WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanotechnology biotechnology information

  1. MHSS 2020 Focused Study on Biotechnology & Nanotechnology, 29 July 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... This focused study on biotechnology and nanotechnology has two primary goals: (1) examine the future strategic impact of biotechnology and nanotechnology as it relates to the military health system, and (2...

  2. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  3. GREEN TECHNOLOGY FORESIGHT OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY: HYPE OR POTENTIALS - THE CHALLENGES FROM NANOTECHNOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ICT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the theoretical and methodological approach in an ongoing Danish technology foresight project focusing on the environmental potentials and risks of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and communication technology (ICT). The paper gives a short overview of some...

  4. Systems architecture: a new model for sustainability and the built environment using nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science with living technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This report details a workshop held at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, to initiate interdisciplinary collaborations for the practice of systems architecture, which is a new model for the generation of sustainable architecture that combines the discipline of the study of the built environment with the scientific study of complexity, or systems science, and adopts the perspective of systems theory. Systems architecture offers new perspectives on the organization of the built environment that enable architects to consider architecture as a series of interconnected networks with embedded links into natural systems. The public workshop brought together architects and scientists working with the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science and with living technology to investigate the possibility of a new generation of smart materials that are implied by this approach.

  5. BIOTECHNOLOGY, NANOTECHNOLOGY, AND PHARMACOGENOMICS AND PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUNDING, PART 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    This article, which represents part 2 of a two part article, completes the discussion on the rapidly changing world of pharmaceuticals as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon.

  6. National Center for Biotechnology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  7. 78 FR 60319 - Request for Information: NNI Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology Signature...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY COORDINATION OFFICE Request for Information: NNI Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology Signature Initiative ACTION: Notice... the value of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and of the Nanotechnology Signature...

  8. An emerging interface between life science and nanotechnology: present status and prospects of reproductive healthcare aided by nano-biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi K. Jha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the various applications of nano-biotechnology, healthcare is considered one of the most significant domains. For that possibility to synthesize various kind of nanoparticles (NPs and the ever-increasing ability to control their size as well as structure, to improve surface characteristics and binding NPs with other desired curing agents has played an important role. In this paper, a brief sketch of various kinds of nanomaterials and their biomedical applications is given. Despite claims of bio-nanotechnology about to touch all areas of medical science, information pertaining to the role of nanotechnology for the betterment of reproductive healthcare is indeed limited. Therefore, the various achievements of nano-biotechnology for healthcare in general have been illustrated while giving special insight into the role of nano-biotechnology for the future of reproductive healthcare betterment as well as current achievements of nanoscience and nanotechnology in this arena.

  9. An emerging interface between life science and nanotechnology: present status and prospects of reproductive healthcare aided by nano-biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Rakhi K; Jha, Pradeep K; Chaudhury, Koel; Rana, Suresh V S; Guha, Sujoy K

    2014-01-01

    Among the various applications of nano-biotechnology, healthcare is considered one of the most significant domains. For that possibility to synthesize various kind of nanoparticles (NPs) and the ever-increasing ability to control their size as well as structure, to improve surface characteristics and binding NPs with other desired curing agents has played an important role. In this paper, a brief sketch of various kinds of nanomaterials and their biomedical applications is given. Despite claims of bio-nanotechnology about to touch all areas of medical science, information pertaining to the role of nanotechnology for the betterment of reproductive healthcare is indeed limited. Therefore, the various achievements of nano-biotechnology for healthcare in general have been illustrated while giving special insight into the role of nano-biotechnology for the future of reproductive healthcare betterment as well as current achievements of nanoscience and nanotechnology in this arena.

  10. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMATERIALS: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOFILMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Berry, T.; Narayan, R.

    2010-11-29

    Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to develop new tools and products for medicine and industry. Due to various properties including chemical stability, biocompatibility, and specific activity, e.g. antimicrobial properties, many new and novel materials are being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. Many of these materials are less than 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is the engineering discipline encompassing designing, producing, testing, and using structures and devices less than 100 nanometers. One of the challenges associated with biomaterials is microbial contamination that can lead to infections. In recent work we have examined the functionalization of nanoporous biomaterials and antimicrobial activities of nanocrystalline diamond materials. In vitro testing has revealed little antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and associated biofilm formation that enhances recalcitrance to antimicrobial agents including disinfectants and antibiotics. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated properties and characteristics of the material with regard to biofilm formation.

  11. Journal information flow in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrievski, Rostislav A.; Klyuchareva, Svetlana V.

    2011-01-01

    The nanotechnology development is accompanied by an intensive growth of information flow which is specially noticeable as applied to journal information flow. Now over the world there are the 69 nano-titled journals with the impact factor and/or a settled periodicity as well as the 70 those which lack stability periodicity and are in an organization stage. Only 49 nano-titled have the impact factor with the comparatively high mean value of about 3.44. The domestic nano-titled journals published in Russia, India, China, and other countries are also considered. The attention is taken that in the 2006–2010 period the 95 new nano-titled journals were organized and in 2011 this process is continuing and seems to be the most impressive. Many nano-related journals (including classical physical, chemical and materials science ones) are also described and discussed.

  12. Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Masrom

    2005-01-01

    The following subjects discussed: What is nanotechnology, Nanotechnology research and development, whats new about nanosciences, nano research facilities, impact of nanotechnology, commercially available nanotechnology, review on research status

  13. Biotechnology information service of the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetzsch, E.

    1990-05-01

    The paper gives a survey of the biotechnology information in the GDR and describes the establishment of the Biotechnology Information Service of the GDR (BioInfo GDR). BioInfo GDR is a referral database and is to provide information on information sources available in the GDR, and on institutions working in the various fields of biotechnology in the GDR. In addition, some general problems of the building and use of databases are discussed. (author). 8 refs

  14. Biotechnology information service of the GDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetzsch, E [Academy of Sciences, Berlin (Germany). Scientific Information Center

    1990-05-01

    The paper gives a survey of the biotechnology information in the GDR and describes the establishment of the Biotechnology Information Service of the GDR (BioInfo GDR). BioInfo GDR is a referral database and is to provide information on information sources available in the GDR, and on institutions working in the various fields of biotechnology in the GDR. In addition, some general problems of the building and use of databases are discussed. (author). 8 refs.

  15. Organisation of biotechnological information into knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, B

    1996-09-01

    The success of biotechnological research, development and marketing depends to a large extent on the international transfer of information and on the ability to organise biotechnology information into knowledge. To increase the efficiency of information-based approaches, an information strategy has been developed and consists of the following stages: definition of the problem, its structure and sub-problems; acquisition of data by targeted processing of computer-supported bibliographic, numeric, textual and graphic databases; analysis of data and building of specialized in-house information systems; information processing for structuring data into systems, recognition of trends and patterns of knowledge, particularly by information synthesis using the concept of information density; design of research hypotheses; testing hypotheses in the laboratory and/or pilot plant; repeated evaluation and optimization of hypotheses by information methods and testing them by further laboratory work. The information approaches are illustrated by examples from the university-industry joint projects in biotechnology, biochemistry and agriculture.

  16. Green biotechnology, nanotechnology and bio-fortification: perspectives on novel environment-friendly crop improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashveer, Shikha; Singh, Vikram; Kaswan, Vineet; Kaushik, Amit; Tokas, Jayanti

    2014-10-01

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are prominent issues for this century. As the world's population continues to increase, ensuring that the earth has enough food that is nutritious too will be a difficult task. Today one billion people of the world are undernourished and more than a third are malnourished. Moreover, the looming threat of climate change is exasperating the situation even further. At the same time, the total acreage of arable land that could support agricultural use is already near its limits, and may even decrease over the next few years due to salination and desertification patterns resulting from climate change. Clearly, changing the way we think about crop production must take place on multiple levels. New varieties of crops must be developed which can produce higher crop yields with less water and fewer agricultural inputs. Besides this, the crops themselves must have improved nutritional qualities or become biofortified in order to reduce the chances of 'hidden hunger' resulting from malnourishment. It is difficult to envision the optimum way to increase crop production using a single uniform strategy. Instead, a variety of approaches must be employed and tailored for any particular agricultural setting. New high-impact technologies such as green biotechnology, biofortification, and nanotechnology offer opportunities for boosting agricultural productivity and enhancing food quality and nutritional value with eco-friendly manner. These agricultural technologies currently under development will renovate our world to one that can comfortably address the new directions, our planet will take as a result of climate change.

  17. Industrial College of the Armed Forces Industry Studies 2003: Biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aichouche, Abdelaziz

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnology is a discipline that integrates biology, chemistry, physiology, information technology, engineering, and nanotechnology with the potential to revolutionize every aspect of modern life...

  18. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites-blogs, government, and general sites-are conducted.

  19. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ashley A., E-mail: aaanderson3@wisc.edu; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites-blogs, government, and general sites-are conducted.

  20. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewanika, Mbikusita Mwananyanda

    2005-01-01

    The article sets out to explain in simple terms the main concepts of Biotechnology beginning with traditional biotechnology to modern biotechnology. It outlines fundamentals of Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Engineering. The article offers a discussion of the benefits, disadvantages and the general public and policy concerns regarding genetically modified organisms

  1. Nanotechnology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Structuring matter on the nanometer range is much more that just making things smaller than in existing microscale devices. Rather the exploitation of phenomena that stem exclusively from the nanoscale dimensions of device elements holds the promise of new functionalities and applications in various fields as electronics, mechanics, optics or medicine. I will give a general introduction in the basics of nanotechnology, illustrated by existing and envisaged applications from which a strong impact on both science and our daily life is to be expected. I will also discuss the methodology and experimental techniques, as scanning probe microscopies and lithography.

  2. Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Remillard, S.; Kapustka, L.; Goudey, S.

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field. There are currently over 500 consumer products available in the marketplace and the field of nanotechnology itself that will be worth over 1 trillion by 2012. However, with an increasing number of products emerging, there is also a consequent rise in ecological and human exposure. The risk and degree of exposure to nanoscale particles (NP) will vary depending on the form of the particle, for example, powder, liquid or encapsulated, when contact occurs. Although, general public exposure to NP is increasing due to the shear number of products available, the majority of human exposure still occurs in an occupational setting. Preliminary exposure studies demonstrate that NP may enter the body via the gastrointestinal, respiratory and integumentary systems and then translocate to other vital organs and systems (for example via the olfactory bulb). Historical data on ultrafine particles have shown a higher incidence of lung cancer and respiratory disorders associated with exposure. Due to these data and evidence emerging directly on NP, precautionary measures may be warranted to ensure worker safety. Regulatory agencies and manufacturers are beginning to consider standard practices that adequately protect workers from nanoscale particle exposure. The occupational hazards associated with exposure and the current safety recommendations will be discussed.

  3. Modification of nucleic acids by azobenzene derivatives and their applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xingyu; Liang, Xingguo

    2014-12-01

    Azobenzene has been widely used as a photoregulator due to its reversible photoisomerization, large structural change between E and Z isomers, high photoisomerization yield, and high chemical stability. On the other hand, some azobenzene derivatives can be used as universal quenchers for many fluorophores. Nucleic acid is a good candidate to be modified because it is not only the template of gene expression but also widely used for building well-organized nanostructures and nanodevices. Because the size and polarity distribution of the azobenzene molecule is similar to a nucleobase pair, the introduction of azobenzene into nucleic acids has been shown to be an ingenious molecular design for constructing light-switching biosystems or light-driven nanomachines. Here we review recent advances in azobenzene-modified nucleic acids and their applications for artificial regulation of gene expression and enzymatic reactions, construction of photoresponsive nanostructures and nanodevices, molecular beacons, as well as obtaining structural information using the introduced azobenzene as an internal probe. In particular, nucleic acids bearing multiple azobenzenes can be used as a novel artificial nanomaterial with merits of high sequence specificity, regular duplex structure, and high photoregulation efficiency. The combination of functional groups with biomolecules may further advance the development of chemical biotechnology and biomolecular engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin

    2016-01-01

    Present an overview of the Nanotechnology Project at NASA's Game Changing Technology Industry Day. Mature and demonstrate flight readiness of CNT reinforced composites for future NASA mission applications?Sounding rocket test in a multiexperiment payload?Integrate into cold gas thruster system as propellant storage?The technology would provide the means for reduced COPV mass and improved damage tolerance and flight qualify CNT reinforced composites. PROBLEM/NEED BEING ADDRESSED:?Reduce weight and enhance the performance and damage tolerance of aerospace structuresGAME-CHANGING SOLUTION:?Improve mechanical properties of CNTs to eventually replace CFRP –lighter and stronger?First flight-testing of a CNT reinforced composite structural component as part of an operational flight systemUNIQUENESS:?CNT manufacturing methods developed?Flight qualify CNT reinforced composites

  5. A Proposal to Develop a Biotechnology Information Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spalding, John

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to develop facilities and information resources that support current research in biotechnology and to meet the goal of strengthening the biological science programs at HBCUs/Mls...

  6. Quantum mechanics with applications to nanotechnology and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Band, Yehuda B

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information th...

  7. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 1: Where scientists get their information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefsheim, S; Franklin, J; Cunningham, D

    1991-01-01

    A model study, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and conducted by the Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library (RML) and the University of Maryland Health Sciences Library, attempted to assess the information needs of researchers in the developing field of biotechnology and to determine the resources available to meet those needs in major academic health sciences centers. Nine medical schools in RML Region 2 were selected to participate in a biotechnology awareness study. A survey was conducted of the nine medical school libraries to assess their support of biotechnology research. To identify the information needs of scientists engaged in biotechnology-related research at the schools, a written survey was sent to the deans of the nine institutions and selected scientists they had identified. This was followed by individual, in-depth interviews with both the deans and scientists surveyed. In general, scientists obtained information from three major sources: their own experiments, personal communication with other scientists, and textual material (print or electronic). For textual information, most study participants relied on personal journal subscriptions. Tangential journals were scanned in the department's library. Only a few of these scientists came to the health sciences library on a regular basis. Further, the study found that personal computers have had a major impact on how biotechnologists get and use information. Implications of these findings for libraries and librarians are discussed. PMID:1998818

  8. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules

  9. Effect of Religious Belief on Informal Reasoning about Biotechnology Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Timothy; Dawson, Vaille; Koul, Rekha

    2017-01-01

    The advances of modern biotechnology provide teachers with a number of opportunities to explore socioscientific issues, and in doing so to enhance students' reasoning skills. Although some attempt has been made to understand cultural differences in students' informal reasoning across international and regional boundaries, there is limited research…

  10. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules. The Animal Laboratory Division of IPEN is responsible for the breeding and production of small laboratory animal.

  11. The track nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.; Forsyth, D.; Watts, A.; Saad, A.F.; Mitchell, G.R.; Farmer, M.; Harris, P.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  12. The track nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, A. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Forsyth, D., E-mail: dforsyth@bite.ac.u [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Watts, A. [Department of Physics, UCL, London Centre of Nanotechnology (LCN), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H OAH (United Kingdom); Saad, A.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Mitchell, G.R. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Farmer, M. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Harris, P.J.F. [Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  13. Consumer demand for information about agricultural biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Czienskowski, Uwe

    The aim of the study was to provide a realistic assessment of (a) the amount and type of information that consumers would use in choices between second-generation novel foods and different types of competitor products, (b) the amount and type of information that consumers would access from general...... (glycoalkaloids), mutation-bred rice with lowered levels of an anti-nutrient (phytic acid), and functional food ingredients of a natural origin (phytosterols). A representative sample of 726 Danish consumers participated in a web experiment. In the first part of the experiment, information uptake in realistic...... product choice situations was monitored. Each participant completed three choice tasks, involving different categories of consumer products (basmati rice, milk, frozen sliced potatoes). Within each choice set, one product alternative was based on the second-generation novel foods used as paradigmatic...

  14. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary Past Issues / Winter 2014 ... Photo courtesy of NLM The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of NLM, celebrated its ...

  15. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of 131 I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens for

  16. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  17. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanofood, food packaging, nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation

  18. Biotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed the identification of limiting factors associated with scaling-up, with respect in particular to the scale of mass production required to meet the needs of planters and to the problem of ensuring genetic fidelity in the regenerated plant material. These two concerns led researchers to look further into the underlying physiological and/or molecular mechanisms involved in somatic embryogenesis and the somaclonal variation events induced by the in vitro cloning procedure. Structural and functional genomics. Marker-assisted breeding in oil palm is a long-term multi-stage project including: molecular analysis of genetic diversity in both E. guineensis and E. oleifera germplasms; large scale development of PCR-based microsatellite markers; and parallel development of three genome mapping and QTL detection projects studying key agronomic characters. Post-genomics. In order to tackle the problem of the mantled flowering abnormality, which is induced during the micropropagation process, studies of gene expression have been carried out in tissue cultures as a means of establishing an early clonal conformity testing procedure. It is important to assess what kind of methodology is the most appropriate for clonal conformity testing by comparing RNA, protein and DNA (PCR based approaches. Parallel studies on genomic DNA methylation changes induced by tissue culture suggest that the latter may play an important role in the determination of the mantled abnormality.

  19. Biotechnology 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This book deals with Bio-vision 2016 on the meaning and important contents Next, it reveals vision of biotechnology, current condition of biotechnology in the main countries such as the U.S, Japan, Eu and China, promoting nation biotechnology with promotion policy, support policy for biotechnology such as agriculture and forestry and information and communication, competitiveness of biotechnology, research development by fields and related industries and regulation and system on biotechnology.

  20. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  1. A Trip from a Tube to a Chip Applied Micro and Nanotechnology in Biotechnology, Veterinary and Life Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Cao, Cuong

    2010-01-01

    of such pathogens. Microchipfabrication has had a major impact on electronics and is expected to have an equally pronounced effect on life sciences. By combining micro-fluidics with micromechanics, micro-optics, and microelectronics, systems can be realized to perform complete chemical or biochemical analyses......-nanotechnology in life sciences will be given. In addition, examples of DNA micro arrays, micro fabricated integrated PCR chips and total integrated lab-on-chip systems from different National and EU research projects being carried out at the Laboratory of Applied Micro-Nanotechnology (LAMINATE) group at the National...

  2. PHANTOMS: Nanotechnology network for information processing and storage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio

    2001-06-01

    It is now accepted that nanotechnology is one of the key enabling technologies for sustainable and competitive growth in Europe. Nanoelectronics is certainly the branch with the most significant commercial impact and covers a huge range of interdisciplinary areas of research and development such as molecular electronics, bioelectronics, spintronics, nanoimprint, nanoscale optics, lithography, architecture and nanoprobes. It is also accepted that a significant investment will be required to ensure Europe's competitiveness in nanotechnology. At this stage it is impossible to predict the exact course that the nanoelectronics revolution will take and, therefore, its effect on our daily lives. We can, however, be resonably sure that nanotechnology will have a profound impact on the future development of many commercial sectors. The greatest impact is likely to be in the electronics sector, where the demand for technologies permitting faster processing of data at lower costs will remain undiminished. In order to avoid European industry and R & D being left behind the United States and Japan in this fast emerging nanoelectronics field, the PHANTOMS Network Scheme will promote European science and research through a pluri-national networking action, put together research capacities present in the various European regions and stimulate commercial nanoelectronic applications.

  3. An emerging interface between life science and nanotechnology: present status and prospects of reproductive healthcare aided by nano-biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Rakhi K.; Jha, Pradeep K.; Chaudhury, Koel; Rana, Suresh V.S.; Guha, Sujoy K.

    2014-01-01

    Among the various applications of nano-biotechnology, healthcare is considered one of the most significant domains. For that possibility to synthesize various kind of nanoparticles (NPs) and the ever-increasing ability to control their size as well as structure, to improve surface characteristics and binding NPs with other desired curing agents has played an important role. In this paper, a brief sketch of various kinds of nanomaterials and their biomedical applications is given. Despite clai...

  4. Education resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter S; Lipshultz, Dawn; Matten, Wayne T; McGinnis, Scott D; Pechous, Steven; Romiti, Monica L; Tao, Tao; Valjavec-Gratian, Majda; Sayers, Eric W

    2010-11-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) hosts 39 literature and molecular biology databases containing almost half a billion records. As the complexity of these data and associated resources and tools continues to expand, so does the need for educational resources to help investigators, clinicians, information specialists and the general public make use of the wealth of public data available at the NCBI. This review describes the educational resources available at NCBI via the NCBI Education page (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Education/). These resources include materials designed for new users, such as About NCBI and the NCBI Guide, as well as documentation, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and writings on the NCBI Bookshelf such as the NCBI Help Manual and the NCBI Handbook. NCBI also provides teaching materials such as tutorials, problem sets and educational tools such as the Amino Acid Explorer, PSSM Viewer and Ebot. NCBI also offers training programs including the Discovery Workshops, webinars and tutorials at conferences. To help users keep up-to-date, NCBI produces the online NCBI News and offers RSS feeds and mailing lists, along with a presence on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.

  5. Selective perception of novel science: how definitions affect information processing about nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoun; Akin, Heather; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2017-05-01

    This study examines how familiarity with an issue—nanotechnology—moderates the effect of exposure to science information on how people process mediated messages about a complex issue. In an online experiment, we provide a nationally representative sample three definitions of nanotechnology (technical, technical applications, and technical risk/benefit definitions). We then ask them to read an article about the topic. We find significant interactions between perceived nano-familiarity and the definition received in terms of how respondents perceive favorable information conveyed in the stimulus. People less familiar with nanotechnology were more significantly affected by the type of definition they received.

  6. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: schandra@roosevelt.edu [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  7. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: schandra@roosevelt.edu [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  8. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  9. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  10. Nanotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter discusses various nanotechnologies for water sustainability. Detailed information on catalysis as an advanced oxidation process, nanofiltration, adsorption, water disinfection, and groundwater remediation is provided for water treatment. These nanomaterials effe...

  11. Nanotechnologies, technologies converging and potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuano, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology to biology and medicine appear really promising far diagnostics, for various therapeutic approaches and in medical instrumentations. The growing synergism among nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences, their convergence (NBIC) from the nano scale, could involve on next decades great changes in medicine, from a reactive to a predictive and preventive approach. It is expected that NBIC converging technologies could achieve tremendous improvements in human abilities and enhance societal achievements. It appears therefore necessary a careful assessment of related social and ethical implications, in the framework of a constant dialogue between science and society [it

  12. Tiered guidance for risk-informed environmental health and safety testing of nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Zachary A.; Kennedy, Alan J.; Poda, Aimee R.; Cuddy, Michael F.; Moser, Robert D.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Harmon, Ashley; Plourde, Kenton; Haines, Christopher D.; Steevens, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Provided the rapid emergence of novel technologies containing engineered nanomaterials, there is a need to better understand the potential environmental, health, and safety effects of nanotechnologies before wide-scale deployment. However, the unique properties of nanomaterials and uncertainty regarding applicable test methods have led to a lack of consensus regarding the collection and evaluation of data related to hazard and exposure potentials. Often, overly conservative approaches to characterization and data collection result in prolonged, unfocused, or irrelevant testing, which increases costs and delays deployment. In this paper, we provide a novel testing guidance framework for determining whether a nanotechnology has the potential to release material with nano-specific parameters that pose a risk to humans or the environment. The framework considers methods to categorize nanotechnologies by their structure and within their relevant-use scenarios to inform testing in a time- and resource-limited reality. Based on the precedent of dredged sediment testing, a five-tiered approach is proposed in which opportunities are presented to conclude testing once sufficient risk-related information has been collected, or that the technology in question does not require nano-specific scrutiny. A series of screening stages are suggested, covering relevant aspects including size, surface area, distribution, unique behaviors, and release potential. The tiered, adaptive guidance approach allows users to concentrate on collecting the most relevant data, thus accelerating technology deployment while minimizing risk

  13. US-Korea Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, and Information Technology (NBIT) Symbiosys Program - Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Nanostructured Materials & 6th Nanoelectronics, 19-20 May, 2009, Seoul, Korea H. Shin, “Confined Growth, Structures, and Energy Application of TiO2 ...loss. Currently, natural DNA processed from the salmon roe and milt sacs, waste products of the fishing industry, is quite abundant and relatively...powder was added to SRh aqueous solution which is normally pink in color . As seen in Fig. 7, the solution became clear and the DNA/CTMA powder (which

  14. Evolution of Biotechnology and Information Technology and Its Impact on Human Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The development of post-industrial society initiates profound economic, technological and cultural change in the way of life of all mankind. The revolutionary breakthroughs in the field of new technologies such as biotechnology and information technology are reflected in all spheres of human activity, directly affecting the human security. The article analyzes the consequences of widespread usage biotechnology and information technology in the foreign policy practice on the basis of the human security theory. The detailed description of the main directions of the use of biometric technology in the foreign policy and consular practices is provided, the challenges and threats to information security associated with biometrics are analyzed, arising from widespread biotechnology are the main challenges and threats to as well as human security threats arising at the present stage of development and application of these technologies. Human security threats associated with the use of biotechnology are placed in the broader context of global trends in scientific and technological development. The recommendations are formulated in the field of foreign policy and international cooperation, which would neutralize new threats to international and personal safety arising at the present stage of development of biotechnology. The authors conclude that in order to ensure ethical regulation of new technologies that address issues of human security, it is necessary to organize multi-stakeholder partnerships at national and international level with the participation of states, representatives of civil society, business and the research community.

  15. CONSUMER BIOTECHNOLOGY FOOD AND NUTRITION INFORMATION SOURCES: THE TRUST FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanem, Enefiok P.; Muhammad, Safdar; Tegegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra P.

    2004-01-01

    Although much has been written on consumer attitudes toward genetically modified foods, not much is known about how or where consumers get the information for the decisions they make about genetically modified foods. This paper reports on the media used by consumers in acquiring information about biotech food and nutrition issues, and examines how much trust consumers put in selected information sources. The paper also discusses how socio-economic variables affect level of trust in selected s...

  16. DNA nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-01-01

    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  17. Informing, involving or engaging? Science communication, in the ages of atom-, bio- and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Monika; Gisler, Priska

    2009-09-01

    Science communication has shifted considerably in Europe over the last decades. Three technology controversies on atoms, genes, and nanoscale sciences and nanotechnologies (NST) turned the style of communication from one-way information, participation and dialogues to the idea of an early and more democratic engagement of the public. Analyzing science communication developing over the three controversies, this article shows that what happened in one technology field fed forward to and contributed to shaping the subsequent field and that communication was initiated at a progressively earlier stage of technology development. The article concludes with an empirical analysis of six public engagement projects in NST, saying that the shift towards more democratic engagement of the public hasn't been as profound and complete as has been thought. This is particularly due to the continuing adoption of a simplistic contrast structure that opposes science and the public as two self-contained, antagonistic social entities.

  18. Nanosciences and nanotechnology evolution or revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Lahmani, Marcel; Dupas-Haeberlin, Claire; Hesto, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    This book provides information to the state of art of research in nanotechnology and nano medicine and risks of nano technology. It covers an interdisciplinary and very wide scope of the latest fundamental research status and industrial applications of nano technologies ranging from nano physics, nano chemistry to biotechnology and toxicology. It provides information to last legislation of nano usage and potential social impact too. The book contains also a reference list of major European research centers and associated universities offering licences and master of nano matter. For clarity and attractivity, the book has many illustrations and specific inserts to complete the understanding of the scientific texts.

  19. Nanotechnology in Military Development

    OpenAIRE

    Andrus Pedai; Igor Astrov

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the new cyber, according to several major leaders in this field. Just as cyber is entrenched across global society now, nano is poised to be major capabilities enabler of the next decades. Expert members from the National Nanotechnology Initiative (in U.S.) representing government and science disciplines say nano has great significance for the military and the general public. It is predicted that after next 15 years nanotechnology will replace information technology as the m...

  20. Creating informed public opinion: citizen deliberation about nanotechnologies for human enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that ordinary citizens should influence scientific and technological developments, but the American public is routinely uninformed about these issues. As a solution, some scholars advocate creating informed public opinions by encouraging citizens to deliberate about the issues. Although this idea is currently widely applauded in the science and technology literature, deliberative outcomes are infrequently measured and the practice of deliberation is routinely criticized in other disciplines. This research contributes to our understanding of the effectiveness of citizen deliberation as a method for increasing public engagement with science. I report data measuring results of deliberation in a national citizens’ technology forum (NCTF) about nanotechnologies for human enhancement. The NCTF was a month-long process involving six groups of 9–15 ordinary citizens who deliberated in different locations across the United States with the goal of reaching consensus about policy recommendations within their groups. I find that structured deliberation generated informed opinions, sometimes meaningful shifts in preferences, and increased trust and internal efficacy among the participants. Nevertheless, the NCTF has important shortcomings, and it is not obvious that consensus conferences should be preferred over other mechanisms for creating informed opinions. Future research is needed to corroborate the findings of this study and to systematically compare outcomes of structured citizen deliberation to other less resource intensive forms of engagement.

  1. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronteltap, Amber; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Tobi, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.

  2. Capability, Governance and Nanotechnology : Focus on India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nanotechnology is the study and manipulation of matter on an ultra-small scale, generally in the range of 1-100 nanometres (1 metre = 1 billion nanometres). Like biotechnology, nanotechnology has the potential to bring huge benefits to the poor, but also huge costs. Focusing on India, this project will examine the ...

  3. Frontiers in transport phenomena research and education: Energy systems, biological systems, security, information technology and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)

  4. Nanotechnology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is rapidly affecting all engineering disciplines as new products and applications are being found and brought to market. This session will present an overview of nanotechnology and let you learn about the advances in the field and how it could impact you. Some of the areas touched upon will be nanomaterials with their multifunctional capabilities, nanotechnology impact on energy systems, nanobiotechnology including nanomedicine, and nanotechnology relevant to space systems with a focus on ECLSS. Also, some important advances related to thermal systems will be presented as well as future predictions on nanotechnology.

  5. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    within the THz spectral region providing an additional benefit. His review describes the principle, characteristics, and applications of terahertz molecular imaging, where the use of nanoparticle probes allows dramatically enhanced sensitivity. Jiaguang Han and Weili Zhang and colleagues in China, Saudi Arabia, Japan and the US report exciting developments for optoelectronics [11]. They describe work on plasmon-induced transparency (PIT), an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) where interference leads to a sharp transparency window that may be useful for nonlinear and slow-light devices, optical switching, pulse delay, and storage for optical information processing. While PIT has advantages over the cumbersome experimental systems required for EIT, it has so far been constrained to very narrow band operation. Now Zhang and colleagues present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz in the terahertz regime. 'We can foresee a historic breakthrough for science and technology through terahertz research,' concluded Masayoshi Tonouchi in his review over five years ago as momentum in the field was mounting [12]. He added, 'It is also noteworthy that THz research is built on many areas of science and the coordination of a range of disciplines is giving birth to a new science.' With the inherently multidisciplinary nature of nanotechnology research it is not so strange to see the marriage of the two fields form such a fruitful partnership, as this special section highlights. References [1] Williams B S, Kumar S, Hu Q and Reno J L 2006 High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers Electron. Lett. 42 89-91 [2] Köhler R et al 2002 Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser Nature 417 156-9 [3] Mittendorff M, Xu M, Dietz R J B, K¨unzel H, Sartorius B, Schneider H, Helm M and Winnerl S 2013 Large area photoconductive THz emitter for 1.55 μm excitation based on

  6. Carbon Based Nanotechnology: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews publicly available information related to carbon based nanotechnology. Topics covered include nanomechanics, carbon based electronics, nanodevice/materials applications, nanotube motors, nano-lithography and H2O storage in nanotubes.

