

    Sandra Johnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28 cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue.

  5. Amperometric detection of nitrite based on Dawson-type vanodotungstophosphate and carbon nanotubes

    Zhang, Di; Ma, Huiyuan; Chen, Yanyan; Pang, Haijun; Yu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A composite film has been constructed by vanodotungstophosphate α 2 -K 7 P 2 VW 17 O 62 ·18H 2 O (P 2 W 17 V) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The incorporation of CNTs and P 2 W 17 V into the composite film endowed the modified electrode fast electron transfer rate and high electrocatalytic activity of toward nitrite oxidation. This nitrite sensor shows broad linear range, low detection limit, and high sensitivity and stability. Also it did not show any interference with other potential interfering species, and was successfully employed for determination of nitrite in real samples. -- Highlights: •A composite film was constructed by a vanodotungstophosphate and carbon nanotubes. •The composite film showed fast electron transfer rate and high electrocatalytic activity of toward nitrite oxidation. •The proposed sensor can amperometricially detect nitrite with high sensitivity and selectivity. -- Abstract: A nitrite sensor based on Dawson vanodotungstophosphates α 2 -K 7 P 2 VW 17 O 62 ·18H 2 O (P 2 W 17 V) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The sensor {PEI/PSS/[PDDA/P 2 W 17 V-CNTs] n } was characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The electron transfer and sensing ability of this sensor were explored using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) technology. The results show that the incorporation of CNTs and P 2 W 17 V into the composite film endowed the modified electrode with fast transfer rate and high electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of nitrite. This nitrite sensor with 10 bilayers has a broad linear range of 5 × 10 −8 to 2.13 × 10 −3 M, a low detection limit of 0.0367 μM (S N −1 = 3), a high sensitivity of 0.35 mA mM −1 NO 2 − , an excellent anti-interference property in the

  6. Nitrotyrosine adsorption on carbon nanotube: a density functional theory study

    Majidi, R.; Karami, A. R.

    2014-05-01

    We have studied the effect of nitrotyrosine on electronic properties of different single-wall carbon nanotubes by density functional theory. Optimal adsorption configurations of nitrotyrosine adsorbed on carbon nanotube have been determined by calculation of adsorption energy. Adsorption energies indicate that nitrotyrosine is chemisorbed on carbon nanotubes. It is found that the nitrotyrosine adsorption modifies the electronic properties of the semiconducting carbon nanotubes significantly and these nanotubes become n-type semiconductors, while the effect of nitrotyrosine on metallic carbon nanotubes is not considerable and these nanotubes remain metallic. Results clarify sensitivity of carbon nanotubes to nitrotyrosine adsorption and suggest the possibility of using carbon nanotubes as biosensor for nitrotyrosine detection.

  7. Pd-MnO2 nanoparticles/TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) photo-electrodes photo-catalytic properties and their ability of degrading Rhodamine B under visible light.

    Thabit, Mohamed; Liu, Huiling; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Bing

    2017-10-01

    Pd-MnO 2 /TiO 2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) photo-electrodes were successfully fabricated via anodization and electro deposition subsequently; the obtained Pd-MnO 2 /TiO 2 NTAs photo electrodes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized accordingly. Moreover, the light harvesting and absorption properties were investigated via ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS); photo degradation efficiency was investigated via analyzing the photo catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under visible illumination (xenon light). The performed analyses illustrated that Pd-MnO 2 codoped particles were successfully deposited onto the surface of the TiO 2 nanotube arrays; DRS results showed significant improvement in visible light absorption which was between 400 and 700nm. Finally, the photo catalytic degradation efficiency results of the designated organic pollutant (Rhodamine B) illustrated a superior photocatalytic (PC) efficiency of approximately 95% compared to the bare TiO 2 NTAs, which only exhibited a photo catalytic degradation efficiency of approximately 61%, thus it indicated the significant enhancement of the light absorption properties of fabricated photo electrodes and their yield of OH radicals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction as a highly efficient and stable visible light photocatalyst

    Liu, Chengbin, E-mail: chem_cbliu@hnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cao, Chenghao [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Xubiao [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Graphical abstract: A unique Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. The heterostructures exhibit high photocatalytic activity and excellent recycling performance. - Highlights: • Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network self-stability structure. • Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube p–n heterojunction. • High visible light photocatalytic activity. • Highly stable recycling performance. - Abstract: A unique Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction (Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT) was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. Ag nanoparticles were firstly electrochemically deposited onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} NT and then were partly oxidized to Ag{sub 2}O nanowires while the rest of Ag mother nanoparticles were located at the junctions of Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network. The Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT heterostructure exhibited strong visible-light response, effective separation of photogenerated carriers, and high adsorption capacity. The integration of Ag–Ag{sub 2}O self-stability structure and p–n heterojunction permitted high and stable photocatalytic activity of Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT heterostructure photocatalyst. Under 140-min visible light irradiation, the photocatalytic removal efficiency of both dye acid orange 7 (AO7) and industrial chemical p-nitrophenol (PNP) over Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT reached nearly 100% much higher than 17% for AO7 or 13% for PNP over bare TiO{sub 2} NT. After 5 successive cycles under 600-min simulated solar light irradiation, Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT remained highly stable photocatalytic activity.

  9. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Lerner, Mitchell B.; Goldsmith, Brett R.; McMillon, Ronald; Dailey, Jennifer; Pillai, Shreekumar; Singh, Shree R.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2011-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml).

  10. Two Dimensional Array of Piezoresistive Nanomechanical Membrane-Type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS with Improved Sensitivity

    Nico F. de Rooij

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  11. Long-term colloidal stability of 10 carbon nanotube types in the absence/presence of humic acid and calcium

    Schwyzer, Irène; Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura; Smajda, Rita; Magrez, Arnaud; Nowack, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The colloidal stabilities of ten carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having varying physico-chemical properties were compared in long-term experiments. The presence of Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) increased the fraction of CNTs in the supernatants (4–88% for the various CNT types) after addition in pre-dispersed form and 20 days of shaking and 5 days of settling. These suspensions were monomodal, containing individually suspended CNTs with highly negative surface charges. Calcium (2 mM) removed most of the CNT types from the supernatant, due to CNT-agglomerate formation initiated by reduction in surface charge. The amount of SRHA adsorbed to the different CNT types did not correlate (r 2 < 0.1) with the percentage of CNTs remaining in suspension. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the oxygen content and the diameter of the CNTs significantly influenced the percentage of stabilized CNTs, resulting in an increased fraction of functionalized and large-diameter CNTs that remained in suspension. Highlights: ► Ten different CNT types with varying physico-chemical properties were used. ► The presence of SRHA increased the fraction of CNTs in the supernatants for all CNT-types. ► The O-content and diameter of the CNTs influenced the percentage of CNTs stabilized. ► Functionalization and large diameter made CNTs resistant against Ca flocculation. - The long-term colloidal stability of 10 different CNT types in the presence of humic acid was dependent on oxygen content and diameter of the CNTs.

  12. Large-scale separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by electronic type using click chemistry

    Um, Jo-Eun; Song, Sun Gu; Yoo, Pil J.; Song, Changsik; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2018-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be either metallic or semiconducting, making their separation critical for applications in nanoelectronics, biomedical materials, and solar cells. Herein, we investigate a novel solution-phase separation method based on click chemistry (azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition) and determine its efficiency and scalability. In this method, metallic SWCNTs in metallic/semiconducting SWCNT mixtures are selectively functionalized with alkyne groups by being reacted with 4-propargyloxybenezenediazonium tetrafluoroborate. Subsequently, silica nanoparticles are functionalized with azide groups and reacted with alkyne-bearing metallic SWCNTs in the SWCNT mixture in the presence of a Cu catalyst. As a result, metallic SWCNTs are anchored on silica powder, whereas non-functionalized semiconducting SWCNTs remain in solution. Low-speed centrifugation effectively removes the silica powder with attached metallic SWCNTs, furnishing a solution of highly pure semiconducting SWCNTs, as confirmed by Raman and UV-vis/near-infrared absorption measurements. This novel separation scheme exhibits the advantage of simultaneously separating both metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs from their mixtures, being cost-effective and therefore applicable at an industrial scale.

  13. Visibility and oxidation stability of hybrid-type copper mesh electrodes with combined nickel-carbon nanotube coating

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Hwang, Young-Jin; Park, Jin-Seok

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid-type transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) were fabricated by coating copper (Cu) meshes with carbon nanotube (CNT) via electrophoretic deposition, and with nickel (Ni) via electroplating. For the fabricated electrodes, the effects of the coating with CNT and Ni on their transmittance and reflectance in the visible-light range, electrical sheet resistance, and chromatic parameters (e.g., redness and yellowness) were characterized. Also, an oxidation stability test was performed by exposing the electrodes to air for 20 d at 85 °C and 85% temperature and humidity conditions, respectively. It was discovered that the CNT coating considerably reduced the reflectance of the Cu meshes, and that the Ni coating effectively protected the Cu meshes against oxidation. Furthermore, after the coating with CNT, both the redness and yellowness of the Cu mesh regardless of the Ni coating approached almost zero, indicating a natural color. The experiment results confirmed that the hybrid-type Cu meshes with combined Ni-CNT coating improved characteristics in terms of reflectance, sheet resistance, oxidation stability, and color, superior to those of the primitive Cu mesh, and also simultaneously satisfied most of the requirements for TCEs.

  14. Culture medium type affects endocytosis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in BEAS-2B cells and subsequent biological response.

    Haniu, Hisao; Saito, Naoto; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Maruyama, Kayo; Usui, Yuki; Aoki, Kaoru; Takanashi, Seiji; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Nomura, Hiroki; Okamoto, Masanori; Shimizu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    We examined the cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the resulting cytokine secretion in BEAS-2B cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) in two types of culture media (Ham's F12 containing 10% FBS [Ham's F12] and serum-free growth medium [SFGM]). Cellular uptake of MWCNT was observed by fluorescent microscopy and analyzed using flow cytometry. Moreover, we evaluated whether MWCNT uptake was suppressed by 2 types of endocytosis inhibitors. We found that BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM showed similar biological responses, but BEAS-2B cells cultured in SFGM did not internalize MWCNTs, and the 50% inhibitory concentration value, i.e., the cytotoxicity, was increased by more than 10-fold. MWCNT uptake was suppressed by a clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor and a caveolae-mediated endocytosis inhibitor in BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM. In conclusion, we suggest that BEAS-2B cells cultured in a medium containing serum should be used for the safety evaluation of nanomaterials as a model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells. However, the culture medium composition may affect the proteins that are expressed on the cytoplasmic membrane, which may influence the biological response to MWCNTs. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. CD40L induces functional tunneling nanotube networks exclusively in dendritic cells programmed by mediators of type 1 immunity.

