WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanotechnology biotechnology information

  1. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  2. New technologies in medicine: biotechnology and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajtchuk, R

    1999-11-01

    In February 1997, researchers created Dolly, a lamb cloned from the DNA of an adult sheep. This was supposed to be impossible (or at least generations away), but suddenly it was here--a clone of a higher mammal. Whatever Dolly's ultimate significance, she conclusively demonstrated the growing power of biotechnology. Many have come to the conclusion that advances in biotechnology will fundamentally transform medicine during the coming decade. Society is in the midst of a technical revolution that will have the same relevance as the development of the printing press, the internal combustion engine, and the microprocessor. Computers have become the key tools in the accelerating progress that is occurring in the field of biotechnology. At the same time, genetic, evolutionary, and other biologic processes are providing new models for the development of computer hardware and software. Today represents the early stages of what has been called the "bionic convergence": the convergence of the biologic revolution with the information revolution, the joining of biology with electronics. Virtually everything that is important to health care practitioners and patients--diagnostic techniques, means of understanding disease causes, methods of treatment, approaches to prevention, health care facility design, medical education, and legal and ethical issues--will be changed by the revolutions currently underway in the fields of biotechnology and genetic medicine. The following monograph includes several forecasts about a range of possible opportunities that may have enormous effects on health care during the next century. These forecasts address the potential impacts of biotechnology on disease detection and diagnosis, treatment, prevention, nanotechnology, and other areas of medical significance. Every area of beneficiary care will be affected as the changes implied by these forecasts begin to develop. Beneficiary care will continue to see the emergence of a "forecast, prevent, and

  3. GREEN TECHNOLOGY FORESIGHT OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY: HYPE OR POTENTIALS - THE CHALLENGES FROM NANOTECHNOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ICT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the theoretical and methodological approach in an ongoing Danish technology foresight project focusing on the environmental potentials and risks of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and communication technology (ICT). The paper gives a short overview of some...

  4. Systems architecture: a new model for sustainability and the built environment using nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science with living technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This report details a workshop held at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, to initiate interdisciplinary collaborations for the practice of systems architecture, which is a new model for the generation of sustainable architecture that combines the discipline of the study of the built environment with the scientific study of complexity, or systems science, and adopts the perspective of systems theory. Systems architecture offers new perspectives on the organization of the built environment that enable architects to consider architecture as a series of interconnected networks with embedded links into natural systems. The public workshop brought together architects and scientists working with the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science and with living technology to investigate the possibility of a new generation of smart materials that are implied by this approach.

  5. National Center for Biotechnology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  6. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMATERIALS: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOFILMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Berry, T.; Narayan, R.

    2010-11-29

    Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to develop new tools and products for medicine and industry. Due to various properties including chemical stability, biocompatibility, and specific activity, e.g. antimicrobial properties, many new and novel materials are being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. Many of these materials are less than 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is the engineering discipline encompassing designing, producing, testing, and using structures and devices less than 100 nanometers. One of the challenges associated with biomaterials is microbial contamination that can lead to infections. In recent work we have examined the functionalization of nanoporous biomaterials and antimicrobial activities of nanocrystalline diamond materials. In vitro testing has revealed little antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and associated biofilm formation that enhances recalcitrance to antimicrobial agents including disinfectants and antibiotics. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated properties and characteristics of the material with regard to biofilm formation.

  7. Interferometer-Controlled Optical Tweezers Constructed for Nanotechnology and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to control microparticles was developed in-house at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the nanotechnology project under NASA's Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research Program. A prototype interferometer-controlled optical tweezers was constructed to manipulate scanning probe microscope (SPM) tips. A laser beam passed through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a microscope objective then produced an optical trap from the coaxial beams. The trap levitated and generated the coarse motion of a 10-mm polystyrene sphere used to simulate a SPM tip. The interference between the beams provided fine control of the forces and moments on the sphere. The interferometer included a piezoelectric-scanned mirror to modulate the interference pattern. The 10-mm sphere was observed to oscillate about 1 mm as the mirror and fringe pattern oscillated. The prototype tweezers proved the feasibility of constructing a more sophisticated interferometer tweezers to hold and manipulate SPM tips. The SPM tips are intended to interrogate and manipulate nanostructures. A more powerful laser will be used to generate multiple traps to hold nanostructures and SPM tips. The vibrating mirror in the interferometer will be replaced with a spatial light modulator. The modulator will allow the optical phase distribution in one leg of the interferometer to be programmed independently at 640 by 480 points for detailed control of the forces and moments. The interference patterns will be monitored to measure the motion of the SPM tips. Neuralnetwork technology will provide fast analysis of the interference patterns for diagnostic purposes and for local or remote feedback control of the tips. This effort also requires theoretical and modeling support in the form of scattering calculations for twin coherent beams from nonspherical particles.

  8. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey ...

  9. Organisation of biotechnological information into knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, B

    1996-09-01

    The success of biotechnological research, development and marketing depends to a large extent on the international transfer of information and on the ability to organise biotechnology information into knowledge. To increase the efficiency of information-based approaches, an information strategy has been developed and consists of the following stages: definition of the problem, its structure and sub-problems; acquisition of data by targeted processing of computer-supported bibliographic, numeric, textual and graphic databases; analysis of data and building of specialized in-house information systems; information processing for structuring data into systems, recognition of trends and patterns of knowledge, particularly by information synthesis using the concept of information density; design of research hypotheses; testing hypotheses in the laboratory and/or pilot plant; repeated evaluation and optimization of hypotheses by information methods and testing them by further laboratory work. The information approaches are illustrated by examples from the university-industry joint projects in biotechnology, biochemistry and agriculture.

  10. Carbohydrate nanotechnology: hierarchical assembly using nature's other information carrying biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Zheng, Yeting; Munro, Catherine J; Ji, Yiwen; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2015-08-01

    Despite their central role in directing some of the most complex biological processes, carbohydrates--nature's other information carrying biopolymer--have been largely ignored as building blocks for synthetic hierarchical assemblies. The non-stoichiometric binding and astronomical diversity characteristic of carbohydrates could lead to tantalizingly complex assembly algorithms, but these attributes simultaneously increase the difficulty of preparing carbohydrate assemblies and anticipating their behavior. Convergences in biotechnology, nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, surface science, and supramolecular chemistry have led to many recent important breakthroughs in glycan microarrays and synthetic carbohydrate receptors, where the idiosyncrasies of carbohydrate structure and binding are increasingly considered. We hope to inspire more researchers to consider carbohydrate structure, diversity, and binding as attractive tools for constructing synthetic hierarchical assemblies.

  11. Green biotechnology, nanotechnology and bio-fortification: perspectives on novel environment-friendly crop improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashveer, Shikha; Singh, Vikram; Kaswan, Vineet; Kaushik, Amit; Tokas, Jayanti

    2014-10-01

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are prominent issues for this century. As the world's population continues to increase, ensuring that the earth has enough food that is nutritious too will be a difficult task. Today one billion people of the world are undernourished and more than a third are malnourished. Moreover, the looming threat of climate change is exasperating the situation even further. At the same time, the total acreage of arable land that could support agricultural use is already near its limits, and may even decrease over the next few years due to salination and desertification patterns resulting from climate change. Clearly, changing the way we think about crop production must take place on multiple levels. New varieties of crops must be developed which can produce higher crop yields with less water and fewer agricultural inputs. Besides this, the crops themselves must have improved nutritional qualities or become biofortified in order to reduce the chances of 'hidden hunger' resulting from malnourishment. It is difficult to envision the optimum way to increase crop production using a single uniform strategy. Instead, a variety of approaches must be employed and tailored for any particular agricultural setting. New high-impact technologies such as green biotechnology, biofortification, and nanotechnology offer opportunities for boosting agricultural productivity and enhancing food quality and nutritional value with eco-friendly manner. These agricultural technologies currently under development will renovate our world to one that can comfortably address the new directions, our planet will take as a result of climate change.

  12. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2010-05-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites—blogs, government, and general sites—are conducted.

  13. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2010-05-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites-blogs, government, and general sites-are conducted. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-010-9860-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  14. Biotechnology Education. Engaging the Learner: Embedding Information Literacy Skills into a Biotechnology Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Helena; Hockey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of change and that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out of date in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the relevant information for their studies…

  15. [Nanotechnologies: from information sciences to pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The considerable breakthroughs of the physics during the last 30 years allowed us to conceive components, devices or materials at the nanoscale level and to manipulate them. Applications are already envisaged in the field of the medical and pharmaceutical sciences. These nanotechnologies will be applied to the biology as well as the diagnosis, the therapeutics and the functional rehabilitation (nanomedicine). Consequences in the pharmaceutical research and development are also possible in a near future.

  16. Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Structuring matter on the nanometer range is much more that just making things smaller than in existing microscale devices. Rather the exploitation of phenomena that stem exclusively from the nanoscale dimensions of device elements holds the promise of new functionalities and applications in various fields as electronics, mechanics, optics or medicine. I will give a general introduction in the basics of nanotechnology, illustrated by existing and envisaged applications from which a strong impact on both science and our daily life is to be expected. I will also discuss the methodology and experimental techniques, as scanning probe microscopies and lithography.

  17. Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Remillard, S.; Kapustka, L.; Goudey, S.

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field. There are currently over 500 consumer products available in the marketplace and the field of nanotechnology itself that will be worth over 1 trillion by 2012. However, with an increasing number of products emerging, there is also a consequent rise in ecological and human exposure. The risk and degree of exposure to nanoscale particles (NP) will vary depending on the form of the particle, for example, powder, liquid or encapsulated, when contact occurs. Although, general public exposure to NP is increasing due to the shear number of products available, the majority of human exposure still occurs in an occupational setting. Preliminary exposure studies demonstrate that NP may enter the body via the gastrointestinal, respiratory and integumentary systems and then translocate to other vital organs and systems (for example via the olfactory bulb). Historical data on ultrafine particles have shown a higher incidence of lung cancer and respiratory disorders associated with exposure. Due to these data and evidence emerging directly on NP, precautionary measures may be warranted to ensure worker safety. Regulatory agencies and manufacturers are beginning to consider standard practices that adequately protect workers from nanoscale particle exposure. The occupational hazards associated with exposure and the current safety recommendations will be discussed.

  18. State FFA Officers' Confidence and Trustworthiness of Biotechnology Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.

    2007-01-01

    Are state FFA officers' awareness levels of agricultural topics reported in mass media superior to those who do not serve in leadership roles? The purpose of this study was to determine elected state FFA officers' awareness of biotechnology, and their confidence and trust of biotechnology information sources. Descriptive survey methods were used…

  19. Modification of nucleic acids by azobenzene derivatives and their applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xingyu; Liang, Xingguo

    2014-12-01

    Azobenzene has been widely used as a photoregulator due to its reversible photoisomerization, large structural change between E and Z isomers, high photoisomerization yield, and high chemical stability. On the other hand, some azobenzene derivatives can be used as universal quenchers for many fluorophores. Nucleic acid is a good candidate to be modified because it is not only the template of gene expression but also widely used for building well-organized nanostructures and nanodevices. Because the size and polarity distribution of the azobenzene molecule is similar to a nucleobase pair, the introduction of azobenzene into nucleic acids has been shown to be an ingenious molecular design for constructing light-switching biosystems or light-driven nanomachines. Here we review recent advances in azobenzene-modified nucleic acids and their applications for artificial regulation of gene expression and enzymatic reactions, construction of photoresponsive nanostructures and nanodevices, molecular beacons, as well as obtaining structural information using the introduced azobenzene as an internal probe. In particular, nucleic acids bearing multiple azobenzenes can be used as a novel artificial nanomaterial with merits of high sequence specificity, regular duplex structure, and high photoregulation efficiency. The combination of functional groups with biomolecules may further advance the development of chemical biotechnology and biomolecular engineering.

  20. Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin

    2016-01-01

    Present an overview of the Nanotechnology Project at NASA's Game Changing Technology Industry Day. Mature and demonstrate flight readiness of CNT reinforced composites for future NASA mission applications?Sounding rocket test in a multiexperiment payload?Integrate into cold gas thruster system as propellant storage?The technology would provide the means for reduced COPV mass and improved damage tolerance and flight qualify CNT reinforced composites. PROBLEM/NEED BEING ADDRESSED:?Reduce weight and enhance the performance and damage tolerance of aerospace structuresGAME-CHANGING SOLUTION:?Improve mechanical properties of CNTs to eventually replace CFRP –lighter and stronger?First flight-testing of a CNT reinforced composite structural component as part of an operational flight systemUNIQUENESS:?CNT manufacturing methods developed?Flight qualify CNT reinforced composites

  1. Nanotechnology: legal and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a very vast field which includes a range of technologies at the nano scale, such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, genomics, neuroscience, robotics and information technologies. Nanotechnology is the latest technological innovation in global debates on risk regulation and international cooperation. Regulatory bodies have started dealing with the potential risks posed by nanoparticles. Since 2004 the UE has been developing a regulatory policy to tighten control and to improve regulatory adequacy and knowledge of nanotechnology risks. Currently, specific provisions on nanomaterials have been introduced for biocides, cosmetics, food additives, food labelling and materials in contact with foodstuff. The statement that nanotechnologies do inevitably imply ethical questions. The main problems are public trust, potential risks, issues of environmental impact, transparency of information, responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research. The aim of this article is to analysis the main problems regulating nanotechnology and some aspects of ethics.

  2. Quantum mechanics with applications to nanotechnology and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Band, Yehuda B

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information th...

  3. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 1: Where scientists get their information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefsheim, S; Franklin, J; Cunningham, D

    1991-01-01

    A model study, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and conducted by the Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library (RML) and the University of Maryland Health Sciences Library, attempted to assess the information needs of researchers in the developing field of biotechnology and to determine the resources available to meet those needs in major academic health sciences centers. Nine medical schools in RML Region 2 were selected to participate in a biotechnology awareness study. A survey was conducted of the nine medical school libraries to assess their support of biotechnology research. To identify the information needs of scientists engaged in biotechnology-related research at the schools, a written survey was sent to the deans of the nine institutions and selected scientists they had identified. This was followed by individual, in-depth interviews with both the deans and scientists surveyed. In general, scientists obtained information from three major sources: their own experiments, personal communication with other scientists, and textual material (print or electronic). For textual information, most study participants relied on personal journal subscriptions. Tangential journals were scanned in the department's library. Only a few of these scientists came to the health sciences library on a regular basis. Further, the study found that personal computers have had a major impact on how biotechnologists get and use information. Implications of these findings for libraries and librarians are discussed. PMID:1998818

  4. Effect of Religious Belief on Informal Reasoning about Biotechnology Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Timothy; Dawson, Vaille; Koul, Rekha

    2017-01-01

    The advances of modern biotechnology provide teachers with a number of opportunities to explore socioscientific issues, and in doing so to enhance students' reasoning skills. Although some attempt has been made to understand cultural differences in students' informal reasoning across international and regional boundaries, there is limited research…

  5. Consumer demand for information about agricultural biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Czienskowski, Uwe

    examples in this study, one was a conventional competitor product, and one was an organic product. A newly developed process-tracing method allowed the unobtrusive monitoring of attribute information uptake from photos of product packages. In the second part of the experiment, information access......The aim of the study was to provide a realistic assessment of (a) the amount and type of information that consumers would use in choices between second-generation novel foods and different types of competitor products, (b) the amount and type of information that consumers would access from general...... novel-food information sites, and (c) the effect of the different types of information on product preferences and attitudes towards novel foods and food technologies. Three paradigmatic novel food examples were used in the study: a genetically modified potato with altered levels of inherent toxicants...

  6. Consumer demand for information about agricultural biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Czienskowski, Uwe

    The aim of the study was to provide a realistic assessment of (a) the amount and type of information that consumers would use in choices between second-generation novel foods and different types of competitor products, (b) the amount and type of information that consumers would access from genera...

  7. The track nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, A. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Forsyth, D., E-mail: dforsyth@bite.ac.u [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Watts, A. [Department of Physics, UCL, London Centre of Nanotechnology (LCN), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H OAH (United Kingdom); Saad, A.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Mitchell, G.R. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Farmer, M. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Harris, P.J.F. [Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  8. Education resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Peter S.; Lipshultz, Dawn; Matten, Wayne T.; McGinnis, Scott D.; Pechous, Steven; Romiti, Monica L.; Tao, Tao; Valjavec-Gratian, Majda; Sayers, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) hosts 39 literature and molecular biology databases containing almost half a billion records. As the complexity of these data and associated resources and tools continues to expand, so does the need for educational resources to help investigators, clinicians, information specialists and the general public make use of the wealth of public data available at the NCBI. This review describes the educational resources available at NCBI via th...

  9. 78 FR 14103 - Request for Information (RFI) Regarding the Planned Biotechnology Development Module (BDM) as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Request for Information (RFI) Regarding the Planned Biotechnology Development Module (BDM) as Part... information regarding utilization alternatives for the planned Biotechnology Development Module (BDM)...

  10. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary Past Issues / Winter 2014 ... Photo courtesy of NLM The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of NLM, celebrated its ...

  11. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  12. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanofood, food packaging, nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation

  13. Biotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed the identification of limiting factors associated with scaling-up, with respect in particular to the scale of mass production required to meet the needs of planters and to the problem of ensuring genetic fidelity in the regenerated plant material. These two concerns led researchers to look further into the underlying physiological and/or molecular mechanisms involved in somatic embryogenesis and the somaclonal variation events induced by the in vitro cloning procedure. Structural and functional genomics. Marker-assisted breeding in oil palm is a long-term multi-stage project including: molecular analysis of genetic diversity in both E. guineensis and E. oleifera germplasms; large scale development of PCR-based microsatellite markers; and parallel development of three genome mapping and QTL detection projects studying key agronomic characters. Post-genomics. In order to tackle the problem of the mantled flowering abnormality, which is induced during the micropropagation process, studies of gene expression have been carried out in tissue cultures as a means of establishing an early clonal conformity testing procedure. It is important to assess what kind of methodology is the most appropriate for clonal conformity testing by comparing RNA, protein and DNA (PCR based approaches. Parallel studies on genomic DNA methylation changes induced by tissue culture suggest that the latter may play an important role in the determination of the mantled abnormality.

  14. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  15. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Hahn, JangHo

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information from 1,039,823 records mapped to rice, Arabidopsis, and Chinese cabbage. PMID:21887015

  16. Biotechnology 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This book deals with Bio-vision 2016 on the meaning and important contents Next, it reveals vision of biotechnology, current condition of biotechnology in the main countries such as the U.S, Japan, Eu and China, promoting nation biotechnology with promotion policy, support policy for biotechnology such as agriculture and forestry and information and communication, competitiveness of biotechnology, research development by fields and related industries and regulation and system on biotechnology.

  17. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  18. Microelectronics and nanotechnology, and the fractal-like structure of information, knowledge, and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutu, Catalin Silviu; Axinte, Tiberiu

    2016-12-01

    The article is centralizing and is concentrating the information from a considerable amount of papers related to the field of microelectronics and nanotechnology and also provides an approach to science and to the future evolution of science, based on the theory of the fractals. The new science of microelectronics and nanotechnology is one of the best examples of how the science of future will look like, namely at the confluence of increasingly more other sciences, where increasingly more sciences are to be added in the structure of the new science and the role of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary is becoming more and more important. Although not giving explicit details (e.g. specific formulas) the theory of fractals is used in the paper to explain the way of generation of new science for the specific case of microelectronics and nanotechnology, but is also used in the paper to outline a different way to approach new science and eventually to approach new sciences to come. There are mainly two motivations for the present article, namely: on the one hand, the position of the microelectronics and nanotechnologies in the fractal-like structure of science, and, on the other hand, that much of the communication, information, knowledge and science transfer, dissemination and advancement in sciences are taking place using the new technologies related to microelectronics and nanotechnologies.

  19. Database Resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these data from 37 distinct databases. The E-utilities serve as the programming interface for the Entrez system. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. New resources released in the past year include iCn3D, MutaBind, and the Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Reference Database; and resources that were updated in the past year include My Bibliography, SciENcv, the Pathogen Detection Project, Assembly, Genome, the Genome Data Viewer, BLAST and PubChem. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:27899561

  20. Education resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter S; Lipshultz, Dawn; Matten, Wayne T; McGinnis, Scott D; Pechous, Steven; Romiti, Monica L; Tao, Tao; Valjavec-Gratian, Majda; Sayers, Eric W

    2010-11-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) hosts 39 literature and molecular biology databases containing almost half a billion records. As the complexity of these data and associated resources and tools continues to expand, so does the need for educational resources to help investigators, clinicians, information specialists and the general public make use of the wealth of public data available at the NCBI. This review describes the educational resources available at NCBI via the NCBI Education page (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Education/). These resources include materials designed for new users, such as About NCBI and the NCBI Guide, as well as documentation, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and writings on the NCBI Bookshelf such as the NCBI Help Manual and the NCBI Handbook. NCBI also provides teaching materials such as tutorials, problem sets and educational tools such as the Amino Acid Explorer, PSSM Viewer and Ebot. NCBI also offers training programs including the Discovery Workshops, webinars and tutorials at conferences. To help users keep up-to-date, NCBI produces the online NCBI News and offers RSS feeds and mailing lists, along with a presence on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.

  1. 78 FR 60319 - Request for Information: NNI Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology Signature...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... in the NNI have identified focused areas of national importance that may be more rapidly advanced... enzymatic sensors 1.2. Support development of integrated and portable sensor devices, including information systems support for collection, analysis, and transfer of large amounts of sensor data 1.3....

  2. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: schandra@roosevelt.edu [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  3. 78 FR 17220 - Request for Information (RFI) Regarding the Planned Biotechnology Development Module (BDM) As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Request for Information (RFI) Regarding the Planned Biotechnology Development Module (BDM) As Part... for the planned Biotechnology Development Module (BDM) a planned component of the National Bio...

  4. Engaging the learner: Embedding information literacy skills into a biotechnology degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Helena; Hockey, Julie

    2007-09-01

    One of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of change and that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out of date in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the relevant information for their studies and critically evaluate the vast volume of information and its sources. By developing information literacy skills, which are part of lifelong learning, Biotechnology graduates are better prepared for their careers. Students also need to understand the issues related to the use of information such as social, political, ethical, and legal implications. This paper will outline the embedding of information literacy skills within the Biotechnology degree at the University of South Australia. Examples of specific activities and their link to assessment will be discussed.

  5. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Overview, Reauthorization, and Appropriations Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    2011, Cientifica also concluded that the United States had fallen behind both Russia and China in nanotechnology R&D funding on a purchasing power...especially in combination with information technology, biotechnology , and the cognitive sciences, may deliver revolutionary advances, including... Biotechnology , Vol. 1, No. 3, Fall 2005, http://www.nsf.gov/crssprgm/nano/ reports/mcr_ind_biotech_interview.pdf. 23 Fifteen agencies received funding in

  6. Tiered guidance for risk-informed environmental health and safety testing of nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Zachary A.; Kennedy, Alan J., E-mail: alan.j.kennedy@usace.army.mil; Poda, Aimee R.; Cuddy, Michael F.; Moser, Robert D. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (United States); MacCuspie, Robert I. [Florida Polytechnic University (United States); Harmon, Ashley; Plourde, Kenton [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (United States); Haines, Christopher D. [US Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (United States); Steevens, Jeffery A. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Provided the rapid emergence of novel technologies containing engineered nanomaterials, there is a need to better understand the potential environmental, health, and safety effects of nanotechnologies before wide-scale deployment. However, the unique properties of nanomaterials and uncertainty regarding applicable test methods have led to a lack of consensus regarding the collection and evaluation of data related to hazard and exposure potentials. Often, overly conservative approaches to characterization and data collection result in prolonged, unfocused, or irrelevant testing, which increases costs and delays deployment. In this paper, we provide a novel testing guidance framework for determining whether a nanotechnology has the potential to release material with nano-specific parameters that pose a risk to humans or the environment. The framework considers methods to categorize nanotechnologies by their structure and within their relevant-use scenarios to inform testing in a time- and resource-limited reality. Based on the precedent of dredged sediment testing, a five-tiered approach is proposed in which opportunities are presented to conclude testing once sufficient risk-related information has been collected, or that the technology in question does not require nano-specific scrutiny. A series of screening stages are suggested, covering relevant aspects including size, surface area, distribution, unique behaviors, and release potential. The tiered, adaptive guidance approach allows users to concentrate on collecting the most relevant data, thus accelerating technology deployment while minimizing risk.

  7. US-Korea Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, and Information Technology (NBIT) Symbiosys Program - Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Bulk Alloys", Kibum Kang, The 9th Asia - Pacific Microscopy Conference (Jeju, Korea, Nov 06 2008) 20) "Unconventional roles of catalysts in chemical...get separations as predicted by eq 3. Allergies are caused by a hypersensitive reaction between allergens and aller- gen-specific IgE antibodies...Allergen-specific IgE can be found in the serum of the allergy patient, but its concen- tration is very low, and therefore highly sensitive detec- tion of

  8. Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    Evidence from Increased Plant Biomass, Fruit Yield and Phytomedicine Content in Bitter Melon,” BMC Biotechnology , PubMed, April 26, 2013, http...contrast to many previous emerging technologies—such as semiconductors, satellites, software, and biotechnology —the U.S. lead is narrower, and the...approximately $67.5 billion. Cientifica also concluded that the United States had fallen behind both Russia and China in nanotechnology R&D funding on a

  9. Nanotechnology researchers' collaboration relationships: a gender analysis of access to scientific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Woolley, Richard; Cañibano, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, particularly at higher levels of organizations. This article investigates the impact of this underrepresentation on the processes of interpersonal collaboration in nanotechnology. Analyses are conducted to assess: (I) the comparative tie strength of women's and men's collaborations, (2) whether women and men gain equal access to scientific information through collaborators, (3) which tie characteristics are associated with access to information for women and men, and (4) whether women and men acquire equivalent amounts of information by strengthening ties. Our results show that the overall tie strength is less for women's collaborations and that women acquire less strategic information through collaborators. Women and men rely on different tie characteristics in accessing information, but are equally effective in acquiring additional information resources by strengthening ties. This article demonstrates that the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics has an impact on the interpersonal processes of scientific collaboration, to the disadvantage of women scientists.

  10. Social and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    Nanotechnology will have very broad applications across all fields of engineering, so it will be an amplifier of the social effects of other technologies. There is an especially great potential for it to combine with three other powerful trends - biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science - based on the material unity of nature at the nanoscale and on technology integration from that scale. Technological convergence highlights such existing issues as the treatment of the disabled, communication breakdowns, economic stagnation, and threats to national security. Nanotechnology itself may possibly raise distinctive ethical and social issues in the future, but much of the public discussion to this point has been misdirected and misinformed, lacking a firm social scientific basis. Thus it will be important to integrate social and ethical studies into nanotechnology developments from their very beginning.

  11. Agricultural Science Teachers' Barriers, Roles, and Information Source Preferences for Teaching Biotechnology Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Diana L.; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine barriers, roles, and information source preferences for teaching agricultural biotechnology topics. Agricultural science teachers were described primarily as 37 year-old males who had taught for 12 years, had bachelor's degrees, and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. Equipment was perceived as the…

  12. Patent information retrieval: approaching a method and analysing nanotechnology patent collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Sercan; Islam, Nazrul

    2017-01-01

    Many challenges still remain in the processing of explicit technological knowledge documents such as patents. Given the limitations and drawbacks of the existing approaches, this research sets out to develop an improved method for searching patent databases and extracting patent information to increase the efficiency and reliability of nanotechnology patent information retrieval process and to empirically analyse patent collaboration. A tech-mining method was applied and the subsequent analysis was performed using Thomson data analyser software. The findings show that nations such as Korea and Japan are highly collaborative in sharing technological knowledge across academic and corporate organisations within their national boundaries, and China presents, in some cases, a great illustration of effective patent collaboration and co-inventorship. This study also analyses key patent strengths by country, organisation and technology.

  13. Informing, involving or engaging? Science communication, in the ages of atom-, bio- and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Monika; Gisler, Priska

    2009-09-01

    Science communication has shifted considerably in Europe over the last decades. Three technology controversies on atoms, genes, and nanoscale sciences and nanotechnologies (NST) turned the style of communication from one-way information, participation and dialogues to the idea of an early and more democratic engagement of the public. Analyzing science communication developing over the three controversies, this article shows that what happened in one technology field fed forward to and contributed to shaping the subsequent field and that communication was initiated at a progressively earlier stage of technology development. The article concludes with an empirical analysis of six public engagement projects in NST, saying that the shift towards more democratic engagement of the public hasn't been as profound and complete as has been thought. This is particularly due to the continuing adoption of a simplistic contrast structure that opposes science and the public as two self-contained, antagonistic social entities.

  14. Nanosciences and nanotechnology evolution or revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Lahmani, Marcel; Dupas-Haeberlin, Claire; Hesto, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    This book provides information to the state of art of research in nanotechnology and nano medicine and risks of nano technology. It covers an interdisciplinary and very wide scope of the latest fundamental research status and industrial applications of nano technologies ranging from nano physics, nano chemistry to biotechnology and toxicology. It provides information to last legislation of nano usage and potential social impact too. The book contains also a reference list of major European research centers and associated universities offering licences and master of nano matter. For clarity and attractivity, the book has many illustrations and specific inserts to complete the understanding of the scientific texts.

  15. Improving Technology Perception through Information and Education: A case of Biotechnology in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbenga Emmanuel Adekoya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in two states in Nigeria (Edo and Delta as part of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Activities in the Niger Delta area of the south-western agro-ecological zone part of Nigeria. A workshop was organized for the sole purpose of presenting information on biotechnology as a discipline and as a necessary technology that can be safely adopted by even peasant farmers. Several areas of biotechnology such as biosafety,ethics, environmental and health safety where the audience can participate and explore were presented by speakers. Ninety-five participants at the workshop formed the respondents for the study and a questionnaire was designed to elicit information on the participants’ awareness, knowledge, perception and attitude about biotechnology and its products, before and after the workshop. The results showed that the age of the respondents ranged from 19 to 56 years with a mean of 41 years. Results also showed that all the participants, apart from 14.8 percent, had educational qualification higher than secondary school. Majority (63 percent were civil servants including 30 percent from Ministry of Agriculture and 33 percent from Agricultural Research Institutes, 24 percent from the academia and others from private organisations. Through workshop as an education method, there was change in perception after training. Before the workshop 67.4 percent of the respondents said they would eat food made from genetically engineered crops however, at the end of the workshop 80 percent of the same group of respondents indicated they will eat food made from genetically engineered crops. Using a paired sample t-test statistics, the test of difference on disposition before and after the workshop gave a t-value of 4.569 which was significant at 0.05 level. The study concludes that information dissemination through training method such as workshop has contributed to change in perception of biotechnology in Nigeria.

  16. Improving Technology Perception through Information and Education: A case of Biotechnology in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbenga Emmanuel ADEKOYA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in two states in Nigeria (Edo and Delta as part of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Activities in the Niger Delta area of the south-western agro-ecological zone part of Nigeria. A workshop was organized for the sole purpose of presenting information on biotechnology as a discipline and as a necessary technology that can be safely adopted by even peasant farmers. Several areas of biotechnology such as biosafety,ethics, environmental and health safety where the audience can participate and explore were presented by speakers. Ninety-five participants at the workshop formed the respondents for the study and a questionnaire was designed to elicit information on the participants’ awareness, knowledge, perception and attitude about biotechnology and its products, before and after the workshop. The results showed that the age of the respondents ranged from 19 to 56 years with a mean of 41 years. Results also showed that all the participants, apart from 14.8 percent, had educational qualification higher than secondary school. Majority (63 percent were civil servants including 30 percent from Ministry ofAgriculture and 33 percent from Agricultural Research Institutes, 24 percent from the academia and others from private organisations. Through workshop as an education method, there was change in perception after training. Before the workshop 67.4 percent of the respondents said they would eat food made from genetically engineered crops however, at the end of the workshop 80 percent of the same group of respondents indicated they will eat food made from genetically engineered crops. Using a paired sample t-test statistics, the test of difference on disposition before and after the workshop gave a t-value of 4.569 which was significant at 0.05 level. The study concludes that information dissemination through training method such as workshop has contributed to change in perception of biotechnology in Nigeria.

