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Sample records for nanostructured tio2 thin

  1. Surface nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Gomez, P.; Palmero, A.; Yubero, F.; Vinnichenko, M.; Kolitsch, A.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a procedure to modify the surface nanostructure of TiO 2 anatase thin films through ion beam irradiation with energies in the keV range. Irradiation with N + ions leads to the formation of a layer with voids at a depth similar to the ion-projected range. By setting the ion-projected range a few tens of nanometers below the surface of the film, well-ordered nanorods appear aligned with the angle of incidence of the ion beam. Slightly different results were obtained by using heavier (S + ) and lighter (B + ) ions under similar conditions

  2. Transparent nanostructured Fe-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by ultrasonic assisted spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh, Ghader; Ghasemian, Naser; Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Homayoun Keihan, Amir

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2 thin films with high transparency were deposited on glass substrate through ultrasonic-assisted spray pyrolysis technique and were used in the visible light photocatalytic degradation of MB dye. The resulting thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy techniques. Based on Raman spectroscopy results, both of the TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2 films have anatase crystal structure, however, because of the insertion of Fe in the structure of TiO2 some point defects and oxygen vacancies are formed in the Fe-doped TiO2 thin film. Presence of Fe in the structure of TiO2 decreases the band gap energy of TiO2 and also reduces the electron–hole recombination rate. Decreasing of the electron–hole recombination rate and band gap energy result in the enhancement of the visible light photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 thin film.

  3. Effect of precursor concentration and film thickness deposited by layer on nanostructured TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Sol-gel spin coating method is used in the production of nanostructured TiO2 thin film. The surface topology and morphology was observed using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The electrical properties were investigated by using two probe current-voltage (I-V) measurements to study the electrical resistivity behavior, hence the conductivity of the thin film. The solution concentration will be varied from 14.0 to 0.01wt% with 0.02wt% interval where the last concentration of 0.02 to 0.01wt% have 0.01wt% interval to find which concentrations have the highest conductivity then the optimized concentration's sample were chosen for the thickness parameter based on layer by layer deposition from 1 to 6 layer. Based on the result, the lowest concentration of TiO2, the surface becomes more uniform and the conductivity will increase. As the result, sample of 0.01wt% concentration have conductivity value of 1.77E-10 S/m and will be advanced in thickness parameter. Whereas in thickness parameter, the 3layer deposition were chosen as its conductivity is the highest at 3.9098E9 S/m.

  4. Sol-gel TiO2 colloidal suspensions and nanostructured thin films: structural and biological assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartapelle Procopio, Elsa; Colombo, Valentina; Santo, Nadia; Sironi, Angelo; Lenardi, Cristina; Maggioni, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    The role of substrate topography in phenotype expression of in vitro cultured cells has been widely assessed. However, the production of the nanostructured interface via the deposition of sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) has not yet been fully exploited. This is also evidenced by the limited number of studies correlating the morphological, structural and chemical properties of the grown thin films with those of the sol-gel ‘brick’ within the framework of the bottom-up approach. Our work intends to go beyond this drawback presenting an accurate investigation of sol-gel TiO2 NPs shaped as spheres and rods. They have been fully characterized by complementary analytical techniques both suspended in apolar solvents, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and after deposition on substrates (solid state configuration) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the case of suspended anisotropic rods, the experimental DLS data, analyzed by the Tirado-Garcia de la Torre model, present the following ranges of dimensions: 4-5 nm diameter (∅) and 11-15 nm length (L). These results are in good agreement with that obtained by the two solid state techniques, namely 3.8(9) nm ∅ and 13.8(2.5) nm L from TEM and 5.6(1) ∅ and 13.3(1) nm L from PXRD data. To prove the suitability of the supported sol-gel NPs for biological issues, spheres and rods have been separately deposited on coverslips. The cell response has been ascertained by evaluating the adhesion of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney. The cellular analysis showed that titania films promote cell adhesion as well clustering organization, which is a distinguishing feature of this type of cell line. Thus, the use of nanostructured substrates via sol-gel could be considered a good candidate for cell culture with the further advantages of likely scalability and interfaceability with many different materials usable as supports.

  5. Sol-gel TiO2 colloidal suspensions and nanostructured thin films: structural and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Elsa Quartapelle; Colombo, Valentina; Santo, Nadia; Sironi, Angelo; Lenardi, Cristina; Maggioni, Daniela

    2018-02-02

    The role of substrate topography in phenotype expression of in vitro cultured cells has been widely assessed. However, the production of the nanostructured interface via the deposition of sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) has not yet been fully exploited. This is also evidenced by the limited number of studies correlating the morphological, structural and chemical properties of the grown thin films with those of the sol-gel 'brick' within the framework of the bottom-up approach. Our work intends to go beyond this drawback presenting an accurate investigation of sol-gel TiO 2 NPs shaped as spheres and rods. They have been fully characterized by complementary analytical techniques both suspended in apolar solvents, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and after deposition on substrates (solid state configuration) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the case of suspended anisotropic rods, the experimental DLS data, analyzed by the Tirado-Garcia de la Torre model, present the following ranges of dimensions: 4-5 nm diameter (∅) and 11-15 nm length (L). These results are in good agreement with that obtained by the two solid state techniques, namely 3.8(9) nm ∅ and 13.8(2.5) nm L from TEM and 5.6(1) ∅ and 13.3(1) nm L from PXRD data. To prove the suitability of the supported sol-gel NPs for biological issues, spheres and rods have been separately deposited on coverslips. The cell response has been ascertained by evaluating the adhesion of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney. The cellular analysis showed that titania films promote cell adhesion as well clustering organization, which is a distinguishing feature of this type of cell line. Thus, the use of nanostructured substrates via sol-gel could be considered a good candidate for cell culture with the further advantages of likely scalability and interfaceability with many different materials usable as supports.

  6. Semi-transparent ordered TiO_2 nanostructures prepared by anodization of titanium thin films deposited onto the FTO substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkoda, Mariusz; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Skowroński, Łukasz; Karczewski, Jakub; Siuzdak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • High quality titanium coatings were doposited using industrial magnetron sputtering equipment. • Semi-transparent TiO_2 were prepared via anodization realized in various conditions. • Depending on electrolyte type, ordered tubular or porous TiO_2 layers were obtained. • Prepared material can act as semiconducting layer in photovoltaic cells. - Abstract: In a significant amount of cases, the highly ordered TiO_2 nanotube arrays grow through anodic oxidation of a titanium metal plate immersed in electrolyte containing fluoride ions. However, for some practical applications, e.g. solar cells or electrochromic windows, the semi-transparent TiO_2 formed directly on the transparent, conductive substrate is very much desired. This work shows that high-quality Ti coating could be formed at room temperature using an industrial magnetron sputtering system within 50 min. Under optimized conditions, the anodization process was performed on 2 μm titanium films deposited onto the FTO (fluorine-tin-oxide) support. Depending on the electrolyte type, highly ordered tubular or porous titania layers were obtained. The fabricated samples, after their thermal annealing, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy in order to investigate their morphology, crystallinity and absorbance ability. The photocurrent response curves indicate that materials are resistant to the photocorrosion process and their activity is strongly connected to optical properties. The most transparent TiO_2 films were fabricated when Ti was anodized in water electrolyte, whereas the highest photocurrent densities (12 μA cm"−"2) were registered for titania received after Ti anodization in ethylene glycol solution. The obtained results are of significant importance in the production of thin, semi-transparent titania nanostructures on a commercial scale.

  7. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped and undoped TiO2 nanostructured thin films under UV and vis-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, Nadir; Sayilkan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO 2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without solvent at 200 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO 2 based thin films have been prepared on glass substrate by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, SEM, BET and UV-vis-NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis-lights. The results showed that (a) hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, (b) the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and (c) the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 thin film

  8. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured thin films for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under UV and VIS-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Sener, S.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2008-01-01

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO 2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without acid catalyst at 225 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO 2 based thin films, contain at different solid ratio of TiO 2 in coating, have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, BET and UV/VIS/NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested for degradation of malachite green dye in solution under UV and VIS-lights. The results showed that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and, the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 thin film. The results also proved that malachite green is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics

  9. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured mono and double layer thin films for Malachite Green dye degradation under UV and vis-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructure Sn 4+ -doped TiO 2 based mono and double layer thin films, contain 50% solid ratio of TiO 2 in coating have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. Their photocatalytic performances were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis irradiation. Sn 4+ -doped nano-TiO 2 particle a doping ratio of about 5[Sn 4+ /Ti(OBu n ) 4 ; mol/mol%] has been synthesized by hydrotermal process at 225 deg. C. The structure, surface and optical properties of the thin films and/or the particles have been investigated by XRD, BET and UV/vis/NIR techniques. The results showed that the double layer coated glass surfaces have a very high photocatalytic performance than the other one under UV and vis lights. The results also proved that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water. The results also reveal that the coated surfaces have hydrophilic property

  10. Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2–Cu2O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Parans M; Simpson, John T; Christen, David K; Bogorin, Daniela F; Mathis, John E

    2014-01-01

    By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO 2 –Cu 2 O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie–Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to ∼172° and sliding angles <1°. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO 2 , the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required. (papers)

  11. TiO2 brookite nanostructured thin layer on magneto-optical surface plasmon resonance transductor for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M. G.; Colombelli, A.; Rella, R.; Caricato, A.; Cozzoli, P. D.; Martino, M.; Vasanelli, L.

    2012-09-01

    The sensing performance comparisons presented in this work were carried out by exploiting a suitable magneto-plasmonic sensor in both the traditional surface plasmon resonance configuration and the innovative magneto-optic surface plasmon resonance one. The particular multilayer transducer was functionalized with TiO2 Brookite nanorods layers deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation, and its sensing capabilities were monitored in a controlled atmosphere towards different concentrations of volatile organic compounds mixed in dry air.

  12. Optimized nanostructured TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Selda; Jodhani, Gagan; Gouma, Pelagia

    2016-07-01

    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  13. Evolution of nanostructures of anatase TiO2 thin films grown on (001) LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, Regina; Vittadini, Andrea; Selloni, Annabella; Arpaia, Riccardo; Aruta, Carmela; Miletto Granozio, Fabio; Scotti di Uccio, Umberto; Rossi, Giorgio; Carlino, Elvio

    2013-01-01

    Combining reflection high-energy electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy we unveil the existence of a peculiar transition from a three-dimensional to a two-dimensional growth mode in anatase TiO 2 /LaAlO 3 heterostructures. Such a growth dynamics is accompanied by Al interdiffusion from substrate to the growing film up to a critical thickness of 20 nm. With the extra support of ab initio calculations, we show that the crossover between the two growth modes corresponds to the formation of two distinct regions characterized by (103)- and (101)-oriented crystallographic shear superstructures, occurring in the upmost film region and in proximity of the film/substrate interface, respectively.

  14. Deliberate Design of TiO2 Nanostructures towards Superior Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ziqi; Liao, Ting; Sheng, Liyuan; Kou, Liangzhi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-08-01

    TiO2 nanostructures are being sought after as flexibly utilizable building blocks for the fabrication of the mesoporous thin-film photoelectrodes that are the heart of the third-generation photovoltaic devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), and the recently promoted perovskite-type solar cells. Here, we report deliberate tailoring of TiO2 nanostructures for superior photovoltaic cells. Morphology engineering of TiO2 nanostructures is realized by designing synthetic protocols in which the precursor hydrolysis, crystal growth, and oligomer self-organization are precisely controlled. TiO2 nanostructures in forms varying from isolated nanocubes, nanorods, and cross-linked nanorods to complex hierarchical structures and shape-defined mesoporous micro-/nanostructures were successfully synthesized. The photoanodes made from the shape-defined mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and nanospindles presented superior performances, owing to the well-defined overall shapes and the inner ordered nanochannels, which allow not only a high amount of dye uptake, but also improved visible-light absorption. This study provides a new way to seek an optimal synthetic protocol to meet the required functionality of the nanomaterials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of WO3-surface modified TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Drmosh, Qasem; Ahmed, Muhammad I.; Qamaruddin, Muhammad; Yamani, Zain H.

    2015-02-01

    Development of nanostructured photocatalysts for harnessing solar energy in energy-efficient and environmentally benign way remains an important area of research. Pure and WO3-surface modified thin films of TiO2 were prepared by magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxide glass, and photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of these films were studied. TiO2 particles were <50 nm, while deposited WO3 particles were <20 nm in size. An enhancement in the photocurrent was observed when the TiO2 surface was modified WO3 nanoparticles. Effect of potential, WO3 amount, and radiations of different wavelengths on the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2 electrodes was investigated. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and WO3-modified TiO2 for the decolorization of methyl orange was tested.

  16. TiO2 and SiC nanostructured films, organized CNT structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sized nanostructured TiO2 films through hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide. (TTIP) [9 ... structured TiO2 as a photocatalyst is as follows [15]:. TiO2(ns) ... The deposited films were easily detached from the silica tube and subjected to. SEM.

  17. Studies of surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on different molarities of TiO_2 seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) seed layer was prepared by using sol-gel spin-coating technique, followed by growth of 0.01 M of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by solution-immersion. The molarities of TiO_2 seed layer were varied from 1.1 M to 0.100 M on glass substrates. The nanostructures thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electrons Microscope (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FESEM images demonstrate that needle-like ZnO nanostructures are formed on all TiO_2 seed layer. The smallest diameter of needle-like ZnO nanostructures (90.3 nm) were deposited on TiO_2 seed layer of 0.100 M. PL spectra of the TiO_2: ZnO nanostructures thin films show the blue shifted emissions in the UV regions compared to the ZnO thin film. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectra of films display high absorption in the UV region and high trasparency in the visible region. The highest absorbance at UV region was recorded for sample which has 0.100 M of TiO_2 seed layer.

  18. Superhydrophilicity of TiO2 nano thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadizadeh, M.R.; Ashkarran, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Among the several oxide semiconductors, titanium dioxide has a more helpful role in our environmental purification due to its photocatalytic activity, photo-induced superhydrophilicity, and as a result of them non-toxicity, self cleaning, and antifogging effects. After the discovery of superhydrophilicity of titanium dioxide in 1997, several researches have been performed due to its nature and useful applications. The superhydrophilicity property of the surface allows water to spread completely across the surface rather than remains as droplets, thus making the surface antifog and easy-to-clean. The distinction of photo-induced catalytic and hydrophilicity properties of TiO 2 thin films has been accepted although, the origin of hydrophilicity property has not been recognized completely yet. TiO 2 thin films on soda lime glass were prepared by the sol-gel method and spin coating process. The calcination temperature was changed from 100 to 550 C. XRD patterns show increasing the content of polycrystalline anatase phase with increasing the calcination temperature. The AFM results indicate granular morphology of the films, which particle size changes from 22 to 166 nm by increasing the calcination temperature. The RBS, EDX and Raman spectroscopy of the films show the ratio of Ti:O∼0.5, and diffusion of sodium ions from substrate into the layer, by increasing the calcination temperature. The UV/Vis. spectroscopy of the films indicates a red shift by increasing the calcination temperature. The contact angle meter experiment shows that superhydrophilicity of the films depends on the formation of anatase crystal structure and diffused sodium content from substrate to the layer. The best hydrophilicity property was observed at 450 C calcination temperature, where the film is converted to a superhydrophilic surface after 10 minutes under 2mW/cm 2 UV irradiation. TiO 2 thin film on Si(111), Si(100), and quartz substrates needs less time to be converted to

  19. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and

  20. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Narayan Banerjee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arghya Narayan BanerjeeSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South KoreaAbstract: Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via

  1. Three-dimensional observation of TiO2 nanostructures by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Suh, Young Joon; Lu, Ning; Park, Seong Yong; Lee, Tae Hun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Cha, Dong Kyu; Lee, Min Gun; Huang, Jie; Kim, Sung Soo; Sohn, Byeong Hyeok; Kim, Geung Ho; Ko, Min Jae; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures of TiO2 related materials including nanotubes, electron acceptor materials in hybrid polymer solar cells, and working electrodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were visualized by electron tomography as well

  2. Three-dimensional observation of TiO2 nanostructures by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Suh, Young Joon

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures of TiO2 related materials including nanotubes, electron acceptor materials in hybrid polymer solar cells, and working electrodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were visualized by electron tomography as well as TEM micrographs. The regions on the wall of TiO2 nanotubes where the streptavidins were attached were elucidated by electron tomogram analysis. The coverage of TiO2 nanotubes by streptavidin was also investigated. The TiO2 nanostructures in hybrid polymer solar cells made by sol-gel and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods and the morphologies of pores between TiO2 particles in DSSCs were also observed by reconstructed three-dimensional images made by electron tomography. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks via wet corrosion of Ti thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Hong, Jongin

    2017-09-01

    Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by corrosion of Ti thin films on F-doped SnO2 glass substrates in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The formation of the porous TiO2 nanostructures from the Ti thin films was thoroughly investigated. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a photoanode of 1.2-μm-thick nanowire networks exhibit an average optical transmittance of 40% in the visible light region and a power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under one sun illumination.

  4. TiO 2 Thin Films Prepared via Adsorptive Self-Assembly for Self-Cleaning Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xi, Baojuan

    2012-02-22

    Low-cost controllable solution-based processes for preparation of titanium oxide (TiO 2) thin films are highly desirable, because of many important applications of this oxide in catalytic decomposition of volatile organic compounds, advanced oxidation processes for wastewater and bactericidal treatments, self-cleaning window glass for green intelligent buildings, dye-sensitized solar cells, solid-state semiconductor metal-oxide solar cells, self-cleaning glass for photovoltaic devices, and general heterogeneous photocatalysis for fine chemicals etc. In this work, we develop a solution-based adsorptive self-assembly approach to fabricate anatase TiO 2 thin films on different glass substrates such as simple plane glass and patterned glass at variable compositions (normal soda lime glass or solar-grade borofloat glass). By tuning the number of process cycles (i.e., adsorption-then-heating) of TiO 2 colloidal suspension, we could facilely prepare large-area TiO 2 films at a desired thickness and with uniform crystallite morphology. Moreover, our as-prepared nanostructured TiO 2 thin films on glass substrates do not cause deterioration in optical transmission of glass; instead, they improve optical performance of commercial solar cells over a wide range of incident angles of light. Our as-prepared anatase TiO 2 thin films also display superhydrophilicity and excellent photocatalytic activity for self-cleaning application. For example, our investigation of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange indicates that these thin films are indeed highly effective, in comparison to other commercial TiO 2 thin films under identical testing conditions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Enhanced interfacial contact between PbS and TiO2 layers in quantum dot solar cells using 2D-arrayed TiO2 hemisphere nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonseok; Ryu, Ilhwan; Lee, Haein; Yim, Sanggyu

    2018-02-01

    Two-dimensionally (2D) arrayed hemispherical nanostructures of TiO2 thin films were successfully fabricated using a simple procedure of spin-coating or dip-coating TiO2 nanoparticles onto 2D close-packed polystyrene (PS) nanospheres, followed by PS extraction. The nanostructured TiO2 film was then used as an n-type layer in a lead sulfide (PbS) colloidal quantum dot solar cell. The TiO2 nanostructure could provide significantly increased contacts with subsequently deposited PbS quantum dot layer. In addition, the periodically arrayed nanostructure could enhance optical absorption of the cell by redirecting the path of the incident light and increasing the path length passing though the active layer. As a result, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached 5.13%, which is approximately a 1.7-fold increase over that of the control cell without nanostructuring, 3.02%. This PCE enhancement can mainly be attributed to the increase of the short-circuit current density from 19.6 mA/cm2 to 30.6 mA/cm2, whereas the open-circuit voltage and fill factor values did not vary significantly.

  6. Enhanced properties of nanostructured TiO2-graphene composites by rapid sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, In-Jin; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae

    2018-01-01

    Despite of many attractive properties of TiO2, the drawback of TiO2 ceramic is low fracture toughness for widely industrial application. The method to improve the fracture toughness and hardness has been reported by addition of reinforcing phase to fabricate a nanostructured composite. In this regard, graphene has been evaluated as an ideal second phase in ceramics. Nearly full density of nanostructured TiO2-graphene composite was achieved within one min using pulsed current activated sintering. The effect of graphene on microstructure, fracture toughness and hardness of TiO2-graphene composite was evaluated using Vickers hardness tester and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The grain size of TiO2 in the TiO2-x vol% (x = 0, 1, 3, and 5) graphene composite was greatly reduced with increase in addition of graphene. Both hardness and fracture toughness of TiO2-graphene composites simultaneously increased in the addition of graphene.

  7. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    goes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to .... Figure 6. Photodegradation of IGOR organic dye by a. bare TiO2 thin film and b. ... Meng L-J and Dos Santos M P 1993 Thin Solid Films 226 22.

  8. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  9. In situ controlled synthesis of various TiO2 nanostructured materials via a facile hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hai; Liu Yong; Zhong Minyi; Xu Hongmei; Huang Hong; Shen Hui

    2011-01-01

    Various TiO 2 nanomaterials, such as nanosheets, nanoflowers, and nanowires were directly self assembled on titanium substrate on a large scale under hydrothermal conditions. The morphology of the formed TiO 2 nanomaterials could be easily tuned by varying the experimental parameters of temperature, reaction time, and the NaOH concentration. A possible formation mechanism was suggested on the basis of the shape evolution of TiO 2 nanostructures by SEM images in combination with XRD patterns of as-grown samples. The optical properties of TiO 2 nanosheets, nanoflowers, and nanowires were characterized by reflectance spectroscopy. The studies revealed that the absorption capability of visible light is obviously different for TiO 2 with different morphologies. Moreover, TiO 2 nanosheets exhibited better light trapping than TiO 2 nanoflowers and TiO 2 nanowires due to their unique nanostructure.

  10. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  11. Facile Synthesis and Tensile Behavior of TiO2 One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu-you

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High-yield synthesis of TiO2 one-dimensional (1D nanostructures was realized by a simple annealing of Ni-coated Ti grids in an argon atmosphere at 950 °C and 760 torr. The as-synthesized 1D nanostructures were single crystalline rutile TiO2 with the preferred growth direction close to [210]. The growth of these nanostructures was enhanced by using catalytic materials, higher reaction temperature, and longer reaction time. Nanoscale tensile testing performed on individual 1D nanostructures showed that the nanostructures appeared to fracture in a brittle manner. The measured Young’s modulus and fracture strength are ~56.3 and 1.4 GPa, respectively.