    Zaccard, Colleen R; Watkins, Simon C; Kalinski, Pawel; Fecek, Ronald J; Yates, Aarika L; Salter, Russell D; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Rinaldo, Charles R; Mailliard, Robbie B

    2015-02-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DC) to mediate CD4(+) T cell help for cellular immunity is guided by instructive signals received during DC maturation, as well as the resulting pattern of DC responsiveness to the Th signal, CD40L. Furthermore, the professional transfer of antigenic information from migratory DC to lymph node-residing DC is critical for the effective induction of cellular immune responses. In this study we report that, in addition to their enhanced IL-12p70 producing capacity, human DC matured in the presence of inflammatory mediators of type 1 immunity are uniquely programmed to form networks of tunneling nanotube-like structures in response to CD40L-expressing Th cells or rCD40L. This immunologic process of DC reticulation facilitates intercellular trafficking of endosome-associated vesicles and Ag, but also pathogens such HIV-1, and is regulated by the opposing roles of IFN-γ and IL-4. The initiation of DC reticulation represents a novel helper function of CD40L and a superior mechanism of intercellular communication possessed by type 1 polarized DC, as well as a target for exploitation by pathogens to enhance direct cell-to-cell spread. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Separated Type Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Microjets Array for Maskless Microscale Etching

    Yichuan Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maskless etching approaches such as microdischarges and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs have been studied recently. Nonetheless, a simple, long lifetime, and efficient maskless etching method is still a challenge. In this work, a separated type maskless etching system based on atmospheric pressure He/O2 plasma jet and microfabricated Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS nozzle have been developed with advantages of simple-structure, flexibility, and parallel processing capacity. The plasma was generated in the glass tube, forming the micron level plasma jet between the nozzle and the surface of polymer. The plasma microjet was capable of removing photoresist without masks since it contains oxygen reactive species verified by spectra measurement. The experimental results illustrated that different features of microholes etched by plasma microjet could be achieved by controlling the distance between the nozzle and the substrate, additive oxygen ratio, and etch time, the result of which is consistent with the analysis result of plasma spectra. In addition, a parallel etching process was also realized by plasma microjets array.

  17. A facile one-step synthesis of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles-decorated TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays as high performance electrode for supercapacitors

    Zhang, Jianfang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Key Laboratory of Advance Functional Materials and Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China); Qin, Yongqiang, E-mail: albon@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Key Laboratory of Advance Functional Materials and Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China); Yu, Cuiping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Cui, Lihua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan 750021 (China); Shu, Xia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Cui, Jiewu; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhang, Yong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Key Laboratory of Advance Functional Materials and Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Key Laboratory of Advance Functional Materials and Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Via a facile one-step chemical bath deposition route, homogeneously dispersed Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been successfully deposited onto the inner surface of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs). The content and size of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} can be controlled by changing the deposition time. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis reveal the morphologies structures of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNAs composites. The crystal-line structures are characterized by the X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further confirms the valence states of the sample elements. The electrochemical properties of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNAs electrodes are systematically investigated by the combine use of cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resulting Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNAs electrode prepared by deposition time of 3 h shows the highest specific capacitance of 570 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. And it also shows an excellent long-term cycling stability at a current density of 5 A g{sup −1}, which remaining 91.8% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles. Thus this kind of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles decorated TNAs may be considered as an alternative promising candidate for high performance supercapacitor electrodes. - Graphical abstract: Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been uniformly deposited onto the inner surfaces of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays through a facile one-step chemical bath deposition method. As electrodes for supercapacitors, they exhibit a relatively high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability. - Highlights: • Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been deposited onto TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by chemical bath deposition. • The Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNAs exhibits a highest specific capacitance of 570 F g{sup –1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup –1}. • The Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNAs

  18. Highly ordered and ultra-long carbon nanotube arrays as air cathodes for high-energy-efficiency Li-oxygen batteries

    Yu, Ruimin; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Dong, Shaoming

    2016-02-01

    Carbonaceous air cathodes with rational architecture are vital for the nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries to achieve large energy density, high energy efficiency and long cycle life. In this work, we report the cathodes made of highly ordered and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on permeable Ta foil substrates (VACNTs-Ta) via thermal chemical vapour deposition. The VACNTs-Ta, composed of uniform carbon nanotubes with approximately 240 μm in superficial height, has the super large surface area. Meanwhile, the oriented carbon nanotubes provide extremely outstanding passageways for Li ions and oxygen species. Electrochemistry tests of VACNTs-Ta air cathodes show enhancement in discharge capacity and cycle life compared to those made from short-range oriented and disordered carbon nanotubes. By further combining with the LiI redox mediator that is dissolved in the tetraethylene dimethyl glycol based electrolytes, the batteries exhibit more than 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g-1 with a cut-off discharge capacity of 1000 mAh g-1, and their energy efficiencies increase from 50% to 82%. The results here demonstrate the importance of cathode construction for high-energy-efficiency and long-life Li-O2 batteries.

  19. Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives using self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    Hu, Zhaoying; Comeras, Jose Miguel M. Lobez; Park, Hongsik; Tang, Jianshi; Afzali, Ali; Tulevski, George S.; Hannon, James B.; Liehr, Michael; Han, Shu-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Information security underpins many aspects of modern society. However, silicon chips are vulnerable to hazards such as counterfeiting, tampering and information leakage through side-channel attacks (for example, by measuring power consumption, timing or electromagnetic radiation). Single-walled carbon nanotubes are a potential replacement for silicon as the channel material of transistors due to their superb electrical properties and intrinsic ultrathin body, but problems such as limited semiconducting purity and non-ideal assembly still need to be addressed before they can deliver high-performance electronics. Here, we show that by using these inherent imperfections, an unclonable electronic random structure can be constructed at low cost from carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes are self-assembled into patterned HfO2 trenches using ion-exchange chemistry, and the width of the trench is optimized to maximize the randomness of the nanotube placement. With this approach, two-dimensional (2D) random bit arrays are created that can offer ternary-bit architecture by determining the connection yield and switching type of the nanotube devices. As a result, our cryptographic keys provide a significantly higher level of security than conventional binary-bit architecture with the same key size.

  20. UV light-assisted fabrication of Cu{sub 0.91}In{sub 0.09}S microspheres sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays and their photoelectrochemical properties

    Cui, Xinyu; Gu, Hongmei [School of Public Health, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Province (China); Yin, Yuanyuan; Guan, Yue [Hongqi Hospital, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Province (China); Rong, Shengzhong; Yin, Yongkui; Chen, Yingying [School of Public Health, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Province (China); Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua [Department of Social Medicine, School of Health Management, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Miaojing, E-mail: limiaojing@aliyun.com [School of Public Health, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 0.91}In{sub 0.09}S microspheres were deposited on TiO{sub 2} NTs by a photodeposition method. • The average diameter of Cu{sub 0.91}In{sub 0.09}S microspheres is 600 nm. • The TiO{sub 2} NTs/CIS shows high photocurrents and visible photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays sensitized with Cu{sub 0.91}In{sub 0.09}S microspheres (TiO{sub 2} NTs/CIS) were successfully fabricated by a two-step process of anodization and followed by an in situ photodeposition method. The structural investigation by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the Cu{sub 0.91}In{sub 0.09}S microspheres with average diameter of 600 nm grew on the surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. The TiO{sub 2} NTs/CIS exhibited more excellent photoelectrochemical properties and photocatalytic activities than those of TiO{sub 2} NTs under visible light irradiation, and the corresponding electron transformation was proposed in detail.

  1. N-Type delta Doping of High-Purity Silicon Imaging Arrays

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Hoenk, Michael; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2005-01-01

    A process for n-type (electron-donor) delta doping has shown promise as a means of modifying back-illuminated image detectors made from n-doped high-purity silicon to enable them to detect high-energy photons (ultraviolet and x-rays) and low-energy charged particles (electrons and ions). This process is applicable to imaging detectors of several types, including charge-coupled devices, hybrid devices, and complementary metal oxide/semiconductor detector arrays. Delta doping is so named because its density-vs.-depth characteristic is reminiscent of the Dirac delta function (impulse function): the dopant is highly concentrated in a very thin layer. Preferably, the dopant is concentrated in one or at most two atomic layers in a crystal plane and, therefore, delta doping is also known as atomic-plane doping. The use of doping to enable detection of high-energy photons and low-energy particles was reported in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. As described in more detail in those articles, the main benefit afforded by delta doping of a back-illuminated silicon detector is to eliminate a "dead" layer at the back surface of the silicon wherein high-energy photons and low-energy particles are absorbed without detection. An additional benefit is that the delta-doped layer can serve as a back-side electrical contact. Delta doping of p-type silicon detectors is well established. The development of the present process addresses concerns specific to the delta doping of high-purity silicon detectors, which are typically n-type. The present process involves relatively low temperatures, is fully compatible with other processes used to fabricate the detectors, and does not entail interruption of those processes. Indeed, this process can be the last stage in the fabrication of an imaging detector that has, in all other respects, already been fully processed, including metallized. This process includes molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) for deposition of three layers, including

  2. Carbon nanotubes based vacuum gauge

    Rudyk, N. N.; Il'in, O. I.; Il'ina, M. V.; Fedotov, A. A.; Klimin, V. S.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    We have created an ionization type Vacuum gauge with sensor element based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Obtained asymmetrical current-voltage characteristics at different voltage polarity on the electrode with the CNTs. It was found that when applying a negative potential on an electrode with the CNTs, the current in the gap is higher than at a positive potential. In the pressure range of 1 ÷ 103 Torr vacuum gauge sensitivity was 6 mV/Torr (at a current of 4.5·10-5 A) and in the range of 10-5 ÷ 1 Torr was 10 mV/Torr (at a current of 1.3·10-5 A). It is shown that the energy efficiency of vacuum gauge can be increased in the case where electrode with CNT operates as an emitter of electrons.

  3. As-grown vertically aligned amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays as high-rate Li-based micro-battery anodes with improved long-term performance

    Lamberti, Andrea; Garino, Nadia; Sacco, Adriano; Bianco, Stefano; Chiodoni, Angelica; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Amorphous TiO 2 nanotube (NT) arrays are fabricated by fast and facile anodic oxidation. • Near-theoretical initial specific capacity and remarkable rate capability. • Very long-term cycling stability (>2000 cycles) at a very high C-rate. • High surface area and improved interfacial characteristics for fast diffusion kinetics. • NTs show promising prospects in storage devices conceived for high power applications. - Abstract: Vertically oriented arrays of high surface area TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs) are fabricated by the fast and facile anodic oxidation of a titanium foil. The formation of well-defined one-dimensional nanotubular carpets is assessed by means of morphological Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy characterisation, while X-ray diffraction analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The electrochemical response evaluated in lab-scale lithium cells is highly satisfying with near-theoretical initial specific capacity and remarkable rate capability, noteworthy in the absence of binders and conductive agents, which would affect the overall energy density. A specific capacity exceeding 200 mAh g −1 is observed at very high 24 C and approx. 80 mAh g −1 are retained even at very high 96 C rate, thus accounting for the promising prospects in storage devices conceived for high power applications. Moreover, the NTs can perform with good cycling stability and capacity retention approaching 50% of the initial value after very long-term operation along with improved durability (> 2000 cycles)

  4. Seasonal Variations in Resistivity at a Police Forensic Site and the Effectiveness of Unconventional Array Types

    Edwards, S.; Bank, C. G.