  7. Wondrous nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, I.Z.; Hussain, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, a lot of progress has been made in Nanotechnology and Nanoscience, an exploitation of matter on atomic, molecular and supermolecular scale. Nanotechnology because of its size is widely used in such varied fields as surface science, molecular biology, organic chemistry, semi-conductor physics, micro fabrication, medical sciences, electronics, biomaterials, energy production, etc. Using nanotechnology, Researchers have been able to develop new materials with nanoscale dimensions to directly control matter on the atomic or molecular scale. Due to the range of many potential applications, both industrial and military, many governments boast invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology and nanoscience research. This brief review deals with the fundamentals of nanotechnology and nanoscience and its application in various fields. It also discusses the future of nanotechnology and the risks involved in it. (author)

  8. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 2: Meeting the information needs of biotechnologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D; Grefsheim, S; Simon, M; Lansing, P S

    1991-01-01

    The second part of the biotechnology awareness study focused on health sciences libraries and how well they are meeting the needs of biotechnologists working in the study's nine medical centers. A survey was conducted over a three-month period to assess the demand for biotechnology-related reference services at nine libraries and the sources the librarians used to answer the questions. Data on monographic and current serial holdings were also collected. At the end of the survey period, librarians were asked for their perceptions about biotechnology research at their institutions and in their geographic areas. Their responses were compared to the responses the scientists at the nine schools gave to the same or similar questions. Results showed few biotechnology-related reference questions were asked of the librarians. The recorded questions dealt with a range of biotechnology subjects. MEDLINE was used to answer 77% of the questions received during the survey period. More detailed notes in MeSH and a guide to online searching for biotechnology topics were suggested by the librarians as ways to improve reference service to this group of researchers. Journal collections were generally strong, with libraries owning from 50% to 87% of the titles on a core list of biotechnology journals compiled for this study. All libraries subscribed to the five titles most often cited by the scientists surveyed. Generally, librarians were unaware of the biotechnology-related research being done on their campuses or in their geographic areas. PMID:1998819

  9. Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Scientific, Economic and Political Realia of the New Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state and problems of nanotechnology development in the Russian Federation in modern economic, political and scientific conditions are presented. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials have already been used in all developed countries of the world in the most significant areas of human activity industry, defense, information sphere, radio electronics, energy drinks, transport, biotechnology, medicine. The Government of the Russian Federation formulated the main objectives of scientific and economic community for the development of nanotechnologies in the conditions of the demanded import substitution. In the developed countries the comprehension of the key role of nanotechnologies led to the elaboration of large-scale programs for their development on the basis of state support. Similar programs are adopted more than in thirty countries around the world, including the Russian Federation. The author of the present article studies the current state of nanotech industry in Russia and classifies nanotechnologies according to the intrinsic principle. As a result, four main directions in the field of nanotechnologies are allocated: 1 nanomaterials; 2 photonics, spintronics, nanoelectronics (devices based on the nanoprinciples; 3 nanometrology, nanomanipulators and modeling; 4 nanosensors and nanodetectors. Some perspective scientific and technological projects of nanotech industry development in Russia are also considered. The author points to economic, social, ecological, and scientific and technical opportunities of nanotechnologies development in Russia, as well as their threats.

  10. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.H.; Khyalappa, R.J.; Yakhmi, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. Nanotechnology for telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Anwar, Sohail; Qazi, Salahuddin; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    With its unique promise to revolutionize science, engineering, technology, and other fields, nanotechnology continues to profoundly impact associated materials, components, and systems, particularly those used in telecommunications. These developments are leading to easier convergence of related technologies, massive storage data, compact storage devices, and higher-performance computing. Nanotechnology for Telecommunications presents vital technical scientific information to help readers grasp issues and challenges associated with nanoscale telecommunication system development and commerciali

  12. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  13. Lipid Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsje Koenderink

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.

  14. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S; Stucky, Galen D; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2009-02-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called nanobiotechnology. Biotechnology, which itself also dates back approximately 30 years, involves the manipulation of macroscopic biological systems such as cells and mice in order to understand why and how molecular level mechanisms affect specific biological functions, e.g., the role of APP (amyloid precursor protein) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aims (1) to introduce key concepts and materials from nanotechnology to a non-physical sciences community; (2) to introduce several state-of-the-art examples of current nanotechnology that were either constructed for use in biological systems or that can, in time, be utilized for biomedical research; (3) to provide recent excerpts in nanotoxicology and multifunctional nanoparticle systems (MFNPSs); and (4) to propose areas in neuroscience that may benefit from research at the interface of neurobiologically important systems and nanostructured materials.

  16. Not Another GMO - Explaining Europe’s Approach to Nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Nico Jaspers

    2012-01-01

    Despite early warnings about “knowledge-enabled mass destruction” and the ongoing battle over agricultural biotechnology, the development of nanotechnology in Europe has been remarkably quiet over the past decade: non-governmental organization (NGO) campaigns against “nano” were all but inexistent and the wider public appears largely uninterested in nanotechnology. Why has Europe’s experience with nanotechnologies been so fundamentally different from that with genetically modified organisms (...

  17. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  18. Neuroscience and nanotechnologies in Japan--beyond the hope and hype of converging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushiaki, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnologies are often said to be "converging" with other technologies like biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science. And so-called "NBIC convergence" is thought to enable "enhancement" of human performance. First, I classify various kinds of enhancement. Second, I focus on the "cybernetic enhancement," to which nanotechnologies are supposed to contribute, and analyze the connection and integration of humans with machines, which could lead to the cyborgization of human beings. Third, I examine the portrayal of robot/cyborg technology in Japanese popular media, point out the tendency to empathy or ensoulment concerning robots/cyborgs, and raise the question of "ethical issues of ethical enhancement." Fourth, I compare nanotechnologies with neurotechnology and criticize the hype of "converging technologies."

  19. The future of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Visions of self-replicating nanomachines that could devour the Earth in a 'grey goo' are probably wide of the mark, but 'radical nanotechnology' could still deliver great benefits to society. The question is how best to achieve this goal. What we could call 'incremental nanotechnology' involves improving the properties of many materials by controlling their nano-scale structure. Plastics, for example, can be reinforced using nano-scale clay particles, making them stronger, stiffer and more chemically resistant. Cosmetics can be formulated such that the oil phase is much more finely dispersed, thereby improving the feel of the product on the skin. These are the sorts of commercially available products that are said to be based on nanotechnology. The science underlying them is sophisticated and the products are often big improvements on what has gone before. However, they do not really represent a decisive break from the past. In 'evolutionary nanotechnology' we move beyond simple materials that have been redesigned at the nano-scale to actual nano-scale devices that do something interesting. Such devices can, for example, sense the environment, process information or convert energy from one form to another. They include nano-scale sensors, which exploit the huge surface area of carbon nanotubes and other nano-structured materials to detect environmental contaminants or biochemicals. Other products of evolutionary nanotechnology are semiconductor nanostructures - such as quantum dots and quantum wells - that are being used to build better solid-state lasers. Scientists are also developing ever more sophisticated ways of encapsulating molecules and delivering them on demand for targeted drug delivery. Taken together, incremental and evolutionary nanotechnology are driving the current excitement in industry and academia for all things nano-scale. The biggest steps are currently being made in evolutionary nanotechnology, more and more products of which should appear on

  20. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  1. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  2. Nanotechnology in the Security

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The topics discussed at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Nanotechnology in the Security Systems" included nanophysics,   nanotechnology,  nanomaterials, sensors, biosensors security systems, explosive  detection . There have been many significant advances in the past two years and some entirely new directions of research are just opening up. Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena  are found when systems are reduced in size with  dimensions, comparable to the fundamental microscopic  length scales of the investigated material. Recent developments in nanotechnology and measurement techniques now allow experimental investigation of transport properties of nanodevices. This work will be of interest to researchers working in spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing.

  3. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  4. Biotechnology 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    This book first reveals prospect on biotechnology with low-carbon green growth Next, it consists of four chapters, which deal with vision of biotechnology, trend of biotechnology in main countries like the U.S, Eu, Japan and China, current condition for biotechnology with support and promoting policy such as health and medical treatment and maritime and fisheries, major product on investment, human power, paper and pattern, research development such as genomic, system biology, bio new medicine, agriculture, stock breeding and food, biological resources and legal system related biotechnology.

  5. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  6. Workshop Summary for Maintaining Innovation and Security in Biotechnology: Lessons Learned from Nuclear, Chemical, and Informational Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, Paris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-11

    In the fast-paced field of biotechnology where innovation has such far-reaching impacts on human health and the environment, dealing with the implications of possible illicit activities, accidents or unintended research consequences with potential detrimental societal impacts tends to remain in the background. While controls may be inevitable for the biotech industry, workshop attendees agreed that the way in which controls are implemented will play a major role in the agility and innovation of the biotechnology industry. There is little desire to slow down the pace of the gains while dealing with the security issues that arise. As was seen from the brief examinations of the Nuclear, Chemical, and Information Technology sectors explored in this workshop, establishing a regulatory regime needs to be a partnership between the public, corporate interests, scientists, and the government. Regulation is often written to combat perceived risk rather than actual risk—the public’s perceptions (occasionally even fictional portrayals) can spur regulatory efforts. This leads to the need for a thorough and continuing assessment of the risks posed by modern biotechnology. Inadequate or minimal risk assessment might expedite development in the short term but has potential negative long-term security and economic consequences. Industry and the technical community also often have a large role in setting regulatory policy, especially when well-crafted incentives are incorporated into the regulations. Such incentives might actually lead to enhanced innovation while poorly designed incentives can actually reduce safety and security. Any regulations should be as agile and flexible as the technology they regulate and when applied to biotechnologies they will need a new framework for thinking and implementing. The new framework should consider biotechnology as a technology and not simply a science since it is an extremely complex and adaptive system. This suggests the need to invest

  7. World Biotechnology Leaders to Gather for Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology Leaders to Gather for Conference For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs biotechnology leaders gather in Fort Collins, CO May 2-6 for the 21st Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and special session on funding opportunities for U.S. biotechnology projects. More than 175 presentations are

  8. 76 FR 12361 - Request for Information: Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... Control and Prevention (CDC) has pioneered research on the toxicological properties and characteristics of nanoparticles. This research has involved characterizing occupationally relevant nanoparticles for predicting... explosion safety, (8) recommendations and guidance, (9) communication and information, and (10) applications...

  9. Cancer Nanotechnology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Nanotechnology Plan serves as a strategic document to the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer as well as a guiding document to the cancer nanotechnology and oncology fields, as a whole.

  10. Nanotechnology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2007-01-01

    Past experience has shown that the successful introduction of a new technology requires careful attention to the interactions between the technology and society. These interactions are bi-directional: on the one hand, technology changes and challenges social patterns and, on the other hand, the governance structures and values of the society affect progress in developing the technology. Nanotechnology is likely to be particularly affected by these kinds of interactions because of its great promise and the unusually early public attention it has received. Moreover, it represents a new kind of experiment in packaging a rather wide range of fundamental research activities under a single 'mission-like' umbrella. Although this gives it more impetus as a field, it sets a higher bar for showing successful applications early on and because it links disparate fields, regulatory regimes reasonable for one kind of nanotechnology development may be inappropriately extended to others. There are a number of lessons to be gleaned from experience with the introduction of other technologies, which offer guidance with respect to what pitfalls to avoid and what issues to be sensitive to as we move forward with the development of nanotechnology applications. The problems encountered by nuclear power point out the dangers of over-promising and the role the need for the technology plays in ameliorating fears of risk. The public reaction to biomedical engineering and biotechnology highlights, in addition, the cultural factors that come into play when technologies raise questions about what is 'natural' and what is 'foreign' and what conceptions are involved in defining 'personhood'. In all cases, it has been clear that a main task for those introducing new technology is building public trust-in the safety of the technologies and the integrity of those introducing it. The advocates of nanotechnology have already shown that they are generally aware of the need to consider the public

  11. NANOTR9: 9th Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The conference series NanoTR is the major conference on nanoscience and nanotechnology in Turkey. It brings together leading scientists and engineers in nanotechnology to exchange information on their latest research progress. An exhibition of the companies working in the related field is also organized as a part of the event. With intensive international participation, NanoTR conference series has spread outside the national border and has become an international event in this field. Among international contributions, a wide interest from the countries around Turkey should be emphasized. 9th in the series was organized by Atatürk University in Erzurum-Turkey on June 24-28, 2013 with more than 900 scientists, researchers, private sector representatives from around the world. Conference program included 6 plenary speakers, 35 invited speakers (18 of them were from outside the country), 116 oral presentations, and 340 poster presentations. In addition to 6 plenary sessions, 17 oral and 4 poster sessions created very lively discussion forums covering a vast range of current and emerging sciences from nano-materials, nanoscience, nanofabrication, nano-engineering, nano-electronics, nano-biotechnology, to ethical and social issues of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Also, panel discussions about industrial applications, tutorial sessions have been organized for students, new-comers and company employees.

  12. The effect of nanotechnology on education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyavejakul, Chantana

    2008-04-01

    The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The findings revealed that: 1. William Wresch's Theory (1997) was used in this research to study of the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology. 1) Getting connected to nanotechnology by search engine websites, libraries, magazines, books, and discussions with experts. 2) Curriculum integration: nanotechnology should be integrated in many branches of engineering, such as industrial, computer, civil, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. 3) Resources for educators: nanotechnology knowledge should be spread in academic circles by publications and the Internet websites. 4) Training and professional resources for teachers: Teachers should be trained by experts in nanotechnology and researchers from the National Nanotechnology Center. This will help trainees get correct knowledge, comprehension, and awareness in order to apply to their professions and businesses in the future. 2. As for the plans, the strategies, and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the present system, I analyzed the world nanotechnology situation that might have an effect on Thai society. The study is based on the National Plan to Develop Nanotechnology. The goal of this plan is to develop nanotechnology to be the national strategy within 10 years (2004-2013) and have it integrated into the Thai system. There are 4 parts in this plan: 1) nanomaterials, 2) nanoelectronics, 3) nanobiotechnology, and 4) human resources development. Data for human resource development should be worked with the present technology and use the country's resources to produce many

  13. Monitoring nanotechnology using patent classifications: an overview and comparison of nanotechnology classification schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jürgens, Björn, E-mail: bjurgens@agenciaidea.es [Agency of Innovation and Development of Andalusia, CITPIA PATLIB Centre (Spain); Herrero-Solana, Victor, E-mail: victorhs@ugr.es [University of Granada, SCImago-UGR (SEJ036) (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Patents are an essential information source used to monitor, track, and analyze nanotechnology. When it comes to search nanotechnology-related patents, a keyword search is often incomplete and struggles to cover such an interdisciplinary discipline. Patent classification schemes can reveal far better results since they are assigned by experts who classify the patent documents according to their technology. In this paper, we present the most important classifications to search nanotechnology patents and analyze how nanotechnology is covered in the main patent classification systems used in search systems nowadays: the International Patent Classification (IPC), the United States Patent Classification (USPC), and the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). We conclude that nanotechnology has a significantly better patent coverage in the CPC since considerable more nanotechnology documents were retrieved than by using other classifications, and thus, recommend its use for all professionals involved in nanotechnology patent searches.

  14. Monitoring nanotechnology using patent classifications: an overview and comparison of nanotechnology classification schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jürgens, Björn; Herrero-Solana, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Patents are an essential information source used to monitor, track, and analyze nanotechnology. When it comes to search nanotechnology-related patents, a keyword search is often incomplete and struggles to cover such an interdisciplinary discipline. Patent classification schemes can reveal far better results since they are assigned by experts who classify the patent documents according to their technology. In this paper, we present the most important classifications to search nanotechnology patents and analyze how nanotechnology is covered in the main patent classification systems used in search systems nowadays: the International Patent Classification (IPC), the United States Patent Classification (USPC), and the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). We conclude that nanotechnology has a significantly better patent coverage in the CPC since considerable more nanotechnology documents were retrieved than by using other classifications, and thus, recommend its use for all professionals involved in nanotechnology patent searches.

  15. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    across the channel. The aim of achieving selectivity encompasses a huge range of fields in nanotechnology research, from sensing and medicine to nanoelectronics and self-assembly. As our understanding of how nanosystems behave deepens, so too does the hunger to improve our capabilities, allowing greater precision and control in manipulating these systems. Selectivity is far from trivial when shrinking to systems of nanoscale dimensions, but the range of opportunities it brings just keeps on growing. References [1] Gong X, Li J, Guo C, Xu K and Hui Y 2012 Molecular switch for tuning ions across nanopores by an external electric field Nanotechnology 24 025502 [2] Brannon-Peppas L and Blanchette J O 2004 Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 56 1649-59 [3] Lukianova-Hleb E Y, Hanna E Y, Hafner J H and Lapotko D O 2010 Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics Nanotechnology 21 085102 [4] Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V and Deshusses M A 2008 Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors Nanotechnology 19 332001 [5] Mangu R, Rajaputra S and Singh V P 2011 MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors Nanotechnology 22 215502 [6]Meller A, Nivon L, Brandin E, Golovchenko J and Branton D 2000 Rapid nanopore discrimination between single polynucleotide molecules Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 97 1079-84 [7] Asghar W, Ilyas A, Deshmukh R R, Sumitsawan S, Timmons R B and Iqbal S M 2011 Pulsed plasma polymerization for controlling shrinkage and surface composition of nanopores Nanotechnology 22 285304

  16. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  17. Nanotechnology development in Denmark - Environmental opportunities and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.M.; Rasmussen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The present report represents the nanostudy part of a larger study entitled “Green Technology Foresight about Environmentally Friendly Products and Materials – Challenges from Nanotechnology, Biotechnology and ICT” (Jørgensen et al. 2006). The study wasmade for the Danish Environmental Protection...... (forthcoming in summer 2006). The analysis focuses not only on the environmental impact but even more on the dynamics involved in nanotechnology development ofwhich we currently know very little. Applying an innovation economic perspective focus is placed on analysing the direction of the nano search...... and technology development processes and how environmental issues enter into these. Hereby, the futuretrajectories of nanotechnology development is sought captured, indicating likely long-term perspectives of the Danish nanotechnology development. The content of the report is as follows: What is nanotechnology...

  18. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    O nanowires generate a piezoelectric signal that acts as both the power source and the gas sensing information as a result of the different screening effects different gases present on the piezoelectric charges. As they explain 'Our results can provoke a possible new direction for the development of next-generation gas sensors and will further expand the scope of self-powered nanosystems'. Over 50 years ago C P Snow delivered and subsequently published a lecture entitled 'The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution'. In it he lamented a gaping fissure separating the sciences and the humanities to the ultimate detriment of civilization and progress. The increasingly specialized activities in academia may suggest that if anything the gulf separating the two cultures may yet be increasing. It may seem that not only do 'natural scientists' speak a different language from 'literary intellectuals' but that biologists speak a different language from physicists, and so on down the increasingly fine dichotomies of academic endeavour. One of the exciting accompaniments to the rise in nanotechnology research has been a certain amount of liberation from these academic segregations. The breadth of fascinating properties found in a single system beg a strongly multidisciplinary approach and has attracted conversations not only between different sectors within the sciences, but with art as well [12]. The resulting cross-fertilisation between disciplines has already yielded an awesome cornucopia of multitasking devices, and no doubt the best is yet to come. References [1] Xue X, Nie Y, He B, Xing L, Zhang Y and Wang Z L 2013 Surface free-carrier screening effect on the output of ZnO nanowire nanogenerator and its potential as self-powered active gas sensors Nanotechnology 24 225501 [2] Torchilin V P 2006 Multifunctional nanocarriers Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58 1532-55 [3] Weissleder R, Lee A S, Khaw B A, Shen T and Brady T J 1992 Antimyosin-labeled monocrystalline iron oxide allows detection

  19. Biotechnology bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette, L.A.; McCready, R.G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography consists of articles and scientific papers on biotechnology in areas in which BIOMINET is currently involved. The reports are categorized in four areas: 1) acid mine drainage (coals and metals) and bioadsorption of metals; 2) solution mining; 3) metabolism and physiology of Thiobacillus and other microorganisms; and 4) bacterial leaching of metals.

  20. [Biotechnology's macroeconomic impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones Tacero, Milagros; Pérez García, Julián; San Román, Antonio Pulido

    2008-12-01

    This paper tries to yield an economic valuation of biotechnological activities in terms of aggregated production and employment. This valuation goes beyond direct estimation and includes the indirect effects derived from sectorial linkages between biotechnological activities and the rest of economic system. To deal with the proposed target several sources of data have been used, including official data from National Statistical Office (INE) such us national accounts, input-output tables, and innovation surveys, as well as, firms' level balance sheets and income statements and also specific information about research projects compiled by Genoma Spain Foundation. Methodological approach is based on the estimation of a new input-output table which includes the biotechnological activities as a specific branch. This table offers both the direct impact of these activities and the main parameters to obtain the induced effects over the rest of the economic system. According to the most updated available figures, biotechnological activities would have directly generated almost 1,600 millions of euros in 2005, and they would be employed more than 9,000 workers. But if we take into account the full linkages with the rest of the system, the macroeconomic impact of Biotechnological activities would reach around 5,000 millions euros in production terms (0.6% of total GDP) and would be responsible, directly or indirectly, of more than 44,000 employments.

  1. Biotechnology in diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprowski, H.; Ferrone, S.; Albertini, A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years much progress has been made in the area of biotechnology. The cellular and molecular cloning methodology to develop monoclonal antibodies and DNA probes have been extensively utilized in basic and clinical research. These investigations have provided the necessary information to apply these reagents to diagnostic problems. The RIA 85 meeting focused on the application of monoclonal antibodies and DNA probes in laboratory medicine. The papers presented at this meeting clearly indicate that biotechnology has already had a significant impact on clinical medicine. (Auth.)

  2. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Second Assessment and Recommendations of the National Nanotechnology Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Council on Bioethics . NNI member agencies and the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO) also provided valuable information. The NNAP...societal aspects of nanotechnology. In consultation with the President’s Council on Bioethics , the panel concluded that at present, nanotechnology...biomarker. One is a magnetic particle probe that captures the target from complex media . The other is a gold nanoparticle probe that is specific to the

  3. NANOTECHNOLOGY, NANOMEDICINE; ETHICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    G?K?AY, Banu; ARDA, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a field that we often hear of its name nowadays. Altough what we know about it is soo poor, we admire this field of technlogy, moreover some societies even argues that nanotechnology will cause second endustrial revolution. In addition, nanotechnology makes our basic scientific knowledge upside down and is soo powerfull that it is potent in nearly every scientific field. Thereby, it is imposible to say that nanotechnology; which is soo effective on human and human life; will...

  4. Microsystems and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhaoying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Precision Instruments and Mechanology; Lin, Liwei [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wang, Zhonglin (eds.) [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Center for Nanostructure Characterization and Fabrication (CNCF)

    2012-07-01

    This book presents the latest science and engineering research and achievements in the fields of microsystems and nanotechnology, bringing together contributions by authoritative experts from the United States, Germany, Great Britain, Japan and China to discuss the latest advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and micro/nanotechnology. The book is divided into five parts - the fundamentals of microsystems and nanotechnology, microsystems technology, nanotechnology, application issues, and the developments and prospects.

  5. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity's well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed approach to

  6. Responsible nanotechnology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity’s well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed approach

  7. Public perception of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burri, Regula Valerie; Bellucci, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    While several studies on the public opinion of nanotechnology have pointed to a rather enthusiastic U.S. public, the public uptake of nanotechnology in Europe is more contained. The results of the Swiss publifocus on nanotechnology reveal a pragmatic attitude of citizens toward the emerging technologies, thus confirming what has been identified as a 'balanced approach' in the NanoJury UK

  8. Scenario planning and nanotechnological futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, Darryl; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2009-01-01

    Scenario planning may assist us in harnessing the benefits of nanotechnology and managing the associated risks for the good of the society. Scenario planning is a way to describe the present state of the world and develop several hypotheses about the future of the world, thereby enabling discussions about how the world ought to be. Scenario planning thus is not only a tool for learning and foresight, but also for leadership. Informed decision making by experts and political leaders becomes possible, while simultaneously allaying the public's perception of the risks of new and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. Two scenarios of the societal impact of nanotechnology are the mixed-signals scenario and the confluence scenario. Technoscientists have major roles to play in both scenarios.

  9. The Formation of Data on Nanotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the statistical monitoring of the main trends of nanotechnology development in Russia, as well as the review of the modern programs and documents devoted to urgent issues of nanotechnology development. The formation of system of statistical monitoring of nanotechnologies development in the Russian Federation includes the development of methodology and tools of statistical supervision over creation, commercialization, the use of nanotechnologies, and also the nanotechnological production. The authors carry out the analysis of the main directions and structure of co-funding of “The Program of nanotech industry development in the Russian Federation till 2015”. The sources of official statistical data on nanotechnologies in Russia are considered. The purpose of forming this essentially new direction of statistics consists in the creation of system of collecting, processing and submission of the regular, systematized and complex data which are adequately reflecting the state, the level of development and the prospects of nanotechnological sphere capacity which provide informational support to state policy and adoption of reasonable administrative decisions. The authors describe the system of statistical observations in the sphere of nanotechnologies. Today the statistics of nanotechnologies in Russia remains at the stage of formation and modernization according to the international standards, being supplemented every year with the new indicators which allow investigating different sides and tendencies of nanotech industry development. Nowadays the following aspects of the activity connected with nanotechnologies have already being studied by means of statistical methods: scientific research and developments; creation and use of nanotechnologies; demand for staff; production, including the innovative one.

  10. Development of biotechnology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2000-01-01

    technology, industrial biotechnology, biochemical engineering and associated activities such as creation of biotechnology information system and national repositories. Current status of intellectual property rights has also been discussed. Contribution to the India's advances in biotechnology by the industry, excepting a limited few, has been far below expectations. The review concludes with some cautious notes.

  11. Avian Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate new individuals through differentiation, maturation and fertilization. This means that the manipulation of PGCs is directly linked to the manipulation of individuals, making PGCs attractive target cells in the animal biotechnology field. A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. Following the development of a technique for transplantation, PGCs have become central to avian biotechnology, in contrast to the use of embryo manipulation and subsequent transfer to foster mothers, as in mammalian biotechnology. Today, avian PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced manipulation techniques, including cell purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture in vitro, have enabled the establishment of genetically modified poultry lines and ex-situ conservation of poultry genetic resources. This chapter introduces the principles, history, and procedures of producing avian germline chimeras by transplantation of PGCs, and the current status of avian germline modification as well as germplasm cryopreservation. Other fundamental avian reproductive technologies are described, including artificial insemination and embryo culture, and perspectives of industrial applications in agriculture and pharmacy are considered, including poultry productivity improvement, egg modification, disease resistance impairment and poultry gene "pharming" as well as gene banking.

  12. Nanotechnology policy in Korea for sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Dae Sup; Kim, Chang Woo; Chung, Pil Seung; Jhon, Myung S.

    2012-01-01

    Korea has become one of the leading countries in nanotechnology along with the U.S., Japan, and Germany. Since 2001, the Korean Government established the “Nanotechnology Development Plan.” Since then, the trend in nanotechnology is steadily changing from fundamental research to application-driven technologies. In this paper, we examine the nanotechnology development and policy during the past decade, which includes the investments in R and D, infrastructure, and education. The Third Phase (2011–2020) on clean nanotechnology convergence and integration in information, energy, and the environmental sector is also given. Furthermore, the program on long-term strategy dealing with sustainability in resolving future societal demand and plans for sustainable energy and environmental activities will be discussed in depth. The outcomes and national evaluations of research and education are also given.

  13. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  14. Image of Synthetic Biology and Nanotechnology: A Survey among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ineichen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the image of synthetic biology and nanotechnology in comparison to agricultural biotechnology and communication technology by examining spontaneous associations with, and deliberate evaluations of, these technologies by university students. Data were collected through a self-completion online questionnaire by students from two universities in Switzerland. The survey aimed to capture implicit associations, explicit harm-benefit evaluations and views on regulation. The data suggest overall positive associations with emerging technologies. While positive associations were most pronounced for nanotechnology, agricultural biotechnology was attributed with the least favorable associations. In contrast to its positive result in the association task, respondents attributed a high harm potential for nanotechnology. Associations attributed to synthetic biology were demonstrated to be more positive than for agricultural biotechnology, however, not as favorable as for nanotechnology. Contrary to the evaluations of nanotechnology, the benefit-examples of synthetic biology were evaluated particularly positively. Accordingly, the investigated technologies enjoy different esteem, with synthetic biology and nanotechnology both showing a more “exciting” image. Even though, the image of nanotechnology was demonstrated to be more pronounced it was also more heterogeneous across tasks while agricultural biotechnology remains contested. For all technologies, the predominant spontaneous concerns pertain to risks rather than an immoral nature inherent to these technologies. Our data suggest that harm-benefit analyses reveal only one aspect of the attitude toward emerging technologies. Survey questions addressing spontaneous associations with these technologies are a valuable addition for our picture of the image of emerging technologies.

  15. Advances in Silver Nanotechnology: An Update on Biomedical Applications and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shiva Gholizadeh-Ghaleh; Aziz, Sara Gholizadeh-Ghaleh; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2017-04-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most promising fields for producing new applications in nanotechnology, biotechnology, and medicine. However, only a few products have been used for nanotechnology, biotechnology, and medical purposes. Nanoparticles have been among the most usually applied nanomaterial in our health care system for hundreds of years. The most prominent nano product is nano silver which generally present at 1-100 nm in size in at least one dimension. Silver nanoparticles reveal remarkably unusual chemical, physical and biological properties and have been used for many different applications which detailed in this review. This review is focusing on the different form of silver nanoparticles and its nanotechnological, biotechnological and medical applications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  17. NANOTECHNOLOGY, NANOMEDICINE; ETHICAL ASPECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçay, Banu; Arda, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a field that we often hear of its name nowadays. Altough what we know about it is soo poor, we admire this field of technlogy, moreover some societies even argues that nanotechnology will cause second endustrial revolution. In addition, nanotechnology makes our basic scientific knowledge upside down and is soo powerfull that it is potent in nearly every scientific field. Thereby, it is imposible to say that nanotechnology; which is soo effective on human and human life; will not cause social and ethical outcomes. In general, the definition of nanotechnology is the reconfiguration of nanomaterials by human; there also are different definitions according to the history of nanotechnology and different point of views. First of all, in comparison to the other tehnology fields, what is the cause of excellence of nanotechnology, what human can do is to foresee the advantages and disadvantages of it, what are the roles of developed and developping countries for the progression of nanotechnology, what is the attitude of nanoethics and what is view of global politics to nanotechological research according to international regulations are all the focus of interests of this study. Last but not least, our apprehension capacity of nanotechnology, our style of adoption and evaluation of it and the way that how we locate nanotechnology in our lifes and ethical values are the other focus of interests.

  18. Nanoscience Nanotechnologies and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dupas, Claire; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanosciences are a fast-developing field of research, which sit at the point of convergence of several disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, mechanics, etc.). This practically-oriented overview is designed to provide students and researchers with essential information on both the tools of manufacture and specific features of the nanometric scale, as well as applications within the most active fields (electronics, magnetism, information storage, biology). Specific applications and techniques covered include nanolithography, STM and AFM, nanowires and supramolecules, molecular electronics, optronics, and simulation. Each section of the book devotes considerable space to industrial applications and prospective developments. The carefully edited contributions are written by reserach workers and unirveisty instructors who are experts in their own fields and full up-to-date with the latest developments. Their uniform and self-contained nature permit users to access the most relevant chapter...