  17. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-01-01

    Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can del...

  18. Frontiers in transport phenomena research and education: Energy systems, biological systems, security, information technology and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)

  19. What drives public acceptance of nanotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currall, Steven C.; King, Eden B.; Lane, Neal; Madera, Juan; Turner, Stacey

    2006-12-01

    How do the risks and benefits of nanotechnology, as viewed by the public, compare with those associated with other technologies such as genetically modified organisms, stem cells, biotechnology and nuclear power? And when deciding to use a specific nanotechnology product, will consumers consider the risks, the benefits, or both? We report the first large-scale empirical analyses of these questions.

  20. Nanoscience and nanotechnology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolles, William A.

    1994-12-01

    The subject of nanoscience and/or nanotechnology is of considerable interest as a rapidly expanding frontier of research. This report documents information gathered at 44 laboratories in Europe by the author over a six month period. Research activities in physics, electronics, materials, chemistry, and biotechnology are included. Fundamental advances in fabrication, characterization, and utilization of nanostructures are presented. Areas of greatest interest include nanostructures for electronic and optical materials and devices, sensors, and other applications envisioned. Research programs covered include lithography, materials, self-assembly, local probes, transport properties, quantum dots and wires, surface film behavior, some magnetic and optical behavior, including nonlinear spectroscopy, high frequency device behavior, and mechanical measurements at nanodimensions. A short description of the environment at each laboratory visited is included.

  1. Nanotechnology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is rapidly affecting all engineering disciplines as new products and applications are being found and brought to market. This session will present an overview of nanotechnology and let you learn about the advances in the field and how it could impact you. Some of the areas touched upon will be nanomaterials with their multifunctional capabilities, nanotechnology impact on energy systems, nanobiotechnology including nanomedicine, and nanotechnology relevant to space systems with a focus on ECLSS. Also, some important advances related to thermal systems will be presented as well as future predictions on nanotechnology.

  2. Nanotechnology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is rapidly affecting all engineering disciplines as new products and applications are being found and brought to market. This session will present an overview of nanotechnology and let you learn about the advances in the field and how it could impact you. Some of the areas touched upon will be nanomaterials with their multifunctional capabilities, nanotechnology impact on energy systems, nanobiotechnology including nanomedicine, and nanotechnology relevant to space systems with a focus on ECLSS. Also, some important advances related to thermal systems will be presented as well as future predictions on nanotechnology.

  3. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    within the THz spectral region providing an additional benefit. His review describes the principle, characteristics, and applications of terahertz molecular imaging, where the use of nanoparticle probes allows dramatically enhanced sensitivity. Jiaguang Han and Weili Zhang and colleagues in China, Saudi Arabia, Japan and the US report exciting developments for optoelectronics [11]. They describe work on plasmon-induced transparency (PIT), an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) where interference leads to a sharp transparency window that may be useful for nonlinear and slow-light devices, optical switching, pulse delay, and storage for optical information processing. While PIT has advantages over the cumbersome experimental systems required for EIT, it has so far been constrained to very narrow band operation. Now Zhang and colleagues present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz in the terahertz regime. 'We can foresee a historic breakthrough for science and technology through terahertz research,' concluded Masayoshi Tonouchi in his review over five years ago as momentum in the field was mounting [12]. He added, 'It is also noteworthy that THz research is built on many areas of science and the coordination of a range of disciplines is giving birth to a new science.' With the inherently multidisciplinary nature of nanotechnology research it is not so strange to see the marriage of the two fields form such a fruitful partnership, as this special section highlights. References [1] Williams B S, Kumar S, Hu Q and Reno J L 2006 High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers Electron. Lett. 42 89-91 [2] Köhler R et al 2002 Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser Nature 417 156-9 [3] Mittendorff M, Xu M, Dietz R J B, K¨unzel H, Sartorius B, Schneider H, Helm M and Winnerl S 2013 Large area photoconductive THz emitter for 1.55 μm excitation based on

  4. Attitudes to biotechnology: estimating the opinions of a better-informed public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Cooper, Helen; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2005-04-01

    Public familiarity with basic scientific concepts and principles has been proposed as essential for effective democratic decision-making (Miller, 1998). Empirical research, however, finds that public 'scientific literacy' is generally low, falling well short of what normative criteria would consider 'acceptable.' This has prompted calls to better engage, educate and inform the public on scientific matters, with the additional, usually implicit assumption that a knowledgeable citizenry should express more supportive and favourable attitudes toward science. Research investigating the notion that 'to know science is to love it' has provided only weak empirical support and has itself been criticised for representing science and technology as a unified and homogenous entity. In practice, it is argued, how knowledge impacts on the favourability of attitudes will depend on a multiplicity of actors, not the least of which is the particular area of science in question and the technologies to which it gives rise (Evans & Durant, 1992). This article uses a new method for examining the knowledge-attitude nexus on a prominent area of 21st century science--biotechnology. The idea that greater scientific knowledge can engender change in the favourability of attitudes toward specific areas of science is investigated using data from the 2000 British Social Attitudes Survey and the 1999 Wellcome Consultative Panel on Gene Therapy. Together the surveys measure public opinion on particular applications of genetic technologies, including gene therapy and the use of genetic data, as well as more general attitudes towards genetic research. We focus our analysis on how two different measures of knowledge impact on these attitudes; one a more general measure of scientific knowledge, the other relating specifically to knowledge of modern genetic science. We investigate what impact these knowledge domains have on attitudes toward biotechnology using a regression-based modelling technique

  5. Strategic approaches to informing the public about biotechnology in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Reprint (PDF) The benefits of today's biotechnology products are not evident to consumers. The public will accept biotechnology only when individuals decide for themselves that biotec products will contribute to their personal well-being. To make such a decision, people will need greater awareness and understanding of how biotechnology will affect the environment, human health, local and national economies, and the well-being of society. A low level of awareness and understanding abo...

  6. Food nanotechnology - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-05-04

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.

  7. Nanotechnology for telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Anwar, Sohail; Qazi, Salahuddin; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    With its unique promise to revolutionize science, engineering, technology, and other fields, nanotechnology continues to profoundly impact associated materials, components, and systems, particularly those used in telecommunications. These developments are leading to easier convergence of related technologies, massive storage data, compact storage devices, and higher-performance computing. Nanotechnology for Telecommunications presents vital technical scientific information to help readers grasp issues and challenges associated with nanoscale telecommunication system development and commerciali

  8. Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Scientific, Economic and Political Realia of the New Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state and problems of nanotechnology development in the Russian Federation in modern economic, political and scientific conditions are presented. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials have already been used in all developed countries of the world in the most significant areas of human activity industry, defense, information sphere, radio electronics, energy drinks, transport, biotechnology, medicine. The Government of the Russian Federation formulated the main objectives of scientific and economic community for the development of nanotechnologies in the conditions of the demanded import substitution. In the developed countries the comprehension of the key role of nanotechnologies led to the elaboration of large-scale programs for their development on the basis of state support. Similar programs are adopted more than in thirty countries around the world, including the Russian Federation. The author of the present article studies the current state of nanotech industry in Russia and classifies nanotechnologies according to the intrinsic principle. As a result, four main directions in the field of nanotechnologies are allocated: 1 nanomaterials; 2 photonics, spintronics, nanoelectronics (devices based on the nanoprinciples; 3 nanometrology, nanomanipulators and modeling; 4 nanosensors and nanodetectors. Some perspective scientific and technological projects of nanotech industry development in Russia are also considered. The author points to economic, social, ecological, and scientific and technical opportunities of nanotechnologies development in Russia, as well as their threats.

  9. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  10. An Analysis of the Function and of CAS In National Nanotechnology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zilong; MENG Wei; LIU Peihua

    2005-01-01

    @@ NBIC, namely nanoscience & nano-technology, biotechnology & biomedicine (including genetic engineering), information technology (including computing and communications) and cognitive science (including cognitive neuroscience) are universally regarded as four R&D disciplines to critically influence human life in the near future. Providing technological groundwork for the latter three's healthy development, nanoscience and related technologies now become the most active S&T frontiers in the world today.

  11. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  13. Nanotechnology, risk, and oversight: learning lessons from related emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Priest, Susanna

    2010-11-01

    Emerging technologies are defined by their novelty and thus are accompanied by significant uncertainty in determining appropriate ways to manage risks associated with them. Yet, there is a body of prior knowledge about risk management and oversight policy for other technologies that have already permeated society. Here, we describe two ways in which prospective oversight policy analysis for emerging technologies can draw upon these past experiences. One involves comparing specific products that have already been marketed to similar products of the emerging technology (cognate-product approach). The other treats the emerging technology as a body of products and methods and relates it to another technological field that has already emerged and penetrated markets (whole-technology approach). In this article, we describe our work using these approaches to inform risk and oversight policy for nanotechnology and its products. We draw parallels between biotechnology and nanotechnology as whole fields of development and also between genetically engineered organisms in the food supply and agricultural products of nanotechnology. Through these comparisons, we find that both approaches to historical learning have value and present lessons that could be applied to nanotechnology. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Precision and Recall of Five Search Engines for Retrieval of Scholarly Information in the Field of Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq A. Rather

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research conducted about five search engines- AltaVista, Google, HotBot, Scirus and Bioweb -for retrieving scholarly information using Biotechnology related search terms. The search engines are evaluated taking the first ten results pertaining to 'scholarly information' for estimation of precision and recall. It shows that Scirus is most comprehensive in retrieving 'scholarly information' followed by Google and HotBot. It also reveals that the search engines (except Bioweb perform well on structured queries while Bioweb performs better on unstructured queries.

  15. Neuroscience and nanotechnologies in Japan--beyond the hope and hype of converging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushiaki, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnologies are often said to be "converging" with other technologies like biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science. And so-called "NBIC convergence" is thought to enable "enhancement" of human performance. First, I classify various kinds of enhancement. Second, I focus on the "cybernetic enhancement," to which nanotechnologies are supposed to contribute, and analyze the connection and integration of humans with machines, which could lead to the cyborgization of human beings. Third, I examine the portrayal of robot/cyborg technology in Japanese popular media, point out the tendency to empathy or ensoulment concerning robots/cyborgs, and raise the question of "ethical issues of ethical enhancement." Fourth, I compare nanotechnologies with neurotechnology and criticize the hype of "converging technologies."

  16. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  17. Nanotechnology in the Security

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The topics discussed at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Nanotechnology in the Security Systems" included nanophysics,   nanotechnology,  nanomaterials, sensors, biosensors security systems, explosive  detection . There have been many significant advances in the past two years and some entirely new directions of research are just opening up. Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena  are found when systems are reduced in size with  dimensions, comparable to the fundamental microscopic  length scales of the investigated material. Recent developments in nanotechnology and measurement techniques now allow experimental investigation of transport properties of nanodevices. This work will be of interest to researchers working in spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing.

  18. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  19. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  20. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  1. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  2. Cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdale Swati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer nanotechnology is the latest trend in cancer therapy. It helps the pharmacist to formulate the product with maximum therapeutic value and minimum or negligible range side effects. Cancer is the disease in which the abnormal cells are quite similar to the normal cell with just minute functional or genetic change. Thus, it is very hard to target the abnormal cells by the conventional method of the drug delivery system. Nanotechnology is probably the only method that can be used for site-specific action without causing the side effects by killing the normal cells. This review article describes the possible way to exploit the nanotechnology to targeted drug therapy in cancer. The various methods used are: systemic delivery systems, passive targeting, active targeting, intracellular delivery, subcellular localization, and nanoparticle drugs. Different cancer detection techniques like carbon nanotubes, nanorods, and biosensors are also available. This review article gives an idea about the possible potential of nanotechnology in drug delivery, drug targeting, and the diagnosis of cancer.

  3. Corporate intelligence in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidis

    1999-05-01

    'Know thy neighbor' is a critical component of today's biotechnology practice. The industry is extremely rich in science and business information, and the pace of change is dramatic. Successful participation in biotechnology will always depend on good technology, management and money. In addition, an ingredient that needs more attention is competitive information- gathering and analysis. Competitive intelligence can be defined as actionable information that requires the ability to filter and synthesize relevant knowledge for the benefit of the company. Why is this necessary? How can it be done well? What examples are there? These are good questions that are inevitably faced by all biotechnology practitioners, and some answers are provided herein.

  4. Biotechnology 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This book first reveals prospect on biotechnology with low-carbon green growth Next, it consists of four chapters, which deal with vision of biotechnology, trend of biotechnology in main countries like the U.S, Eu, Japan and China, current condition for biotechnology with support and promoting policy such as health and medical treatment and maritime and fisheries, major product on investment, human power, paper and pattern, research development such as genomic, system biology, bio new medicine, agriculture, stock breeding and food, biological resources and legal system related biotechnology.

  5. Cancer Nanotechnology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Nanotechnology Plan serves as a strategic document to the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer as well as a guiding document to the cancer nanotechnology and oncology fields, as a whole.

  6. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-01-01

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packag...

  7. NANOTR9: 9th Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The conference series NanoTR is the major conference on nanoscience and nanotechnology in Turkey. It brings together leading scientists and engineers in nanotechnology to exchange information on their latest research progress. An exhibition of the companies working in the related field is also organized as a part of the event. With intensive international participation, NanoTR conference series has spread outside the national border and has become an international event in this field. Among international contributions, a wide interest from the countries around Turkey should be emphasized. 9th in the series was organized by Atatürk University in Erzurum-Turkey on June 24-28, 2013 with more than 900 scientists, researchers, private sector representatives from around the world. Conference program included 6 plenary speakers, 35 invited speakers (18 of them were from outside the country), 116 oral presentations, and 340 poster presentations. In addition to 6 plenary sessions, 17 oral and 4 poster sessions created very lively discussion forums covering a vast range of current and emerging sciences from nano-materials, nanoscience, nanofabrication, nano-engineering, nano-electronics, nano-biotechnology, to ethical and social issues of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Also, panel discussions about industrial applications, tutorial sessions have been organized for students, new-comers and company employees.

  8. EDITORIAL: Standard Materials and Metrology for Nanotechnology (SMAM-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Shingo; Kurosawa, Tomizo; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Nonaka, Hidehiko

    2007-09-01

    This issue of Measurement Science and Technology (MST) contains three papers presented at the second international symposium on Standard Materials and Metrology for Nanotechnology (SMAM-2), held in the Akihabara Convention Hall in Tokyo, Japan, on 25 and 26 May 2006. The SMAM symposium aims to emphasize the importance of standard materials and metrology (SM/M) for the development of nanotechnology, which is expected to be the most promising driving force for the development of advanced industrial science/technology in various fields. New fabrication processes based on nanotechnology will become really powerful when the processes are reproducible and reliable. The SM/M that have been developed for use in nano-scale characterization are therefore the key tools for the establishment of reliability in the areas of information, environment and biotechnology, where the application of nanotechnology is essential for their development. The symposium had four sessions featuring the most important issues in the field of SM/M: (I) Nanotechnology Standardization, (II) SM/M for Nano-particles and Nano-pores, (III) SM/M for Nanostructure Evaluation, (IV) SM/M for Thin-film Characterization. A total of 29 papers had been submitted to the SMAM-2 Publishing Committee and six papers were tentatively selected by the committee to forward to the MST editors for publication in this journal. The three papers published in this issue are epoch-making in that they present new methods and knowledge for the standard materials and metrology especially developed for nanotechnology. We hope the papers will show readers how important standard materials and metrology are for the development of nanotechnology. We appreciate very much the important contribution of those who refereed the manuscripts and we particularly want to thank the MST staff for helping in publishing this special feature. Finally we expect SMAM-3 to be held two years after SMAM-2 and we hope to attract many more participants and

  9. Patent activity in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina, Streltsova

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnologies are a priority area of development due to the scope of global challenges and social problems they help to resolve. There is demand for updated information about the the current state of research and challenges faced. This paper discusses the potential of patent analysis and surveys the Russian biotechnological market with both quantitative and qualitative methods. It reviews key statistical and analytical findings of empirical research. The main finding is that the Russian bio...

  10. The information highways of a biotechnological workhorse – signal transduction in Hypocrea jecorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoll Monika

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei is one of the most prolific producers of biomass-degrading enzymes and frequently termed an industrial workhorse. To compete for nutrients in its habitat despite its shortcoming in certain degradative enzymes, efficient perception and interpretation of environmental signals is indispensable. A better understanding of these signals as well as their transmission machinery can provide sources for improvement of biotechnological processes. Results The genome of H. jecorina was analysed for the presence and composition of common signal transduction pathways including heterotrimeric G-protein cascades, cAMP signaling, mitogen activated protein kinases, two component phosphorelay systems, proteins involved in circadian rhythmicity and light response, calcium signaling and the superfamily of Ras small GTPases. The results of this survey are discussed in the context of current knowledge in order to assess putative functions as well as potential impact of alterations of the respective pathways. Conclusion Important findings include an additional, bacterial type phospholipase C protein and an additional 6-4 photolyase. Moreover the presence of 4 RGS-(Regulator of G-protein Signaling proteins and 3 GprK-type G-protein coupled receptors comprising an RGS-domain suggest a more complex posttranslational regulation of G-protein signaling than in other ascomycetes. Also the finding, that H. jecorina, unlike yeast possesses class I phosducins which are involved in phototransduction in mammals warrants further investigation. An alteration in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity may be deduced from the extension of both the class I and II of casein kinases, homologues of which are implicated in phosphorylation of FRQ in Neurospora crassa. On the other hand, a shortage in the number of the pathogenicity related PTH11-type G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs as well as a lack of

  11. The effect of nanotechnology on education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyavejakul, Chantana

    2008-04-01

    The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The findings revealed that: 1. William Wresch's Theory (1997) was used in this research to study of the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology. 1) Getting connected to nanotechnology by search engine websites, libraries, magazines, books, and discussions with experts. 2) Curriculum integration: nanotechnology should be integrated in many branches of engineering, such as industrial, computer, civil, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. 3) Resources for educators: nanotechnology knowledge should be spread in academic circles by publications and the Internet websites. 4) Training and professional resources for teachers: Teachers should be trained by experts in nanotechnology and researchers from the National Nanotechnology Center. This will help trainees get correct knowledge, comprehension, and awareness in order to apply to their professions and businesses in the future. 2. As for the plans, the strategies, and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the present system, I analyzed the world nanotechnology situation that might have an effect on Thai society. The study is based on the National Plan to Develop Nanotechnology. The goal of this plan is to develop nanotechnology to be the national strategy within 10 years (2004-2013) and have it integrated into the Thai system. There are 4 parts in this plan: 1) nanomaterials, 2) nanoelectronics, 3) nanobiotechnology, and 4) human resources development. Data for human resource development should be worked with the present technology and use the country's resources to produce many

  12. Monitoring nanotechnology using patent classifications: an overview and comparison of nanotechnology classification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Björn; Herrero-Solana, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Patents are an essential information source used to monitor, track, and analyze nanotechnology. When it comes to search nanotechnology-related patents, a keyword search is often incomplete and struggles to cover such an interdisciplinary discipline. Patent classification schemes can reveal far better results since they are assigned by experts who classify the patent documents according to their technology. In this paper, we present the most important classifications to search nanotechnology patents and analyze how nanotechnology is covered in the main patent classification systems used in search systems nowadays: the International Patent Classification (IPC), the United States Patent Classification (USPC), and the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). We conclude that nanotechnology has a significantly better patent coverage in the CPC since considerable more nanotechnology documents were retrieved than by using other classifications, and thus, recommend its use for all professionals involved in nanotechnology patent searches.

  13. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    across the channel. The aim of achieving selectivity encompasses a huge range of fields in nanotechnology research, from sensing and medicine to nanoelectronics and self-assembly. As our understanding of how nanosystems behave deepens, so too does the hunger to improve our capabilities, allowing greater precision and control in manipulating these systems. Selectivity is far from trivial when shrinking to systems of nanoscale dimensions, but the range of opportunities it brings just keeps on growing. References [1] Gong X, Li J, Guo C, Xu K and Hui Y 2012 Molecular switch for tuning ions across nanopores by an external electric field Nanotechnology 24 025502 [2] Brannon-Peppas L and Blanchette J O 2004 Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 56 1649-59 [3] Lukianova-Hleb E Y, Hanna E Y, Hafner J H and Lapotko D O 2010 Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics Nanotechnology 21 085102 [4] Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V and Deshusses M A 2008 Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors Nanotechnology 19 332001 [5] Mangu R, Rajaputra S and Singh V P 2011 MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors Nanotechnology 22 215502 [6]Meller A, Nivon L, Brandin E, Golovchenko J and Branton D 2000 Rapid nanopore discrimination between single polynucleotide molecules Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 97 1079-84 [7] Asghar W, Ilyas A, Deshmukh R R, Sumitsawan S, Timmons R B and Iqbal S M 2011 Pulsed plasma polymerization for controlling shrinkage and surface composition of nanopores Nanotechnology 22 285304

  14. Green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  15. Nanotechnologies, technologies converging and potential biomedical applications; Nanotecnologie, convergenze tecnologiche e potenziali applicazioni biomediche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, Vincenzo [ENEA, Roma (Italy). UTS biotecnologie, protezione della salute e degli ecosistemi

    2005-07-15

    The applications of nanotechnology to biology and medicine appear really promising far diagnostics, for various therapeutic approaches and in medical instrumentations. The growing synergism among nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences, their convergence (NBIC) from the nano scale, could involve on next decades great changes in medicine, from a reactive to a predictive and preventive approach. It is expected that NBIC converging technologies could achieve tremendous improvements in human abilities and enhance societal achievements. It appears therefore necessary a careful assessment of related social and ethical implications, in the framework of a constant dialogue between science and society. [Italian] La convergenza fra nanotecnologie, biotecnologia e tecnologia della conoscenza potrebbe portare un incremento delle prestazioni della macchina umana. AI di la di una attenta valutazione degli aspetti etici, tutto cio potrebbe comportare anche un notevole impatto sull'economia e sulla societa.

  16. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Archana; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Misuriya, Abhinav; Maroli, Sohani; Manjula, S; Singh, Arvind Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic levels. It has the potential to bring enormous changes into the fields of medicine and dentistry. A day may soon come when nanodentistry will succeed in maintaining near-perfect oral health through the aid of nanorobotics, nanomaterials and biotechnology. However, as with all developments, it may also pose a risk for misuse. Time, economical and technical resources, and human needs will determine the direction this revolutionizing development may take. This article reviews the current status and the potential clinical applications of nanotechnology, nanaomedicine and nanodentistry. How to cite the article: Bhardwaj A, Bhardwaj A, Misuriya A, Maroli S, Manjula S, Singh AK. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future. J Int Oral Health 2013;6(1):121-6.

  17. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  18. New Directions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  19. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    O nanowires generate a piezoelectric signal that acts as both the power source and the gas sensing information as a result of the different screening effects different gases present on the piezoelectric charges. As they explain 'Our results can provoke a possible new direction for the development of next-generation gas sensors and will further expand the scope of self-powered nanosystems'. Over 50 years ago C P Snow delivered and subsequently published a lecture entitled 'The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution'. In it he lamented a gaping fissure separating the sciences and the humanities to the ultimate detriment of civilization and progress. The increasingly specialized activities in academia may suggest that if anything the gulf separating the two cultures may yet be increasing. It may seem that not only do 'natural scientists' speak a different language from 'literary intellectuals' but that biologists speak a different language from physicists, and so on down the increasingly fine dichotomies of academic endeavour. One of the exciting accompaniments to the rise in nanotechnology research has been a certain amount of liberation from these academic segregations. The breadth of fascinating properties found in a single system beg a strongly multidisciplinary approach and has attracted conversations not only between different sectors within the sciences, but with art as well [12]. The resulting cross-fertilisation between disciplines has already yielded an awesome cornucopia of multitasking devices, and no doubt the best is yet to come. References [1] Xue X, Nie Y, He B, Xing L, Zhang Y and Wang Z L 2013 Surface free-carrier screening effect on the output of ZnO nanowire nanogenerator and its potential as self-powered active gas sensors Nanotechnology 24 225501 [2] Torchilin V P 2006 Multifunctional nanocarriers Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58 1532-55 [3] Weissleder R, Lee A S, Khaw B A, Shen T and Brady T J 1992 Antimyosin-labeled monocrystalline iron oxide allows detection

  20. Attitudes to biotechnology: estimating the opinions of a better-informed public

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Public familiarity with basic scientific concepts and principles has been proposed as essential for effective democratic decision-making ( Miller, 1998). Empirical research, however, finds that public 'scientific literacy' is generally low, falling well short of what normative criteria would consider 'acceptable'. This has prompted calls to better engage, educate and inform the public on scientific matters, with the additional, usually implicit assumption that a knowledgeable citizenry should...

  1. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  2. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  3. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forloni, Gianluigi, E-mail: forloni@marionegri.it [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ' Mario Negri' , Department of Neuroscience (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity's well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed

  4. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity's well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed approach to

  5. Virus variation resources at the National Center for Biotechnology Information: dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanov Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of complete and incomplete virus genome sequences available in public databases. This large body of sequence data harbors information about epidemiology, phylogeny, and virulence. Several specialized databases, such as the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource or the Los Alamos HIV database, offer sophisticated query interfaces along with integrated exploratory data analysis tools for individual virus species to facilitate extracting this information. Thus far, there has not been a comprehensive database for dengue virus, a significant public health threat. Results We have created an integrated web resource for dengue virus. The technology developed for the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource has been extended to process non-segmented dengue virus genomes. In order to allow efficient processing of the dengue genome, which is large in comparison with individual influenza segments, we developed an offline pre-alignment procedure which generates a multiple sequence alignment of all dengue sequences. The pre-calculated alignment is then used to rapidly create alignments of sequence subsets in response to user queries. This improvement in technology will also facilitate the incorporation of additional virus species in the future. The set of virus-specific databases at NCBI, which will be referred to as Virus Variation Resources (VVR, allow users to build complex queries against virus-specific databases and then apply exploratory data analysis tools to the results. The metadata is automatically collected where possible, and extended with data extracted from the literature. Conclusion The NCBI Dengue Virus Resource integrates dengue sequence information with relevant metadata (sample collection time and location, disease severity, serotype, sequenced genome region and facilitates retrieval and preliminary analysis of dengue sequences using integrated web analysis and visualization tools.

  6. Lemons, or Squeezed for Resources? Information Symmetry and Asymmetric Resources in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Arthur; Oraiopoulos, Nektarios; Drakeman, Donald L

    2017-01-01

    Thousands of biotech companies are developing promising products, but have insufficient resources to complete the clinical testing process, while large, well-funded companies have increasingly focused on the need to access external innovation. As a result, licensing deals are an essential and growing part of this industry. Yet, casting a shadow over the licensing market is the classic Lemons Problem: Does asymmetrical information put licensees at a severe disadvantage, leading to a market dominated by inferior opportunities, with the best products retained for internal development? Our analysis of clinical stage products developed over three decades shows that there is no Lemons Problem. We discuss the results of this first apples-to-apples analysis of the biomedical licensing market, and suggest reasons why the Lemons Problem does not exist where it might be most expected-in a high technology, knowledge-based industry.

  7. Lemons, or Squeezed for Resources? Information Symmetry and Asymmetric Resources in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Neuberger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of biotech companies are developing promising products, but have insufficient resources to complete the clinical testing process, while large, well-funded companies have increasingly focused on the need to access external innovation. As a result, licensing deals are an essential and growing part of this industry. Yet, casting a shadow over the licensing market is the classic Lemons Problem: Does asymmetrical information put licensees at a severe disadvantage, leading to a market dominated by inferior opportunities, with the best products retained for internal development? Our analysis of clinical stage products developed over three decades shows that there is no Lemons Problem. We discuss the results of this first apples-to-apples analysis of the biomedical licensing market, and suggest reasons why the Lemons Problem does not exist where it might be most expected—in a high technology, knowledge-based industry.

  8. [Biotechnology's macroeconomic impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones Tacero, Milagros; Pérez García, Julián; San Román, Antonio Pulido

    2008-12-01

    This paper tries to yield an economic valuation of biotechnological activities in terms of aggregated production and employment. This valuation goes beyond direct estimation and includes the indirect effects derived from sectorial linkages between biotechnological activities and the rest of economic system. To deal with the proposed target several sources of data have been used, including official data from National Statistical Office (INE) such us national accounts, input-output tables, and innovation surveys, as well as, firms' level balance sheets and income statements and also specific information about research projects compiled by Genoma Spain Foundation. Methodological approach is based on the estimation of a new input-output table which includes the biotechnological activities as a specific branch. This table offers both the direct impact of these activities and the main parameters to obtain the induced effects over the rest of the economic system. According to the most updated available figures, biotechnological activities would have directly generated almost 1,600 millions of euros in 2005, and they would be employed more than 9,000 workers. But if we take into account the full linkages with the rest of the system, the macroeconomic impact of Biotechnological activities would reach around 5,000 millions euros in production terms (0.6% of total GDP) and would be responsible, directly or indirectly, of more than 44,000 employments.

  9. The Formation of Data on Nanotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the statistical monitoring of the main trends of nanotechnology development in Russia, as well as the review of the modern programs and documents devoted to urgent issues of nanotechnology development. The formation of system of statistical monitoring of nanotechnologies development in the Russian Federation includes the development of methodology and tools of statistical supervision over creation, commercialization, the use of nanotechnologies, and also the nanotechnological production. The authors carry out the analysis of the main directions and structure of co-funding of “The Program of nanotech industry development in the Russian Federation till 2015”. The sources of official statistical data on nanotechnologies in Russia are considered. The purpose of forming this essentially new direction of statistics consists in the creation of system of collecting, processing and submission of the regular, systematized and complex data which are adequately reflecting the state, the level of development and the prospects of nanotechnological sphere capacity which provide informational support to state policy and adoption of reasonable administrative decisions. The authors describe the system of statistical observations in the sphere of nanotechnologies. Today the statistics of nanotechnologies in Russia remains at the stage of formation and modernization according to the international standards, being supplemented every year with the new indicators which allow investigating different sides and tendencies of nanotech industry development. Nowadays the following aspects of the activity connected with nanotechnologies have already being studied by means of statistical methods: scientific research and developments; creation and use of nanotechnologies; demand for staff; production, including the innovative one.

  10. Nanotechnology Risk Communication Past and Prologue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Ann; Löfstedt, Ragnar E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnologies operate at atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scales, at scales where matter behaves differently than at larger scales and quantum effects can dominate. Nanotechnologies have captured the imagination of science fiction writers as science, engineering, and industry have leapt to the challenge of harnessing them. Applications are proliferating. In contrast, despite recent progress the regulatory landscape is not yet coherent, and public awareness of nanotechnology remains low. This has led risk researchers and critics of current nanotechnology risk communication efforts to call for proactive strategies that do more than address facts, that include and go beyond the public participation stipulated by some government acts. A redoubling of nanotechnology risk communication efforts could enable consumer choice and informed public discourse about regulation and public investments in science and safety. PMID:21039707

  11. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  12. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  13. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information. W

  14. Image of Synthetic Biology and Nanotechnology: A Survey among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ineichen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the image of synthetic biology and nanotechnology in comparison to agricultural biotechnology and communication technology by examining spontaneous associations with, and deliberate evaluations of, these technologies by university students. Data were collected through a self-completion online questionnaire by students from two universities in Switzerland. The survey aimed to capture implicit associations, explicit harm-benefit evaluations and views on regulation. The data suggest overall positive associations with emerging technologies. While positive associations were most pronounced for nanotechnology, agricultural biotechnology was attributed with the least favorable associations. In contrast to its positive result in the association task, respondents attributed a high harm potential for nanotechnology. Associations attributed to synthetic biology were demonstrated to be more positive than for agricultural biotechnology, however, not as favorable as for nanotechnology. Contrary to the evaluations of nanotechnology, the benefit-examples of synthetic biology were evaluated particularly positively. Accordingly, the investigated technologies enjoy different esteem, with synthetic biology and nanotechnology both showing a more “exciting” image. Even though, the image of nanotechnology was demonstrated to be more pronounced it was also more heterogeneous across tasks while agricultural biotechnology remains contested. For all technologies, the predominant spontaneous concerns pertain to risks rather than an immoral nature inherent to these technologies. Our data suggest that harm-benefit analyses reveal only one aspect of the attitude toward emerging technologies. Survey questions addressing spontaneous associations with these technologies are a valuable addition for our picture of the image of emerging technologies.