    2016-12-01

    Geophysical studies involving the detection of buried organic material can be affected by the passage of time and environmental changes such as temperature and, in more importantly, water content in the ground. These effects can be of particular concern for police forensic investigations. This study involved conducting multiple resistivity surveys across 4 months to determine how time and environmental variations affected the detection of porcine carcasses buried four years previous at a provincial police training and research site. Our research also explored survey results of non-conventional grid and square arrays versus traditional linear arrays. The study site is located in Bolton, Ontario, and measures 16 m by 30 m. It contains 18 graves plus other buried objects. Studies were conducted approximately every other week. The resistivity lines used Wenner arrays of 24 m (0.5 m electrode spacing) and 48 m (1 m spacing) in length. Environmental data was obtained from Environment Canada and through simple observations. Preliminary findings indicated that time and environmental changes affected the detection of the porcine bodies by either being too dry and having too high a resistivity to survey effectively, or too wet and having the site flushed with water making the surrounding ground similar in resistivity to the bodies. Future research is needed to further explore how best to minimize environmental changes from resistivity results to enable reliable detection of buried organic material such as human remains In regard to array configurations, the square array in particular shows promise in that it can be set up and executed in less time than running several linear arrays over the same area. The application of such unconventional arrays to police forensic work may prove valuable if the area of interest is off-limits for resistivity surveys due to physical obstructions.

  5. Simulation of magnetization and levitation properties of arrays of ring-shaped type-II superconductors

    Liu, Jun, E-mail: linxj8686@163.com; Huang, Chenguang; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe, E-mail: zhouyh@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A strong magnetic coupling appears if the gap between the superconducting rings is small. • The saturation magnetization of superconducting rings is related to the radial gap but independent of the vertical gap. • The array of rings in a non-uniform field experiences a levitation force, which increases with increasing height or thickness of the rings. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the magnetic and mechanical properties of arrays of superconducting rings arranged in axial, radial, and matrix configurations under different magnetic fields. In terms of the Bean's critical state model and the minimum magnetic energy method, the dependences of the magnetization and levitation behaviors on the geometry, number, and gap of the superconducting rings are obtained. The results show that when the applied field is spatially uniform, the magnetic property of the superconducting array is associated with the gaps between the rings. For the case of small gaps, the entire array becomes not easy to be fully penetrated by the induced currents, and the magnetic field profiles of which are almost the same as ones in a single large ring. If the superconducting array is fully penetrated, its saturation magnetization value is affected by the radial interval and, however, is almost independent of the vertical separation. When the applied field produced by a cylindrical permanent magnet is nonuniform, the superconducting array will be subjected to a levitation force. The levitation force increases monotonically and finally reaches a saturation value with increasing height or thickness of the rings, and such saturation value is closely related to the inner radius of the array.

  6. Characteristics of Transmission-type Microfocus X-ray Tube based-on Carbon Nanotube Field Emitter

    Heo, Sung Hwan; Ihsan, Aamir; Cho, Sung Oh

    2007-01-01

    A high resolution microfocus x-ray source is widely applied to noninvasive detection for industrial demands, material science and engineering, and to diagnostic study of microbiology and micro-tomography. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is regarded as an excellent electron emitter, which outperforms conventional electron sources in point of brightness. It has been suggested that CNT is used as an electron source of a high resolution x-ray tube according to their low threshold field with atomically sharp geometry, chemically robust structure, and electric conductivity. Several researchers have reported miniaturized x-ray tube based on diode structure and micro x-ray radiography and computed tomography systems using triode types with precise emission control and electrostatic focusing. Especially, a microfocus x-ray source of 30 μm resolution has been demonstrated recently using an elliptical CNT cathode and asymmetrical Eingel lens. However, to increase the spatial resolution of x-ray source, a smaller CNT emitter is desired. Electron focusing optics must be corrected to reduce aberrations. A thin wire tip end can provide a micro-area of CNT substrate, and a magnetic lens and transmission x-ray target are proper to reduce the lens aberration and a focal length. Until now, CNT based microfocus x-ray source with less than 10 um resolution has not been shown. Here we report a microfocus x-ray source with 4.7 μm x-ray focal spot consisted of a conical CNT tip, a single solenoid lens, and a transmission type x-ray target. A magnified x-ray image larger than 230 times was resolved with advantage of microfocused focal spot and transmission x-ray target

  7. Effect of the metal work function on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube network transistors

    Kim, Un Jeong; Ko, Dae Young; Kil, Joon Pyo; Lee, Jung Wha; Park, Wan Jun

    2012-01-01

    A nearly perfect semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube random network thin film transistor array was fabricated, and its reproducible transport properties were investigated. The effects of the metal work function for both the source and the drain on the electrical properties of the transistors were systematically investigated. Three different metal electrodes, Al, Ti, and Pd, were employed. As the metal work function increased, p-type behavior became dominant, and the field effect hole mobility dramatically increased. Also, the Schottky barrier of the Ti-nanotube contact was invariant to the molecular adsorption of species in air.

  8. Nanotubes on Display: How Carbon Nanotubes Can Be Integrated into Electronic Displays

    Opatkiewicz, Justin; LeMieux, Melburne C.; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-01-01

    Random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes show promise for use in the field of flexible electronics. Nanotube networks have been difficult to utilize because of the mixture of electronic types synthesized when grown. A variety of separation

  9. High-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-Type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation Based on Tactile Information

    Wataru Fukui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a universal robot hand with tactile and other sensors. An array-type tactile sensor is crucial for dexterous manipulation of objects using a robotic hand, since this sensor can measure the pressure distribution on finger pads. The sensor has a very high resolution, and the shape of a grasped object can be classified by using this sensor. The more the number of measurement points provided, the higher the accuracy of the classification, but with a corresponding lengthening of the measurement cycle. In this paper, the problem of slow response time is resolved by using software for an array-type tactile sensor with high resolution that emulates the human sensor system. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments.

  10. Single walled carbon nanotubes functionally adsorbed to biopolymers for use as chemical sensors

    Johnson, Jr., Alan T.; Gelperin, Alan [Princeton, NJ; Staii, Cristian [Madison, WI

    2011-07-12

    Chemical field effect sensors comprising nanotube field effect devices having biopolymers such as single stranded DNA functionally adsorbed to the nanotubes are provided. Also included are arrays comprising the sensors and methods of using the devices to detect volatile compounds.

  11. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium brain gene array: two types of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment.

    Benjamin B Gelman

    Full Text Available The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC performed a brain gene expression array to elucidate pathophysiologies of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.Twenty-four human subjects in four groups were examined A Uninfected controls; B HIV-1 infected subjects with no substantial neurocognitive impairment (NCI; C Infected with substantial NCI without HIV encephalitis (HIVE; D Infected with substantial NCI and HIVE. RNA from neocortex, white matter, and neostriatum was processed with the Affymetrix® array platform.With HIVE the HIV-1 RNA load in brain tissue was three log(10 units higher than other groups and over 1,900 gene probes were regulated. Interferon response genes (IFRGs, antigen presentation, complement components and CD163 antigen were strongly upregulated. In frontal neocortex downregulated neuronal pathways strongly dominated in HIVE, including GABA receptors, glutamate signaling, synaptic potentiation, axon guidance, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and 14-3-3 protein. Expression was completely different in neuropsychologically impaired subjects without HIVE. They had low brain HIV-1 loads, weak brain immune responses, lacked neuronally expressed changes in neocortex and exhibited upregulation of endothelial cell type transcripts. HIV-1-infected subjects with normal neuropsychological test results had upregulation of neuronal transcripts involved in synaptic transmission of neostriatal circuits.Two patterns of brain gene expression suggest that more than one pathophysiological process occurs in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. Expression in HIVE suggests that lowering brain HIV-1 replication might improve NCI, whereas NCI without HIVE may not respond in kind; array results suggest that modulation of transvascular signaling is a potentially promising approach. Striking brain regional differences highlighted the likely importance of circuit level disturbances in HIV/AIDS. In

  12. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn; Zhao, Ye

    2013-12-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO{sub 2}) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity.

  13. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    Xie, Yibing; Zhao, Ye

    2013-01-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO 2 ) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity

  14. A Type-2 Block-Component-Decomposition Based 2D AOA Estimation Algorithm for an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Array

    Yu-Fei Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a two-dimensional angle of arrival (2D AOA estimation algorithm for the electromagnetic vector sensor (EMVS array based on Type-2 block component decomposition (BCD tensor modeling. Such a tensor decomposition method can take full advantage of the multidimensional structural information of electromagnetic signals to accomplish blind estimation for array parameters with higher resolution. However, existing tensor decomposition methods encounter many restrictions in applications of the EMVS array, such as the strict requirement for uniqueness conditions of decomposition, the inability to handle partially-polarized signals, etc. To solve these problems, this paper investigates tensor modeling for partially-polarized signals of an L-shaped EMVS array. The 2D AOA estimation algorithm based on rank- ( L 1 , L 2 , · BCD is developed, and the uniqueness condition of decomposition is analyzed. By means of the estimated steering matrix, the proposed algorithm can automatically achieve angle pair-matching. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the present algorithm has the advantages of both accuracy and robustness of parameter estimation. Even under the conditions of lower SNR, small angular separation and limited snapshots, the proposed algorithm still possesses better performance than subspace methods and the canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD method.

  15. Comprehensive comparison of the levitation performance of bulk YBaCuO arrays above two different types of magnetic guideways

    Deng, Zigang; Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Jin, Liwei; Si, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an important part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev systems. So far, two types of PMG, the normal PMG and Halbach-type PMG, are widely applied in present maglev transportation systems. In this paper, the levitation performance of high temperature superconductor bulks above the two PMGs was synthetically compared. Both static levitation performance and dynamic response characteristics were investigated. Benefiting from the reasonable magnetic field distribution, the Halbach-type PMG is able to gain larger levitation force, greater levitation force decay during the same relaxation time, bigger resonance frequency and dynamic stiffness for the bulk superconductor levitation unit compared with the normal PMG. Another finding is that the Halbach-type PMG is not sensitive to the levitation performance of the bulk levitation unit with different arrays. These results are helpful for the practical application of HTS maglev systems. - Highlights: • The effect of PMG configurations to levitation performances is investigated. • Bigger force and greater force decay are obtained on Halbach-type PMG. • Halbach-type PMG is not sensitive to the levitation force in various bulk arrays. • Practical issues including costs and assembly of PMGs are considered.