  12. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline porous TiO2/WO3 composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsay, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 materials possessing not only photocatalytic but also electrochromic properties have attracted many research and development interests. Though WO 3 exhibits excellent electrochromic properties, the much higher cost and water-sensitivity of WO 3 as compared with the TiO 2 may restrict the practical application of WO 3 materials. In the present study, the feasibility of preparing nanocrystalline porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite thin films was investigated. Precursors of sols TiO 2 and/or WO 3 and polystyrene microspheres were used to prepare nanocrystalline pure TiO 2 , WO 3 , and composite TiO 2 /WO 3 thin films by spin coating. The spin-coated thin films were amorphous and, after heat treating at a temperature of 500 o C, nanocrystalline TiO 2 , TiO 2 /WO 3 , and WO 3 thin films with or without pores were prepared successfully. The heat-treated thin films were colorless and coloration-bleaching phenomena can be observed during cyclic voltammetry tests. The heat-treated thin films exhibited good reversible electrochromic behavior while the porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite film exhibited improved electrochromic properties

  13. SAXS Studies of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Polymer Electrolytes and in Nanostructured Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Bernstorff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolytes as nanostructured materials are very attractive components for batteries and opto-electronic devices. (PEO8ZnCl2 polymer electrolytes were prepared from PEO and ZnCl2. The nanocomposites (PEO8ZnCl2/TiO2 themselves contained TiO2 nanograins. In this work, the influence of the TiO2 nanograins on the morphology and ionic conductivity of the nanocomposite was systematically studied by transmission small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS simultaneously recorded with wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC at the synchrotron ELETTRA. Films containing nanosized grains of titanium dioxide (TiO2 are widely used in the research of optical and photovoltaic devices. The TiO2 films, prepared by chemical vapor deposition and e-beam epitaxy, were annealed in hydrogen atmospheres in the temperature range between 20 °C and 900 °C in order to study anatase-rutile phase transition at 740 °C. Also, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS spectra for each TiO2 film were measured in reflection geometry at different grazing incident angles. Environmentally friendly galvanic cells, as well as solar cells of the second generation, are to be constructed with TiO2 film as working electrode, and nanocomposite polymer as electrolyte.

  14. TiO2/carbon nanotube hybrid nanostructures: Solvothermal synthesis and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lihong; Ye Liqun; Deng Kejian; Zan Ling

    2011-01-01

    MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid nanostructures were prepared via solvothermal synthesis and sol-gel method with benzyl alcohol as a surfactant. As-prepared hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that MWCNTs were uniformly decorated with anatase nanocrystals in solvothermal condition, but MWCNTs were embedded in a majority of TiO 2 nanoparticles by sol-gel method. When the weight ratio of MWCNTs to TiO 2 was 20%, MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid nanostructures prepared by solvothermal synthesis exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity than that prepared by sol-gel method. Post-annealing of MWCNT/TiO 2 nanostructures at 400 deg. C resulted in the formation of the carbonaceous Ti-C bonds on the interface between TiO 2 and MWCNTs, which enhanced the photoabsorbance of the hybrid materials in the visible light region and improved the visible-light degradation efficiency of methylene blue. - Graphical abstract: MWCNT/TiO 2 nanostructures have been prepared by solvothermal method, which exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity than that prepared by sol-gel method. The carbonaceous Ti-C bonds on the interface between TiO 2 and MWCNTs enhanced the photoabsorbance of the hybrid materials in the visible light region. Highlights: → Anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles were anchored on CNTs surface uniformly via solvothermal method → The morphology facilitated the electron transfer between CNTs and TiO 2 → Ti-C bonds extended the absorption of MWCNT/TiO 2 to the whole visible light region. → The hybrid nanostructures showed enhanced visible-light induced photocatalytic activity.

  15. TiO2 nanoparticle thin film deposition by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Capone, S.; Ciccarella, G.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Romano, F.; Spadavecchia, J.; Taurino, A.; Tunno, T.; Valerini, D.

    2007-01-01

    The MAPLE technique has been used for the deposition of nanostructured titania (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles thin films to be used for gas sensors applications. An aqueous solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles, synthesised by a novel chemical route, was frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed ArF excimer laser in a vacuum chamber. A uniform distribution of TiO 2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm was deposited on Si and interdigitated Al 2 O 3 substrates as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy-field emission gun inspection (SEM-FEG). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed the presence of only the titanium and oxygen signals and FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red) revealed the TiO 2 characteristic composition and bond. A comparison with a spin coated thin film obtained from the same solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles is reported. The sensing properties of the films deposited on interdigitated substrates were investigated, too

  16. Formation of rod-like nanostructure by aggregation of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rod-like nanoparticle aggregates was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue ... Rod-like nanostructure; aligned nanoparticle aggregates; photocatalytic activity; antibacterial ... bioactive and electrical properties by effective utilization of light. Further TiO2 ... contact with microorganism as antimicrobial nanomaterials,.

  17. Self-organized nanocrack networks: a pathway to enlarge catalytic surface area in sputtered ceramic thin films, showcased for photocatalytic TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, B.; Vahl, A.; Aktas, O. C.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.

    2018-01-01

    Sputter deposited photocatalytic thin films offer high adherence and mechanical stability, but typically are outperformed in their photocatalytic properties by colloidal TiO2 nanostructures, which in turn typically suffer from problematic removal. Here we report on thermally controlled nanocrack formation as a feasible and batch applicable approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance of well adhering, reactively sputtered TiO2 thin films. Networks of nanoscopic cracks were induced into tailored columnar TiO2 thin films by thermal annealing. These deep trenches are separating small bundles of TiO2 columns, adding their flanks to the overall catalytically active surface area. The variation of thin film thickness reveals a critical layer thickness for initial nanocrack network formation, which was found to be about 400 nm in case of TiO2. The columnar morphology of the as deposited TiO2 layer with weak bonds between respective columns and with strong bonds to the substrate is of crucial importance for the formation of nanocrack networks. A beneficial effect of nanocracking on the photocatalytic performance was experimentally observed. It was correlated by a simple geometric model for explaining the positive impact of the crack induced enlargement of active surface area on photocatalytic efficiency. The presented method of nanocrack network formation is principally not limited to TiO2 and is therefore seen as a promising candidate for utilizing increased surface area by controlled crack formation in ceramic thin films in general.

  18. Preparation of anatase TiO2 thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Tsukada, Satoshi; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2006-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films with high photocatalytic activity have been prepared with deposition rates as high as 16 nm/min by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) method using sintered TiO 2 pellets as the source material. Highly transparent TiO 2 thin films prepared at substrate temperatures from room temperature to 400 deg. C exhibited photocatalytic activity, regardless whether oxygen (O 2 ) gas was introduced during the VAPE deposition. The highest photocatalytic activity and photo-induced hydrophilicity were obtained in anatase TiO 2 thin films prepared at 300 deg. C, which correlated to the best crystallinity of the films, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction. In addition, a transparent and conductive anatase TiO 2 thin film with a resistivity of 2.6 x 10 -1 Ω cm was prepared at a substrate temperature of 400 deg. C without the introduction of O 2 gas

  19. Microwave synthesized nanostructured TiO2-activated carbon composite electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumar, M.; Bhat, D. Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructure TiO 2 has been prepared by a microwave assisted synthesis method. ► Microwave irradiation was varied with time duration on the formation of nanoparticles. ► TiO 2 -activate carbon show very good specific capacitance for supercapacitor. ► Electrochemical properties were studied on electroanalytical techniques. - Abstract: Electrochemical properties of a supercapacitor based on nanocomposite electrodes of activated carbon with TiO 2 nano particles synthesized by a microwave method have been determined. The TiO 2 /activated carbon nanocomposite electrode with a composition of 1:3 showed a specific capacitance 92 Fg −1 . The specific capacitance of the electrode decreased with increase in titanium dioxide content. The p/p symmetrical supercapacitor fabricated with TiO 2 /activated carbon composite electrodes showed a specific capacitance of 122 Fg −1 . The electrochemical behavior of the neat TiO 2 nanoparticles has also been studied for comparison purpose. The galvanostatic charge–discharge test of the fabricated supercapacitor showed that the device has good coulombic efficiency and cycle life. The specific capacitance of the supercapacitor was stable up to 5000 cycles at current densities of 2, 4, 6 and 7 mA cm −2 .

  20. Properties of Sn-doped TiO2 nanotubes fabricated by anodization of co-sputtered Ti–Sn thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyeremateng, Nana Amponsah; Hornebecq, Virginie; Knauth, Philippe; Djenizian, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Self-organized Sn-doped TiO 2 nanotubes (nts) were fabricated for the first time, by anodization of co-sputtered Ti and Sn thin films. This nanostructured material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Due to their remarkable properties, Sn-doped TiO 2 nts can find potential applications in Li-ion microbatteries, photovoltaics, and catalysis. Particularly, the electrochemical performance as an anode material for Li-ion microbatteries was evaluated in Li test cells. With current density of 70 μA cm −2 (1 C) and cut-off potential of 1 V, Sn-doped TiO 2 nts showed improved performance compared to simple TiO 2 nts, and differential capacity plots revealed that the material undergoes full electrochemical reaction as a Rutile-type TiO 2 .

  1. Sensing behavior of acetone vapors on TiO_2 nanostructures — application of density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nagarajan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of TiO_2 nanostructure are explored using density functional theory. The adsorption properties of acetone on TiO_2 nanostructure are studied in terms of adsorption energy, average energy gap variation and Mulliken charge transfer. The density of states spectrum and the band structure clearly reveals the adsorption of acetone on TiO_2 nanostructures. The variation in the energy gap and changes in the density of charge are observed upon adsorption of acetone on n-type TiO_2 base material. The results of DOS spectrum reveal that the transfer of electrons takes place between acetone vapor and TiO_2 base material. The findings show that the adsorption property of acetone is more favorable on TiO_2 nanostructure. Suitable adsorption sites of acetone on TiO_2 nanostructure are identified at atomistic level. From the results, it is confirmed that TiO_2 nanostructure can be efficiently utilized as a sensing element for the detection of acetone vapor in a mixed environment.

  2. Bactericidal Effects of HVOF-Sprayed Nanostructured TiO2 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, B.; Peppler, M.; Lima, R. S.; McDonald, A.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been shown to exhibit photocatalytic bactericidal activity. This preliminary study focused on examining the photocatalytic activity of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed nanostructured TiO2 coatings to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The surfaces of the nanostructured TiO2 coatings were lightly polished before addition of the bacterial solution. Plates of P. aeruginosa were grown, and then suspended in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. The concentration of bacteria used was determined by a photo-spectrometer, which measured the amount of light absorbed by the bacteria-filled solution. This solution was diluted and pipetted onto the coating, which was exposed to white light in 30-min intervals, up to 120 min. It was found that on polished HVOF-sprayed coatings exposed to white light, 24% of the bacteria were killed after exposure for 120 min. On stainless steel controls, approximately 6% of the bacteria were not recovered. These preliminary results show that thermal-sprayed nanostructured TiO2 coatings exhibited photocatalytic bactericidal activity with P. aeruginosa.

  3. Photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.; Hsu, T.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. By introducing polystyrene (PS) spheres into the precursor solution, porous TiO 2 /Ag thin films were prepared after calcination at a temperature of 500 deg. C for 4 h. Three different sizes (50, 200, and 400 nm) of PS spheres were used to prepare porous TiO 2 films. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy to reveal structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. When PS spheres of different sizes were introduced after calcination, the as-prepared TiO 2 films exhibited different porous structures. XRD results showed that all TiO 2 /Ag films exhibited a major anatase phase. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 thin films prepared with 200 nm PS spheres and doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where ∼ 100% methylene blue was decomposed within 8 h under UV exposure

  4. Nanostructured Photocatalytic TiO2 Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spraying with Different Injection Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuezhang; Wen, Kui; Deng, Chunming; Yang, Kun; Deng, Changguang; Liu, Min; Zhou, Kesong

    2018-02-01

    High plasma power is beneficial for the deposition efficiency and adhesive strength of suspension-sprayed photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, but it confronts two challenges: one is the reduced activity due to the critical phase transformation of anatase into rutile, and the other is fragmented droplets which cannot be easily injected into the plasma core. Here, TiO2 coatings were deposited at high plasma power and the position of suspension injection was varied with the guidance of numerical simulation. The simulation was based on a realistic three-dimensional time-dependent numerical model that included the inside and outside of torch regions. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the microstructure of the TiO2 coatings, whereas x-ray diffraction was adopted to analyze phase composition. Meanwhile, photocatalytic activities of the manufactured TiO2 coatings were evaluated by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue dye. Fragmented droplets were uniformly injected into the plasma jet, and the solidification pathway of melting particles was modified by varying the position of suspension injection. A nanostructured TiO2 coating with 93.9% anatase content was obtained at high plasma power (48.1 kW), and the adhesive coating bonding to stainless steel exhibited the desired photocatalytic activity.

  5. Nanostructured TiO2 Doped with Nb as a Novel Support for PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the major issues of the PEMFC concerns the durability. Historically, carbon has been used as a catalyst support in PEMFC; nevertheless, under the environmental conditions of the cell, the carbon is oxidized, leaving the catalyst unsupported. In order to increase the stability and durability of the catalyst in the PEMFC, a novel nanostructured metallic oxide support is proposed. In this work, TiO2 was doped with Nb to obtain a material that combines chemical stability, high surface area, and an adequate electronic conductivity in order to be a successful catalyst support candidate for long-term PEMFC applications. The TiO2-Nb nanostructured catalyst support was physically and electrochemically characterized. According to the results, the TiO2-Nb offers high surface area and good particle dispersion; also, the electrochemical activity and stability of the support were evaluated under high potential conditions, where the TiO2-Nb proved to be much more stable than carbon.

  6. Stability and Electronic Properties of TiO2 Nanostructures With and Without B and N Doping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2009-01-01

    We address one of the main challenges to TiO2 photocatalysis, namely band gap narrowing, by combining nanostructural changes with doping. With this aim we compare TiO2’s electronic properties for small 0D clusters, 1D nanorods and nanotubes, 2D layers, and 3D surface and bulk phases using differe...

  7. Biocompatibility and Surface Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Cervantes, Blanca; González, Octavio; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Vega, Rosario; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the biocompatibility and surface properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. These films are deposited on a quartz substrate at room temperature and annealed with different temperatures (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1100 °C). The biocompatibility of the TiO2 thin films is analyzed using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of Wistar rats, whose neurons are incubated on the TiO2 thin films and on a control substrate during 18 to 24 h. These neurons are activated by electrical stimuli and its ionic currents and action potential activity recorded. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface of TiO2 thin films showed a good quality, homogeneity and roughness. The XRD results showed the anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 thin films at temperatures between 500 and 1100 °C. This phase had a grain size from 15 to 38 nm, which allowed a suitable structural and crystal phase stability of the TiO2 thin films for low and high temperature. The biocompatibility experiments of these films indicated that they were appropriated for culture of living neurons which displayed normal electrical behavior. PMID:28788667

  8. Improved tribological properties of TiC with porous nanostructured TiO2 intermediate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanaghi, Ali; Ahangarani, Shahrokh; Sabour Rouhaghdam, Ali Reza; Chu, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The porous TiO 2 nanoparticle coating is deposited as an intermediate layer on steel. ► A homogenous and low friction TiC nanostructure coating is deposited by plasma CVD. ► Intermediate layer can be determined the nucleation and growth of the TiC coating. ► The porous interlayer improves the friction and wear of the TiC nanostructure coating. - Abstract: The mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients between TiC coatings and steel substrates and residual stress in the TiC degrade the tribological properties. In this work, a porous nanostructured TiO 2 coating is deposited as an intermediate layer on hot-work steel (H 11 ) before final deposition of the TiC film. This intermediate layer is expected to reduce the interfacial energy, decreases the thermal mismatch between TiC and steel, and improves the tribological properties. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and pin-on-disk are used to study the structure as well as tribological properties such as friction, wear, and hardness. Our results reveal that the porous TiO 2 interlayer improves the friction, wear, hardness, and elastic modulus of the system.

  9. Gold and TiO2 Nanostructure Surfaces for Assembling of Electrochemical Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curulli, A.; Zane, D.

    2008-01-01

    Devices based on nano materials are emerging as a powerful and general class of ultrasensitive sensors for the direct detection of biological and chemical species. In this work, we report the preparation and the full characterization of nano materials such as gold nano wires and TiO 2 nano structured films to be used for assembling of electrochemical biosensors. Gold nano wires were prepared by electroless deposition within the pores of polycarbonate particle track-etched membranes (PMS). Glucose oxidase was deposited onto the nano wires using self-assembling monolayer as an anchor layer for the enzyme molecules. Finally, cyclic voltammetry was performed for different enzymes to test the applicability of gold nano wires as biosensors. Considering another interesting nano material, the realization of functionalized TiO 2 thin films on Si substrates for the immobilization of enzymes is reported. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase immobilized onto TiO 2 -based nano structured surfaces exhibited a pair of well-defined and quasi reversible voltammetric peaks. The electron exchange between the enzyme and the electrodes was greatly enhanced in the TiO 2 nano structured environment. The electrocatalytic activity of HRP and GOD embedded in TiO 2 electrodes toward H 2 O 2 and glucose, respectively, may have a potential perspective in the fabrication of third-generation biosensors based on direct electrochemistry of enzymes.

  10. TiO2 thin-films on polymer substrates and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae-Hun; Han, Yang-Su; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We have developed dip-coating process for TiO 2 -thin film on polymer substrates (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer: ABS, polystyrene: PS). At first, a monodispersed and transparent TiO 2 nano-sol solution was prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide in the presence of acetylacetone and nitric acid catalyst at 80 deg. C. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the dried particles are indicative of crystalline TiO 2 with anatase-type structure. According to the XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, the mean particle size was estimated to be ca. 5 nm. The transparent thin films on ABS and PS substrates were fabricated by dip-coating process by changing the processing variables, such as the number of dip-coating and TiO 2 concentration in nano-sol solution. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis for the thin film samples reveals that the acetylacetone-modified TiO 2 nano-sol particles are effective for enhancing the interfacial adherence between films and polymeric substrates compared to the unmodified one. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) on the TiO 2 thin-films has also been systematically investigated

  11. 1D TiO2 Nanostructures Prepared from Seeds Presenting Tailored TiO2 Crystalline Phases and Their Photocatalytic Activity for Escherichia coli in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Cabrera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 nanoparticles with a controlled proportion of anatase and rutile. Tailoring of TiO2 phases was achieved by adjusting the pH and type of acid used in the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (first step in the sol-gel synthesis. The anatase proportion in the precursor nanoparticles was in the 3–100% range. Tube-like nanostructures were obtained with an anatase percentage of 18 or higher while flake-like shapes were obtained when rutile was dominant in the seed. After annealing at 400°C for 2 h, a fraction of nanotubes was conserved in all the samples but, depending on the anatase/rutile ratio in the starting material, spherical and rod-shaped structures were also observed. The photocatalytic activity of 1D nanostructures was evaluated by measuring the deactivation of E. coli in stirred water in the dark and under UV-A/B irradiation. Results show that in addition to the bactericidal activity of TiO2 under UV-A illumination, under dark conditions, the decrease in bacteria viability is ascribed to mechanical stress due to stirring.

  12. Photocatalytic Water Treatment on TiO2 Thin Layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Spáčilová, L.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 25 (2016), s. 11631-11638 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos Island, 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : water purification * endocrine disruptor * photocatalytic * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  13. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Preetam; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO2 doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO2 doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  14. TiO2 flower-like nanostructures decorated with CdS/PbS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenczek-Zajac, Anita; Kusior, Anna; Lacz, Agnieszka; Radecka, Marta; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 flower-like nanostructures were prepared with the use of Ti foil and 30% H 2 O 2 . • QDs of CdS and PbS were deposited using the SILAR method. • The SILAR method makes it possible to control the size of QDs. • Band gap energy of CdS was found to be 2.35 eV. • Sensitization of TiO 2 with CdS or PbS improves the photoelectrochemical properties. - Abstract: Flower-like nanostructures of TiO 2 were prepared by immersing Ti foil in 30% H 2 O 2 at 80 °C for times varying from 15 to 240 min. Upon annealing at 450 °C in an Ar atmosphere, the received amorphous samples crystallized in an anatase structure with rutile as a minority phase. SEM images revealed that partially formed flowers were present at the surface of the prepared samples as early as after 15 min of immersion. The size of the individual flowers increased from 400–800 nm after 15 min of reaction to 2.5–6.0 μm after 240 min. It was also found that surface is very rough and surface development is considerable. After 45 min of immersion, the nanoflowers were sensitized with CdS and PbS quantum dots (QDs-CdS/QDs-PbS) deposited using the SILAR method from water- and methanol-based precursor solutions at different concentrations (0.001–0.1 M). QDs-CdS crystallized in the hawleyite structure, while QDs-PbS in the galena form. SEM analysis showed the tendency of quantum dots to agglomerate at high concentrations of the precursor in water-based solutions. QDs obtained from methanol-based solutions were uniformly distributed. The produced QDs-PbS were smaller than QDs-CdS. Based on the optical reflectance spectra, the band-gap energies of TiO 2 nanostructures with and without QDs were calculated to be 3.32 eV for flower-like TiO 2 nanostructures and 2.35 eV for QDs-CdS. The photoelectrochemical behaviour of nanoflowers was found to improve significantly after the deposition of QDs-CdS

  15. On the relationship between rutile/anatase ratio and the nature of defect states in sub-100 nm TiO2 nanostructures: experimental insights

    KAUST Repository

    Soliman, Moamen M.; Al Haron, Mohamed H.; Samir, Menna; Tolba, Sarah A.; Shaheen, Basamat; Amer, Ahmed W.; Mohammed, Omar F.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2018-01-01

    Black TiO2 is being widely investigated due to its superior optical activity and potential applications in photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Herein, the limitations of the hydrogenation process of TiO2 nanostructures are unraveled by exploiting

  16. Obtaining, characterization and fibre use of nanostructured TiO_2 doped with tungsten as photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, L.G.; Bergmann, C.P.; Alves, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The use and applicability of nanomaterials are increasingly common in our day to day, due to propitiate more effective end products, lightweight and low cost. The nanomaterials used preferably in various applications is due to properties such as reduced particle size, diversified and high surface area. In this work nanostructured fibers of TiO_2 and TiO_2/WO_3 were obtained by electrospinning, annealed at temperatures between 650 deg C and 800 deg C, and its photocatalytic activity was evaluated. The technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the crystalline structure and crystallite size. The morphology of nanomaterials was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preliminary results indicate that the nano-doped tungsten presented more efficient in bleaching methyl orange dye, indicating a higher catalytic activity of this material compared to a standard catalyst. This phenomenon can be explained through the phases present and morphological characteristics of the fibers. (author)

  17. NANOSTRUCTURED TiO2 SENSITIZED WITH PORPHYRINS FOR SOLAR WATER-SPLITTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA-CORINA ROŞU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured TiO2 sensitized with porphyrins for Solar water-splitting.The production of hydrogen from water using solar light is very promising for generations of an ecologically pure carrier contributing to a clean, sustainable and renewable energy system. The selection of specific photocatalyst material for hydrogen production in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs is based on some important characteristics of semiconductor, such as photo-corrosion and chemical corrosion stability, photocatalytic potential, high sensitivity for UV-visible light. In the present paper, different nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanodes have been prepared via wet-chemical techniques followed by annealing treatment and sensitized with porphyrins and supramolecular complexes of porphyrins. The so obtained photocatalysts were characterized with UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The purpose of these experiments is to show if the prepared materials possess the necessary photocatalytic characteristics and if they can be used with success in H2 production from water decomposition in PECs.