  15. Nanoscience Nanotechnologies and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dupas, Claire; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanosciences are a fast-developing field of research, which sit at the point of convergence of several disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, mechanics, etc.). This practically-oriented overview is designed to provide students and researchers with essential information on both the tools of manufacture and specific features of the nanometric scale, as well as applications within the most active fields (electronics, magnetism, information storage, biology). Specific applications and techniques covered include nanolithography, STM and AFM, nanowires and supramolecules, molecular electronics, optronics, and simulation. Each section of the book devotes considerable space to industrial applications and prospective developments. The carefully edited contributions are written by reserach workers and unirveisty instructors who are experts in their own fields and full up-to-date with the latest developments. Their uniform and self-contained nature permit users to access the most relevant chapter...

  16. Advances in Silver Nanotechnology: An Update on Biomedical Applications and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shiva Gholizadeh-Ghaleh; Aziz, Sara Gholizadeh-Ghaleh; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2017-04-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most promising fields for producing new applications in nanotechnology, biotechnology, and medicine. However, only a few products have been used for nanotechnology, biotechnology, and medical purposes. Nanoparticles have been among the most usually applied nanomaterial in our health care system for hundreds of years. The most prominent nano product is nano silver which generally present at 1-100 nm in size in at least one dimension. Silver nanoparticles reveal remarkably unusual chemical, physical and biological properties and have been used for many different applications which detailed in this review. This review is focusing on the different form of silver nanoparticles and its nanotechnological, biotechnological and medical applications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Soft nanotechnology: "structure" vs. "function".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M; Lipomi, Darren J

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a perspective on "soft nanotechnology"; that is, the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the synthesis and properties of organic and organometallic nanostructures, and with nanofabrication using techniques in which soft components play key roles. It begins with a brief history of soft nanotechnology. This history has followed a path involving a gradual shift from the promise of revolutionary electronics, nanorobotics, and other futuristic concepts, to the realization of evolutionary improvements in the technology for current challenges in information technology, medicine, and sustainability. Soft nanoscience is an area that is occupied principally by chemists, and is in many ways indistinguishable from "nanochemistry". The paper identifies the natural tendency of its practitioners--exemplified by the speakers at this Faraday Discussion--to focus on synthesis and structure, rather than on function and application, of nanostructures. Soft nanotechnology has the potential to apply to a wide variety of large-scale applied (information technology, healthcare cost reduction, sustainability, energy) and fundamental (molecular biochemistry, cell biology, charge transport in organic matter) problems.

  18. Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims Bainbridge, William [National Science Foundation, Division of Information and Intelligent Systems (United States)], E-mail: wbainbri@nsf.gov

    2002-12-15

    Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space program, nuclear power, and cloning research, but rate it more favorably. In contrast, they do not associate nanotechnology with pseudoscience, despite its imaginative exploitation by science fiction writers. Qualitative analysis of written comments from 598 respondents indicates that many ideas about the value of nanotechnology have entered popular culture, and it provides material for an additional 108 questionnaire items that can be used in future surveys on the topic. The findings of this exploratory study can serve as benchmarks against which to compare results of future research on the evolving status of nanotechnology in society.

  19. Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William

    This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.

  20. Applications of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Chirilă

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanobiotechnology is a new field in research, constituting the interface between the life sciences and nanotechnology. In this field, the size of the working range is between 1 nm and 100 nm. This new domain it proposes the exploitation of quality biomolecules and processes involved in the development of materials or devices with definite activity in medicine. Therapeutic nanotechnology seeks to provide specific features that can reduce morbidity and mortality in humans and animals, of which the most important are: a minimal invasive therapy, high density functions and the concentration in very small volumes. The first origins of the concept of nano-medicine are from Feynman's, who had the visionary idea of the nanorobots and similar mechanisms that could be designed, constructed, and placed in the body to perform cellular repairs at the molecular level. With the priorities crystallization in the medicine domain of XX and especially of the XXI’s century, also nanomedicine gained the momentum. In this respect the review proposes to introduce the reader to this fascinating field. There are provided information about cancer’s nanotherapy, examples of systems, applications of DNA, magnetic separation and manipulation of cells and biomolecules, nanotechnology applications in tissue engineering and many more. Also there are presented applications of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and about nano-robots.

  1. Nanotechnology: Future of Oncotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharpure, Kshipra M; Wu, Sherry Y; Li, Chun; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have established its importance in several areas including medicine. The myriad of applications in oncology range from detection and diagnosis to drug delivery and treatment. Although nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention, the practical application of nanotechnology to clinical cancer care is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the role that nanotechnology has played in improving cancer therapy, its potential for affecting all aspects of cancer care, and the challenges that must be overcome to realize its full promise. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Nanotechnology Characterization Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  3. Nanotechnology and Global Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adrian M Ionescu

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper provides an introduction to nanotechnology as a strategic research and industry field, presents trends with key potential impact and examines related policy and security implications...

  4. Effectiveness of a cloning and sequencing exercise on student learning with subsequent publication in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joann M; Robinson, David L

    2009-01-01

    With rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology, instructors are challenged to not only provide undergraduate students with hands-on experiences in these disciplines but also to engage them in the "real-world" scientific process. Two common topics covered in biotechnology or molecular biology courses are gene-cloning and bioinformatics, but to provide students with a continuous laboratory-based research experience in these techniques is difficult. To meet these challenges, we have partnered with Bio-Rad Laboratories in the development of the "Cloning and Sequencing Explorer Series," which combines wet-lab experiences (e.g., DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, ligation, transformation, and restriction digestion) with bioinformatics analysis (e.g., evaluation of DNA sequence quality, sequence editing, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches, contig construction, intron identification, and six-frame translation) to produce a sequence publishable in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank. This 6- to 8-wk project-based exercise focuses on a pivotal gene of glycolysis (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), in which students isolate, sequence, and characterize the gene from a plant species or cultivar not yet published in GenBank. Student achievement was evaluated using pre-, mid-, and final-test assessments, as well as with a survey to assess student perceptions. Student confidence with basic laboratory techniques and knowledge of bioinformatics tools were significantly increased upon completion of this hands-on exercise.

  5. Origins of life: a route to nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, S J; Holm, N G; Petersen, G B

    2001-06-01

    The origins of life and nanotechnology are two seemingly disparate areas of scientific investigation. However, the fundamental questions of life's beginnings and the applied construction of a Drexlerian nanotechnology both share a similar problem; how did and how can self-reproducing molecular machines originate? Here we draw attention to the coincidence between nanotechnology and origins research with particular attention paid to the spontaneous adsorption and scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of purine and pyrimidine bases self-organized into monolayers, adsorbed to the surfaces of crystalline solids. These molecules which encode biological information in nucleic acids, can form supramolecular architectures exhibiting enantiomorphism with the complexity to store and encode putative protobiological information. We conclude that the application of nanotechnology to the investigation of life's origins, and vice versa, could provide a viable route to an evolution-driven synthetic life.

  6. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  7. The structure and infrastructure of the global nanotechnology literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostoff, Ronald N., E-mail: kostofr@onr.navy.mil; Stump, Jesse A. [Office of Naval Research (United States); Johnson, Dustin [Northrop Grumman TASC (United States); Murday, James S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6100 (United States); Lau, Clifford G.Y. [Institute for Defense Analyses (United States); Tolles, William M

    2006-08-15

    Text mining is the extraction of useful information from large volumes of text. A text mining analysis of the global open nanotechnology literature was performed. Records from the Science Citation Index (SCI)/Social SCI were analyzed to provide the infrastructure of the global nanotechnology literature (prolific authors/journals/institutions/countries, most cited authors/papers/journals) and the thematic structure (taxonomy) of the global nanotechnology literature, from a science perspective. Records from the Engineering Compendex (EC) were analyzed to provide a taxonomy from a technology perspective.The Far Eastern countries have expanded nanotechnology publication output dramatically in the past decade.The Peoples Republic of China ranks second to the USA (2004 results) in nanotechnology papers published in the SCI, and has increased its nanotechnology publication output by a factor of 21 in a decade.Of the six most prolific (publications) nanotechnology countries, the three from the Western group (USA, Germany, France) have about eight percent more nanotechnology publications (for 2004) than the three from the Far Eastern group (China, Japan, South Korea).While most of the high nanotechnology publication-producing countries are also high nanotechnology patent producers in the US Patent Office (as of 2003), China is a major exception. China ranks 20th as a nanotechnology patent-producing country in the US Patent Office.

  8. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  9. Nanotechnology at KT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"......The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"...

  10. The sounds of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norah; Deane, Cormac; Murphy, Padraig

    2017-07-01

    Public perceptions of nanotechnology are shaped by sound in surprising ways. Our analysis of the audiovisual techniques employed by nanotechnology stakeholders shows that well-chosen sounds can help to win public trust, create value and convey the weird reality of objects on the nanoscale.

  11. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  12. Green nanotechnology of trends in future energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kelvii Wei

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that current fossil fuel usage is unsustainable and associated with greenhouse gas production. The amount of the world's primary energy supply provided by renewable energy technologies is required urgently. Therefore, the relevant technologies such as hydrogen fuel, solar cell, biotechnology based on nanotechnology and the relevant patents for exploiting the future energy for the friendly environment are reviewed. At the same time, it is pointed out that the significantly feasible world's eco-energy for the foreseeable future should not only be realized, but also methods for using the current energy and their by-products more efficiently should be found correspondingly to ensure the minimal environmental impact.

  13. Nanotechnology in Urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasimha, Sudhindra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nanotechnology has revolutionized our approach to medical diagnostics as well as therapeutics and has spanned an entirely new branch of research. This review addresses the potential applications of Nanotechnology in Urology. This article is based on the Dr. Sitharaman Best Essay award of the Urological Society of India for 2016. Methods: A PubMed search was performed for all relevant articles using the terms, “nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanoscaffolds, and nanofibers.” Results: The developments in diagnostics include novel techniques of imaging of genitourinary malignancies, prostate-specific antigen measurement, early detection of mutations that are diagnostic for polycystic kidney disease. The potential applications of nanotechnology are in the targeted therapy of genitourinary malignancies, erectile dysfunction, overactive bladder, bladder reconstruction, construction of artificial kidneys and biodegradable stents as well as in robotic surgery. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging branch of research in urology with diverse and clinically significant applications in diagnostics as well as therapeutics. PMID:28197024

  14. Nanotechnology in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, Marco A; Montemagno, Carlo; Leary, James F; Ritch, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Nanotechnology involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the size scale of intracellular structures and molecules, and involves systems and constructs in the order of nanotechnology as applied to nanomedicine (e.g., biomimicry and pseudointelligence). Some applications of nanotechnology to ophthalmology are described (including treatment of oxidative stress; measurement of intraocular pressure; theragnostics; use of nanoparticles to treat choroidal new vessels, prevent scarring after glaucoma surgery, and treat retinal degenerative disease with gene therapy; prosthetics; and regenerative nanomedicine). Nanotechnology will revolutionize our approach to current therapeutic challenges (e.g., drug delivery, postoperative scarring) and will enable us to address currently unsolvable problems (e.g., sight-restoring therapy for patients with retinal degenerative disease). Obstacles to the incorporation of nanotechnology remain, such as safe manufacturing techniques and unintended biological consequences of nanomaterial use. These obstacles are not insurmountable, and revolutionary treatments for ophthalmic diseases are expected to result from this burgeoning field.

  15. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ethical issues in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field.

  17. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  19. Nanotechnology, Society, and Freshman, Oh My!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Charles; Crone, Wendy; Ellison, Karin; Leung, Ricky; Miller, Clark; Zenner, Greta

    2005-03-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a broad and exciting, yet ill-defined, field of scientific research and technological innovation. Important questions have arisen about the technology's potential economic, social, and environmental implications by prominent technology leaders, nanotechnology boosters, science fiction authors, policy officials, and environmental organizations. We have developed a freshman-level seminar course that offers an opportunity for students from a wide range of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, humanities, and engineering, to learn about nanoscience and nanotechnology and to explore these questions and reflect on the broader place of technology in modern societies. The course is built around active learning methods and seeks to develop the students' critical thinking and research skills, written and verbal communication abilities, and general knowledge of nanotech. Continuous assessment is used to gain information about how effective the class discussions are and how well the overall course enhances students' understanding of the interaction between nanotechnology and society.

  20. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  1. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  2. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  3. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  4. Future of Computing. Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Frant

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. The impetus for nanotechnology has stemmed from a renewed interest in colloidal science, coupled with a new generation of analytical tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM. Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography, these instruments allow the deliberate manipulation of nanostructures, and in turn led to the observation of novel phenomena.

  5. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyendu S. Bag; T.C. Shami; K.U. Bhasker Rao

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale appr...

  6. Nanotechnology in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana, Kumar R; Vijayalakshmi, R

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.

  7. Nanotechnology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saravana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.

  8. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization.

  9. Applying Nanotechnology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nanobiosystems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nanotechnology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nanoscale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nanomedical research. The present review explores the significance of nanoscience and latest nanotechnologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas.

  10. An introduction to nanotechnologies: what's in it for us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narducci, D

    2007-08-01

    Nanotechnologies are one of the two most prominent actors of the scientific revolution marking the beginning of the new Millennium. As for biotechnology, nanotechnologies are the outcome of an interdisciplinary, new approach to old technological issues ranging from device manufacturing to energy conversion, from sensing to signal amplification and transmission. The discovery of unexpected physical and chemical behavior of matter at the nanometer scale has paved the way to a number of exploitations (some current, most real but prospective). In this paper I will briefly review the nanotechnologies, showing most promise for Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. In this specific area, I will discuss current techniques and soon-to-come applications in nano-pharmaceuticals (i.e. pharmaceuticals based on the specific chemistry of nanoparticles), in vivo targeted nanodispensers, and nanoactuators. Some closing remarks will be made on how this will affect animal health control and healing in the near future.

  11. Nanotechnology in Mexico: Key Findings Based on OECD Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo; Arteaga Figueroa, Edgar; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Appelbaum, Richard; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Villa, Liliana; Parker, Rachel; Leos, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of Mexico's nanotechnology policies utilizes indicators developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 2008 conducted a pilot survey comparing the nanotechnology policies of 24 countries. In this paper, we apply the same questionnaire to the Mexican case, adding business information derived from the…

  12. Nanotechnology in Mexico: Key Findings Based on OECD Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo; Arteaga Figueroa, Edgar; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Appelbaum, Richard; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Villa, Liliana; Parker, Rachel; Leos, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of Mexico's nanotechnology policies utilizes indicators developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 2008 conducted a pilot survey comparing the nanotechnology policies of 24 countries. In this paper, we apply the same questionnaire to the Mexican case, adding business information derived from the…

  13. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M.G.; Martin Rodriguez, M.J.M.; Cachaza, J.M. (Univ. de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica); Mendoza Sanchez, L. (C/Sol Oriente, Salamanca (Spain). Estudios y Proyectos); Kennedy, J.F. (Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Research Lab. for the Chemistry of Bioactive Carbohydrates and Proteins)

    1993-07-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents. It was foreseen in 1980 that biotechnology would foster the creation of new industries with low energy requirements. This is because the growth of microorganisms provides a renewable source of energy.

  14. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  15. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  16. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Nanotechnology in Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Qu, Hang; Manbachi, Amir; Butt, Haider; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hinestroza, Juan P; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-03-22

    Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanomaterials to be integrated into textile substrates. Nanomoieties can induce stain repellence, wrinkle-freeness, static elimination, and electrical conductivity to fibers without compromising their comfort and flexibility. Nanomaterials also offer a wider application potential to create connected garments that can sense and respond to external stimuli via electrical, color, or physiological signals. This review discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability, and connectivity. Risk factors including nanotoxicity, nanomaterial release during washing, and environmental impact of nanotextiles based on life cycle assessments have been evaluated. This review also provides an analysis of nanotechnology consolidation in the textiles market to evaluate global trends and patent coverage, supplemented by case studies of commercial products. Perceived limitations of nanotechnology in the textile industry and future directions are identified.

  18. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world's poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  19. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  20. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  1. Understanding the nanotechnology revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    This is a unique introduction for general readers to the underlying concepts of nanotechnology, covering a wide spectrum ranging from biology to quantum computing. The material is presented in the simplest possible way, including a few mathematical equations, but not mathematical derivations. It also outlines as simply as possible the major contributions to modern technology of physics-based nanophysical devices, such as the atomic clock, global positioning systems, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, readers are able to establish a connection between nanotechnology and day-to-day

  2. Nanotechnology in health care

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine: Emerging Field of Nanotechnology to Human HealthNanomedicines: Impacts in Ocular Delivery and TargetingImmuno-Nanosystems to CNS Pathologies: State of the Art PEGylated Zinc Protoporphyrin: A Micelle-Forming Polymeric Drug for Cancer TherapyORMOSIL Nanoparticles: Nanomedicine Approach for Drug/Gene Delivery to the BrainMagnetic Nanoparticles: A Versatile System for Therapeutic and Imaging SystemNanobiotechnology: A New Generation of Biomedicine Application of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery and Targeting to LungsAptamers and Nanomedicine in C

  3. Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology seeks to exploit novel physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and other properties, which arise primarily due to the nanoscale nature of certain materials. A key example is carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which exhibit unique electrical and extraordinary mechanical properties and offer remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing, and data storage technology, sensors, composites, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization, and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. This presentation will provide an overview and progress report on this and other major research candidates in Nanotechnology and address opportunities and challenges ahead.

  4. NANOTECHNOLOGY WHITE PAPER | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating materials at the atomic and molecular level to develop new or enhanced materials and products. In December 2004, EPA’s Science Policy Council created a cross-Agency workgroup to identify and describe the issues EPA must address to ensure protection of human health and the environment as this new technology is developed. The draft white paper on nanotechnology is the product of the workgroup. The draft white paper describes the technology, and provides a discussion of the potential environmental benefits of nanotechnology and its applications that can foster sustainable use of resources. Risk management issues and the Agency’s statutory mandates are outlined, followed by an extensive discussion of risk assessment issues. The paper identifies research needs for both environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology and concludes with recommendations on next steps for addressing science policy issues and research needs. Supplemental information is provided in a number of appendices. The Agency will use the white paper to address research needs and risk assessment issues concerning nanotechnology. The draft white paper will undergo independent expert review, which will be conducted in the February time frame. All public comments received by January 31, 2006 will be submitted to the external review panel for their consideration. Comments received beyond that time will be considered by EPA. Follo

  5. Nanotechnology: From Feynman to Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, K. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The revolutionary Feynman vision of a powerful and general nanotechnology, based on nanomachines that build with atom-by-atom control, promises great opportunities and, if abused, great dangers. This vision made nanotechnology a buzzword and launched the global nanotechnology race. Along the way, however, the meaning of the word has shifted. A…

  6. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  7. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  8. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology under the skin Nanotechnology under the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-07-01

    spectrum. Like microorganisms that can be critical to life processes and fatal too, there is no doubt a little yin-yang in the role of nanoparticles in our future. Perhaps one of the exciting elements in nanomedical research is the possibility of putting materials with potentially harmful characteristics to use for healing. The results of scientific endeavour at the nanoscale continue to progress our understanding, allowing us to maximise the potential of nanotechnology within informed restrictions. Where knowledge lays the boundaries, a little imagination adds wings, and the current state of research in nanomedicine seems well set to take flight. References [1] Grecco A C P 2011 Nanotechnology 22 265103 [2] Zhu X, Wang J, Zhang X, Chang Y and Chen Y 2009 Nanotechnology 20 195103 [3] Liu Y et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 415102 [4] Weinstein S and Peer D 2010 Nanotechnology 22 232001 [5] Iijima S 1991 Nature 354 56-8 [6] Ou Z, Wu B, Xing D, Zhou F, Wang H and Tang Y 2009 Nanotechnology 20 105102 [7] Wallace E J and Sansom M S P 2009 Nanotechnology 20 045101 [8] Zhu Y, Ran T, Li Y, Guo J and Li W 2006 Nanotechnology 17 4668 [9] Lam C-W, James J T, McCluskey R and Hunter R L 2004 Toxicol. Sci. 77 126-34

  9. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  10. Nanotechnology and its applications in Veterinary and Animal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Patil

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential to revolutionize agriculture and livestock sector. It can provide new tools for molecular and cellular biology, biotechnology, veterinary physiology, animal genetics, reproduction etc. which will allow researchers to handle biological materials such as DNA, proteins or cells in minute quantities usually nano-liters or pico-liters. Nanotechnology tools like microfluidics, nanomaterials, bioanalytical nanosensors, etc. has the potential to solve many more puzzles related to animal health, production, reproduction and prevention and treatment of diseases. It is reasonable to presume that in the upcoming year’s nanotechnology research will reform the science and technology of the animal health and will help to boost up the livestock production. Nanotechnology will have a profound impact, but not in the immediate future as it is in the early stages of its development and needs to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. But It is reasonable to presume that in the upcoming year’s nanotechnology research will revolutionize animal health and help to boost up livestock production. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 475-477

  11. Ethical aspects of participation in the database of genotypes and phenotypes of the National Center for Biotechnology Information: the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Shapira, Iuliana; Deshields, Teressa; Kroetz, Deanna; Friedman, Paula; Spears, Patricia; Collyar, Deborah E; Shulman, Lawrence N; Dressler, Lynn; Bertagnolli, Monica M

    2012-10-15

    The rapid pace of genetics research, coupled with evolving standards for informed consent, can create ethical challenges regarding future use of tissue or information from completed clinical trials. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Oncology Cooperative Group was faced with an ethical dilemma regarding sharing genetic data from a completed genome-wide association study (GWAS) that was conducted as part of a large, multicenter breast cancer clinical trial with a national database: the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes National Center for Biotechnology Information (dbGaP). The CALGB Ethics Committee conducted a series of multidisciplinary meetings and teleconferences involving patient advocates, bioethicists, clinical researchers, and clinical oncologists to evaluate the ethical issues raised by this case and to identify lessons for improving informed consent to future genetics research in oncology trials. The Ethics Committee recommended that GWAS data be provided to dbGaP consistent with documented consent for future use of tissue among trial participants. Ethical issues, including adequacy of informed consent to future research, limitations of privacy in modern genetics research, the potential impact of population-based genetics research on health disparities, and recontact of research participants for clinical care or further research, were identified as major ethical considerations in this area. Although modern standards for informed consent should not prohibit research or sharing of data consistent with participant's intent and the public interest, there is an urgent need for national consensus on the appropriate use of archived tissue and standardized informed consent for future research among cancer clinical trial participants. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  12. Pharmacogenomics and Nanotechnology Toward Advancing Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizirianakis, Ioannis S.; Amanatiadou, Elsa P.

    The target of personalized medicine to achieve major benefits for all patients in terms of diagnosis and drug delivery can be facilitated by creating a sincere multidisciplinary information-based infrastructure in health care. To this end, nanotechnology, pharmacogenomics, and informatics can advance the utility of personalized medicine, enable clinical translation of genomic knowledge, empower healthcare environment, and finally improve clinical outcomes.

  13. Nanotechnology: Threats and Deterrent Opportunities by 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    103 Today’s on-line Columbia Encyclopedia is full of information on nanotechnology.104 Feyman said, “In the year 2000, when they look back at this...Accessed 16 February 2010. 105 Feyman , discussion, http://www.its.caltech.edu/~feynman/, accessed 31 January 2010.

  14. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  15. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  16. Nanotechnology - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, D.

    2007-01-01

    The science of nanotechnology is still in its infancy. However, progress is being made in research and development of potential beneficial properties of nanomaterials that could play an integral part in the development of new and changing uses for mineral commodities. Nanotechnology is a kind of toolbox that allows industry to make nanomaterials and nanostructures with special properties. New nanotechnology applications of mineral commodities in their nanoscale form are being discovered, researched and developed. At the same time, there is continued research into environmental, human health and safety concerns that inherently arise from the development of a new technology. Except for a few nanomaterials (CNTs, copper, silver and zinc oxide), widespread applications are hampered by processing and suitable commercial-scale production techniques, high manufacturing costs, product price, and environmental, and human health and safety concerns. Whether nanotechnology causes a tidal wave of change or is a long-term evolutionary process of technology, new applications of familiar mineral commodities will be created. As research and development continues, the ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale into increasingly sophisticated nanomaterials will improve and open up new possibilities for industry that will change the flow and use of mineral commodities and the materials and products that are used.

  17. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  18. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  19. Trends in nanotechnology patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Li, Xin; Lin, Yiling

    2008-03-01

    An analysis of 30 years of data on patent publications from the US Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office confirms the dominance of companies and selected academic institutions from the US, Europe and Japan in the commercialization of nanotechnology.

  20. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  1. Nanotechnology for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Elena [Molecular Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Alicante, Carretera Alicante-San Vicente s/n, E-03690 Alicante (Spain); Rus, Guillermo; Garcia-Martinez, Javier [Dpt. Structural Mechanics, University of Granada, Politecnico de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Nanotechnology is generating a lot of attention these days and therefore building great expectations not only in the academic community but also among investors, the governments, and industry. Its unique capability to fabricate new structures at atomic scale has already produced novel materials and devices with great potential applications in a wide number of fields. Among them, significant breakthroughs are especially required in the energy sector that will allow us to maintain our increasing appetite for energy, which increases both with the number of people that join the developed economies and with our demand per capita. This needs to be done in a way that includes the environment in the wealth production equation as we gather more evidences of the human impact on the climate, biodiversity and quality of the air, water and soil. This review article does not cover in detail all the specific contributions from nanotechnology to the various sustainable energies, but in a broader way, it collects the most recent advances of nanotechnology to sustainable energy production, storage and use. For this review paper, solar, hydrogen and new generation batteries and supercapacitors are described as the most significant examples of the contributions of nanotechnology in the energy sector. The aim of this review article is to present some significant contributions from many research groups who are mainly unconnected and are working from different viewpoints, to find solutions to one of the great challenges of our time, i.e., the production and use of energy, without compromising our environment, from one of the most exciting and multidisciplinary fields, nanotechnology. (author)

  2. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    development of the electron microscope, which aimed to exceed the resolving power of diffraction-limited optical microscopes. Since the diffraction limit is proportional to the incident wavelength, the shorter wavelength electron beam allows smaller features to be resolved than optical light. Ernst Ruska shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1986 for his work in developing the transmission electron microscope [5]. The technique continues to provide an invaluable tool in nanotechnology studies, as demonstrated recently by a collaboration of researchers in the US, Singapore and Korea used electron and atomic force microscopy in their investigation of the deposition of gold nanoparticles on graphene and the enhanced conductivity of the doped film [6]. The other half of the 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded jointly to Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer 'for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope'. The scanning tunnelling microscope offered the first glimpses of atomic scale features, galvanizing research in nanoscale science and technology into a burst of fruitful activity that persists to this day. Instead of using the diffraction and scattering of beams to 'see' nanoscale structures, the atomic force microscope developed by Binnig, Quate and Gerber in the 1980s [1] determines the surface topology 'by touch'. The device uses nanoscale changes in the forces exerted on a tip as it scans the sample surface to generate an image. As might be expected, innovations on the original atomic force microscope have now been developed achieving ever greater sensitivities for imaging soft matter without destroying it. Recent work by collaborators at the University of Bristol and the University of Glasgow used a cigar-shaped nanoparticle held in optical tweezers as the scanning tip. The technique is not diffraction limited, imparts less force on samples than contact scanning probe microscopy techniques, and allows highly curved and strongly scattering samples to be imaged [7]. In this issue

  3. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    of nanoparticles in the tumour vasculature. However, previous reports on techniques to generate nanobubbles have either been slow or problematic due to the resulting development of cardiac dimension reduction, hypotension and tachycardia. Xing and colleagues have now demonstrated the use of polyoxyethylene 40 stearate, which is known to be biocompatible, degradable and non-toxic, as an alternative surfactant for generating nanobubbles. In the early 1980s scanning probe micrographs of nanosized features unleashed the power of imaging to push forward the science of structures and mechanisms at the nanoscale. The continued development of new and increasingly sophisticated nanoparticles and systems looks set to empower medicine in the same way, providing further means to exploit the mechanistic nature of biological organisms for better health and longevity. References [1] Leon R, Petroff P M, Leonard D and Fafard S 1995 Science 267 1966-8 [2] Nie Q, Tan W B and Zhang Y 2006 Nanotechnology 17 140-4 [3] Li L, Chen D, Zhang Y, Deng Z, Ren X, Meng X, Tang F, Ren J and Zhang L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 405102 [4] Fujioka K et al 2008 Nanotechnology 19 415102 [5] Shinoda K, Yangisawa S, Sato K amd Hirakuri K 2006 J. Cryst. Growth 288 84-6 [6] Manzoor K, Johny S, Thomas D, Setua S, Menon D and Nair S 2009 Nanotechnology 20 065102 [7] Hu R, Yong K-T, Roy I, Ding H, Law W-C, Cai H, Zhang X, Vathy L A, Bergey E J and Prasad P N 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145105 [8] Xing, Z, Ke H, Wang J, Zhao B, Yue X, Dai Z and Liu J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145607

  4. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani; Bezbaruah, Achintya N.

    2017-02-01

    Existing literature in people's attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people's attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  5. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-07

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  6. Returning to the Patent Landscapes for Nanotechnology: Assessing the Garden that It Has Grown Into.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M; Sylvester, Douglas J; Marino, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    The patent landscape, like a garden, can tell you much about its designers and users; their motivations, biases, and general interests. While both patent landscapes and gardens may appear to the casual observer as refined and ordered, an in-depth exploration of the terrain is likely to reveal unforeseen challenges including, for example, alien species, thickets, and trolls. As this Chapter illustrates, patent landscapes are dynamic and have been forced to continually evolve in response to technological innovation. While emerging technologies, such as biotechnology and information communication technology have challenged the traditional patent landscape, resulting in the pruning of certain elements here and there, the overarching framework and design has largely remained intact. But will this always be the case? As the field of nanotechnology continues to evolve and mature, the aim of this Chapter is to map how the technology has evolved and grown within the confines of existing structures and underlying foundation of the patent landscape and the implications thereof for the technology, industry, and the public more generally. The Chapter concludes by asking the question whether the current patent landscape will be able to withstand the ubiquitous nature of the technology, or whether nanotechnology, in combination with other emerging technologies, will be a catalyst for governments and policy makers to completely redesign the patent landscape.

  7. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M G; Martín Rodriguez, M J; Cachaza, J M; Mendoza Sánchez, L; Kennedy, J F

    1993-01-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents.