  16. Comprehensive comparison of the levitation performance of bulk YBaCuO arrays above two different types of magnetic guideways

    Deng, Zigang, E-mail: deng@swjtu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Jin, Liwei [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Si, Shuaishuai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jun [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an important part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev systems. So far, two types of PMG, the normal PMG and Halbach-type PMG, are widely applied in present maglev transportation systems. In this paper, the levitation performance of high temperature superconductor bulks above the two PMGs was synthetically compared. Both static levitation performance and dynamic response characteristics were investigated. Benefiting from the reasonable magnetic field distribution, the Halbach-type PMG is able to gain larger levitation force, greater levitation force decay during the same relaxation time, bigger resonance frequency and dynamic stiffness for the bulk superconductor levitation unit compared with the normal PMG. Another finding is that the Halbach-type PMG is not sensitive to the levitation performance of the bulk levitation unit with different arrays. These results are helpful for the practical application of HTS maglev systems. - Highlights: • The effect of PMG configurations to levitation performances is investigated. • Bigger force and greater force decay are obtained on Halbach-type PMG. • Halbach-type PMG is not sensitive to the levitation force in various bulk arrays. • Practical issues including costs and assembly of PMGs are considered.

  17. Genetic Diversity of Turf-Type Tall Fescue Using Diversity Arrays Technology

    Baird, J. H.; Kopecký, David; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Green, R. J.; Bartoš, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2012), s. 408-412 ISSN 0011-183X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Festuca arundinacea * Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) * Low genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2012

  18. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  19. Enhancement of electron emission and long-term stability of tip-type carbon nanotube field emitters via lithium coating

    Kim, Jong-Pil; Chang, Han-Beet; Kim, Bu-Jong; Park, Jin-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were deposited on conical tip-type substrates via electrophoresis and coated with lithium (Li) thin films with diverse thicknesses via electroplating. For the as-deposited (i.e., without Li coating) CNT, the turn-on (or triggering) electric field was 0.92 V/μm, and the emission current, which was generated at an applied field of 1.2 V/μm was 56 μA. In the case of the 4.7 nm-thick Li-coated CNT, the turn-on field decreased to 0.65 V/μm and the emission current at the same applied field increased more than ten times to 618 μA. The analysis based on the Kelvin probe measurement and Fowler–Nordheim theory indicated that the coating of Li caused a loss in the structural-aspect-ratio of the CNTs and it reduced their effective work functions from 5.36 eV to 4.90 eV, which led to a great improvement of their electron emission characteristics. The results obtained in this study also showed that the long-term emission stability could be enhanced by the coating of thin Li films on CNTs. - Highlights: ► CNTs are deposited via electrophoretic deposition (EPD). ► Thin films of Li are coated on CNTs via electroplating, without plasma damage. ► Li coating enhanced field emission properties and emission stability of CNTs. ► The effective work functions and field enhancement factors of CNTs are evaluated

  20. 3D Analytical Calculation of Forces between Linear Halbach-Type Permanent Magnet Arrays

    Allag , Hicham; Yonnet , Jean-Paul; Latreche , Mohamed E. H.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Usely, in analytical calculation of magnetic and mechanical quantities of Halbach systems, the authors use the Fourier series approximation because the exact calculations are more difficult. In this work the interaction forces between linear Halbach arrays are analytically calculated thanks to our recent development 3D exact calculation of forces between two cuboïdal magnets with parallel and perpendicular magnetization. We essentially describe the way to separately ca...

  1. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: Using TiO{sub 2}-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India); Jagadale, Pravin [DISAT — Department of Applied Science and Technology, Carbon group, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Sharon, Maheshwar [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India); Sharon, Madhuri, E-mail: sharonmadhuri@gmail.com [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-10-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM–EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (P < 0.05) as compared to TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT coated ceramic. The photocatalytic killing rate constant for TiO{sub 2}-ceramic and MWCNT/TiO{sub 2}-ceramic under fluorescent light was found be 1.45 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1} and 2.23 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1} respectively. Further, when I–V characteristics were performed for TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT composite, it was corroborated that the current under light irradiation is comparatively higher than that in dark, thus proving it to be photocatalytically efficient system. The enhanced photocatalysis may be a contribution of increased surface area and charge transfer rate as a consequence of aligned MWCNT network. - Highlights: • Coating of vertically aligned MWCNT on ceramic candle filter • Surface orchestration of TiO{sub 2} on MWCNT arrays • I–V characteristic studies are performed under dark and illumination. • Photocatalytic efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT arrays is determined using E. coli O157:H7. • Proposed a mechanism of bacterial killing due to free radical formation.

  2. CdTe and graphene co-sensitized TiO2 nanotube array photoanodes for protection of 304SS under visible light

    Li, Hong; Wang, Xiutong; Hou, Baorong; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    CdTe/graphene/TiO 2 films that served as photoanodes for cathodic protection application were prepared by an electrochemical deposition method. The deposition of graphene and CdTe nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of the TiO 2 nanotubes was confirmed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The composites exhibited high light absorption in both the UV and visible light region. The results indicated that TiO 2 nanotube photoelectrodes sensitized by 20-cycle graphene and 30-cycle CdTe NPs exhibited effective photocathodic protection properties for 304 stainless steel (304SS) under the visible-light illumination, with an photopotential of −750 mV versus saturated calomel electrode and a current density of 560 μA cm −2 . Due to the efficient photogenerated charge separation, the three-component CdTe/graphene/TiO 2 showed stronger photoresponse than pure TiO 2 under visible-light illumination. In summary, the CdTe/graphene could improve the photocathodic protection properties of TiO 2 films. (paper)

  3. Direct growth of metal-organic frameworks thin film arrays on glassy carbon electrode based on rapid conversion step mediated by copper clusters and hydroxide nanotubes for fabrication of a high performance non-enzymatic glucose sensing platform.

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Khaki Sanati, Elnaz; Hosseini, Hadi

    2018-07-30

    The direct growth of self-supported metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) thin film can be considered as an effective strategy for fabrication of the advanced modified electrodes in sensors and biosensor applications. However, most of the fabricated MOFs-based sensors suffer from some drawbacks such as time consuming for synthesis of MOF and electrode making, need of a binder or an additive layer, need of expensive equipment and use of hazardous solvents. Here, a novel free-standing MOFs-based modified electrode was fabricated by the rapid direct growth of MOFs on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In this method, direct growth of MOFs was occurred by the formation of vertically aligned arrays of Cu clusters and Cu(OH) 2 nanotubes, which can act as both mediator and positioning fixing factor for the rapid formation of self-supported MOFs on GCE surface. The effect of both chemically and electrochemically formed Cu(OH) 2 nanotubes on the morphological and electrochemical performance of the prepared MOFs were investigated. Due to the unique properties of the prepared MOFs thin film electrode such as uniform and vertically aligned structure, excellent stability, high electroactive surface area, and good availability to analyte and electrolyte diffusion, it was directly used as the electrode material for non-enzymatic electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Moreover, the potential utility of this sensing platform for the analytical determination of glucose concentration was evaluated by the amperometry technique. The results proved that the self-supported MOFs thin film on GCE is a promising electrode material for fabricating and designing non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The fabrication of a carbon nanotube array using a catalyst-poisoning layer in the inverse nano-sphere lithography method

    Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Chen, Tsung-Han; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chang, Shih-Chin; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Joseph Palathinkal, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the fabrication of periodic CNT arrays was developed in this study, which involves the use of the inverse nano-sphere lithography (INSL) process. Mo of a honeycomb pattern, acting as a catalyst-poisoning layer, was produced by the nano-sphere lithography (NSL) process; the Mo poisoned the catalyst and prevented CNT growth where deposited, and as a result, a periodic CNT pattern was obtained. Using this method, the uniformity of the CNT array can be improved by preventing the negative effect of arrangement defects in self-assembled monolayers. The size and the period of the CNT array can be adjusted by careful selection of the polystyrene (PS) sphere diameter. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis revealed that the Co catalyst was ineffective on the areas of Mo deposition due to the diffusion of Co into the Mo layer.

  5. The fabrication of a carbon nanotube array using a catalyst-poisoning layer in the inverse nano-sphere lithography method

    Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Chen, Tsung-Han; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chang, Shih-Chin; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Joseph Palathinkal, Thomas, E-mail: nhtai@mx.nthu.edu.t [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-29

    A new method for the fabrication of periodic CNT arrays was developed in this study, which involves the use of the inverse nano-sphere lithography (INSL) process. Mo of a honeycomb pattern, acting as a catalyst-poisoning layer, was produced by the nano-sphere lithography (NSL) process; the Mo poisoned the catalyst and prevented CNT growth where deposited, and as a result, a periodic CNT pattern was obtained. Using this method, the uniformity of the CNT array can be improved by preventing the negative effect of arrangement defects in self-assembled monolayers. The size and the period of the CNT array can be adjusted by careful selection of the polystyrene (PS) sphere diameter. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis revealed that the Co catalyst was ineffective on the areas of Mo deposition due to the diffusion of Co into the Mo layer.

  6. SNP Arrays

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  7. Using a cut-paste method to prepare a carbon nanotube fur electrode

    Zhang, H; Cao, G P; Yang, Y S

    2007-01-01

    We describe and realize an aligned carbon nanotube array based 'carbon nanotube fur (CNTF)' electrode. We removed an 800 μm long aligned carbon nanotube array from the silica substrate, and then pasted the array on a nickel foam current collector to obtain a CNTF electrode. CNTF's characteristics and electrochemical properties were studied systemically in this paper. The cut-paste method is simple, and does not damage the microstructure of the aligned carbon nanotube array. The CNTF electrode obtained a specific capacitance of 14.1 F g -1 and excellent rate capability

  8. Driving High-Performance n- and p-type Organic Transistors with Carbon Nanotube/Conjugated Polymer Composite Electrodes Patterned Directly from Solution

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.; Jin, Run Zhi; Stoltenberg, Randall M.; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-01-01

    We report patterned deposition of carbon nanotube/conjugated polymer composites from solution with high nanotube densities and excellent feature resolution. Such composites are suited for use as electrodes in high-performance transistors

  9. Plasma Enhanced Growth of Carbon Nanotubes For Ultrasensitive Biosensors

    Cassell, Alan M.; Li, J.; Ye, Q.; Koehne, J.; Chen, H.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The multitude of considerations facing nanostructure growth and integration lends itself to combinatorial optimization approaches. Rapid optimization becomes even more important with wafer-scale growth and integration processes. Here we discuss methodology for developing plasma enhanced CVD growth techniques for achieving individual, vertically aligned carbon nanostructures that show excellent properties as ultrasensitive electrodes for nucleic acid detection. We utilize high throughput strategies for optimizing the upstream and downstream processing and integration of carbon nanotube electrodes as functional elements in various device types. An overview of ultrasensitive carbon nanotube based sensor arrays for electrochemical biosensing applications and the high throughput methodology utilized to combine novel electrode technology with conventional MEMS processing will be presented.