  18. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of boron-doped TiO2 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Chen Daimai, Wang Dong Yang and Jiang Zhongyi 2006 Ind. Eng. Chem. 45 4110. Cheng Jen-hao 2003 A study on photocatalytic oxidation of aque- ous chlorobenzene solution by nanostructured film of TiO2,. Master Thesis, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan. Deki S, Henin Yu Yu Ko, Fujita T, Akamatsu K, Mizuhata ...

  19. Effect of iron doping on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin film by sol–gel routed spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Lourduraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (Fe:TiO2 were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and further calcined at 450∘C. The structural and optical properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis and atomic force microscopic (AFM techniques. The XRD results confirm the nanostructured TiO2 thin films having crystalline nature with anatase phase. The characterization results show that the calcined thin films having high crystallinity and the effect of iron substitution lead to decreased crystallinity. The SEM investigations of Fe-doped TiO2 films also gave evidence that the films were continuous spherical shaped particles with a nanometric range of grain size and film was porous in nature. AFM analysis establishes that the uniformity of the TiO2 thin film with average roughness values. The optical measurements show that the films having high transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap energy of Fe-doped TiO2 film with iron (Fe decrease with increase in iron content. These important requirements for the Fe:TiO2 films are to be used as window layers in solar cells.

  20. Photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film with Ag additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Hsu, C.-S.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin coating technique. While, by introducing polystyrene (PS) microspheres, porous TiO 2 /Ag films were obtained after calcining at a temperature of 500 o C. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. After 500 o C calcination, the microstructure of PS-TiO 2 film without Ag addition exhibited a sponge-like microstructure while significant sintering effect was noticed with Ag additions and the films exhibited a porous microstructure. Meanwhile, coalescence of nanocrystalline anatase-phase TiO 2 can be observed with respect to the sharpening of XRD diffraction peaks. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where 72% methylene blue can be decomposed after UV exposure for 12 h

  1. TiO2 nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO2 hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe; Nam, Chang-Yong; Shi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO 2 layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO 2 nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO 2 layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO 2 precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO 2 layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO 2 blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO 2 layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime

  2. A chemical route to room-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, Habib M.; Kim, Woo Young; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    A lot of methods are developed for the deposition of TiO 2 thin films; however, in each of these methods as-deposited films are amorphous and need further heat treatment at high temperature. In the present article, a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method was used for the preparation of TiO 2 thin films. We investigated nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films using CBD at room temperature onto glass and ITO coated glass substrate. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The chemically synthesized films were nanocrystalline and composed of crystal grains of 2-3 nm

  3. Raman spectra of TiO2 thin films deposited electrochemically and by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishiyanu, S.; Vartic, V.; Shishiyanu, T.; Stratan, Gh.; Rusu, E.; Zarrelli, M.; Giordano, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our experimental results concerning the fabrication of TiO 2 thin films by spray pyrolysis and electrochemical deposition method onto different substrates - Corning glass, Si and optical fibers. The surface morphology of the TiO 2 thin films have been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Raman shift spectra measurements have been done for the optical characterization of the fabricated titania thin films. The post-growth rapid photothermal processing (RPP) at temperatures of 100-800 degrees Celsius for 1-3 min have been applied. Our experimental results prove that by the application of post-growth RPP is possible to essentially improve the crystallinity of the deposited TiO 2 films. (authors)

  4. Mesoporous 1D TiO_2 nanostructures obtained by the hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Julieta; Vilchez, Ricardo; Alarcon, Hugo; Rodriguez, Juan; Lopez, Alcides

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous one dimensional nanostructures (1D) such as nanotubes/nanorods of TiO_2 were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of TiO_2 nanoparticles obtained by Sol Gel process (SG-TiO_2). The electronic microscopy images revealed the nanotubes formation of approximately 8 nm in diameter and more than around 400 nm long after hydrothermal treatment of 18 h and 24 h. These tube-like structures were maintained after acid treatment but after annealing at 400 °C during 2 hours these turn into rod-like structures of crystalline TiO_2 corresponding to anatase phase as revealed the diffraction patterns obtained by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The conversion of nanoparticles into nanotubes and afterward into rodlike shape was also confirmed by the variations in the BET surface area from 201, 269 and 97 m"2/g around, respectively. The adsorption-desorption isotherms also revealed hysteresis loop typical of mesoporous materials. These qualities are attractive to use these materials for the treatment of pollutants in water, for example. (author)

  5. Phycocyanin assemblies onto nanostructured TiO2 for photovoltaic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Enciso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energies is of increasing importance due to depletion of fossil fuel sources and environmental damages caused by their utilization. The energy available from the sun is clean and widely distributed. Solar cells are devices used to convert solar energy into electricity. Among them, dye sensitized solar cells are an interesting alternative to conventional silicon ones, because of their low cost and simple assembly process. They are made of a semiconductor with colored dyes adsorbed onto the surface that work as antennas to catch energy in the visible range of the spectra. In this work, nanostructured TiO2 was synthesized and the protein phycocyanin was used as dye. TiO2 was characterized by electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Phycocyanin was extracted from commercial Spirulina spp. capsules. The assembly process of the electrode covered with TiO2 and phycocyanin was controlled by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR. Results were in accordance with the assembling of an electrode sensitized with phycocyanin.

  6. Synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 (anatase) and TiO2(B) in ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mansfeldová, Věra; Lásková, Barbora; Krýsová, Hana; Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 85-90 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA MŠk 7E09117 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) NMP-229036 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TiO2(B) * ionic liquid * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  7. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of F-containing TiO2 sphere thin film induced by its novel hierarchical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiang; Tao Jie; Li Yingying; Zhu Hong

    2009-01-01

    The novel nanostructured F-containing TiO 2 (F-TiO 2 ) sphere was directly synthesized on the surface of Ti foil in the solution of NH 4 F and HCl by one-step hydrothermal approach under low-temperature condition. The samples were characterized respectively by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the F-TiO 2 sphere was hierarchical structure, which composed of porous octahedron crystals with one truncated cone, leading to a football-like morphology. XPS results indicated that F - anions were just physically adsorbed on the surface of TiO 2 microspheres. The studies on the optical properties of the F-TiO 2 were carried out by UV-vis light absorption spectrum. The surface fluorination of the spheres, the unique nanostructure induced accessible macropores or mesopores, and the increased light-harvesting abilities were crucial for the high photoelectrochemical activity of the synthesized F-TiO 2 sphere for water-splitting. The photocurrent density of the F-TiO 2 sphere thin film was more than two times than that of the P25 thin film. Meanwhile, a formation mechanism was briefly proposed. This approach could provide a facile method to synthesize F-TiO 2 microsphere with a special morphology and hierarchical structure in large scale.

  8. A Micro Oxygen Sensor Based on a Nano Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor’s output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10−4 and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required.

  9. TiO2/Pt/TiO2 Sandwich Nanostructures: Towards Alcohol Sensing and UV Irradiation-Assisted Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungroj Maolanon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The TiO2/Pt/TiO2 sandwich nanostructures were synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering and demonstrated as an alcohol sensor at room-temperature operation with a fast recovery by UV irradiation. The TiO2/Pt/TiO2 layers on SiO2/Si substrate were confirmed by Auger electron spectroscopy with the interdiffusion of each layer. The TiO2/Pt/TiO2 layers on printed circuit board show the superior sensor response to alcohol in terms of the sensitivity and stability compared to the nonsandwich structure, that is, the only Pt layer or the TiO2/Pt structures. Moreover, the recovery time of the TiO2/Pt/TiO2 was improved by UV irradiation-assisted recovery. The optimum TiO2/Pt/TiO2 with thicknesses of the undermost TiO2 layer, a Pt layer, and the topmost TiO2 layer being 50 nm, 6 nm, and 5 nm, respectively, showed the highest response to ethanol down to 10 ppm. Additionally, TiO2/Pt/TiO2 shows an excellent sensing stability and exhibits different sensing selectivity among ethanol, methanol, and 2-propanol. The sensing mechanism could be attributed to the change of Pt work function during vapor adsorption. The TiO2 layer plays an important role in UV-assisted recovery by photocatalytic activity and the topmost TiO2 acts as protective layer for Pt.

  10. Correlation of Photocatalysis and Photoluminescence Effect in Relation to the Surface Properties of TiO2:Tb Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper structural, optical, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:(2.6 at. % Tb thin films have been compared. Thin films were prepared by high-energy reactive magnetron sputtering process, which enables obtaining highly nanocrystalline rutile structure of deposited films. Crystallites sizes were 8.7 nm and 6.6 nm for TiO2 and TiO2:Tb, respectively. Surface of prepared thin films was homogenous with small roughness of ca. 7.2 and 2.1 nm in case of TiO2 and TiO2:Tb samples, respectively. Optical properties measurements have shown that the incorporation of Tb into TiO2 matrix has not changed significantly the thin films transparency. It also enables obtaining photoluminescence effect in wide range from 350 to 800 nm, what is unique phenomenon in case of TiO2 with rutile structure. Moreover, it has been found that the incorporation of 2.6 at. % of Tb has increased the photocatalytic activity more than two times as compared to undoped TiO2. Additionally, for the first time in the current state of the art, the relationship between photoluminescence effect, photocatalytic activity, and surface properties of TiO2:Tb thin films has been theoretically explained.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of 1D TiO2 nanostructures for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacchini, I.; Ansón-Casaos, A.; Yu, Youhai; Martínez, M.T.; Lira-Cantu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrothermal synthesis allows the preparation of different 1D TiO 2 nanostructures easily. ► Nanotubular morphology demonstrates the highest photovoltaic efficiencies in dye sensitized cells (DSCs). ► Morphology at the nanoscale level is as decisive for DSC efficiency as it is TiO 2 crystal structure and surface area. - Abstract: Mono-dimensional titanium oxide nanostructures (multi-walled nanotubes and nanorods) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and applied to the construction of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). First, nanotubes (TiNTs) and nanotubes loaded with titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiNT/NPs) were synthesized with specific surface areas of 253 m 2 /g and 304 m 2 /g, respectively. After that, thermal treatment of the nanotubes at 500 °C resulted in their transformation into the corresponding anatase nanorods (TiNT-Δ and TiNT/NPs-Δ samples). X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy data indicated that titanium oxide in the pristine TiNT and TiNT/NP samples was converted into anatase phase TiO 2 during the heating. Additionally, specific surface areas and water adsorption capacities decreased after the heat treatment due to the sample agglomeration and the collapse of the inner nanotube channels. DSCs were fabricated with the nanotube TiNT and TiNT/NP samples and with the anatase nanorod TiNT-Δ and TiNT/NPs-Δ samples as well. The highest power conversion efficiency of η = 3.12% was obtained for the TiNT sample, despite its lower specific surface compared with the corresponding nanoparticle-loaded sample (TiNT/NP).

  12. TiO2 and Cu/TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 and copper (Cu doped titanium oxide (Cu/TiO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Titanium chloride (TiCl4 and copper acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O were used as source of Ti and Cu. The doping concentration of Cu was varied from 1-10 wt. %. The X-ray diffraction studies show that TiO2 thin films are tetragonal structure and Cu/TiO2 thin films implies CuO has present with monoclinic structure. The optical properties of the TiO2 thin films have been investigated as a function of Cu-doping level. The optical transmission of the thin films was found to increase from 88 % to 94 % with the addition of Cu up to 8 % and then decreases for higher percentage of Cu doping. The optical band gap (Eg for pure TiO2 thin film is found to be 3.40 eV. Due to Cu doping, the band gap is shifted to lower energies and then increases further with increasing the concentration of Cu. The refractive index of the TiO2 thin films is found to be 2.58 and the variation of refractive index is observed due to Cu doped. The room temperature resistivity of the films decreases with increasing Cu doping and is found to be 27.50 - 23.76 W·cm. It is evident from the present study that the Cu doping promoted the thin film morphology and thereby it is aspect for various applications.

  13. Morphological evolution of TiO2 nanotube arrays with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongliang; Song, Ye; Zhu, Xufei; Yang, Ruiquan; Han, Aijun

    2013-07-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure have been fabricated by a modified two-step electrochemical anodization method. In the present work, different morphologies formed under different anodizing voltages are investigated in detail by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The results show that the concaves left by the first-step anodization can guide the uniform growth of TNAs in some degree as the second-step anodizing voltage is the same with that in the first step, however, when lower voltages are adopted in the second-step anodization, no guidance can be achieved, and different morphological TNAs with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure are fabricated. And we find that the nanotube diameters are directly proportional to the applied voltage in the second-step anodization. Furthermore, a possible mechanism for the growth of the TiO2 nanotubes with the special morphology is proposed for the first time, which depends on both the oxygen bubble mold and the viscous flow of the barrier oxide from the pore base to the pore wall.

  14. Synthesis of TiO 2 nanostructured reservoir with temozolomide: Structural evolution of the occluded drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, T.; Sotelo, J.; Navarrete, J.; Ascencio, J. A.

    2006-10-01

    Sol-gel synthesized nanostructured TiO 2 matrix were produced with different channel sizes, where drug are immersed, producing a reservoir with Temozolomide (TMZ). This drug is particularly important for the treatment of cancer tumors, which are fundamentally a consequence of the uncontrolled reproduction of human cell. In this way the chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of both recurrent and newly diagnosed patients. In the handling of brain tumors TMZ has been discovered as a recent and efficient second generation drug employed in the control of advanced brain gliomas, and it is a welcome addition. Its active component binds to the cancerous DNA cells, thus preventing their disordered growth, destroying them. In this work, we report the synthesis of TiO 2 nanostructured reservoir with TMZ, focusing the effort to the understanding of structural effects on the TMZ configuration by using nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman and IR spectroscopy methods. Our results establish that TMZ molecules are quite sensible to chemical processes and it produces the activation of the molecule, which is followed and understood with help of quantum molecular simulation methods. The study of the molecules allows determining the conditions that produce the activation and chemical selectivity of the molecules, which determines the conditions of synthesis. This information gives parameters for the reservoir structural and chemical optimization.

  15. Characterization of TiO2 Thin Films on Glass Substrate Growth Using DC Sputtering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Santoso; Tjipto Sujitno; Sayono

    2002-01-01

    It has been fabricated and characterization a TiO 2 thin films deposited on glass substrate using DC sputtering technique. Fabrication of TiO 2 thin films were carried out at electrode voltage 4 kV, sputtering current 5 mA, vacuum pressure 5 x 10 -4 torr, deposition time 150 minutes, and temperature of the substrate were varied from 150 -350 o C, while as a gas sputter was argon. The results was tested their micro structure using SEM, and crystal structure using XRD and found that the crystal structure of TiO 2 powder before deposited on glass substrate was rutile and anatase with orientation (110) and (200) for anatase and (100) and (111) rutile structure. While the crystal structure which deposited at temperature 150 o C and deposition time 2.5 hours was anatase with orientation (001) and (200). (author)

  16. Nano-structure TiO2 film coating on 316L stainless steel via sol-gel technique for blood compatibility improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Foruzanmehr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Titanium oxides are known to be appropriate hemocompatible materials which are suggested as coatings for blood-contacting devices. Little is known about the influence of nanometric crystal structure, layer thickness, and semiconducting characteristics of TiO2 on blood hemostasis.   Materials and Methods: Having used sol-gel dip coating method in this study, TiO2 thin films were deposited on nano-scale electro-polished stainless steel 316L with 1 to 5 nano-sized layers. Surface morphology and structure of the film were studied with X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Blood compatibility was also determined by measuring the platelet activation (CD62P expression, platelet adhesion (Scanning Electron Microscopy, and the blood clotting time on these samples. Results: The films were compact and smooth and existed mainly in the form of anatase. By increasing the number of TiO2 thin layer, clotting time greatly extended, and the population of activated platelet and P-selectine expression changed according to the surface characteristics of each layer. Conclusion: The findings revealed that stainless steel 316L coated with nano-structured TiO2 layer improved blood compatibility, in terms of both blood platelet activity and coagulation cascade, which can decrease the thrombogenicity of blood contacting devices which were made from stainless steel.

  17. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of nitrided TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, Enrique; Escobar-Alarcon, L.; Camacho-Lopez, Marco Antonio; Casados, Dora A. Solis

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films have been applied in UV-light photocatalysis. Nevertheless visible-light photocatalytic activity would make this material more attractive for applications. In this work we present results on the modification of titanium oxide (anatase) sol-gel thin films, via a nitriding process using a microwave plasma source. After the treatment in the nitrogen plasma, the nitrogen content in the TiO 2 films varied in the range from 14 up to 28 at%. The titanium oxide films and the nitrided ones were characterized by XPS, micro-Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity tests were done using a Methylene Blue dye solution, and as catalyst TiO 2 and nitrided TiO 2 films. The irradiation of films was carried out with a lamp with emission in the visible (without UV). The results showed that the nitrided TiO 2 films had photocatalytic activity, while the unnitrided films did not.

  18. Flower-like hydrogenated TiO2(B) nanostructures as anode materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Zhou, Zhenfang; Nie, Sen; Wang, Honghu; Peng, Hongrui; Li, Guicun; Chen, Kezheng

    2014-12-01

    Flower-like hydrogenated TiO2(B) nanostructures have been synthesized via a facile solvothermal approach combined with hydrogenation treatment. The obtained TiO2(B) nanostructures show uniform and hierarchical flower-like morphology with a diameter of 124 ± 5 nm, which are further constructed by primary nanosheets with a thickness of 10 ± 1.2 nm. The Ti3+ species and/or oxygen vacancies are well introduced into the structures of TiO2(B) after hydrogen reduction, resulting in an enhancement in the electronic conductivity (up to 2.79 × 10-3 S cm-1) and the modified surface electrochemical activity. When evaluated for lithium storage capacity, the hydrogenated TiO2(B) nanostructures exhibit enhanced electrochemical energy storage performances compared to the pristine TiO2(B) nanostructures, including high capacity (292.3 mA h g-1 at 0.5C), excellent rate capability (179.6 mA h g-1 at 10C), and good cyclic stability (98.4% capacity retention after 200 cycles at 10C). The reasons for these improvements are explored in terms of the increased electronic conductivity and the facilitation of lithium ion transport arising from the introduction of oxygen vacancies and the unique flower-like morphologies.

  19. ALD TiO2 thin film as dielectric for Al/p-Si Schottky diode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electrical analysis of Al/p-Si Schottky diode with titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film was performed at ..... This work was partially supported by The Management Unit of Scientific Research Project of Bozok University and Hitit. University.

  20. Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Spray pyrolysis techniques; TiO2 thin films; hydrogen gas response. 1. Introduction ... tion is necessary during the production, storage and use of hydrogen. It is also ..... ient, and 'green': it may be used to large scale industrial application for ...

  1. QCM gas sensor characterization of ALD-grown very thin TiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, S.; Georgieva, V.; Vergov, L.; Szilágyi, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents a technology for preparation and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films suitable for gas sensor applications. Applying atomic layer deposition (ALD), very thin TiO2 films were deposited on quartz resonators, and their gas sensing properties were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The TiO2 thin films were grown using Ti(iOPr)4 and water as precursors. The surface of the films was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) used for a composition study. The research was focused on the gas-sensing properties of the films. Films of 10-nm thickness were deposited on quartz resonators with Au electrodes and the QCMs were used to build highly sensitive gas sensors, which were tested for detecting NO2. Although very thin, these ALD-grown TiO2 films were sensitive to NO2 already at room temperature and could register as low concentrations as 50 ppm, while the sorption was fully reversible, and the sensors could be fully recovered. With the technology presented, the manufacturing of gas sensors is simple, fast and cost-effective, and suitable for energy-effective portable equipment for real-time environmental monitoring of NO2.

  2. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to

  3. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx

  4. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A transparent, high purity titanium dioxide thin film composed of densely packed nanometer sized grains has been successfully deposited on a glass substrate at 30°C from an aqueous solution of TiO2–HF with the addition of boric acid as a scavenger by liquid phase deposition technique. From X-ray diffraction ...

  5. Structural and vibrational investigations of Nb-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyanga, E.; Gibaud, A.; Daniel, P.; Sangaa, D.; Sevjidsuren, G.; Altantsog, P.; Beuvier, T.; Lee, Chih Hao; Balagurov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the evolutions of structure for TiO 2 thin film as changes with Nb doping and temperatures. • Up to 800 °C, the grain size of Nb 0.1 Ti 0.9 O 2 is smaller than for pure TiO 2 because doped Nb hinders the growth of the TiO 2 grains. • There was no formation of the rutile phase at high temperature. • Nb doped TiO 2 films have high electron densities at 400–700 °C. • Nb dope extends the absorbance spectra of TiO 2 which leads to the band gap reduce. - Abstract: Acid-catalyzed sol–gel and spin-coating methods were used to prepare Nb-doped TiO 2 thin film. In this work, we studied the effect of niobium doping on the structure, surface, and absorption properties of TiO 2 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy at various annealing temperatures. EDX spectra show that the Nb:Ti atomic ratios of the niobium-doped titania films are in good agreement with the nominal values (5 and 10%). XPS results suggest that charge compensation is achieved by the formation of Ti vacancies. Specific niobium phases are not observed, thus confirming that niobium is well incorporated into the titania crystal lattice. Thin films are amorphous at room temperature and the formation of anatase phase appeared at an annealing temperature close to 400 °C. The rutile phase was not observed even at 900 °C (XRD and Raman spectroscopy). Grain sizes and electron densities increased when the temperature was raised. Nb-doped films have higher electron densities and lower grain sizes due to niobium doping. Grain size inhibition can be explained by lattice stress induced by the incorporation of larger Nb 5+ ions into the lattice. The band gap energy of indirect transition of the TiO 2 thin films was calculated to be about 3.03 eV. After niobium doping, it decreased to 2.40 eV

  6. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron; Leung, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Design guidelines for optimizing the sensing performance of nanoimprinted second order distributed feedback dye lasers are presented. The guidelines are verified by experiments and simulations. The lasers, fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography into Pyrromethene doped Ormocomp thin films on glass......, have their sensor sensitivity enhanced by a factor of up to five via the evaporation of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) waveguiding layer. The influence of the TiO2 layer thickness on the device sensitivity is analyzed with a simple model that accurately predicts experimentally measured wavelength shifts...