  19. Biotechnology in Turkey: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Tunçer H

    2009-07-01

    The term biotechnology first appeared in the programs of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) in 1982. The State Planning Organization (SPO) in 1988 defined biotechnology and the scientific fields. Moreover, it put forward an institutional framework and suggested priority areas for research and development. Turkey has been researching and investing in biotechnology for almost four decades. This review covers the development of science and technology policy with its history, consensus and consequences, bio-industries in Turkey, and research activities in biotechnology at Turkish Universities. Details are provided by the research groups in response to a common request for information on their activities and major publications in the field. The information provided has been grouped under thematic topics within the broad theme of biotechnology, and summarized within these topics. Although many aspects of biotechnological research are being pursued in Turkey, it appears that the most common research activities of the field are in fermentation processes, environmental biotechnology, and biomedical engineering.

  20. Nanotechnology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Zoraida P.; Xu, Hengyi; Al Ogaidi, Israa; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the manipulation structures in materials that are smaller than one billionth of a meter in size. Various successful advances in nanotechnology compelled an almost universal interest in the study of nanomaterials worldwide. The diminutive size of nanomaterials that are smaller than or comparable to a virus (20-450 nm), a protein (5-50 nm), or a gene (2nm wide and 10-100 nm long) pave the way to innumerable engineering and manipulations that triggered a multitude of applications in electronics, solar energy, optics, sports, security, food, agriculture, biology, construction, water, and medicine. The structural features and properties of nanomaterials that are in between those of single atoms/molecules and continuous bulk materials with at least one dimension in the nanometer range bring physical, chemical, electronic, and magnetic properties incomparable with any other materials. Various kinds of nanomaterials possess common as well as individual properties or group properties that allow their unique applications. The broad scope of nanotechnology can be thought of as a territory within which a range of disciplines converge, including chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, medicine, biology, pharmacology, biotechnology, construction, automotive and aviation, microfabrication, systems architecture for computing, and many more. Nanotechnology holds promise to change the way most things have been designed and manufactured, including drugs, vaccines, fertilizers, TV screens, light fixtures, surgery, skin care products, tennis rackets, cars, paints, and objects unimaginable at this point. Advances in nanotechnology holds promise to repair the damage we have done to our environment, capturing carbon out of the air to return it back to the earth, or using it to build light, strong, diamond-like materials that nanotech-enabled human-scale technology will depend on. Nanotechnology is revolutionizing a wide array of consumer products and

  1. Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims Bainbridge, William

    2002-01-01

    Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space program, nuclear power, and cloning research, but rate it more favorably. In contrast, they do not associate nanotechnology with pseudoscience, despite its imaginative exploitation by science fiction writers. Qualitative analysis of written comments from 598 respondents indicates that many ideas about the value of nanotechnology have entered popular culture, and it provides material for an additional 108 questionnaire items that can be used in future surveys on the topic. The findings of this exploratory study can serve as benchmarks against which to compare results of future research on the evolving status of nanotechnology in society

  2. Multifunctional Nanotechnology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH MARCH 2016 INTERIM TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JAN 2015 – JAN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE...H. Yoon, and C. S. Hwang, “Electrically configurable electroforming and bipolar resistive switching in Pt/TiO2/Pt structures.,” Nanotechnology , vol

  3. Nanotechnology and accounting issues

    OpenAIRE

    Abedalqader Rababah

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new advanced technology used in the industry. This study conducted an investigation on the literature and highlighted the accounting issues which related to the implement of nanotechnology, especially the change of cost structure and expected solutions for the increasing of indirect costs which need more accurate allocation to the unit of products. Also, this study investigated on the future expected accounting risks for using nanotechnology. Finally, this study will open ...

  4. Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    savings in the United States of 24 million barrels of oil.4 • Universal access to clean water. Nanotechnology water desalination and filtration...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Nanotechnology : A Policy Primer John F. Sargent Jr. Specialist...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology : A Policy Primer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  5. Nanotechnology Characterization Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  6. Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  7. Nanotechnology: Future of Oncotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharpure, Kshipra M; Wu, Sherry Y; Li, Chun; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have established its importance in several areas including medicine. The myriad of applications in oncology range from detection and diagnosis to drug delivery and treatment. Although nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention, the practical application of nanotechnology to clinical cancer care is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the role that nanotechnology has played in improving cancer therapy, its potential for affecting all aspects of cancer care, and the challenges that must be overcome to realize its full promise. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Nanotechnology in Aerospace Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyyappan, M

    2007-01-01

    The aerospace applications for nanotechnology include high strength, low weight composites, improved electronics and displays with low power consumption, variety of physical sensors, multifunctional...

  9. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The structure and infrastructure of the global nanotechnology literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; Stump, Jesse A.; Johnson, Dustin; Murday, James S.; Lau, Clifford G.Y.; Tolles, William M.

    2006-01-01

    Text mining is the extraction of useful information from large volumes of text. A text mining analysis of the global open nanotechnology literature was performed. Records from the Science Citation Index (SCI)/Social SCI were analyzed to provide the infrastructure of the global nanotechnology literature (prolific authors/journals/institutions/countries, most cited authors/papers/journals) and the thematic structure (taxonomy) of the global nanotechnology literature, from a science perspective. Records from the Engineering Compendex (EC) were analyzed to provide a taxonomy from a technology perspective.The Far Eastern countries have expanded nanotechnology publication output dramatically in the past decade.The Peoples Republic of China ranks second to the USA (2004 results) in nanotechnology papers published in the SCI, and has increased its nanotechnology publication output by a factor of 21 in a decade.Of the six most prolific (publications) nanotechnology countries, the three from the Western group (USA, Germany, France) have about eight percent more nanotechnology publications (for 2004) than the three from the Far Eastern group (China, Japan, South Korea).While most of the high nanotechnology publication-producing countries are also high nanotechnology patent producers in the US Patent Office (as of 2003), China is a major exception. China ranks 20th as a nanotechnology patent-producing country in the US Patent Office

  11. The structure and infrastructure of the global nanotechnology literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostoff, Ronald N., E-mail: kostofr@onr.navy.mil; Stump, Jesse A. [Office of Naval Research (United States); Johnson, Dustin [Northrop Grumman TASC (United States); Murday, James S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6100 (United States); Lau, Clifford G.Y. [Institute for Defense Analyses (United States); Tolles, William M

    2006-08-15

    Text mining is the extraction of useful information from large volumes of text. A text mining analysis of the global open nanotechnology literature was performed. Records from the Science Citation Index (SCI)/Social SCI were analyzed to provide the infrastructure of the global nanotechnology literature (prolific authors/journals/institutions/countries, most cited authors/papers/journals) and the thematic structure (taxonomy) of the global nanotechnology literature, from a science perspective. Records from the Engineering Compendex (EC) were analyzed to provide a taxonomy from a technology perspective.The Far Eastern countries have expanded nanotechnology publication output dramatically in the past decade.The Peoples Republic of China ranks second to the USA (2004 results) in nanotechnology papers published in the SCI, and has increased its nanotechnology publication output by a factor of 21 in a decade.Of the six most prolific (publications) nanotechnology countries, the three from the Western group (USA, Germany, France) have about eight percent more nanotechnology publications (for 2004) than the three from the Far Eastern group (China, Japan, South Korea).While most of the high nanotechnology publication-producing countries are also high nanotechnology patent producers in the US Patent Office (as of 2003), China is a major exception. China ranks 20th as a nanotechnology patent-producing country in the US Patent Office.

  12. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  13. Nanotechnology at KT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"......The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"...

  14. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  15. The risks of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David

    2005-11-01

    Nanotechnology is extremely fashionable, especially in the medical products sector, but questions are now being asked about the potential for new health risks that are introduced with the products and processes associated with nanotechnology. This article discusses some of the principal findings of a new report on this subject.

  16. [Nanotechnology future of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlega, Katarzyna; Latocha, Małgorzata

    2012-10-01

    Nanotechnology enables to produce products with new, exactly specified, unique properties. Those products are finding application in various branches of electronic, chemical, food and textile industry as well as in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, architectural engineering, aviation and in defense. In this paper structures used in nanomedicine were characterized. Possibilities and first effort of application of nanotechnology in diagnostics and therapy were also described. Nanotechnology provides tools which allow to identifying changes and taking repair operations on cellular and molecular level and applying therapy oriented for specific structures in cell. Great hope are being associated with entering nanotechnology into the regenerative medicine. It requires astute recognition bases of tissue regeneration biology--initiating signals as well as the intricate control system of the progress of this process. However application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering allows to avoiding problems associated with loss properties of implants what is frequent cause of performing another surgical procedure at present.

  17. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  18. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  19. Prospects of nanoparticle-DNA binding and its implications in medical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongjie; Jin, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Bio-nanotechnology is a new interdisciplinary R&D area that integrates engineering and physical science with biology through the development of multifunctional devices and systems, focusing biology inspired processes or their applications, in particular in medical biotechnology. DNA based nanotechnology, in many ways, has been one of the most intensively studied fields in recent years that involves the use and the creation of bio-inspired materials and their technologies for highly selective biosensing, nanoarchitecture engineering and nanoelectronics. Increasing researches have been offered to a fundamental understanding how the interactions between the nanoparticles and DNA molecules could alter DNA molecular structure and its biochemical activities. This minor review describes the mechanisms of the nanoparticle-DNA binding and molecular interactions. We present recent discoveries and research progresses how the nanoparticle-DNA binding could vary DNA molecular structure, DNA detection, and gene therapy. We report a few case studies associated with the application of the nanoparticle-DNA binding devices in medical detection and biotechnology. The potential impacts of the nanoparticles via DNA binding on toxicity of the microorganisms are briefly discussed. The nanoparticle-DNA interactions and their impact on molecular and microbial functionalities have only drown attention in recent a few years. The information presented in this review can provide useful references for further studies on biomedical science and technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanotechnology for missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.

    2004-07-01

    Nanotechnology development is progressing very rapidly. Several billions of dollars have been invested in nanoscience research since 2000. Pioneering nanotechnology research efforts have been primarily conducted at research institutions and centers. This paper identifies developments in nanoscience and technology that could provide significant advances in missile systems applications. Nanotechnology offers opportunities in the areas of advanced materials for coatings, including thin-film optical coatings, light-weight, strong armor and missile structural components, embedded computing, and "smart" structures; nano-particles for explosives, warheads, turbine engine systems, and propellants to enhance missile propulsion; nano-sensors for autonomous chemical detection; and nano-tube arrays for fuel storage and power generation. The Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is actively collaborating with academia, industry, and other Government agencies to accelerate the development and transition of nanotechnology to favorably impact Army Transformation. Currently, we are identifying near-term applications and quantifying requirements for nanotechnology use in Army missile systems, as well as monitoring and screening research and developmental efforts in the industrial community for military applications. Combining MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and nanotechnology is the next step toward providing technical solutions for the Army"s transformation. Several research and development projects that are currently underway at AMRDEC in this technology area are discussed. A top-level roadmap of MEMS/nanotechnology development projects for aviation and missile applications is presented at the end.

  1. 75 FR 1749 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ...] Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for Determination of... Health Inspection Service has received a petition from Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a....gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Subray Hegde, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS...

  2. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  3. [Nanotechnology, nanomedicine and nanopharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pedro Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Based on Nanotechnology methods, Nanomedicine and Nanotecnology will obtain significant advances in areas such as Diagnostic, Regenerative Medicine and pharmacological Therapeutics. With nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems,important improvement on pharmacokinetics of drugs will take place, due to increased solubility, protection against decrease in drug effects due to excessive metabolism and subsequent increase of bioavailability. Improvement on pharmacodynamic parameters will occur also due to increased drug concentration in target tissues. Also the use of Nanotechnology in the modern pharmacology will serve for a more accurate control of doses, which will decrease significantly drug toxicity.

  4. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology – potential environmental and occupational hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka; Krystyna Pawlas

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk of engineered nanoparticles and nanotechnology for the environment and human health. The nanotechnology influences all industrial and public sectors including healthcare, agriculture, transport, energy, information and communication technologies. Both, the potential benefits and risks, associated with the application of engineered nanoparticles have been widely debated in recent years. The...

  5. Applying Nanotechnology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nanobiosystems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nanotechnology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nanoscale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nanomedical research. The present review explores the significance of nanoscience and latest nanotechnologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas.

  6. Nanotechnology, ethics and nanoethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishatkina, T.V.; Vishnevskaya, Yu.A.

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of creating a new field of applied Ethics – Nanoethics - is justified by specificity and magnitude of potential hazards and risks associated with the development and use of nanotechnology. (authors)

  7. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  8. Future of Computing. Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Frant

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. The impetus for nanotechnology has stemmed from a renewed interest in colloidal science, coupled with a new generation of analytical tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM. Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography, these instruments allow the deliberate manipulation of nanostructures, and in turn led to the observation of novel phenomena.

  9. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  10. Effect of Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D.Baswaraj; Vasanthi,; Sareddy Deepthi; Mohammad Zainuddin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will put forward the vast effect on nanotechnology in various fields. A basic definition of Nanotechnology is the study manipulation and manufacture of extremely minute machines or devices. The future of technology at times becomes easier to predict. Computers will compute faster, materials will become stronger and medicine will cure more diseases .the technology that works at the nanometer scale of molecules and atoms will be a large part of this future, enabling great impr...

  11. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha, Gómez Moñivas; Varona, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Nanotechnology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Nanotechnology 24.45 (2013): 452002 During the last decade there has been an incre...

  12. Taking nanotechnology to schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2005-01-01

    After a primer on nanotechnology and a review of current educational practices in secondary schools, the concept of just-in-time education is proposed to integrate technosciences and humanities so that both future technoscientists and non-technoscientists develop a common understanding, possibly even a common language, to deal with social, ethical, legal, and political issues that arise from the development of nanotechnology and its convergence with other technoscientific developments.

  13. The governance of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Whitman

    2007-01-01

    Despite the promises made for nanotechology, its direction and momentum as it has developed to date already pose very considerable problems of regulation and control in quite fundamental ways. This article will review these difficulties under four themes. First, the principal agents for framing governance agreements (states) are also the principal proponents of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Second, the speed of new advances in nanotechnology and the reach of their implications are already o...

  14. Application of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissokov, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In the present report, we give a brief description of the present state, development, and application of nanotechnologies (NT) and nanomaterials (NM) in some key industries, such as chemical industry and power industry (nanocatalysts, and nanocatalysis, hydrogen storage and fuel cells, artificial photosynthesis and Gratzel's cell, energy efficiency, energy storage); fabrication of consolidated nanostructures (ceramic nano-materials, nanostructured coatings, production of low-combustibility plastics, nanostructured hard materials, nanostructures with colossal magnetoresistance); fabrication of ultra-high strength carbon fibres; nano-technologies for environmental protection (adsorption of heavy metals by self-ordered self-organized nano-structure ensembles, photocatalyric purification of liquids, fabrication of mesoporous materials, application of nanoporous polymers for water purification, nanoparticles and environment); medical applications; military applications and fight against terrorism; household applications; energetic and some other [1-7].; In 2010, the European Union and the governments of the USA and Japan each invested over $ 2 billion in nanoscience, which is ample evidence to substantiate the claim that the 21 st century will be the century of nanotechnologies. Some of the optimistic forecasts predict that in 2014 the total revenues from NT will exceed those brought by the information technologies and telecommunications combined. At present, more than 800 companies are involved in R&TD in this field (including giants such as Intel, IBM, Samsung, and Mitsubishi) while more than ten Nobel prizes were awarded for research in nanoscience

  15. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Nanotechnology in Medicine: Implications of converging technologies on humanity

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Bennett-Woods

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds great potential as an enabler of a wide range of biotechnologies that will change the face of medicine and may eventually alter the very definition of human health. Deb Bennett-Woods argues that these changes will also pose unprecedented challenges regarding access to health-related technologies, the meaning of consent, and the nature of human identity. Development (2006) 49, 54–59. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100297

  17. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  18. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  19. Nanotechnology in Mexico: Key Findings Based on OECD Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo; Arteaga Figueroa, Edgar; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Appelbaum, Richard; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Villa, Liliana; Parker, Rachel; Leos, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of Mexico's nanotechnology policies utilizes indicators developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 2008 conducted a pilot survey comparing the nanotechnology policies of 24 countries. In this paper, we apply the same questionnaire to the Mexican case, adding business information derived from the…

  20. Prewarping techniques in imaging: applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawala, Amyn; Milanfar, Peyman

    2005-03-01

    In all imaging systems, the underlying process introduces undesirable distortions that cause the output signal to be a warped version of the input. When the input to such systems can be controlled, pre-warping techniques can be employed which consist of systematically modifying the input such that it cancels out (or compensates for) the process losses. In this paper, we focus on the mask (reticle) design problem for 'optical micro-lithography', a process similar to photographic printing used for transferring binary circuit patterns onto silicon wafers. We use a pixel-based mask representation and model the above process as a cascade of convolution (aerial image formation) and thresholding (high-contrast recording) operations. The pre-distorted mask is obtained by minimizing the norm of the difference between the 'desired' output image and the 'reproduced' output image. We employ the regularization framework to ensure that the resulting masks are close-to-binary as well as simple and easy to fabricate. Finally, we provide insight into two additional applications of pre-warping techniques. First is 'e-beam lithography', used for fabricating nano-scale structures, and second is 'electronic visual prosthesis' which aims at providing limited vision to the blind by using a prosthetic retinally implanted chip capable of electrically stimulating the retinal neuron cells.

  1. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  2. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  3. Nanotechnology in the marketplace: how the nanotechnology industry views risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Despite uncertainty about the potential human health and environmental risks of nanotechnology, major stakeholders such as regulatory agencies and the nanotechnology industry are already negotiating the emerging regulatory framework for nanotechnology. Because of a relative lack of nano-specific regulations, the future of nanotechnology development will depend greatly on the views held by the nanotechnology industry. This study fills the research gap in understanding how the nanotechnology industry perceives the risks of nanotechnology. This is the first interview-based study of the nanotechnology industry in the United States. Semi-structured, open-ended phone interviews were conducted with 17 individuals involved in the commercialization of nanotechnology in the United States. Results indicate that while the industry acknowledges uncertainty about the potential risks of nanotechnology and takes significant precaution in ensuring the safety of their products, they do not see nanotechnology as novel or risky. They do not believe that uncertainty over risk ought to delay the further development of nanotechnology. The industry sees itself as the primary agent in ensuring consumer safety and believes that consumers are adequately protected. They are also largely benefit-centric and view product labeling as inefficacious.

  4. Nanotechnology in the marketplace: how the nanotechnology industry views risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Sean, E-mail: seanlouisbecker@gmail.com [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Despite uncertainty about the potential human health and environmental risks of nanotechnology, major stakeholders such as regulatory agencies and the nanotechnology industry are already negotiating the emerging regulatory framework for nanotechnology. Because of a relative lack of nano-specific regulations, the future of nanotechnology development will depend greatly on the views held by the nanotechnology industry. This study fills the research gap in understanding how the nanotechnology industry perceives the risks of nanotechnology. This is the first interview-based study of the nanotechnology industry in the United States. Semi-structured, open-ended phone interviews were conducted with 17 individuals involved in the commercialization of nanotechnology in the United States. Results indicate that while the industry acknowledges uncertainty about the potential risks of nanotechnology and takes significant precaution in ensuring the safety of their products, they do not see nanotechnology as novel or risky. They do not believe that uncertainty over risk ought to delay the further development of nanotechnology. The industry sees itself as the primary agent in ensuring consumer safety and believes that consumers are adequately protected. They are also largely benefit-centric and view product labeling as inefficacious.

  5. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  6. Nanotechnology in Dermatology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, João Roberto; Antônio, Carlos Roberto; Cardeal, Izabela Lídia Soares; Ballavenuto, Julia Maria Avelino; Oliveira, João Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The scientific community and general public have been exposed to a series of achievements attributed to a new area of knowledge: Nanotechnology. Both abroad and in Brazil, funding agencies have launched programs aimed at encouraging this type of research. Indeed, for many who come into contact with this subject it will be clear the key role that chemical knowledge will play in the evolution of this subject. And even more, will see that it is a science in which the basic structure is formed by distilling different areas of inter-and multidisciplinary knowledge along the lines of new paradigms. In this article, we attempt to clarify the foundations of nanotechnology, and demonstrate their contribution to new advances in dermatology as well as medicine in general. Nanotechnology is clearly the future. PMID:24626657

  7. Nanotechnology in Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Qu, Hang; Manbachi, Amir; Butt, Haider; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hinestroza, Juan P; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-03-22

    Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanomaterials to be integrated into textile substrates. Nanomoieties can induce stain repellence, wrinkle-freeness, static elimination, and electrical conductivity to fibers without compromising their comfort and flexibility. Nanomaterials also offer a wider application potential to create connected garments that can sense and respond to external stimuli via electrical, color, or physiological signals. This review discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability, and connectivity. Risk factors including nanotoxicity, nanomaterial release during washing, and environmental impact of nanotextiles based on life cycle assessments have been evaluated. This review also provides an analysis of nanotechnology consolidation in the textiles market to evaluate global trends and patent coverage, supplemented by case studies of commercial products. Perceived limitations of nanotechnology in the textile industry and future directions are identified.

  8. Nanotechnology in Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. PMID:25113769

  9. NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.

  10. Toward the responsible innovation with nanotechnology in Japan: our scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizu, Saori, E-mail: ishizu-saori@aist.go.jp; Sekiya, Mizuki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Technology Information Department (Japan); Ishibashi, Ken-ichi [Sony Corporation (Japan); Negami, Yumi [Trade and Industry (METI), Ministry of Economy (Japan); Ata, Masafumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Technology Information Department (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    The societal impacts of nanotechnology have attracted growing attention in the United States and Europe in recent years. In Japan, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Technology Information Department) has played a central role in promoting discussions on this topic by collecting information from Japan and overseas, creating a network of the interested parties, and providing a forum for discussion. This paper presents a summary of recent activities in Japan relating to the societal impacts of nanotechnology, fro the launch of the 'Nanotechnology and Society' open forum (August 2004) until the 'Nanotechnology Debate' discussion forum (February 2007), and outlines the policy recommendations that came out of a project entitled 'Research on Facilitation of Public Acceptance of Nanotechnology' (March 2006)

  11. Toward the responsible innovation with nanotechnology in Japan: our scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizu, Saori; Sekiya, Mizuki; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Negami, Yumi; Ata, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    The societal impacts of nanotechnology have attracted growing attention in the United States and Europe in recent years. In Japan, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Technology Information Department) has played a central role in promoting discussions on this topic by collecting information from Japan and overseas, creating a network of the interested parties, and providing a forum for discussion. This paper presents a summary of recent activities in Japan relating to the societal impacts of nanotechnology, fro the launch of the 'Nanotechnology and Society' open forum (August 2004) until the 'Nanotechnology Debate' discussion forum (February 2007), and outlines the policy recommendations that came out of a project entitled 'Research on Facilitation of Public Acceptance of Nanotechnology' (March 2006)

  12. The Nanotechnology R(evolution)

    OpenAIRE

    Tahan, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology as a social concept and investment focal point has drawn much attention. Here we consider the place of nanotechnology in the second great technological revolution of mankind that began some 200 years ago. The so-called nanotechnology revolution represents both a continuation of prior science and technology trends and a re-awakening to the benefits of significant investment in fundamental research. We consider the role the military might play in the development of nanotechnology...

  13. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  14. Nanotechnology in health care

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine: Emerging Field of Nanotechnology to Human HealthNanomedicines: Impacts in Ocular Delivery and TargetingImmuno-Nanosystems to CNS Pathologies: State of the Art PEGylated Zinc Protoporphyrin: A Micelle-Forming Polymeric Drug for Cancer TherapyORMOSIL Nanoparticles: Nanomedicine Approach for Drug/Gene Delivery to the BrainMagnetic Nanoparticles: A Versatile System for Therapeutic and Imaging SystemNanobiotechnology: A New Generation of Biomedicine Application of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery and Targeting to LungsAptamers and Nanomedicine in C

  15. Nanotechnology applications for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduom, Edjah K; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat and represents the most common primary malignancy of the brain. Although conventional treatments have found modest success in reducing the initial tumor burden, infiltrating cancer cells beyond the main mass are responsible for tumor recurrence and ultimate patient demise. Targeting residual infiltrating cancer cells requires the development of new treatment strategies. The emerging field of cancer nanotechnology holds promise in the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for imaging and targeted therapy of glioblastoma. This article examines the current state of nanotechnology in the treatment of glioblastoma and directions of further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanotechnology and its applications in Veterinary and Animal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Patil

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential to revolutionize agriculture and livestock sector. It can provide new tools for molecular and cellular biology, biotechnology, veterinary physiology, animal genetics, reproduction etc. which will allow researchers to handle biological materials such as DNA, proteins or cells in minute quantities usually nano-liters or pico-liters. Nanotechnology tools like microfluidics, nanomaterials, bioanalytical nanosensors, etc. has the potential to solve many more puzzles related to animal health, production, reproduction and prevention and treatment of diseases. It is reasonable to presume that in the upcoming year’s nanotechnology research will reform the science and technology of the animal health and will help to boost up the livestock production. Nanotechnology will have a profound impact, but not in the immediate future as it is in the early stages of its development and needs to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. But It is reasonable to presume that in the upcoming year’s nanotechnology research will revolutionize animal health and help to boost up livestock production. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 475-477

  17. NANOTECHNOLOGY WHITE PAPER | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating materials at the atomic and molecular level to develop new or enhanced materials and products. In December 2004, EPA’s Science Policy Council created a cross-Agency workgroup to identify and describe the issues EPA must address to ensure protection of human health and the environment as this new technology is developed. The draft white paper on nanotechnology is the product of the workgroup. The draft white paper describes the technology, and provides a discussion of the potential environmental benefits of nanotechnology and its applications that can foster sustainable use of resources. Risk management issues and the Agency’s statutory mandates are outlined, followed by an extensive discussion of risk assessment issues. The paper identifies research needs for both environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology and concludes with recommendations on next steps for addressing science policy issues and research needs. Supplemental information is provided in a number of appendices. The Agency will use the white paper to address research needs and risk assessment issues concerning nanotechnology. The draft white paper will undergo independent expert review, which will be conducted in the February time frame. All public comments received by January 31, 2006 will be submitted to the external review panel for their consideration. Comments received beyond that time will be considered by EPA. Follo

  18. National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Manufactured Nanomaterials, supported by NIST staff in important leadership roles and coordinated with other agencies through the Global Issues in...groups are Global Issues in Nanotechnology (GIN); Nanotechnology Environmental and Health Implications (NEHI); Nanomanufacturing, Industry Liaison...existing or new working groups in terms of focus, intended participation, and scope, as reflected in the groups’ charters. Global Issues in Nanotechnology

  19. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology under the skin Nanotechnology under the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-07-01

    spectrum. Like microorganisms that can be critical to life processes and fatal too, there is no doubt a little yin-yang in the role of nanoparticles in our future. Perhaps one of the exciting elements in nanomedical research is the possibility of putting materials with potentially harmful characteristics to use for healing. The results of scientific endeavour at the nanoscale continue to progress our understanding, allowing us to maximise the potential of nanotechnology within informed restrictions. Where knowledge lays the boundaries, a little imagination adds wings, and the current state of research in nanomedicine seems well set to take flight. References [1] Grecco A C P 2011 Nanotechnology 22 265103 [2] Zhu X, Wang J, Zhang X, Chang Y and Chen Y 2009 Nanotechnology 20 195103 [3] Liu Y et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 415102 [4] Weinstein S and Peer D 2010 Nanotechnology 22 232001 [5] Iijima S 1991 Nature 354 56-8 [6] Ou Z, Wu B, Xing D, Zhou F, Wang H and Tang Y 2009 Nanotechnology 20 105102 [7] Wallace E J and Sansom M S P 2009 Nanotechnology 20 045101 [8] Zhu Y, Ran T, Li Y, Guo J and Li W 2006 Nanotechnology 17 4668 [9] Lam C-W, James J T, McCluskey R and Hunter R L 2004 Toxicol. Sci. 77 126-34

  20. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  1. The industrial relevance of nanotechnology and nanomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcari, Andrea; Mantovani, Elvio

    2015-01-01

    The article consists of four parts: a brief summary of the EU policy for nanotechnology and for Key Enabling Technologies; a general information framework, including definitions, fields of application, on production and market data; a general examination of the actors and of the application areas in Italy; conclusions. Nanotechnology, along with five other Key Enabling Technologies (Kets), have been identified as the engine for industrial growth in Europe within the Horizon 2020 program and other EU initiatives. These technologies promise to have a growing impact on materials, tools and processes through a great variety of industries important to the Italian economy and the European one. Nanotechnology is still largely a phase of research and development and other challenges are still to be solved for their full value. The Innovation and Research Manager are among those challenges, and are critical to their success [it

  2. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-07

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  3. Pharmacogenomics and Nanotechnology Toward Advancing Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizirianakis, Ioannis S.; Amanatiadou, Elsa P.

    The target of personalized medicine to achieve major benefits for all patients in terms of diagnosis and drug delivery can be facilitated by creating a sincere multidisciplinary information-based infrastructure in health care. To this end, nanotechnology, pharmacogenomics, and informatics can advance the utility of personalized medicine, enable clinical translation of genomic knowledge, empower healthcare environment, and finally improve clinical outcomes.

  4. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  5. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazaro Garcia, A.; Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Khatib, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been gaining popularity among the industrial sector and researchers in the last decades. The number of products containing nanomaterials that enter the market has also increased rapidly, and this trend is going to be even more pronounced in the coming years. The total value of

  6. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  7. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  8. Advanced Environment Friendly Nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figovsky, O.; Beilin, D.; Blank, N.

    The economic, security, military and environmental implications of molecular manufacturing are extreme. Unfortunately, conflicting definitions of nanotechnology and blurry distinctions between significantly different fields have complicated the effort to understand those differences and to develop sensible, effective policy for each. The risks of today's nanoscale technologies cannot be treated the same as the risks of longer-term molecular manufacturing. It is a mistake to put them together in one basket for policy consideration — each is important to address, but they offer different problems and will require far different solutions. As used today, the term nanotechnology usually refers to a broad collection of mostly disconnected fields. Essentially, anything sufficiently small and interesting can be called nanotechnology. Much of it is harmless. For the rest, much of the harm is of familiar and limited quality. Molecular manufacturing, by contrast, will bring unfamiliar risks and new classes of problems. The advanced environment friendly nanotechnologies elaborated by Israel Company Polymate Ltd. — International Research Center are illustrated.

  9. Medical applications of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Waracki, Mateusz; Bugaj, Bartosz; Pypno, Damian; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-10-29

    Nanotechnologies are new areas of research focusing on affecting matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is beyond doubt that modern medicine can benefit greatly from it; thus nanomedicine has become one of the main branches of nanotechnological research. Currently it focuses on developing new methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating various diseases. Nanomaterials show very high efficiency in destroying cancer cells and are already undergoing clinical trials. The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. Nanoscience might also be a source of the needed breakthrough in the fight against atherosclerosis, since nanostructures may be used in both preventing and increasing the stability of atherosclerotic lesions. One area of interest is creating nanomaterials that are not only efficient, but also well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include: nanoadjuvants with immunomodulatory properties used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, an almost non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already a popular way of repairing damaged tissues and might be used to regenerate nerves in the future. The aim of this article is to outline the potential uses of nanotechnology in medicine. Original articles and reviews have been used to present the new developments and directions of studies.