  10. Direct Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters on Metal Substrate for Open-Type X-ray Source in Medical Imaging

    Amar Prasad Gupta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a carbon nanotube enabled open-type X-ray system for medical imaging. We directly grew the carbon nanotubes used as electron emitter for electron gun on a non-polished raw metallic rectangular-rounded substrate with an area of 0.1377 cm2 through a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The stable field emission properties with triode electrodes after electrical aging treatment showed an anode emission current of 0.63 mA at a gate field of 7.51 V/μm. The 4.5-inch cubic shape open type X-ray system was developed consisting of an X-ray aperture, a vacuum part, an anode high voltage part, and a field emission electron gun including three electrodes with focusing, gate and cathode electrodes. Using this system, we obtained high-resolution X-ray images accelerated at 42–70 kV voltage by digital switching control between emitter and ground electrode.

  11. Direct Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters on Metal Substrate for Open-Type X-ray Source in Medical Imaging.

    Gupta, Amar Prasad; Park, Sangjun; Yeo, Seung Jun; Jung, Jaeik; Cho, Chonggil; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Hunkuk; Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Seung Hoon; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Jeung Sun; Ryu, Jehwang

    2017-07-29

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a carbon nanotube enabled open-type X-ray system for medical imaging. We directly grew the carbon nanotubes used as electron emitter for electron gun on a non-polished raw metallic rectangular-rounded substrate with an area of 0.1377 cm² through a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The stable field emission properties with triode electrodes after electrical aging treatment showed an anode emission current of 0.63 mA at a gate field of 7.51 V/μm. The 4.5-inch cubic shape open type X-ray system was developed consisting of an X-ray aperture, a vacuum part, an anode high voltage part, and a field emission electron gun including three electrodes with focusing, gate and cathode electrodes. Using this system, we obtained high-resolution X-ray images accelerated at 42-70 kV voltage by digital switching control between emitter and ground electrode.

  12. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Güdel, Manuel [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Rupen, Michael, E-mail: jrv@astro.caltech.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  13. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen; Güdel, Manuel; Rupen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  14. High-speed growth of TiO2 nanotube arrays with gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall under high-field anodization

    Yuan, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Maojun; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2010-10-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotubular arrays have been prepared by two-step anodization under high field. The high anodizing current densities lead to a high-speed film growth (0.40-1.00 µm min - 1), which is nearly 16 times faster than traditional fabrication of TiO2 at low field. It was found that an annealing process of Ti foil is an effective approach to get a monodisperse and double-pass TiO2 nanotubular layer with a gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall (nearly 10 nm). A higher anodic voltage and longer anodization time are beneficial to the formation of ultrathin tube walls. This approach is simple and cost-effective in fabricating high-quality ordered TiO2 nanotubular arrays for practical applications.

  15. High-speed growth of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall under high-field anodization

    Yuan Xiaoliang; Zheng Maojun; Shen Wenzhong [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ma Li, E-mail: mjzheng@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-10-08

    Highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotubular arrays have been prepared by two-step anodization under high field. The high anodizing current densities lead to a high-speed film growth (0.40-1.00 {mu}m min{sup -1}), which is nearly 16 times faster than traditional fabrication of TiO{sub 2} at low field. It was found that an annealing process of Ti foil is an effective approach to get a monodisperse and double-pass TiO{sub 2} nanotubular layer with a gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall (nearly 10 nm). A higher anodic voltage and longer anodization time are beneficial to the formation of ultrathin tube walls. This approach is simple and cost-effective in fabricating high-quality ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotubular arrays for practical applications.

  16. Multilayer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-dexamethasone and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate-carbon nanotubes coatings on glassy carbon microelectrode arrays for controlled drug release.

    Castagnola, Elisa; Carli, Stefano; Vomero, Maria; Scarpellini, Alice; Prato, Mirko; Goshi, Noah; Fadiga, Luciano; Kassegne, Sam; Ricci, Davide

    2017-07-13

    The authors present an electrochemically controlled, drug releasing neural interface composed of a glassy carbon (GC) microelectrode array combined with a multilayer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating. The system integrates the high stability of the GC electrode substrate, ideal for electrical stimulation and electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters, with the on-demand drug-releasing capabilities of PEDOT-dexamethasone compound, through a mechanically stable interlayer of PEDOT-polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)-carbon nanotubes (CNT). The authors demonstrate that such interlayer improves both the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the neural interface, when compared with a single PEDOT-dexamethasone coating. Moreover, the multilayer coating is able to withstand 10 × 10 6 biphasic pulses and delamination test with negligible change to the impedance spectra. Cross-section scanning electron microscopy images support that the PEDOT-PSS-CNT interlayer significantly improves the adhesion between the GC substrate and PEDOT-dexamethasone coating, showing no discontinuities between the three well-interconnected layers. Furthermore, the multilayer coating has superior electrochemical properties, in terms of impedance and charge transfer capabilities as compared to a single layer of either PEDOT coating or the GC substrate alone. The authors verified the drug releasing capabilities of the PEDOT-dexamethasone layer when integrated into the multilayer interface through repeated stimulation protocols in vitro, and found a pharmacologically relevant release of dexamethasone.

  17. Uniform deposition of water-soluble CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nanotube arrays by cyclic voltammetric electrodeposition: Effectively prevent aggregation and enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Zhang, Xiaojiao; Lin, Shiwei; Liao, Jianjun; Pan, Nengqian; Li, Danhong; Cao, Xiankun; Li, Jianbao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-soluble CdS QDs were deposited on the TNTAs by DC electrodeposition, CV electrodeposition, and SILAR. • The CV method could effectively prevent the aggregation and uniformly deposit CdS QDs onto the TNTAs. • The CTAB/CdS/TNTAs prepared by the CV method exhibited superior photoelectrical properties and photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) covered with cationic surfactant-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were deposited on the highly ordered TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) by various methods, such as direct current (DC) electrodeposition, cyclic voltammetric (CV) electrodeposition, and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR). The morphology measurements show that CTAB capping could well control the QD size and the CV method could effectively prevent the nanoparticle aggregation and uniformly deposit QDs onto TNTAs. Among all the deposition methods studied, the sample prepared by the CV method possesses superior photoelectrical properties and photocatalytic activity. A maximum photoconversion efficiency of 2.81% is achieved for the CdS/TNTAs prepared by CV electrodeposition, which exhibits about 17 times enhancement over the efficiency of the sample prepared by DC electrodeposition. And the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under visible-light irradiation demonstrates that the rate constant of the sample prepared by the CV method is almost seven times of that of the untreated TNTAs. Moreover, the underlying mechanism for the improving properties has been discussed

  18. Decorating Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes with nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes

    Cao Yong, E-mail: caoyangel@126.com [Institute of Environment and Municipal Engineering, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Jiao Qingze, E-mail: jiaoqz@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao Yun [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Dong Yingchao [Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI), University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2011-09-22

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes arrayed parallel to each other were prepared by an AAO template method. > The Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes decorated with CN{sub x} were realized by CVD of ethylenediamine on the outer surface of oxide nanotubes. > The magnetic properties of Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes were highly improved after being decorated. - Abstract: Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes decorated with nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CN{sub x}) were fabricated by catalytic chemical vapor deposition of ethylenediamine on the outer surface of oxide nanotubes. Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes were prepared using a 3:1 molar precursor solution of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and anodic aluminum oxide as the substrate. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD pattern shows that the oxide nanotubes are made up of MgO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. TEM and SEM observations indicate the oxide nanotubes are arrayed roughly parallel to each other, and the outer surface of oxide nanotubes are decorated with CN{sub x}. XPS results show the nitrogen-doped level in CN{sub x} is about 7.3 at.%. Magnetic measurements with VSM demonstrate the saturated magnetization, remanence and coercivity of oxide nanotubes are obvious improved after being decorated with CN{sub x}.

  19. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used...... as carbon source and Ni was employed as catalyst. For electrokinetic separations, higher electrical field strength is usually required; therefore, the CNTs were constructed in pillar-array-form by patterning the catalyst layer. Electrical field strength of 2.0 kV/cm has been realized, which is more than one...

  20. A Microsphere-Based Suspension Array for Blood Group Molecular Typing: An Update.

    Drago, Francesca; Karpasitou, Katerina; Spinardi, Laura; Crespiatico, Loretta; Scalamogna, Mario; Poli, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: In a previous publication we described a method for Jk(a)/Jk(b), Fy(a)/Fy(b), S/s, K/k, Kp(a)/Kp(b), Js(a)/Js(b), Co(a)/Co(b), and Lu(a)/Lu(b) genotyping based on a microsphere suspension array. Here, an improved version of the assay is presented. METHODS: TWO MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTIONS (PCR) WERE DEVELOPED: one for amplification of samples routinely tested and the other for those systems that are tested less frequently. Each biotinylated PCR product is hybridized in a single multiplex assay. A total of 2,020 samples were analyzed, and the genotypes were compared to the blood group phenotypes. RESULTS: There have been no discrepancies with the serology results other than null and/or weak phenotypes. CONCLUSION: In its present form, the method presented here has the capacity to genotype hundreds of a samples in few hours with a high concordance rate with serology.

  1. A CHARA ARRAY SURVEY OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS AROUND NEARBY Be-TYPE STARS

    Touhami, Y.; Gies, D. R.; McAlister, H. A.; Matson, R.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a high angular resolution survey of circumstellar disks around 24 northern sky Be stars. The K-band continuum survey was made using the CHARA Array long baseline interferometer (baselines of 30-331 m). The interferometric visibilities were corrected for the flux contribution of stellar companions in those cases where the Be star is a member of a known binary or multiple system. For those targets with good (u, v) coverage, we used a four-parameter Gaussian elliptical disk model to fit the visibilities and to determine the axial ratio, position angle, K-band photospheric flux contribution, and angular diameter of the disk's major axis. For the other targets with relatively limited (u, v) coverage, we constrained the axial ratio, inclination angle, and/or disk position angle where necessary in order to resolve the degeneracy between possible model solutions. We also made fits of the ultraviolet and infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to estimate the stellar angular diameter and infrared flux excess of each target. The mean ratio of the disk diameter (measured in K-band emission) to stellar diameter (from SED modeling) is 4.4 among the 14 cases where we reliably resolved the disk emission, a value which is generally lower than the disk size ratio measured in the higher opacity Hα emission line. We estimated the equatorial rotational velocity from the projected rotational velocity and disk inclination for 12 stars, and most of these stars rotate close to or at the critical rotational velocity.