  7. Nano structured TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, Daniel Grando; Giraldi, Tania Regina; Leite, Edson Roberto; Varela, Jose Arana; Longo, Elson

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses in optimizing setup for obtaining TiO 2 thin films by polymeric precursor route due to its advantages on stoichiometric and morphological control. Precursor stoichiometry, synthesis pH, solids concentration and rotation speed at deposition were optimized evaluating thin films morphology and thickness. Thermogravimetry and NMR were applied for precursor's characterization and AFM, XRD and ellipsometry for thin films evaluation. Results showed successful attainment of homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films with outstanding control over morphological characteristics, mean grain size of 17 nm, packing densities between 57 and 75%, estimated surface areas of 90 m 2 /g and monolayers thickness within 20 and 128 nm. (author)

  8. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez; Golmar, F.; Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H.; Duhalde, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO 2 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO 3 substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO 2 . The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO 2

  9. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, A.A.; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO 2 thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO 2 anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg C W -1 when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material

  10. Hydrogen-bonding effects on film structure and photoelectrochemical properties of porphyrin and fullerene composites on nanostructured TiO 2 electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kira, Aiko; Tanaka, Masanobu; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Matano, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Naoki; Zhang, Yi; Ye, Shen; Lehtivuori, Heli; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonding effects on film structures and photophysical, photoelectrochemical, and photovoltaic properties have been examined in mixed films of porphyrin and fullerene composites with and without hydrogen bonding on nanostructured TiO2 electrodes. The nanostructured TiO2 electrodes modified

  11. Facile synthesis of improved room temperature gas sensing properties of TiO2 nanostructures: Effect of acid treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available and Actuators B: Chemical Facile synthesis of improved room temperature gas sensing properties of TiO2 nanostructures: Effect of acid treatment Z.P. Tshabalalaa,b, D.E. Motaunga,∗, G.H. Mhlongoa,∗, O.M. Ntwaeaborwab,∗ a DST/CSIR, National Centre...

  12. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Cervantes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm. Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science.

  13. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Blanca; López-Huerta, Francisco; Vega, Rosario; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Salceda, Emilio; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C) toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm). Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science. PMID:28773740

  14. Rutile TiO2 thin films grown by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnarsson, B.; Magnus, F.; Tryggvason, T.K.; Ingason, A.S.; Leosson, K.; Olafsson, S.; Gudmundsson, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Thin TiO 2 films were grown on Si(001) substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Optical and structural properties of films were compared both before and after post-annealing using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray reflection (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both dcMS- and HiPIMS-grown films reveal polycrystalline rutile TiO 2 , even prior to post-annealing. The HiPIMS-grown films exhibit significantly larger grains compared to that of dcMC-grown films, approaching 100% of the film thickness for films grown at 700 °C. In addition, the XRR surface roughness of HiPIMS-grown films was significantly lower than that of dcMS-grown films over the whole temperature range 300–700 °C. Dispersion curves could only be obtained for the HiPIMS-grown films, which were shown to have a refractive index in the range of 2.7–2.85 at 500 nm. The results show that thin, rutile TiO 2 films, with high refractive index, can be obtained by HiPIMS at relatively low growth temperatures, without post-annealing. Furthermore, these films are smoother and show better optical characteristics than their dcMS-grown counterparts. - Highlights: • We demonstrate growth of rutile TiO 2 on Si (111) by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • The films exhibit significantly larger grains than dc magnetron sputtered films • TiO 2 films with high refractive index are obtained without post-growth annealing

  15. Chromium doped TiO2 sputtered thin films synthesis, physical investigations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hajjaji, Anouar; Gaidi, Mounir; Bessais, Brahim; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book presents co-sputtered processes ways to produce chrome doped TiO2 thin films onto various substrates such as quartz, silicon and porous silicon. Emphasis is given on the link between the experimental preparation and physical characterization in terms of Cr content. Moreover, the structural, optical and optoelectronic investigations are emphasized throughout. The book explores the potencial applications of devices based on Cr doped TiO2 thin films as gas sensors and in photocatalysis and in the photovoltaic industry. Also, this book provides extensive leads into research literature, and each chapter contains details which aim to develop awareness of the subject and the methods used. The content presented here will be useful for graduate students as well as researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry and engineering.

  16. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  17. Synthesis of photosensitive nanograined TiO2 thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, U.M.; Gurav, K.V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Lokhande, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films are deposited by simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate from aqueous solution. The as-deposited films are heat treated at 673 K for 2 h in air. The change in structural, morphological and optical properties are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results show that the SILAR method allows the formation of anatase, nanocrystalline, and porous TiO 2 thin films. The heat-treated film showed conversion efficiency of 0.047% in photoelectrochemical cell with 1 M NaOH electrolyte.

  18. Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO- and TiO2-Derived Nanostructures Synthesized via a Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosipho Moloto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to synthesize ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures. The experimental results show that the method resulted in crystalline monodispersed ZnO nanorods that have pointed tips with hexagonal crystal phase. TiO2 nanotubes were also formed with minimum bundles. The mechanism for the formation of the tubes was validated by HRTEM results. The optical properties of both ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures showed characteristics of strong quantum confinement regime. The photoluminescence spectrum of TiO2 nanotubes shows good improvement from previously reported data.

  19. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yu, Xinluan; Lu, Dandan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-12-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail.

  20. Undoped TiO2 and nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar and architectured surfaces for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Liang; Soum-Glaude, Adurey; Volpi, Fabien; Salvo, Luc; Berthomé, Grégory; Coindeau, Stéphane; Mantoux, Arnaud; Boichot, Raphaël; Lay, Sabine; Brizé, Virginie; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Giusti, Gaël; Bellet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and nitrogen doped TiO 2 thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar substrates. Deposition on 3D-architecture substrates made of metallic foams was also investigated to propose architectured photovoltaic stack fabrication. All the films were deposited at 265 °C and nitrogen incorporation was achieved by using titanium isopropoxide, NH 3 and/or N 2 O as precursors. The maximum nitrogen incorporation level obtained in this study was 2.9 at. %, resulting in films exhibiting a resistivity of 115 Ω cm (+/−10 Ω cm) combined with an average total transmittance of 60% in the 400–1000 nm wavelength range. Eventually, TiO 2 thin films were deposited on the 3D metallic foam template

  1. Nanometer-thin TiO2 enhances skeletal muscle cell phenotype and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaki K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ken Ishizaki*, Yoshihiko Sugita*, Fuminori Iwasa, Hajime Minamikawa, Takeshi Ueno, Masahiro Yamada, Takeo Suzuki, Takahiro OgawaLaboratory for Bone and Implant Sciences, The Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA*Authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The independent role of the surface chemistry of titanium in determining its biological properties is yet to be determined. Although titanium implants are often in contact with muscle tissue, the interaction of muscle cells with titanium is largely unknown. This study tested the hypotheses that the surface chemistry of clinically established microroughened titanium surfaces could be controllably varied by coating with a minimally thin layer of TiO2 (ideally pico-to-nanometer in thickness without altering the existing topographical and roughness features, and that the change in superficial chemistry of titanium is effective in improving the biological properties of titanium.Methods and results: Acid-etched microroughened titanium surfaces were coated with TiO2 using slow-rate sputter deposition of molten TiO2 nanoparticles. A TiO2 coating of 300 pm to 6.3 nm increased the surface oxygen on the titanium substrates in a controllable manner, but did not alter the existing microscale architecture and roughness of the substrates. Cells derived from rat skeletal muscles showed increased attachment, spread, adhesion strength, proliferation, gene expression, and collagen production at the initial and early stage of culture on 6.3 nm thick TiO2-coated microroughened titanium surfaces compared with uncoated titanium surfaces.Conclusion: Using an exemplary slow-rate sputter deposition technique of molten TiO2 nanoparticles, this study demonstrated that titanium substrates, even with microscale roughness, can be sufficiently chemically modified to

  2. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  3. Thin TiO2 films deposited by implantation and sputtering in RF inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The achievement of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films in the rutile crystalline phase is reported. The samples result from the implantation of oxygen ions of Ti in argon/oxygen plasma generated by inductively coupled RF at a commercial 13.56 MHz frequency. Simultaneously, a sputtering process is conducted on the titanium target in order to produce TiO 2 thin films in the anatase phase over silicon and glass substrates. Both implantation and sputtering processes shared the same 500 W plasma with the target, polarized between 0 and -3 kV. The substrates were placed between 2 and 3 cm from the target, this distance being found to be determinant of the TiO 2 deposition rate. The rutile phase in the target was obtained at temperatures in the order of 680 degrees C and the anatase (unbiased) one at about 300 degrees C without any auxiliary heating. The crystalline phases were characterized by x ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology and average roughness were established by means of scanning electronic and atomic force microscopy, whereas the reaction products generated during the oxidation process were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Finally, the stoichiometric composition was measured by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  4. Preparation of micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres by controlling pollen as hard template and soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xuehong; Song, Xiuqin; Chen, Rufen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres were synthesized by a sunflower pollen induced and self-assembly mineralization process, in which a titania precursor and pollen reacted in one-pot at normal pressure. In this paper, the bio-template advantage, as hard and soft template is fully demonstrated. The superiority of our synthesis is that we not only can control pollen as hard template, but also can control it as soft template only by changing reactions temperature. Under 80 degrees C of water bath, TiO2 microspheres which replicated the morphology of pollen were prepared by controlling pollen as hard template. Under 100 degrees C, hierarchical TiO2 spheres with complicated morphology, different from pollen template, were synthesized by using pollen as soft template. At the same time, judicious choice of the amount of pollen affords the synthesis of hierarchical structures spheres with adjustable morphology and crystal structure. The morphology can be tuned from microspheres constructed from TiO2 nanorods to nanospheres constructed from TiO2 nanoparticles, and the crystal structure can be tuned from rutile to anatase. More over this anatase phase can be keep better even at high temperature of 1000 degrees C. The as-prepared micro/nano structure photocatalysts not only have high photocatalytic activities, but also have good separability and reuse performance.

  5. Low Loss Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Films for Waveguiding Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Fischer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by “dip-coating” on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h. The morphological properties of the prepared films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The optical waveguiding properties of TiO2 films were investigated for both annealing temperature using m-lines spectroscopy. The refractive indices and the film thickness were determined from the measured effective indices. The results show that the synthesized planar waveguides are multimodes and demonstrate low propagation losses of 0.5 and 0.8 dB/cm for annealing temperature 350 and 500 °C, respectively.

  6. The effects of nanostructures on the mechanical and tribological properties of TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoungchin; Park, Jeongwon

    2018-04-01

    TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization on Ti substrates with a diameter variation of 30-100 nm, and the structure of the nanotubes were studied using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the structure changes from the anatase phase to the rutile phase of TiO2 at a diameter below 50 nm. The tribological behaviors of TiO2 nanotubes were investigated with different diameters. The effectiveness of the rutile phase and the diameter size enhanced the frictional performance of TiO2 nanotubes.

  7. Influence of electrical parameters on morphology of nanostructured TiO2 layers developed by electrochemical anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V alloy micro rough surfaces with TiO2 self-organized nanostructured layers were synthesized using electrochemical anodization in phosphate/fluoride electrolyte, at different end potentials (5V, 10V, 15V, and 20 V. The current – time characteristics were recorded, and the link between current evolution and the morphology of developing oxide layers was investigated. On flat surfaces of Ti6Al4V alloy we developed TiO2 layers with different morphologies (random pores, nanopores of 25…50 nm, and highly organized nanotubes of 50…100 nm in diameter depending on electrical parameters of anodization process. In our anodization cell, in optimized conditions, we are able to superimpose nanostructured oxide layers (nanotubular or nanoporous over micro structured surfaces of titanium based materials used for biomedical implants.

  8. Visible photoenhanced current-voltage characteristics of Au : TiO2 nanocomposite thin films as photoanodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N; Amiri, M; Moshfegh, A Z

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of annealing temperature and concentration of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrochemical properties of sol-gel deposited Au : TiO 2 nanocomposite thin films is studied. Various gold concentrations have been added to the TiO 2 thin films and their properties are compared. All the deposited samples are annealed at different temperatures. The optical density spectra of the films show the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of the Au : TiO 2 films decreases with increasing Au concentration. The crystalline structure of the nanocomposite films is studied by x-ray diffractometry indicating the formation of gold nanocrystals in the anatase TiO 2 nanocrystalline thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the presence of gold in the metallic state and the formation of TiO 2 are stoichiometric. The photoelectrochemical properties of the Au : TiO 2 samples are characterized using a compartment cell containing H 2 SO 4 and KOH as cathodic and anodic electrolytes, respectively. It is found that the addition of Au nanoparticles in TiO 2 films enhances the photoresponse of the layer and the addition of gold nanocrystals with an optimum value of 5 mol% resulted in the highest photoelectrochemical activity. Moreover, the photoresponse of the samples is also enhanced with an increase in the annealing temperature.

  9. Low-temperature preparation of rutile-type TiO2 thin films for optical coatings by aluminum doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Kosei; Oikawa, Itaru; Kamegawa, Atsunori; Imura, Masaaki; Kanai, Toshimasa; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    A rutile-type TiO2 thin film with a high refractive index (n), a low extinction coefficient (k) and small surface roughness (Ra) is required for use in a variety of optical coatings to improve the controllability of the reflection spectrum. In this study, Al-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition, and the effects of Al doping on their phases, optical properties, surface roughness and nanoscale microstructure, including Al distribution, were investigated. By doping 5 and 10 mol%Al, rutile-type TiO2 was successfully prepared under a PO2 of 0.5 Pa at 350-600 °C. The nanoscale phase separation in the Al-doped TiO2 thin films plays an important role in the formation of the rutile phase. The 10 mol%Al-doped rutile-type TiO2 thin film deposited at 350 °C showed excellent optical properties of n ≈ 3.05, k ≈ 0.01 (at λ = 400 nm) and negligible surface roughness, at Ra ≈ 0.8 nm. The advantages of the superior optical properties and small surface roughness of the 10 mol%Al-doped TiO2 thin film were confirmed by fabricating a ten-layered dielectric mirror.

  10. Characterization of ultra-thin TiO2 films grown on Mo(112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.; Chen, M.S.; Goodman, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-thin TiO 2 films were grown on a Mo(112) substrate by stepwise vapor depositing of Ti onto the sample surface followed by oxidation at 850 K. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the Ti 2p peak position shifts from lower to higher binding energy with an increase in the Ti coverage from sub- to multilayer. The Ti 2p peak of a TiO 2 film with more than a monolayer coverage can be resolved into two peaks, one at 458.1 eV corresponding to the first layer, where Ti atoms bind to the substrate Mo atoms through Ti-O-Mo linkages, and a second feature at 458.8 eV corresponding to multilayer TiO 2 where the Ti atoms are connected via Ti-O-Ti linkages. Based on these assignments, the single Ti 2p 3/2 peak at 455.75 eV observed for the Mo(112)-(8 x 2)-TiO x monolayer film can be assigned to Ti 3+ , consistent with our previous results obtained with high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

  11. Room temperature growth of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Preetam; Kaur, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    We report, the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films grown on glass substrate by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The influence of sputtering power and pressure over crystallinity and surface morphology of the films were investigated. It was observed that increase in sputtering power activates the TiO 2 film growth from relative lower surface free energy to higher surface free energy. XRD pattern revealed the change in preferred orientation from (1 0 1) to (0 0 4) with increase in sputtering power, which is accounted for different surface energy associated with different planes. Microstructure of the films also changes from cauliflower type to columnar type structures with increase in sputtering power. FESEM images of films grown at low pressure and low sputtering power showed typical cauliflower like structure. The optical measurement revealed the systematic variation of the optical constants with deposition parameters. The films are highly transparent with transmission higher than 90% with sharp ultraviolet cut off. The transmittance of these films was found to be influenced by the surface roughness and film thickness. The optical band gap was found to decrease with increase in the sputtering power and pressure. The refractive index of the films was found to vary in the range of 2.50-2.24 with increase in sputtering pressure or sputtering power, resulting in the possibility of producing TiO 2 films for device applications with different refractive index, by changing the deposition parameters.

  12. Construction of hydrophobic wood surfaces by room temperature deposition of rutile (TiO2) nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongbo Zheng; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Qingyu Li; Hongyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    A convenient room temperature approach was developed for growing rutile TiO2 hierarchical structures on the wood surface by direct hydrolysis and crystallization of TiCl3 in saturated NaCl aqueous solution.The morphology and the crystal structure of TiO2 coated on the wood surface were characterized...

  13. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summarize the synthesis and properties of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanomaterials (bare 1D TiO2 nanomaterial and 1D hierarchical TiO2 and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs.

  14. Photocatalytic properties of nano-structured TiO2-carbon films obtained by means of electrophoretic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta-Hernandez, J.M.; Manriquez, J.; Meas-Vong, Y.; Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Chapman, Thomas W.; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Godinez, Luis A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the light-absorption and photocatalytic efficiencies of TiO 2 can be improved by coupling TiO 2 nano-particles with nonmetallic dopants, such as carbon. In this paper, we describe the electrophoretic preparation of a novel TiO 2 -carbon nano-composite photocatalyst on a glass indium thin oxide (ITO) substrate. The objective is to take better advantage of the (e - /h + ) pair generated by photoexcitation of semiconducting TiO 2 particles. The transfer of electrons (e - ) into adjacent carbon nano-particles promotes reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) which, in the presence of iron ions, can subsequently form hydroxyl radicals ( · OH) via the Fenton reaction. At the same time, · OH is formed from water by the (h + ) holes in the TiO 2 . Thus, the · OH oxidant is produced by two routes. The efficiency of this photolytic-Fenton process was tested with a model organic compound, Orange-II (OG-II) azo dye, which is employed in the textile industry

  15. Annealing effect on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO bilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Imran, S.; Shahnawaz; Saleem, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif

    2018-03-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO (TZ) thin films has been observed. Bilayer thin films of TiO2/ZnO are deposited on FTO glass substrate by spray pyrolysis method. After deposition, these films are annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K. XRD shows that TiO2 is present in anatase phase only and ZnO is present in hexagonal phase. No other phases of TiO2 and ZnO are present. Also, there is no evidence of other compounds like Zn-Ti etc. It also shows that the average grain size of TiO2/ZnO films is increased by increasing annealing temperature. AFM (Atomic force microscope) showed that the average roughness of TiO2/ZnO films is decreased at temperature 573-723 K and then increased at 873 K. The calculated average sheet resistivity of thin films annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K is 152.28 × 102, 75.29 × 102 and 63.34 × 102 ohm-m respectively. This decrease in sheet resistivity might be due to the increment of electron concentration with increasing thickness and the temperature of thin films.

  16. Rapid fabrication of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by pulsed fibre laser for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Aseel; Alhabradi, Mansour; Chen, Qian; Liu, Hong; Guo, Wei; Curioni, Michele; Cernik, Robert; Liu, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that a fibre laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm and a pulse width of milliseconds can be applied to generate mesoporous nanocrystalline (nc) TiO2 thin films on ITO coated glass in ambient atmosphere, by complete vaporisation of organic binder and inter-connection of TiO2 nanoparticles, without thermally damaging the ITO layer and the glass substrate. The fabrication of the mesoporous TiO2 thin films was achieved by stationary laser beam irradiation of 1 min. The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with the laser-sintered TiO2 photoanode reached higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.20% for the TiO2 film thickness of 6 μm compared with 2.99% for the furnace-sintered. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that the laser sintering under the optimised condition effectively decreased charge transfer resistance and increased electron lifetime of the TiO2 thin films. The use of the fibre laser with over 40% wall-plug efficiency offers an economically-feasible, industrial viable solution to the major challenge of rapid fabrication of large scale, mass production of mesoporous metal oxide thin film based solar energy systems, potentially for perovskite and monolithic tandem solar cells, in the future.

  17. A pressure tuned stop-flow atomic layer deposition process for MoS2 on high porous nanostructure and fabrication of TiO2/MoS2 core/shell inverse opal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Wang, Zhiwei; Kei Tan, Chiew; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Kherani, Nazir P.; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2017-11-01

    MoS2 thin films are obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature range of 120-150 °C using Mo(CO)6 and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as precursors. A pressure tuned stop-flow ALD process facilitates the precursor adsorption and enables the deposition of MoS2 on high porous three dimensional (3D) nanostructures. As a demonstration, a TiO2/MoS2 core/shell inverse opal (TiO2/MoS2-IO) structure has been fabricated through ALD of TiO2 and MoS2 on a self-assembled multilayer polystyrene (PS) structure template. Due to the self-limiting surface reaction mechanism of ALD and the utilization of pressure tuned stop-flow ALD processes, the as fabricated TiO2/MoS2-IO structure has a high uniformity, reflected by FESEM and FIB-SEM characterization. A crystallized TiO2/MoS2-IO structure can be obtained through a post annealing process. As a 3D photonic crystal, the TiO2/MoS2-IO exhibits obvious stopband reflecting peaks, which can be adjusted through changing the opal diameters as well as the thickness of MoS2 layer.

  18. Growth of TiO2 Thin Film on Various Substrates using RF Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2011-01-01

    The conductivity of Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin film fabricated using Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering on Silicon (Si), Indium doped--Tin Oxide (ITO) and microscope glass (M) substrates is presented in this paper. The dependant of thin film thickness and type of substrate been discussed. TiO 2 was deposited using Ti target in Ar+O 2 (45:10) mixture at 250 W for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 minute. Resultant thickness varies from 295 nm to 724 nm with deposition rate 6.4 nm/min. On the other hand, resistivity, Rs value for ITO substrate is between 5.72x10 -7 to 1.54x10 -6 Ω.m, Si substrate range is between 3.52x10 -6 to 1.76x10 -5 Ω.m and M substrate range is between 99 to 332 Ω.m. The value of resistivity increases with the thickness of the thin film.