  10. Medical applications of nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are new areas of research focusing on affecting matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is beyond doubt that modern medicine can benefit greatly from it; thus nanomedicine has become one of the main branches of nanotechnological research. Currently it focuses on developing new methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating various diseases. Nanomaterials show very high efficiency in destroying cancer cells and are already undergoing clinical trials. The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. Nanoscience might also be a source of the needed breakthrough in the fight against atherosclerosis, since nanostructures may be used in both preventing and increasing the stability of atherosclerotic lesions. One area of interest is creating nanomaterials that are not only efficient, but also well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include: nanoadjuvants with immunomodulatory properties used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, an almost non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already a popular way of repairing damaged tissues and might be used to regenerate nerves in the future.The aim of this article is to outline the potential uses of nanotechnology in medicine. Original articles and reviews have been used to present the new developments and directions of studies.

  11. Nanotechnology - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, D.

    2007-01-01

    The science of nanotechnology is still in its infancy. However, progress is being made in research and development of potential beneficial properties of nanomaterials that could play an integral part in the development of new and changing uses for mineral commodities. Nanotechnology is a kind of toolbox that allows industry to make nanomaterials and nanostructures with special properties. New nanotechnology applications of mineral commodities in their nanoscale form are being discovered, researched and developed. At the same time, there is continued research into environmental, human health and safety concerns that inherently arise from the development of a new technology. Except for a few nanomaterials (CNTs, copper, silver and zinc oxide), widespread applications are hampered by processing and suitable commercial-scale production techniques, high manufacturing costs, product price, and environmental, and human health and safety concerns. Whether nanotechnology causes a tidal wave of change or is a long-term evolutionary process of technology, new applications of familiar mineral commodities will be created. As research and development continues, the ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale into increasingly sophisticated nanomaterials will improve and open up new possibilities for industry that will change the flow and use of mineral commodities and the materials and products that are used.

  12. Awareness and knowledge on modern biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... food; MABIC, Malaysian Biotechnology Information Centre. on public ... in Malaysia and provide linkage to several international website on modern ... scholars and university students) possess at least tertiary level of education ...

  13. [Biotechnological potential of methylotrophic bacteria: a review of current status and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotsenko, Iu A; Doronina, N V; Khmelenina, V N

    2005-01-01

    Major results of the authors' findings on the implementation of biotechnological potential of aerobic methylobacteria and methanotrophs for obtaining forage proteins, biopolymers (polybutyrate and polysaccharides), enzymes (oxidoreductases), and bioprotectors (ectoin), as well as for degrading toxic C1 and Cn compounds have been reviewed. Unique features of the structural and functional organization of the metabolism of extremophilic (tolerant) methylotrophs are discussed, with a view for their prospective use in various fields of modern biotechnology, including biocatalysis and nanotechnology.

  14. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani; Bezbaruah, Achintya N.

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature in people’s attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people’s attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  15. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani, E-mail: rajani.pillai@ndsu.edu [North Dakota State University, Department of Management and Marketing, College of Business (United States); Bezbaruah, Achintya N., E-mail: a.bezbaruah@ndsu.edu [North Dakota State University, Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Existing literature in people’s attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people’s attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  16. Biotechnological applications of transglutaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Natalie M; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2013-10-22

    In nature, transglutaminases catalyze the formation of amide bonds between proteins to form insoluble protein aggregates. This specific function has long been exploited in the food and textile industries as a protein cross-linking agent to alter the texture of meat, wool, and leather. In recent years, biotechnological applications of transglutaminases have come to light in areas ranging from material sciences to medicine. There has also been a substantial effort to further investigate the fundamentals of transglutaminases, as many of their characteristics that remain poorly understood. Those studies also work towards the goal of developing transglutaminases as more efficient catalysts. Progress in this area includes structural information and novel chemical and biological assays. Here, we review recent achievements in this area in order to illustrate the versatility of transglutaminases.

  17. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    development of the electron microscope, which aimed to exceed the resolving power of diffraction-limited optical microscopes. Since the diffraction limit is proportional to the incident wavelength, the shorter wavelength electron beam allows smaller features to be resolved than optical light. Ernst Ruska shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1986 for his work in developing the transmission electron microscope [5]. The technique continues to provide an invaluable tool in nanotechnology studies, as demonstrated recently by a collaboration of researchers in the US, Singapore and Korea used electron and atomic force microscopy in their investigation of the deposition of gold nanoparticles on graphene and the enhanced conductivity of the doped film [6]. The other half of the 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded jointly to Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer 'for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope'. The scanning tunnelling microscope offered the first glimpses of atomic scale features, galvanizing research in nanoscale science and technology into a burst of fruitful activity that persists to this day. Instead of using the diffraction and scattering of beams to 'see' nanoscale structures, the atomic force microscope developed by Binnig, Quate and Gerber in the 1980s [1] determines the surface topology 'by touch'. The device uses nanoscale changes in the forces exerted on a tip as it scans the sample surface to generate an image. As might be expected, innovations on the original atomic force microscope have now been developed achieving ever greater sensitivities for imaging soft matter without destroying it. Recent work by collaborators at the University of Bristol and the University of Glasgow used a cigar-shaped nanoparticle held in optical tweezers as the scanning tip. The technique is not diffraction limited, imparts less force on samples than contact scanning probe microscopy techniques, and allows highly curved and strongly scattering samples to be imaged [7]. In this issue

  18. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    of nanoparticles in the tumour vasculature. However, previous reports on techniques to generate nanobubbles have either been slow or problematic due to the resulting development of cardiac dimension reduction, hypotension and tachycardia. Xing and colleagues have now demonstrated the use of polyoxyethylene 40 stearate, which is known to be biocompatible, degradable and non-toxic, as an alternative surfactant for generating nanobubbles. In the early 1980s scanning probe micrographs of nanosized features unleashed the power of imaging to push forward the science of structures and mechanisms at the nanoscale. The continued development of new and increasingly sophisticated nanoparticles and systems looks set to empower medicine in the same way, providing further means to exploit the mechanistic nature of biological organisms for better health and longevity. References [1] Leon R, Petroff P M, Leonard D and Fafard S 1995 Science 267 1966-8 [2] Nie Q, Tan W B and Zhang Y 2006 Nanotechnology 17 140-4 [3] Li L, Chen D, Zhang Y, Deng Z, Ren X, Meng X, Tang F, Ren J and Zhang L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 405102 [4] Fujioka K et al 2008 Nanotechnology 19 415102 [5] Shinoda K, Yangisawa S, Sato K amd Hirakuri K 2006 J. Cryst. Growth 288 84-6 [6] Manzoor K, Johny S, Thomas D, Setua S, Menon D and Nair S 2009 Nanotechnology 20 065102 [7] Hu R, Yong K-T, Roy I, Ding H, Law W-C, Cai H, Zhang X, Vathy L A, Bergey E J and Prasad P N 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145105 [8] Xing, Z, Ke H, Wang J, Zhao B, Yue X, Dai Z and Liu J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145607

  19. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Re-Framing Biotechnology Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Alison

    Biotechnology is about to spill the banks of federal regulation. New genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 promise revolutionary breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture, and public health—but those techniques would not be regulated under the terms of the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. This revolutionary moment in biotechnology offers an opportunity to correct the flaws in the framework, which was hastily patched together at the advent of the technology. The framework has never captured all relevant technologies, has never satisfied the public that risk is being effectively managed, and has never been accessible to small companies and publicly-funded labs that increasingly are positioned to make radical, life-saving innovations. This Article offers a proposal for new legislation that would reshape biotechnology regulation to better meet these goals. Key reforms include tying regulation to risk rather than technology category; consolidating agency review; capturing distinct regulatory expertise through inter-agency consultations; creating a clearinghouse to help guide applicants and disseminate information; setting up more comprehensive monitoring of environmental effects; and providing federal leadership to fill key data gaps and address socio-economic impacts.

  1. Targeted therapy using nanotechnology: focus on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Pala, Nicolino; Sechi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology have contributed to the development of engineered nanoscale materials as innovative prototypes to be used for biomedical applications and optimized therapy. Due to their unique features, including a large surface area, structural properties, and a long circulation time in blood compared with small molecules, a plethora of nanomaterials has been developed, with the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases, in particular by improving the sensitivity and recognition ability of imaging contrast agents and by selectively directing bioactive agents to biological targets. Focusing on cancer, promising nanoprototypes have been designed to overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, as well as for early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions. However, several obstacles, including difficulty in achieving the optimal combination of physicochemical parameters for tumor targeting, evading particle clearance mechanisms, and controlling drug release, prevent the translation of nanomedicines into therapy. In spite of this, recent efforts have been focused on developing functionalized nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents to specific molecular targets overexpressed on different cancer cells. In particular, the combination of targeted and controlled-release polymer nanotechnologies has resulted in a new programmable nanotherapeutic formulation of docetaxel, namely BIND-014, which recently entered Phase II clinical testing for patients with solid tumors. BIND-014 has been developed to overcome the limitations facing delivery of nanoparticles to many neoplasms, and represents a validated example of targeted nanosystems with the optimal biophysicochemical properties needed for successful tumor eradication.

  2. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  3. caNanoLab: data sharing to expedite the use of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaheen, Sharon; Hinkal, George W; Morris, Stephanie A; Lijowski, Michal; Heiskanen, Mervi; Klemm, Juli D

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in biomedicine involves the engineering of nanomaterials to act as therapeutic carriers, targeting agents and diagnostic imaging devices. The application of nanotechnology in cancer aims to transform early detection, targeted therapeutics and cancer prevention and control. To assist in expediting and validating the use of nanomaterials in biomedicine, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology, in collaboration with the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer (Alliance), has developed a data sharing portal called caNanoLab. caNanoLab provides access to experimental and literature curated data from the NCI Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, the Alliance and the greater cancer nanotechnology community. (paper)

  4. Nanotechnology R and D Policy of Japan and Nanotechnology Support Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Teruo

    2004-01-01

    In the 2nd Science and Technology Basic Plan (2001-2005), the area of nanotechnology and materials is designated one of the four prioritized areas in funding. Following this plan, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industries (METI), the main funding ministries, and their organizations, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), RIKEN, New Energy and Industrial Technology Organization (NEDO), and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) promotes their research programs. Besides, in order to promote interdisciplinary, interorganizational, and international collaboration of researchers, Nanotechnology Support Project (NSP) was started by MEXT in 2002. The project has two missions: informational support and common use facility support. Nanotechnology Researchers Network Center of Japan is responsible for informational support, and 14 universities and national research institutes are responsible for common use facility support

  5. Risk of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, Petr; Bakalova, Totka

    2014-05-01

    Nano-this and nano-that. These days it seems you need the prefix "nano" for products or applications if you want to be either very trendy or incredibly scary. This "nano-trend" has assumed "mega" proportions. Vague promises of a better life are met by equally vague, generalized fears about a worse future. These debates have some aspects in common: the subject is complex and not easy to explain; there is no consensus on risks and benefits. - A particular problem with nanotechnology lies in the huge gap between the public perception of what the hype promises and the scientific and commercial reality of what the technology actually delivers today and in the near future. There is nanoscience, which is the study of phenomena and manipulation of material at the nanoscale, in essence an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale. Then there is nanotechnology, which is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology should really be called nanotechnologies: There is no single field of nanotechnology. The term broadly refers to such fields as biology, physics or chemistry, any scientific field really, or a combination thereof, that deals with the deliberate and controlled manufacturing of nanostructures. In addressing the health and environmental impact of nanotechnology we need to differentiate two types of nanostructures: (1) Nanocomposites, nanostructured surfaces and nanocomponents (electronic, optical, sensors etc.), where nanoscale particles are incorporated into a substance, material or device ("fixed" nanoparticles); and (2) "free" nanoparticles, where at some stage in production or use individual nanoparticles of a substance are present. There are four entry routes for nanoparticles into the body: they can be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through skin or be deliberately injected during medical procedures. Once within the body they are highly mobile and

  6. Springer handbook of nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook has become the definitive reference work in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology, and this 4th edition incorporates a number of recent new developments. It integrates nanofabrication, nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanomechanics, nanotribology, materials science, and reliability engineering knowledge in just one volume. Furthermore, it discusses various nanostructures; micro/nanofabrication; micro/nanodevices and biomicro/nanodevices, as well as scanning probe microscopy; nanotribology and nanomechanics; molecularly thick films; industrial applications and nanodevice reliability; societal, environmental, health and safety issues; and nanotechnology education. In this new edition, written by an international team of over 140 distinguished experts and put together by an experienced editor with a comprehensive understanding of the field, almost all the chapters are either new or substantially revised and expanded, with new topics of interest added. It is an essential resource for ...

  7. Nanotechnology Applications for Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduom, Edjah; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Glioblastoma remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat and represents the most common primary malignancy of the brain. While conventional treatments have found modest success in reducing the initial tumor burden, infiltrating cancer cells beyond the main mass are responsible for tumor recurrence and ultimate patient demise. Targeting the residual infiltrating cancer cells requires the development of new treatment strategies. The emerging field of cancer nanotechnology holds much promise in the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for the imaging and targeted therapy of GBM.. Nanoparticles have emerged as potential “theranostic” agents that can permit the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of GBM tumors. A recent human clinical trial with magnetic nanoparticles has provided feasibility and efficacy data for potential treatment of GBM patients with thermotherapy. Here we examine the current state of nanotechnology in the treatment of glioblastoma and interesting directions of further study. PMID:22748656

  8. Nanotechnology Applications for Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinel, Sibel; Montemagno, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and the antiglaucoma treatments currently available suffer from various complications. Nanotechnology-based treatments show a great deal of promise in overcoming these complications and form the basis for next-generation glaucoma treatment strategies, with the help of applications such as controlled release, targeted delivery, increased bioavailability, diffusion limitations, and biocompatibility. Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine in the efficiency of antiglaucoma medications, nanofabrication systems such as microelectromechanical systems that remove the limitations of nanodevices, and tissue regeneration vesicles for developing glaucoma treatments not based on intraocular pressure. With the use of these advanced technologies, the prevention of glaucoma-induced blindness will be possible in the near future. Herein, we reviewed the recent advances in nanotechnology-based treatment strategies for glaucoma.

  9. Nanotechnologies a general introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, M; Li Bassi, A

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture manly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential role of both size and size control is finally emphasized discussing some significant applications in the fields of materials, devices and medicine. To this last argument (nanomedicine) the second lectu...

  10. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology – potential environmental and occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk of engineered nanoparticles and nanotechnology for the environment and human health. The nanotechnology influences all industrial and public sectors including healthcare, agriculture, transport, energy, information and communication technologies. Both, the potential benefits and risks, associated with the application of engineered nanoparticles have been widely debated in recent years. The most important problem for the future research is the evaluation of the risk associated with nanomaterials exposure.

  11. Nanotechnology and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, although still in the early stages of its development, is beginning to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. It is reasonable to presume over the next couple of decades that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will be revolutionising animal health and medicine. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 567-569

  12. Food nanoscience and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity. These and many other applications have emerged in recent years to transform food science and technology. This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

  13. Nanotechnology and cancer applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gökdeniz, Mehmet; Akbaba, Muhsin; Nazlıcan, Ersin

    2018-01-01

    Applicationsof nanotechnology in various disciplines of medicine particularly cancer careare becoming increasingly popular so much so that the process of replacingtraditional health‑care by nanomedicine had already begun. Nanomedicine focuseson the formulations of imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic agents, which can becarried by biocompatible nanoparticles, for the purpose of cancer/ diseasemanagement.Common nanomaterials and devices applicable in cancer medicine are liposomes,polymeric‑mice...

  14. Biotechnology : A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Apeldoorn, J.H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Biotechnology: a Dutch Perspective assesses the future potential of biotechnology in the Netherlands. It has been published in English because it is felt that the Dutch case could be of relevance to other industrialised nations. Although the report is aimed primarily at policy planners and decision

  15. Biotechnology Industry, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    for commercial or other purposes. Because it is a process resting on the understanding of genetics, proteomics , and life science, biotechnology has...Luhnow & Samor, 2006). Novel biotechnologies could bring down the costs of making ethanol. Iogen Corporation has genetically modified a fungus to

  16. Healthcare biotechnology in India

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, L. M.

    2005-01-01

    Biotechnology in India has made great progress in the development of infrastructure, manpower, research and development and manufacturing of biological reagents, biodiagnostics, biotherapeutics, therapeutic and, prophylactic vaccines and biodevices. Many of these indigenous biological reagents, biodiagnostics, therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines and biodevices have been commercialized. Commercially when biotechnology revenue has reached $25 billions in the U.S. alone in 2000 excluding the r...

  17. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  18. Biotechnology in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamer, Dean H; Kung, Shain-dow

    1989-01-01

    ... and Shain-dow Kung Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Maryland Biotechnology Institute Department of Botany University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington, DC 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from bo...

  19. How interdisciplinary is nanotechnology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Alan L.; Youtie, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Facilitating cross-disciplinary research has attracted much attention in recent years, with special concerns in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Although policy discourse has emphasized that nanotechnology is substantively integrative, some analysts have countered that it is really a loose amalgam of relatively traditional pockets of physics, chemistry, and other disciplines that interrelate only weakly. We are developing empirical measures to gauge and visualize the extent and nature of interdisciplinary interchange. Such results speak to research organization, funding, and mechanisms to bolster knowledge transfer. In this study, we address the nature of cross-disciplinary linkages using 'science overlay maps' of articles, and their references, that have been categorized into subject categories. We find signs that the rate of increase in nano research is slowing, and that its composition is changing (for one, increasing chemistry-related activity). Our results suggest that nanotechnology research encompasses multiple disciplines that draw knowledge from disciplinarily diverse knowledge sources. Nano research is highly, and increasingly, integrative-but so is much of science these days. Tabulating and mapping nano research activity show a dominant core in materials sciences, broadly defined. Additional analyses and maps show that nano research draws extensively upon knowledge presented in other areas; it is not constricted within narrow silos.

  20. Nanoscience, nanotechnology and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Freddy C.; Barbante, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscience has outgrown its infancy, and nanotechnology has found important applications in our daily life — with many more to come. Although the central concepts of the nano world, namely the changes of particular physical properties on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules, have been known and developed for quite some time already, experimental advances since the 1980s and recognition of the potential of nanomaterials led to a genuine breakthrough of the inherently multidisciplinary nanoscience field. Analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology and especially the use of micro and nano electro mechanical systems, of the quantum dots and of mass spectrometry, currently provide one of the most promising avenues for developments in analytical science, derived from their two main fields of action, namely (a) the analysis of nano-structured materials and (b) their use as new tools for analysis. An overview is given of recent developments and trends in the field, highlighting the importance and point out future directions, while also touching drawbacks, such as emerging concerns about health and environmental issues. - Highlights: • We review the analysis of nano-structured materials. • Nano-structured materials can be used as new tools for analysis. • Use of nano electro mechanical systems, of quantum dots and of mass spectrometry • Nanotechnologies are among the most promising tools in analytical science

  1. How interdisciplinary is nanotechnology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Alan L., E-mail: aporter@isye.gatech.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology, Technology Policy and Assessment Center, School of Public Policy (United States); Youtie, Jan, E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology Enterprise Innovation Institute (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Facilitating cross-disciplinary research has attracted much attention in recent years, with special concerns in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Although policy discourse has emphasized that nanotechnology is substantively integrative, some analysts have countered that it is really a loose amalgam of relatively traditional pockets of physics, chemistry, and other disciplines that interrelate only weakly. We are developing empirical measures to gauge and visualize the extent and nature of interdisciplinary interchange. Such results speak to research organization, funding, and mechanisms to bolster knowledge transfer. In this study, we address the nature of cross-disciplinary linkages using 'science overlay maps' of articles, and their references, that have been categorized into subject categories. We find signs that the rate of increase in nano research is slowing, and that its composition is changing (for one, increasing chemistry-related activity). Our results suggest that nanotechnology research encompasses multiple disciplines that draw knowledge from disciplinarily diverse knowledge sources. Nano research is highly, and increasingly, integrative-but so is much of science these days. Tabulating and mapping nano research activity show a dominant core in materials sciences, broadly defined. Additional analyses and maps show that nano research draws extensively upon knowledge presented in other areas; it is not constricted within narrow silos.

  2. Nanoscience, nanotechnology and spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Freddy C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Barbante, Carlo, E-mail: barbante@unive.it [Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes — CNR, Venice (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscience has outgrown its infancy, and nanotechnology has found important applications in our daily life — with many more to come. Although the central concepts of the nano world, namely the changes of particular physical properties on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules, have been known and developed for quite some time already, experimental advances since the 1980s and recognition of the potential of nanomaterials led to a genuine breakthrough of the inherently multidisciplinary nanoscience field. Analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology and especially the use of micro and nano electro mechanical systems, of the quantum dots and of mass spectrometry, currently provide one of the most promising avenues for developments in analytical science, derived from their two main fields of action, namely (a) the analysis of nano-structured materials and (b) their use as new tools for analysis. An overview is given of recent developments and trends in the field, highlighting the importance and point out future directions, while also touching drawbacks, such as emerging concerns about health and environmental issues. - Highlights: • We review the analysis of nano-structured materials. • Nano-structured materials can be used as new tools for analysis. • Use of nano electro mechanical systems, of quantum dots and of mass spectrometry • Nanotechnologies are among the most promising tools in analytical science.

  3. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  4. Nanotechnology and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Edward J; Henderson, Janet E; Vengallatore, Srikar T

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology and its attendant techniques have yet to make a significant impact on the science of bone healing. However, the potential benefits are immediately obvious with the result that hundreds of researchers and firms are performing the basic research needed to mature this nascent, yet soon to be fruitful niche. Together with genomics and proteomics, and combined with tissue engineering, this is the new face of orthopaedic technology. The concepts that orthopaedic surgeons recognize are fabrication processes that have resulted in porous implant substrates as bone defect augmentation and medication-carrier devices. However, there are dozens of applications in orthopaedic traumatology and bone healing for nanometer-sized entities, structures, surfaces, and devices with characteristic lengths ranging from 10s of nanometers to a few micrometers. Examples include scaffolds, delivery mechanisms, controlled modification of surface topography and composition, and biomicroelectromechanical systems. We review the basic science, clinical implications, and early applications of the nanotechnology revolution and emphasize the rich possibilities that exist at the crossover region between micro- and nanotechnology for developing new treatments for bone healing.

  5. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improve...

  6. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapies to the tumor. Futhermore, surgical resection of tumors can be guided and enhanced by way of nanotechnology tools. Find out how nanotechnology will offer the next generation of our therapeutic arsenal to the patient.

  7. Metallic nanoparticles: microbial synthesis and unique properties for biotechnological applications, bioavailability and biotransformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.; Mehboob, F.; Stams, A.J.M.; Mota, M.M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Alves, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of nanotechnology in all areas of science and technology is evident. The expanding availability of a variety of nanostructures with properties in the nanometer size range has sparked widespread interest in their use in biotechnological systems, including the field of environmental

  8. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-07-01

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  9. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  10. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiek, Arnim; Foley, Rider W.; Guston, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  11. Strategic Workshops on Cancer Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Larry A.; Lee, Jerry S H.; Molnar, Linda K.; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Farrell, Dorothy; Ptak, Krzysztof; Alper, Joseph; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers the potential for new approaches to detecting, treating and preventing cancer. To determine the current status of the cancer nanotechnology field and the optimal path forward, the National Cancer Institute’s Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer held three strategic workshops, covering the areas of in-vitro diagnostics and prevention, therapy and post-treatment, and in-vivo diagnosis and imaging. At each of these meetings, a wide range of experts from academia, industry, the non-profit sector, and the Federal government discussed opportunities in the field of cancer nanotechnology and barriers to its implementation. PMID:20460532

  12. Welcome to NNIN | National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network Serving Nanoscale Science, Engineering & Technology Search form Search Search Home facilities feature over 1100 modern nanotechnology instruments such as these Reactive Ion Etch systems at the

  13. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    devices. If 'writing is thinking on paper' [15], it seems researchers are finding yet more powerful means of putting their ideas on paper. References [1] Barquinha P, Martins R, Pereira L and Fortunato E 2012 Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices (Chichester: Wiley) [2] Zocco A T, You H, Hagen J A and Steckl A J 2014 Pentacene organic thin film transistors on flexible paper and glass substrates Nanotechnology 25 094005 [3] Pereira L, Gaspar D, Guerin D, Delattre A, Fortunato E and Martins R 2014 The influence of fibril composition and dimension on the performance of paper gated oxide transistors Nanotechnology 25 094007 [4] Wu G, Wan C, Zhou J, Zhu L and Wan Q 2014 Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates Nanotechnology 25 094001 [5] Shin H, Yoon B, Park I S and Kim J-M 2014 An electrothermochromic paper display based on colorimetrically reversible polydiacetylenes Nanotechnology 25 094011 [6] Ihalainen P, Pettersson F, Pesonen M, Viitala T, Määttänen A, Österbacka R and Peltonen J 2014 An impedimetric study of DNA hybridization on paper supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes Nanotechnology 25 094009 [7] Wang Y, Shi Y, Zhao C X, Wong J I, Sun X W and Yang H Y 2014 Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage device Nanotechnology 25 094010 [8] Andersson H A, Manuilskiy A, Haller S, Hummelgård M, Sidén J, Hummelgård C, Olin H and Nilsson H-E 2014 Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board Nanotechnology 25 094002 [9] Gaspar D, Fernandes S N, de Oliveira A G, Fernandes J G, Grey P, Pontes R V, Pereira L, Martins R, Godinho M H and Fortunato E 2014 Nanocrystalline cellulose applied simultaneously as gate dielectric and substrate on flexible field effect transistors Nanotechnology 25 094008 [10] Männl U, van den Berg C, Magunje B, Härting M, Britton D T, Jones S, Mvan Staden M J and Scriba M

  14. Healthcare biotechnology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, L M

    2005-01-01

    Biotechnology in India has made great progress in the development of infrastructure, manpower, research and development and manufacturing of biological reagents, biodiagnostics, biotherapeutics, therapeutic and, prophylactic vaccines and biodevices. Many of these indigenous biological reagents, biodiagnostics, therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines and biodevices have been commercialized. Commercially when biotechnology revenue has reached $25 billions in the U.S. alone in 2000 excluding the revenues of biotech companies that were acquired by pharmaceutical companies, India has yet to register a measurable success. The conservative nature and craze of the Indian Industry for marketing imported biotechnology products, lack of Government support, almost non-existing national healthcare system and lack of trained managers for marketing biological and new products seem to be the important factors responsible for poor economic development of biotechnology in India. With the liberalization of Indian economy, more and more imported biotechnology products will enter into the Indian market. The conditions of internal development of biotechnology are not likely to improve in the near future and it is destined to grow only very slowly. Even today biotechnology in India may be called to be in its infancy.

  15. Toward the Responsible Development and Commercialization of Sensor Nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Tarek R; Farrell, Dorothy F; Friedersdorf, Lisa E; Griep, Mark H; Hoover, Mark D; Meador, Michael A; Meyyappan, M

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-enabled sensors (or nanosensors) will play an important role in enabling the progression toward ubiquitous information systems as the Internet of Things (IoT) emerges. Nanosensors offer new, miniaturized solutions in physiochemical and biological sensing that enable increased sensitivity, specificity, and multiplexing capability, all with the compelling economic drivers of low cost and high-energy efficiency. In the United States, Federal agencies participating in the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) "Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology: Improving and Protecting Health, Safety, and the Environment" Nanotechnology Signature Initiative (the Sensors NSI), address both the opportunity of using nanotechnology to advance sensor development and the challenges of developing sensors to keep pace with the increasingly widespread use of engineered nanomaterials. This perspective article will introduce and provide background on the NNI signature initiative on sensors. Recent efforts by the Sensors NSI aimed at promoting the successful development and commercialization of nanosensors will be reviewed and examples of sensor nanotechnologies will be highlighted. Future directions and critical challenges for sensor development will also be discussed.

  16. Nanotechnology-enhanced orthopedic materials fabrications, applications and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology-Enhanced Orthopedic Materials provides the latest information on the emergence and rapid development of nanotechnology and the ways it has impacted almost every aspect of biomedical engineering. This book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the field, focusing on the fabrication and applications of these materials, presenting updated, practical, and systematic knowledge on the synthesis, processing, and modification of nanomaterials, along with the rationale and methodology of applying such materials for orthopedic purposes. Topics covered include a wide range of orthopedic material formulations, such as ceramics, metals, polymers, biomolecules, and self-assemblies. Final sections explore applications and future trends in nanotechnology-enhanced orthopedic materials. Details practical information on the fabrication and modification of new and traditional orthopedic materials Analyzes a wide range of materials, designs, and applications of nanotechnology for orthopedics Investigate...

  17. Interface of nuclear and biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Diaz-Balart, F.

    2005-01-01

    Addressing nuclear and biotechnologies in the International Year of Physics should begin by highlighting the important role that this science has played in the development of both branches of science and technologies. The first as a direct consequence of the Theory of Relativity, the further was considerably influenced by Schroedinger's remarks that there must be a code of some kind that allowed molecules in cells to carry information, making a connection between genes and proteins. Both, like any highly technical endeavor, have also in common that the use of technologies demands a vast accumulation of knowledge, i.e. volumes of scientific research, engineering analysis, strict regulatory controls and a huge amount of information combined with a complex assortment of people with the required educational background, expertise and skills to master it. This presentation briefly explores the ways in which nuclear technology has been used in the last decades of the 20th century in the field of biomedicine applications, which includes the use of radiation to obtain accurate images as well as in diagnosis and therapy. The paper looks at the present prospects of some nuclear methods and instrumentation in the so-called Red biotechnology and its genetically engineered therapeutic agents and diagnostic tests as well as some related perspectives in the field of bioinformatics. As an example of biotechnology being successfully applied to health problems in developing countries the presentation gives an outlook of relevant Cuban achievements in this field. (author)

  18. Biotechnology for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.; Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1991-01-01

    The present volume comprises paper presented and discussed in the symposium. The main purpose of this symposium was to collect researchers in the area of bioconversion of biomass into biofuels, petroleum biotechnology and biohydrometallurgy. This book has been divided into four main sections which includes molecular biology of biomass conversion, microbial conversion of biomass, petroleum biotechnology and biohydrometallurgy. It is becoming clear that biotechnology play a role in production and conservation of energy and can contribute to the overall energy situation. (A.B.)

  19. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  20. Computers, Nanotechnology and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2008-10-01

    In 1958, two years after the Dartmouth conference, where the term artificial intelligence was coined, Herbert Simon and Allen Newell asserted the existence of "machines that think, that learn and create." They were further prophesying that the machines' capacity would increase and be on par with the human mind. Now, 50 years later, computers perform many more tasks than one could imagine in the 1950s but, virtually, no computer can do more than could the first digital computer, developed by John von Neumann in the 1940s. Computers still follow algorithms, they do not create them. However, the development of nanotechnology seems to have given rise to new hopes. With nanotechnology two things are supposed to happen. Firstly, due to the small scale it will be possible to construct huge computer memories which are supposed to be the precondition for building an artificial brain, secondly, nanotechnology will make it possible to scan the brain which in turn will make reverse engineering possible; the mind will be decoded by studying the brain. The consequence of such a belief is that the brain is no more than a calculator, i.e., all that the mind can do is in principle the results of arithmetical operations. Computers are equivalent to formal systems which in turn was an answer to an idea by Hilbert that proofs should contain ideal statements for which operations cannot be applied in a contentual way. The advocates of artificial intelligence will place content in a machine that is developed not only to be free of content but also cannot contain content. In this paper I argue that the hope for artificial intelligence is in vain.