  2. Synthesis of p-type nickel oxide nanosheets on n-type titanium dioxide nanorod arrays for p-n heterojunction-based UV photosensor

    Yusoff, M. M.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Abdullah, M. A. R.; Ismail, A. S.; Saidi, S. A.; Mohamed, R.; Suriani, A. B.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays (TNAs) were synthesized and deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate using a novel and facile immersion method in a glass container. The synthesis and deposition of p-type nickel oxide (NiO) nanosheets (NS) on the n-type TNAs was investigated in the p-n heterojunction photodiode (PD) for the application of ultraviolet (UV) photosensor. The fabricated TNAs/NiO NS based UV photosensor exhibited a highly increased photocurrent of 4.3 µA under UV radiation (365 nm, 750 µW/cm2) at 1.0 V reverse bias. In this study, the fabricated TNAs/NiO NS p-n heterojunction based photodiode showed potential applications for UV photosensor based on the stable photo-generated current attained under UV radiation.

  3. Electrophoretic deposition and field emission properties of patterned carbon nanotubes

    Zhao Haifeng; Song Hang; Li Zhiming; Yuan Guang; Jin Yixin

    2005-01-01

    Patterned carbon nanotubes on silicon substrates were obtained using electrophoretic method. The carbon nanotubes migrated towards the patterned silicon electrode in the electrophoresis suspension under the applied voltage. The carbon nanotubes arrays adhered well on the silicon substrates. The surface images of carbon nanotubes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The field emission properties of the patterned carbon nanotubes were tested in a diode structure under a vacuum pressure below 5 x 10 -4 Pa. The measured emission area was about 1.0 mm 2 . The emission current density up to 30 mA/cm 2 at an electric field of 8 V/μm has been obtained. The deposition of patterned carbon nanotubes by electrophoresis is an alternative method to prepare field emission arrays

  4. All carbon nanotubes are not created equal

    Geohegan, David B.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents the various factors that enter into consideration when choosing the source of carbon nanotubes for a specific application. Carbon nanotubes are giant molecules made of pure carbon. They have captured the imagination of the scientific community by the unique structure that provides superior physical, chemical, and electrical properties. However, a surprisingly wide disparity exists between the intrinsic properties determined under ideal conditions and the properties that carbon nanotubes exhibit in real world situations. The lack of uniformity in carbon nanotube properties is likely to be the main obstacle holding back the development of carbon nanotube applications. This tutorial addresses the nonuniformity of carbon nanotube properties from the synthesis standpoint. This synthesis-related nonuniformity is on top of the intrinsic chirality distribution that gives the ∼1:2 ratio of metallic to semiconducting nanotubes. From the standpoint of carbon bonding chemistry the variation in the quality and reproducibility of carbon nanotube materials is not unexpected. It is an intrinsic feature that is related to the metastability of carbon structures. The extent to which this effect is manifested in carbon nanotube formation is governed by the type and the kinetics of the carbon nanotube synthesis reaction. Addressing this variation is critical if nanotubes are to live up to the potential already demonstrated by their phenomenal physical properties.

  5. Carbon nanotube diameter selection by pretreatment of metal catalysts on surfaces

    Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Xu, Ya-Qiong [Houston, TX; Shan, Hongwei [Houston, TX; Nicholas, Nolan Walker [South Charleston, WV; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Cypress, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2012-02-28

    A new and useful nanotube growth substrate conditioning processes is herein disclosed that allows the growth of vertical arrays of carbon nanotubes where the average diameter of the nanotubes can be selected and/or controlled as compared to the prior art.

  6. Effect of TiO2 nanotube length and lateral tubular spacing on ...

    Abstract. The main objective of this study is to show the effect of TiO2 nanotube length, diameter and intertubular ... formation of nanotube arrays spread uniformly over a large area. ... 36, 48 and 72 h at an applied voltage of 40 V. The anodized ... and phase analysis for the obtained nanotubes were done .... Using an extra-.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes and Modern Nanoagriculture

    Serag, Maged F.

    2015-01-27

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have been prominent members of the nanomaterial family. Owing to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes have been proven to be a useful tool in the field of plant science. They were frequently perceived to bring about valuable biotechnological and agricultural applications that still remain beyond experimental realization. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the ability of carbon nanotubes to traverse different plant cell barriers. These studies, also, assessed the toxicity and environmental impacts of these nanomaterials. The knowledge provided by these studies is of practical and fundamental importance for diverse applications including intracellular labeling and imaging, genetic transformation, and for enhancing our knowledge of plant cell biology. Although different types of nanoparticles have been found to activate physiological processes in plants, carbon nanotubes received particular interest. Following addition to germination medium, carbon nanotubes enhanced root growth and elongation of some plants such as onion, cucumber and rye-grass. They, also, modulated the expression of some genes that are essential for cell division and plant development. In addition, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were evidenced to penetrate thick seed coats, stimulate germination, and to enhance growth of young tomato seedlings. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can penetrate deeply into the root system and further distribute into the leaves and the fruits. In recent studies, carbon nanotubes were reported to be chemically entrapped into the structure of plant tracheary elements. This should activate studies in the fields of plant defense and wood engineering. Although, all of these effects on plant physiology and plant developmental biology have not been fully understood, the valuable findings promises more research activity in the near future toward complete scientific understanding of

  8. Probing Charge Transfer between Shells of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Sorted by Outer-Wall Electronic Type

    Kalbáč, Martin; Green, A. A.; Hersam, M. C.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 35 (2011), s. 9806-9815 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400911; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA ČR GAP204/10/1677; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk ME09060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : density-gradient ultracentrifugation * double-walled carbon nanotubes * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.925, year: 2011

  9. Genetic diversity of K-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli and their molecular typing using a suspension array.

    Yang, Shuang; Xi, Daoyi; Jing, Fuyi; Kong, Deju; Wu, Junli; Feng, Lu; Cao, Boyang; Wang, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), or K-antigens, are the major surface antigens of Escherichia coli. More than 80 serologically unique K-antigens are classified into 4 groups (Groups 1-4) of capsules. Groups 1 and 4 contain the Wzy-dependent polymerization pathway and the gene clusters are in the order galF to gnd; Groups 2 and 3 contain the ABC-transporter-dependent pathway and the gene clusters consist of 3 regions, regions 1, 2 and 3. Little is known about the variations among the gene clusters. In this study, 9 serotypes of K-antigen gene clusters (K2ab, K11, K20, K24, K38, K84, K92, K96, and K102) were sequenced and correlated with their CPS chemical structures. On the basis of sequence data, a K-antigen-specific suspension array that detects 10 distinct CPSs, including the above 9 CPSs plus K30, was developed. This is the first report to catalog the genetic features of E. coli K-antigen variations and to develop a suspension array for their molecular typing. The method has a number of advantages over traditional bacteriophage and serum agglutination methods and lays the foundation for straightforward identification and detection of additional K-antigens in the future.

  10. Cantilever-type electrode array-based high-throughput microparticle sorting platform driven by gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic force

    Kim, Youngho; Kim, Byungkyu; Lee, Junghun; Kim, Younggeun; Shin, Sang-Mo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cantilever-type electrode (CE) array-based high-throughput sorting platform, which is a tool used to separate microparticles using gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic (n-DEP) force. This platform consists of meso-size channels and a CE array, which is designed to separate a large number of target particles by differences in their dielectric material properties (DMP) and the weight of the particles. We employ a two-step separation process, with sedimentation as the first step and n-DEP as the second step. In order to differentiate the weight and the DMP of each particle, we employ the sedimentation phenomena in a vertical channel and the CE-based n-DEP in an inclined channel. By using three kinds of polystyrene beads with diameters of 10, 25 and 50 µm, the optimal population (10 7 beads ml −1 ) of particles and the appropriate length (25 mm) of the vertical channel for high performance were determined experimentally. Conclusively, by combining sedimentation and n-DEP schemes, we achieve 74.5, 94.7 and 100% separation efficiency for sorting microparticles with a diameter of 10, 25 and 50 µm, respectively.

  11. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses.

    Muller, David A; Pearson, Frances E; Fernando, Germain J P; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S; Corrie, Simon R; Crichton, Michael L; Wei, Jonathan C J; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Young, Paul R; Kendall, Mark A F

    2016-02-25

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns.

  12. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  13. Effect of polymer type on characterization and filtration performances of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-COOH-based polymeric mixed matrix membranes.

    Sengur-Tasdemir, Reyhan; Mokkapati, Venkata R S S; Koseoglu-Imer, Derya Y; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2018-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be used for the fabrication of mixed matrix polymeric membranes that can enhance filtration perfomances of the membranes by modifying membrane surface properties. In this study, detailed characterization and filtration performances of MWCNTs functionalized with COOH group, blended into polymeric flat-sheet membranes were investigated using different polymer types. Morphological characterization was carried out using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. For filtration performance tests, protein, dextran, E. coli suspension, Xanthan Gum and real activated sludge solutions were used. Experimental data and analyses revealed that Polyethersulfone (PES) + MWCNT-COOH mixed matrix membranes have superior performance abilities compared to other tested membranes.

  14. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  15. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection.

    Kelley C Henderson

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains.

  16. DNA-Sequence Based Typing of the Cronobacter Genus Using MLST, CRISPR-cas Array and Capsular Profiling

    Pauline Ogrodzki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cronobacter genus is composed of seven species, within which a number of pathovars have been described. The most notable infections by Cronobacter spp. are of infants through the consumption of contaminated infant formula. The description of the genus has greatly improved in recent years through DNA sequencing techniques, and this has led to a robust means of identification. However some species are highly clonal and this limits the ability to discriminate between unrelated strains by some methods of genotyping. This article updates the application of three genotyping methods across the Cronobacter genus. The three genotyping methods were multilocus sequence typing (MLST, capsular profiling of the K-antigen and colanic acid (CA biosynthesis regions, and CRISPR-cas array profiling. A total of 1654 MLST profiled and 286 whole genome sequenced strains, available by open access at the PubMLST Cronobacter database, were used this analysis. The predominance of C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus in clinical infections was confirmed. The majority of clinical strains being in the C. sakazakii clonal complexes (CC 1 and 4, sequence types (ST 8 and 12 and C. malonaticus ST7. The capsular profile K2:CA2, previously proposed as being strongly associated with C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates from severe neonatal infections, was also found in C. turicensis, C. dublinensis and C. universalis. The majority of CRISPR-cas types across the genus was the I-E (Ecoli type. Some strains of C. dublinensis and C. muytjensii encoded the I-F (Ypseudo type, and others lacked the cas gene loci. The significance of the expanding profiling will be of benefit to researchers as well as governmental and industrial risk assessors.