  19. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m respectively, according to four point probe. Keywords: TiO2, Diode laser, XRD, SEM

  20. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO 2 thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO 2 samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  1. Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires exhibiting photoactivity across entire UV-visible region for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Ying-Chih; Wang, Gongming; Chang, Kao-Der; Ling, Yichuan; Lin, Yin-Kai; Fitzmorris, Bob C; Liu, Chia-Ming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Zhang, Jin Z; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Li, Yat

    2013-08-14

    Here we demonstrate that the photoactivity of Au-decorated TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation can be effectively enhanced in the entire UV-visible region from 300 to 800 nm by manipulating the shape of the decorated Au nanostructures. The samples were prepared by carefully depositing Au nanoparticles (NPs), Au nanorods (NRs), and a mixture of Au NPs and NRs on the surface of TiO2 nanowire arrays. As compared with bare TiO2, Au NP-decorated TiO2 nanowire electrodes exhibited significantly enhanced photoactivity in both the UV and visible regions. For Au NR-decorated TiO2 electrodes, the photoactivity enhancement was, however, observed in the visible region only, with the largest photocurrent generation achieved at 710 nm. Significantly, TiO2 nanowires deposited with a mixture of Au NPs and NRs showed enhanced photoactivity in the entire UV-visible region. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency measurements indicated that excitation of surface plasmon resonance of Au is responsible for the enhanced photoactivity of Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires. Photovoltage experiment showed that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was attributable to the effective surface passivation of Au NPs. Furthermore, 3D finite-difference time domain simulation was performed to investigate the electrical field amplification at the interface between Au nanostructures and TiO2 upon SPR excitation. The results suggested that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was partially due to the increased optical absorption of TiO2 associated with SPR electrical field amplification. The current study could provide a new paradigm for designing plasmonic metal/semiconductor composite systems to effectively harvest the entire UV-visible light for solar fuel production.

  2. Preparation of TiO2 thin films from autoclaved sol containing needle-like anatase crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lei; Xu Mingxia; Fang Haibo; Sun Ming

    2006-01-01

    A new inorganic sol-gel method was introduced in this paper to prepare TiO 2 thin films. The autoclaved sol with needle-like anatase crystals was synthesized using titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4 ) and peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as starting materials. The transparent anatase TiO 2 thin films were prepared on glass slides from the autoclaved sol by sol-gel dip-coating method. A wide range of techniques such as Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrum were applied to characterize the autoclaved sol and TiO 2 thin films. The results indicate that the autoclaved sol is flavescent, semitransparent and stable at room temperature. The anatase crystals of TiO 2 films connect together to form net-like structure after calcined and the films become uniform with increasing heating temperature. The surface of the TiO 2 films contain not only Ti and O elements, but also a small amount of N and Na elements diffused from substrates during heat treatment. The TiO 2 films are transparent and their maximal light transmittances exceed 80% under visible light region

  3. Photo-electrochemical properties of graphene wrapped hierarchically branched nanostructures obtained through hydrothermally transformed TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambabu, Y.; Jaiswal, Manu; Roy, Somnath C.

    2017-10-01

    Hierarchically structured nanomaterials play an important role in both light absorption and separation of photo-generated charges. In the present study, hierarchically branched TiO2 nanostructures (HB-MLNTs) are obtained through hydrothermal transformation of electrochemically anodized TiO2 multi-leg nanotubes (MLNT) arrays. Photo-anodes based on HB-MLNTs demonstrated 5 fold increase in applied bias to photo-conversion efficiency (%ABPE) over that of TiO2 MLNTs without branches. Further, such nanostructures are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films to enhance the charge separation, which resulted in ∼6.5 times enhancement in %ABPE over that of bare MLNTs. We estimated charge transport (η tr) and charge transfer (η ct) efficiencies by analyzing the photo-current data. The ultra-fine nano branches grown on the MLNTs are effective in increasing light absorption through multiple scattering and improving charge transport/transfer efficiencies by enlarging semiconductor/electrolyte interface area. The charge transfer resistance, interfacial capacitance and electron decay time have been estimated through electrochemical impedance measurements which correlate with the results obtained from photocurrent measurements.

  4. A Humidity Sensor Based on Nb-doped Nanoporous TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Anbia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The humidity sensing properties of the sensor fabricated from Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 by screen-printing on the alumina substrate with Ag-Pd interdigital electrodes have been investigated. The nanoporous thin film has been prepared by sol-gel technique. The product has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the structure and its morphology. It is found that the impedance of this sensor changes more than four orders of magnitude in the relative humidity (RH range of 11–95 % at 25 °C. The response and recovery time of the sensor are about 19 and 25 s, respectively, during the RH variation from 11 to 95 %. The sensor shows high humidity sensitivity, rapid response and recovery, prominent stability, good repeatability and narrow hysteresis loop. These results indicate that Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 thin films have a great potential for humidity sensing applications in room temperature operations.

  5. Eosin-Y sensitized core-shell TiO2-ZnO nano-structured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, V S; Palai, Akshaya K; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    In the current investigation, TiO 2 and TiO 2 -ZnO (core-shell) spherical nanoparticles were synthesized by simple combined hydrolysis and refluxing method. A TiO 2 core nanomaterial on the shell material of ZnO was synthesized by utilizing variable ratios of ZnO. The structural characterization of TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were done by XRD analysis. The spherical structured morphology of the TiO 2 -ZnO has been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The UV-visible spectra of TiO 2 -ZnO nanostructures were also compared with the pristine TiO 2 to investigate the shift of wavelength. The TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles at the interface efficiently collect the photogenarated electrons from ZnO and also ZnO act a barrier for reduced charge recombination of electrolyte and dye-nanoparticles interface. This combination improved the light absorption which induced the charge transfer ability and dye loading capacity of core-shell nanoparticles. An enhancement in the short circuit current (J sc ) from 1.67 mA/cm 2 to 2.1 mA/cm 2 has been observed for TiO 2 -ZnObased photoanode (with platinum free counter electrode), promises an improvement in the energy conversion efficiency by 57% in comparison with that of the DSSCs based on the pristine TiO 2 . Henceforth, TiO 2 -ZnO photoelectrode in ZnO will effectively act as barrier at the interface of TiO 2 -ZnO and TiO 2 , ensuring the potential for DSSC application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Crystallization behaviour of nanostructured hybrid SiO2-TiO2 gel glasses to nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetelina, Gerganova; Yordanka, Ivanova; Yuliya, Vueva; Miranda, Salvado Isabel M; Helena, Fernandes Maria

    2010-04-01

    The crystallization behaviour of hybrid SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposites derived from titanosiloxanes by sol-gel method has been investigated depending on the type of siloxane precursor and the pirolysis temperature. The resulting hybrid titanosiloxanes, crosslinked with trimethylsilil isocyanate (nitrogen-modified) or methyltrietoxisilane (carbon-modified), were pirolyzed in an inert atmosphere in the temperature range between 600 to 1100 degrees C in order to form C-(N)-Si-O-TiO2 nanocomposites. By means of XRD, FTIR, 29Si NMR, SEM, TEM and AFM investigations have been established that the transformation of the nanostructured SiO2-TiO2 hybrid materials into nanocomposites as well as the crystalline size depend on the titanium content and the type of cross-linking agents used in the synthesizes.

  7. Titanium dioxide (TIO2) thin film and plasma properties in RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2013-01-01

    Lately, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films with anatase crystalline property received numerous attentions as unique material properties. There are wide applications of TiO 2 thin film such as for photocatalytic application in solar cell. In the present study, radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique has been used to produce high dense, homogeneously controllable film layer at low deposition temperature using titanium (Ti) target. The diameter of the Ti target is 3 inch with fixed discharge power of 400W. Magnetron sputtering plasma has been produced in high purity 99.99% Argon (Ar) and 99.99% Oxygen (O 2 ) environment pressure ranging from 5 to 20 mTorr. The TiO2 were growth on silicon and glass substrates. Substrate temperature during deposition was kept constant at 400°C. The distance between target and substrate holder was maintain at 14 cm with rotation of 10 rotation-per-minutes. Our X-ray diffraction result, shows anatase crystalline successfully formed with characterization peaks of plane (101) at 2θ = 25.28°, plane (202) at 2θ = 48.05° and plane (211) at 2θ = 55.06°. In addition, it is our interest to study the plasma properties and optical spectrum of Ti, Ti+ , O- , ArM and Ar+ in the chamber during the deposition process. Result of emission line intensities, electron density and temperature from optical spectroscope and Langmuir probe will be discuss further during the workshop. This works were supported by Graduate Incentive Scheme of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme of Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. (author)

  8. An impact of the copper additive on photocatalytic and bactericidal properties of TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcieszak Damian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The biological and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and TiO2:Cu in relation to their structure, surface topography, wettability and optical properties of the thin films was investigated. Thin-film coatings were prepared by magnetron sputtering method in oxygen plasma with use of metallic targets (Ti and Ti-Cu. The results of structural studies revealed that addition of Cu into titania matrix (during the deposition process resulted in obtaining of an amorphous film, while in case of undoped TiO2, presence of nanocrystalline anatase (with crystallites size of 20 nm was found. Moreover, an addition of cooper had also an effect on surface diversification and decrease of its hydrophilicity. The roughness of TiO2:Cu film was 25 % lower (0.6 nm as-compared to titania (0.8 nm. These modifications of TiO2:Cu had an impact on the decrease of its photocatalytic activity, probably as a result of the active surface area decrease. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of the thin films against bacteria (Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and yeast (Candida albicans were also examined. For the purpose of this work the method dedicated for the evaluation of antimicrobial properties of thin films was developed. It was revealed that Cu-additive has a positive impact on neutralization of microorganisms.

  9. Influence of Nd-Doping on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Thin Film Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:Nd nanopowders and thin films composed of those materials have been compared. Titania nanoparticles with 1, 3, and 6 at. % of Nd-dopant were synthesized by sol-gel method. Additionally, thin films with the same material composition were prepared with the aid of spin-coating method. The analysis of structural investigations revealed that all as-prepared nanopowders were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure. The average size of crystallites was ca. 4-5 nm and the correlation between the amount of neodymium and the size of TiO2 crystallites was observed. It was shown that the dopant content influenced the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The results of photocatalytic decomposition of MO showed that doping with Nd (especially in the amount of 3 at. % increased self-cleaning activity of the prepared titania nanopowder. Similar effect was received in case of the thin films, but the decomposition rate was lower due to their smaller active surface area. However, the as-prepared TiO2:Nd photocatalyst in the form of thin films or nanopowders seems to be a very attractive material for various applications.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and application of Co doped TiO2 multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.

    2018-06-01

    To use the visible portion of solar light, 2% cobalt doped TiO2 (Co: TiO2) multilayer thin films having 1, 2, 3 and 4 stacked layers have been deposited on FTO substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that 1 and 2 layers of films have anatase phase. Brookite phase has been appeared at the 3 and 4 layered films. The average grain size of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of films are 14.4, 23.5, 29.7 and 33.6 nm respectively. UV-Vis results show that 4th layer film has high absorption in the visible region. The calculated Eg of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers is 3.54, 3.42, 3.30 and 3.03 eV respectively. The calculated average sheet resistivity of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of films is 7.68 × 104, 4.54 × 104, 8.85 × 103 and 7.95 × 102 (ohm-m) respectively, according to four point probe technique. Solar simulator results show that highest solar conversion efficiency (5.6%) has been obtained by using 3 stacked layers photoanode. This new structure in the form of stack layers provides a way to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  11. Formaldehyde gas sensor based on TiO2 thin membrane integrated with nano silicon structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Ming, An-jie; Ye, Li; Chen, Feng-hua; Sun, Xi-long; Liu, Wei-bing; Li, Chao-bo; Ou, Wen; Wang, Wei-bing; Chen, Da-peng

    2016-07-01

    An innovative formaldehyde gas sensor based on thin membrane type metal oxide of TiO2 layer was designed and fabricated. This sensor under ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diode (LED) illumination exhibits a higher response to formaldehyde than that without UV illumination at low temperature. The sensitivities of the sensor under steady working condition were calculated for different gas concentrations. The sensitivity to formaldehyde of 7.14 mg/m3 is about 15.91 under UV illumination with response time of 580 s and recovery time of 500 s. The device was fabricated through micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) processing technology. First, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was adopted to form black polysilicon, then a nanoscale TiO2 membrane with thickness of 53 nm was deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering to obtain the sensing layer. By such fabrication approaches, the nanoscale polysilicon presents continuous rough surface with thickness of 50 nm, which could improve the porosity of the sensing membrane. The fabrication process can be mass-produced for the MEMS process compatibility.

  12. Solvothermal preparation of micro/nanostructured TiO_2 with enhanced lithium storage capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Chao; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gongxuan; Tang, Chengchun; Wu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Facile and controllable preparation of TiO_2 is of prime importance to elaborately tailor and then fully exploit its intriguing functionalities in energy storage, catalysis and environmental remediation. Herein, a solvothermal method combined with post annealing is conducted, in which the hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate is controlled by the in-situ generated water during solvothermal treatment. By controlling synthetic conditions (i.e. reactant ratio, solvothermal temperature and reaction time), we manage to tailor the morphologies of TiO_2. Specially, three typical structures (nanoparticle, nanoneedle and nanorod) are studied to reveal the growth mechanism and the effects of the synthesis conditions. Nanoneedle-structured TiO_2 shows higher specific capacity and enhanced cycle stability as anode material for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • Controllable preparation of nano-TiO_2 is achieved by a solvothermal method. • TiO_2 morphology is tailored by tuning reactant ratio, temperature and duration. • Needle structured TiO_2 shows enhanced lithium storage capability.

  13. Fabrication of Fiber Bragg Grating Coating with TiO2 Nanostructured Metal Oxide for Refractive Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Riyadh Tahhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the sensitivity of biosensor a new approach using an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG coated with a suitable nanostructured metal oxide (NMO is proposed which is costly effective compared to other biosensors. Bragg grating was written on a D-shaped optical fiber by phase mask method using a 248 nm KrF excimer laser for a 5 min exposure time producing a grating with a period of 528 nm. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanostructured metal oxide was coated over the fiber for the purpose of increasing its sensing area. The etched D-shaped FBG was then coated with 312 nm thick TiO2 nanostructured layer to ensure propagating the radiation modes within the core. The final structure was used to sense deionized water and saline. The etched D-shaped FBG original sensitivity before coating to air-deionized water and to air-saline was 0.314 nm/riu and 0.142 nm/riu, respectively. After coating the sensitivity became 1.257 nm/riu for air-deionized water and 0.857 nm/riu for air-saline.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of TiO2 Nanostructure by TiCl4 Hydrolysis with Additive NaOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Taleb Rasheed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized via the hydrolysis of TiCl4 in alcohol / water solution/with sodium hydroxide solution in the ice-bath (0-5 ◦C. The particles were char-acterized by using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD, spectroscopy of Ultra Violet-Visible (UV / Visible and infrared (FT-IR, atomic force microscope (AFM and scanning electron micro-scope (SEM analysis were used in order to gain information about the material, morphology, size and the shape of the particles

  15. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of TiO2 Thin Film Deposited on the Nano Porous Silicon Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Mahmood; Dermani, Ensieh Khalili

    The porous silicon (PSi), which is produced by the electrochemical etching, has been used as a substrate for the growth of the titanium oxide (TiO2) thin films. By using the EBPVD method, TiO2 thin films have been deposited on the surface of the PSi substrate. TiO2/PSi layers were annealed at the temperature of 400∘C, 500∘C and 600∘C for different tests. The morphology and structures of layers were investigated by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The current-voltage characteristic curves of samples and the ideality factor of heterojunction were studied. The results showed that the electrical properties of the samples change with increase in the annealing temperature. The optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated by using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Green light emission of the PSi combined with the blue light and violet-blue emission obtained from the TiO2/PSi PL spectra. The results showed that the optical band gap energy of the PSi has increased from 1.86eV to 2.93eV due to the deposition of TiO2 thin film.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of Fe-doped TiO2 nanostructure photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Van Nghia; Nguyen, Ngoc Khoa Truong; Nguyen, Phi Hung

    2011-01-01

    Fe-doped TiO 2 catalyst was prepared by the hydrothermal method. The resulting nanopowders were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman and UV-visible spectroscopies. The photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped TiO 2 was tested by decomposition of methylene orange with a concentration of 10 mg l −1 in aqueous solution. The obtained results showed that methylene orange was significantly degraded after irradiation for 90 min under a halogen lamp and sunlight. The doping effect on the photocatalytic activity of the iron-doped catalyst samples are discussed

  17. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of nanostructured TiO2/TCP composite coating by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongjie; Liu, Xuanyong; Ding, Chuanxian

    2010-01-01

    Porous and nanostructured TiO 2 /tricalcium phosphate (TCP) composite coating on titanium substrate was prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The microstructure and phase composition of the coating were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Its bioactivity was evaluated by simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion tests. MG63 cells were cultured on the surface of the coating to investigate its cytocompatibility. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were applied to measure its corrosion resistance. The results revealed that rough and hydrophilic TiO 2 /TCP composite coating with pores of several micrometers and grains of 50-200 nm was prepared by one-step PEO treatment. The TiO 2 /TCP composite coating showed good apatite-forming ability in SBF, and the TCP phase in the coating played an important role in inducing apatite formation. MG63 cells could adhere and proliferate on the surface of the coating, indicating its good cytocompatibility. The composite coating also exhibited good corrosion resistance in 0.9% NaCl solution.

  18. TiO2 thin film growth using the MOCVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi M.I.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 thin films were obtained using the MOCVD method. In this report we discuss the properties of a film, produced using a ordinary deposition apparatus, as a function of the deposition time, with constant deposition temperature (90 °C, oxygen flow (7,0 L/min and substrate temperature (400 °C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and visible and ultra-violet region spectroscopy (UV-Vis. The films deposited on Si (100 substrates showed the anatase polycrystalline phase, while the films grown on glass substrates showed no crystallinity. Film thickness increased with deposition time as expected, while the transmittance varied from 72 to 91% and the refractive index remained close to 2.6.

  19. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Rafieian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx<2, obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, whereas stoichiometric films formed anatase. This route therefore presents a formation route for rutile films via lower (<500 °C temperature pathways. The dynamics of the annealing process were followed by in situ ellipsometry, showing the optical properties transformation. The final crystal structures were identified by XRD. The anatase film obtained by this deposition method displayed high carriers mobility as measured by time-resolved microwave conductance. This also confirms the high photocatalytic activity of the anatase films.

  20. Low-Temperature Preparation of Amorphous-Shell/Nanocrystalline-Core Nanostructured TiO2 Electrodes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongshe Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An amorphous shell/nanocrystalline core nanostructured TiO2 electrode was prepared at low temperature, in which the mixture of TiO2 powder and TiCl4 aqueous solution was used as the paste for coating a film and in this film amorphous TiO2 resulted from direct hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 100∘C sintering was produced to connect the particles forming a thick crack-free uniform nanostructured TiO2 film (12 μm, and on which a photoelectrochemical solar cell-based was fabricated, generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.58 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.647 V, and an overall 4.48% light-to-electricity conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination.

  1. Scalable Synthesis of Triple-Core-Shell Nanostructures of TiO2 @MnO2 @C for High Performance Supercapacitors Using Structure-Guided Combustion Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongjoon; Shin, Jungho; Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Park, Seonghyun; Choi, Wonjoon

    2018-03-01

    Core-shell nanostructures of metal oxides and carbon-based materials have emerged as outstanding electrode materials for supercapacitors and batteries. However, their synthesis requires complex procedures that incur high costs and long processing times. Herein, a new route is proposed for synthesizing triple-core-shell nanoparticles of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C using structure-guided combustion waves (SGCWs), which originate from incomplete combustion inside chemical-fuel-wrapped nanostructures, and their application in supercapacitor electrodes. SGCWs transform TiO 2 to TiO 2 @C and TiO 2 @MnO 2 to TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C via the incompletely combusted carbonaceous fuels under an open-air atmosphere, in seconds. The synthesized carbon layers act as templates for MnO 2 shells in TiO 2 @C and organic shells of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C. The TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C-based electrodes exhibit a greater specific capacitance (488 F g -1 at 5 mV s -1 ) and capacitance retention (97.4% after 10 000 cycles at 1.0 V s -1 ), while the absence of MnO 2 and carbon shells reveals a severe degradation in the specific capacitance and capacitance retention. Because the core-TiO 2 nanoparticles and carbon shell prevent the deformation of the inner and outer sides of the MnO 2 shell, the nanostructures of the TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C are preserved despite the long-term cycling, giving the superior performance. This SGCW-driven fabrication enables the scalable synthesis of multiple-core-shell structures applicable to diverse electrochemical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Ali, Asghar

    TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW) diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m) respectively, according to four point probe.

  3. Understanding the effect of flower extracts on the photoconducting properties of nanostructured TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S G; Bhayana, Laitka; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Hajry, A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Ansari, Z A

    2012-10-01

    Here we report an easy method to improve the optoelectronic properties of commercially available TiO2 nanopowder using extracts of various flowers viz. Calendula Orange (CO), Calendula Yellow (CY), Dahlia Violet (DV), Dahlia Yellow (DY), Rabbit flower (RF), Sweet Poppy (SP), Sweet Williams (SW) and their Mixed Extracts (ME). Various analysis techniques such as UV-Vis, FTIR, FESEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize for elemental, structural and morphological properties of the unmixed/mixed TiO2 nanopowder. TiO2 nanopowder was also calcined at 550 degrees C. Thick films of the these unmixed/mixed powder were printed, using conventional screen printing method, on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with organic binders and dried at 45 degrees C. The photoconducting properties are investigated as a function of wavelength from ultra-violet (UV) to infra-red (IR) region at a constant illumination intensity. Photocurrent gradually decreases when irradiated from UV to IR region. In case of unmixed and uncalcined TiO2, conductance decreased continuously whereas when extracts are added, a flat region of conductance is observed. The overall effect of extracts (colour pigments) is seen as an increase in the photoconductance. Highest photoconductance is observed in case of DY flower extract. Anthocyanins, present in flowers are known to have antioxidative properties and hence can contribute in photoconduction by reducing the surface adsorbed oxygen. This investigation indicates the potential use of flower extracts for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC).