  1. Nanotechnologies in regenerative medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Syková, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, 3-4 (2010), s. 144-156 ISSN 1364-5706 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR KAN201110651 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) 1M0538; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1242; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520804; EC FP6 project ENIMET(XE) LSHM-CT-2005-019063 Program:1M; GA; KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Nanotechnology * regenerative medicine * nanofibers Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2010

  2. Nanotechnology and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Tanır

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new revolution in technology; being used in different parts of life such as self-cleaning paints, dirt repellent fabrics, the destruction of cancer cells without harming the person, biosensors that can detect even a single bacterium, odorless socks due to the destruction of bacteria, germ-free refrigerators, disinfection etc. In this article, we consider in the perspective of public health the possible risks of this new technology, which is starting to appear in all areas of our daily lives. 

  3. Nanotechnology: The Incredible Invisible World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959 by Richard Feynman at a meeting of the American Physical Society. Nanotechnology opens the door to an exciting new science/technology/engineering field. The possibilities for the uses of this technology should inspire the imagination to think big. Many are already pursuing such feats…

  4. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanotechnology overview: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the science of manipulating matter at the nanometer scale in order to discover new properties and possibly produce new products. For the past 30 years, a considerable amount of scientific interest and R&D funding devoted to nanotechnology has led to rapid developmen...

  6. Hearts and minds and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, Chris

    2009-03-01

    New research by social scientists is presenting a clearer picture of the factors that influence the public perception of nanotechnology and, as Chris Toumey reports, the results present challenges for those working to increase public acceptance of nanoscience and technology.See focus on public perceptions of nanotechnology.

  7. Nanotechnology: From "Wow" to "Yuck"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology is science and engineering resulting from the manipulation of matter's most basic building blocks: atoms and molecules. As such, nanotechnology promises unprecedented control over both the materials we use and the means of their production. Such control could revolutionize nearly every sector of our economy, including medicine,…

  8. How nanotechnology works in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Arshpreet Kaur; Ms. Amandeep Kaur; Ms. Nitika Shahi

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnol...

  9. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  10. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  11. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  12. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology is a publisher of multidisciplinary ... Assessment of microalgae-influenced biodeterioration of concrete structures · EMAIL FREE ... A study on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphurtransferase (3-MST) produced under ...

  13. Calorimeters for biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Donald J.; Hansen, Lee D.

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal and temperature scanning calorimeters manufactured by Calorimetry Sciences Corporation are briefly described. Applications of calorimetry to determine thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions of interest in biotechnology are described with illustrative examples

  14. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  15. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R and D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies.

  16. Nanotechnology: Fundamental Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Koodali T.; Klabunde, Kenneth J.

    Nanotechnology research is based primarily on molecular manufacturing. Although several definitions have been widely used in the past to describe the field of nanotechnology, it is worthwhile to point out that the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), a federal research and development scheme approved by the congress in 2001 defines nanotechnology only if the following three aspects are involved: (1) research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1-100 nanometer range, (2) creating and using structures, devices, and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size, and (3) ability to control or manipulate on the atomic scale. Nanotechnology in essence is the technology based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules to build complex structures that have atomic specifications.

  17. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Alan L.; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip; Schoeneck, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed

  18. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Alan L. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Youtie, Jan [Georgia Institute of Technology, Enterprise Innovation Institute (United States)], E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.edu; Shapira, Philip [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Schoeneck, David J. [Search Technology, Inc. (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  19. Biotechnological research in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, H J

    1982-01-01

    The current research possibilities in the expanding field of biotechnology in Europe are very briefly described. Remarks on research and development are limited to six topics: fermented food products; biomass production; product formation; bioreactors; waste-water treatment, environmental processes and methane formation; central research institutions. It is summarised that increased efforts at co-operation on all levels are vital for an improved development in the field of biotechnology throughout Europe.

  20. Robotics, Ethics, and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel

    It may seem out of character to find a chapter on robotics in a book about nanotechnology, and even more so a chapter on the application of ethics to robots. Indeed, as we shall see, the questions look quite different in these two fields, i.e., in robotics and nanoscience. In short, in the case of robots, we are dealing with artificial beings endowed with higher cognitive faculties, such as language, reasoning, action, and perception, whereas in the case of nano-objects, we are talking about invisible macromolecules which act, move, and duplicate unseen to us. In one case, we find ourselves confronted by a possibly evil double of ourselves, and in the other, a creeping and intangible nebula assails us from all sides. In one case, we are faced with an alter ego which, although unknown, is clearly perceptible, while in the other, an unspeakable ooze, the notorious grey goo, whose properties are both mysterious and sinister, enters and immerses us. This leads to a shift in the ethical problem situation: the notion of responsibility can no longer be worded in the same terms because, despite its otherness, the robot can always be located somewhere, while in the case of nanotechnologies, myriad nanometric objects permeate everywhere, disseminating uncontrollably.

  1. BIOTECHNOLOGY : AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  2. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  3. International Trade in Biotechnology Products and Strategic Mandatory Labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Jinji, Naoto

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines strategic motives to impose mandatory labelling of biotechnology products when consumers perceive these products as being of lower quality. When a foreign dominant firm produces a biotechnology product, it is shown that without mandatory labelling fringe firms, which produce a conventional product, provide voluntary labelling as long as voluntary labelling is fully credible. Information on which product is biotechnologically engineered is hence completely disclosed without...

  4. Biotechnology as a competitive edge for the Finnish forest cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Hakala, Terhi

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of the entire forest sector. This study aimed at providing answers to t...

  5. Biotechnology as a Competitive Edge for the Finnish Forest Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Hakala, Terhi; Haltia, Olli; Hermans, Raine; Kulvik, Martti; Nikinmaa, Hanna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Pursula, Tiina

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of the entire forest sector. This study aimed at providing answers to t...

  6. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  7. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Saji, E-mail: saji-george@nyp.edu.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Kaptan, Gulbanu [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom); Lee, Joel [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn, E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers’ perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About ∼80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed ‘less concern’ or ‘more concern’ based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk–benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  8. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Saji; Kaptan, Gulbanu; Lee, Joel; Frewer, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers' perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About 80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed `less concern' or `more concern' based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk-benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  9. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Saji; Kaptan, Gulbanu; Lee, Joel; Frewer, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers’ perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About ∼80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed ‘less concern’ or ‘more concern’ based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk–benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology

  10. Nanotechnology Environmental and Health Implications (NEHI) | Nano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip main navigation Nano.gov Nanotechnology 101 What It Is and How It Works What is Nanotechnology What's So Special about the Nanoscale? NNI Accomplishments NNI Accomplishments Archive Nanotechnology Timeline Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Nanotechnology and You Benefits and Applications Networks and

  11. Multidisciplinary cognitive content of nanoscience and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanoscience/nanotechnology (nano research) as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent words or phrases (terms). Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981–1990), early (from 1991 to 1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently, only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some 85% of nano research today is multidisciplinary. The case study of the diffusion of several nano-specific terms (e.g., “carbon nanotube”) shows that concepts spread from the initially few disciplinary components to the majority of them in a time span of around a decade. Hierarchical clustering of disciplinary components reveals that the cognitive content of current nanoscience can be divided into nine clusters. Some clusters account for a large fraction of nano research and are identified with such parent disciplines as the condensed matter and applied physics, materials science, and analytical chemistry. Other clusters represent much smaller parts of nano research, but are as cognitively distinct. In the decreasing order of size, these fields are: polymer science, biotechnology, general chemistry, surface science, and pharmacology. Cognitive content of research published in nano-only journals is

  12. Nanotechnology: “Revolutionary Developments in Future”

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Introductory notes will be made on the definition, structures, phenomena, functions, synthesis, properties, and characterization at the nanoscale. Some indications on nanoMaterials research and markets in Europe will be given. The spectrum of structural and functional/smart nanomaterials: metallic and ceramic materials, coating, composites ….will be reviewed Key challenges for nanomaterials design and engineering will be highlighted. The range of applications for nanotechnologies will be sumarized: for nano-electronics (information and communication), health care, energy and transport, nuclear and accelerator technologies, security and safety etc NanoMaterials and Technologies are key in future accelerator engineering: construction, operation and experimentation. Nanotechnology in next generation industries is a must. Nanometrology and standardisation (materials and equipment) are also an important items. Environmental and health implications of nanomaterials science and technology: Some guidance and safe...

  13. Nanostructures and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the fundamental principles of nanoscience and nanotechnology, this carefully developed textbook will equip students with a deep understanding of the nanoscale. • Each new topic is introduced with a concise summary of the relevant physical principles, emphasising universal commonalities between seemingly disparate areas, and encouraging students to develop an intuitive understanding of this diverse area of study • Accessible introductions to condensed matter physics and materials systems provide students from a broad range of scientific disciplines with all the necessary background • Theoretical concepts are linked to real-world applications, allowing students to connect theory and practice • Chapters are packed with problems to help students develop and retain their understanding, as well as engaging colour illustrations, and are accompanied by suggestions for additional reading. Containing enough material for a one- or two-semester course, this is an excellent resource for senior undergra...

  14. Materials and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the Materials and Nanotechnology Program is technology development related to processing, analysis, testing and characterization of materials in general. These are achieved through execution of R&D projects in engineering and materials science, cooperative projects with private and public sector companies, universities and other research institutes. Besides technology development, this Program also fosters training and human resource development in association with the University of São Paulo and many industrial sectors. This Program is divided into sub-programs in broad areas such as ceramic, composite and metallic materials as well as characterization of physical and chemical properties of materials. The sub-programs are further divided into general topics and within each topic, R&D projects. A brief description of progress in each topic during the last three years follows. (author)

  15. Current standardisation for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, Delphine; Mark, David; Moehlmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Standardisation and standards provide an important mechanism to support both innovation and the application of regulations. There is currently no specific regulation for any nanomaterials. Health, safety and environmental protection aspects associated with nanomaterials are however in principle covered to different levels by current EU regulatory framework. There are a number of national, European and international organisations developing standards associated with the development, description and use of nanomaterials as well as the protection of human health and the environment from the production and use of chemicals and consumer products, including nanomaterials. These organisations have also established specific committees on nanotechnology. This paper outlines the different relevant regulations and standards. This paper will mainly be focused on a European health and safety perspective.

  16. 75 FR 31795 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Amended Notice of Meeting ACTION: Notice of cancellation of... information. Dated: May 26, 2010. Jacqueline Corrigan-Curay, Acting Director, Office of Biotechnology...

  17. search GenBank: interactive orchestration and ad-hoc choreography of Web services in the exploration of the biomedical resources of the National Center For Biotechnology Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, Dariusz; Małysiak-Mrozek, Bożena; Siążnik, Artur

    2013-03-01

    Due to the growing number of biomedical entries in data repositories of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), it is difficult to collect, manage and process all of these entries in one place by third-party software developers without significant investment in hardware and software infrastructure, its maintenance and administration. Web services allow development of software applications that integrate in one place the functionality and processing logic of distributed software components, without integrating the components themselves and without integrating the resources to which they have access. This is achieved by appropriate orchestration or choreography of available Web services and their shared functions. After the successful application of Web services in the business sector, this technology can now be used to build composite software tools that are oriented towards biomedical data processing. We have developed a new tool for efficient and dynamic data exploration in GenBank and other NCBI databases. A dedicated search GenBank system makes use of NCBI Web services and a package of Entrez Programming Utilities (eUtils) in order to provide extended searching capabilities in NCBI data repositories. In search GenBank users can use one of the three exploration paths: simple data searching based on the specified user's query, advanced data searching based on the specified user's query, and advanced data exploration with the use of macros. search GenBank orchestrates calls of particular tools available through the NCBI Web service providing requested functionality, while users interactively browse selected records in search GenBank and traverse between NCBI databases using available links. On the other hand, by building macros in the advanced data exploration mode, users create choreographies of eUtils calls, which can lead to the automatic discovery of related data in the specified databases. search GenBank extends standard capabilities of the

  18. Current situation and industrialization of Taiwan nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.-N.; Lee, P.-C.; Tsai, M.-H.; Chien, K.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is projected to be a very promising field, and the impact of nanotechnology on society is increasingly significant as the research funding and manufactured goods increase exponentially. A clearer picture of Taiwan's current and future nanotechnology industry is an essential component for future planning. Therefore, this investigation studies the progress of industrializing nanotechnology in Taiwan by surveying 150 companies. Along with understanding Taiwan's current nanotechnology industrialization, this paper also suggests ways to promote Taiwan's nanotechnology. The survey results are summarized and serve as the basis for planning a nanotechnology industrialization strategy

  19. NASA Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Bailey, David; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard; Levit, Creon; Merkle, Ralph; Srivastava, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    Laboratories throughout the world are rapidly gaining atomically precise control over matter. As this control extends to an ever wider variety of materials, processes and devices, opportunities for applications relevant to NASA's missions will be created. This document surveys a number of future molecular nanotechnology capabilities of aerospace interest. Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. We also list a number of applications for each of NASA's enterprises. If advanced molecular nanotechnology can be developed, almost all of NASA's endeavors will be radically improved. In particular, a sufficiently advanced molecular nanotechnology can arguably bring large scale space colonization within our grasp.

  20. Life sciences today and tomorrow: emerging biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, E Diane

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey current, emerging and predicted future biotechnologies which are impacting, or are likely to impact in the future on the life sciences, with a projection for the coming 20 years. This review is intended to discuss current and future technical strategies, and to explore areas of potential growth during the foreseeable future. Information technology approaches have been employed to gather and collate data. Twelve broad categories of biotechnology have been identified which are currently impacting the life sciences and will continue to do so. In some cases, technology areas are being pushed forward by the requirement to deal with contemporary questions such as the need to address the emergence of anti-microbial resistance. In other cases, the biotechnology application is made feasible by advances in allied fields in biophysics (e.g. biosensing) and biochemistry (e.g. bio-imaging). In all cases, the biotechnologies are underpinned by the rapidly advancing fields of information systems, electronic communications and the World Wide Web together with developments in computing power and the capacity to handle extensive biological data. A rationale and narrative is given for the identification of each technology as a growth area. These technologies have been categorized by major applications, and are discussed further. This review highlights: Biotechnology has far-reaching applications which impinge on every aspect of human existence. The applications of biotechnology are currently wide ranging and will become even more diverse in the future. Access to supercomputing facilities and the ability to manipulate large, complex biological datasets, will significantly enhance knowledge and biotechnological development.

  1. Nanotechnologies. Proceedings of Kharkiv Nanotechnology Congress-2008. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Shulaeva, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    The materials of Kharkiv Nanotechnology Congress-2008 held in Kharkiv of 26-30 May, 2008 are presented here. The scientific and practical research aspects as well as development of ion-plasma nanotechnologies, current problems of thin film physics in optics and electronics, as well as the issues of creation of new type of vacuum technological equipment are considered in papers to be published.

  2. The current state of public understanding of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, Anna M; Spencer, Douglas; Batt, Carl A

    2006-01-01

    The growing importance of nanotechnology in industry and society has not been accompanied by a widespread understanding of the subject among the general public. Simple questions to initially probe the smallest thing that people can see and can think of reveals a divide in the understanding of the general public. A survey of 1500 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 74 has revealed a lack of knowledge of nanotechnology and especially a lack of understanding of the context of nanotechnology in the world that is too small to see. Survey findings are corroborated by in-depth interviews with 400 adults in studies of nanoscience literacy commisioned by University of California, Berkeley and Cornell in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In general, with the exception of 14-28 year olds, over 60% of respondents say they have never heard of nano or nanotechnology. The results suggest that the general public, especially middle-school children, has no firm foundation to understand nanotechnology and likely will continue to be equally impressed by credible scientific information as well as pure fictional accounts of nanotechnology

  3. The current state of public understanding of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, Anna M [Cornell University, Nanobiotechnology Center (United States)], E-mail: amw37@cornell.edu; Spencer, Douglas [Edu, Inc. (United States); Batt, Carl A [Cornell University (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The growing importance of nanotechnology in industry and society has not been accompanied by a widespread understanding of the subject among the general public. Simple questions to initially probe the smallest thing that people can see and can think of reveals a divide in the understanding of the general public. A survey of 1500 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 74 has revealed a lack of knowledge of nanotechnology and especially a lack of understanding of the context of nanotechnology in the world that is too small to see. Survey findings are corroborated by in-depth interviews with 400 adults in studies of nanoscience literacy commisioned by University of California, Berkeley and Cornell in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In general, with the exception of 14-28 year olds, over 60% of respondents say they have never heard of nano or nanotechnology. The results suggest that the general public, especially middle-school children, has no firm foundation to understand nanotechnology and likely will continue to be equally impressed by credible scientific information as well as pure fictional accounts of nanotechnology.

  4. The Future of Bio-technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Hosts of technologies, most notably in electronics, have been on the path of miniaturization for decades and in 2005 they have crossed the threshold of the nano-scale. Crossing the nano-scale threshold is a milestone in miniaturization, setting impressive new standards for component-packing densities. It also brings technology to a scale at which quantum effects and fault tolerance play significant roles and approaches the feasible physical limit form many conventional "top-down" manufacturing methods. I will suggest that the most formidable manufacturing problems in nanotechnology will be overcome and major breakthroughs will occur in a host of technologies, when nanotechnology converges with bio-technology; i.e. I will argue that the future of bio-technology is in nanotechnology. In 2005, methods in molecular biology, microscopy, bioinformatics, biochemistry, and genetic engineering have focused considerable attention on the nano-scale. On this scale, biology is a kind of recursive chemistry in which molecular recognition, self-assembly, self-organization and self-referencing context-control lead to the emergence of the complexity of structures and processes that are fundamental to all life forms. While we are still far from understanding this complexity, we are on the threshold of being able to use at least some of these biological properties for .technology. I will discuss the use of biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins as "tools" for the bio-technologist of the future. More specifically, I will present in some detail an example of how we are using a genetically engineered 60-kDa protein (HSP60) from an organism living in near boiling sulfuric acid to build nano-scale templates for arranging metallic nanoparticles. These "extremophile" HSP60s self-assemble into robust double-ring structures called "chaperonins," which further assemble into filaments and arrays with nanometer accuracy. I will discuss our efforts to use chaperonins to organize quantum

  5. Biotechnology and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Le Mintier, B

    2001-12-01

    Biotechnology permits our world to progress. It's a tool to better apprehend the human being, but as well to let him go ahead. Applied to the living, biotechnologies present the same finality. But since their matter concerns effectively the living, they are the sources of specific dangers and particularly of that one to use the improvements obtained on the human to modify the human species. The right of the persons has to find its place to avoid that the fundamental rights of the human personality shall undergo harm. This mission assigned to the right of the persons is as so much invaluable that the economical stakes are particularly important in the domain of the biotechnologies.

  6. Safety Assessment of Nanotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology has important opportunities to affect technological challenges in such diverse areas as electronics, energy, water purification, food storage, and therapeutics. These emerging technologies hold great promise both for global economic growth and a sustainable environ...

  7. Nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Accessible to researchers in a wide range of disciplines, this book examines the energy applications of using nanotechnology in electrocatalysis. It covers their use in numerous contexts including low-temperature fuel cells and electrochemical valorization.

  8. Biotechnological production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed.

  9. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer

    2010-01-01

    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  10. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  11. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology and pulmonary nanotoxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, AJ; Cemlyn-Jones, J; Robalo-Cordeiro, C

    2012-01-01

    The recently emergent field of Nanotechnology involves the production and use of structures at the nanoscale. Research at atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, has led to new materials, systems and structures on a scale consisting of particles less than 100 nm and showing unique and unusual physical, chemical and biological properties, which has enabled new applications in diverse fields, creating a multimillion-dollar high-tech industry. Nanotechnologies have a wide variety of uses fro...

  12. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  13. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  14. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study ... Author Affiliations. Narayan S Punekar1. Molecular Enzymology Group, Biotechnology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition in Bio-Nanotechnology: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishal, Arghya K; Butt, Arman; Selvaraj, Sathees K; Joshi, Bela; Patel, Sweetu B; Huang, Su; Yang, Bin; Shukohfar, Tolou; Sukotjo, Cortino; Takoudis, Christos G

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique increasingly used in nanotechnology and ultrathin film deposition; it is ideal for films in the nanometer and Angstrom length scales. ALD can effectively be used to modify the surface chemistry and functionalization of engineering-related and biologically important surfaces. It can also be used to alter the mechanical, electrical, chemical, and other properties of materials that are increasingly used in biomedical engineering and biological sciences. ALD is a relatively new technique for optimizing materials for use in bio-nanotechnology. Here, after a brief review of the more widely used modes of ALD and a few of its applications in biotechnology, selected results that show the potential of ALD in bio-nanotechnology are presented. ALD seems to be a promising means for tuning the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity characteristics of biomedical surfaces, forming conformal ultrathin coatings with desirable properties on biomedical substrates with a high aspect ratio, tuning the antibacterial properties of substrate surfaces of interest, and yielding multifunctional biomaterials for medical implants and other devices.

  16. How helpful is nanotechnology in agriculture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditta, Allah

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has great potential, as it can enhance the quality of life through its applications in various fields like agriculture and the food system. Around the world it has become the future of any nation. But we must be very careful with any new technology to be introduced regarding its possible unforeseen related risks that may come through its positive potential. However, it is also critical for the future of a nation to produce a trained future workforce in nanotechnology. In this process, to inform the public at large about its advantages is the first step; it will result in a tremendous increase in interest and new applications in all the domains will be discovered. With this idea, the present review has been written. There is great potential in nanoscience and technology in the provision of state-of-the-art solutions for various challenges faced by agriculture and society today and in the future. Climate change, urbanization, sustainable use of natural resources and environmental issues like runoff and accumulation of pesticides and fertilizers are the hot issues for today's agriculture. This paper reviews some of the potential applications of nanotechnology in the field of agriculture and recommends many strategies for the advancement of scientific and technological knowledge currently being examined. (review)

  17. Compétences, gouvernance et nanotechnologies : pleins feux sur l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La nanotechnologie est la fabrication ou l'utilisation de matières ayant des dimensions comprises entre 1 et 100 nanomètres (1 mètre = 1 milliard de nanomètres) environ. Comme les biotechnologies, les nanotechnologies pourraient produire d'énormes retombées pour les pauvres, mais entraîner aussi des coûts énormes.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  19. PREFACE: Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    The Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology was held from November 1-3, 2010, in Moscow, Russia. It was the third forum organized by RUSNANO (Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies) since 2008. In March 2011 RUSNANO was established as an open joint-stock company through the reorganization of the state corporation Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies. RUSNANO's mission is to develop the Russian nanotechnology industry through co-investment in nanotechnology projects with substantial economic potential or social benefit. Within the framework of the Forum Science and Technology Program, presentations on key trends of nanotechnology development were given by foreign and Russian scientists, R&D officers of leading international companies, universities and scientific centers. The science and technology program of the Forum was divided into eight sections as follows (by following hyperlinks you may find each section's program including videos of all oral presentations): Catalysis and Chemical Industry Nanobiotechnology Nanodiagnostics Nanoelectronics Nanomaterials Nanophotonics Nanotechnolgy In The Energy Industry Nanotechnology in Medicine The scientific program of the forum included 115 oral presentations by leading scientists from 15 countries. Among them in the "Nanomaterials" section was the lecture by Dr Konstantin Novoselov, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. The poster session consisted of over 500 presentations, 300 of which were presented in the framework of the young scientists' nanotechnology papers competition. This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes a selection of 57 submissions. The scientific program committee: Prof Zhores Alferov, AcademicianVice-president of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nobel Prize winner, Russia, Chairman of the Program CommitteeProf Sergey Deev, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of SciencesHead of the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, M M Shemyakin and Yu A Ovchinnikov

  20. Nano-biotechnology for biomedical and diagnostic research

    CERN Document Server

    Zahavy, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The title ""Nano Biotechnology for Biomedical and Diagnostics Research"" will address research aspects related to nanomaterial in imaging and biological research, nanomaterials as a biosensing tool, DNA nanotechnology, nanomaterials for drug delivery, medicinal and therapeutic application and cytotoxicity of nanomaterials. These topics will be covered by 16 different manuscripts. Amongst the authors that will contribute to the book are major scientific leaders such as S. Weiss - UCLA, I. Willner, and G. Golomb -- HUJI, S. Esener - UCSD, E.C. Simmel - Tech. Univ. Munchen, I. Medintz -- NRL, N.

  1. Imaging by in situ Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy and its Nanotechnological Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2002-01-01

    of the tip and working electrode. In collaboration with Danish Micro Engineering A/S, the instrument was constructed and tested in laboratory environments. The system was successfully developed, as to meet international-market requirements. Within the frame of the work, procedures of tip coating...... of simultaneous imaging and electrochemical manipulation offers unprecedented possibilities of device construction at the nanometer level. The present work is therefore intended as a promotion of in situ STM as a tool of nanotechnology that allows device fabrication of sub-nanometer tolerances. Novel applications......-biotechnology are evaluated. It is thus documented that in situ STM constitutes an indispensable tool of nanotechnology. Keywords are imaging and control. The manufacture of nanotechnological devices is exemplified by construction of a ‘nanotypewriter’ that exploits a novel feature of electrochemistry. The nanotypewriter...

  2. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  3. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  4. Biotechnology: challenges and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, A.

    1985-04-01

    Rapidly occurring technological breakthroughs in the wake of numerous discoveries in different fields, such as biochemistry, genetic engineering as well as cellular and molecular biology as described in this paper have a variety of industrial applications, and forcasts covering these and various other fields have been made. The emerging bio-industry, covering diverse industries, such as chemical, food, pharmaceutical, etc., as well as the domains of health, environmental protection and abatement of pollution present challenging prospects. Several biotechnology processes relating to bioenergy, fermentation, waste transformation, vaccines, etc. are of particular interest to the developing countries. The 'functioning systems' resulting from the breakthrouth in genetic engineering, entailing extraordinary refinement of analytical techniques and technological progress, pose the challenging task of harnessing them to the advantage of mankind. Providing effective legal protection, conducive to the development of biotechnologies-their innovative process and technological change-is a matter of serious concern, involving practical and economical considerations. Several other issues and questions, such as risk prevention and management of potential dangers and hazards in genetic recombination operation by way of safety regulations and necessary guidelines, questions relating to the clinical trials of the interferons-the wonder drug-as well as questions of professional ethics are raised by biotechnologies. Industry-funded research in biotechnology, where scientific and commercial imperatives are interlocked, has for instance, its repercussions on the traditional thrust of university system, specially the sanctity of autonomy for basic research.

  5. Biotechnology--Biotechnical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Stanford

    1990-01-01

    The perspective of biotechnology and its development in the K-12 technology education curriculum are described. The content curriculum development and implications for activities are discussed. The difference between a curriculum focused on the activities of industry compared to one that addresses technology as it pervades all human endeavors is…

  6. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  7. Biotechnology in weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  8. State responses to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  9. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  10. When nano meets stem: the impact of nanotechnology in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savneet; Singhal, Barkha

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology and biomedical treatments using stem cells are among the latest conduits of biotechnological research. Even more recently, scientists have begun finding ways to mate these two specialties of science. The advent of nanotechnology has paved the way for an explicit understanding of stem cell therapy in vivo and by recapitulation of such in vivo environments in the culture, this technology seems to accommodate a great potential in providing new vistas to stem cell research. Nanotechnology carries in its wake, the development of highly stable, efficient and specific gene delivery systems for both in vitro and in vivo genetic engineering of stem cells, use of nanoscale systems (such as microarrays) for investigation of gene expression in stem cells, creation of dynamic three-dimensional nano-environments for in vitro and in vivo maintenance and differentiation of stem cells and development of extremely sensitive in vivo detection systems to gain insights into the mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and apoptosis in different disease models. The present review presents an overview of the current applications and future prospects for the use of nanotechnology in stem cell biology. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteomics: A Biotechnology Tool for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa eEldakak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  12. Functionalized surfaces and nanostructures for nanotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    of information technology. Of equal significance is the lead in military technology as demonstrated by the use of unmanned drones for both surveillance and assault in recent conflicts. Nanotechnology promises far more significant economic, military and cultural changes than those created by the internet, and with technology advancing so fast, and development and adoption cycles becoming shorter, playing catch-up will not be an option for governments who are not already taking action. Maybe the greatest short term benefit of nanotechnology is in bringing together the disparate sciences, physical and biological, who due to the nature of education often have had no contact since high school. Rather than nanosubmarines or killer nanobots, the greatest legacy of nanotechnology may well prove to be the unification of scientific disciplines and the resultant ability of scientists, when faced with a problem, to call on the resources of the whole of science, not just of one discipline. Tim Harper Tim Harper About the author Tim Harper is the Founder and President of CMP Cientifica, and the co-author of the Nanotechnology Opportunity ReportTM, described by NASA as `the defining report in the field of nanotechnology'. Tim is also the Founder and Executive Director of European NanoBusiness Association and an advisor to the US NanoBusiness Alliance. He contributes a weekly column to the Institute of Physics Nanotechweb site and writes a regular column for Tornado Insider magazine. Tim also publishes, and occasionally edits, the weekly nanotechnology newsletter TNT Weekly which has been running since 2000 and is widely read across the entire nanotechnology community, from academics to investors. In October 2002 Time magazine described Tim as `the face of European nanotechnology' and profiled him in their Digital Europe Top 25, as one of Europe's top 25 entrepreneurs. This was followed in November by recognition in Small Times magazine who described Tim as `Europe's pre

  13. QUALITY PARAMETERS IN NANOTECHNOLOGIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Akdoğan Eker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology concept which has added a new dimension to our lives in recent years, is finding a place in every sector day by day. The combined effect of nanotechnology is almost equal to the industrial revolution of last 200 years and have is able to fill all developments in a few years. However this development should be taken under control. Otherwise unstoppable new structures will not ease life but will be a problem for humanity. For this purpose, the main parameters (from the start up stage of nano-technologic applications to the obtained product should be checked. These parameters are actually not different than the adaptation of the classical quality indicators for nanotechnology applications. Especially it plays an important role in obtaining a uniform distribution and regarding the features of the end product in nano-technological ceramic and etc. applications. The most important problem faced in particles of that size is the accumulation they create. Another problem is the increasing friction force as size gets smaller. The friction force of asubstance increases proportionally with the cube of its surface area. Another problem is surface tension. The increasing surface tension due to increasing surface area will cause the particles to attract and stick to each other. The structures aimed to be obtained are mostly complex and especially in upwards approach, it is thermodynamically very hard for the atoms to get into that order. Therefore in this announcement, we stated the quality parameters that will be taken into consideration in nano-technological applications and the methods for obtaining those parameters. The aim is to explain these parameters with all dimensions so that they will lead the way to the future nano-technological applications.

  14. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIU Mariana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology overcomes the limitation of applying conventional methods to impart certain properties to textile materials. There is no doubt that in the next few years nanotechnology will penetrate into every area of the textile industry. Nanotextiles are nanoscale fibrous materials that can be fictionalized with a vast array of novel properties, including antibiotic activity, self-cleaning and the ability to increase reaction rates by providing large surface areas to potential reactants. These materials are used not only as cloth fabric, but as filter materials, wound-healing gauzes and antibacterial food packaging agents in food industry. World demand for nano-materials will rise more than two-and-a-half times to $5.5 billion in 2016 driven by a combination of increased market penetration of existing materials, and ongoing development of new materials and applications. In recent years was demonstrated that nanotechnology can be used to enhance textile attributes, such as fabric softness, durability and breathability, water repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial properties in fibers, yarns and fabrics. The development of smart nanotextiles has the potential to revolutionize the production of fibers, fabrics or nonwovens and functionality of our clothing and all types of textile products and applications. Nanotechnology is considered one of the most promising technologies for the 21st century. Today is said that if the IT is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the future.