  8. Predicting attitudes toward nanotechnology: The influence of cultural and predispositional values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsung-Jen

    Past experience in dealing with biotechnology has suggested that public opinion plays an important role in determining the prosperity of emerging technologies. A great amount of money and energy, therefore, were invested to understand nanotechnology's impact on the society and the public, in addition to the technical advancement of the technology. However, most studies examining public opinion have focused on personal level factors and have ignored the potential influence of cultural factors. This study addresses this gap by analyzing public opinion in 21 countries, including the US and 20 European countries. Specifically, this study examines the impact of predispositional and cultural values on public support for nanotechnology, with the mediating roles of moral judgment and risk perception accounted for. This study also looks into the dynamics between cultural values and predispositional values; that is, how cultural values may moderate the effects of predispositional values in affecting attitudes toward nanotechnology. The results indicate that people rely on "information shortcuts," such as confidence and religious belief, for decision making. Individual-level factors still play an important role in shaping public attitudes even after country-level factors are controlled. Furthermore, aggregate cultural values provide people with important "mental programs" to interpret nanotechnology. They explain why people in different cultures have different moral and risk perceptions. However, most of the cultural values do not affect public support directly, suggesting that public support is contingent greatly on the core characteristics of nanotechnology, such as its usefulness, risk, and moral acceptability, which, in turn, is influenced by personal beliefs and cultural givens. The results also suggest that people in different cultures respond to survey questions in different manners. People living in cultures emphasizing uncertainty avoidance and individualism are more

  9. Nanotechnology and Nanoscale Science: Educational challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Blonder, Ron; Gardner, Grant E.; Albe, Virginie; Falvo, Michael; Chevrier, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been touted as the next 'industrial revolution' of our modern age. In order for successful research, development, and social discourses to take place in this field, education research is needed to inform the development of standards, course development, and workforce preparation. In addition, there is a growing need to educate citizens and students about risks, benefits, and social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology. This position paper describes the advancements that have been made in nanoscale science and nanotechnology, and the challenges that exist to educate students and the public about critical nanoscience concepts. This paper reviews the current research on nanotechnology education including curricula, educational programs, informal education, and teacher education. Furthermore, the unique risks, benefits and ethics of these unusual technological applications are described in relation to nanoeducation goals. Finally, we outline needed future research in the areas of nanoscience content, standards and curricula, nanoscience pedagogy, teacher education, and the risks, benefits, and social and ethical dimensions for education in this emerging field.

  10. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu S. Bag

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale approaches to chiraltechnology such as asymmetric synthesis and catalysis, chiral separation and detection, and enantiomericanalysis. Chiral sensors have also been included. The state-of-the-art chiral research at DMSRDE,Kanpur isalso presented.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.626-635, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1685

  11. Risk of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, Petr; Bakalova, Totka

    2014-05-01

    Nano-this and nano-that. These days it seems you need the prefix "nano" for products or applications if you want to be either very trendy or incredibly scary. This "nano-trend" has assumed "mega" proportions. Vague promises of a better life are met by equally vague, generalized fears about a worse future. These debates have some aspects in common: the subject is complex and not easy to explain; there is no consensus on risks and benefits. - A particular problem with nanotechnology lies in the huge gap between the public perception of what the hype promises and the scientific and commercial reality of what the technology actually delivers today and in the near future. There is nanoscience, which is the study of phenomena and manipulation of material at the nanoscale, in essence an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale. Then there is nanotechnology, which is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology should really be called nanotechnologies: There is no single field of nanotechnology. The term broadly refers to such fields as biology, physics or chemistry, any scientific field really, or a combination thereof, that deals with the deliberate and controlled manufacturing of nanostructures. In addressing the health and environmental impact of nanotechnology we need to differentiate two types of nanostructures: (1) Nanocomposites, nanostructured surfaces and nanocomponents (electronic, optical, sensors etc.), where nanoscale particles are incorporated into a substance, material or device ("fixed" nanoparticles); and (2) "free" nanoparticles, where at some stage in production or use individual nanoparticles of a substance are present. There are four entry routes for nanoparticles into the body: they can be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through skin or be deliberately injected during medical procedures. Once within the body they are highly mobile and

  12. Nanotechnologies a general introduction

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, M; Li Bassi, A

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture manly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential role of both size and size control is finally emphasized discussing some significant applications in the fields of materials, devices and medicine. To this last argument (nanomedicine) the second lectu...

  13. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology – potential environmental and occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk of engineered nanoparticles and nanotechnology for the environment and human health. The nanotechnology influences all industrial and public sectors including healthcare, agriculture, transport, energy, information and communication technologies. Both, the potential benefits and risks, associated with the application of engineered nanoparticles have been widely debated in recent years. The most important problem for the future research is the evaluation of the risk associated with nanomaterials exposure.

  14. caNanoLab: data sharing to expedite the use of nanotechnology in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaheen, Sharon; Hinkal, George W; Morris, Stephanie A; Lijowski, Michal; Heiskanen, Mervi; Klemm, Juli D

    2013-11-21

    The use of nanotechnology in biomedicine involves the engineering of nanomaterials to act as therapeutic carriers, targeting agents and diagnostic imaging devices. The application of nanotechnology in cancer aims to transform early detection, targeted therapeutics and cancer prevention and control. To assist in expediting and validating the use of nanomaterials in biomedicine, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology, in collaboration with the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer (Alliance), has developed a data sharing portal called caNanoLab. caNanoLab provides access to experimental and literature curated data from the NCI Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, the Alliance and the greater cancer nanotechnology community.

  15. Food nanoscience and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity. These and many other applications have emerged in recent years to transform food science and technology. This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

  16. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  17. Nanostructures and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Solid state physics in a nutshell; 3. Bulk materials; 4. Fabrication and characterization at the nanoscale; 5. Real solids: defects, interactions, confinement; 6. Charge transport and nanoelectronics; 7. Magnetism and magnetoelectronics; 8. Photonics; 9. Micro and nanomechanics; 10. Micro and nanofluidics; 11. Bionanotechnology: a very brief overview; 12. Nanotechnology and the future; Appendix: common quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics results; References; Index.

  18. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  19. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-05

    electromagnetic properties). More recently, the bioscience/biotechnology community has recognized theimportance of self-assembly in fabricating structures...This is one application area which has actually developed a commercial market for products involving nanometer dimensions. Laser diodes are quite

  20. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nanomedicine, nanotechnology in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Patrick; Loubaton, Bertrand

    2011-09-01

    Nanomedicine is a relatively new field of science and technology. It looks sometimes ill defined and interpretations of that term may vary, especially between Europe and the United States. By interacting with biological molecules, therefore at nanoscale, nanotechnology opens up a vast field of research and application. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside the human cells. Operating at nanoscale allows to exploit physical properties different from those observed at microscale such as the volume/surface ratio. The investigated diagnostic applications can be considered for in vitro as well as for in vivo diagnosis. In vitro, the synthesised particles and manipulation or detection devices allow for the recognition, capture, and concentration of biomolecules. In vivo, the synthetic molecular assemblies are mainly designed as a contrast agent for imaging. A second area exhibiting a strong development is "nanodrugs" where nanoparticles are designed for targeted drug delivery. The use of such carriers improves the drug biodistribution, targeting active molecules to diseased tissues while protecting healthy tissue. A third area of application is regenerative medicine where nanotechnology allows developing biocompatible materials which support growth of cells used in cell therapy. The application of nanotechnology to medicine raises new issues because of new uses they allow, for instance: Is the power of these new diagnostics manageable by the medical profession? What means treating a patient without any clinical signs? Nanomedicine can contribute to the development of a personalised medicine both for diagnosis and therapy. There exists in many countries existing regulatory frameworks addressing the basic rules of safety and effectiveness of nanotechnology based medicine, whether molecular assemblies or medical devices. However, there is a need to clarify or to

  2. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  3. Nanotechnology - Enabling Future Space Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    OFFICIAL USE ONLY – PENDING AWC PUBLIC AFFAIRS RELEASE nanotechnology will occur in the fields of medicine , protective clothing, energy, water...on Accelerating Change, 2008. 29 J. Storrs Hall, Nanofuture: What’s Next for Nanotechnology (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005), 30. 30 Garreau...Radical Evolution, 53, 58-9. 31 J. Storrs Hall, Nanofuture: What’s Next for Nanotechnology (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005), 17. 32Ibid

  4. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-07-01

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  5. Strategic Workshops on Cancer Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Larry A.; Lee, Jerry S H.; Molnar, Linda K.; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Farrell, Dorothy; Ptak, Krzysztof; Alper, Joseph; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers the potential for new approaches to detecting, treating and preventing cancer. To determine the current status of the cancer nanotechnology field and the optimal path forward, the National Cancer Institute’s Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer held three strategic workshops, covering the areas of in-vitro diagnostics and prevention, therapy and post-treatment, and in-vivo diagnosis and imaging. At each of these meetings, a wide range of experts from academia, industry, the non-profit sector, and the Federal government discussed opportunities in the field of cancer nanotechnology and barriers to its implementation. PMID:20460532

  6. Biotechnology: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Apeldoorn, J.H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Biotechnology: a Dutch Perspective assesses the future potential of biotechnology in the Netherlands. It has been published in English because it is felt that the Dutch case could be of relevance to other industrialised nations. Although the report is aimed primarily at policy planners and decision

  7. Biotechnology: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Apeldoorn, J.H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Biotechnology: a Dutch Perspective assesses the future potential of biotechnology in the Netherlands. It has been published in English because it is felt that the Dutch case could be of relevance to other industrialised nations. Although the report is aimed primarily at policy planners and decision

  8. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    devices. If 'writing is thinking on paper' [15], it seems researchers are finding yet more powerful means of putting their ideas on paper. References [1] Barquinha P, Martins R, Pereira L and Fortunato E 2012 Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices (Chichester: Wiley) [2] Zocco A T, You H, Hagen J A and Steckl A J 2014 Pentacene organic thin film transistors on flexible paper and glass substrates Nanotechnology 25 094005 [3] Pereira L, Gaspar D, Guerin D, Delattre A, Fortunato E and Martins R 2014 The influence of fibril composition and dimension on the performance of paper gated oxide transistors Nanotechnology 25 094007 [4] Wu G, Wan C, Zhou J, Zhu L and Wan Q 2014 Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates Nanotechnology 25 094001 [5] Shin H, Yoon B, Park I S and Kim J-M 2014 An electrothermochromic paper display based on colorimetrically reversible polydiacetylenes Nanotechnology 25 094011 [6] Ihalainen P, Pettersson F, Pesonen M, Viitala T, Määttänen A, Österbacka R and Peltonen J 2014 An impedimetric study of DNA hybridization on paper supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes Nanotechnology 25 094009 [7] Wang Y, Shi Y, Zhao C X, Wong J I, Sun X W and Yang H Y 2014 Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage device Nanotechnology 25 094010 [8] Andersson H A, Manuilskiy A, Haller S, Hummelgård M, Sidén J, Hummelgård C, Olin H and Nilsson H-E 2014 Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board Nanotechnology 25 094002 [9] Gaspar D, Fernandes S N, de Oliveira A G, Fernandes J G, Grey P, Pontes R V, Pereira L, Martins R, Godinho M H and Fortunato E 2014 Nanocrystalline cellulose applied simultaneously as gate dielectric and substrate on flexible field effect transistors Nanotechnology 25 094008 [10] Männl U, van den Berg C, Magunje B, Härting M, Britton D T, Jones S, Mvan Staden M J and Scriba M

  9. Nanotechnology-enhanced orthopedic materials fabrications, applications and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology-Enhanced Orthopedic Materials provides the latest information on the emergence and rapid development of nanotechnology and the ways it has impacted almost every aspect of biomedical engineering. This book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the field, focusing on the fabrication and applications of these materials, presenting updated, practical, and systematic knowledge on the synthesis, processing, and modification of nanomaterials, along with the rationale and methodology of applying such materials for orthopedic purposes. Topics covered include a wide range of orthopedic material formulations, such as ceramics, metals, polymers, biomolecules, and self-assemblies. Final sections explore applications and future trends in nanotechnology-enhanced orthopedic materials. Details practical information on the fabrication and modification of new and traditional orthopedic materials Analyzes a wide range of materials, designs, and applications of nanotechnology for orthopedics Investigate...

  10. BIOTECHNOLOGY – SCIENCE AND SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko N. P.; Troshin L. P.; Alzubaidi K. K.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents information about the features of biotechnology as the driving force of scientific and technological progress. The national programs of the leading countries of the world, it is one of the priority sectors, reflecting the level of the socio-economic condition of the society. Biotechnology is now successfully solves such vital tasks as providing food, the establishment of effective medicaments, obtaining fuel based on renewable raw materials, maintaining ecological balanc...

  11. Nanotechnology development in Denmark - Environmental opportunities and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.M.; Rasmussen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The present report represents the nanostudy part of a larger study entitled “Green Technology Foresight about Environmentally Friendly Products and Materials – Challenges from Nanotechnology, Biotechnology and ICT” (Jørgensen et al. 2006). The study wasmade for the Danish Environmental Protection...... industry. The identification of nanotechnology eco-opportunities more generally and through 6 short case studies. A very wide range of nano eco-opportunities have been identified although most of thse are at a very early andhighly uncertain stage of development. Generally, however, green attention...... and search rules among Danish nanoresearchers are quite weak, meaning that many eco-opportunities are likely to be neglected and environmental and health risks overlooked....

  12. Toward the Responsible Development and Commercialization of Sensor Nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Tarek R; Farrell, Dorothy F; Friedersdorf, Lisa E; Griep, Mark H; Hoover, Mark D; Meador, Michael A; Meyyappan, M

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-enabled sensors (or nanosensors) will play an important role in enabling the progression toward ubiquitous information systems as the Internet of Things (IoT) emerges. Nanosensors offer new, miniaturized solutions in physiochemical and biological sensing that enable increased sensitivity, specificity, and multiplexing capability, all with the compelling economic drivers of low cost and high-energy efficiency. In the United States, Federal agencies participating in the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) "Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology: Improving and Protecting Health, Safety, and the Environment" Nanotechnology Signature Initiative (the Sensors NSI), address both the opportunity of using nanotechnology to advance sensor development and the challenges of developing sensors to keep pace with the increasingly widespread use of engineered nanomaterials. This perspective article will introduce and provide background on the NNI signature initiative on sensors. Recent efforts by the Sensors NSI aimed at promoting the successful development and commercialization of nanosensors will be reviewed and examples of sensor nanotechnologies will be highlighted. Future directions and critical challenges for sensor development will also be discussed.

  13. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  14. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  15. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beztsinna, N; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    2016-02-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering to optoelectronics and biosensors. In this review we will give a brief reminder of RF chemistry, its optical, photosensitizing properties, RF transporter systems and its role in pathologies. We will point a special attention on the recent findings concerning RF applications in nanotechnologies such as RF functionalized nanoparticles, polymers, biomolecules, carbon nanotubes, hydrogels and implants for tissue engineering.

  16. Nanotechnology and U.S. Competitiveness: Issues and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-15

    List of Figures Figure 1. Nanotechnology Papers in the Science Citation Index , by Region, 2000-2005...for CRS by Evaluametrics, Ltd. in December 2007. This analysis was performed using information from Thompson Scientific’s Science Citation Index , selecting...RoW CN+TW EU27 USA Figure 1. Nanotechnology Papers in the Science Citation Index , by Region, 2000-2005 CRS-15 40 Using the Potential Citation Index metric

  17. Metallic nanoparticles: microbial synthesis and unique properties for biotechnological applications, bioavailability and biotransformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.; Mehboob, F.; Stams, A.J.M.; Mota, M.M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Alves, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of nanotechnology in all areas of science and technology is evident. The expanding availability of a variety of nanostructures with properties in the nanometer size range has sparked widespread interest in their use in biotechnological systems, including the field of environmental remedia

  18. Nanotechnology: The Incredible Invisible World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959 by Richard Feynman at a meeting of the American Physical Society. Nanotechnology opens the door to an exciting new science/technology/engineering field. The possibilities for the uses of this technology should inspire the imagination to think big. Many are already pursuing such feats…

  19. Nanotechnology overview: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the science of manipulating matter at the nanometer scale in order to discover new properties and possibly produce new products. For the past 30 years, a considerable amount of scientific interest and R&D funding devoted to nanotechnology has led to rapid developmen...

  20. Nanotechnology: The Incredible Invisible World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959 by Richard Feynman at a meeting of the American Physical Society. Nanotechnology opens the door to an exciting new science/technology/engineering field. The possibilities for the uses of this technology should inspire the imagination to think big. Many are already pursuing such feats…

  1. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future.

  2. Emerging nanotechnology approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kim ES; Ahn EH; Dvir T; Kim DH

    2014-01-01

    Eung-Sam Kim,1,2 Eun Hyun Ahn,3,4 Tal Dvir,5,6 Deok-Ho Kim1,4,71Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea; 3Department of Pathology, 4Institute of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 5Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 6Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israe...

  3. Modern Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  4. Modern biotechnology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  5. Robotics, Ethics, and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel

    It may seem out of character to find a chapter on robotics in a book about nanotechnology, and even more so a chapter on the application of ethics to robots. Indeed, as we shall see, the questions look quite different in these two fields, i.e., in robotics and nanoscience. In short, in the case of robots, we are dealing with artificial beings endowed with higher cognitive faculties, such as language, reasoning, action, and perception, whereas in the case of nano-objects, we are talking about invisible macromolecules which act, move, and duplicate unseen to us. In one case, we find ourselves confronted by a possibly evil double of ourselves, and in the other, a creeping and intangible nebula assails us from all sides. In one case, we are faced with an alter ego which, although unknown, is clearly perceptible, while in the other, an unspeakable ooze, the notorious grey goo, whose properties are both mysterious and sinister, enters and immerses us. This leads to a shift in the ethical problem situation: the notion of responsibility can no longer be worded in the same terms because, despite its otherness, the robot can always be located somewhere, while in the case of nanotechnologies, myriad nanometric objects permeate everywhere, disseminating uncontrollably.

  6. NANOTECHNOLOGY USE IN MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Reddy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is shrinking quantity wise, increasing quality wise at a rather rapid rate. As a result, more and more advancements are taking place at the cellular, molecular and atomic level — at the nanoscale. NANOTECHNOLOGY: Is especially important to medicine because the medical field deals with things on the smallest of levels. Additionally, the small nano devices that are being developed right now can enter the body and treat and prevent diseases. NANOMEDICINE: Is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines for the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. This evolving discipline has the potential to dramatically change medical science. NANOBOTS: Smallest of robots could be used to perform a number of functions inside the body and out. They could even be programmed to build other nanobots. NANOCOMPUTERS: To direct nanobots in their work, there are special computers. NANOTWEEZERS: devices are designed to manipulate nanostructures. Nanotweezers are usually constructed using nanotubes. NANOCHIP: Is an integrated circuit that is so small, in physical terms, that individual particles of matter play major roles

  7. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Alan L.; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip; Schoeneck, David J.

    2008-05-01

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as "nano") given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  8. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Alan L. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Youtie, Jan [Georgia Institute of Technology, Enterprise Innovation Institute (United States)], E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.edu; Shapira, Philip [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Schoeneck, David J. [Search Technology, Inc. (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  9. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  10. Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, Ille C

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

  11. Cultural cognition of the risks and benefits of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Dan M.; Braman, Donald; Slovic, Paul; Gastil, John; Cohen, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    How is public opinion towards nanotechnology likely to evolve? The `familiarity hypothesis' holds that support for nanotechnology will likely grow as awareness of it expands. The basis of this conjecture is opinion polling, which finds that few members of the public claim to know much about nanotechnology, but that those who say they do are substantially more likely to believe its benefits outweigh its risks. Some researchers, however, have avoided endorsing the familiarity hypothesis, stressing that cognitive heuristics and biases could create anxiety as the public learns more about this novel science. We conducted an experimental study aimed at determining how members of the public would react to balanced information about nanotechnology risks and benefits. Finding no support for the familiarity hypothesis, the study instead yielded strong evidence that public attitudes are likely to be shaped by psychological dynamics associated with cultural cognition.

  12. EDITORIAL: Trends in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; Saenz, Juan Jose; Welland, Mark; Reifenberger, Ron

    2004-04-01

    With effect from August 2004 the journal Nanotechnology will discontinue the `Letters to the Editor' section. The increase in publication speed achieved for all articles now means that letters have no advantage. Fully electronic publication processes including electronic submission, refereeing and proofing, ensure that all papers are processed with minimum delay and are published as soon as they are ready. The journal will continue to publish high-quality original research papers, reviews and tutorials, as well as papers on the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology at the discretion of the Editorial Board. All submitted papers will undergo a pre-selection procedure for suitability by the Editors of the journal. If a paper is accepted for consideration by the journal it will be sent to independent experts in the field for peer review. To speed up the publication process, we encourage authors to suggest five independent experts in their field as potential referees and supply their title, name, affiliation and e-mail address. The Editors of the journal may use these names at their discretion. Authors may also request that certain people are not to be used as referees. Papers of special interest will be given the utmost priority and on acceptance will be publicized further through worldwide press releases and reviews on the Institute of Physics website and on nanotechweb.org. As a service to authors and to the international physics community, and as part of our commitment to give authors' work as much visibility as possible, all papers are freely available online for 30 days from their electronic publication date. This means open access for citations to everyone in the world. We will also send an electronic offprint of your published paper to ten colleagues of your choice, giving your article an increased chance of being cited quickly. In the meantime, we are pleased to announce an increase in the Impact Factor of the journal in 2003 to 2.304, which means

  13. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  14. Trends in food biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years man has been applying genetics to improve both foodstuffs and food products. Using selective breeding and/or spontaneous mutations, a large number of plant varieties, animal breeds and microbial strains have been produced. In fact, food biotechnology is the oldest form of biotechnology. Recently, recombinant DNA techniques have been applied in food technology, creating so-called ‘genetically modified foods’ (GM foods). Examples include transgenic potatoes able to act as...

  15. BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOPRODUCTS "HEALING-1"

    OpenAIRE

    S. I. Artiukhova; T. T. Tolstoguzova

    2014-01-01

    Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechn...

  16. Nanotechnology: “Revolutionary Developments in Future”

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Introductory notes will be made on the definition, structures, phenomena, functions, synthesis, properties, and characterization at the nanoscale. Some indications on nanoMaterials research and markets in Europe will be given. The spectrum of structural and functional/smart nanomaterials: metallic and ceramic materials, coating, composites ….will be reviewed Key challenges for nanomaterials design and engineering will be highlighted. The range of applications for nanotechnologies will be sumarized: for nano-electronics (information and communication), health care, energy and transport, nuclear and accelerator technologies, security and safety etc NanoMaterials and Technologies are key in future accelerator engineering: construction, operation and experimentation. Nanotechnology in next generation industries is a must. Nanometrology and standardisation (materials and equipment) are also an important items. Environmental and health implications of nanomaterials science and technology: Some guidance and safe...

  17. BIOTECHNOLOGY : AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  18. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGY : AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  20. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosillo-de la Torre, Argelia; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda; García, Perla; Lazarowski, Alberto; Rocha, Luisa

    2014-06-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. Furthermore, it is associated to diminished health-related quality of life and is thus considered a major public health problem. In spite of the large number of available and ongoing development of several new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a high percentage of patients with epilepsy (35-40%) are resistant to pharmacotherapy. A hypothesis to explain pharmacoresistance in epilepsy suggests that overexpression of multidrug resistance proteins, such as P-glycoprotein, on the endothelium of the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for effective AED delivery and concentration levels in the brain. Proven therapeutic strategies to control pharmacoresistant epilepsy include epilepsy surgery and neuromodulation. Unfortunately, not all patients are candidates for these therapies. Nanotechnology represents an attractive strategy to overcome the limited brain access of AEDs in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. This manuscript presents a review of evidences supporting this idea.

  1. Nanotechnology applications in osteodistraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Singleton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most current strategies for bone regeneration have relatively satisfactory results. However, there are drawbacks and limitations associated with their use and availability, and even controversial reports about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The induction of new bone formation through distraction osteogenesis (DO is widespread clinical application in the treatment of bone defects, limb deformities, and fracture nonunions. However, a lengthy period of external fixation is usually needed to allow the new bone to consolidate, and complications such as refracture at the distraction gap often occur. Although various biomaterials have been used as injectable delivery systems in DO models, little has been reported on the use of nanobiomaterials as carrier materials for the sustained release of growth factors in bone regeneration. One area of focus in nanotechnology is the delivery of osteogenic factors in an attempt to modulate the formation of bone. This review article seeks to demonstrate the potential of nanobiomaterials to improve biological applications pertinent to osteodistraction.

  2. Nanostructures and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the fundamental principles of nanoscience and nanotechnology, this carefully developed textbook will equip students with a deep understanding of the nanoscale. • Each new topic is introduced with a concise summary of the relevant physical principles, emphasising universal commonalities between seemingly disparate areas, and encouraging students to develop an intuitive understanding of this diverse area of study • Accessible introductions to condensed matter physics and materials systems provide students from a broad range of scientific disciplines with all the necessary background • Theoretical concepts are linked to real-world applications, allowing students to connect theory and practice • Chapters are packed with problems to help students develop and retain their understanding, as well as engaging colour illustrations, and are accompanied by suggestions for additional reading. Containing enough material for a one- or two-semester course, this is an excellent resource for senior undergra...

  3. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Saji; Kaptan, Gulbanu; Lee, Joel; Frewer, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers' perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About 80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed `less concern' or `more concern' based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk-benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  4. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Saji, E-mail: saji-george@nyp.edu.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Kaptan, Gulbanu [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom); Lee, Joel [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn, E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers’ perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About ∼80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed ‘less concern’ or ‘more concern’ based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk–benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  5. Framing effects on risk perception of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, Holger; Wiedemann, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract How do people judge nanotechnology risks that are completely unfamiliar to them? Drawing on results of previous studies on framing and risk perception, two hypotheses about potential influences on nanotechnology risk perception were examined in an experimental study: 1) Risk perception of nanotechnology is influenced by its benefit perception. 2) Risk perception of nanotechnology is ...

  6. Protein nanotechnology: what is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Juliet A

    2013-01-01

    Protein nanotechnology is an emerging field that is still defining itself. It embraces the intersection of protein science, which exists naturally at the nanoscale, and the burgeoning field of nanotechnology. In this opening chapter, a select review is given of some of the exciting nanostructures that have already been created using proteins, and the sorts of applications that protein engineers are reaching towards in the nanotechnology space. This provides an introduction to the rest of the volume, which provides inspirational case studies, along with tips and tools to manipulate proteins into new forms and architectures, beyond Nature's original intentions.

  7. Multidisciplinary cognitive content of nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanoscience/nanotechnology (nano research) as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent words or phrases (terms). Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (from 1991 to 1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently, only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some 85% of nano research today is multidisciplinary. The case study of the diffusion of several nano-specific terms (e.g., "carbon nanotube") shows that concepts spread from the initially few disciplinary components to the majority of them in a time span of around a decade. Hierarchical clustering of disciplinary components reveals that the cognitive content of current nanoscience can be divided into nine clusters. Some clusters account for a large fraction of nano research and are identified with such parent disciplines as the condensed matter and applied physics, materials science, and analytical chemistry. Other clusters represent much smaller parts of nano research, but are as cognitively distinct. In the decreasing order of size, these fields are: polymer science, biotechnology, general chemistry, surface science, and pharmacology. Cognitive content of research published in nano-only journals is the

  8. Multidisciplinary cognitive content of nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milojevic, Stasa, E-mail: smilojev@indiana.edu [Indiana University, School of Library and Information Science (United States)

    2012-01-15

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanoscience/nanotechnology (nano research) as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent words or phrases (terms). Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (from 1991 to 1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently, only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some 85% of nano research today is multidisciplinary. The case study of the diffusion of several nano-specific terms (e.g., 'carbon nanotube') shows that concepts spread from the initially few disciplinary components to the majority of them in a time span of around a decade. Hierarchical clustering of disciplinary components reveals that the cognitive content of current nanoscience can be divided into nine clusters. Some clusters account for a large fraction of nano research and are identified with such parent disciplines as the condensed matter and applied physics, materials science, and analytical chemistry. Other clusters represent much smaller parts of nano research, but are as cognitively distinct. In the decreasing order of size, these fields are: polymer science, biotechnology, general chemistry, surface science, and pharmacology. Cognitive content of research published in nano-only journals

  9. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  10. PREFACE: India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2012-04-01

    Organic Functional Materials We would like to express our sincere thanks to the organizing committee members of this workshop and the many organizations such as the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), India, the Society of Organic Nanometric Interfacial Controlled Electronic (NICE) Devices, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, Himeji City, Himeji Convention & Visitors Bureau, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India and the University of Hyogo for their financial support. Thanks are also given to The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Division of Molecular Electronics and Bioelectronics, The Japan Society of Applied Physics (M & BE), the Technical Committee on Dielectric and Electrical Insulation Materials of the Institute of Electrical Engineering in Japan (IEEJ), the Technical Group on Organic Molecular Electronics, Electronics Society of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE), and the IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, Japan Chapter, for their cooperation. Finally, we hope that the many young and active researchers who are participating will enjoy stimulating discussions and exchange ideas with each other at IJWBME 2011, Himeji, Japan. 7 April 2011 IJWBME 2011 Chairs Mitsuyoshi Onoda Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Japan Bansi D Malhotra Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India Conference photograph Participants of the India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation 2011, December 7-10 2011, EGRET Himeji, Japan The PDF also contains a list of sponsors.

  11. Nanoethics: Ethics For, From, or With Nanotechnologies?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The concern for ethics is a leitmotiv when dealing with nanotechnologies. However, the target of this concern is far from being obvious, and the word 'nanoethics' itself has no clear-cut definition. Indeed, nanoethics is usually said to be 'the ethics of nanotechnologies', but it is never specified whether this 'ethics of nanotechnologies' is 'an ethics for nanotechnologies' or 'an ethics from nanotechnologies'. This paper aims to show that these two characterizations of nanoethics (for/from)...

  12. Think small: nanotechnology for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Amir R; Brenner, Sara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the topic of nanotechnology to plastic surgeons and to discuss its relevance to medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular. Nanotechnology will be defined, and some important historical milestones discussed. Common applications of nanotechnology in various medical and surgical subspecialties will be reviewed. Future applications of nanotechnology to plastic surgery will be examined. Finally, the critical field of nanotoxicology and the safe use of nanotechnology in medicine and plastic surgery will be addressed.

  13. The current state of public understanding of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, Anna M [Cornell University, Nanobiotechnology Center (United States)], E-mail: amw37@cornell.edu; Spencer, Douglas [Edu, Inc. (United States); Batt, Carl A [Cornell University (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The growing importance of nanotechnology in industry and society has not been accompanied by a widespread understanding of the subject among the general public. Simple questions to initially probe the smallest thing that people can see and can think of reveals a divide in the understanding of the general public. A survey of 1500 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 74 has revealed a lack of knowledge of nanotechnology and especially a lack of understanding of the context of nanotechnology in the world that is too small to see. Survey findings are corroborated by in-depth interviews with 400 adults in studies of nanoscience literacy commisioned by University of California, Berkeley and Cornell in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In general, with the exception of 14-28 year olds, over 60% of respondents say they have never heard of nano or nanotechnology. The results suggest that the general public, especially middle-school children, has no firm foundation to understand nanotechnology and likely will continue to be equally impressed by credible scientific information as well as pure fictional accounts of nanotechnology.