  4. Thermal behavior of TiO2-xNx nanostructured powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balek, V.; Šubrt, Jan; Irie, H.; Hashimoto, K.

    -, - (2008), No267345 ISSN 1110-662X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : titanium-oxide photocatalysis * s-doped TiO2 Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2008

  5. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO2 thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlıdil, İlknur; Bacaksız, Emin; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Breen, Chris; Sökmen, Münevver

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel method. ► We obtained lower E g values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO 2 thin films. ► Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. ► Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO 2 thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO 2 thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe 3+ or Co 2+ ion doped TiO 2 thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol–gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E g value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO 2 , 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO 2 film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO 2 thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO 2 thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO 2 thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  6. Photocatalytic Activity of Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Michalcik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the properties and photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 layers. The glancing angle deposition method with DC sputtering at low temperature was applied for deposition of the layers with various columnar structures. The thin-film structure and surface morphology were analyzed by XRD, SEM, and AFM analyses. The photocatalytic activity of the films was determined by the rate constant of the decomposition of the Acid Orange 7. In dependence on the glancing angle deposition parameters, three types of columnar structures were obtained. The films feature anatase/rutile and/or amorphous structures depending on the film architecture and deposition method. All the films give the evidence of the photocatalytic activity, even those without proved anatase or rutile structure presence. The impact of columnar boundary in perspective of the photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 layers was discussed as the possible factor supporting the photocatalytic activity.

  7. Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of Ambipolar Lithium Ion and Electron-Polaron Diffusion into Nanostructured TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jianguo; Sushko, Maria L.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured titania (TiO2) polymorphs have proved to be promising electrode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the fundamental microscopic processes that control charge transport in these materials. Here we present microscopic simulations of the collective dynamics of lithium-ion (Li+) and charge compensating electron polarons (e-) in rutile TiO2 nanoparticles in contact with idealized conductive matrix and electrolyte. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used, parameterized by molecular dynamics-based predictions of activation energy barriers for Li+ and e- diffusion. Simulations reveal the central role of electrostatic coupling between Li+ and e- on their collective drift diffusion at the nanoscale. They also demonstrate that high contact area between conductive matrix and rutile nanoparticles leads to undesirable coupling-induced surface saturation effects during Li+ insertion, which limits the overall capacity and conductivity of the material. These results help provide guidelines for design of nanostructured electrode materials with improved electrochemical performance.

  8. Formation of TiO2 domains in Poly (9-vinylcarbazole) thin film by hydrolysis-condensation of a metal alkoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlier, V.; Bounor-Legare, V.; Alcouffe, P.; Boiteux, G.; Davenas, J.

    2007-01-01

    New organic-inorganic hybrid thin films based on Poly (9-vinylcarbazole) (P9VK) and Dioxide titanium (TiO 2 ) bulk-heterojunction were obtained by a hydrolysis-condensation (H-C) process of titanium (IV) isopropoxide in thin film. The TiO 2 distribution in the film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that homogeneous TiO 2 particles around 100 nm were formed on the surface of the polymer thin film. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study the charge transfer efficiency in the photoactive layer and results were compared with a simplest elaboration route, the dispersion of TiO 2 anatase in a P9VK solution before spin coating. Results showed that TiO 2 elaborated by H-C exhibits a competitive quenching effect with TiO 2 anatase

  9. Photo-induced hydrophilicity of TiO2-xNx thin films on PET plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, H.-Y.; Lee, E.-K.; You, J.-W.; Yu, S.-S.

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2-x N x thin films were deposited on PET (polyethylene terephthalate) plates by sputtering a TiN target in a N 2 /O 2 plasma and without heating. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the N 1s, Ti 2p core levels and the nitrogen composition in the TiO 2-x N x films. The results indicate that Ti-O-N bonds are formed in the thin films. Two nitrogen states, substitution and interstitial nitrogen atoms, were attributed to peaks at 396 and 399 eV, respectively. It was observed that the nitrogen atoms occupy both the substitutive and interstitial sites in respective of the nitrogen content in the thin films. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy of PET coated thin films shows a significant shift of the absorption edge to lower energy in the visible-light region. UV and visible-light irradiation are used to activate PET coated thin films for the development of hydrophilicity. The photo-induced surface wettability conversion reaction of the thin films has been investigated by means of water contact angle measurement. PET plates coated with TiO 2-x N x thin films are found to exhibit lower water contact angle than non-coated plates when the surface is illuminated with UV and visible light. The effects of nitrogen doping on photo-generated hydrophilicity of the thin films are investigated in this work

  10. Spin Speed and Duration Dependence of TiO2 Thin Films pH Sensing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AlHadi Zulkefle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were applied as the sensing membrane of an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET pH sensor. TiO2 thin films were deposited by spin coating method and the influences of the spin speed and spin duration on the pH sensing behavior of TiO2 thin films were investigated. The spin coated TiO2 thin films were connected to commercial metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET to form the extended gates and the MOSFET was integrated in a readout interfacing circuit to complete the EGFET pH sensor system. For the spin speed parameter investigation, the highest sensitivity was obtained for the sample spun at 3000 rpm at a fixed spinning time of 60 s, which was 60.3 mV/pH. The sensitivity was further improved to achieve 68 mV/pH with good linearity of 0.9943 when the spin time was 75 s at the speed of 3000 rpm.

  11. Structural transformation and enhanced gas sensing characteristics of TiO2 nanostructures induced by annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P.; Motaung, David E.; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2018-04-01

    The improved sensitivity and selectivity, and admirable stability are fundamental features required for the current age gas sensing devices to appease future humanity and environmental requirements. Therefore, herein, we report on the room temperature gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 nanotubes with significance response and sensitivity towards 60 ppm NO2 gas. Improved sensitivity of 29.44 ppm-1 and admirable selectivity towards NO2, among other gases ensuring adequate safety in monitoring NO2 in automobile and food industries. The improved sensitivity of TiO2 nanotubes was attributed to larger surface area provided by the hollow nanotubes resulting to improved gas adsorption and the relatively high concentration of oxygen vacancies.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructure Tio2/Anthraquenone (AQ Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhela M. Hussein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available sol–gel technique conducted to synthesize nano titanium dioxide with anthraquenone (AQ relatively in acidic pH. Nanoparticles were characterized using techniques like, Scanning Electrion Microscope (SEM, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, UV-Visible Spectrioscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, SEM picture display that the TiO2/AQ is spherical in style, the band gap of TiO2/AQ nanoparticle is (3.05eV, BET and BJH analysis provides Pore volume and specific Surface area and the kinetic studie Suggest that the reaction is pseudo first order and the rate of reaction was reduce with rising initial concentration for p-Nitrotolune.

  13. Uniform thin films of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Manera, M.G.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Romano, F.; Spadavecchia, J.; Tunno, T.; Valerini, D.

    2007-01-01

    We report morphological and optical properties of a colloidal TiO 2 nanoparticle film, deposited on a quartz substrate by using the Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Atomic Force Microscopy demonstrated that a good uniformity of the deposition can be obtained. The presence of agglomerates with dimensions of about 1 μm in size was noticed. Form UV-vis transmission spectra, recorded in the 200-800 nm range, the optical constants and the energy gap were determined besides the film thickness. The optical constants resulted in agreement with the values reported in literature for TiO 2 nanoparticle thin films

  14. Polythiophene thin films electrochemically deposited on sol-gel based TiO2 for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valaski, R.; Yamamoto, N.A.D.; Canestraro, C.D.; Micaroni, L.; Mello, R.M.Q.; Quirino, W.G.; Legani, C.; Achete, C.A.; Roman, L.S.; Cremona, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the influence of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films on the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices based on electrochemically synthesized polythiophene (PT) was investigated. TiO 2 films were produced by sol-gel methods with controlled thickness. The best TiO 2 annealing condition was determined through the investigation of the temperature influence on the electron charge mobility and resistivity in a range between 723 K and 923 K. The PT films were produced by chronoamperometric method in a 3-electrode cell under a controlled atmosphere. High quality PT films were produced onto 40 nm thick TiO 2 layer previously deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. The morphology of PT films grown on both substrates and its strong influence on the device performance and PT minimum thickness were also investigated. The maximum external quantum efficiency (IPCE) reached was 9% under monochromatic irradiation (λ = 610 nm; 1 W/m 2 ) that is three orders of magnitude higher than that presented by PT-homolayer devices with similar PT thickness. In addition, the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) was about 700 mV and the short-circuit current density (J sc ) was 0.03 A/m 2 (λ = 610 nm; 7 W/m 2 ). However, as for the PT-homolayer also the TiO 2 /PT based devices are characterized by antibatic response when illuminated through FTO. Finally, the Fill Factor (FF) of these devices is low (25%), indicating that the series resistance (R s ), which is strongly dependent of the PT thickness, is too large. This large R s value is compensated by TiO 2 /PT interface morphology and by FTO/TiO 2 and TiO 2 /PT interface phenomena producing preferential paths in which the internal electrical field is higher, improving the device efficiency.

  15. Recent Advances in TiO2 -Based Nanostructured Surfaces with Controllable Wettability and Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yuekun; Huang, Jianying; Cui, Zequn; Ge, Mingzheng; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Chen, Zhong; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-04-27

    Bioinspired surfaces with special wettability and adhesion have attracted great interest in both fundamental research and industry applications. Various kinds of special wetting surfaces have been constructed by adjusting the topographical structure and chemical composition. Here, recent progress of the artificial superhydrophobic surfaces with high contrast in solid/liquid adhesion has been reviewed, with a focus on the bioinspired construction and applications of one-dimensional (1D) TiO2-based surfaces. In addition, the significant applications related to artificial super-wetting/antiwetting TiO2-based structure surfaces with controllable adhesion are summarized, e.g., self-cleaning, friction reduction, anti-fogging/icing, microfluidic manipulation, fog/water collection, oil/water separation, anti-bioadhesion, and micro-templates for patterning. Finally, the current challenges and future prospects of this renascent and rapidly developing field, especially with regard to 1D TiO2-based surfaces with special wettability and adhesion, are proposed and discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Optical and morphological properties of ZnO- and TiO2-derived nanostructures synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moloto, N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporation International Journal of Photoenergy Volume 2012, Article ID 189069, 6 pages doi:10.1155/2012/189069 Research Article Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO- and TiO2-Derived Nanostructures Synthesized via a Microwave... International Journal of Photoenergy the sol-gel, hydrothermal process, and pulse laser deposition [22?24]. Although the sol-gel method is widely accepted for the preparation of both ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures, the calcinations process is essential and can...

  17. The properties of metal contacts on TiO2 thin films produced by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brus V. V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with research on volt-ampere characteristics of metal contacts (Al, Cr, In, Mo, Ti on titanium dioxide thin films and influence of annealing in vacuum on their electric properties. Volt-ampere characteristics measurements were taken by three-probe method. There was established that indium contact on TiO2 thin films possessed sharply defined ohmic properties.

  18. Performance of Erbium-doped TiO2 thin film grown by physical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Rini; Ghosh, Anupam; Dwivedi, Shyam Murli Manohar Dhar; Chakrabartty, Shubhro; Chinnamuthu, P.; Mondal, Aniruddha

    2017-09-01

    Undoped and Erbium-doped TiO2 thin films (Er:TiO2 TFs) were fabricated on the n-type Si substrate using physical vapour deposition technique. Field emission scanning electron microscope showed the morphological change in the structure of Er:TiO2 TF as compared to undoped sample. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the Er doping in the TiO2 thin film (TF). The XRD and Raman spectrum showed the presence of anatase phase TiO2 and Er2O3 in the Er:TiO2 TF. The Raman scattering depicted additional number of vibrational modes for Er:TiO2 TF due to the presence of Er as compared to the undoped TiO2 TF. The UV-Vis absorption measurement showed that Er:TiO2 TF had approximately 1.2 times more absorption over the undoped TiO2 TF in the range of 300-400 nm. The main band transition, i.e., the transition between the oxygen (2p) state and the Ti (3d) state was obtained at 3.0 eV for undoped TiO2 and at 3.2 eV for Er:TiO2 TF, respectively. The photo responsivity measurement was done on both the detectors, where Er:TiO2 TF detector showed better detectivity ( D *), noise equivalent power and temporal response as compared to undoped detector under ultra-violet illumination.

  19. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  20. Multistep structural transition of hydrogen trititanate nanotubes into TiO2-B nanotubes: a comparison study between nanostructured and bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, Edisson Jr; Jardim, P M; Marinkovic, Bojan A; Rizzo, Fernando C; Abreu, Marco A S de; Zotin, Jose L; Araujo, Antonio S

    2007-01-01

    H-trititanate nanotubes obtained by alkali hydrothermal treatment of TiO 2 followed by proton exchange were compared to their bulk H 2 Ti 3 O 7 counterpart with respect to their thermally induced structural transformation paths. As-synthesized and heat-treated samples were characterized by XRD, TEM/SAED, DSC and spectroscopy techniques, indicating that H 2 Ti 3 O 7 nanotubes showed the same sequence of structural transformations as their bulk counterpart obtained by conventional solid state reaction. Nanostructured H 2 Ti 3 O 7 converts into TiO 2 (B) via multistep transformation without losing its nanotubular morphology. The transformation occurs between 120 and 400 deg. C through topotactic mechanisms with the intermediate formation of nanostructured H 2 Ti 6 O 13 and H 2 Ti 12 O 25 , which are more condensed layered titanates eventually rearranging to TiO 2 (B). Our results suggest that the intermediate tunnel structure H 2 Ti 12 O 25 is the final layered intermediate phase, on which TiO 2 (B) nucleates and grows. The conversion of nanostructured TiO 2 (B) into anatase is completed at a much lower temperature than its bulk counterpart and is accompanied by loss of the nanotubular morphology

  1. Multistep structural transition of hydrogen trititanate nanotubes into TiO2-B nanotubes: a comparison study between nanostructured and bulk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Edisson; Jardim, P M; Marinkovic, Bojan A; Rizzo, Fernando C; de Abreu, Marco A S; Zotin, José L; Araújo, Antonio S

    2007-12-12

    H-trititanate nanotubes obtained by alkali hydrothermal treatment of TiO(2) followed by proton exchange were compared to their bulk H(2)Ti(3)O(7) counterpart with respect to their thermally induced structural transformation paths. As-synthesized and heat-treated samples were characterized by XRD, TEM/SAED, DSC and spectroscopy techniques, indicating that H(2)Ti(3)O(7) nanotubes showed the same sequence of structural transformations as their bulk counterpart obtained by conventional solid state reaction. Nanostructured H(2)Ti(3)O(7) converts into TiO(2)(B) via multistep transformation without losing its nanotubular morphology. The transformation occurs between 120 and 400 degrees C through topotactic mechanisms with the intermediate formation of nanostructured H(2)Ti(6)O(13) and H(2)Ti(12)O(25), which are more condensed layered titanates eventually rearranging to TiO(2)(B). Our results suggest that the intermediate tunnel structure H(2)Ti(12)O(25) is the final layered intermediate phase, on which TiO(2)(B) nucleates and grows. The conversion of nanostructured TiO(2)(B) into anatase is completed at a much lower temperature than its bulk counterpart and is accompanied by loss of the nanotubular morphology.

  2. Multistep structural transition of hydrogen trititanate nanotubes into TiO2-B nanotubes: a comparison study between nanostructured and bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Edisson, Jr.; Jardim, P. M.; Marinkovic, Bojan A.; Rizzo, Fernando C.; de Abreu, Marco A. S.; Zotin, José L.; Araújo, Antonio S.

    2007-12-01

    H-trititanate nanotubes obtained by alkali hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 followed by proton exchange were compared to their bulk H2Ti3O7 counterpart with respect to their thermally induced structural transformation paths. As-synthesized and heat-treated samples were characterized by XRD, TEM/SAED, DSC and spectroscopy techniques, indicating that H2Ti3O7 nanotubes showed the same sequence of structural transformations as their bulk counterpart obtained by conventional solid state reaction. Nanostructured H2Ti3O7 converts into TiO2(B) via multistep transformation without losing its nanotubular morphology. The transformation occurs between 120 and 400 °C through topotactic mechanisms with the intermediate formation of nanostructured H2Ti6O13 and H2Ti12O25, which are more condensed layered titanates eventually rearranging to TiO2(B). Our results suggest that the intermediate tunnel structure H2Ti12O25 is the final layered intermediate phase, on which TiO2(B) nucleates and grows. The conversion of nanostructured TiO2(B) into anatase is completed at a much lower temperature than its bulk counterpart and is accompanied by loss of the nanotubular morphology.

  3. Structural, morphological and local electric properties of TiO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergy, E; Pino, A Perez del; Sauthier, G; Figueras, A; Alsina, F; Pascual, J

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were synthesized on (1 0 0) Si substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. A frequency quadrupled Nd : YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 5 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source was used for the irradiations of metallic Ti targets. The experiments were performed in controlled oxygen atmosphere. Crystallinity, surface morphology and local electric properties of the obtained oxide thin films were investigated by x-ray diffractometry, micro-Raman spectroscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy. An inter-relation was found between the surface morphology, the crystalline structure and the nano-scale electric properties which open the possibility of synthesizing by the PLD technique TiO 2 thin films with tunable functional properties for future applications such as photocatalysts, gas sensors or solar energy converters

  4. Effects of LP-MOCVD prepared TiO2 thin films on the in vitro behavior of gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, Anisoara; Popescu, Simona; Ciofrangeanu, Cristina M.; Gleizes, Alain N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the in vitro response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1 cell line) to various thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) deposited on titanium (Ti) substrates by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The aim was to study the influence of film structural parameters on the cell behavior comparatively with a native-oxide covered titanium specimen, this objective being topical and interesting for materials applications in implantology. HGF-1 cells were cultured on three LP-MOCVD prepared thin films of TiO 2 differentiated by their thickness, roughness, transversal morphology, allotropic composition and wettability, and on a native-oxide covered Ti substrate. Besides traditional tests of cell viability and morphology, the biocompatibility of these materials was evaluated by fibronectin immunostaining, assessment of cell proliferation status and the zymographic evaluation of gelatinolytic activities specific to matrix metalloproteinases secreted by cells grown in contact with studied specimens. The analyzed surfaces proved to influence fibronectin fibril assembly, cell proliferation and capacity to degrade extracellular matrix without considerably affecting cell viability and morphology. The MOCVD of TiO 2 proved effective in positively modifying titanium surface for medical applications. Surface properties playing a crucial role for cell behavior were the wettability and, secondarily, the roughness, HGF-1 cells preferring a moderately rough and wettable TiO 2 coating.

  5. Hysteretic current-voltage characteristics in RF-sputtered nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, Manuel; Juarez, Gabriel; Heluani, Silvia P. de; Comedi, David

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the current-voltage characteristics at room temperature of a nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin film fabricated by reactive RF-sputtering deposition and sandwiched between ITO (indium-tin-oxide)-buffered glass substrate and an indium top electrode. The I-V characteristics are ohmic for low voltages and become non-linear, hysteretic and asymmetric as the voltage is increased. The system is shown to be well represented by two distinct resistance states in the non-ohmic region. Current transient evolutions were also measured for constant voltage excitations. The resistance is stable in time for voltages in the ohmic regime. In contrast, for voltages in the non-ohmic regime, the resistance has a small variation for a short period of time (order of tens seconds) and then increases with time. For those transients, long characteristic times (on the order of tens of minutes up to hours) were found. The behavior of the system is discussed on the basis of experimental results reported in the literature for similar systems and existing models for electric-field induced resistive switching

  6. Role of oxygen vacancies in anodic TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Halley, J.W.

    1992-05-01

    Defects play an important role in the electronic and optical properties of amorphous solids in general. Here we present both experimental and theoretical investigations on the nature and origin of defect states in anodic rutile TiO 2 thin films (of thickness 5nm to 20nm). There is experimental evidence that the observed gap state at 0.7eV below the edge of conduction-band is due to an oxygen vacancy. For this reason, oxygen vacancies are used in our model. A comparison of the calculated bulk-photoconductivity to photospectroscopy experiment reveals that the films have bulk-like transport properties. On the other hand a fit of the surface density of states to the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on the (001) surfaces has suggested a surface defect density of 5% of oxygen vacancies. To resolve this discrepancy, we calculated the dc-conductivity where localization effects are included. Our results show an impurity band formation at about p c =9% of oxygen vacancies. We concluded that the gap states seen in STM are localized and the oxygen vacancies are playing the role of trapping centers (deep levels) in the studied films. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  7. Influence of temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures: Negative impact with the nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakata, Nasser A.M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures was investigated. Two morphologies were used; nanoparticles and nanofibers. The nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning of a sol–gel consisting of titanium isopropoxide, silve...

  8. Thickness Dependent Optical Properties of Sol-gel based MgF2 – TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarth Krishnaraja Achar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available MgF2 – TiO2 thin films were prepared by cost effective solgel technique onto glass substrates and optical parameters were determined by envelope technique. Thin films were characterized by optical transmission spectroscopy in the spectral range 290 – 1000 nm. The refractive index, extinction coefficient, Optical thickness and band gap dependency on thickness were evaluated. Thickness dependency of thin films showed direct allowed transition with band gap of 3.66 to 3.73 eV.

  9. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILM OF TiO2 ON GRAPHITE SUBSTRATE BY Cu-ELECTRODEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of graphite/TiO2 has been done by mean of Cu electrodeposition. This research aims to study the effect of Cu electrodeposition on photocatalytic enhancing of TiO2. Electrodeposition has been done using CuSO4 0,4 M as the electrolyte at controlled current. The XRD pattern of modified TiO2 thin film on graphite substrate exhibited new peaks at 2θ= 43-44o and 2θ= 50-51o that have been identified as Cu with crystal cubic system, face-centered crystal lattice and crystallite size of 26-30 nm. CTABr still remains in the material as impurities. Meanwhile, based on morphological analysis, Cu particles are dissipated in the pore of thin film. Graphite/TiO2/Cu has higher photoconversion efficiency than graphite/TiO2.   Keywords: semiconductor, graphite/TiO2, Cu electrodeposition

  10. Incorporation of Kojic Acid-Azo Dyes on TiO2 Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolynne Zie Wei Sie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitization of heavy metal free organic dyes onto TiO2 thin films has gained much attention in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A series of new kojic acid based organic dyes KA1–4 were synthesized via nucleophilic substitution of azobenzene bearing different vinyl chains A1–4 with kojyl chloride 4. Azo dyes KA1–4 were characterized for photophysical properties employing absorption spectrometry and photovoltaic characteristic in TiO2 thin film. The presence of vinyl chain in A1–4 improved the photovoltaic performance from 0.20 to 0.60%. The introduction of kojic acid obtained from sago waste further increases the efficiency to 0.82–1.54%. Based on photovoltaic performance, KA4 achieved the highest solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η = 1.54% in the series.