  17. DNA-Sequence Based Typing of the Cronobacter Genus Using MLST, CRISPR-cas Array and Capsular Profiling.

    Ogrodzki, Pauline; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    The Cronobacter genus is composed of seven species, within which a number of pathovars have been described. The most notable infections by Cronobacter spp. are of infants through the consumption of contaminated infant formula. The description of the genus has greatly improved in recent years through DNA sequencing techniques, and this has led to a robust means of identification. However some species are highly clonal and this limits the ability to discriminate between unrelated strains by some methods of genotyping. This article updates the application of three genotyping methods across the Cronobacter genus. The three genotyping methods were multilocus sequence typing (MLST), capsular profiling of the K -antigen and colanic acid (CA) biosynthesis regions, and CRISPR- cas array profiling. A total of 1654 MLST profiled and 286 whole genome sequenced strains, available by open access at the PubMLST Cronobacter database, were used this analysis. The predominance of C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus in clinical infections was confirmed. The majority of clinical strains being in the C. sakazakii clonal complexes (CC) 1 and 4, sequence types (ST) 8 and 12 and C. malonaticus ST7. The capsular profile K2:CA2, previously proposed as being strongly associated with C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates from severe neonatal infections, was also found in C. turicensis , C. dublinensis and C. universalis . The majority of CRISPR- cas types across the genus was the I-E (Ecoli) type. Some strains of C. dublinensis and C. muytjensii encoded the I-F (Ypseudo) type, and others lacked the cas gene loci. The significance of the expanding profiling will be of benefit to researchers as well as governmental and industrial risk assessors.

  18. Sacrificial template method of fabricating a nanotube

    Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; He, Rongrui [Berkeley, CA; Goldberger, Joshua [Berkeley, CA; Fan, Rong [El Cerrito, CA; Wu, Yi-Ying [Albany, CA; Li, Deyu [Albany, CA; Majumdar, Arun [Orinda, CA

    2007-05-01

    Methods of fabricating uniform nanotubes are described in which nanotubes were synthesized as sheaths over nanowire templates, such as using a chemical vapor deposition process. For example, single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are utilized as templates over which gallium nitride (GaN) is epitaxially grown. The ZnO templates are then removed, such as by thermal reduction and evaporation. The completed single-crystalline GaN nanotubes preferably have inner diameters ranging from 30 nm to 200 nm, and wall thicknesses between 5 and 50 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the resultant nanotubes are single-crystalline with a wurtzite structure, and are oriented along the direction. The present invention exemplifies single-crystalline nanotubes of materials with a non-layered crystal structure. Similar "epitaxial-casting" approaches could be used to produce arrays and single-crystalline nanotubes of other solid materials and semiconductors. Furthermore, the fabrication of multi-sheath nanotubes are described as well as nanotubes having multiple longitudinal segments.

  19. Novel method of separating macroporous arrays from p-type silicon substrate

    Peng Bobo; Wang Fei; Liu Tao; Yang Zhenya; Wang Lianwei; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to fabricate separated macroporous silicon using a single step of photo-assisted electrochemical etching. The method is applied to fabricate silicon microchannel plates in 100 mm p-type silicon wafers, which can be used as electron multipliers and three-dimensional Li-ion microbatteries. Increasing the backside illumination intensity and decreasing the bias simultaneously can generate additional holes during the electrochemical etching which will create lateral etching at the pore tips. In this way the silicon microchannel can be separated from the substrate when the desired depth is reached, then it can be cut into the desired shape by using a laser cutting machine. Also, the mechanism of lateral etching is proposed. (semiconductor materials)

  20. Riems influenza a typing array (RITA): An RT-qPCR-based low density array for subtyping avian and mammalian influenza a viruses.

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Hoffmann, Donata; Henritzi, Dinah; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C

    2016-06-03

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic approaches are of the utmost importance for the detection of humans and animals infected by specific influenza virus subtype(s). Cascade-like diagnostics starting with the use of pan-influenza assays and subsequent subtyping devices are normally used. Here, we demonstrated a novel low density array combining 32 TaqMan(®) real-time RT-PCR systems in parallel for the specific detection of the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes of avian and porcine hosts. The sensitivity of the newly developed system was compared with that of the pan-influenza assay, and the specificity of all RT-qPCRs was examined using a broad panel of 404 different influenza A virus isolates representing 45 different subtypes. Furthermore, we analysed the performance of the RT-qPCR assays with diagnostic samples obtained from wild birds and swine. Due to the open format of the array, adaptations to detect newly emerging influenza A virus strains can easily be integrated. The RITA array represents a competitive, fast and sensitive subtyping tool that requires neither new machinery nor additional training of staff in a lab where RT-qPCR is already established.

  1. Improving conversion efficiency of CdS quantum dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by doping with Zn{sup 2+} and decorating with ZnO nanoparticles

    Chen, Chong, E-mail: chongchen@henu.edu.cn [Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang, Lei; Li, Fumin; Ling, Lanyu [Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-08-01

    The Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTs) decorated with ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared via electrochemical anodization and immersing method. Furthermore, the CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on the prepared Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO thin films by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method to fabricate the CdS QDs-sensitized Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes. The nanostructure, morphology, optical properties and electrochemical properties of the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrode with comparison to those of the CdS/TNTs photoelectrodes were investigated. It has been found that the Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes significantly increased the UV–vis light absorption of the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes and reduced the charge recombination at the surfaces of the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes. As a consequence, when the Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO film was adopted instead of the plain TNTs film, the light-chemical energy conversion efficiency of the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrode was much improved compared with the CdS/TNTs photoelectrode. A maximum energy conversion efficiency achieved for the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrode is 3.86%, which is a 17% improvement compared with the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 3.29% achieved for the CdS/TNTs photoelectrodes. - Highlights: • The CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes were synthesized. • The optical properties and photochemical properties were investigated. • The energy conversion efficiency depends on the Zn doping concentration. • The energy conversion efficiency was improved by the Zn doping.

  2. Photocatalyst based on TiO2 nanotube arrays co-decorated with CdS quantum dots and reduced graphene oxide irradiated by γ rays for effective degradation of ethylene

    Zhang, Quan; Ye, Shengying; Song, Xianliang; Luo, Shucan

    2018-06-01

    We report herein a means of transforming TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) from an amorphous state to an anatase crystal state (denoted as ∗TNAs), and present a single-step synthetic route for preparing CdS quantum dots (CdS QDs) as well as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through gamma-ray irradiation. The as-prepared ∗TNAs, CdS QDs, and rGO, which had all been subjected to gamma-ray irradiation, were then assembled together to produce the desired heterojunction (denoted as CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs). X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet/visible diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (UV/Vis DRS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), micro-Raman spectrometry (RS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been applied to characterize the appearance and performance of this photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity of CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs towards ethylene degradation has been measured by placing it in a simulated cold-storage environment, the temperature and humidity of which were set at about 3 ± 1 °C and 75-90%, respectively. The results showed that the rate constant (K) of ethylene degradation could reach up to 1.07 × 10-3 min-1 with CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs, as compared to 2.30 × 10-4 min-1 with ∗TNAs and 6.25 × 10-4 min-1 with CdS QDs-∗TNAs, indicating that the constructed CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs constitutes a promising photocatalyst for ethylene removal in a cold storage environment.

  3. Electrical device fabrication from nanotube formations

    Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kittrell, W. Carter; Kim, Myung Jong; Schmidt, Howard K.

    2013-03-12

    A method for forming nanotube electrical devices, arrays of nanotube electrical devices, and device structures and arrays of device structures formed by the methods. Various methods of the present invention allow creation of semiconducting and/or conducting devices from readily grown SWNT carpets rather than requiring the preparation of a patterned growth channel and takes advantage of the self-controlling nature of these carpet heights to ensure a known and controlled channel length for reliable electronic properties as compared to the prior methods.

  4. A low-potential, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-assisted electrodeposition of cobalt oxide/hydroxide nanostructures onto vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays for glucose sensing

    Yang Jiang [Food and Bioprocess Engineering laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 460 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zhang Weide [Nanoscience Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Gunasekaran, Sundaram, E-mail: guna@wisc.edu [Food and Bioprocess Engineering laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 460 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > We successfully synthesized CoOx.nH{sub 2}O-MWCNTs nanocomposites using a cathodic electrochemical reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to deposit cobalt oxide/hydroxide nanostructures onto vertically well-aligned MWCNTs arrays. > This is an enzyme-free sensor. > Under optimal detection conditions, the sensor showed a good-enough sensitivity of 162.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, a low detection limit of 2.0 {mu}M (S/N = 3) and a fast response of less than 4 s within the linear range of up to 4.5 mM. > Other advantages of the sensor for Glc measurements include high insensitivity to common interferences, long-term stability, reproducibility and resistance to chloride poisoning without additional outer membrance like Nafion. Therefor it is useful for routine Glc analysis. > The novel nanocomposite material with good mechanical strength and high conductivity can be planted into microchannels to conduct sophisticated lab-on-a-chip Glc detection. - Abstract: A novel nanocomposite was synthesized using a cathodic, low-potential, electrochemical reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to homogeneously deposit cobalt oxide/hydroxide (denoted as CoOx.nH{sub 2}O) nanostructures onto vertically well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays (MWCNTs), while the MWCNTs were prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a tantalum (Ta) substrate. The CoOx.nH{sub 2}O-MWCNTs nanocomposite exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity towards glucose (Glc) after modification with CoOx.nH{sub 2}O than before. This non-enzymatic Glc sensor has a high sensitivity (162.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), fast response time (<4 s) and low detection limit (2.0 {mu}M at signal/noise ratio = 3), and a linear dynamic range up to 4.5 mM. The sensor output is stable over 30 days and unaffected by common interferents that co-exist with Glc in analytical samples; it is also resistant to chloride poisoning. These features make the CoOx.nH{sub 2}O-MWCNTs nanocomposite a promising electrode

  5. Comparison of Thrust Characteristics in Pencil Sized Cylinder-type Linear Motors with Different Magnet Arrays(Asia-Pacific Symposium on Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (APSAEM08))

    K., Nakaiwa; A., Yamada; K., Tashiro; H., Wakiwaka; Tamagawa-Seiki Co., Ltd; Shinshu University; Shinshu University; Shinshu University

    2009-01-01

    From a strong demand on the miniaturization of a chip mounter or a semiconductor device, the thrust improvement considering the magnets arrangement is studied. We accept a core stator with a Halbach type magnet array for a current linear motor. The thrust characteristics are compared with two kinds of mover, a NS magnet array and a Halbach magnet array.

  6. Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Ni Nanotubes and Nanowires

    Wang Yiqian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Highly ordered Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays were fabricated via electrodeposition. The Ni microstructures and the process of the formation were investigated using conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Herein, we demonstrated the systematic fabrication of Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays and proposed an original growth mechanism. With the different deposition time, nanotubes or nanowires can be obtained. Tubular nanostructures can be obtained at short time, while nanowires take longer time to form. This formation mechanism is applicable to design and synthesize other metal nanostructures and even compound nanostuctures via template-based electrodeposition.