  14. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapi

  15. How nanotechnology works in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshpreet Kaur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. At present international hospitals are working on projects to develop new medical devices with the help of nanotechnology to better serve the world. Neuro-electronic interfaces and other nanoelectronics-based sensors are another active goal of research. Nanosensors are used mainly include various medicinal purposes and as gateways to building other nanoproducts, such as computer chips that work at the nanoscale and nanorobots

  16. NANOTECHNOLOGY: A BOON OR BANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology deals with the physical and chemical attributes of molecular scale structures, and they can be combined to form larger structures for human use. Because of this dimensional range, nanoparticles and structure get some unusual and novel properties. Nanotechnology deals with the study and analysis of these properties also. Indeed it is an emerging area of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale generally 100nm or smaller. The impact of nanotechnology is expanding and nothing will remain untouched. Applications are enormous and limitless. Nanotechnology enables doing things better than in the conventional technology viz.•Economic development•Improving food security•Health Diagnosis, Monitoring and Scanning•Safe Drinking Water•Environmental pollution•Agriculture•Energy Storage, Production and ConservationAs a coin has two sides, nanotechnology also has a flip side. No doubt, nanotechnology will be incorporated into every facet of our lives, making things easier, faster and longer lasting. Potential dangers of technology that are being discussed in various forms includes•Possible increased inflammatory response in the body due to small size•Potential terrorist use•Social disruption from new products/ lifestyles•Risks of a “Grey Goo” (hypothetical end of the worldNow there is a critical need to fund researchers and engineers across disciplines and institutional boundaries in order to advance in the arena of nanotechnologies. There must be innovative partnerships that integrate research and education, accelerate applications and fully explore the implications of nanotechnology on our health, wealth and lives.

  17. Life sciences today and tomorrow: emerging biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, E Diane

    2016-07-03

    The purpose of this review is to survey current, emerging and predicted future biotechnologies which are impacting, or are likely to impact in the future on the life sciences, with a projection for the coming 20 years. This review is intended to discuss current and future technical strategies, and to explore areas of potential growth during the foreseeable future. Information technology approaches have been employed to gather and collate data. Twelve broad categories of biotechnology have been identified which are currently impacting the life sciences and will continue to do so. In some cases, technology areas are being pushed forward by the requirement to deal with contemporary questions such as the need to address the emergence of anti-microbial resistance. In other cases, the biotechnology application is made feasible by advances in allied fields in biophysics (e.g. biosensing) and biochemistry (e.g. bio-imaging). In all cases, the biotechnologies are underpinned by the rapidly advancing fields of information systems, electronic communications and the World Wide Web together with developments in computing power and the capacity to handle extensive biological data. A rationale and narrative is given for the identification of each technology as a growth area. These technologies have been categorized by major applications, and are discussed further. This review highlights: Biotechnology has far-reaching applications which impinge on every aspect of human existence. The applications of biotechnology are currently wide ranging and will become even more diverse in the future. Access to supercomputing facilities and the ability to manipulate large, complex biological datasets, will significantly enhance knowledge and biotechnological development.

  18. PREFACE: Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    The Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology was held from November 1-3, 2010, in Moscow, Russia. It was the third forum organized by RUSNANO (Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies) since 2008. In March 2011 RUSNANO was established as an open joint-stock company through the reorganization of the state corporation Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies. RUSNANO's mission is to develop the Russian nanotechnology industry through co-investment in nanotechnology projects with substantial economic potential or social benefit. Within the framework of the Forum Science and Technology Program, presentations on key trends of nanotechnology development were given by foreign and Russian scientists, R&D officers of leading international companies, universities and scientific centers. The science and technology program of the Forum was divided into eight sections as follows (by following hyperlinks you may find each section's program including videos of all oral presentations): Catalysis and Chemical Industry Nanobiotechnology Nanodiagnostics Nanoelectronics Nanomaterials Nanophotonics Nanotechnolgy In The Energy Industry Nanotechnology in Medicine The scientific program of the forum included 115 oral presentations by leading scientists from 15 countries. Among them in the "Nanomaterials" section was the lecture by Dr Konstantin Novoselov, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. The poster session consisted of over 500 presentations, 300 of which were presented in the framework of the young scientists' nanotechnology papers competition. This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes a selection of 57 submissions. The scientific program committee: Prof Zhores Alferov, AcademicianVice-president of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nobel Prize winner, Russia, Chairman of the Program CommitteeProf Sergey Deev, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of SciencesHead of the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, M M Shemyakin and Yu A Ovchinnikov

  19. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology.

  20. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer

    2010-01-01

    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  1. Improving biotechnology communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitze, Marc-Denis; Pühler, Alfred

    2013-09-01

    Successful dialog between science and the public is vital for the development and introduction of new technologies. The National Academy of Science and Engineering in Germany has analysed experiences gained from controversies and communication strategies surrounding green genetic engineering and other fields of biotechnology, from a communications and social science viewpoint, as well as a historical perspective. From this, recommendations on how to communicate biotechnology in the future, with objectivity and balance, have been derived. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  3. Biotechnology policies and performance in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senker, J.; Enzing, C.; Reiss, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how far ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have 'caught up' in biotechnology on the basis of information about the policies and funding for biotechnology research and commercialisation from 2002-2005 and on the research and commercialisation performance of these cou

  4. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  5. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  6. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  7. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  8. Functionalized surfaces and nanostructures for nanotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    of information technology. Of equal significance is the lead in military technology as demonstrated by the use of unmanned drones for both surveillance and assault in recent conflicts. Nanotechnology promises far more significant economic, military and cultural changes than those created by the internet, and with technology advancing so fast, and development and adoption cycles becoming shorter, playing catch-up will not be an option for governments who are not already taking action. Maybe the greatest short term benefit of nanotechnology is in bringing together the disparate sciences, physical and biological, who due to the nature of education often have had no contact since high school. Rather than nanosubmarines or killer nanobots, the greatest legacy of nanotechnology may well prove to be the unification of scientific disciplines and the resultant ability of scientists, when faced with a problem, to call on the resources of the whole of science, not just of one discipline. Tim Harper Tim Harper About the author Tim Harper is the Founder and President of CMP Cientifica, and the co-author of the Nanotechnology Opportunity ReportTM, described by NASA as `the defining report in the field of nanotechnology'. Tim is also the Founder and Executive Director of European NanoBusiness Association and an advisor to the US NanoBusiness Alliance. He contributes a weekly column to the Institute of Physics Nanotechweb site and writes a regular column for Tornado Insider magazine. Tim also publishes, and occasionally edits, the weekly nanotechnology newsletter TNT Weekly which has been running since 2000 and is widely read across the entire nanotechnology community, from academics to investors. In October 2002 Time magazine described Tim as `the face of European nanotechnology' and profiled him in their Digital Europe Top 25, as one of Europe's top 25 entrepreneurs. This was followed in November by recognition in Small Times magazine who described Tim as `Europe's pre

  9. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIU Mariana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology overcomes the limitation of applying conventional methods to impart certain properties to textile materials. There is no doubt that in the next few years nanotechnology will penetrate into every area of the textile industry. Nanotextiles are nanoscale fibrous materials that can be fictionalized with a vast array of novel properties, including antibiotic activity, self-cleaning and the ability to increase reaction rates by providing large surface areas to potential reactants. These materials are used not only as cloth fabric, but as filter materials, wound-healing gauzes and antibacterial food packaging agents in food industry. World demand for nano-materials will rise more than two-and-a-half times to $5.5 billion in 2016 driven by a combination of increased market penetration of existing materials, and ongoing development of new materials and applications. In recent years was demonstrated that nanotechnology can be used to enhance textile attributes, such as fabric softness, durability and breathability, water repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial properties in fibers, yarns and fabrics. The development of smart nanotextiles has the potential to revolutionize the production of fibers, fabrics or nonwovens and functionality of our clothing and all types of textile products and applications. Nanotechnology is considered one of the most promising technologies for the 21st century. Today is said that if the IT is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the future.

  10. QUALITY PARAMETERS IN NANOTECHNOLOGIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Akdoğan Eker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology concept which has added a new dimension to our lives in recent years, is finding a place in every sector day by day. The combined effect of nanotechnology is almost equal to the industrial revolution of last 200 years and have is able to fill all developments in a few years. However this development should be taken under control. Otherwise unstoppable new structures will not ease life but will be a problem for humanity. For this purpose, the main parameters (from the start up stage of nano-technologic applications to the obtained product should be checked. These parameters are actually not different than the adaptation of the classical quality indicators for nanotechnology applications. Especially it plays an important role in obtaining a uniform distribution and regarding the features of the end product in nano-technological ceramic and etc. applications. The most important problem faced in particles of that size is the accumulation they create. Another problem is the increasing friction force as size gets smaller. The friction force of asubstance increases proportionally with the cube of its surface area. Another problem is surface tension. The increasing surface tension due to increasing surface area will cause the particles to attract and stick to each other. The structures aimed to be obtained are mostly complex and especially in upwards approach, it is thermodynamically very hard for the atoms to get into that order. Therefore in this announcement, we stated the quality parameters that will be taken into consideration in nano-technological applications and the methods for obtaining those parameters. The aim is to explain these parameters with all dimensions so that they will lead the way to the future nano-technological applications.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  13. 78 FR 4150 - Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan...: Request for Information: Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance. SUMMARY... and Prevention (CDC) seeks comment on the types of hazard identification and risk management...

  14. Nano-biotechnology for biomedical and diagnostic research

    CERN Document Server

    Zahavy, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The title ""Nano Biotechnology for Biomedical and Diagnostics Research"" will address research aspects related to nanomaterial in imaging and biological research, nanomaterials as a biosensing tool, DNA nanotechnology, nanomaterials for drug delivery, medicinal and therapeutic application and cytotoxicity of nanomaterials. These topics will be covered by 16 different manuscripts. Amongst the authors that will contribute to the book are major scientific leaders such as S. Weiss - UCLA, I. Willner, and G. Golomb -- HUJI, S. Esener - UCSD, E.C. Simmel - Tech. Univ. Munchen, I. Medintz -- NRL, N.

  15. Biotechnology Industry, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    trying to deal with GMOs . Countries around the world are trying to keep their citizens safe while many face food shortages. Interestingly, India...Washington Post, April 7, 2006, A11. GMO Compass. (2006). Food and Feed from GMOs : The Long Road to Authorisation. Retrieved March 31, 2006 from http...the environment, and nanotechnology. Genetically modified (GM) foods are feeding millions. GM bacteria and plants are cleaning up pollution quietly

  16. The Legitimation of Novel Technologies: The Case of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroff, Anastasia E.

    Nanotechnology is the control, manipulation, and application of matter on an atomic and molecular level. The technology is complex and confusing to consumers, and its long-term safety and effect on the human body, as well as the environment, are unknown. However, for the past decade, nanotechnology has been used to develop consumer products and food with novel and attractive attributes. Since nanotechnology is still not well known, it is not legitimized; that is, it has not been deemed safe and accepted by society. However, the market for nanotechnology is in the legitimation process. It will take an entire network of key stakeholders playing a specific roles for nanotechnology to legitimize. Specifically, each key stakeholder will align with a certain cultural discourse to frame nanotechnology in a particular way that complements their values. In Essay 1, I follow previous market system dynamic's literature and combine Actor Network Theory (ANT), Foucault's Discourse on Power and Goffman's Frame analysis to theoretically explore what the actor network for nanotechnology looks like. Four dominate frames are identified: 1) Advancement (i.e., government), 2) Management (i.e., industry), 3) Development (i.e., academia/scientists), and 4) Informant (i.e., NGO). Essay 2 empirically explores each actor's perspective on the nanotechnology network through a total of 24 interviews. A hermeneutic approach is used to analyze the 208 page text and themes describing each actor's role from a self and other's perspective are discussed. Additionally, three overarching themes (i.e., contradiction, constance, and cutoff) emerge; these themes describe the degree of similarity in how actors view their role in the nanotechnology network compared to how other actor's view that actor's role. In Essay 3, I bring critical theory into market system's research to better contextualize market formation theories. Specifically, I discuss how critical theory can be used to supplement ANT. I

  17. Twelve years of nanoscience and nanotechnology publications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edgar Záyago; Frederick, Stacey; Foladori, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Mexico is the second country in Latin America with regard to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research and Development, according to various indicators. Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies are viewed as strategic areas in government policy since 2001. In the last few decades, important policy changes in Science and Technology (S&T) have been implemented with an aim to integrate the business sector with government scientific research. This article reviews information from the Web of Science relevant to articles on nanoscience and nanotechnology stretching back 12 years, and explains the changes in S&T policy. The information uncovered leads to three conclusions: the participation of the business sector is negligible; there is a significant concentration of scientific production among a very few institutions; and the country is essentially divided geographically, with scientific production concentrated in the center and north of the country.

  18. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  19. State responses to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  20. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  1. Biotechnology in weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  2. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  3. Applied biotechnology in nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell-Chen, E P; Williamson, V M; Westerdahl, B B

    1993-12-01

    During the past two decades, rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology have affected the understanding and treatment of human and plant diseases. The human and Caenorhabditis elegans genome-sequencing projects promise further techniques and results useful to applied nematology. Of course, biotechnology is not a panacea for nematological problems, but it provides many powerful tools that have potential use in applied biology and nematode management. The tools will facilitate research on a range of previously intractable problems in nematology, from identification of species and pathotypes to the development of resistant cultivars that have been inaccessible because of technical limitations. However, to those unfamiliar or not directly involved with the new technologies and their extensive terminology, the benefits of the advances in biotechnology may not be readily discerned. The sustainable agriculture of the future will require ecology-based management, and successful integrated nematode management will depend on combinations of control tactics to reduce nematode numbers. In this review we discuss how biotechnology may influence nematode management, define terminology relative to potential applications, and present current and future avenues of research in applied nematology, including species identification, race and pathotype identification, development of resistant cultivars, definition of nematode-host interactions, nematode population dynamics, establishment of optimal rotations, the ecology of biological control and development of useful biological control agents, and the design of novel nematicides.

  4. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  5. Biotechnology, Ethics and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental differences between current and past knowledge in the field of biotechnology mean that we now have at our disposal the means to irreversibly change what is meant by "human nature". This paper explores some of the ethical issues that accompany the (as yet tentative) attempt to increase scientific control over the human genetic code in…

  6. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  7. Proteomics: A Biotechnology Tool for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa eEldakak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  8. Industrial biotechnology takes off in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnologies have the potential to significantly impact the quality of life in a sustainable society through the understanding, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, advances in agriculture and food production, and numerous industrial applications ranging from chemicals to materials including environmental protection and remediation. This article considers how the business sector will be modified by developments in the understanding of living organisms. Will the 21st century see the growth of a Bioeconomy based on applications of biotechnology as pervasive and as powerful as the information economy has been at the end of the 20th century?

  9. Editorial: Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; José Saenz, Juan; Reifenberger, Ron; Ordejón, Pablo

    2006-05-01

    This special issue of physica status solidi (a) presents representative contributions describing the main topics covered at the sixth Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005) International Conference, held in Oviedo (Spain), 29 August-2 September 2005.During the last years many international or national conferences have emerged in response to the growing awareness of the importance of nanotechnology as key issue for the future scientific and technological development. Among these, the conference series Trends in Nanotechnology has become one of the most important meeting points in the nanotechnology field: it provides fresh organisation ideas, brings together well known speakers, and promotes a suitable environment for discussions, exchanging ideas, enhancing scientific and personal relations among participants. TNT2005 was organised in a similar way to the five prior TNT conferences, with an impressive scientific programme including 40 Keynote lectures and two Nobel prizes, without parallel sessions, covering a wide spectrum of Nanotechnology research. In 2005, more than 360 scientists worldwide attended this event and contributed with more than 60 oral contributions and 250 posters, stimulating discussions about their most recent research.The aim of the conference was to focus on the applications of Nanotechnology and to bring together, in a scientific forum, various worldwide groups belonging to industry, universities and government institutions. TNT2005 was particularly effective at transmitting information and establishing contacts among workers in this field. Graduate students attending such conferences have understood the importance of interdisciplinary skills to afford their future research lines. 76 graduate students received a grant allowing them to present their work. 28 prizes to the best posters were awarded during this event. We would like to thank all the participants for their assistance, as well as the authors for their written contributions.TNT2005 is

  10. Connecting Learners: The Role of Biotechnology Programme in Preparing Students for the Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Saruan, Nadiah; Sagran, Avinash; Fadzil, Kamal Solhaimi; Razali, Zuliana; Ow Phui San, Rebecca; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth of biotechnology requires a wide range of expertise within the industry. Education is the primary platform for students to gain information and knowledge on biotechnology. In Malaysia where biotechnology is relatively new, education programs and courses must be tailored to meet the demands of the industry. A combination of…

  11. Connecting Learners: The Role of Biotechnology Programme in Preparing Students for the Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Saruan, Nadiah; Sagran, Avinash; Fadzil, Kamal Solhaimi; Razali, Zuliana; Ow Phui San, Rebecca; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth of biotechnology requires a wide range of expertise within the industry. Education is the primary platform for students to gain information and knowledge on biotechnology. In Malaysia where biotechnology is relatively new, education programs and courses must be tailored to meet the demands of the industry. A combination of…

  12. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) for a 2- year period. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within...

  13. 75 FR 1749 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition and... Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status for corn designated as transformation event....aphis.usda.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Subray Hegde, Biotechnology Regulatory Services...

  14. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions for...

  15. 76 FR 27653 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA.... lactis certified host-vector 1 system. In addition, the Office of Biotechnology Activities is updating...: Background documentation and additional information can be obtained from the Office of Biotechnology...

  16. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The First Spanish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is…

  17. Nanotechnology: Role in dental biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are surface- adherent populations of microorganisms consisting of cells, water and extracellular matrix material Nanotechnology is promising field of science which can guide our understanding of the role of interspecies interaction in the development of biofilm. Streptococcus mutans with other species of bacteria has been known to form dental biofilm. The correlation between genetically modified bacteria Streptococcus mutans and nanoscale morphology has been assessed using AFMi.e atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology application includes 16 O/ 18 O reverse proteolytic labeling,use of quantum dots for labeling of bacterial cells, selective removal of cariogenic bacteria while preserving the normal oral flora and silver antimicrobial nanotechnology against pathogens associated with biofilms. The future comprises a mouthwash full of smart nanomachines which can allow the harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem

  18. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  19. NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer funds the Cancer Nanotechnology Training Centers collectively with the NCI Cancer Training Center. Find out about the funded Centers, to date, that train our next generation of scientists in the field of Canc

  20. Chemical engineers, nanotechnology and future green economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is envisaged to address present human needs and secure living comforts of future generations cheaply, faster and more cleanly. To date, nanotechnology's impact on the economy and on our daily lives has been enormous....

  1. Nanotechnologies, bioethics and human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visciano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale science, research, and technology present a complex set of circumstances. First of all, this field involves many different subjects, including biology, chemistry, physics, and environment sciences. Secondly, although scientists are working increasingly at a molecular level, nanotechnology is about much more than a reduction of scale. Indeed, nanoscience and Nanotechnologies offer an unprecedented ability to control and manipulate nature, offering hope for progress. Ethical perspectives vary considerably in this field, but commentators and researchers share a concern about a specific worrisome issue: the lack of appropriate ethical and legal principles and processes (associated with issues including health risks, human body manipulation, and private life violation), to guide nanotechnological R&D, commercialization, and final use. Some authors partially reject this concern by suggesting that Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies do not constitute an autonomous category, and that they are instead just the operative result of combining other traditional areas of study. However the nanotechnological debate brings up the semantic and content issues of bioethics and foments a contentious discussion emphasizing human dignity. Issues include enhancement versus therapeutic intervention, traceability versus privacy, and societal benefits versus risks. From these preliminary considerations, we will move on to discuss (I) the traditional, although still controversial, relationship between bioethics and human dignity, and (II) return to the subject of nanotechnology. We will discuss how today in Europe, although still indefinite, the principle of respect for human dignity is a welcomed contributor to "ethical vigilance" about the uncertain development of new nano-scale technologies. We will also note how U.S. strategy in this regard is simply lacking and appears only as a purely discursive "key issue in long term ".

  2. DNA nanotechnology and fluorescence applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Jungmann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology allow researchers to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA strands to construct nanoscale objects with almost arbitrary complexity in two and three dimensions. Abstracted as molecular breadboards, DNA nanostructures enable nanometer-precise placement of guest molecules such as proteins, fluorophores, or nanoparticles. These assemblies can be used to study biological phenomena with unprecedented control over number, spacing, and molecular identity. Here, we give a general introduction to structural DNA nanotechnology and more specifically discuss applications of DNA nanostructures in the field of fluorescence and plasmonics.

  3. Nanotechnology in medicine emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Gene

    2014-01-01

    This book will describe some of the most recent breakthroughs and promising developments in the search for improved diagnostics and therapies at the very small scales of living biological systems. While still very much a technology in the research and development stage, nanotechnology is already transforming today's medicine. This book, written by a general science author, provides a general overview of medical treatment potentials of nanotechnology in new, more effective drug delivery systems, in less invasive, ultra-small scale medical tools, and in new materials that can mimic or enhance natural materials like living tissue.

  4. Nanotechnology in medicine emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Gene

    2012-01-01

    This book will describe some of the most recent breakthroughs and promising developments in the search for improved diagnostics and therapies at the very small scales of living biological systems. While still very much a technology in the research and development stage, nanotechnology is already transforming today's medicine. This book, written by a general science author, provides a general overview of medical treatment potentials of nanotechnology in new, more effective drug delivery systems, in less invasive, ultra-small scale medical tools, and in new materials that can mimic or enhance na

  5. Stem cell tracking by nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Erratico, Silvia; Razini, Paola; Fiori, Fabrizio; Rustichelli, Franco; Torrente, Yvan; Belicchi, Marzia

    2010-03-12

    Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and X-Ray computed microtomography (microCT). This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking.

  6. Stem Cell Tracking by Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Belicchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET, single-photon emission tomography (SPECT, magnetic resonance (MR imaging, and X-Ray computed microtomography (microCT. This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking.

  7. Nanophotonics: The link between nanotechnology and photonics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and importance ? CSIR 2012 www.csir.co.za/nano Slide 2 ? Birth and definition of nanotechnology ? Benefits of nanotechnology ? The link between nanotechnology and photonics: Nanophotonics ? Importance and future of nanophotonics... of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big ? Richard Feynman, 1959 Birth of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 1980...

  8. Situation in Europe and the World: The European Nanotechnology Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, M.

    Nanotechnology is a complex and rapidly changing field, which is often difficult to assess in terms of opportunities, challenges and risks. Due to its strong interdisciplinary nature and rapid evolution, nanotechnology has wide-spread and fragmented impacts. Thus, the creation of a reliable source of data and analysis, which is continuously monitored and updated, is critical to provide comprehensive information to decision makers. Governments and businesses are interested in the market potential of nanotechnology enabled products and processes (estimated to underpin a total market of up to one trillion US dollars by 2015); and the possibility of these products contributing significantly to alleviating global problems such as major diseases, energy, clean drinking water, and environmental pollution. However, it is also recognized that the socio-economic impacts of nanotechnologies are often exaggerated or placed in an over-optimistic time-frame. Furthermore, nanotechnologies, as with any new technology, have potential risks (socio-economic, to human health, and the environment), and it is important that these are identified early on and appropriate actions taken, to ensure that development occurs in a safe and responsible manner. Even more important are the `unknowns' which will inevitably remain by the time nano-enhanced products reach the market, and will require more advanced forms of risk communication and corporate responsiveness to ensure market success.

  9. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin, E-mail: xinli@eller.arizona.edu; Hu, Daning, E-mail: hud@eller.arizona.edu; Dang Yan, E-mail: ydang@eller.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun, E-mail: hchen@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Departmet of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States); Larson, Catherine A., E-mail: cal@eller.arizona.edu; Chan, Joyce, E-mail: joycepchan@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.eduhttp://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976-2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005-2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system.

  10. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  11. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sardjono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  12. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  13. Engineering applications of nanotechnology from energy to drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Nor

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of nanotechnology in several fields of engineering. Among others, the reader will find valuable information as to how nanotechnology can aid in extending the life of component materials exposed to corrosive atmospheres, in thermal fluid energy conversion processes, anti-reflection coatings on photovoltaic cells to yield enhanced output from solar cells, in connection with friction and wear reduction in automobiles, and buoyancy suppression in free convective heat transfer. Moreover, this unique resource presents the latest research on nanoscale transport phenomena and concludes with a look at likely future trends.

  14. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  15. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  16. Nanotechnology and Society: A discussion-based undergraduate course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Charles; Leung, Ricky; Zenner, G. M.; Ellison, K. D.; Crone, W. C.; Miller, Clark A.

    2006-05-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a broad, exciting, yet ill-defined field of scientific research and technological innovation. There are important questions about the technology's potential economic, social, and environmental implications. We discuss an undergraduate course on nanoscience and nanotechnology for students from a wide range of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, the humanities, and engineering. The course explores these questions and the broader place of technology in contemporary societies. The course is built around active learning methods and seeks to develop the students' critical thinking skills, written and verbal communication abilities, and general knowledge of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts. Continuous assessment was used to gain information about the effectiveness of class discussions and enhancement of student understanding of the interaction between nanotechnology and society.

  17. Application of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials in Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhani, Nader; Emami, Milad; Moghadam, A. B. Taghavi

    2011-12-01

    Micro and nano technologies have already contributed significantly to technological advances in a number of industries, including electronics, biomedical, pharmaceutical, materials and manufacturing, aerospace, photography and more recently the energy industries. Micro and nanotechnologies have the potential to introduce revolutionary changes in several areas of the oil and gas industries such as exploration, drilling, production, refining and distribution. For example, nanosensors might provide more detailed and accurate information about reservoirs and smart fluids for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling. This paper examines and documents applicable nanotechnology base products that can improve the competitiveness of the oil and gas industry. The future challenges of nanotechnology application in the oil and gas industry are also discussed.

  18. Nanotechnology and Society A discussion-based undergraduate course

    CERN Document Server

    Tahan, C; Zenner, G M; Ellison, K D; Crone, W C; Miller, C A; Tahan, Charles; Leung, Ricky; Miller, Clark A.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a broad and exciting, yet ill-defined, field of scientific research and technological innovation. Important questions have arisen about the technology's potential economic, social, and environmental implications by prominent technology leaders, nanotechnology boosters, science fiction authors, policy officials, and environmental organizations. We have developed an undergraduate course that offers an opportunity for students from a wide range of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, humanities, and engineering, to learn about nanoscience and nanotechnology, to explore these questions, and to reflect on the broader place of technology in modern societies. The course is built around active learning methods and seeks to develop the students' critical thinking skills, written and verbal communication abilities, and general knowledge of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts. Continuous assessment was used to gain information about the effectiveness of class discuss...

  19. Biotechnology and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Biotechnology, in general terms, is the science and engineering of using living organisms for making useful products such as pharmaceuticals, foods , fuels...chemicals, materials or in waste treatment processes and clinical and chemical analyses. It encompases the prosaic form of using yeast cells to make...ductile component of the composite. Table 1. Mechanical Properties of Ceramics, Cermets, and Abalone Shell •if KIC Hardness MPa MPam 1n 2 /2 Mohs KIlN

  20. Genetic manipulation in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, R.; Atkinson, T.

    1981-04-04

    The role of genetic manipulation in opening up new possibilities in biotechnology is discussed and the basic steps in a recombinant DNA experiment are summarized. Some current and future applications of this technology in the fields of medicine, industry and agriculture are presented, including, conversion of wastes to SCP, chemicals and alcohols, plant improvement and the introduction of nitrogen fixation genes into plants as an alternative to the use of nitrogen fertilizers.

  1. BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOPRODUCTS "HEALING-1"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Artiukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechnological properties of native cultures created a new consortium of microorganisms containing lactic acid streptococci and bacilli, allowing the maximum extent possible to implement the physiological, biochemical and technological potential of microorganisms. Scientifically substantiated and experimentally developed a new biotechnology production of bioproducts «Healing-1», obtained on the basis of microbial consortium with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Experimentally investigated quality parameters of organic food «Healing-1» using a new microbial consortium as freshly prepared and during storage. Found that antagonistic activity of microflora bio «Healing-1» with respect to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, as well as its resistance to substances in the gastrointestinal tract of man is more pronounced compared to bioproducts obtained using a separate starter, members of the microbial consortium. It should be noted a more pronounced synthesis of exopolysaccharides in bioproduct «Healing-1», which leads to increased viscosity of the system and improves the consistency of bio. New bioproducts have good organoleptic characteristics and contain a high number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria. High stability and survival of lactic acid bacteria during storage. In the study of attacked proteins bioproducts digestive proteinases «in vitro» found that the fermentation of milk microbial consortium increases the digestibility

  2. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production of...... for the production of non-native 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP).3HP can be chemically dehydrated into acrylic acid and thus can serve as a biosustainable building block for acrylate-based products (diapers, acrylic paints, acrylic polymers, etc.)...

  3. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  4. The relationship of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding biotechnology in college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohan, Donna Elizabeth

    Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized such fields as agriculture and the health sciences. However, along with the benefits of biotechnology are concerns. For biotechnology's potential to be realized, it must be accepted on public and governmental levels. Although many studies focus on adult consumer attitudes, it will be the students of today who will be the consumers and leaders of tomorrow. Therefore, this study focused on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of college students regarding biotechnology. More than 3,000 undergraduate students were surveyed from a variety of undergraduate courses at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas during the 1997-1998 academic year. Information sought included students' knowledge regarding recent applications of biotechnology, demographic information, and their agreement or disagreement with statements regarding different aspects and applications of biotechnology. This study found that despite a low awareness or knowledge of biotechnology, students were accepting of specific applications or products of biotechnology. Those applications or products viewed as beneficial without involving animals had the highest acceptance levels. A majority of the students identified mass media as their major source of biotechnology while also indicating a high level of distrust of the media. Students also indicated that biotechnology information is needed and that such information is appropriate for high school students. Relationships between knowledge and attitudes were also investigated. A greater knowledge level correlated with a more favorable view of biotechnology. In addition, relationships between demographic variables such as gender and race were investigated. Individuals who identified themselves as scientists were found more accepting of biotechnology while females in general were found less accepting. Females majoring in education were found to be the least

  5. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E.Rittmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wide ranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the black box of microbial communities.Also crucial is translating the understanding to biotechnological processes that ″work for the microorganisms so that they work for us″.Successful translation demands novel reactor designs,application of advanced materials,and partnering with practitioners and users.The Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology,founded in at Arizona State University in 2005,brings together the science and engineering tools in an inter disciplinary environment.The Center emphasizes teamwork and collaborations with research and practice partners around the world.Three new technologies illustrate how the Center applies these principles to ″work for the microorganisms″:the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR for reducing many oxidized contaminants in water,the microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs for converting organic wastes into renewable products,and Intimately Coupled PhotoBioCatalysis (ICPBC to detoxify very difficult to biodegrade organic pollutants.

  6. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  7. ANTS: Exploring the Solar System with an Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S.; Rilee, M.; Truszkowski, W.; Marr, G.

    2002-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a NASA advanced mission concept, calls for a large (1000 member) swarm of pico-class (1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft to prospect the asteroid belt. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  9. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  10. Nanotechnology for the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    The letter discusses the indispensable importance of Nanotechnology for the scientific and economical revival of the developing world. Similar to the nuclear age, and maybe far more so, the nanoage will be something of a Hemingway line of demarcation between the have and the have nots.

  11. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  13. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  14. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular biology and molecular genetics, especially of the recombinant DNA technology enabled improvement of experimental methods that provide manipulation within a cell-free system, such as cell and tissue cultures. Such methods resulted in the development of different new technologies with specific properties in relation to the conventional definitions. According to PERSLEY and lantin (2000 the following components are essential for the contemporary biotechnology: (i genomics - a molecular characterization of all genes and gene products of an organism (ii bioinformatics - the assembly of data from genomic analysis into accessible forms; (iii transformation - the introduction of genes controlling a trait of interest into a genome of a desired organism (micro organisms, plants, animal systems. By the application of cotemporary biotechnology new methods in the field of diagnostic are developed such as rapid and more accurate identification of the presence and absence of genes in the genome of the organism of interest (identification of pathogens prenatal diagnostics, molecular markers assisted breeding for plants, etc. The traits of an organism are determined by its genetic material, i.e. by a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. watson and crick (1953 were the first scientists to describe the structure of DNA as a double-stranded helix. Higher organisms contain a set of linear DNA molecules - chromosomes and a full set of chromosomes of an organism is a genome. Each genome is divided into a series of functional units, i.e. genes. The traits of an organism depend on genes, but their expression depends not only on genes but also on many other factors, including whether a gene, controlling the trait, expresses, specific cells in which it expresses and specially the mode by which the gene and its product interact with the environment. A special aspect within the application of biotechnology occurs as an interaction of a

  15. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  16. Biotechnology and Consumer Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value. This article is forward-thinking in that it suggests that important research in behavioral decision-making, specifically affect and ambiguity, can be used to help consumers make informed choices about major applications of biotechnology. This article highlights some of the most controversial examples: vaccinations, genetically engineered food, rbST treated dairy cows, fluoridated water, and embryonic stem cell research. In many of these areas, consumers perceive the risks as high, but the experts calculate the risks as low. Four major thematic approaches are proposed to create a roadmap for policymakers to consider for policy design and implementation in controversial areas of biotechnology. This article articulates future directions for studies that implement decision-making research to allow consumers to appropriately assign risk to their options and make informed decisions.