  11. Microwave-assisted synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid nanostructured materials as quantum-dots sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Mendez, Jose R.; Matos, Juan; Cházaro-Ruiz, Luis F.; González-Castillo, Ana C.; Barrios-Yáñez, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    The microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid materials was performed. Saccharose, titanium isopropoxide and zinc acetate were used as organic and inorganic sources for the synthesis. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the textural and optoelectronic properties of the hybrid materials was verified. Carbon quantum-dots of TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured spheres were obtained in a second pot by controlled calcination steps of the precursor hybrid materials. A carefully characterization by adsorption-desorption N2 isotherms, XRD, XPS, SEM, UV-vis/DR and electro- and photo-electrochemistry properties of the carbon quantum-dots TiO2 and ZnO spheres was performed. The photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2-C and ZnO-C films proved to be dependent on the conditions of synthesis. It was found a red-shift in the energy band gap of the semiconductors with values of 3.02 eV and 3.13 eV for the TiO2-C and ZnO-C, respectively, clearly lower than those on bare semiconductors, which is associated with the C-doping effect. From the photo-electrochemistry characterization of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO films can be concluded that the present materials have potential applications as photoelectrodes for quantum-dots sensitized solar cells.

  12. Self-Reconstructed Formation of a One-Dimensional Hierarchical Porous Nanostructure Assembled by Ultrathin TiO2 Nanobelts for Fast and Stable Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Yan, Xiaodong; Xu, Bingqing; Lan, Jinle; Yu, Yunhua; Yang, Xiaoping; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Cewen

    2018-06-06

    Owing to their unique structural advantages, TiO 2 hierarchical nanostructures assembled by low-dimensional (LD) building blocks have been extensively used in the energy-storage/-conversion field. However, it is still a big challenge to produce such advanced structures by current synthetic techniques because of the harsh conditions needed to generate primary LD subunits. Herein, a novel one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 hierarchical porous fibrous nanostructure constructed by TiO 2 nanobelts is synthesized by combining a room-temperature aqueous solution growth mechanism with the electrospinning technology. The nanobelt-constructed 1D hierarchical nanoarchitecture is evolves directly from the amorphous TiO 2 /SiO 2 composite fibers in alkaline solutions at ambient conditions without any catalyst and other reactant. Benefiting from the unique structural features such as 1D nanoscale building blocks, large surface area, and numerous interconnected pores, as well as mixed phase anatase-TiO 2 (B), the optimum 1D TiO 2 hierarchical porous nanostructure shows a remarkable high-rate performance when tested as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (107 mA h g -1 at ∼10 A g -1 ) and can be used in a hybrid lithium-ion supercapacitor with very stable lithium-storage performance (a capacity retention of ∼80% after 3000 cycles at 2 A g -1 ). The current work presents a scalable and cost-effective method for the synthesis of advanced TiO 2 hierarchical materials for high-power and stable energy-storage/-conversion devices.

  13. Nano-crystalline thin and nano-particulate thick TiO2 layer: Cost effective sequential deposition and study on dye sensitized solar cell characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Sengupta, D.; Kasinadhuni, U.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin TiO 2 layer is deposited on conducting substrate using sol–gel based dip coating. • TiO 2 nano-particles are synthesized using hydrothermal route. • Thick TiO 2 particulate layer is deposited on prepared thin layer. • Dye sensitized solar cells are made using thin and thick layer based photo-anode. • Introduction of thin layer in particulate photo-anode improves the cell efficiency. - Abstract: A compact thin TiO 2 passivation layer is introduced between the mesoporous TiO 2 nano-particulate layer and the conducting glass substrate to prepare photo-anode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In order to understand the effect of passivation layer, other two DSSCs are also developed separately using TiO 2 nano-particulate and compact thin film based photo-anodes. Nano-particles are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis route and the compact passivation layer is prepared by simply dip coating the precursor sol prepared through wet chemical route. The TiO 2 compact layer and the nano-particles are characterised in terms of their micro-structural features and phase formation behavior. It is found that introduction of a compact TiO 2 layer in between the mesoporous TiO 2 nano-particulate layer and the conducting substrate improves the solar to electric conversion efficiency of the fabricated cell. The dense thin passivation layer is supposed to enhance the photo-excited electron transfer and prevent the recombination of photo-excited electrons

  14. Study on copper oxide stability in photoelectrochemical cell composed of nanostructured TiO2 and CuxO electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juodkazytė, J.; Šebeka, B.; Savickaja, I.; Jagminas, A.; Jasulaitienė, V.; Selskis, A.; Kovger, J.; Mack, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of Ti|TiO 2 | 0.1 M KOH |Cu x O|Cu photoelectrochemical cell is investigated. • Recrystallization of nanostructured Cu x O layer during photoelectrolysis is observed. • Comprehensive analysis of possible photoelectrochemical reactions is presented. • Factors influencing stability of Cu/Cu x O photocathode are discussed. • An important role of H 2 O 2 in operation of PEC is revealed. - Abstract: In the present study the performance of photoelectrochemical cell composed of nanostructurized Cu x O and TiO 2 photoelectrodes short-circuited in side by side configuration in 0.1 M KOH is investigated with the purpose to test the stability of Cu/Cu x O photocathode. The techniques employed are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and voltammetry. Comprehensive analysis of possible electrochemical reactions, involving participation of photogenerated charge carriers is presented. Recrystallization of Cu x O layer accompanied by the change in photocathode color is found to occur during the photoelectrolysis. The influence of structural factors, the potential of conjugated electrodes and hydrogen peroxide, which forms as intermediate during photoelectrolysis, on the balance of cathodic reactions and stability of operation of Ti|TiO 2 | 0.1 M KOH | Cu x O|Cu photoelectrochemical cell is discussed

  15. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  16. Evidence of iridescence in TiO2 nanostructures. A probably photonic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Gonzalez, Rafael; Quiroz, Heiddy P.; Barrera-Patiño, Claudia; Dussan, Anderson; Grupo de Optica e Informacion Cuantica Collaboration; Grupo de Materiales Nanoestructutrados y sus Aplicaciones Collaboration

    In this work, we present a study of optical properties of titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2). Nanotubes were obtained by electrochemical anodization method, using ethylene glycol solutions containing different amounts of water and fluoride. A complex structure is observed between nanotubes and Ti foils on surface when nanotubes are released from the sheet. These forms can be associated with replicas or marks in surface of the Ti foil. The optical response of replicas is studied by Uv-Vis spectrophotometry using white light and varying the angle of the incident light. Absorbance measurements reveal that these replicas exhibit a shift towards lower values of lambda when the angle of the incident light increases of 200 to 600. These changes may be associated with iridescent effects in this material. The concavity of the replicas in association with air could be generating photonic-like effects. Using a 2D model of replicas - air system, the photonic band structures are found through a plane wave approach. Correlations between photonic properties and iridescent effects are explored. Grupo de Optica e Informacion Cuantica.

  17. Síntese, caracterização e atividade fotocatalítica de catalisadores nanoestruturados de TiO2 dopados com metais Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 catalysts doped with metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Leonardo da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanostructured catalysts (nanotubes doped with different metals (silver, gold, copper, palladium and zinc were synthesized by the hydrothermal method in order to promote an increase in their photocatalytic activity under visible light. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific area and pore volume determination. The materials' photocatalytic activity was evaluated by rhodamine B decomposition in a glass batch reactor. Under UV radiation, only nanotubes doped with palladium were more active than the TiO2 P25, but the samples doped with silver, palladium and gold exhibited better results than the undoped samples under visible light.

  18. Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinfa Luka Domtau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied. TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt% of carbon black were deposited by screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO coated on glass substrate. Carbon black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength of 300–900 nm while absorbance was studied in the range of 350–900 nm. Band gaps and refractive index of the films were studied using the spectra. Reflectance, absorbance, and refractive index were found to increase with concentrations of carbon black. There was no significant variation in band gaps of films with change in carbon black concentrations. Transmittance reduced as the concentration of carbon black in TiO2 increased (i.e., increase in pore size. Currents and voltages (I-V characteristics of the films were measured by a 4-point probe. Resistivity (ρ and conductivity (σ of the films were computed from the I-V values. It was observed that resistivity increased with carbon black concentrations while conductivity decreased as the pore size of the films increased.

  19. Influence of the growth parameters on TiO2 thin films deposited using the MOCVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi M. I. B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the synthesis of TiO2 thin films by the Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD method. The influence of deposition parameters used during the growth in the obtained structural characteristics was studied. Different temperatures of the organometallic bath, deposition time, temperature and type of the substrate were combined. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy associated to Electron Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction, the strong influence of these parameters in the thin films final microstructure was verified.

  20. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylic)/SiO2-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Wen-Chen; Yu, Yang-Yen; Chen, Po-Kan; Yu, Hui-Huan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, poly(acrylic)/SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films were successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted polymerization. The coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MSMA) was hydrolyzed with colloidal SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles, and then polymerized with two acrylic monomers and initiator to form a precursor solution. The results of this study showed that the spin-coated hybrid films had relatively good surface planarity, high thermal stability, a tunable refractive index (1.525 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films, for potential use in optical applications.

  1. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation.

  2. Synthesis of hierarchical anatase TiO 2 nanostructures with tunable morphology and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed; Wankhade, Atul V.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Fihri, Aziz; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Patil, Umesh; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    A facile one-pot method to prepare three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures of titania with good control over their morphologies without the use of hydrofluoric acid is developed. The reaction is performed under microwave irradiation conditions in pure water, and enables enhanced photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that photocatalytic activity depends not only on the surface area but also on the morphology of the titania. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. On the relationship between rutile/anatase ratio and the nature of defect states in sub-100 nm TiO2 nanostructures: experimental insights

    KAUST Repository

    Soliman, Moamen M.

    2018-02-02

    Black TiO2 is being widely investigated due to its superior optical activity and potential applications in photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Herein, the limitations of the hydrogenation process of TiO2 nanostructures are unraveled by exploiting the fundamental tradeoffs affecting the overall efficiency of the water splitting process. To control the nature and concentration of defect states, different reduction rates are applied to sub-100 nm TiO2 nanotubes, chosen primarily for their superiority over their long counterparts. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy disclosed changes in the stoichiometry of TiO2 with the reduction rate. UV-vis and Raman spectra showed that high reduction rates promote the formation of the rutile phase in TiO2, which is inactive towards water splitting. Furthermore, electrochemical analysis revealed that such high rates induce a higher concentration of localized electronic defect states that hinder the water splitting performance. Finally, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) highlighted the optimum reduction rate that attains a relatively lower defect concentration as well as lower rutile content, thereby achieving the highest conversion efficiency.

  4. Nanostructured TiO2 microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid state polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Kang, Yong Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Bimodal mesoporous, anatase TiO 2 microspheres with particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2 μm were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method. The photovoltaic performance of TiO 2 microspheres in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a solid state electrolyte was investigated. The solid state electrolyte DSSC device based on the TiO 2 microspheres exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2%, which is greater than that of commercial P25 TiO 2 (3.6%). The higher photocurrent density was primarily achieved as a result of the greater specific surface area and pore size, which resulted in an increase in the dye uptake of the TiO 2 microspheres and easy transport of solid electrolyte through mesopores. In addition, the greater electron lifetime and superior light scattering ability also enhanced the photovoltaic performance of the TiO 2 microsphere-based, solid state DSSCs

  5. Laser damage properties of TiO2/Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yaowei; Liu Hao; Sheng Ouyang; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Yang Liming

    2011-01-01

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 films at 110 deg. C and 280 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100 mm Φ samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064 nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 films, the LIDTs were 6.73±0.47 J/cm 2 and 6.5±0.46 J/cm 2 at 110 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110 deg. C are notably better than 280 deg. C.

  6. Inverted organic solar cells with solvothermal synthesized vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films as efficient electron transport layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi Dafeh; Samaneh Ghazanfarpour; Mohammad Khanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of using different thicknesses of pure and vanadium-doped thin films of TiO2 as the electron transport layer in the inverted configuration of organic photovoltaic cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) P3HT:[6-6] phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM).1% vanadium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via the solvothermal method.Crystalline structure,morphology,and optical properties of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films were studied by different techniques such as x-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmittance electron microscopy,and UV-visible transmission spectrum.The doctor blade method which is compatible with roll-2-roll printing was used for deposition of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films with thicknesses of 30 nm and 60 nm.The final results revealed that the best thickness of TiO2 thin films for our fabricated cells was 30 nm.The cell with vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film showed slightly higher power conversion efficiency and great Jsc of 10.7 mA/cm2 compared with its pure counterpart.In the cells using 60 nm pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 layers,the cell using the doped layer showed much higher efficiency.It is remarkable that the extemal quantum efficiency of vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film was better in all wavelengths.

  7. Periodic TiO2 Nanostructures with Improved Aspect and Line/Space Ratio Realized by Colloidal Photolithography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Berthod

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents substantial improvements of the colloidal photolithography technique (also called microsphere lithography with the goal of better controlling the geometry of the fabricated nano-scale structures—in this case, hexagonally arranged nanopillars—printed in a layer of directly photopatternable sol-gel TiO2. Firstly, to increase the achievable structure height the photosensitive layer underneath the microspheres is deposited on a reflective layer instead of the usual transparent substrate. Secondly, an increased width of the pillars is achieved by tilting the incident wave and using multiple exposures or substrate rotation, additionally allowing to better control the shape of the pillar’s cross section. The theoretical analysis is carried out by rigorous modelling of the photonics nanojet underneath the microspheres and by optimizing the experimental conditions. Aspect ratios (structure height/lateral structure size greater than 2 are predicted and demonstrated experimentally for structure dimensions in the sub micrometer range, as well as line/space ratios (lateral pillar size/distance between pillars greater than 1. These nanostructures could lead for example to materials exhibiting efficient light trapping in the visible and near-infrared range, as well as improved hydrophobic or photocatalytic properties for numerous applications in environmental and photovoltaic systems.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and thermal stability of SiO2/TiO2/CR-Ag multilayered nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gabriela; Chang, Yao-Jen; Philipossian, Ara

    2018-06-01

    The controllable synthesis and characterization of novel thermally stable silver-based particles are described. The experimental approach involves the design of thermally stable nanostructures by the deposition of an interfacial thick, active titania layer between the primary substrate (SiO2 particles) and the metal nanoparticles (Ag NPs), as well as the doping of Ag nanoparticles with an organic molecule (Congo Red, CR). The nanostructured particles were composed of a 330-nm silica core capped by a granular titania layer (10 to 13 nm in thickness), along with monodisperse 5 to 30 nm CR-Ag NPs deposited on top. The titania-coated support (SiO2/TiO2 particles) was shown to be chemically and thermally stable and promoted the nucleation and anchoring of CR-Ag NPs, which prevented the sintering of CR-Ag NPs when the structure was exposed to high temperatures. The thermal stability of the silver composites was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Larger than 10 nm CR-Ag NPs were thermally stable up to 300 °C. Such temperature was high enough to destabilize the CR-Ag NPs due to the melting point of the CR. On the other hand, smaller than 10 nm Ag NPs were stable at temperatures up to 500 °C because of the strong metal-metal oxide binding energy. Energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was carried out to qualitatively analyze the chemical stability of the structure at different temperatures which confirmed the stability of the structure and the existence of silver NPs at temperatures up to 500 °C.

  9. Defect controlled tuning of the ratio of ultraviolet to visible light emission in TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, S.; Basak, D.

    2016-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of sol–gel TiO 2 thin film has been found to be largely dependent on the post-deposition processing such as annealing at 500 °C in air, vacuum and ultraviolet (UV) light curing at room temperature. A detailed analysis of room temperature PL spectra shows that the UV/VIS PL peak intensity ratio is maximum for the film which has been annealed at 500 °C in air. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Ti 3+ type of point defects. The visible emission is deconvoluted to green and orange emissions. Analyses of the present experimental results indicate that V O and/or Ti 3+ causes the green emission and OH and/or excess O 2 adsorption on TiO 2 surface probably causes the orange emission. The time correlated single photon counting spectroscopy data of the UV PL indicates higher number defects in vacuum annealed and UV cured films as compared to the air annealed film. Correlation of the results altogether allows us to conclude that the surface defects those causing the visible emission are smaller in number in the air annealed film. The present results may be useful for tuning the relative PL intensities of UV, green and orange emissions. - Highlights: • Sol–gel TiO 2 films were treated both in air, vacuum at 500 °C and under UV light (room temperature). • UV/VIS PL intensity ratio is maximum for air annealed and minimum for UV cured films. • Both green and orange emission predominantly controls the visible emission of TiO 2 . • The visible emission exhibit a clear correlation with Ti 3+  defects on the surface.

  10. Control of crystallographic texture and surface morphology of Pt/Tio2 templates for enhanced PZT thin film texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Austin J; Drawl, Bill; Fox, Glen R; Gibbons, Brady J; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Optimized processing conditions for Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si templating electrodes were investigated. These electrodes are used to obtain [111] textured thin film lead zirconate titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1-x ]O3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) (PZT). Titanium deposited by dc magnetron sputtering yields [0001] texture on a thermally oxidized Si wafer. It was found that by optimizing deposition time, pressure, power, and the chamber pre-conditioning, the Ti texture could be maximized while maintaining low surface roughness. When oxidized, titanium yields [100]-oriented rutile. This seed layer has as low as a 4.6% lattice mismatch with [111] Pt; thus, it is possible to achieve strongly oriented [111] Pt. The quality of the orientation and surface roughness of the TiO2 and the Ti directly affect the achievable Pt texture and surface morphology. A transition between optimal crystallographic texture and the smoothest templating surface occurs at approximately 30 nm of original Ti thickness (45 nm TiO2). This corresponds to 0.5 nm (2 nm for TiO2) rms roughness as determined by atomic force microscopy and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve 0002 (200) peak of 5.5/spl degrees/ (3.1/spl degrees/ for TiO2). A Pb[Zr0.52Ti 0.48]O3 layer was deposited and shown to template from the textured Pt electrode, with a maximum [111] Lotgering factor of 87% and a minimum 111 FWHM of 2.4/spl degrees/ at approximately 30 nm of original Ti.

  11. On the thermal growth and properties of doped TiO2 and In2O3 elongated nanostructures and nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremades, A.; Herrera, M.; Bartolomé, J.; Vásquez, G.C.; Maestre, D.; Piqueras, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the driving forces behind the growth mechanisms of In 2 O 3 and TiO 2 micro- and nano-structures grown by an evaporation–solidification method are discussed. Effective or limited doping incorporation and its influence on the growth and morphology of the low dimensional structures are also assessed. A dislocation driven growth mechanism is proposed for indium oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO) and zinc doped indium oxide (IZO) nanowires. This growth mechanism is extended to the growth of IZO nano-plates. On the other hand, different low dimensional TiO 2 morphologies, mainly nanowires, needles, and bidimensional leaf-like nanostructures, have been obtained by an anisotropic induced growth. By introducing Cr in the precursor mixture, needles are formed showing stepped lateral faces related to oxygen defect stoichiometry areas as observed by EDS mapping

  12. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin layers for the processing of memristive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porro, Samuele; Conti, Daniele; Guastella, Salvatore; Ricciardi, Carlo; Jasmin, Alladin; Pirri, Candido F.; Bejtka, Katarzyna; Perrone, Denis; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) represents one of the most fundamental techniques capable of satisfying the strict technological requirements imposed by the rapidly evolving electronic components industry. The actual scaling trend is rapidly leading to the fabrication of nanoscaled devices able to overcome limits of the present microelectronic technology, of which the memristor is one of the principal candidates. Since their development in 2008, TiO 2 thin film memristors have been identified as the future technology for resistive random access memories because of their numerous advantages in producing dense, low power-consuming, three-dimensional memory stacks. The typical features of ALD, such as self-limiting and conformal deposition without line-of-sight requirements, are strong assets for fabricating these nanosized devices. This work focuses on the realization of memristors based on low-temperature ALD TiO 2 thin films. In this process, the oxide layer was directly grown on a polymeric photoresist, thus simplifying the fabrication procedure with a direct liftoff patterning instead of a complex dry etching process. The TiO 2 thin films deposited in a temperature range of 120–230 °C were characterized via Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical current–voltage measurements taken in voltage sweep mode were employed to confirm the existence of resistive switching behaviors typical of memristors. These measurements showed that these low-temperature devices exhibit an ON/OFF ratio comparable to that of a high-temperature memristor, thus exhibiting similar performances with respect to memory applications

  13. Quantum size effects in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tallarida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the atomic layer deposition of TiO2 by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Ti precursor, titanium isopropoxide, was used in combination with H2O on Si/SiO2 substrates that were heated at 200 °C. The low growth rate (0.15 Å/cycle and the in situ characterization permitted to follow changes in the electronic structure of TiO2 in the sub-nanometer range, which are influenced by quantum size effects. The modified electronic properties may play an important role in charge carrier transport and separation, and increase the efficiency of energy conversion systems.

  14. Physiochemical properties of TiO2 nanoparticle thin films deposited on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Basiaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of TiO2 layer to improve hemocompatibility of 316LVM stainless steel. The TiO2 layers studied in this work were deposited from TiCl4 and H2O in a low-pressure Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD reactor taking into account number of cycles and process temperature. As a part of the research electrochemical studies of the layer after 28 days exposure to artificial plasma were carried out. In particular, potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and impedance studies were conducted. The obtained results were the basis for selection of surface treatment method dedicated to blood-contacting stainless steel implants.

  15. Degradation of gas-phase trichloroethylene over thin-film TiO2 photocatalyst in multi-modules reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lee, Jun Yub; Kim, Gyung Soo; Hong, Sung Chang

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examined the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE) over thin-film TiO 2 . A large-scale treatment of TCE was carried out using scale-up continuous flow photo-reactor in which nine reactors were arranged in parallel and series. The parallel or serial arrangement is a significant factor to determine the special arrangement of whole reactor module as well as to compact the multi-modules in a continuous flow reactor. The conversion of TCE according to the space time was nearly same for parallel and serial connection of the reactors.