  7. Fluorescently labeled bionanotransporters of nucleic acid based on carbon nanotubes

    Novopashina, D.S.; Apartsin, E.K.; Venyaminova, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to the design of a new type of hybrids of oligonucleotides with fluorescein-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The approach is based on stacking interactions of functionalized nanotubes with pyrene residues in conjugates of oligonucleotides. The amino- and fluorescein-modified single walled carbon nanotubes are obtained, and their physico-chemical properties are investigated. The effect of the functionalization type of carbon nanotubes on the efficacy of the sorption of pyrene conjugates of oligonucleotides was examined. The proposed noncovalent hybrids of fluorescein-labeled carbon nanotubes with oligonucleotides may be used for the intracellular transport of functional nucleic acids.

  8. Mass Transport Through Carbon Nanotube-Polystyrene Bundles

    Lin, Rongzhou; Tran, Tuan

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been widely used as test channels to study nanofluidic transport, which has been found to have distinctive properties compared to transport of fluids in macroscopic channels. A long-standing challenge in the study of mass transport through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is the determination of flow enhancement. Various experimental investigations have been conducted to measure the flow rate through CNTs, mainly based on either vertically aligned CNT membranes or individual CNTs. Here, we proposed an alternative approach that can be used to quantify the mass transport through CNTs. This is a simple method relying on the use of carbon nanotube-polystyrene bundles, which are made of CNTs pulled out from a vertically aligned CNT array and glued together by polystyrene. We experimentally showed by using fluorescent tagging that the composite bundles allowed measureable and selective mass transport through CNTs. This type of composite bundle may be useful in various CNT research areas as they are simple to fabricate, less likely to form macroscopic cracks, and offer a high density of CNT pores while maintaining the aligned morphology of CNTs.

  9. THE EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF ADMIXTURE ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLYACRYLONITRILE MEMBRANES MODIFIED WITH NANOTUBES, GRAPHENE OXIDE AND GRAPHENE

    Beata Fryczkowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the production of composite polyacrylonitrile (PAN membranes with nanotubes (MWCNT, graphene (RG and graphene oxide (GO addition. All of the specified additions differ diametrically in terms of properties, starting from the spatial structure of the particles, up to the chemical properties. Membranes were obtained using phase inversion method from a solution of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. Subsequently, the impact of the nano-addition on the transport and separation properties of the membranes were investigated using Millipore AMICON ultrafiltration kit. Membranes with graphene addition (PAN/RG are characterized by the best transport properties and the highest specific permeate flux values in the range of ~913÷1006 [dm3/m2×h] for working pressure of 2.0 MPa. To test the separation properties, electroplating waste water generated in one of the Silesian galvanizing plants was used. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the waste water was tested by UV-Vis spectrophotometer (HACH and absorption atomic spectrometry (AAS. The ultrafiltration process carried out on composite membranes allows for the complete removal of phosphate ions and ~88÷94% of iron from the waste water. The rejection coefficient of the remaining metals is high: ~ 35 ÷ 85% for copper and ~ 17 ÷ 100% for cadmium.

  10. Bioelectrochemical sensing of promethazine with bamboo-type multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in calf-thymus double stranded DNA.

    Primo, Emiliano N; Oviedo, M Belén; Sánchez, Cristián G; Rubianes, María D; Rivas, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    We report the quantification of promethazine (PMZ) using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with bamboo-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes (bCNT) dispersed in double stranded calf-thymus DNA (dsDNA) (GCE/bCNT-dsDNA). Cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrated that PMZ presents a thin film-confined redox behavior at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA, opposite to the irreversibly-adsorbed behavior obtained at GCE modified with bCNT dispersed in ethanol (GCE/bCNT). Differential pulse voltammetry-adsorptive stripping with medium exchange experiments performed with GCE/bCNT-dsDNA and GCE modified with bCNTs dispersed in single-stranded calf-thymus DNA (ssDNA) confirmed that the interaction between PMZ and bCNT-dsDNA is mainly hydrophobic. These differences are due to the intercalation of PMZ within the dsDNA that supports the bCNTs, as evidenced from the bathochromic displacement of UV-Vis absorption spectra of PMZ and quantum dynamics calculations at DFTB level. The efficient accumulation of PMZ at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA made possible its sensitive quantification at nanomolar levels (sensitivity: (3.50±0.05)×10(8) μA·cm(-2)·M(-1) and detection limit: 23 nM). The biosensor was successfully used for the determination of PMZ in a pharmaceutical product with excellent correlation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tuning the threshold voltage of carbon nanotube transistors by n-type molecular doping for robust and flexible complementary circuits

    Wang, Huiliang; Wei, Peng; Li, Yaoxuan; Han, Jeff; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Naab, Benjamin D.; Liu, Nan; Wang, Chenggong; Adijanto, Eric; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Morishita, Satoshi; Li, Qiaochu; Gao, Yongli; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Tuning the threshold voltage of a transistor is crucial for realizing robust digital circuits. For silicon transistors, the threshold voltage can be accurately controlled by doping. However, it remains challenging to tune the threshold voltage of single-wall nanotube (SWNT) thin-film transistors. Here, we report a facile method to controllably n-dope SWNTs using 1H-benzoimidazole derivatives processed via either solution coating or vacuum deposition. The threshold voltages of our polythiophene-sorted SWNT thin-film transistors can be tuned accurately and continuously over a wide range. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirmed that the SWNT Fermi level shifted to the conduction band edge with increasing doping concentration. Using this doping approach, we proceeded to fabricate SWNT complementary inverters by inkjet printing of the dopants. We observed an unprecedented noise margin of 28 V at VDD = 80 V (70% of 1/2VDD) and a gain of 85. Additionally, robust SWNT complementary metal−oxide−semiconductor inverter (noise margin 72% of 1/2VDD) and logic gates with rail-to-rail output voltage swing and subnanowatt power consumption were fabricated onto a highly flexible substrate. PMID:24639537

  12. Riding Quality Model for Asphalt Pavement Monitoring Using Phase Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR

    Kamiya Yoshikazu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There are difficulties associated with near-real time or frequent pavement monitoring, because it is time consuming and costly. This study aimed to develop a binary logit model for the evaluation of highway riding quality, which could be used to monitor pavement conditions. The model was applied to investigate the influence of backscattering values of Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR. Training data obtained during 3–7 May 2007 was used in the development process, together with actual international roughness index (IRI values collected along a highway in Ayutthaya province, Thailand. The analysis showed that an increase in the backscattering value in the HH or the VV polarization indicated the poor condition of the pavement surface and, of the two, the HH polarization is more suitable for developing riding quality evaluation. The model developed was applied to analyze highway number 3467, to demonstrate its capability. It was found that the assessment accuracy of the prediction of the highway level of service was 97.00%. This is a preliminary study of the proposed technique and more intensive investigation must be carried out using ALOS/PALSAR images in various seasons.

  13. Small-pixel long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice

    Han, Xi; Jiang, Dongwei; Wang, Guowei; Hao, Hongyue; Sun, Yaoyao; Jiang, Zhi; Lv, Yuexi; Guo, Chunyan; Xu, Yingqiang; Niu, Zhichuan

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports a 640 × 512 long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) with 15 × 15 μm2 pixels pitch based on the type II InAs/GaSb superlattice. Material grown on a 3 in. GaSb substrate exhibits a 50% cutoff wavelength of 10.2 μm across the entire wafer. The peak quantum efficiency of the detector reaches 28% at 9.1 μm without anti-reflecting coating. Maximal resistance-area products of 8.95 Ω·cm2 at 77 K and 24.4 Ω·cm2 at 45 K are achieved in a single element device indicating that the generation-recombination and tunneling mechanisms dominate the device dark current, respectively. The peak Johnson Detectivity reaches 9.66 × 1011 cm Hz1/2/W at 9.1 μm with the bias voltage of 80 mV. In the whole zone, the operability and non-uniformity for the responsivity are 97.74% and 6.41% respectively. The average noise equivalent temperature difference of 31.9 mK at 77 K is achieved with an integration time of 0.5 ms, a 300 K background and f/2 optics.

  14. Permeation of sumatriptan succinate across human skin using multiple types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays fabricated from sodium hyaluronate.

    Wu, Dan; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Kusamori, Kosuke; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Available formulations of sumatriptan succinate (SS) have low bioavailability or are associated with site reactions. We developed various types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays (MNs) fabricated from sodium hyaluronate as a new delivery system for SS and evaluated their skin permeation and irritation in terms of clinical application. In vitro permeation studies with human skin, physicochemical properties (needle length, thickness and density), and penetration enhancers (glycerin, sodium dodecyl sulfate and lauric acid diethanolamide) were investigated. SS-loaded high-density MNs of 800 µm in length were the optimal formulation and met clinical therapeutic requirements. Penetration enhancers did not significantly affect permeation of SS from MNs. Optical coherence tomography images demonstrated that SS-loaded high-density MNs (800 µm) uniformly created drug permeation pathways for the delivery of SS into the skin. SS-loaded high-density MNs induced moderate primary skin irritations in rats, but the skin recovered within 72 h of removal of the MNs. These findings suggest that high-density MNs of 800 µm in length are an effective and promising formulation for transdermal delivery of SS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SS permeation across human skin using self-dissolving MNs.

  15. Peptide array-based screening of human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides derived from fibronectin type III domain

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Shigeyuki; Kaga, Chiaki; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides were screened based on the amino acid sequence of fibronectin type III domain 8-11 (FN-III 8-11 ) using a peptide array synthesized by the Fmoc-chemistry. Using hexameric peptide library of FN-III 8-11 scan, we identified the ALNGR (Ala-Leu-Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide that induced cell adhesion as well as RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide. After incubation for 2 h, approximately 68% of inoculated cells adhere to the ALNGR peptide disk. Adhesion inhibition assay with integrin antibodies showed that the ALNGR peptide interacts with integrin β1 but not with αvβ3, indicating that the receptors for ALNGR are different from RGDS. Additionally, the ALNGR peptide expressed cell specificities for adhesion: cell adhesion was promoted for fibroblasts but not for keratinocytes or endotherial cells. The ALNGR peptide induced cell adhesion and promoted cell proliferation without changing its property. It is therefore useful for the construction of functional biomaterials

  16. High-throughput multiplex HLA-typing by ligase detection reaction (LDR) and universal array (UA) approach.

    Consolandi, Clarissa

    2009-01-01

    One major goal of genetic research is to understand the role of genetic variation in living systems. In humans, by far the most common type of such variation involves differences in single DNA nucleotides, and is thus termed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The need for improvement in throughput and reliability of traditional techniques makes it necessary to develop new technologies. Thus the past few years have witnessed an extraordinary surge of interest in DNA microarray technology. This new technology offers the first great hope for providing a systematic way to explore the genome. It permits a very rapid analysis of thousands genes for the purpose of gene discovery, sequencing, mapping, expression, and polymorphism detection. We generated a series of analytical tools to address the manufacturing, detection and data analysis components of a microarray experiment. In particular, we set up a universal array approach in combination with a PCR-LDR (polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction) strategy for allele identification in the HLA gene.

  17. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to