  17. How Japanese students reason about agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumi; Macer, Darryl

    2004-10-01

    Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a "neutral" position. A report was scored as "neutral" when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong ''for" or "against" position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology.

  18. Visual framing of nanotechnology in newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    discourse, very little research into to the visual communication of science in public has been carried out. Nanotechnology is an emerging scientific discipline that just recently has entered the public sphere. Surveys show that most Europeans and most Americans have very little knowledge about...... nanotechnology. Even so, there is a marked difference between Europeans who generally are cautious, it not skeptical about nanotechnology, and American who seem to have a much more positive attitude towards nanotechnology. Objective This paper surveys visual images used to communicate nanotechnology (and...... nanotechnology-related issues) in the printed press in Denmark from 1993 to 2006. Based on a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology, the survey categorizes and analyzes the images used. Studies have shown that to a high degree newspaper readers use images to navigate...

  19. Biotechnology and bioforensics new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This Brief covers broad areas of Applied Biology specifically into the domains of Biotechnology/Biomedicine and Forensic Science. Chapters included here would also explain the role of bioinformatics in protein and gene characterization, modeling of the protein structure, survey related to the chromosomal effect on Human Disorders like Diabetes and Cardiac Problems. This Brief is full of Innovative Literature like Use of Microbes in Electricity Production, Brain connection to Type 2 Diabetes etc. Interesting issues in Forensic biology and the aspects of Bioforensics like STR profiling of exhumed bones makes this brief truly useful and informative for Researchers. It also includes the advancements and new ideologies in understanding crop improvements & crop quality. This Brief witnesses Innovative Research related to the Bio and Agri software development too which are capable of accelerating Insilico biological data analysis.

  20. Computational nanomedicine and nanotechnology lectures with computer practicums

    CERN Document Server

    Letfullin, Renat R

    2016-01-01

    This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, introduces the basic knowledge required for nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and emphasizes how the combined use of chemistry and light with nanoparticles can serve as treatments and therapies for cancer. This includes nanodevices, nanophototherapies, nanodrug design, and laser heating of nanoparticles and cell organelles. In addition, the book covers the emerging fields of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, which deal with nanoscale confinement of radiation and optical interactions on a scale much smaller than the wavelength of the light. The applications of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics to biomedical research discussed in the book range from optical biosensing to photodynamic therapies. Cutting-edge and reflective of the multidisciplinary nature of nanomedicine, this book effectively combines knowledge and modeling from nanoscience, medicine, biotechnology, physics, optics, engineering, and pharmacy in an easily digestible format. Among...

  1. Seaweed Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Pereira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic marine algae, typically known as macroalgae or seaweeds, form an important living resource of the oceans, as primary producers. People have collected seaweeds for food, both for humans and animals for millennia. They also have been a source of nutrient rich fertilizers, as well as a source of gelling agents known as phycocolloids. More recently macroalgae are playing significant roles in medicine and biotechnology. Although Biotechnology and in particular marine biotechnology may ...

  2. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-01-01

    The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain ...

  3. Achievements and perspectives of nanotechnology in stomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de la Paz Suárez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of nanotechnologies has begun a new period, mainly in scientific investigations. It is reflected in the specialty of stomatology giving place to the emergence of a specific area of knowledge, which has putting forward a new term: nanodentistry. Because of its importance, a bibliographical review was carried out using the services available in Infomed and the specialized databases: Scielo, Mediclatina, Medline and PubMed were reviewed with the objective of updating the information about the advances obtained and the investigations that are developed about the use of nanotechnologies in dentistry. Its use is extended to all the specialties, mainly to the dental operations with the creation of dental materials with nanoparticles increasing the resistance, quality and aesthetics of restorations, as well as the implants with bio-compatible materials that favor the self-repair, avoiding the rejection. These advances revolutionize the way of diagnosing and treating the different buccal diseases and improving the life quality of the population.

  4. Trust as Glue in Nanotechnology Governance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am, Heidrun

    2011-04-01

    This paper reflects on the change of relations among participants in nanotechnology governance through their participation in governance processes such as stakeholder dialogues. I show that policymaking in practice-that is, the practice of coming and working together in such stakeholder dialogues-has the potential for two-fold performative effects: it can contribute to the development of trust and mutual responsibility on the part of the involved actors, and it may bring about effects on the formation of boundaries of what is sayable and thinkable in nanotechnology governance. Three vignettes about the work of the German NanoKommission indicate the development of new relations of trust, recognition and mutual responsibility among actors. It is concluded that governance in practice can assemble new collectives in which relations of trust are the glue holding the complex structure together. While such a consensus-based progress may be favourable for smooth technology development, it can be considered problematic if evaluated against the ideals of deliberative democracy, which often form the premises on which public engagement is based. Stakeholder forums were set in place with the intention of including various actors, but this is Janus-faced: if a dialogue becomes encapsulated in new governance networks, new exclusions can arise. For example, a policing of which information is released to a wider audience can occur.

  5. A Nanotechnology Enhancement to Moore's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intel Moore observed an exponential doubling in the number of transistors in every 18 months through the size reduction of transistor components since 1965. In viewing of mobile computing with insatiate appetite, we explored the necessary enhancement by an increasingly maturing nanotechnology and facing the inevitable quantum-mechanical atomic and nuclei limits. Since we cannot break down the atomic size barrier, the fact implies a fundamental size limit at the atomic/nucleus scale. This means, no more simple 18-month doubling, but other forms of transistor doubling may happen at a different slope. We are particularly interested in the nano enhancement area. (i 3 Dimensions: If the progress in shrinking the in-plane dimensions is to slow down, vertical integration can help increasing the areal device transistor density. As the devices continue to shrink into the 20 to 30 nm range, the consideration of thermal properties and transport in such devices becomes increasingly important. (ii Quantum computing: The other types of transistor material are rapidly developed in laboratories worldwide, for example, Spintronics, Nanostorage, HP display Nanotechnology, which are modifying this Law. We shall consider the limitation of phonon engineering fundamental information unit “Qubyte” in quantum computing, Nano/Micro Electrical Mechanical System (NEMS, Carbon Nanotubes, single-layer Graphenes, single-strip Nano-Ribbons, and so forth.

  6. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors...

  7. Industrial biotechnology: tools and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weng Lin; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-12-01

    Industrial biotechnology involves the use of enzymes and microorganisms to produce value-added chemicals from renewable sources. Because of its association with reduced energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation, industrial biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. Here we highlight a variety of important tools for industrial biotechnology, including protein engineering, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, systems biology, and downstream processing. In addition, we show how these tools have been successfully applied in several case studies, including the production of 1, 3-propanediol, lactic acid, and biofuels. It is expected that industrial biotechnology will be increasingly adopted by chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural industries.

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  9. Biotechnology in the 21st Century (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Das

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The two technologies that will essentially determine the shape of things to come in the present century are biotechnology and information technology. A merger of biotechnology and information technology is happening right now, a significant example of which is the success of the human genome project. Biotechnology can be said to have started with the unravelling of the structure of DNA in 1953. The next decade saw exciting developments in our understanding of the fundamentals of functioning of biological system, including the role of DNA in protein synthesis. The discovery of reverse transcriptase and restriction enzymes in 1970s paved the way for further advances, including recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies, often called 'genetic engineering'. The discovery of polymerase chain reaction in 1986 laid the foundation for large-scale applications of biotechnology in various fields. The practical applications of mapping of the entire human genome would be enormous in terms of better overall health care (diagnosis, therapy and management of disorders. In the field of flora and fauna, it generally happens that biotechnologically-rich countries have poor biodiversity and vice versa. But countries like India and China that have rich biodiversity have, by the use of biotechnology, the potential to become also biotechnologically rich.

  10. Nanotechnology applications in foods-packagings and importance for seafoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göknur Sürengil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology 100 nanometer scale in a small and rapidly developing science and technology field. Each area of nanotechnology to create advanced products with new techniques, medicine, health, food, packaging materials and systems, pharmaceutical, electronic industries, such as benefits. Utilization of nanotechnology in the food sector to a limited extent useful and impor¬tant, although still used. In recent years, studies worldwide food industry is seeking ways to exploit this technology the most. On the other hand more recently because of the increase in consumption of food, fresh food is prepared and to be resistant for a long time became a prio¬rity and has focused on these issues. Especially in terms of food quality and shelf life of pro¬cessed meat and fishery products and packing of fresh fruits and vegetables are underway. Na¬notechnology in the food industry creates new food and intelligent packaging systems. Especi¬ally recently developed edible films, antimicrobial packaging, biodegradable materials, such as technological systems nanosensörler food safety and shelf life can be controlled. Nanofood technology is gaining increasing importance in the world although precise information be ob¬tained about the effects on public health and the environment. In this article, nanotechnology, and aquatic products industry has been compiled to date information about the fields and met¬hods.

  11. Use and potential of nanotechnology in cosmetic dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pierfrancesco MorgantiDepartment of Dermatology and Venereal Diseases, II University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Biotechnology and nanotechnology are the key technologies of the twenty-first century, having enormous potential for innovation and growth. The academic and industrial goals for these technologies are the development of nanoscale biomolecular substances and analytical instruments for investigating cell biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Developments in nanotechnology will provide opportunities for cosmetic dermatology to develop new biocompatible and biodegradable therapeutics, delivery systems and more active compounds. Cosmetics have the primary function of keeping up a good appearance, changing the appearance, or correcting body odors, while maintaining the skin and its surroundings in good conditions. Thus cosmetic dermatology, recognizing the new realities of skin care products, has to emphasize the functional aspects of cosmetics through an understanding of their efficacy and safety in promoting good health. Nanoscience may help the scientific community to find more innovative and efficacious cosmetics. Understanding the physical model of the cell as a machine is essential to understand how all the cell components work together to accomplish a task. The efficacy and safety of new nanomaterials has to be deeply studied by ex vivo tests and innovative laboratory techniques. New delivery systems and natural nanocompounds, such as chitin nanofibrils for wound healing, are being used in cosmetic dermatology with good results, as are nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO sunscreens. The challenge is open.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanobiotechnology, delivery systems, chitin nanofibrils, TiO2, ZnO

  12. Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...

  13. Nanotechnology: a slightly different history

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory articles and books about nanotechnology have been written to disseminate this apparently new technology, which investigate and manipulates matter at dimension of a billionth of a meter. However, these texts show in general a common feature: there is very little about the origins of this multidisciplinary field. If anything is mentioned at all, a few dates, facts and characters are reinforced, which under the scrutiny of a careful historical digging do not sustain as really founding landmarks of the field. Nevertheless, in spite of these flaws, such historical narratives bring up important elements to understand and contextualize this human endeavor, as well as the corresponding dissemination among the public: would nanotechnology be a cultural imperative?

  14. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  15. [Nanotechnology--possibilities and hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopczyński, Tomasz; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are the objects with at least one demension smaller than 100 nm. Nanoparticles exist in nature or can be produced by human activities, intentionally or unintentionally. Nanotechnology is an emerging science involving manipulation of matter at nanometer scale. Nanoparticles find numerous applications in many fields, starting with electronics, throught medicine, cosmetology, and ending with automotive industry and construction industry. Depending on the use of nanoparticles, the routes of exposure may be inhalation, dermal, oral or parenteral. Nanoparticles have a greater active surface area per unit mass than larger particles. Together with an increase of surface area, toxicity and potential health effects may also increase. Toxicity of nanoparticles depend on many factors, for example: size, shape, chemical composition, solubility, surface area and surface charge. Risk assessment related to human health, should be integrated at all stages of the life cycle of the nanotechnology, starting at the point of conception and including research and development, manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal or recycling.

  16. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  17. Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-05-01

    Founded on the growing insight into the complex cancer-immune system interactions, adjuvant immunotherapies are rapidly emerging and being adapted for the treatment of various human malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, for example, have already shown clinical success. Nevertheless, many approaches are not optimized, require frequent administration, are associated with systemic toxicities and only show modest efficacy as monotherapies. Nanotechnology can potentially enhance the efficacy of such immunotherapies by improving the delivery, retention and release of immunostimulatory agents and biologicals in targeted cell populations and tissues. This review presents the current status and emerging trends in such nanotechnology-based cancer immunotherapies including the role of nanoparticles as carriers of immunomodulators, nanoparticles-based cancer vaccines, and depots for sustained immunostimulation. Also highlighted are key translational challenges and opportunities in this rapidly growing field.

  18. Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-29

    Nanoparticles are near-atomic scale structures between 1 and 100 nanometers (one billionth of a meter). Engineered nanoparticles are intentionally created and are used in research and development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study, presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and uncertainties associated with the use of unbound engineered nanoscale particles (UNP) in a laboratory environment.

  19. Stem Cell Tracking by Nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Marzia Belicchi; Yvan Torrente; Franco Rustichelli; Fabrizio Fiori; Paola Razini; Silvia Erratico; Chiara Villa

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission ...

  20. Textbook of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, B S; Raj, Baldev; Rath, B B; Murday, James

    2013-01-01

    This book is meant to serve as a textbook for beginners in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can also be used as additional reading in this multifaceted area. It covers the entire spectrum of nanoscience and technology: introduction, terminology, historical perspectives of this domain of science, unique and widely differing properties, advances in the various synthesis, consolidation and characterization techniques, applications of nanoscience and technology and emerging materials and technologies.

  1. Post-genomics nanotechnology is gaining momentum: nanoproteomics and applications in life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissy, Firas H; Gulbakan, Basri; Alawieh, Ali; Karam, Pierre; Zhang, Zhiqun; Guingab-Cagmat, Joy D; Mondello, Stefania; Tan, Weihong; Anagli, John; Wang, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The post-genomics era has brought about new Omics biotechnologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, as well as their novel applications to personal genomics and the quantified self. These advances are now also catalyzing other and newer post-genomics innovations, leading to convergences between Omics and nanotechnology. In this work, we systematically contextualize and exemplify an emerging strand of post-genomics life sciences, namely, nanoproteomics and its applications in health and integrative biological systems. Nanotechnology has been utilized as a complementary component to revolutionize proteomics through different kinds of nanotechnology applications, including nanoporous structures, functionalized nanoparticles, quantum dots, and polymeric nanostructures. Those applications, though still in their infancy, have led to several highly sensitive diagnostics and new methods of drug delivery and targeted therapy for clinical use. The present article differs from previous analyses of nanoproteomics in that it offers an in-depth and comparative evaluation of the attendant biotechnology portfolio and their applications as seen through the lens of post-genomics life sciences and biomedicine. These include: (1) immunosensors for inflammatory, pathogenic, and autoimmune markers for infectious and autoimmune diseases, (2) amplified immunoassays for detection of cancer biomarkers, and (3) methods for targeted therapy and automatically adjusted drug delivery such as in experimental stroke and brain injury studies. As nanoproteomics becomes available both to the clinician at the bedside and the citizens who are increasingly interested in access to novel post-genomics diagnostics through initiatives such as the quantified self, we anticipate further breakthroughs in personalized and targeted medicine.

  2. Biotechnological applications of microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Loy Chu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are important biologicalresources that have a wide range of biotechnologicalapplications. Due to their high nutritional value,microalgae such as Spirulina and Chlorella are beingmass cultured for health food. A variety of high-valueproducts including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA,pigments such as carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, andbioactive compounds are useful as nutraceuticals andpharmaceuticals, as well as for industrial applications. Interms of environmental biotechnology, microalgae areuseful for bioremediation of agro-industrial wastewater,and as a biological tool for assessment and monitoring ofenvironmental toxicants such as heavy metals, pesticidesand pharmaceuticals. In recent years, microalgae haveattracted much interest due to their potential use asfeedstock for biodiesel production. In Malaysia, therehas been active research on microalgal biotechnologyfor the past 30 years, tapping into the potential of ourrich microalgal resources for high-value products andapplications in wastewater treatment and assessmentof environmental toxicants. A culture collection ofmicroalgae has been established, and this serves asan important resource for microalgal biotechnologyresearch. Microalgal biotechnology should continue tobe regarded as a priority area of research in this country.

  3. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  4. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  5. Applications of nanotechnology in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLouise, Lisa A

    2012-03-01

    What are nanoparticles and why are they important in dermatology? These questions are addressed by highlighting recent developments in the nanotechnology field that have increased the potential for intentional and unintentional nanoparticle skin exposure. The role of environmental factors in the interaction of nanoparticles with skin and the potential mechanisms by which nanoparticles may influence skin response to environmental factors are discussed. Trends emerging from recent literature suggest that the positive benefit of engineered nanoparticles for use in cosmetics and as tools for understanding skin biology and curing skin disease outweigh potential toxicity concerns. Discoveries reported in this journal are highlighted. This review begins with a general introduction to the field of nanotechnology and nanomedicine. This is followed by a discussion of the current state of understanding of nanoparticle skin penetration and their use in three therapeutic applications. Challenges that must be overcome to derive clinical benefit from the application of nanotechnology to skin are discussed last, providing perspective on the significant opportunity that exists for future studies in investigative dermatology.

  6. Nanotechnology in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Graham G; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Momeni, Arash; Atashroo, David; Hu, Michael S; Feroze, Abdullah H; Wong, Victor W; Lorenz, Peter H; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology represents a major frontier with potential to significantly advance the field of bone tissue engineering. Current limitations in regenerative strategies include impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation, insufficient mechanical strength of scaffolds, and inadequate production of extrinsic factors necessary for efficient osteogenesis. Here we review several major areas of research in nanotechnology with potential implications in bone regeneration: 1) nanoparticle-based methods for delivery of bioactive molecules, growth factors, and genetic material, 2) nanoparticle-mediated cell labeling and targeting, and 3) nano-based scaffold construction and modification to enhance physicochemical interactions, biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and cellular attachment/survival. As these technologies continue to evolve, ultimate translation to the clinical environment may allow for improved therapeutic outcomes in patients with large bone deficits and osteodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, the reconstruction of bony defects has relied on the use of bone grafts. With advances in nanotechnology, there has been significant development of synthetic biomaterials. In this article, the authors provided a comprehensive review on current research in nanoparticle-based therapies for bone tissue engineering, which should be useful reading for clinicians as well as researchers in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenge of Biotechnology (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R. Dando

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The unravelling of the human genetic code whose first draft was announced in June 2000 has rightly blood been hailed as a momentous achievement, opening thc book of life, certain to be the dominant technology of the 21st century, which will inform all about medicine and biology. and lead us to a total understanding of life. Simultaneously, concerns have been expressed about thc implications of this work. In the past, major new technologies have been used intensively for hostile purposes. What is thc challenge that biotechnology poses in this regard'? This review paper looks at the enormous changes in civil society that thc genomics revolution could bring. Against this background, thc growing concerns about its potential misuses have been reviewed. Thc strengths and weaknesses or the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC are then touched upon. The BTWC presently lacks an adequate verification mechanism. Although biotechnology has been used by human beings since prehistoric times (eg. making of bread. cheese. wines its scientific understanding came only in the latter part of the 19th century. Thc decisive turning point in the field came in the 1970s with the advent of genetic engineering. In the military context classical agents like anthrax and toxin remain the threat today. Although thc current level or sophistication for many biological agents is low, there is enormous potential for making more sophisticated weapons. It might be possible to specifically target the genetic makeup of different ethnic groups. The limited varieties of staple crops and the limited strains of modern animals make agriculture particularly open to attack. Another serious possibility is the impact of genomics in neuroscience. With a better understanding of cellular receptor systems and bioregulators, it is not inconceivable that new means would be evolved for disturbing the functions of the nervous system. Thc genomics revolution can be used for peaceful purposes

  8. Information beyond the forum: Motivations, strategies, and impacts of citizen participants seeking information during a consensus conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A; Delborne, Jason; Kleinman, Daniel Lee

    2013-11-01

    During traditional consensus conferences, organizers control the formal information available to participants-by compiling structured background materials and recruiting expert panelists. Less formally, however, participants are encouraged to bring their own experiences into the deliberations, and in doing so, they often seek outside information. We explore this heretofore understudied phenomenon of information seeking during a deliberative event: the U.S. National Citizens' Technology Forum (2008), which addressed the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science on the potential development of human-enhancement technologies. Through interviews with participants and observation of in-person and online deliberations, we identify outside information-seeking strategies and motivations. Our study demonstrates that conceptualizing models of deliberation as standalone settings of communication exchange ignores the reality of the complex information environment from which deliberative participants draw when making sense of technical issues. Future citizen deliberations must incorporate outside information seeking in the design of the exercises.

  9. Metagenomics: advances in ecology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Helen L; Streit, Wolfgang R

    2005-06-15

    This review highlights the significant advances which have been made in prokaryotic ecology and biotechnology due to the application of metagenomic techniques. It is now possible to link processes to specific microorganisms in the environment, such as the detection of a new phototrophic process in marine bacteria, and to characterise the metabolic cooperation which takes place in mixed species biofilms. The range of prokaryote derived products available for biotechnology applications is increasing rapidly. The knowledge gained from analysis of biosynthetic pathways provides valuable information about enzymology and allows engineering of biocatalysts for specific processes. The expansion of metagenomic techniques to include alternative heterologous hosts for gene expression and the development of sophisticated assays which enable screening of thousands of clones offers the possibility to find out even more valuable information about the prokaryotic world.

  10. biotechnology in aquaculture: prospects and challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOSEPH

    to study ways that biotechnology can increase the production of fish and shellfish. Biotechnology allows ... This article describes ways in which biotechnology is .... Vaccines: Modern technology is also of great value in the field of vaccines and.

  11. Bioprospecting and biotechnological applications of fungal laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Pooja; Shrivastava, Rahul; Agrawal, Pavan Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Laccase belongs to a small group of enzymes called the blue multicopper oxidases, having the potential ability of oxidation. It belongs to enzymes, which have innate properties of reactive radical production, but its utilization in many fields has been ignored because of its unavailability in the commercial field. There are diverse sources of laccase producing organisms like bacteria, fungi and plants. In fungi, laccase is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, Basidiomycetes and is particularly abundant in many white-rot fungi that degrade lignin. Laccases can degrade both phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. They also have the ability to detoxify a range of environmental pollutants. Due to their property to detoxify a range of pollutants, they have been used for several purposes in many industries including paper, pulp, textile and petrochemical industries. Some other application of laccase includes in food processing industry, medical and health care. Recently, laccase has found applications in other fields such as in the design of biosensors and nanotechnology. The present review provides an overview of biological functions of laccase, its mechanism of action, laccase mediator system, and various biotechnological applications of laccase obtained from endophytic fungi.

  12. Potential of carbon nanotubes in algal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya Dimova; Lavecchia, Teresa; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Antal, Taras Kornelievich; Orlanducci, Silvia; Margonelli, Andrea; Rea, Giuseppina

    2015-09-01

    A critical mass of knowledge is emerging on the interactions between plant cells and engineered nanomaterials, revealing the potential of plant nanobiotechnology to promote and support novel solutions for the development of a competitive bioeconomy. This knowledge can foster the adoption of new methodological strategies to empower the large-scale production of biomass from commercially important microalgae. The present review focuses on the potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance photosynthetic performance of microalgae by (i) widening the spectral region available for the energy conversion reactions and (ii) increasing the tolerance of microalgae towards unfavourable conditions occurring in mass production. To this end, current understanding on the mechanisms of uptake and localization of CNTs in plant cells is discussed. The available ecotoxicological data were used in an attempt to assess the feasibility of CNT-based applications in algal biotechnology, by critically correlating the experimental conditions with the observed adverse effects. Furthermore, main structural and physicochemical properties of single- and multi-walled CNTs and common approaches for the functionalization and characterization of CNTs in biological environment are presented. Here, we explore the potential that nanotechnology can offer to enhance functions of algae, paving the way for a more efficient use of photosynthetic algal systems in the sustainable production of energy, biomass and high-value compounds.

  13. Biotech 101: an educational outreach program in genetics and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Kelly M; Hott, Adam M; Callanan, Nancy P; Lamb, Neil E

    2012-10-01

    Recent advances in research and biotechnology are making genetics and genomics increasingly relevant to the lives and health of the general public. For the public to make informed healthcare and public policy decisions relating to genetic information, there is a need for increased genetic literacy. Biotech 101 is a free, short-course for the local community introducing participants to topics in genetics, genomics, and biotechnology, created at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Biotech 101 in increasing the genetic literacy of program participants through pre-and-post surveys. Genetic literacy was measured through increases in self-perceived knowledge for each content area covered through the course and the self-reported impact the course had on various aspects of participants' lives. Three hundred ninety-two individuals attended Biotech 101 during the first three course offerings. Participants reported a significant increase in self-perceived knowledge for each content area (p biotechnology.

  14. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  15. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  16. Biotechnology's new wave in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Marine biotechnology is a new economic sector globally, and is in its infancy in Florida. As an industry, it is still a very small part of biotechnology overall, but one where Florida has potential and real advantages over many areas for developing a robust commercial, technical and educational investment. (8pp.)

  17. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  18. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  19. EDITORIAL: New developments for Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welland, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this first issue of Nanotechnology for 2007 the journal has taken another step forward in its extraordinary growth and development of the past 5 years. The reader will notice two important changes that have been introduced primarily in response to the exponential rise in submissions to the journal: the contents have been restructured into sections and publication will now be weekly. These latest changes, however, are not the only ones that have been made to the journal and its service to authors and readers. A modern journal has many tools at its disposal that journals of even 10 years ago simply did not. Electronic submission and refereeing, web-based publication, author services such as free electronic reprints and an email alerting service, to name but a few. Published by a learned society, Nanotechnology has constantly responded to the needs of authors and readers alike drawing upon the extensive experience and tools of IOP Publishing. Nanotechnology is of course an exploding field and it is therefore perhaps unsurprising to see a growth in the number of submissions to the journal. However, an inspection of the data surrounding submissions over the past 4 years reveals a disproportionate growth in the success of the journal itself. In 2002 there were 419 submitted papers of which 208 were accepted and published in 6 issues. In 2005 we received 75% more submissions over 2002, had a reduced acceptance rate of 44% and published 12 issues. 2006 showed, in just one year, a growth over 2005 of greater than 50% in the number of submissions. This growth of course does present challenges. The paper issues of the journal have been increasing in mass, hence a move to weekly publishing, and the sheer number of papers means that finding an article on a specific topic can be difficult for readers and authors, hence the move to sections. Sections will also help the Editorial Board in ensuring that the journal has a balanced portfolio of papers reflecting the broad

  20. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jameel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  1. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Richard, E-mail: rich@global.ucsb.edu [University of California at Santa Barbara, MacArthur Foundation Chair in Sociology and Global & International Studies Co-PI, Center for Nanotechnology and Society, Social Science and Media Studies 2103 (United States); Zayago Lau, Edgar [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV, Zacatenco)., Multidisciplinary Graduate Programs (Mexico); Foladori, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico); Parker, Rachel [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Research Programs (Canada); Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (Mexico); Belmont, Eduardo Robles [UNAM, Institute for Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems (IIMAS) (Mexico); Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  2. Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Ozimek; Edward Pospiech; Suresh Narine

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnologies from the global perspective and their potential application in food systems including meat processing. Nanotechnology has its roots in a talk delivered in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman to the American Physical Society. Nanoscience refers to components properties at nanoscale and nanotechnology refers to process or processes used in the manufacture and/or biofabrication of new materials measured at nanoscale. Nanotechn...

  3. Nanotechnology: The Next Challenge for Organics

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John; Lyons, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the fast growing science of the ultra small; it is creating engineered particles in the size range 1 to 100 nanometres. At this size, materials exhibit novel behaviours. Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding multibillion dollar industry, with research being heavily promoted by governments, and especially the US. Nanoscale materials are already incorporated into more than 580 consumer products, including food, packaging, cosmetics, clothing and paint. Nanotechnology has been ...

  4. Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Ozimek; Edward Pospiech; Suresh Narine

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnologies from the global perspective and their potential application in food systems including meat processing. Nanotechnology has its roots in a talk delivered in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman to the American Physical Society. Nanoscience refers to components properties at nanoscale and nanotechnology refers to process or processes used in the manufacture and/or biofabrication of new materials measured at nanoscale. Nanotechn...

  5. Chronological development avenues in biotechnology across the world

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is expected to be a great technological revolution followed by information technology. It is an application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide better goods and services to mankind. Commercially its techniques are applied long back in 6 th century in the art of brewing, wine making and baking. It has progressed there after crossing different land marks. Modern biotechnology has developed significantly in the late...

  6. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology impact on sensors Nanotechnology impact on sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    A sensor is a device that responds to a stimulus by generating a functional output induced by a change in some intrinsic properties. We are surrounded by sensors and sensing networks that monitor a multitude of parameters in view of enhancing our safety and quality of life. Sensors assist us in health care and diagnostics, they monitor our environment, our aeroplanes and automobiles, our mobile phones, game consoles and watches, and last but not least, many of our human body functions. Modern sensing systems have greatly benefited in recent decades from advances in microelectronics and microengineering, mainly in view of making sensors smaller, cheaper, more sensitive, more selective, and with a better signal-to-noise ratio, following classical scaling rules. So how about nanotechnology-enabled sensing? Nanoscale features have a great impact on many (though not all) sensing systems, in particular where the surface-to-volume ratio plays a fundamental role, such as in certain chemical and gas sensors. The high surface-to-volume ratios of nanoporous and nanostructured materials have led to their implementation in sensing systems since sensing research first began to engage with the nanotechnology. The surface plasmon resonances of nanostructures have also enriched the scope for developing novel sensing devices. On the other hand, sensors where bulk properties dominate, such as inertial sensors, are less likely to benefit from extreme scaling. Advances in thin film techniques and chemical synthesis have allowed material properties to be tailored to sensing requirements for enhanced performance. These bottom-up fabrication techniques enable parallel fabrication of ordered nanostructures, often in domain-like areas with molecular precision. At the same time the progress in top-down methods such as scanning probe lithography, nanoimprint lithography, soft-lithography and stencil lithography have also facilitated research into sensing and actuating nanotechnology. Although

  7. Numbers, scale and symbols: the public understanding of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batt, Carl A. [Cornell University, Department of Food Science (United States); Waldron, Anna M., E-mail: amw37@cornell.ed [Waldron Educational Consulting (United States); Broadwater, Natalie [Cornell University, Department of Food Science (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Nanotechnology will be an increasing part of the everyday lives of most people in the world. There is a general recognition that few people understand the implications of the technology, the technology itself or even the definition of the word. This lack of understanding stems from a lack of knowledge about science in general but more specifically difficulty in grasping the size scale and symbolism of nanotechnology. A potential key to informing the general public is establishing the ability to comprehend the scale of nanotechnology. Transitioning from the macro to the nanoscale seems to require an ability to comprehend scales of one-billion. Scaling is a skill not common in most individuals and tests of their ability to extrapolate size based upon scaling a common object demonstrates that most individuals cannot scale to the extent needed to make the transition to nanoscale. Symbolism is another important vehicle to providing the general public with a basis to understand the concepts of nanotechnology. With increasing age, individuals are able to draw representations of atomic scale objects, but these tend to be iconic and the different representations not easily translated. Ball and stick models are most recognized by the public, which provides an opportunity to present not only useful symbolism but also a reference point for the atomic scale.