  15. Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert

    2009-01-27

    Nanotechnology is the engineering and manufacturing of materials at the atomic and molecular scale. In its strictest definition from the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology refers to structures roughly in the 1-100 nm size regime in at least one dimension. Despite this size restriction, nanotechnology commonly refers to structures that are up to several hundred nanometers in size and that are developed by top-down or bottom-up engineering of individual components. Herein, we focus on the application of nanotechnology to drug delivery and highlight several areas of opportunity where current and emerging nanotechnologies could enable entirely novel classes of therapeutics.

  16. 76 FR 27301 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...] Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental... Plant Health Inspection Service has received a petition from Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a.../brs/aphisdocs/07_10801p _dpra.pdf. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Rick Coker, Biotechnology...

  17. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The First Spanish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is…

  18. Connecting Learners: The Role of Biotechnology Programme in Preparing Students for the Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Saruan, Nadiah; Sagran, Avinash; Fadzil, Kamal Solhaimi; Razali, Zuliana; Ow Phui San, Rebecca; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth of biotechnology requires a wide range of expertise within the industry. Education is the primary platform for students to gain information and knowledge on biotechnology. In Malaysia where biotechnology is relatively new, education programs and courses must be tailored to meet the demands of the industry. A combination of…

  19. Historical Antecedents as Precedents for Nanotechnology Vocational Education Training and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to inform how to approach nanotechnology vocational education training (nanoVET), this article briefly discusses the history of the development of vocational education training (VET) in the United States during the past century. The history of nanotechnology development and the current advances in this emerging field are discussed in…

  20. The Legitimation of Novel Technologies: The Case of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroff, Anastasia E.

    Nanotechnology is the control, manipulation, and application of matter on an atomic and molecular level. The technology is complex and confusing to consumers, and its long-term safety and effect on the human body, as well as the environment, are unknown. However, for the past decade, nanotechnology has been used to develop consumer products and food with novel and attractive attributes. Since nanotechnology is still not well known, it is not legitimized; that is, it has not been deemed safe and accepted by society. However, the market for nanotechnology is in the legitimation process. It will take an entire network of key stakeholders playing a specific roles for nanotechnology to legitimize. Specifically, each key stakeholder will align with a certain cultural discourse to frame nanotechnology in a particular way that complements their values. In Essay 1, I follow previous market system dynamic's literature and combine Actor Network Theory (ANT), Foucault's Discourse on Power and Goffman's Frame analysis to theoretically explore what the actor network for nanotechnology looks like. Four dominate frames are identified: 1) Advancement (i.e., government), 2) Management (i.e., industry), 3) Development (i.e., academia/scientists), and 4) Informant (i.e., NGO). Essay 2 empirically explores each actor's perspective on the nanotechnology network through a total of 24 interviews. A hermeneutic approach is used to analyze the 208 page text and themes describing each actor's role from a self and other's perspective are discussed. Additionally, three overarching themes (i.e., contradiction, constance, and cutoff) emerge; these themes describe the degree of similarity in how actors view their role in the nanotechnology network compared to how other actor's view that actor's role. In Essay 3, I bring critical theory into market system's research to better contextualize market formation theories. Specifically, I discuss how critical theory can be used to supplement ANT. I

  1. Nanotechnology for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Ali, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology and its applications have captured a worldwide market. Nanomaterials that have been developed using this technology can be incorporated into the devices so that renewable energy can be converted or generated more efficiently. Nanomaterials have the potential to change the way we generate, deliver and use energy. Hydrogen cells are used in auto industry as a viable power source. Compressed hydrogen tanks are used to supply Hydrogen, and Oxygen is used from the air directly. There is no pollution caused by hydrogen fuel cell autos since the only emission is water. Organic dyes (dye sensitizers), which are sensitive to light, can absorb a broader range of the sun's spectrum. A dye-sensitized solar cell has three primary parts. On top is a transparent anode made of fluoride-doped tin dioxide (SnO/sub 2/: F) deposited on the back typically of a glass plate. On the back of this conductive plate is a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/), which forms into a highly nanoporous structure with an extremely large surface-area. After soaking the film in the dye solution, a thin layer of the dye is left covalently bonded to the surface of the TiO/sub 2/ . Computational material science and nanoscience can play many critical roles in renewable energy research. These include: finding the right materials for hydrogen storage; finding the most reliable and efficient catalyst for water dissociation in hydrogen production; finding a cheap, environmentally benign, and stable material for efficient solar cell applications; and understanding the photo-electron process in a nanosystem, and hence helping design efficient nanostructure solar cells. (author)

  2. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  3. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society

  4. International strategy for Nanotechnology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The worldwide nanotechnology research and development (R and D) investment reported by government organizations has increased by a factor of 3.5 between 1997 and 2001, and the highest rate of 90% is in 2001. At least 30 countries have initiated or are beginning national activities in this field. Scientists have opened a broad net of discoveries that does not leave any major research area untouched in physical, biological, and engineering sciences. Industry has gained confidence that nanotechnology will bring competitive advantages. The worldwide annual industrial production is estimated to exceed $1 trillion in 10-15 years from now, which would require about 2 million nanotechnology workers. U.S. has initiated a multidisciplinary strategy for development of science and engineering fundamentals through the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Japan and Europe have broad programs, and their current plans look ahead to four to five years. Other countries have encouraged their own areas of strength, several of them focusing on fields of the potential markets. Differences among countries are observed in the research domain they are aiming for, the level of program integration into various industrial sectors, and in the time scale of their R and D targets. Nanotechnology is growing in an environment where international interactions accelerate in science, education and industrial R and D. A global strategy of mutual interest is envisioned by connecting individual programs of contributing countries, professional communities, and international organizations

  5. Oil and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Yoshiaki

    1988-06-01

    The secondary oil recovery due to microorganisms and the production of useful substances from oil distillates using microorganisms are described as examples to solidify the relationship between oil and biotechnology. The secondary crude-oil recovery has been carried out due to the microorganism drive process, which includes the on-the-ground and underground processes. Although the microorganism drive process has been investigated for many years, the selection of the microorganisms is not completely established. Many uncertainties still remain regarding the technical and economic aspects. The single cell protein (SCP) is an example of industrial success in the production of useful substances from the oil. Rumania has produced SCP from normal paraffin and the U. K. from the methanol and the products are used as the protein source for animals. Remarkable progress in the functional efficiency of microorganisms is expected due to the biotechnology for both applications. (4 tabs)

  6. Environmental Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang Jiang; Liu, Lei; Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Wang, Lei; Chen, Ying Guang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, He; Chen, Jian

    Environmental biotechnology has emerged as an important measure to tackle the environmental pollution as China experiences great economic success. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been paid to the following fields in environmental biotechnology: microbial degradation of toxic and organic chemicals, bio-treatment of wastewater, waste recycling. The Chinese researchers have done a lot of work to understand the natural degradation processes for organic and toxic compounds and finally to clean these compounds from polluted environments. For the treatment of wastewater, many new processes were proposed and optimized to meet the more strict effluent standards in China. Finally, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of discharged wastes. In this chapter we review the development in the above fields.

  7. Opportunities in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Kevan M A; Gartland, Jill S

    2018-06-08

    Strategies for biotechnology must take account of opportunities for research, innovation and business growth. At a regional level, public-private collaborations provide potential for such growth and the creation of centres of excellence. By considering recent progress in areas such as genomics, healthcare diagnostics, synthetic biology, gene editing and bio-digital technologies, opportunities for smart, strategic and specialised investment are discussed. These opportunities often involve convergent or disruptive technologies, combining for example elements of pharma-science, molecular biology, bioinformatics and novel device development to enhance biotechnology and the life sciences. Analytical applications use novel devices in mobile health, predictive diagnostics and stratified medicine. Synthetic biology provides opportunities for new product development and increased efficiency for existing processes. Successful centres of excellence should promote public-private business partnerships, clustering and global collaborations based on excellence, smart strategies and innovation if they are to remain sustainable in the longer term. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  9. Editorial: Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; José Saenz, Juan; Reifenberger, Ron; Ordejón, Pablo

    2006-05-01

    This special issue of physica status solidi (a) presents representative contributions describing the main topics covered at the sixth Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005) International Conference, held in Oviedo (Spain), 29 August-2 September 2005.During the last years many international or national conferences have emerged in response to the growing awareness of the importance of nanotechnology as key issue for the future scientific and technological development. Among these, the conference series Trends in Nanotechnology has become one of the most important meeting points in the nanotechnology field: it provides fresh organisation ideas, brings together well known speakers, and promotes a suitable environment for discussions, exchanging ideas, enhancing scientific and personal relations among participants. TNT2005 was organised in a similar way to the five prior TNT conferences, with an impressive scientific programme including 40 Keynote lectures and two Nobel prizes, without parallel sessions, covering a wide spectrum of Nanotechnology research. In 2005, more than 360 scientists worldwide attended this event and contributed with more than 60 oral contributions and 250 posters, stimulating discussions about their most recent research.The aim of the conference was to focus on the applications of Nanotechnology and to bring together, in a scientific forum, various worldwide groups belonging to industry, universities and government institutions. TNT2005 was particularly effective at transmitting information and establishing contacts among workers in this field. Graduate students attending such conferences have understood the importance of interdisciplinary skills to afford their future research lines. 76 graduate students received a grant allowing them to present their work. 28 prizes to the best posters were awarded during this event. We would like to thank all the participants for their assistance, as well as the authors for their written contributions.TNT2005 is

  10. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  11. NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer funds the Cancer Nanotechnology Training Centers collectively with the NCI Cancer Training Center. Find out about the funded Centers, to date, that train our next generation of scientists in the field of Canc

  12. Chemical engineers, nanotechnology and future green economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is envisaged to address present human needs and secure living comforts of future generations cheaply, faster and more cleanly. To date, nanotechnology's impact on the economy and on our daily lives has been enormous....

  13. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  14. Intellectual property rights in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastani, Behfar; Fernandez, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Intellectual property (IP) rights are essential in today's technology-driven age. Building a strategic IP portfolio is economically important from both an offensive and defensive standpoint. After an introduction to intellectual property rights and acquisitions, we provide an overview of current efforts in nanotechnology. Research into nano-scale materials and devices and requirements for their efficient mass production are outlined, with focus on the applicable IP rights and strategies. We present current and future applications of nanotechnology to such fields as electronics, sensors, aerospace, medicine, environment and sanitation, together with the IP rights that can be brought to bear in each. Finally, some challenging issues surrounding the acquisition of intellectual property rights in nanotechnology are presented

  15. Cultural diversity in nanotechnology ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Along with the rapid worldwide advance of nanotechnology, debates on associated ethical issues have spread from local to international levels. However unlike science and engineering issues, international perceptions of ethical issues are very diverse. This paper provides an analysis of how sociocultural factors such as language, cultural heritage, economics and politics can affect how people perceive ethical issues of nanotechnology. By attempting to clarify the significance of sociocultural issues in ethical considerations my aim is to support the ongoing international dialogue on nanotechnology. At the same time I pose the general question of ethical relativism in engineering ethics, that is to say whether or not different ethical views are irreconcilable on a fundamental level.

  16. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  17. BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOPRODUCTS "HEALING-1"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Artiukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechnological properties of native cultures created a new consortium of microorganisms containing lactic acid streptococci and bacilli, allowing the maximum extent possible to implement the physiological, biochemical and technological potential of microorganisms. Scientifically substantiated and experimentally developed a new biotechnology production of bioproducts «Healing-1», obtained on the basis of microbial consortium with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Experimentally investigated quality parameters of organic food «Healing-1» using a new microbial consortium as freshly prepared and during storage. Found that antagonistic activity of microflora bio «Healing-1» with respect to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, as well as its resistance to substances in the gastrointestinal tract of man is more pronounced compared to bioproducts obtained using a separate starter, members of the microbial consortium. It should be noted a more pronounced synthesis of exopolysaccharides in bioproduct «Healing-1», which leads to increased viscosity of the system and improves the consistency of bio. New bioproducts have good organoleptic characteristics and contain a high number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria. High stability and survival of lactic acid bacteria during storage. In the study of attacked proteins bioproducts digestive proteinases «in vitro» found that the fermentation of milk microbial consortium increases the digestibility

  18. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce E.Rittmann

    2014-01-01

    Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wideranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the b...

  19. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  20. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E.Rittmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wideranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the black box of microbial communities.Also crucial is translating the understanding to biotechnological processes that ″work for the microorganisms so that they work for us″.Successful translation demands novel reactor designs,application of advanced materials,and partnering with practitioners and users.The Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology,founded in at Arizona State University in 2005,brings together the science and engineering tools in an interdisciplinary environment.The Center emphasizes teamwork and collaborations with research and practice partners around the world.Three new technologies illustrate how the Center applies these principles to ″work for the microorganisms″:the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR for reducing many oxidized contaminants in water,the microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs for converting organic wastes into renewable products,and Intimately Coupled PhotoBioCatalysis (ICPBC to detoxify very difficult to biodegrade organic pollutants.

  1. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Current achievements and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir; G M Sogi; Ashutosh Nirola; Rajdeep Brar; Tegbir Sekhon; Heena Kakar

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diag...

  2. Determining the efficacy of a nanotechnology media product in enhancing children’s engagement with nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, Anna M.; Batt, Carl A.; Lui, Clarissa S.

    2011-01-01

    Public engagement in nanotechnology media products can lead to a greater interest in understanding of nanotechnology. A study was undertaken to determine middle school student engagement in Nanooze, a magazine featuring nanotechnology research that has been developed for a young adult audience. Teachers at 116 Detroit middle schools distributed two issues of the magazine to their students, and surveys were collected from 870 students after reading the magazines. Results suggest that the majority of students liked reading the magazine and learned something about nanotechnology. Engagement in nanotechnology led to understanding of nanotechnology. The Nanooze magazine was an effective medium for engaging middle school students in learning about nanotechnology.

  3. Nanotechnology in medicine emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Gene

    2014-01-01

    This book will describe some of the most recent breakthroughs and promising developments in the search for improved diagnostics and therapies at the very small scales of living biological systems. While still very much a technology in the research and development stage, nanotechnology is already transforming today's medicine. This book, written by a general science author, provides a general overview of medical treatment potentials of nanotechnology in new, more effective drug delivery systems, in less invasive, ultra-small scale medical tools, and in new materials that can mimic or enhance natural materials like living tissue.

  4. DNA nanotechnology and fluorescence applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Jungmann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology allow researchers to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA strands to construct nanoscale objects with almost arbitrary complexity in two and three dimensions. Abstracted as molecular breadboards, DNA nanostructures enable nanometer-precise placement of guest molecules such as proteins, fluorophores, or nanoparticles. These assemblies can be used to study biological phenomena with unprecedented control over number, spacing, and molecular identity. Here, we give a general introduction to structural DNA nanotechnology and more specifically discuss applications of DNA nanostructures in the field of fluorescence and plasmonics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Applications of nanotechnology in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; Gunasekera, Ayanthi; Douek, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Modern cancer therapy is more individualized to specific cancer subtypes, in an attempt to treat those patients who are likely to obtain greater benefit and avoid treatment induced side effects in those who will not. Nanotechnology heralds an era whereby cancer could be diagnosed by a single agent, treated simultaneously while the diagnosis is being made, and its response to treatment monitored. Whilst nanotechnology is still mostly in the research stage, several applications are ready for translation from the bench to the bedside, in particular in the field of breast cancer. This is exciting new area of research where science fiction may become a reality.

  6. The Grand Challenges of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Amazing breakthroughs and advances continue to be made in nanoscale science and engineering and the rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology, including near-commercial applications in biomedicine, computing and environmental protection. The National Nanotechnology Initiative, begun by the Clinton Administration has placed nanoscale research on a new funding trajectory. But, many 'grand challenges' must be overcome, technical ones as well as those related to funding, science and technology workforce, and the need for stronger collaboration across discipline, organizations, government agencies and with other countries

  7. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  8. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  9. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Potential of Nanotechnology in Medically Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana H. Remião

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive medicine is a field of science which searches for new alternatives not only to help couples achieve pregnancy and preserve fertility, but also to diagnose and treat diseases which can impair the normal operation of the reproductive tract. Assisted reproductive technology (ART is a set of methodologies applied to cases related to infertility. Despite being highly practiced worldwide, ART presents some challenges, which still require special attention. Nanotechnology, as a tool for reproductive medicine, has been considered to help overcome some of those impairments. Over recent years, nanotechnology approaches applied to reproductive medicine have provided strategies to improve diagnosis and increase specificity and sensitivity. For in vitro embryo production, studies in non-human models have been used to deliver molecules to gametes and embryos. The exploration of nanotechnology for ART would bring great advances. In this way, experiments in non-human models to test the development and safety of new protocols using nanomaterials are very important for informing potential future employment in humans. This paper presents recent developments in nanotechnology regarding impairments still faced by ART: ovary stimulation, multiple pregnancy, and genetic disorders. New perspectives for further use of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine studies are also discussed.

  11. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Hu, Daning; Dang Yan; Chen Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.eduhttp://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976-2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005-2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system.

  12. Introduction to nanotechnology: definition, terms, occurrence and applications in environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHS Ahmeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary technique that involves application based on the synthesis of molecules in nano-scale size range. Nanotechnology is also seen as new and fast emerging field that involves the manufacture, processing and application of structure, device and system by controlling shape and size in nanometer scale. The concept of nanotechnology is driven from the Greek word nano (meaning dwarf. The nano-particles are defined as a discrete entity that has dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. It is the small size in combination with the chemical composition and surface structure that gives the nano-particles their unique features. The alterations in physical properties serve to enhance versatility and efficacy in product development, resulting in more effective industrial and medical applications. As a result of the widespread use of nanotechnology and nano-materials, these particles find their way into the environment. Therefore, a focus on the source of nano-particles in the environment and their effects is included. This review concentrate on the recent information about analytical developments to assess the occurrence, fate and behavior of nano-materials in environment. It also focuses on the applications of nanotechnology in environment, especially in the area of air and water purifications.

  13. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin, E-mail: xinli@eller.arizona.edu; Hu, Daning, E-mail: hud@eller.arizona.edu; Dang Yan, E-mail: ydang@eller.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun, E-mail: hchen@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Departmet of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States); Larson, Catherine A., E-mail: cal@eller.arizona.edu; Chan, Joyce, E-mail: joycepchan@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.eduhttp://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976-2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005-2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system.

  14. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular biology and molecular genetics, especially of the recombinant DNA technology enabled improvement of experimental methods that provide manipulation within a cell-free system, such as cell and tissue cultures. Such methods resulted in the development of different new technologies with specific properties in relation to the conventional definitions. According to PERSLEY and lantin (2000 the following components are essential for the contemporary biotechnology: (i genomics - a molecular characterization of all genes and gene products of an organism (ii bioinformatics - the assembly of data from genomic analysis into accessible forms; (iii transformation - the introduction of genes controlling a trait of interest into a genome of a desired organism (micro organisms, plants, animal systems. By the application of cotemporary biotechnology new methods in the field of diagnostic are developed such as rapid and more accurate identification of the presence and absence of genes in the genome of the organism of interest (identification of pathogens prenatal diagnostics, molecular markers assisted breeding for plants, etc. The traits of an organism are determined by its genetic material, i.e. by a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. watson and crick (1953 were the first scientists to describe the structure of DNA as a double-stranded helix. Higher organisms contain a set of linear DNA molecules - chromosomes and a full set of chromosomes of an organism is a genome. Each genome is divided into a series of functional units, i.e. genes. The traits of an organism depend on genes, but their expression depends not only on genes but also on many other factors, including whether a gene, controlling the trait, expresses, specific cells in which it expresses and specially the mode by which the gene and its product interact with the environment. A special aspect within the application of biotechnology occurs as an interaction of a

  15. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  16. Overview of Nanotechnology in Road Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Arpit Singh; Dr. Sangita; Arpan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has changed our vision, expectations, and abilities to control the material world. This paper examines and document applicable nanotechnology based product that can be improve the overall competitiveness of the Road engineering industry. In this review, nanotechnology is applying in road sector.

  17. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    OpenAIRE

    Sardjono, Agus

    2011-01-01

    University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  18. Biotechnology and Consumer Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value. This article is forward-thinking in that it suggests that important research in behavioral decision-making, specifically affect and ambiguity, can be used to help consumers make informed choices about major applications of biotechnology. This article highlights some of the most controversial examples: vaccinations, genetically engineered food, rbST treated dairy cows, fluoridated water, and embryonic stem cell research. In many of these areas, consumers perceive the risks as high, but the experts calculate the risks as low. Four major thematic approaches are proposed to create a roadmap for policymakers to consider for policy design and implementation in controversial areas of biotechnology. This article articulates future directions for studies that implement decision-making research to allow consumers to appropriately assign risk to their options and make informed decisions.

  19. Recognizing biotechnology as a tool for sustainable development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of space science, information technology and biotechnology in ... It is indeed an essential panacea to the pervasive poverty and food security problem ... the nation and its citizens in such a way that the ecosystem is not threatened.

  20. Engineering applications of nanotechnology from energy to drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Nor

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of nanotechnology in several fields of engineering. Among others, the reader will find valuable information as to how nanotechnology can aid in extending the life of component materials exposed to corrosive atmospheres, in thermal fluid energy conversion processes, anti-reflection coatings on photovoltaic cells to yield enhanced output from solar cells, in connection with friction and wear reduction in automobiles, and buoyancy suppression in free convective heat transfer. Moreover, this unique resource presents the latest research on nanoscale transport phenomena and concludes with a look at likely future trends.

  1. International Perspective on Government Nanotechnology Funding in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide investment in nanotechnology research and development (R and D) reported by national government organizations and EC has increased approximately 9-fold in the last 8 years - from $432 million in 1997 to about $4,100 million in 2005. The proportion of national government investments for: academic R and D and education are between 20% (Korea, Taiwan) and 65% (US), industrial R and D - between 5% (US) and 60% (Korea, Taiwan), and core facilities and government laboratories - about 20-25% in all major contributing economies. This evaluation uses the NNI definition of nanotechnology (that excludes MEMS or microelectronics), and is based on direct information and analysis with managers of nanotechnology R and D programs in the respective countries

  2. International Perspective on Government Nanotechnology Funding in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-12-01

    The worldwide investment in nanotechnology research and development (R&D) reported by national government organizations and EC has increased approximately 9-fold in the last 8 years - from 432 million in 1997 to about 4,100 million in 2005. The proportion of national government investments for: academic R&D and education are between 20% (Korea, Taiwan) and 65% (US), industrial R&D - between 5% (US) and 60% (Korea, Taiwan), and core facilities and government laboratories - about 20-25% in all major contributing economies. This evaluation uses the NNI definition of nanotechnology (that excludes MEMS or microelectronics), and is based on direct information and analysis with managers of nanotechnology R&D programs in the respective countries.

  3. Biotechnology and bioforensics new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This Brief covers broad areas of Applied Biology specifically into the domains of Biotechnology/Biomedicine and Forensic Science. Chapters included here would also explain the role of bioinformatics in protein and gene characterization, modeling of the protein structure, survey related to the chromosomal effect on Human Disorders like Diabetes and Cardiac Problems. This Brief is full of Innovative Literature like Use of Microbes in Electricity Production, Brain connection to Type 2 Diabetes etc. Interesting issues in Forensic biology and the aspects of Bioforensics like STR profiling of exhumed bones makes this brief truly useful and informative for Researchers. It also includes the advancements and new ideologies in understanding crop improvements & crop quality. This Brief witnesses Innovative Research related to the Bio and Agri software development too which are capable of accelerating Insilico biological data analysis.

  4. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R and D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about $30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about $23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about $50 million (of which NSF awards about $30 million and EPA about $6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public

  5. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R&D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about 30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about 23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about 50 million (of which NSF awards about 30 million and EPA about 6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public.

  6. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M.C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2003-08-15

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R and D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about $30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about $23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about $50 million (of which NSF awards about $30 million and EPA about $6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public.

  7. Advancing cellulose-based nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore H. Wegner; Philip E. Jones

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology has applications across most economic sectors and allows the development of new enabling science with broad commercial potential. Cellulose and lignocellulose have great potential as nanomaterials because they are abundant, renewable, have a nanofibrillar structure, can be made multifunctional, and self-assemble into well-defined architectures. To...

  8. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  9. Analyzing the complexity of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.J.; Schummer, J.; Baird, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a highly complex technological development due to many uncertainties in our knowledge about it. The Dutch philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd has developed a conceptual framework that can be used (1) to analyze the complexity of technological developments and (2) to see how priorities

  10. Outlining ethical issues in nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Antonio G; Daloiso, Viviana

    2009-09-01

    Nanotechnologies are an expression of the human ability to control and manipulate matter on a very small scale. Their use will enable an even and constant monitoring of human organisms, in a new and perhaps less invasive way. Debates at all levels--national, European and international--have pointed out the common difficulty of giving a complete, clear definition of nanotechnologies. This is primarily due to the variety of their components, to the fact that there is not just one technology but several. The most significant medical applications of nanotechnologies are in the diagnostic and the therapeutic fields, eg biosensors and molecular imaging, providing diagnosis and drug delivery with no invasive methods involved. Like any other emerging field, such technologies imply new possibilities for improving health but, on the other hand, they are still at an experimental stage and therefore should be implemented under rigorous safety testing before going on general release. For this purpose, the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of nanotechnologies have been elaborated by study groups, in order to develop solutions before the results of the tests are diffused into medical practice. The aim of this paper is to define some of the ethical issues concerning biomedical applications and to evaluate whether there is a need for new or additional guidelines and regulations.

  11. Nanotechnology for the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin

    2006-01-01

    The letter discusses the indispensable importance of Nanotechnology for the scientific and economical revival of the developing world. Similar to the nuclear age, and maybe far more so, the nanoage will be something of a Hemingway line of demarcation between the have and the have nots

  12. Nanotechnology for the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    The letter discusses the indispensable importance of Nanotechnology for the scientific and economical revival of the developing world. Similar to the nuclear age, and maybe far more so, the nanoage will be something of a Hemingway line of demarcation between the have and the have nots.

  13. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology and pulmonary nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently emergent field of Nanotechnology involves the production and use of structures at the nanoscale. Research at atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, has led to new materials, systems and structures on a scale consisting of particles less than 100 nm and showing unique and unusual physical, chemical and biological properties, which has enabled new applications in diverse fields, creating a multimillion-dollar high-tech industry. Nanotechnologies have a wide variety of uses from nanomedicine, consumer goods, electronics, communications and computing to environmental applications, efficient energy sources, agriculture, water purification, textiles, and aerospace industry, among many others.The different characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, shape, surface charge, chemical properties, solubility and degree of agglomeration will determine their effects on biological systems and human health, and the likelihood of respiratory hazards. There are a number of new studies about the potential occupational and environmental effects of nanoparticles and general precautionary measures are now fully justified.Adverse respiratory effects include multifocal granulomas, peribronchial inflammation, progressive interstitial fibrosis, chronic inflammatory responses, collagen deposition and oxidative stress.The authors present an overview of the most important studies about respiratory nanotoxicology and the effects of nanoparticles and engineered nanomaterials on the respiratory system. Resumo: O campo recentemente emergente da nanotecnologia envolve a produção e o uso de estruturas em nanoescala. A pesquisa a níveis atómicos, moleculares e macro moleculares conduziu a novos materiais, sistemas e estruturas numa escala constituída por partículas menores que 100 nm, apresentando propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas únicas e incomuns, o que tem permitido novas aplicações em diversos campos, criando uma indústria de alta

  14. Magnetic separations in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, L; Azevedo, A M; Roque, A C A; Aires-Barros, M R

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic separations are probably one of the most versatile separation processes in biotechnology as they are able to purify cells, viruses, proteins and nucleic acids directly from crude samples. The fast and gentle process in combination with its easy scale-up and automation provide unique advantages over other separation techniques. In the midst of this process are the magnetic adsorbents tailored for the envisioned target and whose complex synthesis spans over multiple fields of science. In this context, this article reviews both the synthesis and tailoring of magnetic adsorbents for bioseparations as well as their ultimate application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. caNanoLab: data sharing to expedite the use of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaheen, Sharon; Hinkal, George W.; Morris, Stephanie A.; Lijowski, Michal; Heiskanen, Mervi

    2014-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in biomedicine involves the engineering of nanomaterials to act as therapeutic carriers, targeting agents and diagnostic imaging devices. The application of nanotechnology in cancer aims to transform early detection, targeted therapeutics and cancer prevention and control. To assist in expediting and validating the use of nanomaterials in biomedicine, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology, in collaboration with the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer (Alliance), has developed a data sharing portal called caNanoLab. caNanoLab provides access to experimental and literature curated data from the NCI Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, the Alliance and the greater cancer nanotechnology community. PMID:25364375

  16. Computational nanomedicine and nanotechnology lectures with computer practicums

    CERN Document Server

    Letfullin, Renat R

    2016-01-01

    This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, introduces the basic knowledge required for nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and emphasizes how the combined use of chemistry and light with nanoparticles can serve as treatments and therapies for cancer. This includes nanodevices, nanophototherapies, nanodrug design, and laser heating of nanoparticles and cell organelles. In addition, the book covers the emerging fields of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, which deal with nanoscale confinement of radiation and optical interactions on a scale much smaller than the wavelength of the light. The applications of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics to biomedical research discussed in the book range from optical biosensing to photodynamic therapies. Cutting-edge and reflective of the multidisciplinary nature of nanomedicine, this book effectively combines knowledge and modeling from nanoscience, medicine, biotechnology, physics, optics, engineering, and pharmacy in an easily digestible format. Among...

  17. Visual framing of nanotechnology in newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    discourse, very little research into to the visual communication of science in public has been carried out. Nanotechnology is an emerging scientific discipline that just recently has entered the public sphere. Surveys show that most Europeans and most Americans have very little knowledge about...... nanotechnology. Even so, there is a marked difference between Europeans who generally are cautious, it not skeptical about nanotechnology, and American who seem to have a much more positive attitude towards nanotechnology. Objective This paper surveys visual images used to communicate nanotechnology (and...... nanotechnology-related issues) in the printed press in Denmark from 1993 to 2006. Based on a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology, the survey categorizes and analyzes the images used. Studies have shown that to a high degree newspaper readers use images to navigate...