  8. Nanotechnology, risk and the environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, William; Thompson, Paul B

    2008-03-01

    Nanotechnologies are already interacting with the environment. Scientists and engineers are manipulating matter at the nanoscale, and these nanoscale processes and products are being used by industry in commercially available products. These products are either applied directly to the environment or end up in the environment through indirect pathways. This review examines the state of current environmental risk assessment of nanotechnologies. Nanotechnology is described generally, then both the possible benefits of nanotechnology and the risks are reviewed in a traditional way. Subsequently, a philosophical criticism of the traditional way of looking at risks is offered.

  9. Current status of nanotechnology in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Goyal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been investigated for its applications in medicine. The objective of this review was to summarize the current applications of nanotechnology in Urology. A systematic search of literature was performed and relevant articles were analyzed with specific reference to applications in Urology. Nanotechnology has applications in diagnostic urology like in uroimaging using nanoparticles and nanosensors. It has therapeutic applications in infections, malignancies, genetic disease using targeted drug delivery, gene transfers, nano device-based manipulations etc. Nanotechnology has many applications in Urology. More efforts are required to make these applications practically feasible and affordable. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3114-3120

  10. Nanotechnology applications in urology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Michael; Liu, James; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Callaghan, Cameron; John, Vijay; Lee, Benjamin R

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the current literature and summarise some of the promising areas with which nanotechnology may improve urological care. A Medline literature search was performed to elucidate all relevant studies of nanotechnology with specific attention to its application in urology. Urological applications of nanotechnology include its use in medical imaging, gene therapy, drug delivery, and photothermal ablation of tumours. In vitro and animal studies have shown initial encouraging results. Further study of nanotechnology for urological applications is warranted to bridge the gap between preclinical studies and translation into clinical practice, but nanomedicine has shown significant potential to improve urological patient care.

  11. The applications of nanotechnology in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential of application in the food industry and processing as new tools for pathogen detection, disease treatment delivery systems, food packaging, and delivery of bioactive compounds to target sites. The application of nanotechnology in food systems will provide new methods to improve safety and the nutritional value of food products. This article will review the current advances of applications of nanotechnology in food science and technology. Also, it describes new current food laws for nanofood and novel articles in the field of risk assessment of using nanotechnology in the food industry.

  12. Biotechnology of space utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumiya, Hiroyuki

    1989-10-05

    This paper introdued the practical results of biotechnological experiments utilizing features of space and the present Japanese plan. The electrophoresis and crystal growth of protein utilize the microgravity field and cell culture utilizes the influence of microgravity on organism. Of practical results in space experiments, the electrophoresis was made by US but others were carried out by Europian countries. It was thought that the electrophoresis utilizing space environment could be demonstrated to be promosing for the separating and refining techniques by the experiment on the basis of the Apolo Project. The crystal growth of protein was reported by Litke of Denmark as to the crystal of lyzozyme. The space experiment of cell culture was carried out by Cogoli of Switzerland as to the culture of lymphocyte in the Shattle. Japan is studying the primary material experiment project(FMPT) in the Space Shattle and unmanned experiment for electrophoresis. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad Deepa L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology

  14. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology - Develop policies outlining

  15. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-12-03

    The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: SCIENCE: - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks- Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments FINANCE: - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology- Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology- Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise ETHICS, SOCIETY, CULTURE: - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology- Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues- Improve accessibility and equity POLITICS: - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology- Develop policies outlining national biotechnology strategy

  16. Teaching nanoscience across scientific and geographical borders A European Master programme in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, A.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.; Rep, D.; Rudquist, P.; Schwille, P.; Sluijter, B.; Wendin, G.

    2008-03-01

    Within the Erasmus Mundus Master (EMM) Programme, five European Universities (KU Leuven, Belgium, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Delft University of Technology and Leiden University, the Netherlands, and the University of Dresden, Germany) have joined forces to offer a unique master programme in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 'EMM-nano', at the cutting edge of state-of-the-art research. The students design and build their individual area of specialisation within nanophysics, nanotechnology, biophysics, biotechnology through their choice of trajectory between the partners. We discuss some of the challenges related to the crossdisciplinary nature of the field, educational activities in cleanrooms, and issues related to the integration of teaching programmes across the borders within Europe.

  17. 76 FR 38348 - Notice of Appointment of Committee Members to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture. SUMMARY: The Office of the Under... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (``AC21''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael...

  18. Emerging nanotechnology approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim ES

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eung-Sam Kim,1,2 Eun Hyun Ahn,3,4 Tal Dvir,5,6 Deok-Ho Kim1,4,71Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea; 3Department of Pathology, 4Institute of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 5Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 6Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 7Center for Cardiovascular Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAThe history of human kind suggests that there has been a correlation between global population growth and major events in science and technology over the last three centuries. Sharp increases in the world’s population have been triggered by the industrial revolution and scientific and technological breakthroughs including: the advent of the railways, discovery of penicillin and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, and the invention of the computer.1 Since the 20th century, interdisciplinary areas in the physical and biological sciences have accelerated the progress of biomedical applications. The recent integration of emerging nanotechnology into biology and biomedicine has resulted in a range of innovative nanoengineering efforts for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs.2 Thus, it is expected that nanoengineering approaches to biomedical applications can contribute to addressing the present issue of personal and global health care and its economic burden for more than 7 billion people.Why are we paying attention to nanoengineering for biomedical applications? The size of most biomolecules ranges from 0.2 nm to 200 nm (Figure 1. Research has focused on control of the interaction and localization of biomolecules even at the single-molecule level using ever-evolving nanotechnology.3 The evidence indicates that cells can respond to nanoscale changes in the dynamic

  19. An intelligent approach to nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned

  20. Recent advances of metabolomics in plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yozo; Saito, Kazuki

    2012-01-01

    Biotechnology, including genetic modification, is a very important approach to regulate the production of particular metabolites in plants to improve their adaptation to environmental stress, to improve food quality, and to increase crop yield. Unfortunately, these approaches do not necessarily lead to the expected results due to the highly complex mechanisms underlying metabolic regulation in plants. In this context, metabolomics plays a key role in plant molecular biotechnology, where plant cells are modified by the expression of engineered genes, because we can obtain information on the metabolic status of cells via a snapshot of their metabolome. Although metabolome analysis could be used to evaluate the effect of foreign genes and understand the metabolic state of cells, there is no single analytical method for metabolomics because of the wide range of chemicals synthesized in plants. Here, we describe the basic analytical advancements in plant metabolomics and bioinformatics and the application of metabolomics to the biological study of plants.

  1. Nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy applications. In particular the book covers nanostructured electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells, low temperature electrolyzers and electrochemical valorization. The function of this book is to provide an introduction to basic principles of electrocatalysis, together with a review of the main classes of materials and electrode architectures. This book will illustrate the basic ideas behind material design and provide an introductory sketch of current research focuses. The easy-to-follow three part book focuses on majo

  2. Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in…

  3. Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in…

  4. Understanding public perceptions of biotechnology through the "Integrative Worldview Framework".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Annick; Osseweijer, Patricia; Pierce, Robin

    2015-07-03

    Biotechnological innovations prompt a range of societal responses that demand understanding. Research has shown such responses are shaped by individuals' cultural worldviews. We aim to demonstrate how the Integrative Worldview Framework (IWF) can be used for analyzing perceptions of biotechnology, by reviewing (1) research on public perceptions of biotechnology and (2) analyses of the stakeholder-debate on the bio-based economy, using the Integrative Worldview Framework (IWF) as analytical lens. This framework operationalizes the concept of worldview and distinguishes between traditional, modern, and postmodern worldviews, among others. Applied to these literatures, this framework illuminates how these worldviews underlie major societal responses, thereby providing a unifying understanding of the literature on perceptions of biotechnology. We conclude the IWF has relevance for informing research on perceptions of socio-technical changes, generating insight into the paradigmatic gaps in social science, and facilitating reflexive and inclusive policy-making and debates on these timely issues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  6. Computational Nanotechnology Molecular Electronics, Materials and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation covers research being performed on computational nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes at the NASA Ames Research Center. Topics cover include: nanomechanics of nanomaterials, nanotubes and composite materials, molecular electronics with nanotube junctions, kinky chemistry, and nanotechnology for solid-state quantum computers using fullerenes.

  7. Nanotechnology Education: Contemporary Content and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of research and development identified as a major priority in the United States. Progress in science and engineering at the nanoscale is critical for national security, prosperity of the economy, and enhancement of the quality of life. It is anticipated that nanotechnology will be a major transitional…

  8. Potentials of nanotechnology application in forest protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadong Qi; K. Lian; Q. Wu; Y. Li; M. Danzy; R. Menard; K.L. Chin; D. Collins; F. Oliveria; Kier Klepzig

    2013-01-01

    This joint research project formed by Southern University, Louisiana State University, and the USDA Forest Service focuses on applying nanotechnology in forest health and natural resource management. The targeted nanotechnology is derived from a new generation of renewable composite nano-material called Copper-Carbon Core-Shell Nanoparticles (CCCSNs), which have...

  9. Grand Challenges: Nanotechnology and the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a multidisciplinary lesson on nanotechnology that can provide an effective means for teaching about both STEM and social studies topics. This approach encourages students to consider the "role that science and technology play in our lives and in our cultures." The extraordinary promise of nanotechnology, however, is…

  10. Engines of Second Creation: Stories about Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    We are in a position today to appreciate the ambiguity of technologies: that they are good, and bad, and neutral and present challenges in different ways. Reading U.S. national nanotechnology documents and histories of nanotechnology, one finds that rhetoric idealizing progress without serious consideration of negative side-effects remains…

  11. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  12. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of f

  13. Business Strategy for Nanotechnology based Products & Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology in different identified areas provide lots of business opportunities. It includes Food, Medicine, Cleaner water, Better quality air, Electronics, Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, Batteries, Space Travels, Chemical sensors, Sporting goods, Fabrics, Cleaning products, Energy, Environment, Health, and Life span increase. The paper covers the applications, and benefits of nanotechnology innovations in different industries, possible business opportunities for ne...

  14. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology : unmet needs in drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, D.J.A.; Park, K.; Florence, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been gaining interest within and outside the scientific community. Conferences addressing different aspects of this rapidly growing field are organized at many different places. In May 2009 the LTS Academy organized a two-day workshop to discuss the relevance of nanotechnology to

  15. Engines of Second Creation: Stories about Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    We are in a position today to appreciate the ambiguity of technologies: that they are good, and bad, and neutral and present challenges in different ways. Reading U.S. national nanotechnology documents and histories of nanotechnology, one finds that rhetoric idealizing progress without serious consideration of negative side-effects remains…

  16. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  17. Grand Challenges: Nanotechnology and the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a multidisciplinary lesson on nanotechnology that can provide an effective means for teaching about both STEM and social studies topics. This approach encourages students to consider the "role that science and technology play in our lives and in our cultures." The extraordinary promise of nanotechnology, however, is…

  18. Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Ozimek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnologies from the global perspective and their potential application in food systems including meat processing. Nanotechnology has its roots in a talk delivered in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman to the American Physical Society. Nanoscience refers to components properties at nanoscale and nanotechnology refers to process or processes used in the manufacture and/or biofabrication of new materials measured at nanoscale. Nanotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities for the development of innovative products and applications in food system. Functional foods, nutraceuticals, bioactives, farmafoods, etc. are very recent example of it. Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are a natural part of food processing and conventional foods, because the characteristic properties of many foods rely on nanometer sized components. Some of the areas where nanotechnologies are set to make a difference in meat processing in near future relate to intelligent packaging of meat and meat products, meat derived bioactive peptides, pro- and pre-biotics inclusion in processed meat products, fat based nanoemulsions for antioxidant delivery, nanosensors and nanotracers for meat biosecurity tracing and nanostructured meat products with defined functions. New horizons for nanotechnology in meat science may be achieved by further research on nanoscale structures and methods to control interactions between single molecules. However, it shall be mentioned that nanotechnologies and nanomaterials are calling for their regulations and safety assessment as some of the materials are new and their safety never tested before.

  19. Tweeting nano: how public discourses about nanotechnology develop in social media environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, Kristin K., E-mail: kkrunge@wisc.edu; Yeo, Sara K.; Cacciatore, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique [University of Wisconsin, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Xenos, Michael [University of Wisconsin, Department of Communication Arts (United States); Anderson, Ashley; Choi, Doo-hun; Kim, Jiyoun; Li Nan; Liang Xuan; Stubbings, Maria; Su, Leona Yi-Fan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The growing popularity of social media as a channel for distributing and debating scientific information raises questions about the types of discourse that surround emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, in online environments, as well as the different forms of information that audiences encounter when they use these online tools of information sharing. This study maps the landscape surrounding social media traffic about nanotechnology. Specifically, we use computational linguistic software to analyze a census of all English-language nanotechnology-related tweets expressing opinions posted on Twitter between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Results show that 55 % of tweets expressed certainty and 45 % expressed uncertainty. Twenty-seven percent of tweets expressed optimistic outlooks, 32 % expressed neutral outlooks and 41 % expressed pessimistic outlooks. Tweets were mapped by U.S. state, and our data show that tweets are more likely to originate from states with a federally funded National Nanotechnology Initiative center or network. The trend toward certainty in opinion coupled with the distinct geographic origins of much of the social media traffic on Twitter for nanotechnology-related opinion has significant implications for understanding how key online influencers are debating and positioning the issue of nanotechnology for lay and policy audiences.

  20. Tweeting nano: how public discourses about nanotechnology develop in social media environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Kristin K.; Yeo, Sara K.; Cacciatore, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael; Anderson, Ashley; Choi, Doo-hun; Kim, Jiyoun; Li, Nan; Liang, Xuan; Stubbings, Maria; Su, Leona Yi-Fan

    2013-01-01

    The growing popularity of social media as a channel for distributing and debating scientific information raises questions about the types of discourse that surround emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, in online environments, as well as the different forms of information that audiences encounter when they use these online tools of information sharing. This study maps the landscape surrounding social media traffic about nanotechnology. Specifically, we use computational linguistic software to analyze a census of all English-language nanotechnology-related tweets expressing opinions posted on Twitter between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Results show that 55 % of tweets expressed certainty and 45 % expressed uncertainty. Twenty-seven percent of tweets expressed optimistic outlooks, 32 % expressed neutral outlooks and 41 % expressed pessimistic outlooks. Tweets were mapped by U.S. state, and our data show that tweets are more likely to originate from states with a federally funded National Nanotechnology Initiative center or network. The trend toward certainty in opinion coupled with the distinct geographic origins of much of the social media traffic on Twitter for nanotechnology-related opinion has significant implications for understanding how key online influencers are debating and positioning the issue of nanotechnology for lay and policy audiences.

  1. Nanotechnology in Disease Diagnostic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaliya, Reema; Shah, Darshini; Singh, Ragini; Kumar, Ashutosh; Shankar, Rishi; Dhawan, Alok; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-06-25

    Currently the major research highlights of bioengineering and medical technology are directed towards development of improved diagnostic techniques to screen complex diseases. Screening requirements are for the identification of the cause of illnesses, monitoring the improvement or progression of the state of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases. Nanotechnology enables the manipulation of materials at nanoscale and has shown potential to enhance sensitivity, selectivity and lower the cost of a diagnosis. The causative biomolecules (DNA, proteins) can be detected by red-shifted absorbance of gold nanoparticles or alteration in the conductance of a nanowire or nanotubes, and deflection of a micro or nano-cantilever. Several types of nanomaterials such as metals, metal-oxides and quantum dots have shown ample advantages over traditional diagnosis, intracellular labeling and visualization of target cells/tissues. Nanotechnology has also opened several avenues which could be further developed to enable enhanced visualization of tissues, cells, DNA and proteins over a point-of-care device. Protein or gene chips created using nanomaterials could be further be integrated into a convenient nano-fluidic device for better disease diagnosis.

  2. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology and pulmonary nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A J; Cemlyn-Jones, J; Robalo Cordeiro, C

    2013-01-01

    The recently emergent field of Nanotechnology involves the production and use of structures at the nanoscale. Research at atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, has led to new materials, systems and structures on a scale consisting of particles less than 100 nm and showing unique and unusual physical, chemical and biological properties, which has enabled new applications in diverse fields, creating a multimillion-dollar high-tech industry. Nanotechnologies have a wide variety of uses from nanomedicine, consumer goods, electronics, communications and computing to environmental applications, efficient energy sources, agriculture, water purification, textiles, and aerospace industry, among many others. The different characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, shape, surface charge, chemical properties, solubility and degree of agglomeration will determine their effects on biological systems and human health, and the likelihood of respiratory hazards. There are a number of new studies about the potential occupational and environmental effects of nanoparticles and general precautionary measures are now fully justified. Adverse respiratory effects include multifocal granulomas, peribronchial inflammation, progressive interstitial fibrosis, chronic inflammatory responses, collagen deposition and oxidative stress. The authors present an overview of the most important studies about respiratory nanotoxicology and the effects of nanoparticles and engineered nanomaterials on the respiratory system. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina

    2011-01-01

    Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.

  4. Special Issue on Nanotechnology, Optoelectronics and Photonics Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    International Conference on Nanotechnology, Optoelec- tronics and Photonics Technologies (NOPT) is an annual International Conference sponsored by Photonics and Microelectronics Society and Components, Packaging & Manufacturing Society of IACSIT (International Associa- tion of Computer Science and Information Technology), and sponsored by JEST (International), Journal of Electronic Science and Technology. The annual conference aims to provide a forum for researchers and experts in the relevant fields to share ideas, present current states of researches, and discuss both theoretical and application issues.

  5. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Foodrelated Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished......This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured...... and with food-related life and also had the highest acceptance of packaging and foods produced with nanotechnology. The results suggest that the degree of food neophobia is associated with satisfaction with life and with food-related life, as well as with the acceptance of products with nanotechnological...

  6. Laypeople's and experts' perception of nanotechnology hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Kastenholz, Hans; Frey, Silvia; Wiek, Arnim

    2007-02-01

    Public perception of nanotechnology may influence the realization of technological advances. Laypeople's (N=375) and experts' (N=46) perception of 20 different nanotechnology applications and three nonnanotechnology applications were examined. The psychometric paradigm was utilized and applications were described in short scenarios. Results showed that laypeople and experts assessed asbestos as much more risky than nanotechnology applications. Analyses of aggregated data suggested that perceived dreadfulness of applications and trust in governmental agencies are important factors in determining perceived risks. Similar results were observed for experts and laypeople, but the latter perceived greater risks than the former. Analyses of individual data showed that trust, perceived benefits, and general attitudes toward technology influenced the perceived risk of laypeople. In the expert sample, confidence in governmental agencies was an important predictor of risks associated with nanotechnology applications. Results suggest that public concerns about nanotechnology would diminish if measures were taken to enhance laypeople's trust in governmental agencies.

  7. Visual framing of nanotechnology in newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    nanotechnology-related issues) in the printed press in Denmark from 1993 to 2006. Based on a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology, the survey categorizes and analyzes the images used. Studies have shown that to a high degree newspaper readers use images to navigate...... and understand the articles. It is the objective of this survey to find out if the images used in conjunction to articles that in the text body mention nanotechnology support the general message of the article or, in some way, convey other meanings about nanotechnology. Methods The study uses the newspaper...... database InfoMedia to construct a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology. The images found in the sample are coded using an existing analytical framework put forward by Greek science education scholars, Dimopoulos et al. (2003), in their study of visual images in school...

  8. Taking a precautionary approach to nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dónal P. O’Mathúna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is developing at a rapid pace. Concerns have been raised about the risks nanotechnology may carry for human health and the environment. The precautionary principle has developed within environmental ethics as a way to reduce the risk of harm with emerging technologies. It has been incorporated into a number of documents addressing nanotechnology risks, including the European Commission’s Code of Conduct for Responsible Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Research. The central features of the precautionary principle are reviewed here. These include addressing situations of scientific uncertainty and serious or irreversible harm, developing a proportionate response, and having reasonable grounds for concern. These factors will be applied to carbon nanotubes to demonstrate how the precautionary principle can lead to practical guidelines during the development of nanotechnology.

  9. Nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti

    2011-05-01

    Nanotechnology, or nanoscience, refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). The prefix "nano" is defined as a unit of measurement in which the characteristic dimension is one billionth of a unit. Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. As nanotechnology expands in other fields, clinicians, scientists, and manufacturers are working to discover the uses and advances in biomedical sciences. Applications of nanotechnology in medical and dental fields have only approached the horizon with opportunities and possibilities for the future that can only be limited by our imagination. This paper provides an early glimpse of nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry to illustrate their potentially far-reaching impacts on clinical practice. It also narrates the safety issues concerning nanotechnology applications.

  10. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Foodrelated Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished......This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured...... with significant differences in their scores on the SWLS, SWFL and FNS. The types differed in their knowledge of nanotechnology, willingness to purchase foods involving nanotechnology, age, socioeconomic level and lifestyle. The least food-neophobic type had the highest levels of satisfaction with life...

  11. Nanotechnologies and chemical tools for cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing

    This dissertation describes several nanotechnologies and chemical tools that I have developed to probe living cells. Chapter one gives a brief overview on the current status of biomedical and biotechnological applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In this chapter, strategies for functionalization of CNTs with emphasis on biological applications are reviewed. Representative developments in biosensing, bioimaging, intracellular delivery, and tissue engineering are presented. Recent studies on toxicity of CNTs are also discussed. Chapter two describes the development of a nanoscale cell injector for delivery of cargo to the interior of living cells without physiological harm. A CNT attached to an atomic force microscope tip was functionalized with cargo via a disulfide linker. Penetration of cell membranes with this "nanoneedle", followed by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bonds within the cell's interior, resulted in the release of cargo inside the cells. Chapter three presents a biomimetic functionalization strategy for interfacing CNTs with biological systems. The potential biological applications of CNTs have been limited by their insolubility in aqueous environment and their intrinsic toxicity. We developed a biomimetic surface modification of CNTs using glycosylated polymers designed to mimic natural cell surface mucin glycoproteins interactions. Chapter four further extends the biomimetic strategy for functionalization of CNTs to glycosylated dendrimers. We developed a new class of amphiphilic bifunctional glycodendrimers that comprised carbohydrate units displayed in the periphery and a pyrene tail that bound to SWNT surface via pi-pi interactions. The glycodendrimer-coated CNTs were soluble in water, and noncytotoxic. We also demonstrated that the coated CNTs could interface with biological systems including proteins and cells. Chapter five presents a biosensing application of glycodenderimer-coated CNTs. SWNTN-FETs coated with glycodendrimers were

  12. Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes the biochemical engineering and industrial biotechnology programs of the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada). Provides descriptions of graduate courses, along with a sample of current research activities. Includes a discussion of the programs' mechanisms for technology transfer. (TW)

  13. An Overview of NASA Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Biotechnology research at NASA has comprised three separate areas; cell science and tissue culture, separations methods, and macromolecular crystal growth. This presentation will primarily focus on the macromolecular crystal growth.

  14. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  15. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    uncertainty, that attracted international NM experts to recommend this qualitative risk assessment approach for NM. However, since their CB recommendation was only in theory, we took on the challenge of developing a working toolkit, the CB Nanotool (see Zalk et al. 2009 and Paik et al. 2008), as a means to perform a risk assessment and protect researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. While it's been acknowledged that engineered NM have potentially endless benefits for society, it became clear to us that the very properties that make nanotechnology so useful to industry could also make them dangerous to humans and the environment. Among the uncertainties and unknowns with NM are: the contribution of their physical structure to their toxicity, significant differences in their deposition and clearance in the lungs when compared to their parent material (PM), a lack of agreement on the appropriate indices for exposure to NM, and very little background information on exposure scenarios or populations at risk. Part of this lack of background information can be traced to the lack of risk assessments historically performed in the industry, with a recent survey indicating that 65% of companies working with NM are not doing any kind of NM-specific risk assessment as they focus on traditional PM methods for IH (Helland et al. 2009). The good news is that the amount of peer-reviewed publications that address environmental, health and safety aspects of NM has been increasing over the last few years; however, the percentage of these that address practical methods to reduce exposure and protect workers is orders of magnitude lower. Our intent in developing the CB Nanotool was to create a simplified approach that would protect workers while unraveling the mysteries of NM for experts and non-experts alike. Since such a large part of the toxicological effects of both the physical and chemical properties of NM were unknown, not to mention changing logarithmically as new

  16. Novel biocatalysts for white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drepper, Thomas; Eggert, Thorsten; Hummel, Werner; Leggewie, Christian; Pohl, Martina; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2006-01-01

    White Biotechnology uses microorganisms and enzymes to manufacture a large variety of chemical products. Therefore, the demand for new and useful biocatalysts is steadily and rapidly increasing. We have developed methods for the isolation of new enzyme genes, constructed novel expression systems, and optimized existing enzymes for biotechnological applications by methods of directed evolution. Furthermore, we have isolated and characterized biocatalysts relevant for the preparation of enantiopure compounds.

  17. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGY – SCIENCE AND SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko N. P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents information about the features of biotechnology as the driving force of scientific and technological progress. The national programs of the leading countries of the world, it is one of the priority sectors, reflecting the level of the socio-economic condition of the society. Biotechnology is now successfully solves such vital tasks as providing food, the establishment of effective medicaments, obtaining fuel based on renewable raw materials, maintaining ecological balance, conservation of biological resources of the Earth. The development of agriculture in modern conditions is impossible without agricultural biotechnology. It is directly related to viticulture. Choosing an object of an integrated system (embryos, apical meristem, axillary buds, it is possible to clone plants, i.e. produce plants identical to the original. If the same as the object to use isolated cells or protoplasts, in this case, there will most likely altered versions, creating diversity for the breeder. Genetic engineering – the science of younger, since the establishment of the first chimeric DNA molecule. The origin of genetic engineering is rooted in the development of molecular genetics, biochemistry. These technologies, undoubtedly progressive, but their biological safety is still insufficiently explored and is a danger to all life on Earth. The leading Western powers carried out strict control over the introduction of transgenic crop plants, as they are in agrocenosis new biological risks that may adversely affect the plants, animals and humans. In Russia, as in other countries, have already adopted the law “State regulation of genetic engineering”

  19. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  20. Cyborg identities and contemporary techno-utopias: adaptations and transformations of the body in the age of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrutti, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of improving the human body through a closer relationship with technology in order to overcome the human species toward new stages of evolution is a constant element of techno-utopian visions, among other transhumanism. This projection to a radical transformation of the body - and mind - as a result of technological action is based on the concepts of adaptation, or non adaptation, of a human being to a world constantly changed by technoscience. The belief is that not only the body has to change, but that identity is not a stable concept. This mobility in the relationship between body and identity is typical of the post human thought, which inherits from the informational model the conviction that the biological embodiment of human is to be regarded as an accident of history rather than as an essential condition of life. Hybridization is therefore valued by the post human thought as a condition which has "made" the human as he is today, and it appears as a fundamental topic in any discourse on nanotechnology, biotechnology and development of human-machine interfaces.

  1. Nanotechnology and patents in agriculture, food technology, nutrition and medicine - advantages and risks: worldwide patented nano- and absorber particles in food nutrition and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benckiser, Gero

    2012-12-01

    The keywords nanotechnology, super absorber, agriculture, nutrition, and food technology exhibited 28,149 positive matches under more than 68 million patents worldwide. A closer look at the first 500 nanotechnology, agriculture, nutrition and biotechnology related patents, published during 2011-2012, unveiled that 64% are parts of machines and control devices while about 36% comprise metal oxides, fertilizers, pesticides and drugs, which are compounds and often applied in combination with inorganic or organic super absorbing polymeric structures. The latter compounds are in the focus of this special issue.

  2. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán; Miranda, Horacio; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished with significant differences in their scores on the SWLS, SWFL and FNS. The types differed in their knowledge of nanotechnology, willingness to purchase foods involving nanotechnology, age, socioeconomic level and lifestyle. The least food-neophobic type had the highest levels of satisfaction with life and with food-related life and also had the highest acceptance of packaging and foods produced with nanotechnology. The results suggest that the degree of food neophobia is associated with satisfaction with life and with food-related life, as well as with the acceptance of products with nanotechnological applications.

  3. Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology in Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Geol Lee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are nanometer-scaled particles, and can be utilized in the form of nanocapsules, nanoconjugates, or nanoparticles themselves for the treatment of retinopathy, including angiogensis-related blindness, retinal degeneration, and uveitis. They are thought to improve the bioavailability in the retina and the permeability of therapeutic molecules across the barriers of the eye, such as the cornea, conjunctiva, and especially, blood-retinal barriers (BRBs. However, consisting of multiple neuronal cells, the retina can be the target of neuronal toxicity of nanoparticles, in common with the central and peripheral nervous system. Furthermore, the ability of nanoparticles to pass through the BRBs might increase the possibility of toxicity, simultaneously promoting distribution in the retinal layers. In this regard, we discussed nanotechnology and nanotoxicology in the treatment of retinopathy.

  4. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  5. Nanotechnology for the energy challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    With the daunting energy challenges faced by Mankind in the 21st century, revolutionary new technologies will be the key to a clean, secure and sustainable energy future. Nanostructures often have surprising and very useful capabilities and are thus paving the way for new methodologies in almost every kind of industry. This exceptional monograph provides an overview of the subject, and presents the current state of the art with regard to different aspects of sustainable production, efficient storage and low-impact use of energy. Comprised of eighteen chapters, the book is divided in three thematic parts: Part I Sustainable Energy Production covers the main developments of nanotechnology in clean energy production and conversion, including photovoltaics, hydrogen production, thermal-electrical energy conversion and fuel cells. Part II Efficient Energy Storage is concerned with the potential use of nanomaterials in more efficient energy storage systems such as advanced batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen st...

  6. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  7. Nanotechnologies applied to building sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rossetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state of the art and the most important tendencies of one of the most promising sectors within the scenario of technological innovation in constructions: the application to materials and components of the nanotechnologies, a kind of technologies that modify at infinitesimal scale the physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of materials in a way which is not with the traditional technologies. A sector that has seen in the last years an exponential increase of technical solutions and brevets, most of them being born in other industrial sectors and then transferred and suited for the construction industry, to improve the performances of the materials used in terms of maintenance and conservation, performances, energy saving, aesthetics.

  8. Applications of Nanotechnology in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and Sri N. Balaji

    Full Text Available In the recent years the application of nanotechnology in human and veterinary medicine has shown a great progress. Scientists foresee that this progress in the field of nanotechnology could represent a major breakthrough in addressing some of the technical challenges faced by human and veterinary profession. While the great hopes of nanomedicine are disease detection and new pharmaceuticals for humans, veterinary applications of nanotechnology may become the proving ground for untried and more controversial techniques from nanocapsule vaccines to sex selection in breeding. Nanotechnology has the potential to impact not only the way we live, but also the way we practice veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine include disease diagnosis and treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular breeding, the security of animal food products, modification of animal waste, pathogen detection, and many more. Existing research has demonstrated the feasibility of introducing nanoshells and nanotubes into animals to seek and destroy targeted cells. These building blocks of nanotechnology are expected to be integrated into systems over the next couple of decades on a commercial basis. This article describes some of the principal areas of nanotechnology currently being undertaken in the world of medicine.The main purposes of this article are to trigger the interest of discoveries of veterinary profession in the field of nanotechnology and to provide a glimpse at potential important targets for nanotechnology in the field of veterinary medicine. Also it is important to mention that because nanotechnology is at a very early stage of development, it may take several years to perform the necessary research and conduct clinical trials for obtaining meaningful results. This tool as it develops over the next several decades will have major implications in veterinary and animal science

  9. Developing DNA nanotechnology using single-molecule fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, Roman; Tomov, Toma E; Liber, Miran; Berger, Yaron; Nir, Eyal

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: An important effort in the DNA nanotechnology field is focused on the rational design and manufacture of molecular structures and dynamic devices made of DNA. As is the case for other technologies that deal with manipulation of matter, rational development requires high quality and informative feedback on the building blocks and final products. For DNA nanotechnology such feedback is typically provided by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These analytical tools provide excellent structural information; however, usually they do not provide high-resolution dynamic information. For the development of DNA-made dynamic devices such as machines, motors, robots, and computers this constitutes a major problem. Bulk-fluorescence techniques are capable of providing dynamic information, but because only ensemble averaged information is obtained, the technique may not adequately describe the dynamics in the context of complex DNA devices. The single-molecule fluorescence (SMF) technique offers a unique combination of capabilities that make it an excellent tool for guiding the development of DNA-made devices. The technique has been increasingly used in DNA nanotechnology, especially for the analysis of structure, dynamics, integrity, and operation of DNA-made devices; however, its capabilities are not yet sufficiently familiar to the community. The purpose of this Account is to demonstrate how different SMF tools can be utilized for the development of DNA devices and for structural dynamic investigation of biomolecules in general and DNA molecules in particular. Single-molecule diffusion-based Förster resonance energy transfer and alternating laser excitation (sm-FRET/ALEX) and immobilization-based total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) techniques are briefly described and demonstrated. To illustrate the many applications of SMF to DNA nanotechnology, examples of SMF studies of DNA hairpins and

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL INFORMATION REGARDING PREBIOTICS AND PROBIOTICS NUTRITION VERSUS THE PATENT REGISTERS: WHAT IS NEW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos REIS, José Maciel Caldas; PINHEIRO, Maurício Fortuna; OTI, André Takashi; FEITOSA-JUNIOR, Denilson José Silva; PANTOJA, Mauro de Souza; BARROS, Rui Sérgio Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Food is a key factor both in prevention and in promoting human health. Among the functional food are highlighted probiotics and prebiotics. Patent databases are the main source of technological information about innovation worldwide, providing extensive library for research sector. Objective: Perform mapping in the main patent databases about pre and probiotics, seeking relevant information regarding the use of biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the production of these foods. Method: Electronic consultation was conducted (online) in the main public databases of patents in Brazil (INPI), United States (USPTO) and the European Patent Bank (EPO). The research involved the period from January 2014 to July 2015, being used in the title fields and summary of patents, the following descriptors in INPI "prebiotic", "prebiotic" "probiotics", "probiotic" and the USPTO and EPO: "prebiotic", "prebiotics", "probiotic", "probiotics". Results: This search haven't found any deposit at the brazilian patents website (INPI) in this period; US Patent &Trademark Office had registered 60 titles in patents and the European Patent Office (EPO) showed 10 documents on the issue. Conclusion: Information technology offered by genetic engineering, biotechnology and nanotechnology deposited in the form of titles and abstracts of patents in relation to early nutritional intervention as functional foods, has increasingly required to decrease the risks and control the progression of health problems. But, the existing summaries, although attractive and promising in this sense, are still incipient to recommend them safely as a therapeutic tool. Therefore, they should be seen more as diet elements and healthy lifestyles. PMID:28076487

  11. Biomechatronic Design in Biotechnology A Methodology for Development of Biotechnological Products

    CERN Document Server

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    This cutting-edge guide on the fundamentals, theory, and applications of biomechatronic design principles Biomechatronic Design in Biotechnology presents a complete methodology of biomechatronics, an emerging variant of the mechatronics field that marries biology, electronics, and mechanics to create products where biological and biochemical, technical, human, management-and-goal, and information systems are combined and integrated in order to solve a mission that fulfills a human need. A biomechatronic product includes a biological, mechanical, and electronic part. Beginning with an overvie

  12. Nanotechnology in biorobotics: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology recently opened a series of unexpected technological opportunities that drove the emergence of novel scientific and technological fields, which have the potential to dramatically change the lives of millions of citizens. Some of these opportunities have been already caught by researchers working in the different fields related to biorobotics, while other exciting possibilities still lie on the horizon. This article highlights how nanotechnology applications recently impacted the development of advanced solutions for actuation and sensing and the achievement of microrobots, nanorobots, and non-conventional larger robotic systems. The open challenges are described, together with the most promising research avenues involving nanotechnology.

  13. [Nanotechnology in food production: advances and problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikov, V M; Arianova, E A; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutel'ian, V A

    2009-01-01

    Presented article is a review of the modern data on nanotechnology use in food manufacturing. There are discussed the basic scopes of nanotechnology application in food industry. One of the main problems arising in connection with introduction of nanotechnology in food, is an absence of reliable methods of identification and the control of nanoparticles is in structure of foodstuff including the control of their authenticity. Other problem is connected to necessity of an estimation of the risks connected to presence of potentially toxic nanoparticles in food. The analysis of foreign experience of researches in the given area allows to formulate methodological approaches to formation of domestic system of nanosafety.

  14. Colloid and interface chemistry for nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kralchevsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006-2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science an

  15. Sociocultural Meanings of Nanotechnology: Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-06-01

    This article identifies six social-science research methodologies that will be useful for charting the sociocultural meaning of nanotechnology: web-based questionnaires, vignette experiments, analysis of web linkages, recommender systems, quantitative content analysis, and qualitative textual analysis. Data from a range of sources are used to illustrate how the methods can delineate the intellectual content and institutional structure of the emerging nanotechnology culture. Such methods will make it possible in future to test hypotheses such as that there are two competing definitions of nanotechnology - the technical-scientific and the science-fiction - that are influencing public perceptions by different routes and in different directions.

  16. Nanotechnology in biorobotics: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricotti, Leonardo, E-mail: l.ricotti@sssup.it; Menciassi, Arianna [Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, The BioRobotics Institute (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnology recently opened a series of unexpected technological opportunities that drove the emergence of novel scientific and technological fields, which have the potential to dramatically change the lives of millions of citizens. Some of these opportunities have been already caught by researchers working in the different fields related to biorobotics, while other exciting possibilities still lie on the horizon. This article highlights how nanotechnology applications recently impacted the development of advanced solutions for actuation and sensing and the achievement of microrobots, nanorobots, and non-conventional larger robotic systems. The open challenges are described, together with the most promising research avenues involving nanotechnology.

  17. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  18. Perceived risks and perceived benefits of different nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Stampfli, Nathalie; Kastenholz, Hans; Keller, Carmen

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to generate new food products and new food packaging. In a mail survey in the German speaking part of Switzerland, lay people's (N=337) perceptions of 19 nanotechnology applications were examined. The goal was to identify food applications that are more likely and food applications that are less likely to be accepted by the public. The psychometric paradigm was employed, and applications were described in short scenarios. Results suggest that affect and perceived control are important factors influencing risk and benefit perception. Nanotechnology food packaging was assessed as less problematic than nanotechnology foods. Analyses of individual data showed that the importance of naturalness in food products and trust were significant factors influencing the perceived risk and the perceived benefit of nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

  19. Cosmetics - chemical technology or biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G

    1984-04-01

    Synopsis Over the past 25 years the cosmetic industry has become increasingly technological. The origins of many of these advances were based upon chemical technology usually related to colloid science, although more recent developments have had clear biological improvements. A number of recent innovations are examined to consider how far developments in the future will stem from biotechnology rather than chemical technology. The working of surface active materials (e.g. CTAB) is discussed as an example of cosmetic effects being generated purely from chemical technology. The role of fluoride toothpaste in decreasing the incidence of dental caries is discussed as an effect based essentially on chemical technology in an area where future alternatives might come from biotechnology. Skin research is highlighted as the area where new understanding, e.g. of the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin and laminin, could lead to a whole new biotechnological approach to the appraisal of skin. As we venture into innovations based on biotechnology we may be introducing new dimensions in product safety which will need an even closer relationship with the medical fraternity. Consequently the introduction of products based on biotechnology may not be as rapid as is sometimes suggested.

  20. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojia He; Huey-Min Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential be...

  1. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  2. [Contribution of research to the responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, S; Boccuni, F

    2008-01-01

    The newly-fledged nanotechnologies offer opportunities for social development but uncertainties prevail about their impact on human and environmental health. Right now there is still a huge gap between technological progress and research into the health and safety aspects of nanomaterials. This is clear from the quantity of nano-products already on the market--more than 600--and the public and private funds dedicated to the development of nanotechnologies, which are almost a hundred times those available for research into their effects on health and safety. Estimates have it that by 2014 nanotechnologies will be widely used in our society, and ten million new jobs will be created. Therefore it becomes essential to plan an integrated approach to specific risk analysis at work. The following gaps and needs come to light: limited information; difficulties in relating nanotechnologies and production of nanomaterials to specific areas of application; efforts required to assess the hazards posed by nanomaterials in realistic exposure conditions; ethical issues about nanotechnology in the workplace likely to arise from today's knowledge about the hazards of nanomaterials and the risks they may pose to workers. An integrated approach to research, cooperation and communication strategies is essential if we are to direct our efforts towards responsible and sustainable growth of nanotechnologies.

  3. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  4. Microspheres and Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Gauti; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye can be accomplished by invasive drug injections into different tissues of the eye and noninvasive topical treatment. Invasive treatment involves the risks of surgical trauma and infection, and conventional topical treatments are ineffective in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. In recent years, nanotechnology has become an ever-increasing part of ocular drug delivery. In the following, we briefly review microspheres and nanotechnology for drug delivery to the eye, including different forms of nanotechnology such as nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, microemulsions and micromachines. The permeation barriers and anatomical considerations linked to ocular drug delivery are discussed and a theoretical overview on drug delivery through biological membranes is given. Finally, in vitro, in vivo and human studies of x03B3;-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eyedrop suspensions are discussed as an example of nanotechnology used for drug delivery to the eye.

  5. Nanotechnology applied to treatment of mucopolysaccharidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Roselena S; Baldo, Guilherme; Teixeira, Helder F

    2016-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are genetic disorders caused by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans due to deficiencies in the lysosomal enzymes responsible for their catabolism. Current treatments are not fully effective and are not available for all MPS types. Accordingly, researchers have tested novel therapies for MPS, including nanotechnology-based enzyme delivery systems and gene therapy. In this review, we aim to analyze some of the approaches involving nanotechnology as alternative treatments for MPS. Areas covered: We analyze nanotechnology-based systems, focusing on the biomaterials, such as polymers and lipids, that comprise these nanostructures, and we have highlighted studies that describe their use as enzyme and gene delivery systems for the treatment of MPS diseases. Expert opinion: Some protocols, such as the use of polymer-based systems or nanostructured carriers associated with enzymes and nanotechnology-based carriers for gene therapy, along with combined approaches, seem to be the future of MPS therapy.

  6. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  7. Research and application of nanotechnology in transportation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available effects that the technology may have on aspects such as safety, durability, economics and sustainability of the transportation infrastructure. The most important challenge in this endeavour is that of scaling nanotechnology to ensure that the benefits...

  8. Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and future aspects. ... daily food shortages as a result of environmental impacts or political instability, ... safety to reduced agricultural inputs and improved processing and nutrition.

  9. Automatic Evolution of Molecular Nanotechnology Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes strategies for automatically generating designs for analog circuits at the molecular level. Software maps out the edges and vertices of potential nanotechnology systems on graphs, then selects appropriate ones through evolutionary or genetic paradigms.

  10. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation.

  11. Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Tabrez, Shams; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.

  12. Advances in Nanotechnology for Restorative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients.

  13. The impact of industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the impact of industrial (or "white") biotechnology can have on our society and economy is discussed. An overview is given of industrial biotechnology and its applications in a number of product categories ranging from food ingredients, vitamins, bio-colorants, solvents, plastics and biofuels. The use of fossil resources is compared with renewable resources as the preferred feedstock for industrial biotechnology. A brief discussion is also given of the expected changes in society and technology, ranging from the shift in the supply of resources, the growing need for efficiency and sustainability of the production systems, changing consumer perception and behaviour and changing agricultural systems and practices. Many of these changes are expected to speed up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy and society.

  14. Current biotechnological developments in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschelein, C A; Callegari, J P; Laurent, M; Simon, J P; Taeymans, D

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, actions have been undertaken by the Belgian government to promote process innovation and technical diversification. Research programs are initiated and coordinated by the study committee for biotechnology setup within the Institute for Scientific Research in Industry and Agriculture (IRSIA). As a result of this action, the main areas where biotechnological processes are developed or commercially exploited include plant genetics, protein engineering, hybridoma technology, biopesticides, production by genetic engineering of vaccines and drugs, monoclonal detection of human and animal deseases, process reactors for aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment, and genetic modification of yeast and bacteria as a base for biomass and energy. Development research also includes new fermentation technologies principally based on immobilization of microorganisms, reactor design, and optimization of unit operations involved in downstream processing. Food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries are involved in genetic engineering and biotechnology and each of these sectors is overviewed in this paper.

  15. Synthetic microbial ecosystems for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhal, Jagroop; Noirel, Josselin

    2014-06-01

    Most highly controlled and specific applications of microorganisms in biotechnology involve pure cultures. Maintaining single strain cultures is important for industry as contaminants can reduce productivity and lead to longer "down-times" during sterilisation. However, microbes working together provide distinct advantages over pure cultures. They can undertake more metabolically complex tasks, improve efficiency and even expand applications to open systems. By combining rapidly advancing technologies with ecological theory, the use of microbial ecosystems in biotechnology will inevitably increase. This review provides insight into the use of synthetic microbial communities in biotechnology by applying the engineering paradigm of measure, model, manipulate and manufacture, and illustrate the emerging wider potential of the synthetic ecology field. Systems to improve biofuel production using microalgae are also discussed.

  16. Future market sustainable water management and nanotechnology; Zukunftsmarkt Nachhaltige Wasserwirtschaft und Nanotechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Wolfgang; Bachmann, Gerd; Grimm, Vera; Schug, Hartmut; Zweck, Axel [VDI Technologiezentrum GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    This case study on nanotechnology with a focus on sustainable water management was done within the scope of the research project ''Future markets - innovative environmental policy in important fields of action''. Nanotechnology is a broad cross-cutting technology with a multitude of process and technology platforms. Nanotechnologies can contribute to preventing water pollution (e. g. by substituting water polluting processes) or removing this (e. g. nanomaterials/ membranes in wastewater treatment) and can be used to monitor water quality (e. g. nanosensors). Water plays a key role in nutrition and health, in agriculture (irrigation) and as a solvent in industrial processes. A globally sustainable supply of drinking water and industrial water is seen as one of the main challenges of the next decades. The world water supply market is predicted to be more than 400 billion US-$ (2010), in which membrane technologies will play a key role. The rapid development of nanotechnologies is reflected in the constant growth in the number of nanotechnology patents and publications. New types of filtration membranes and nanomaterials for the catalytic, adsorptive or magnetic-separation purification of wastewater constitute an important segment; some marketable products have already been developed in this field. In the long term, convergence in the fields of electronics, biotechnology, nanotechnology and microsystems will offer new perspectives and applications, in sustainable water management as well. Germany has high technological competence in membrane and nanofiltration technology, mostly based on the strength of its basic research, which can serve as a good basis from which to tap foreign markets. The USA is the leader in the field of nanotechnology and in water management applications. Starting points for policy measures are the initiation and implementation of innovationsupporting measures for the further development of these technologies -particularly

  17. Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, Mukund V; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2011-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers causes environmental pollution, emergence of agricultural pests and pathogens, and loss of biodiversity. Nanotechnology, by virtue of nanomaterial related properties, has potential agro-biotechnological applications for alleviation of these problems. The literature pertaining to the role of nanotechnology in plant and soil systems demonstrates that nanomaterials may assist in a) the controlled release of agrochemicals for nutrition and protection against pests and pathogens, b) delivery of genetic material, c) sensitive detection of plant disease and pollutants and d) protection and formation of soil structure. For instance, porous silica (15nm) and biodegradable, polymeric chitosan (78nm) nanoparticles displayed slow release of encapsulated pesticide and fertilizer, respectively. Further, nanosized gold (5-25nm) delivered DNA to plant cells while iron oxide (30nm) based nanosensors detected pesticides at minute levels. These functions assist the development of precision farming by minimizing pollution and maximizing the value of farming practice.

  18. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology.

  19. Business Strategy for Nanotechnology based Products & Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal P. S.; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology in different identified areas provide lots of business opportunities. It includes Food, Medicine, Cleaner water, Better quality air, Electronics, Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, Batteries, Space Travels, Chemical sensors, Sporting goods, Fabrics, Cleaning products, Energy, Environment, Health, and Lifespan increase. The paper covers the applications, and benefits of nanotechnology innovations in different industries, possible business opportunities f...

  20. A social shaping perspective on nanotechnologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2005-01-01

    explores the potential of a social shaping of technology approach in the area of emerging nano-technologies and debate the methodological aspects based on an ongoing Danish foresight project concerned with environmental risks and opportunities in nanotechnologies. The focus is on the identification...... of strategic considerations and choices related to early stages of socio-technical or socio-economic network building processes cutting across diverse worlds of science, manufacturing, product design and use....

  1. Political incentives towards replacing animal testing in nanotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2009-01-01

    The Treaty of Lisbon requests the European Union and the Member States to pay full regard to animal welfare issues when implementing new policies. The present article discusses how these provisions are met in the emerging area of nanotechnology. Political action plans in Europe take into account animal welfare issues to some extent. Funding programmes promote the development of non-animal test methods, however only in the area of nanotoxicology and also here not sufficiently to "pay full regard" to preventing animal testing, let alone to bring about a paradigm change in toxicology or in biomedical research as such. Ethical deliberations on nanotechnology, which influence future policies, so far do not address animal welfare at all. Considering that risk assessment of nanoproducts is conceived as a key element to protect human dignity, ethical deliberations should address the choice of the underlying testing methods and call for basing nanomaterial safety testing upon the latest scientific--and ethically acceptable--technologies. Finally, public involvement in the debate on nanotechnology should take into account information on resulting animal experiments.

  2. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  3. Management in biophotonics and biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2005-10-01

    Biophotonics, one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas, offers vast potential for changing traditional approaches to meeting many critical needs in medicine, biology, pharmacy, food, health care and cosmetic industries. Follow the market trends we developed new MSc course Management in Biophotonics and Biotechnologies (MBB) that provide students of technical disciplines with the necessary training, education and problem-solving skills to produce professionals and managers who are better equipped to handle the challenges of modern science and business in biophotonics and biotechnology. A major advantage of the course is that it provides skills not currently available to graduates in other Master programs.

  4. Ethical aspects of biotechnology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines ethical issues associated with two recent major developments in biotechnology: 1. The question of whether it is ethically acceptable to patent living organisms and genes and 2. Ethical issues related to the ability to predict or prognosticate disease susceptibility using increasingly refined genetic markers. In both instances, a pragmatic consequentialist approach is proposed which encourages biotechnology development while adhering to ethical standards. The paper concludes by encouraging public education about modern genetics in order to avoid inappropriate public fear and concern.

  5. Nanotechnology and the need for risk governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, O.; Roco, M. C.

    2006-04-01

    After identifying the main characteristics and prospects of nanotechnology as an emerging technology, the paper presents the general risks associated with nanotechnology applications and the deficits of the risk governance process today, concluding with recommendations to governments, industry, international organizations and other stakeholders. The International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) has identified a governance gap between the requirements pertaining to the nano- rather than the micro-/macro- technologies. The novel attributes of nanotechnology demand different routes for risk-benefit assessment and risk management, and at present, nanotechnology innovation proceeds ahead of the policy and regulatory environment. In the shorter term, the governance gap is significant for those passive nanostructures that are currently in production and have high exposure rates; and is especially significant for the several `active' nanoscale structures and nanosystems that we can expect to be on the market in the near future. Active nanoscale structures and nanosystems have the potential to affect not only human health and the environment but also aspects of social lifestyle, human identity and cultural values. The main recommendations of the report deal with selected higher risk nanotechnology applications, short- and long-term issues, and global models for nanotechnology governance.

  6. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Current achievements and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. Dentistry is undergoing yet another change to benefit mankind, this time by transforming itself to the nanodentistry. A variety of nanostructures such as nanorobots, nanospheres, nanofibers, nanorods, etc., have been studied for various applications in dentistry and medicine. Preventive dentistry has also utilized nanodentistry to develop the nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. However, due to insufficient evidence on potential hazards on human health and environment, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue. It is documented that nanomaterials can enter the human body through several routes and can pose a threat to human health by interacting with the DNA. The present article focuses on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in dentistry.

  7. Nanotechnology in Science and Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J

    2007-02-21

    The burgeoning field of nanotechnology opens windows between science and art. Exploration of this interplay encourages interaction between scientists, artists and educators alike. The image below serves as an example of the fertile ground for exchange. The substrate that this image captures is made of silicon, the material from which computer chips are made. A thin ({approx}1 nm thick) chemical coating was applied homogeneously to the silicon. Specific regions of the coating, 600 nm wide (approximately 150 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair), were then locally removed from the silicon via photocatalytic nanolithography (PCNL(Bearinger, Hiddessen et al. 2005)). PCNL engages light, such as from a light emitting diode or an ultraviolet source, to activate molecules that are attached to a transparent mask above the silicon substrate. These molecules can be compounds similar to chlorophyll, the photoactive material that aids plants in photosynthesis, or may be semiconductor materials, such as TiO{sub 2}. Once these molecules are activated, chemical reactions result in local destruction of the coating on the silicon. Thus, only regions of the coated silicon in close contact with mask are affected. A non-fouling polymer hydrogel ({approx}10 nm thick) was then grafted to the retained coating. Hydrogels are superabsorbent and are therefore used on the bulk scale in common items including contact lenses and diapers. They also find utility in topical drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Because the hydrogel is so absorbent, exposing the silicon chip with patterned hydrogel to water vapor from one's breath reveals the pattern that the lithography dictates(Lopez, Biebuyck et al. 1993). The myriad of colors seen in the image are due to optical interference. The thickness of the swollen layer determines the colors that are visible. While the field of view immediately following hydration appears like a big drop of oil shining in the sun, the oil

  8. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... generating institutions in biotechnology innovation system of South-Eastern Nigeria. ... data from a sample of forty-three heads of departments from research institutes and ... for development and safe application of biotechnology innovations.

  9. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  10. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  11. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... biotechnology innovation system of South-Eastern. Nigeria. E. N. Ajani, M. C. ... Agricultural biotechnology provides new technological tools and aims to ..... constraints include poor fringe benefit to researchers ( x. = 2.90) ...

  12. The nanotechnology of life-inspired systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.

    2016-07-01

    For some decades now, nanotechnology has been touted as the 'next big thing' with potential impact comparable to the steam, electricity or Internet revolutions -- but has it lived up to these expectations? While advances in top-down nanolithography, now reaching 10-nm resolution, have resulted in devices that are rapidly approaching mass production, attempts to produce nanoscale devices using bottom-up approaches have met with only limited success. We have been inundated with nanoparticles of almost any shape, material and composition, but their societal impact has been far from revolutionary, with growing concerns over their toxicity. Despite nebulous hopes that making hierarchical nanomaterials will lead to new, emergent properties, no breakthrough applications seem imminent. In this Perspective, we argue that the time is ripe to look beyond individual nano-objects and their static assemblies, and instead focus on systems comprising different types of 'nanoparts' interacting and/or communicating with one another to perform desired functions. Such systems are interesting for a variety of reasons: they can act autonomously without external electrical or optical connections, can be dynamic and reconfigurable, and can act as 'nanomachines' by directing the flow of mass, energy or information . In thinking how this systems nanoscience approach could be implemented to design useful -- as opposed to toy-model -- nanosystems, our choice of applications and our nanoengineering should be inspired by living matter.

  13. Consumer acceptance of and willingness to pay for food nanotechnology: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Emma L., E-mail: e.giles@tees.ac.uk [Teesside University, Health and Social Care Institute (United Kingdom); Kuznesof, Sharron; Clark, Beth; Hubbard, Carmen; Frewer, Lynn J. [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Consumer’s attitudes to, and acceptance of, emerging technologies and their applications, are important determinants of their successful implementation and commercialisation. Understanding the range of socio-psychological, cultural and affective factors which may influence consumer responses to applications of nanotechnology will help “fine-tune” the development of consumer products in line with their expectations and preferences. This is particularly true of applications in the food area, where consumer concerns about technologies applied to food production may be elevated. This research applied systematic review methodology to synthesise current knowledge regarding societal acceptance or rejection of nanotechnology applied to agri-food production. The objective was to aggregate knowledge derived from different research areas to gain an overall picture of consumer responses to nanotechnology applied to food production. Relevant electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature were searched from the earliest date available, for peer-reviewed papers which reported primary empirical data on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology, using a formal systematic review protocol. Inclusion criteria for papers to be included in the review were: empirical peer-reviewed papers written in English; a population sample of adults aged 18 years and over used in the research; a research focus on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology; and research on attitudes towards, and willingness to pay for, different applications of agri-food nanotechnology. Two researchers independently appraised the papers using NVivo 10 QSR software. Studies examining consumer and expert acceptance were thematically analysed, and key information was collated. The results were synthesised in order to identify trends in information relevant to consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applied to food production. Eight key themes were identified from the 32 papers

  14. Consumer acceptance of and willingness to pay for food nanotechnology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Kuznesof, Sharron; Clark, Beth; Hubbard, Carmen; Frewer, Lynn J

    Consumer's attitudes to, and acceptance of, emerging technologies and their applications, are important determinants of their successful implementation and commercialisation. Understanding the range of socio-psychological, cultural and affective factors which may influence consumer responses to applications of nanotechnology will help "fine-tune" the development of consumer products in line with their expectations and preferences. This is particularly true of applications in the food area, where consumer concerns about technologies applied to food production may be elevated. This research applied systematic review methodology to synthesise current knowledge regarding societal acceptance or rejection of nanotechnology applied to agri-food production. The objective was to aggregate knowledge derived from different research areas to gain an overall picture of consumer responses to nanotechnology applied to food production. Relevant electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature were searched from the earliest date available, for peer-reviewed papers which reported primary empirical data on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology, using a formal systematic review protocol. Inclusion criteria for papers to be included in the review were: empirical peer-reviewed papers written in English; a population sample of adults aged 18 years and over used in the research; a research focus on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology; and research on attitudes towards, and willingness to pay for, different applications of agri-food nanotechnology. Two researchers independently appraised the papers using NVivo 10 QSR software. Studies examining consumer and expert acceptance were thematically analysed, and key information was collated. The results were synthesised in order to identify trends in information relevant to consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applied to food production. Eight key themes were identified from the 32 papers which were

  15. Consumer acceptance of and willingness to pay for food nanotechnology: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L.; Kuznesof, Sharron; Clark, Beth; Hubbard, Carmen; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2015-12-01

    Consumer's attitudes to, and acceptance of, emerging technologies and their applications, are important determinants of their successful implementation and commercialisation. Understanding the range of socio-psychological, cultural and affective factors which may influence consumer responses to applications of nanotechnology will help "fine-tune" the development of consumer products in line with their expectations and preferences. This is particularly true of applications in the food area, where consumer concerns about technologies applied to food production may be elevated. This research applied systematic review methodology to synthesise current knowledge regarding societal acceptance or rejection of nanotechnology applied to agri-food production. The objective was to aggregate knowledge derived from different research areas to gain an overall picture of consumer responses to nanotechnology applied to food production. Relevant electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature were searched from the earliest date available, for peer-reviewed papers which reported primary empirical data on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology, using a formal systematic review protocol. Inclusion criteria for papers to be included in the review were: empirical peer-reviewed papers written in English; a population sample of adults aged 18 years and over used in the research; a research focus on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology; and research on attitudes towards, and willingness to pay for, different applications of agri-food nanotechnology. Two researchers independently appraised the papers using NVivo 10 QSR software. Studies examining consumer and expert acceptance were thematically analysed, and key information was collated. The results were synthesised in order to identify trends in information relevant to consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applied to food production. Eight key themes were identified from the 32 papers which were

  16. DNA nanotechnology: a future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its genetic function, DNA is one of the most distinct and smart self-assembling nanomaterials. DNA nanotechnology exploits the predictable self-assembly of DNA oligonucleotides to design and assemble innovative and highly discrete nanostructures. Highly ordered DNA motifs are capable of providing an ultra-fine framework for the next generation of nanofabrications. The majority of these applications are based upon the complementarity of DNA base pairing: adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine. DNA provides an intelligent route for the creation of nanoarchitectures with programmable and predictable patterns. DNA strands twist along one helix for a number of bases before switching to the other helix by passing through a crossover junction. The association of two crossovers keeps the helices parallel and holds them tightly together, allowing the assembly of bigger structures. Because of the DNA molecule's unique and novel characteristics, it can easily be applied in a vast variety of multidisciplinary research areas like biomedicine, computer science, nano/optoelectronics, and bionanotechnology. PMID:23497147

  17. Nanotechnology Based Environmentally Robust Primers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T W Jr; Gash, A E; Satcher, J H Jr; Simpson, R L

    2003-03-18

    An initiator device structure consisting of an energetic metallic nano-laminate foil coated with a sol-gel derived energetic nano-composite has been demonstrated. The device structure consists of a precision sputter deposition synthesized nano-laminate energetic foil of non-toxic and non-hazardous metals along with a ceramic-based energetic sol-gel produced coating made up of non-toxic and non-hazardous components such as ferric oxide and aluminum metal. Both the nano-laminate and sol-gel technologies are versatile commercially viable processes that allow the ''engineering'' of properties such as mechanical sensitivity and energy output. The nano-laminate serves as the mechanically sensitive precision igniter and the energetic sol-gel functions as a low-cost, non-toxic, non-hazardous booster in the ignition train. In contrast to other energetic nanotechnologies these materials can now be safely manufactured at application required levels, are structurally robust, have reproducible and engineerable properties, and have excellent aging characteristics.

  18. Biotechnology Facility (BTF) for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Engineering mockup shows the general arrangement of the plarned Biotechnology Facility inside an EXPRESS rack aboard the International Space Station. This layout includes a gas supply module (bottom left), control computer and laptop interface (bottom right), two rotating wall vessels (top right), and support systems.

  19. Biotechnology in defence (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazar Mathew

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology, in its present perspective, encompasses activities, such as recombination of genes; cloning, or making genetically identical copies of a living thing; and splicing of genes from DNA of one organism into the genome of unrelated species, to create new, self-reproducing forms of life. The vast potential of biotechnology is being increasingly realised, and efforts are in progress to harness it for improving quality and quantity of bio-weapons, The bio-weapons, as such, are highly attractive because of their non-detection by routine security systems, ease of access, low production cost and easy transportation, A wide range of genetically manipulated organisms and their by-products are considered to have an added advantage, because these genetically manipulated biologics not only accentuate the existing properties of bio-weapons, but also could be made target-specific. Biotechnology, if used prudently, can play a significant role to counter such threats of biologics, viz., by producing (i bio-armoury comprising powerful antibiotics, antisera toxoids and vaccines to neutralise and eliminate a wide range of diseases, and (ii bio-sensors for rapid detection, identification and neutralisation of biological warfare agents. This article elucidates some facets of biological warfare, legal protective strategies emphasised through international consultation, cooperation and adherence to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and discusses how biotechnology could be effectively used to strengthen countries' defence and combat the threat of biological warfare.

  20. Biotechnological sulphide removal with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for biotechnological sulphide removal from wastewater, in which it is attempted to convert sulphide into elemental sulphur by colourless sulphur bacteria. The toxicity, corrosive properties, unpleasant odor and high oxygen demand of sulphide di