  18. Industrial use of Biotechnology in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    But, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the past the biological research was restricted within the boundary of laboratories and the subsequent results were often employed merely to strengthen the research knowledge and information. In life sciences, the traditional methods took years in proving the biological facts. At the leg of last century, the practical application of biotechnology provided a powerful tool to mankind that has led to a revolutionary change in modern agriculture. In the present era, the economy of agro-based countries all over the world is dependent on the adaptation of the pattern of crop-production and their improvement through modern biotechnological means. Biotechnology is in fact the name of a combination of techniques involved to make the full use of living organisms, either in total or in part, for the benefit of plants, animals or human beings. Progressive and dynamic investors, associated with researches/scientists, should be encouraged to step forward for the mobilization of emerging trend of biotechnological industry in agriculture. Researcher/Scientists of biological programmes in Pakistan should be encouraged at Government level to come forward in contributing their tremendous role to boost Agr- industry in the country. (author)

  19. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  20. Application of Radiation in Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.K.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Michalik, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Nanotechnology is one of the fastest growing new areas in science and engineering. The subject arises from the convergence of electronics, physics, chemistry, biology and materials science to create new functional systems of nano-scale dimensions. Nanotechnology deals with science and technology associated with dimensions in the range of 0.1 to 100 nm. The ability to fabricate structures with nano-metric precision is of fundamental importance to any exploitation of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is predicted to have a major impact on the manufacturing technology in 20 to 30 years from now. The ability to fabricate structures with nano-metric precision is of fundamental importance to any exploitation of nanotechnology. The potential of combining radiation effects with nano-materials has been recognized from the very early stages of nano-science research. In the many uses of nano- structures, and nano-particles in particular, from catalysis, bio-sensing, nano-electronics, magnetic applications including separations, mechano-chemical conversion, and to molecular computing, radiation can play a significant role. The use of radiation, UV beam, electron-beam, or focused ion-beam is clearly central to the fabrication of the nanostructured systems. The relative advantages and deficiencies of each of them are still to be clarified as the technology advances. Whether UV or electron beam will lead to the highest resolution is still debated but it is clear that these techniques offer unmatched reproducibility and very narrow size distribution. Other studies concern formation and synthesis of nano-particles and nano-composites. Radiation synthesis of copper, silver and other metals' nanoparticles is studied. Metal and salt-polymer composites are synthesized by this method. Metal sulphide semiconductors of nano-metric matrices are prepared using gamma irradiation of a suitable solution of monomer, sulphur and metal sources. These products find application in photoluminescent

  1. Achievements and perspectives of nanotechnology in stomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de la Paz Suárez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of nanotechnologies has begun a new period, mainly in scientific investigations. It is reflected in the specialty of stomatology giving place to the emergence of a specific area of knowledge, which has putting forward a new term: nanodentistry. Because of its importance, a bibliographical review was carried out using the services available in Infomed and the specialized databases: Scielo, Mediclatina, Medline and PubMed were reviewed with the objective of updating the information about the advances obtained and the investigations that are developed about the use of nanotechnologies in dentistry. Its use is extended to all the specialties, mainly to the dental operations with the creation of dental materials with nanoparticles increasing the resistance, quality and aesthetics of restorations, as well as the implants with bio-compatible materials that favor the self-repair, avoiding the rejection. These advances revolutionize the way of diagnosing and treating the different buccal diseases and improving the life quality of the population.

  2. A Nanotechnology Enhancement to Moore's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intel Moore observed an exponential doubling in the number of transistors in every 18 months through the size reduction of transistor components since 1965. In viewing of mobile computing with insatiate appetite, we explored the necessary enhancement by an increasingly maturing nanotechnology and facing the inevitable quantum-mechanical atomic and nuclei limits. Since we cannot break down the atomic size barrier, the fact implies a fundamental size limit at the atomic/nucleus scale. This means, no more simple 18-month doubling, but other forms of transistor doubling may happen at a different slope. We are particularly interested in the nano enhancement area. (i 3 Dimensions: If the progress in shrinking the in-plane dimensions is to slow down, vertical integration can help increasing the areal device transistor density. As the devices continue to shrink into the 20 to 30 nm range, the consideration of thermal properties and transport in such devices becomes increasingly important. (ii Quantum computing: The other types of transistor material are rapidly developed in laboratories worldwide, for example, Spintronics, Nanostorage, HP display Nanotechnology, which are modifying this Law. We shall consider the limitation of phonon engineering fundamental information unit “Qubyte” in quantum computing, Nano/Micro Electrical Mechanical System (NEMS, Carbon Nanotubes, single-layer Graphenes, single-strip Nano-Ribbons, and so forth.

  3. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  4. Ethical perception of modern biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... 1Social Impact of Biotechnology Development in Malaysia Research ... purpose of this paper is to examine the ethical perception of modern ... and social benefits of modern biotechnology, consumer .... Company or organisation directly involved in the production of ...... Food safety battle: organic vs. biotech.

  5. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  6. Environmental biotechnology: concepts and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winter, Josef; Jördening, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    ... for the - development of new and environmentally improved production technologies with less purified substrates and generation of fewer by-products - bioproducts as non-toxic matters, mostly recyclable. Some impressive studies on industrial applications of biotechnology are published in two OECD reports, which summarized, that biotechnology has the potential o...

  7. Bioprospecting and biotechnological applications of fungal laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Pooja; Shrivastava, Rahul; Agrawal, Pavan Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Laccase belongs to a small group of enzymes called the blue multicopper oxidases, having the potential ability of oxidation. It belongs to enzymes, which have innate properties of reactive radical production, but its utilization in many fields has been ignored because of its unavailability in the commercial field. There are diverse sources of laccase producing organisms like bacteria, fungi and plants. In fungi, laccase is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, Basidiomycetes and is particularly abundant in many white-rot fungi that degrade lignin. Laccases can degrade both phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. They also have the ability to detoxify a range of environmental pollutants. Due to their property to detoxify a range of pollutants, they have been used for several purposes in many industries including paper, pulp, textile and petrochemical industries. Some other application of laccase includes in food processing industry, medical and health care. Recently, laccase has found applications in other fields such as in the design of biosensors and nanotechnology. The present review provides an overview of biological functions of laccase, its mechanism of action, laccase mediator system, and various biotechnological applications of laccase obtained from endophytic fungi.

  8. Post-genomics nanotechnology is gaining momentum: nanoproteomics and applications in life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissy, Firas H; Gulbakan, Basri; Alawieh, Ali; Karam, Pierre; Zhang, Zhiqun; Guingab-Cagmat, Joy D; Mondello, Stefania; Tan, Weihong; Anagli, John; Wang, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The post-genomics era has brought about new Omics biotechnologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, as well as their novel applications to personal genomics and the quantified self. These advances are now also catalyzing other and newer post-genomics innovations, leading to convergences between Omics and nanotechnology. In this work, we systematically contextualize and exemplify an emerging strand of post-genomics life sciences, namely, nanoproteomics and its applications in health and integrative biological systems. Nanotechnology has been utilized as a complementary component to revolutionize proteomics through different kinds of nanotechnology applications, including nanoporous structures, functionalized nanoparticles, quantum dots, and polymeric nanostructures. Those applications, though still in their infancy, have led to several highly sensitive diagnostics and new methods of drug delivery and targeted therapy for clinical use. The present article differs from previous analyses of nanoproteomics in that it offers an in-depth and comparative evaluation of the attendant biotechnology portfolio and their applications as seen through the lens of post-genomics life sciences and biomedicine. These include: (1) immunosensors for inflammatory, pathogenic, and autoimmune markers for infectious and autoimmune diseases, (2) amplified immunoassays for detection of cancer biomarkers, and (3) methods for targeted therapy and automatically adjusted drug delivery such as in experimental stroke and brain injury studies. As nanoproteomics becomes available both to the clinician at the bedside and the citizens who are increasingly interested in access to novel post-genomics diagnostics through initiatives such as the quantified self, we anticipate further breakthroughs in personalized and targeted medicine.

  9. Use and potential of nanotechnology in cosmetic dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pierfrancesco MorgantiDepartment of Dermatology and Venereal Diseases, II University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Biotechnology and nanotechnology are the key technologies of the twenty-first century, having enormous potential for innovation and growth. The academic and industrial goals for these technologies are the development of nanoscale biomolecular substances and analytical instruments for investigating cell biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Developments in nanotechnology will provide opportunities for cosmetic dermatology to develop new biocompatible and biodegradable therapeutics, delivery systems and more active compounds. Cosmetics have the primary function of keeping up a good appearance, changing the appearance, or correcting body odors, while maintaining the skin and its surroundings in good conditions. Thus cosmetic dermatology, recognizing the new realities of skin care products, has to emphasize the functional aspects of cosmetics through an understanding of their efficacy and safety in promoting good health. Nanoscience may help the scientific community to find more innovative and efficacious cosmetics. Understanding the physical model of the cell as a machine is essential to understand how all the cell components work together to accomplish a task. The efficacy and safety of new nanomaterials has to be deeply studied by ex vivo tests and innovative laboratory techniques. New delivery systems and natural nanocompounds, such as chitin nanofibrils for wound healing, are being used in cosmetic dermatology with good results, as are nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO sunscreens. The challenge is open.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanobiotechnology, delivery systems, chitin nanofibrils, TiO2, ZnO

  10. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  11. Medical biofilms--nanotechnology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Clond, Morgan A; Vogt, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are colonies of bacteria or fungi that adhere to a surface, protected by an extracellular polymer matrix composed of polysaccharides and extracellular DNA. They are highly complex and dynamic multicellular structures that resist traditional means of killing planktonic bacteria. Recent developments in nanotechnology provide novel approaches to preventing and dispersing biofilm infections, which are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Medical device infections are responsible for approximately 60% of hospital acquired infections. In the United States, the estimated cost of caring for healthcare-associated infections is approximately between $28 billion and $45 billion per year. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of biofilm formation and degradation, its relevance to challenges in clinical practice, and new technological developments in nanotechnology that are designed to address these challenges.

  12. Nanotechnology and the Nanodermatology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Adnan; Friedman, Adam

    2010-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing discipline with enormous promise for consumers and patients. Currently, it is entering an inflection point in its growth phase--both in the number and diversity of products developed or soon to be available for society and medicine. It is no surprise that a vast number of patents have been issued for nanotechnology in the cosmetics arena as a means of enhancing topical delivery of a broad range of over-the-counter products. In fact, the skin is the first point of contact for a whole host of nanomaterials, ranging from topical preparations, articles of clothing and household products, to sporting goods and industrial manufactured goods. Very little is known about the safety aspects of the nano-engineered materials that are being released in the environment, as well as those in consumer and healthcare products.

  13. [Nanotechnology--possibilities and hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopczyński, Tomasz; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are the objects with at least one demension smaller than 100 nm. Nanoparticles exist in nature or can be produced by human activities, intentionally or unintentionally. Nanotechnology is an emerging science involving manipulation of matter at nanometer scale. Nanoparticles find numerous applications in many fields, starting with electronics, throught medicine, cosmetology, and ending with automotive industry and construction industry. Depending on the use of nanoparticles, the routes of exposure may be inhalation, dermal, oral or parenteral. Nanoparticles have a greater active surface area per unit mass than larger particles. Together with an increase of surface area, toxicity and potential health effects may also increase. Toxicity of nanoparticles depend on many factors, for example: size, shape, chemical composition, solubility, surface area and surface charge. Risk assessment related to human health, should be integrated at all stages of the life cycle of the nanotechnology, starting at the point of conception and including research and development, manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal or recycling.

  14. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  15. Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-29

    Nanoparticles are near-atomic scale structures between 1 and 100 nanometers (one billionth of a meter). Engineered nanoparticles are intentionally created and are used in research and development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study, presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and uncertainties associated with the use of unbound engineered nanoscale particles (UNP) in a laboratory environment.

  16. Textbook of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, B S; Raj, Baldev; Rath, B B; Murday, James

    2013-01-01

    This book is meant to serve as a textbook for beginners in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can also be used as additional reading in this multifaceted area. It covers the entire spectrum of nanoscience and technology: introduction, terminology, historical perspectives of this domain of science, unique and widely differing properties, advances in the various synthesis, consolidation and characterization techniques, applications of nanoscience and technology and emerging materials and technologies.

  17. Applications of Nanotechnology in Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    What are nanoparticles and why are they important in dermatology? These questions are addressed by highlighting recent developments in the nanotechnology field that have increased the potential for intentional and unintended nanoparticle skin exposure. The role of environmental factors in the interaction of nanoparticles with skin and the potential mechanisms by which nanoparticles may influence skin response to environmental factors are discussed. Trends emerging from recent literature sugge...

  18. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jameel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  19. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, S

    2011-01-01

    Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  20. Applications of Nanotechnology in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    What are nanoparticles and why are they important in dermatology? These questions are addressed by highlighting recent developments in the nanotechnology field that have increased the potential for intentional and unintended nanoparticle skin exposure. The role of environmental factors in the interaction of nanoparticles with skin and the potential mechanisms by which nanoparticles may influence skin response to environmental factors are discussed. Trends emerging from recent literature suggest that the positive benefit of engineered nanoparticles for use in cosmetics and as tools for understanding skin biology and curing skin disease, out weigh potential toxicity concerns. Discoveries reported in this journal are highlighted. This review begins with a general introduction to the field of nanotechnology and nanomedicine. This is followed by a discussion of the current state of understanding of nanoparticle skin penetration and their use in three different therapeutic applications. Challenges that must be overcome to derive clinical benefit from the application of nanotechnology to skin are discussed last, providing perspective on the significant opportunity that exists for future studies in investigative dermatology. PMID:22217738

  1. Nanotechnology in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Graham G; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Momeni, Arash; Atashroo, David; Hu, Michael S; Feroze, Abdullah H; Wong, Victor W; Lorenz, Peter H; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology represents a major frontier with potential to significantly advance the field of bone tissue engineering. Current limitations in regenerative strategies include impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation, insufficient mechanical strength of scaffolds, and inadequate production of extrinsic factors necessary for efficient osteogenesis. Here we review several major areas of research in nanotechnology with potential implications in bone regeneration: 1) nanoparticle-based methods for delivery of bioactive molecules, growth factors, and genetic material, 2) nanoparticle-mediated cell labeling and targeting, and 3) nano-based scaffold construction and modification to enhance physicochemical interactions, biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and cellular attachment/survival. As these technologies continue to evolve, ultimate translation to the clinical environment may allow for improved therapeutic outcomes in patients with large bone deficits and osteodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, the reconstruction of bony defects has relied on the use of bone grafts. With advances in nanotechnology, there has been significant development of synthetic biomaterials. In this article, the authors provided a comprehensive review on current research in nanoparticle-based therapies for bone tissue engineering, which should be useful reading for clinicians as well as researchers in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  3. Applications of nanotechnology in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLouise, Lisa A

    2012-03-01

    What are nanoparticles and why are they important in dermatology? These questions are addressed by highlighting recent developments in the nanotechnology field that have increased the potential for intentional and unintentional nanoparticle skin exposure. The role of environmental factors in the interaction of nanoparticles with skin and the potential mechanisms by which nanoparticles may influence skin response to environmental factors are discussed. Trends emerging from recent literature suggest that the positive benefit of engineered nanoparticles for use in cosmetics and as tools for understanding skin biology and curing skin disease outweigh potential toxicity concerns. Discoveries reported in this journal are highlighted. This review begins with a general introduction to the field of nanotechnology and nanomedicine. This is followed by a discussion of the current state of understanding of nanoparticle skin penetration and their use in three therapeutic applications. Challenges that must be overcome to derive clinical benefit from the application of nanotechnology to skin are discussed last, providing perspective on the significant opportunity that exists for future studies in investigative dermatology.

  4. Microalgal symbiosis in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla A; Reis, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    This review provides an analysis of recent published work on interactions between microorganisms, especially the ones involving mainly nutrient exchanges and at least with one microalga species. Examples of microbial partners are given, with a remark to the potential application of cultures of an autotroph and a heterotroph, which grow simultaneously, taking advantage of the complementary metabolisms. These are particularly interesting, either due to economic or sustainable aspects, and some applications have already reached the commercial stage of development. The added advantages of these symbiotic cultures are biomass, lipid, and other products productivity enhancement a better utilization of resources and the reduction or even elimination of process residues (including carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases) to conduct an increasingly greener biotechnology. Among the several symbiotic partners referred, the microalgae and yeast cultures are the most used. The interaction between these two microorganisms shows how to enhance the lipid production for biodiesel purposes compared with separated (stand-alone) cultures.

  5. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad Deepa L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology

  6. Information beyond the forum: Motivations, strategies, and impacts of citizen participants seeking information during a consensus conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A; Delborne, Jason; Kleinman, Daniel Lee

    2013-11-01

    During traditional consensus conferences, organizers control the formal information available to participants-by compiling structured background materials and recruiting expert panelists. Less formally, however, participants are encouraged to bring their own experiences into the deliberations, and in doing so, they often seek outside information. We explore this heretofore understudied phenomenon of information seeking during a deliberative event: the U.S. National Citizens' Technology Forum (2008), which addressed the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science on the potential development of human-enhancement technologies. Through interviews with participants and observation of in-person and online deliberations, we identify outside information-seeking strategies and motivations. Our study demonstrates that conceptualizing models of deliberation as standalone settings of communication exchange ignores the reality of the complex information environment from which deliberative participants draw when making sense of technical issues. Future citizen deliberations must incorporate outside information seeking in the design of the exercises.

  7. Nanotechnology: Development and challenges in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, I. Made; Muthukannan, Vanitha; Hermawan, Wawan; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    Nanotechnology today is regarded as a revolutionary technology that can help to address the key needs related to energy, environment, health and agriculture in developing countries. This paper is a short review on the development and challenges of nanotechnology in Indonesia. Nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there is emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. The main applications of nanotechnology in the different sectors which is vital and its economic impact in Indonesia is also discussed. The achievment and development of nanotechnology including synthesis and dispersion of nanoparticles (NPs) and its applications in various fields is briefly addressed in Nanotehcnology and Graphene Research Center, Universitas Padjadjaran (Unpad). Despite significant progress in developmental goals, many challenges in the development of nanotechnology proccesing need to be resolved such as support infrastructure and evolution of new form of collaborative arrangements between various sectors and policies which is emerged as an important factor enabling development.

  8. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Richard; Zayago Lau, Edgar; Foladori, Guillermo; Parker, Rachel; Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa; Belmont, Eduardo Robles; Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga

    2016-02-01

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  9. Nanophotonics: The link between nanotechnology and photonics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and importance ? CSIR 2012 www.csir.co.za/nano Slide 2 ? Birth and definition of nanotechnology ? Benefits of nanotechnology ? The link between nanotechnology and photonics: Nanophotonics ? Importance and future of nanophotonics... ? Conclusions ? Our on-going research on nanophotonics ? CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.zaSlide 3 MISSION: The DST/CSIR NATIONAL CENTRE FOR NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS coordinates, facilitates, disseminates new knowledge, and expedites...

  10. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelbaum, Richard; Zayago Lau, Edgar; Foladori, Guillermo; Parker, Rachel; Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa; Belmont, Eduardo Robles; Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications

  11. NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE: AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Tejpal Dhewa

    2015-01-01

    Although the scientific studies on the applications of nanotechnology in the agriculture are less than a decade old yet the prospects of nanotechnology in this field has been considerable. The rapid developments in the nanosciences have a great impact on agricultural practices and food manufacturing industries. Nanotechnology has an enormous potential to offer smarter, stronger, cost-effective packaging materials, biosensors for the rapid detection of the food pathogens, toxins and other cont...

  12. Nanotechnology tools in pharmaceutical R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Challa S.S.R. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new approach to problem solving and can be considered as a collection of tools and ideas which can be applied in pharmaceutical industry. Application of nanotechnology tools in pharmaceutical R&D is likely to result in moving the industry from ‘blockbuster drug’ model to ‘personalized medicine’. There are compelling applications in pharmaceutical industry where inexpensive nanotechnology tools can be utilized. The review explores the possibility of categorizing various nan...

  13. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Richard, E-mail: rich@global.ucsb.edu [University of California at Santa Barbara, MacArthur Foundation Chair in Sociology and Global & International Studies Co-PI, Center for Nanotechnology and Society, Social Science and Media Studies 2103 (United States); Zayago Lau, Edgar [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV, Zacatenco)., Multidisciplinary Graduate Programs (Mexico); Foladori, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico); Parker, Rachel [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Research Programs (Canada); Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (Mexico); Belmont, Eduardo Robles [UNAM, Institute for Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems (IIMAS) (Mexico); Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  14. Numbers, scale and symbols: the public understanding of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batt, Carl A.; Waldron, Anna M.; Broadwater, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology will be an increasing part of the everyday lives of most people in the world. There is a general recognition that few people understand the implications of the technology, the technology itself or even the definition of the word. This lack of understanding stems from a lack of knowledge about science in general but more specifically difficulty in grasping the size scale and symbolism of nanotechnology. A potential key to informing the general public is establishing the ability to comprehend the scale of nanotechnology. Transitioning from the macro to the nanoscale seems to require an ability to comprehend scales of one-billion. Scaling is a skill not common in most individuals and tests of their ability to extrapolate size based upon scaling a common object demonstrates that most individuals cannot scale to the extent needed to make the transition to nanoscale. Symbolism is another important vehicle to providing the general public with a basis to understand the concepts of nanotechnology. With increasing age, individuals are able to draw representations of atomic scale objects, but these tend to be iconic and the different representations not easily translated. Ball and stick models are most recognized by the public, which provides an opportunity to present not only useful symbolism but also a reference point for the atomic scale.

  15. Numbers, scale and symbols: the public understanding of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Carl A.; Waldron, Anna M.; Broadwater, Natalie

    2008-10-01

    Nanotechnology will be an increasing part of the everyday lives of most people in the world. There is a general recognition that few people understand the implications of the technology, the technology itself or even the definition of the word. This lack of understanding stems from a lack of knowledge about science in general but more specifically difficulty in grasping the size scale and symbolism of nanotechnology. A potential key to informing the general public is establishing the ability to comprehend the scale of nanotechnology. Transitioning from the macro to the nanoscale seems to require an ability to comprehend scales of one-billion. Scaling is a skill not common in most individuals and tests of their ability to extrapolate size based upon scaling a common object demonstrates that most individuals cannot scale to the extent needed to make the transition to nanoscale. Symbolism is another important vehicle to providing the general public with a basis to understand the concepts of nanotechnology. With increasing age, individuals are able to draw representations of atomic scale objects, but these tend to be iconic and the different representations not easily translated. Ball and stick models are most recognized by the public, which provides an opportunity to present not only useful symbolism but also a reference point for the atomic scale.

  16. The National Nanotechnology Initiative. Strategic Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... Realizing these possibilities requires continued research and accelerated innovation. The United States has been and is now the recognized leader in nanotechnology research and development (R&D...

  17. Computational nanotechnology modeling and applications with MATLAB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musa, Sarhan M

    2012-01-01

    .... Offering thought-provoking perspective on the developments that are poised to revolutionize the field, the author explores both existing and future nanotechnology applications, which hold great...

  18. The applications of nanotechnology in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential of application in the food industry and processing as new tools for pathogen detection, disease treatment delivery systems, food packaging, and delivery of bioactive compounds to target sites. The application of nanotechnology in food systems will provide new methods to improve safety and the nutritional value of food products. This article will review the current advances of applications of nanotechnology in food science and technology. Also, it describes new current food laws for nanofood and novel articles in the field of risk assessment of using nanotechnology in the food industry.

  19. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology impact on sensors Nanotechnology impact on sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    A sensor is a device that responds to a stimulus by generating a functional output induced by a change in some intrinsic properties. We are surrounded by sensors and sensing networks that monitor a multitude of parameters in view of enhancing our safety and quality of life. Sensors assist us in health care and diagnostics, they monitor our environment, our aeroplanes and automobiles, our mobile phones, game consoles and watches, and last but not least, many of our human body functions. Modern sensing systems have greatly benefited in recent decades from advances in microelectronics and microengineering, mainly in view of making sensors smaller, cheaper, more sensitive, more selective, and with a better signal-to-noise ratio, following classical scaling rules. So how about nanotechnology-enabled sensing? Nanoscale features have a great impact on many (though not all) sensing systems, in particular where the surface-to-volume ratio plays a fundamental role, such as in certain chemical and gas sensors. The high surface-to-volume ratios of nanoporous and nanostructured materials have led to their implementation in sensing systems since sensing research first began to engage with the nanotechnology. The surface plasmon resonances of nanostructures have also enriched the scope for developing novel sensing devices. On the other hand, sensors where bulk properties dominate, such as inertial sensors, are less likely to benefit from extreme scaling. Advances in thin film techniques and chemical synthesis have allowed material properties to be tailored to sensing requirements for enhanced performance. These bottom-up fabrication techniques enable parallel fabrication of ordered nanostructures, often in domain-like areas with molecular precision. At the same time the progress in top-down methods such as scanning probe lithography, nanoimprint lithography, soft-lithography and stencil lithography have also facilitated research into sensing and actuating nanotechnology. Although

  20. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  1. Understanding public perceptions of biotechnology through the "Integrative Worldview Framework".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Annick; Osseweijer, Patricia; Pierce, Robin

    2015-07-03

    Biotechnological innovations prompt a range of societal responses that demand understanding. Research has shown such responses are shaped by individuals' cultural worldviews. We aim to demonstrate how the Integrative Worldview Framework (IWF) can be used for analyzing perceptions of biotechnology, by reviewing (1) research on public perceptions of biotechnology and (2) analyses of the stakeholder-debate on the bio-based economy, using the Integrative Worldview Framework (IWF) as analytical lens. This framework operationalizes the concept of worldview and distinguishes between traditional, modern, and postmodern worldviews, among others. Applied to these literatures, this framework illuminates how these worldviews underlie major societal responses, thereby providing a unifying understanding of the literature on perceptions of biotechnology. We conclude the IWF has relevance for informing research on perceptions of socio-technical changes, generating insight into the paradigmatic gaps in social science, and facilitating reflexive and inclusive policy-making and debates on these timely issues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Teaching nanoscience across scientific and geographical borders - A European Master programme in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesneau, A; Schwille, P; Groeseneken, G; Heremans, P; Rep, D; Rudquist, P; Wendin, G; Sluijter, B

    2008-01-01

    Within the Erasmus Mundus Master (EMM) Programme, five European Universities (KU Leuven, Belgium, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Delft University of Technology and Leiden University, the Netherlands, and the University of Dresden, Germany) have joined forces to offer a unique master programme in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 'EMM-nano', at the cutting edge of state-of-the-art research. The students design and build their individual area of specialisation within nanophysics, nanotechnology, biophysics, biotechnology through their choice of trajectory between the partners. We discuss some of the challenges related to the crossdisciplinary nature of the field, educational activities in cleanrooms, and issues related to the integration of teaching programmes across the borders within Europe

  3. New Dimensions for Manufacturing: A UK Strategy for Nanotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, John M

    2002-01-01

    ... R&D for nanotechnology. This report, of the UK Advisory Group on Nanotechnology Applications, examines the growth of nanotechnology, its potential implications for industry in the UK, and proposes the elements of a strategy...

  4. Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in…

  5. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a book of abstracts of oral communications and posters that were presented during the International Symposium on Biotechnology that was held in Sfax, Tunisia from May 4th to 8th, 2008. The following themes were covered : - Biotechnology for animal and human health and biopharmaceuticals; - Microbial and environmental biotechnology; - Agricultural, Food and marine biotechnology

  6. African Journal of Biotechnology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB) (ISSN 1684-5315) provides rapid publication of .... Authors may still request (in advance) that the editorial board waive some of the handling fee ...

  7. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  8. Engineering extracellular matrix through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Cassandra M; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2010-12-06

    The goal of tissue engineering is the creation of a living device that can restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Behind this goal is a new idea that has emerged from twentieth century medicine, science and engineering. It is preceded by centuries of human repair and replacement with non-living materials adapted to restore function and cosmetic appearance to patients whose tissues have been destroyed by disease, trauma or congenital abnormality. The nineteenth century advanced replacement and repair strategies based on moving living structures from a site of normal tissue into a site of defects created by the same processes. Donor skin into burn wounds, tendon transfers, intestinal replacements into the urinary tract, toes to replace fingers are all examples. The most radical application is that of vital organ transplantation in which a vital part such as heart, lung or liver is removed from one donor, preserved for transfer and implanted into a patient dying of end-stage organ failure. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have advanced a general strategy combining the cellular elements of living tissue with sophisticated biomaterials to produce living structures of sufficient size and function to improve patients' lives. Multiple strategies have evolved and the application of nanotechnology can only improve the field. In our era, by necessity, any medical advance must be successfully commercialized to allow widespread application to help the greatest number of patients. It follows that business models and regulatory agencies must adapt and change to enable these new technologies to emerge. This brief review will discuss the science of nanotechnology and how it has been applied to this evolving field. We will then briefly summarize the history of commercialization of tissue engineering and suggest that nanotechnology may be of use in breeching the barriers to commercialization although its primary mission is to improve the technology by solving some

  9. An intelligent approach to nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned

  10. RNA Study Using DNA Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadakuma, Hisashi; Masubuchi, Takeya; Ueda, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Transcription is one of the fundamental steps of gene expression, where RNA polymerases (RNAPs) bind to their template genes and make RNAs. In addition to RNAP and the template gene, many molecules such as transcription factors are involved. The interaction and the effect of these factors depend on the geometry. Molecular layout of these factors, RNAP and gene is thus important. DNA nanotechnology is a promising technology that allows controlling of the molecular layout in the range of nanometer to micrometer scale with nanometer resolution; thus, it is expected to expand the RNA study beyond the current limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanotechnology tools for antibacterial materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Loris; Cingolani, Roberto; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2013-05-01

    The understanding of the interactions between biological systems and nanoengineered devices is crucial in several research fields, including tissue engineering, biomechanics, synthetic biology and biomedical devices. This review discusses the current knowledge of the interactions between bacteria and abiotic nanostructured substrates. First, the effects of randomly organized nanoscale topography on bacterial adhesion and persistence are described. Second, the interactions between microorganisms and highly organized/ordered micro- and nano-patterns are discussed. Finally, we survey the most promising approaches for the fabrication of silver polymeric nanocomposites, which have important applications as antimicrobial materials. The advantages, drawbacks and limitations of such nanotechnologies are critically discussed in view of potential future applications.

  12. DNA Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinit; Palazzolo, Stefano; Bayda, Samer; Corona, Giuseppe; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology is an emerging and exciting field, and represents a forefront frontier for the biomedical field. The specificity of the interactions between complementary base pairs makes DNA an incredible building material for programmable and very versatile two- and three-dimensional nanostructures called DNA origami. Here, we analyze the DNA origami and DNA-based nanostructures as a drug delivery system. Besides their physical-chemical nature, we dissect the critical factors such as stability, loading capability, release and immunocompatibility, which mainly limit in vivo applications. Special attention was dedicated to highlighting the boundaries to be overcome to bring DNA nanostructures closer to the bedside of patients. PMID:27022418

  13. Nanotechnology in medicine: nanofilm biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassel, Paul R

    2013-12-13

    By interrogating nature at the length scale of important biological molecules (proteins, DNA), nanotechnology offers great promise to biomedicine. We review here our recent work on nanofilm biomaterials: "nanoscopically" thin, functional, polymer-based films serving as biocompatible interfaces. In one thrust, films containing carbon nanotubes are shown to be highly antimicrobial and, thus, to be promising as biomedical device materials inherently resistive to microbial infection. In another thrust, strategies are developed toward films of independently controllable bioactivity and mechanical rigidity - two key variables governing typical biological responses.

  14. caNanoLab: data sharing to expedite the use of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gaheen, Sharon; Hinkal, George W.; Morris, Stephanie A.; Lijowski, Michal; Heiskanen, Mervi; Klemm, Juli D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in biomedicine involves the engineering of nanomaterials to act as therapeutic carriers, targeting agents and diagnostic imaging devices. The application of nanotechnology in cancer aims to transform early detection, targeted therapeutics and cancer prevention and control. To assist in expediting and validating the use of nanomaterials in biomedicine, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology, in collaboration wi...

  15. SOME TRENDS IN MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Klyuchko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research is to demonstrate some trends of development of modeling methods for biotechnology according to contemporary achievements in science and technique. At the beginning the general approaches are outlined, some types of classifications of modeling methods are observed. The role of mathematic methods modeling for biotechnology in present époque of information computer technologies intensive development is studied and appropriate scheme of interrelation of all these spheres is proposed. Further case studies are suggested: some mathematic models in three different spaces (1D, 2D, 3D models are described for processes in living objects of different levels of hierarchic organization. In course of this the main attention was paid to some processes modeling in neurons as well as in their aggregates of different forms, including glioma cell masses (1D, 2D, 3D brain processes models. Starting from the models that have only theoretical importance for today, we describe at the end a model which application may be important for the practice. The work was done after the analysis of approximately 250 current publications in fields of biotechnology, including the authors’ original works.

  16. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  17. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  18. Nanotechnology for forest products. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Wegner; Phil Jones

    2005-01-01

    In planning for the Nanotechnology for the Forest products Industry Workshop, we considered many different options for organizing technical focus areas for breakout discussion sessions. We felt the fallowing R&D focus areas provide the best path forward for a nanotechnology roadmap by identifying the underlying science and technology needed: also, they foster...

  19. Computational Nanotechnology Molecular Electronics, Materials and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation covers research being performed on computational nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes at the NASA Ames Research Center. Topics cover include: nanomechanics of nanomaterials, nanotubes and composite materials, molecular electronics with nanotube junctions, kinky chemistry, and nanotechnology for solid-state quantum computers using fullerenes.

  20. Nanotechnology: Advancing the translational respiratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Dua, Kamal; Shukla, Shakti Dhar; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Hansbro, Philip Michael

    2017-01-01

    Considering the various limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms, nanotechnology is gaining increased attention in drug delivery particularly in respiratory medicine and research because of its advantages like targeting effects, improved pharmacotherapy, and patient compliance. This paper provides a quick snapshot about the recent trends and applications of nanotechnology to various translational and formulation scientists working on various respiratory diseases, which can he...

  1. Potentials of nanotechnology application in forest protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadong Qi; K. Lian; Q. Wu; Y. Li; M. Danzy; R. Menard; K.L. Chin; D. Collins; F. Oliveria; Kier Klepzig

    2013-01-01

    This joint research project formed by Southern University, Louisiana State University, and the USDA Forest Service focuses on applying nanotechnology in forest health and natural resource management. The targeted nanotechnology is derived from a new generation of renewable composite nano-material called Copper-Carbon Core-Shell Nanoparticles (CCCSNs), which have...

  2. Nanotechnology Education: Contemporary Content and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of research and development identified as a major priority in the United States. Progress in science and engineering at the nanoscale is critical for national security, prosperity of the economy, and enhancement of the quality of life. It is anticipated that nanotechnology will be a major transitional…

  3. Engines of Second Creation: Stories about Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    We are in a position today to appreciate the ambiguity of technologies: that they are good, and bad, and neutral and present challenges in different ways. Reading U.S. national nanotechnology documents and histories of nanotechnology, one finds that rhetoric idealizing progress without serious consideration of negative side-effects remains…

  4. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  5. Grand Challenges: Nanotechnology and the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a multidisciplinary lesson on nanotechnology that can provide an effective means for teaching about both STEM and social studies topics. This approach encourages students to consider the "role that science and technology play in our lives and in our cultures." The extraordinary promise of nanotechnology, however, is…

  6. Nanotechnology for membranes, filters and sieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2006-01-01

    This mini-review is dedicated to the use of nanotechnology for membranes, filters and sieves. With the advent of nanotechnology researchers have acquired an unprecedented freedom to sculpt device geometry almost down to the molecular scale. Such structures can now replace the gels, membranes and

  7. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of

  8. Tweeting nano: how public discourses about nanotechnology develop in social media environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, Kristin K., E-mail: kkrunge@wisc.edu; Yeo, Sara K.; Cacciatore, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique [University of Wisconsin, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Xenos, Michael [University of Wisconsin, Department of Communication Arts (United States); Anderson, Ashley; Choi, Doo-hun; Kim, Jiyoun; Nan, Li; Xuan, Liang; Stubbings, Maria; Su, Leona Yi-Fan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The growing popularity of social media as a channel for distributing and debating scientific information raises questions about the types of discourse that surround emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, in online environments, as well as the different forms of information that audiences encounter when they use these online tools of information sharing. This study maps the landscape surrounding social media traffic about nanotechnology. Specifically, we use computational linguistic software to analyze a census of all English-language nanotechnology-related tweets expressing opinions posted on Twitter between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Results show that 55 % of tweets expressed certainty and 45 % expressed uncertainty. Twenty-seven percent of tweets expressed optimistic outlooks, 32 % expressed neutral outlooks and 41 % expressed pessimistic outlooks. Tweets were mapped by U.S. state, and our data show that tweets are more likely to originate from states with a federally funded National Nanotechnology Initiative center or network. The trend toward certainty in opinion coupled with the distinct geographic origins of much of the social media traffic on Twitter for nanotechnology-related opinion has significant implications for understanding how key online influencers are debating and positioning the issue of nanotechnology for lay and policy audiences.

  9. Tweeting nano: how public discourses about nanotechnology develop in social media environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, Kristin K.; Yeo, Sara K.; Cacciatore, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael; Anderson, Ashley; Choi, Doo-hun; Kim, Jiyoun; Li Nan; Liang Xuan; Stubbings, Maria; Su, Leona Yi-Fan

    2013-01-01

    The growing popularity of social media as a channel for distributing and debating scientific information raises questions about the types of discourse that surround emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, in online environments, as well as the different forms of information that audiences encounter when they use these online tools of information sharing. This study maps the landscape surrounding social media traffic about nanotechnology. Specifically, we use computational linguistic software to analyze a census of all English-language nanotechnology-related tweets expressing opinions posted on Twitter between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Results show that 55 % of tweets expressed certainty and 45 % expressed uncertainty. Twenty-seven percent of tweets expressed optimistic outlooks, 32 % expressed neutral outlooks and 41 % expressed pessimistic outlooks. Tweets were mapped by U.S. state, and our data show that tweets are more likely to originate from states with a federally funded National Nanotechnology Initiative center or network. The trend toward certainty in opinion coupled with the distinct geographic origins of much of the social media traffic on Twitter for nanotechnology-related opinion has significant implications for understanding how key online influencers are debating and positioning the issue of nanotechnology for lay and policy audiences.

  10. Safer energetic materials by a nanotechnological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Benny; Comet, Marc; Spitzer, Denis

    2011-09-01

    Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity.Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details for the preparation of the V2O5@CNF/Al nanothermite; X-ray diffractogram of the V2O5@CNF/Al combustion residue; installation instructions and source code for the nt-timeline program. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10292c

  11. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured...... knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Foodrelated Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished...... with significant differences in their scores on the SWLS, SWFL and FNS. The types differed in their knowledge of nanotechnology, willingness to purchase foods involving nanotechnology, age, socioeconomic level and lifestyle. The least food-neophobic type had the highest levels of satisfaction with life...

  12. Nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti

    2011-05-01

    Nanotechnology, or nanoscience, refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). The prefix "nano" is defined as a unit of measurement in which the characteristic dimension is one billionth of a unit. Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. As nanotechnology expands in other fields, clinicians, scientists, and manufacturers are working to discover the uses and advances in biomedical sciences. Applications of nanotechnology in medical and dental fields have only approached the horizon with opportunities and possibilities for the future that can only be limited by our imagination. This paper provides an early glimpse of nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry to illustrate their potentially far-reaching impacts on clinical practice. It also narrates the safety issues concerning nanotechnology applications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Nanotechnology: The new perspective in precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Singh Duhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary research field. In recent past efforts have been made to improve agricultural yield through exhaustive research in nanotechnology. The green revolution resulted in blind usage of pesticides and chemical fertilizers which caused loss of soil biodiversity and developed resistance against pathogens and pests as well. Nanoparticle-mediated material delivery to plants and advanced biosensors for precision farming are possible only by nanoparticles or nanochips. Nanoencapsulated conventional fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides helps in slow and sustained release of nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in precise dosage to the plants. Nanotechnology based plant viral disease detection kits are also becoming popular and are useful in speedy and early detection of viral diseases. In this article, the potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology in precision agriculture are discussed. The modern nanotechnology based tools and techniques have the potential to address the various problems of conventional agriculture and can revolutionize this sector.

  14. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Foodrelated Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished......This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured...... with significant differences in their scores on the SWLS, SWFL and FNS. The types differed in their knowledge of nanotechnology, willingness to purchase foods involving nanotechnology, age, socioeconomic level and lifestyle. The least food-neophobic type had the highest levels of satisfaction with life...

  15. Targeted Nanotechnology for Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. PMID:25116445

  16. Bladder tissue engineering through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Daniel A; Sharma, Arun K; Erickson, Bradley A; Cheng, Earl Y

    2008-08-01

    The field of tissue engineering has developed in phases: initially researchers searched for "inert" biomaterials to act solely as replacement structures in the body. Then, they explored biodegradable scaffolds--both naturally derived and synthetic--for the temporary support of growing tissues. Now, a third phase of tissue engineering has developed, through the subcategory of "regenerative medicine." This renewed focus toward control over tissue morphology and cell phenotype requires proportional advances in scaffold design. Discoveries in nanotechnology have driven both our understanding of cell-substrate interactions, and our ability to influence them. By operating at the size regime of proteins themselves, nanotechnology gives us the opportunity to directly speak the language of cells, through reliable, repeatable creation of nanoscale features. Understanding the synthesis of nanoscale materials, via "top-down" and "bottom-up" strategies, allows researchers to assess the capabilities and limits inherent in both techniques. Urology research as a whole, and bladder regeneration in particular, are well-positioned to benefit from such advances, since our present technology has yet to reach the end goal of functional bladder restoration. In this article, we discuss the current applications of nanoscale materials to bladder tissue engineering, and encourage researchers to explore these interdisciplinary technologies now, or risk playing catch-up in the future.

  17. Material Binding Peptides for Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urartu Ozgur Safak Seker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides. This combinatorial approach has also been adapted over the past decade to select material-specific peptides. Screening and selection of such phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest, in particular because of their use in nanotechnology. Phage display selected peptides are either synthesized independently or expressed on phage coat protein. Selected phage particles are subsequently utilized in the synthesis of nanoparticles, in the assembly of nanostructures on inorganic surfaces, and oriented protein immobilization as fusion partners of proteins. In this paper, we present an overview on the research conducted on this area. In this review we not only focus on the selection process, but also on molecular binding characterization and utilization of peptides as molecular linkers, molecular assemblers and material synthesizers.

  18. Nanotechnology research for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Lozano, Karen; Gutierrez, Jose M.; Chipara, Mircea; Thapa, Ram; Chow, Alice

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology is impacting the future of the military and aerospace. The increasing demands for high performance and property-specific applications are forcing the scientific world to take novel approaches in developing programs and accelerating output. CONTACT or Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology is a cooperative nanotechnology research program in Texas building on an infrastructure that promotes collaboration between universities and transitioning to industry. The participants of the program include the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), five campuses of the University of Texas (Brownsville, Pan American, Arlington, Austin, and Dallas), the University of Houston, and Rice University. Through the various partnerships between the intellectual centers and the interactions with AFRL and CONTACT's industrial associates, the program represents a model that addresses the needs of the changing and competitive technological world. Into the second year, CONTACT has expanded to twelve projects that cover four areas of research: Adaptive Coatings and Surface Engineering, Nano Energetics, Electromagnetic Sensors, and Power Generation and Storage. This paper provides an overview of the CONTACT program and its projects including the research and development of new electrorheological fluids with nanoladen suspensions and composites and the potential applications.

  19. Action GRID: assessing the impact of Nanotechnology on biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alonso, Victoria; Hermosilla-Gimeno, Isabel; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Maojo, Victor; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando J

    2008-11-06

    Recent advances in Nanotechnology are slowly extending their influence in biomedical research and clinical practice (nanomedicine). The authors have recently been granted with an European Commission research project, Action-GRID. This initiative will review current developments in nanomedicine, and analyze the area of nanoinformatics. Its main outcome will be the identification of needs and the discussion of future challenges and priorities for Biomedical Informatics in terms of information processing in nanomedicine and regenerative medicine.

  20. Nanotechnology and patents in agriculture, food technology, nutrition and medicine - advantages and risks: worldwide patented nano- and absorber particles in food nutrition and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benckiser, Gero

    2012-12-01

    The keywords nanotechnology, super absorber, agriculture, nutrition, and food technology exhibited 28,149 positive matches under more than 68 million patents worldwide. A closer look at the first 500 nanotechnology, agriculture, nutrition and biotechnology related patents, published during 2011-2012, unveiled that 64% are parts of machines and control devices while about 36% comprise metal oxides, fertilizers, pesticides and drugs, which are compounds and often applied in combination with inorganic or organic super absorbing polymeric structures. The latter compounds are in the focus of this special issue.

  1. Cyborg identities and contemporary techno-utopias: adaptations and transformations of the body in the age of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrutti, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of improving the human body through a closer relationship with technology in order to overcome the human species toward new stages of evolution is a constant element of techno-utopian visions, among other transhumanism. This projection to a radical transformation of the body - and mind - as a result of technological action is based on the concepts of adaptation, or non adaptation, of a human being to a world constantly changed by technoscience. The belief is that not only the body has to change, but that identity is not a stable concept. This mobility in the relationship between body and identity is typical of the post human thought, which inherits from the informational model the conviction that the biological embodiment of human is to be regarded as an accident of history rather than as an essential condition of life. Hybridization is therefore valued by the post human thought as a condition which has "made" the human as he is today, and it appears as a fundamental topic in any discourse on nanotechnology, biotechnology and development of human-machine interfaces.

  2. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    uncertainty, that attracted international NM experts to recommend this qualitative risk assessment approach for NM. However, since their CB recommendation was only in theory, we took on the challenge of developing a working toolkit, the CB Nanotool (see Zalk et al. 2009 and Paik et al. 2008), as a means to perform a risk assessment and protect researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. While it's been acknowledged that engineered NM have potentially endless benefits for society, it became clear to us that the very properties that make nanotechnology so useful to industry could also make them dangerous to humans and the environment. Among the uncertainties and unknowns with NM are: the contribution of their physical structure to their toxicity, significant differences in their deposition and clearance in the lungs when compared to their parent material (PM), a lack of agreement on the appropriate indices for exposure to NM, and very little background information on exposure scenarios or populations at risk. Part of this lack of background information can be traced to the lack of risk assessments historically performed in the industry, with a recent survey indicating that 65% of companies working with NM are not doing any kind of NM-specific risk assessment as they focus on traditional PM methods for IH (Helland et al. 2009). The good news is that the amount of peer-reviewed publications that address environmental, health and safety aspects of NM has been increasing over the last few years; however, the percentage of these that address practical methods to reduce exposure and protect workers is orders of magnitude lower. Our intent in developing the CB Nanotool was to create a simplified approach that would protect workers while unraveling the mysteries of NM for experts and non-experts alike. Since such a large part of the toxicological effects of both the physical and chemical properties of NM were unknown, not to mention changing logarithmically as new

  3. Environmental biotechnology: Reducing risks from environmental chemicals through biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenn, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers on various aspects of hazardous waste management through biotechnology. The articles stress the three basic strategies of waste management; minimize the amount of waste generated; reduce the toxicity of the wastes; and find more satisfactory ways of disposing of wastes. Part I of this collection describes the use of microbial ecology, molecular biology, and other scientific disciplines to combat these problems. Part II describes the application of present technology to current problems. Part III describes the effect of policy and regulations on biotechnology. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  4. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán; Miranda, Horacio; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished with significant differences in their scores on the SWLS, SWFL and FNS. The types differed in their knowledge of nanotechnology, willingness to purchase foods involving nanotechnology, age, socioeconomic level and lifestyle. The least food-neophobic type had the highest levels of satisfaction with life and with food-related life and also had the highest acceptance of packaging and foods produced with nanotechnology. The results suggest that the degree of food neophobia is associated with satisfaction with life and with food-related life, as well as with the acceptance of products with nanotechnological applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  6. Nanotechnology for the energy challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    With the daunting energy challenges faced by Mankind in the 21st century, revolutionary new technologies will be the key to a clean, secure and sustainable energy future. Nanostructures often have surprising and very useful capabilities and are thus paving the way for new methodologies in almost every kind of industry. This exceptional monograph provides an overview of the subject, and presents the current state of the art with regard to different aspects of sustainable production, efficient storage and low-impact use of energy. Comprised of eighteen chapters, the book is divided in three thematic parts: Part I Sustainable Energy Production covers the main developments of nanotechnology in clean energy production and conversion, including photovoltaics, hydrogen production, thermal-electrical energy conversion and fuel cells. Part II Efficient Energy Storage is concerned with the potential use of nanomaterials in more efficient energy storage systems such as advanced batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen st...

  7. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  8. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  9. Developing DNA nanotechnology using single-molecule fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, Roman; Tomov, Toma E; Liber, Miran; Berger, Yaron; Nir, Eyal

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: An important effort in the DNA nanotechnology field is focused on the rational design and manufacture of molecular structures and dynamic devices made of DNA. As is the case for other technologies that deal with manipulation of matter, rational development requires high quality and informative feedback on the building blocks and final products. For DNA nanotechnology such feedback is typically provided by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These analytical tools provide excellent structural information; however, usually they do not provide high-resolution dynamic information. For the development of DNA-made dynamic devices such as machines, motors, robots, and computers this constitutes a major problem. Bulk-fluorescence techniques are capable of providing dynamic information, but because only ensemble averaged information is obtained, the technique may not adequately describe the dynamics in the context of complex DNA devices. The single-molecule fluorescence (SMF) technique offers a unique combination of capabilities that make it an excellent tool for guiding the development of DNA-made devices. The technique has been increasingly used in DNA nanotechnology, especially for the analysis of structure, dynamics, integrity, and operation of DNA-made devices; however, its capabilities are not yet sufficiently familiar to the community. The purpose of this Account is to demonstrate how different SMF tools can be utilized for the development of DNA devices and for structural dynamic investigation of biomolecules in general and DNA molecules in particular. Single-molecule diffusion-based Förster resonance energy transfer and alternating laser excitation (sm-FRET/ALEX) and immobilization-based total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) techniques are briefly described and demonstrated. To illustrate the many applications of SMF to DNA nanotechnology, examples of SMF studies of DNA hairpins and

  10. Engaging scientists: An online survey exploring the experience of innovative biotechnological approaches to controlling vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëte, Christophe; Beisel, Uli; Reis Castro, Luísa; Césard, Nicolas; Reeves, R Guy

    2015-08-10

    Pioneering technologies (e.g., nanotechnology, synthetic biology or climate engineering) are often associated with potential new risks and uncertainties that can become sources of controversy. The communication of information during their development and open exchanges between stakeholders is generally considered a key issue in their acceptance. While the attitudes of the public to novel technologies have been widely considered there has been relatively little investigation of the perceptions and awareness of scientists working on human or animal diseases transmitted by arthropods. Consequently, we conducted a global survey on 1889 scientists working on aspects of vector-borne diseases, exploring, under the light of a variety of demographic and professional factors, their knowledge and awareness of an emerging biotechnology that has the potential to revolutionize the control of pest insect populations. Despite extensive media coverage of key developments (including releases of manipulated mosquitoes into human communities) this has in only one instance resulted in scientist awareness exceeding 50% on a national or regional scale. We document that awareness of pioneering releases significantly relied on private communication sources that were not equally accessible to scientists from countries with endemic vector-borne diseases (dengue and malaria). In addition, we provide quantitative analysis of the perceptions and knowledge of specific biotechnological approaches to controlling vector-borne disease, which are likely to impact the way in which scientists around the world engage in the debate about their value. Our results indicate that there is scope to strengthen already effective methods of communication, in addition to a strong demand by scientists (expressed by 79.9% of respondents) to develop new, creative modes of public engagement.

  11. A social shaping perspective on nanotechnologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2005-01-01

    in areas where visions are manifold and applications and markets are non-existing or unclear. The emerging idea of 'nanotechnologies' is an example of this kind, where techno-economic networks are unstable or under construction and consequences are difficult, if not impossible to evaluate. The paper...... explores the potential of a social shaping of technology approach in the area of emerging nano-technologies and debate the methodological aspects based on an ongoing Danish foresight project concerned with environmental risks and opportunities in nanotechnologies. The focus is on the identification...

  12. Sociocultural Meanings of Nanotechnology: Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-06-01

    This article identifies six social-science research methodologies that will be useful for charting the sociocultural meaning of nanotechnology: web-based questionnaires, vignette experiments, analysis of web linkages, recommender systems, quantitative content analysis, and qualitative textual analysis. Data from a range of sources are used to illustrate how the methods can delineate the intellectual content and institutional structure of the emerging nanotechnology culture. Such methods will make it possible in future to test hypotheses such as that there are two competing definitions of nanotechnology - the technical-scientific and the science-fiction - that are influencing public perceptions by different routes and in different directions.

  13. Nanotechnology in biorobotics: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology recently opened a series of unexpected technological opportunities that drove the emergence of novel scientific and technological fields, which have the potential to dramatically change the lives of millions of citizens. Some of these opportunities have been already caught by researchers working in the different fields related to biorobotics, while other exciting possibilities still lie on the horizon. This article highlights how nanotechnology applications recently impacted the development of advanced solutions for actuation and sensing and the achievement of microrobots, nanorobots, and non-conventional larger robotic systems. The open challenges are described, together with the most promising research avenues involving nanotechnology

  14. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  15. Perceived risks and perceived benefits of different nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Stampfli, Nathalie; Kastenholz, Hans; Keller, Carmen

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to generate new food products and new food packaging. In a mail survey in the German speaking part of Switzerland, lay people's (N=337) perceptions of 19 nanotechnology applications were examined. The goal was to identify food applications that are more likely and food applications that are less likely to be accepted by the public. The psychometric paradigm was employed, and applications were described in short scenarios. Results suggest that affect and perceived control are important factors influencing risk and benefit perception. Nanotechnology food packaging was assessed as less problematic than nanotechnology foods. Analyses of individual data showed that the importance of naturalness in food products and trust were significant factors influencing the perceived risk and the perceived benefit of nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

  16. Management in biophotonics and biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2005-10-01

    Biophotonics, one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas, offers vast potential for changing traditional approaches to meeting many critical needs in medicine, biology, pharmacy, food, health care and cosmetic industries. Follow the market trends we developed new MSc course Management in Biophotonics and Biotechnologies (MBB) that provide students of technical disciplines with the necessary training, education and problem-solving skills to produce professionals and managers who are better equipped to handle the challenges of modern science and business in biophotonics and biotechnology. A major advantage of the course is that it provides skills not currently available to graduates in other Master programs.

  17. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  18. Future market sustainable water management and nanotechnology; Zukunftsmarkt Nachhaltige Wasserwirtschaft und Nanotechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Wolfgang; Bachmann, Gerd; Grimm, Vera; Schug, Hartmut; Zweck, Axel [VDI Technologiezentrum GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    This case study on nanotechnology with a focus on sustainable water management was done within the scope of the research project ''Future markets - innovative environmental policy in important fields of action''. Nanotechnology is a broad cross-cutting technology with a multitude of process and technology platforms. Nanotechnologies can contribute to preventing water pollution (e. g. by substituting water polluting processes) or removing this (e. g. nanomaterials/ membranes in wastewater treatment) and can be used to monitor water quality (e. g. nanosensors). Water plays a key role in nutrition and health, in agriculture (irrigation) and as a solvent in industrial processes. A globally sustainable supply of drinking water and industrial water is seen as one of the main challenges of the next decades. The world water supply market is predicted to be more than 400 billion US-$ (2010), in which membrane technologies will play a key role. The rapid development of nanotechnologies is reflected in the constant growth in the number of nanotechnology patents and publications. New types of filtration membranes and nanomaterials for the catalytic, adsorptive or magnetic-separation purification of wastewater constitute an important segment; some marketable products have already been developed in this field. In the long term, convergence in the fields of electronics, biotechnology, nanotechnology and microsystems will offer new perspectives and applications, in sustainable water management as well. Germany has high technological competence in membrane and nanofiltration technology, mostly based on the strength of its basic research, which can serve as a good basis from which to tap foreign markets. The USA is the leader in the field of nanotechnology and in water management applications. Starting points for policy measures are the initiation and implementation of innovationsupporting measures for the further development of these technologies -particularly

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGY CAN IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIOTECHNOLOGY CAN IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA. ... and capacity to innovate and patent new materials as well as enforce biosafety requirements. In order for countries to access biotechnology products or technologies, it will ...

  20. Biotechnology Process Engineering Center at MIT - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    | Facsimile (617) 253-2400 | e-mail: bpec-www@mit.edu THERAPEUTIC GENE BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIAL CONSORTIUM Board (ICAB) in Therapeutic Gene Biotechnology. ICAB Member Representatives review our research progress

  1. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  2. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  3. Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    on how to best manage the strategic interplay between biotechnology and diversity in ... Therefore, it is imperative that, in formulating a biotechnology ..... Acknowledgement, indicating the source of any financial support or personal assistance.

  4. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  5. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2010-02-01

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany ( N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  6. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  7. Brief Note on the Development of Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Bayer

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology, with the main applications in food and nutrition, dates back to the early times of mankind. In the recent decades the progress in natural sciences, mathematics and computer science has led to a new branch termed molecular biotechnology, which finally developed as an autonomous scientific discipline. The field of biotechnology, in the past generally empirically driven, now largely benefits from molecular biotechnology by improved systems, knowledge and understanding. Thereby, co...

  8. Nanoscale science and nanotechnology education in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanoscale science and nanotechnology education in Africa: importance and ... field with its footing in chemistry, physics, molecular biology and engineering. ... career/business/development opportunities, risks and policy challenges that would ...

  9. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation.

  10. Microspheres and Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Gauti; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye can be accomplished by invasive drug injections into different tissues of the eye and noninvasive topical treatment. Invasive treatment involves the risks of surgical trauma and infection, and conventional topical treatments are ineffective in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. In recent years, nanotechnology has become an ever-increasing part of ocular drug delivery. In the following, we briefly review microspheres and nanotechnology for drug delivery to the eye, including different forms of nanotechnology such as nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, microemulsions and micromachines. The permeation barriers and anatomical considerations linked to ocular drug delivery are discussed and a theoretical overview on drug delivery through biological membranes is given. Finally, in vitro, in vivo and human studies of x03B3;-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eyedrop suspensions are discussed as an example of nanotechnology used for drug delivery to the eye. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  12. Nanotechnology Concepts at MSFC: Engineering Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar; Kaul, Raj; Shah, Sandeep; Smithers, Gweneth; Watson, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the art and science of building materials and devices at the ultimate level of finesse: atom by atom. Our nation's space program has needs for miniaturization of components, minimization of weight and maximization of performance, and nanotechnology will help us get there. MSFC - Engineering Directorate (ED) is committed to developing nanotechnology that will enable MSFC missions in space transportation, space science and space optics manufacturing. MSFC-ED has a dedicated group of technologists who are currently developing high pay-off nanotechnology concepts. This poster presentation will outline some of the concepts being developed at this time including, nanophase structural materials, carbon nanotube reinforced metal and polymer matrix composites, nanotube temperature sensors and aerogels. The poster will outline these concepts and discuss associated technical challenges in turning these concepts into real components and systems.

  13. Cancer nanotechnology: emerging role of gold nanoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudgus, Rachel A; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata

    2011-12-01

    Over the last few decades, the study of nanotechnology has grown exponentially. Nanotechnology bridges science, engineering and technology; it continues to expand in definition as well as practice. One sub-set of nanotechnology is bionanotechnology, this will be the focus of this review. Currently, bionanotechnology is being studied and exploited for utility within medicinal imaging, diagnosis and therapy in regard to cancer. Cancer is a world-wide health problem and the implication rate as well as the death rate increase year to year. However promising work is being done with gold nanoparticles for detection, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery therapy. Gold nanoparticles can be synthesized in various shapes and sizes, which directly correlates to the color; they can also be manipulated to carry various antibody, protein, plasmid, DNA or small molecule drug. Herein we summarize some of the very influential research being done in the field of Cancer Nanotechnology with an emphasis on gold nanoparticles.

  14. Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and future aspects. ... of those living in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of ... applications in agricultural, food, and water safety that could have significant ...

  15. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. PMID:26504385

  16. Nanotechnology - A path forward for developing nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S. Ismat; Powers, Thomas M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the major issues with technology in general, and nanotechnology in particular, is that it could exacerbate the divide between developed and developing nations. If the benefits of the research do not flow beyond the national and geographical borders of the traditional major bastions of R&D, these benefits will not be equally and globally available. The consequence is that the technological divide becomes wider at the expense of mutual reliance. As much as developed nations need to rethink the strategy and the policy to bring nanotechnology products to market with the goal of global prosperity, developing nations cannot afford to simply wait for the lead from the developed nations. In the spirit of collaboration and collegiality, we describe issues with the current practices in nanotechnology R&D in the developing world and suggest a path for nanotechnology research in energy, water and the environment that developing nations could follow in order to become contributors rather than simply consumers.

  17. Nanotechnology applications in urology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Michael; Liu, James; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Callaghan, Cameron; John, Vijay; Lee, Benjamin R

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the current literature and summarise some of the promising areas with which nanotechnology may improve urological care. A Medline literature search was performed to elucidate all relevant studies of nanotechnology with specific attention to its application in urology. Urological applications of nanotechnology include its use in medical imaging, gene therapy, drug delivery, and photothermal ablation of tumours. In vitro and animal studies have shown initial encouraging results. Further study of nanotechnology for urological applications is warranted to bridge the gap between preclinical studies and translation into clinical practice, but nanomedicine has shown significant potential to improve urological patient care. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  18. Advances in Nanotechnology for Restorative Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad; Qasim, Saad; Shahab, Sana; Naseem, Mustafa; AbuReqaiba, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients. PMID:28787967

  19. Nanotechnology for Advanced Imaging and Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this IRAD is to apply nanotechnology to create new devices to enhance both the imaging and detection of light. We have demonstrated the capability to...

  20. PREFACE: IV Nanotechnology International Forum (RUSNANOTECH 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvurechenskii, Anatoly; Alfimov, Mikhail; Suzdalev, Igor; Osiko, Vyacheslav; Khokhlov, Aleksey; Son, Eduard; Skryabin, Konstantin; Petrov, Rem; Deev, Sergey

    2012-02-01

    Logo The RUSNANOTECH 2011 International Forum on Nanotechnology was held from 26-28 October 2011, in Moscow, Russia. It was the fourth forum organized by RUSNANO (Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies) since 2008. In March 2011 RUSNANO was established as an open joint-stock company through the reorganization of the state corporation Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies. RUSNANO's mission is to develop the Russian nanotechnology industry through co-investment in nanotechnology projects with substantial economic potential or social benefit. Within the framework of the Forum Science and Technology Program, presentations on key trends of nanotechnology development were given by foreign and Russian scientists, R&D officers of leading international companies, universities and scientific centers. The science and technology program of the Forum was divided into four sections as follows (by following hyperlinks you may find each section's program including videos of all oral presentations): Nanoelectronics and Nanophotonics Nanomaterials Nanotechnology and Green Energy Nanotechnology in Healthcare and Pharma (United business and science & technology section on 'RUSNANOTECH 2011') The scientific program of the forum included more than 50 oral presentations by leading scientists from 15 countries. Among them were world-known specialists such as Professor S Bader (Argonne National Laboratory, USA), Professor O Farokzhad (Harvard Medical School, USA), Professor K Chien (Massachusetts General Hospital, USA), Professor L Liz-Marzan (University of Vigo), A Luque (Polytechnic University of Madrid) and many others. The poster session consisted of over 120 presentations, 90 of which were presented in the framework of the young scientists' nanotechnology papers competition. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes a selection of 47 submissions. Section editors of the proceedings: Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of