  16. Surface Modification of Aerosol-Assisted CVD Produced TiO2 Thin Film for Dye Sensitised Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuPei Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple and convenient method for the preparation of Ag/TiO2 thin films supported on indium tin oxide, which was achieved by sonochemical deposition of Ag+ on aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposited TiO2 thin films. Posttreatment was performed on the film by immersion in HCl. The as-prepared composite film was characterised by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements and J-V characterisation showed approximately fivefold increase in photocurrent density generation and approximately sevenfold enhancement in dye sensitiser solar cell (DSSC conversion efficiency, which was achieved after modification of the TiO2 film with HCl posttreatment and Ag particle deposition. The improved photocurrent density of 933.30 μA/cm2, as well as DSSC power conversion efficiency of 3.63% with high stability, is an indication that the as-synthesised thin film is a potential candidate for solar energy conversion applications.

  17. Effect of electrode type in the resistive switching behaviour of TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, E; Zapata-Torres, M; Márquez-Herrera, A; Zaleta-Alejandre, E; Meléndez-Lira, M; Cruz, W de la

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the electrode/active layer on the electric-field-induced resistance-switching phenomena of TiO 2 -based metal-oxide-metal devices (MOM) is studied. TiO 2 active layers were fabricated by the reactive rf-sputtering technique and devices were made by sandwiching between several metal electrodes. Three different MOM devices were made, according with the junction type formed between the electrode and the TiO 2 active layer, those where Ohmic-Ohmic, Ohmic-Schottky and Schottky-Schottky. The junction type was tested by electrical I-V measurements. It was found that MOM devices made with the Ohmic-Ohmic combination did not show any resistive switching behaviour in contrast with devices made with Ohmic-Schottky and Schottky-Schottky combinations. From a detailed analysis of the I-V curves it was found that transport characteristics are Ohmic for the low-resistance state for all the contacts combinations of the MOM devices, whereas in the high-resistance state it depends on contact combinations and can be identified as Ohmic, Schottky and Poole-Frenkel type. These conduction mechanisms in the low- and high-resistance states suggest that formation and rupture of conducting filaments through the film oxide is the mechanism responsible for the resistance switching.

  18. Optical, Electrical, and Crystal Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition on Silicon and Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupa, I.; Unal, Y.; Cetin, S. S.; Durna, L.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.; Ates, H.

    2018-05-01

    TiO2 thin films have been deposited on glass and Si(100) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using tetrakis(diethylamido)titanium(IV) and water vapor as reactants. Thorough investigation of the properties of the TiO2/glass and TiO2/Si thin films was carried out, varying the deposition temperature in the range from 100°C to 250°C while keeping the number of reaction cycles fixed at 1000. Physical and material property analyses were performed to investigate optical and electrical properties, composition, structure, and morphology. TiO2 films grown by ALD may represent promising materials for future applications in optoelectronic devices.

  19. Porous (001-faceted anatase TiO2 nanorice thin film for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Athar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase TiO2 structures with nanorice-like morphology and high exposure of (001 facet has been successfully synthesized on an ITO surface using ammonium Hexafluoro Titanate and Hexamethylenetetramine as precursor and capping agent, respectively, under a microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition method. These anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared within five minutes of reaction time by utilizing an inverter microwave system at a normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and the size (approximately from 6 to 70 nm of these nanostructures can be controlled. Homogenous, porous, 5.64 ± 0.002 μm thick layer of spongy-nanorice with facets (101 and (001 was grown on ITO substrate and used as a photo-anode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. This solar cell device has emerged out with 4.05 ± 0.10% power conversion efficiency (PCE and 72% of incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE under AM1.5 G illumination.

  20. Strategies to prepare TiO2 thin films, doped with transition metal ions, that exhibit specific physicochemical properties to support osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayal, Marshal; Kapoor, Renu; Sistla, Pavana Goury; Pandey, Ravi Ranjan; Kar, Satabisha; Saini, Krishan Kumar; Pande, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion doped titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) thin films, as bioactive coatings on metal or other implantable materials, can be used as surfaces for studying the cell biological properties of osteogenic and other cell types. Bulk crystallite phase distribution and surface carbon–oxygen constitution of thin films, play an important role in determining the biological responses of cells that come in their contact. Here we present a strategy to control the polarity of atomic interactions between the dopant metal and TiO 2 molecules and obtain surfaces with smaller crystallite phases and optimal surface carbon–oxygen composition to support the maximum proliferation and adhesion of osteoblast cells. Our results suggest that surfaces, in which atomic interactions between the dopant metals and TiO 2 were less polar, could support better adhesion, spreading and proliferation of cells. - Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of dopants control the nature of TiO 2 thin films. • A model explains the correlation of dopant properties and behaviour of TiO 2 films. • Dopants with less polar interaction with TiO 2 exhibit better biological activity

  1. Growth and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthier, G.; Ferrer, F.J.; Figueras, A.; Gyoergy, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were grown on (001) SiO 2 substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 10 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the irradiations of pressed powder targets composed by both anatase and rutile phase TiO 2 . The experiments were performed in a controlled reactive atmosphere consisting of oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen gases. The obtained thin film crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, while their chemical composition as well as chemical bonding states between the elements were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An interrelation was found between nitrogen concentration, crystalline structure, bonding states between the elements, and the formation of titanium oxinitride compounds. Moreover, as a result of the nitrogen incorporation in the films a continuous red-shift of the optical absorption edge accompanied by absorption in the visible spectral range between 400 and 500 nm wavelength was observed.

  2. Strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy in ion irradiated anatase TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stiller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and field dependence of the magnetization of epitaxial, undoped anatase TiO2 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates was investigated. Low-energy ion irradiation was used to modify the surface of the films within a few nanometers, yet with high enough energy to produce oxygen and titanium vacancies. The as-prepared thin film shows ferromagnetism which increases after irradiation with low-energy ions. An optimal and clear magnetic anisotropy was observed after the first irradiation, opposite to the expected form anisotropy. Taking into account the experimental parameters, titanium vacancies as di-Frenkel pairs appear to be responsible for the enhanced ferromagnetism and the strong anisotropy observed in our films. The magnetic impurities concentrations was measured by particle-induced X-ray emission with ppm resolution. They are ruled out as a source of the observed ferromagnetism before and after irradiation.

  3. The preparation and characterization of nanostructured TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide electrode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitiyanan, Athapol; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Pavasupree, Soropong; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of nanostructured mixed metal oxide based on a sol-gel method with surfactant-assisted mechanism, and its application for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) are reported. The mixed zirconia (ZrO 2 ) and titania (TiO 2 ) mesoporous powder possessed larger surface area than the corresponding titania. For the UV action spectra of unsensitized photochemical cell, the mixed zirconia/titania electrode can absorb UV light below 380nm, corresponding to band gap (E g ) around 3.27eV, which is higher than that of pure component of titania (E g =3.2eV). Both of these improved properties, i.e., BET surface area and band gap, contributed to the improvement on a short-circuit photocurrent up to 11%, an open-circuit voltage up to 4%, and a solar energy conversion efficiency up to 17%, for the DSSC fabricated by mesoporous zirconia/titania mixed system when compared to the cell that was fabricated only by nanostructured TiO 2 . The cell fabricated by 5μm thick mixed TiO 2 -ZrO 2 electrode gave the short-circuit photocurrent about 13mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage about 600 mV and the conversion efficiency 5.4%

  4. Enhanced Charge Extraction of Li-Doped TiO2 for Efficient Thermal-Evaporated Sb2S3 Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Lan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We provided a new method to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3 thin film solar cells. The TiO2 electron transport layers were doped by lithium to improve their charge extraction properties for the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. The Mott-Schottky curves suggested a change of energy band and faster charge transport in the Li-doped TiO2 films. Compared with the undoped TiO2, Li-doped mesoporous TiO2 dramatically improved the photo-voltaic performance of the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 thin film solar cells, with the average power conversion efficiency (PCE increasing from 1.79% to 4.03%, as well as the improved open-voltage (Voc, short-circuit current (Jsc and fill factors. The best device based on Li-doped TiO2 achieved a power conversion efficiency up to 4.42% as well as a Voc of 0.645 V, which are the highest values among the reported thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. This study showed that Li-doping on TiO2 can effectively enhance the charge extraction properties of electron transport layers, offering a new strategy to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3-based solar cells.

  5. Enhanced Charge Extraction of Li-Doped TiO2 for Efficient Thermal-Evaporated Sb2S3 Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chunfeng; Luo, Jingting; Lan, Huabin; Fan, Bo; Peng, Huanxin; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Huibin; Zheng, Zhuanghao; Liang, Guangxing; Fan, Ping

    2018-01-01

    We provided a new method to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3 thin film solar cells. The TiO2 electron transport layers were doped by lithium to improve their charge extraction properties for the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. The Mott-Schottky curves suggested a change of energy band and faster charge transport in the Li-doped TiO2 films. Compared with the undoped TiO2, Li-doped mesoporous TiO2 dramatically improved the photo-voltaic performance of the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 thin film solar cells, with the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) increasing from 1.79% to 4.03%, as well as the improved open-voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc) and fill factors. The best device based on Li-doped TiO2 achieved a power conversion efficiency up to 4.42% as well as a Voc of 0.645 V, which are the highest values among the reported thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. This study showed that Li-doping on TiO2 can effectively enhance the charge extraction properties of electron transport layers, offering a new strategy to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3-based solar cells. PMID:29495612

  6. Facile synthesis of improved room temperature gas sensing properties of TiO2 nanostructures: Effect of acid treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method in a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) aqueous solution and washed with distilled water and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid which acted as the morphological...

  7. Influence of nanocrystalline structure and surface properties of TiO2 thin films on the viability of L929 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osękowska Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the physicochemical and biological properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films were investigated. Thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering method. Their properties were examined by X-ray diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical transmission method and optical profiler. Moreover, surface wettability and scratch resistance were determined. It was found that as-deposited coatings were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure, built from crystallites in size of 24 nm. The surface of the films was homogenous, composed of closely packed grains and hydrophilic. Due to nanocrystalline structure thin films exhibited good scratch resistance. The results were correlated to the biological activity (in vitro of thin films. Morphological changes of mouse fibroblasts (L929 cell line after contact with the surface of TiO2 films were evaluated with the use of a contrast-phase microscope, while their viability was tested by MTT colorimetric assay. The viability of cell line upon contact with the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2 film was comparable to the control sample. L929 cells had homogenous cytoplasm and were forming a confluent monofilm, while lysis and inhibition of cell growth was not observed. Moreover, the viability in contact with surface of examined films was high. This confirms non-cytotoxic effect of TiO2 film surface on mouse fibroblasts.

  8. Recent improvements on TiO2 and ZnO nanostructure photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamalullail Nurnaeimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is a promising candidate for a low cost solar harvesting technology as it promised a low manufacturing cost, ease of fabrication and reasonable conversion efficiency. Basic structure of DSSC consists of photoanode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. Photoanode plays an important role for a DSSC as it supports the dye molecules and helps in the electron transfer that will determine the energy conversion efficiency. This paper emphasizes the various improvements that had been done on the TiO2 and ZnO photoanode nanostructures synthesized through thermal method. For overall comparisons, ZnO nanoflowers photoanode had achieved the highest energy conversion efficiency of 4.7% due to its ability of internal light scattering that had increased the electron transportation rate. This has made ZnO as a potential candidate to replace TiO2 as a photoanode material in DSSC.

  9. Investigation of various properties of HfO2-TiO2 thin film composites deposited by multi-magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, M.; Poniedziałek, A.; Kaczmarek, D.; Wojcieszak, D.; Domaradzki, J.; Gibson, D.

    2017-11-01

    In this work the properties of hafnium dioxide (HfO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and mixed HfO2-TiO2 thin films with various amount of titanium addition, deposited by magnetron sputtering were described. Structural, surface, optical and mechanical properties of deposited coatings were analyzed. Based on X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measuremets it was observed that there was a significant influence of titanium concentration in mixed TiO2-HfO2 thin films on their microstructure. Increase of Ti content in prepared mixed oxides coatings caused, e.g. a decrease of average crystallite size and amorphisation of the coatings. As-deposited hafnia and titania thin films exhibited nanocrystalline structure of monoclinic phase and mixed anatase-rutile phase for HfO2 and TiO2 thin films, respectively. Atomic force microscopy investigations showed that the surface of deposited thin films was densely packed, crack-free and composed of visible grains. Surface roughness and the value of water contact angle decreased with the increase of Ti content in mixed oxides. Results of optical studies showed that all deposited thin films were well transparent in a visible light range. The effect of the change of material composition on the cut-off wavelength, refractive index and packing density was also investigated. Performed measurements of mechanical properties revealed that hardness and Young's elastic modulus of thin films were dependent on material composition. Hardness of thin films increased with an increase of Ti content in thin films, from 4.90 GPa to 13.7 GPa for HfO2 and TiO2, respectively. The results of the scratch resistance showed that thin films with proper material composition can be used as protective coatings in optical devices.

  10. Photocatalytic Anatase TiO2 Thin Films on Polymer Optical Fiber Using Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Choquet, Patrick; Boscher, Nicolas D

    2017-04-19

    Due to the undeniable industrial advantages of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma processes, such as low cost, low temperature, easy implementation, and in-line process capabilities, they have become the most promising next-generation candidate system for replacing thermal chemical vapor deposition or wet chemical processes for the deposition of functional coatings. In the work detailed in this article, photocatalytic anatase TiO 2 thin films were deposited at a low temperature on polymer optical fibers using an atmospheric-pressure plasma process. This method overcomes the challenge of forming crystalline transition metal oxide coatings on polymer substrates by using a dry and up-scalable method. The careful selection of the plasma source and the titanium precursor, i.e., titanium ethoxide with a short alkoxy group, allowed the deposition of well-adherent, dense, and crystalline TiO 2 coatings at low substrate temperature. Raman and XRD investigations showed that the addition of oxygen to the precursor's carrier gas resulted in a further increase of the film's crystallinity. Furthermore, the films deposited in the presence of oxygen exhibited a better photocatalytic activity toward methylene blue degradation assumedly due to their higher amount of photoactive {101} facets.

  11. Influence of annealing on X-ray radiation sensing properties of TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, M. P.; Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2018-03-01

    A recent study shows that the titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film synthesised by a chemical bath deposition technique is a very useful material for the X-ray radiation sensor. In this work, we reported the influence of annealing on the X-ray radiation detection sensitivity of the TiO2 film. The films were annealed at 333 K, 363 K, 393 K, 473 K, and 573 K for 1 hour. Structural analyses showed that the microstrain and dislocation density decreased whereas the average crystallite size increased with annealing. The band gap of the films also decreased from 3.26 eV to 3.10 eV after annealing. The I-V characteristics record under the dark condition and under the X-ray irradiation showed that the conductivity increased with annealing. The influence of annealing on the detection sensitivity was negligible if the bias voltage applied across the films was low (within 0.2 V‒1.0 V). At higher bias voltage (>1.0 V), the contribution of electrons excited by X-ray became less significant which affected the detection sensitivity.

  12. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO_2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO_2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  13. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  14. Polycrystalline thin-film TiO2/Se solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, T; Kunioka, A

    1985-07-01

    A new type of selenium solar cell with a titanium dioxide (TiO2)/Se heterojunction has been fabricated by low-cost process.An efficiency of 5.01 percent under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/sq cm) has been achieved without antireflection coatings. The corresponding short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor are 10.8 mA/sq cm, 0.884 V, and 0.525, respectively.The efficiency is the highest among Se-based solar cells reported to date. These cells also have extremely high spectral response at short wavelengths, resulting in efficiencies of 11-13 percent under fluorescent light (500 lux). 10 references.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of Ti oxide nanostructures and TiO2:SnO2 heterostructures applied to the photodegradation of rhodamine B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourão, Henrique A.J.L.; Junior, Waldir Avansi; Ribeiro, Caue

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and testing of the photocatalytic potential of TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs), TiO 2 :SnO 2 heterostructures and potassium titanate nanotubes (TNTs) obtained by the alkaline hydrothermal method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, surface area estimated from the N 2 physisorption isotherm (BET), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, among other methods. Photocatalytic potential was assessed by rhodamine B dye photodegradation under UVC radiation. The properties of the materials were shown to depend on the KOH concentration. Potassium TNTs with high surface area were obtained only in 5 mol L −1 KOH. The material composed of TiO 2 anatase phase, which was obtained in KOH solution ranging from 10 −4 to 1 mol L −1 , showed higher photocatalytic activity than the TNTs, despite the lower surface area and lower density of hydroxyl groups on the anatase. In the heterostructure syntheses, SnO 2 NPs were identified attached to TiO 2 when 10 −4 and 10 −2 mol L −1 KOH were used, whereas at [KOH] = 1 and 5 mol L −1 , Sn remained in solution during the synthetic process and only the respective TiO 2 phase was identified. The TiO 2 :SnO 2 heterostructures were more active than the material without SnO 2 prepared at the same KOH concentrations. Highlights: ► The formation of the materials depends on the [KOH] used during syntheses. ► The heterostructures were obtained with the lower [KOH]. ► Photoactivity of the heterostructures was higher than the respective TiO 2 nanostructures. ► Titanate nanotubes showed high concentration of OH groups but low photoactivity.

  16. Photocatalytic activity of Al2O3-doped TiO2 thin films activated with visible light on the bacteria Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas-Ledesma, E.; Garcia-Benjume, M.L.; Espitia-Cabrera, I.; Bravo-Patino, A.; Espinoza-Beltran, F.J.; Mostaghimi, J.; Contreras-Garcia, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with sputtering. A Corning* glass was used as a substrate, in which a titanium film was deposited by sputtering. Then, a precursor sol was prepared with Ti(n-OBu) 4 and Al(s-OBu) 3 and used as the medium for EPD. Next, the thin films were sintered and, finally, characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Several cultures of Escherichia coli, strain XL1-Blue, were prepared. Nine experiments were carried out. In three of them, an inoculum (a low amount of a product that contains bacteria) was prepared without a film; in the other six Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 film-coated glass substrates were irradiated with visible light before they were introduced in the inoculum. The SEM and EDS results showed that TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 films were obtained, covering all the glass substrate and with uniform size of particles forming them, and that the aluminium was distributed uniformly on the film. XRD results showed that rutile phase was obtained. By TEM, the structure of TiO 2 was demonstrated. Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were successful at eliminating E. coli.

  17. Studies on the performance of TiO2 thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malliga, P.; Selvi, B. Karunai; Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N.; Neyvasagam, K.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of TiO 2 were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X – Ray diffraction (XRD), UV – Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO 2 has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO 2 thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO 2 thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants

  18. Effect of substrate type on the electrical and structural properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemei; Gotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihiko; Usami, Noritaka

    2018-06-01

    Electrical and structural properties of TiO2 thin films deposited at room temperature by reactive DC sputtering have been investigated on three different substrates: high resistivity (>1000 Ω cm) float zone Si(1 1 1), float zone Si(1 0 0) and alkali free glass. As-deposited TiO2 films on glass substrate showed extremely high resistivity of (∼5.5 × 103 Ω cm). In contrast, lower resistivities of ∼2 Ω cm and ∼5 Ω cm were obtained for films on Si(1 1 1) and Si(1 0 0), respectively. The as-deposited films were found to be oxygen-rich amorphous TiO2 for all the substrates as evidenced by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Subsequent annealing led to appearance of anatase TiO2 on Si but not on glass. The surface of as-deposited TiO2 on Si was found to be rougher than that on glass. These results suggest that the big difference of electrical resistivity of TiO2 would be related with existence of more anatase nuclei forming on crystalline substrates, which is consistent with the theory of charged clusters that smaller clusters tend to adopt the substrate structure.

  19. TiO2 anatase thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis of an aerosol of titanium diisopropoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde-Gallardo, A.; Guerrero, M.; Castillo, N.; Soto, A.B.; Fragoso, R.; Cabanas-Moreno, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on crystalline silicon (100) and fused quartz substrates by spray pyrolysis (SP) of an aerosol, generated ultrasonically, of titanium diisopropoxide. The evolution of the crystallization, studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reflection and transmission spectroscopies, shows that the deposition process is nearly close to the classical chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, producing films with smooth surface and good crystalline properties. At deposition temperatures below 400 deg. C, the films grow in amorphous phase with a flat surface (roughness∼0.5 nm); while for equal or higher values to this temperature, the films develop a crystalline phase corresponding to the TiO 2 anatase phase and the surface roughness is increased. After annealing at 750 deg. C, the samples deposited on Si show a transition to the rutile phase oriented in (111) direction, while for those films deposited on fused quartz no phase transition is observed

  20. Structural and electrical characteristics of ZrO2-TiO2 thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsing; Tseng, Ching-Fang; Lai, Chun-Hung; Tung, Hsin-Han; Lin, Shih-Yao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated electrical properties and microstructures of ZrTiO 4 (ZrO 2 -TiO 2 ) thin films prepared by the sol-gel method on ITO substrates at different annealing temperatures. All films exhibited ZrTiO 4 (1 1 1) and (1 0 1) orientations perpendicular to the substrate surface, and the grain size increased with increase in the annealing temperature. A low leakage current density of 2.06 x 10 -6 A/cm 2 was obtained for the prepared films. Considering the primary memory switching behavior of ZrTiO 4 , ReRAM based on ZrTiO 4 shows promise for future nonvolatile memory applications.

  1. H_2O_2-assisted photocatalysis on flower-like rutile TiO_2 nanostructures: Rapid dye degradation and inactivation of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kőrösi, László; Prato, Mirko; Scarpellini, Alice; Kovács, János; Dömötör, Dóra; Kovács, Tamás; Papp, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchically assembled rutile TiO_2 was synthesized at room temperature. • Hydrothermal treatment enhanced the crystallinity, while morphology was maintained. • Hydrothermal treatment also led to larger crystallites and a lower surface area. • Effective K. pneumoniae killing and MO degradation were achieved with the use of H_2O_2. • Higher crystallinity enhanced the reaction rate in the presence of H_2O_2. - Abstract: Hierarchically assembled flower-like rutile TiO_2 (FLH-R-TiO_2) nanostructures were successfully synthesized from TiCl_4 at room temperature without the use of surfactants or templates. An initial sol–gel synthesis at room temperature allowed long-term hydrolysis and condensation of the precursors. The resulting FLH-R-TiO_2 possessed relatively high crystallinity (85 wt%) and consisted of rod-shaped subunits assembling into cauliflower-like nanostructures. Hydrothermal evolution of FLH-R-TiO_2 at different temperatures (150, 200 and 250 °C) was followed by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. These FLH-R-TiO_2 nanostructures were tested as photocatalysts under simulated daylight (full-spectrum lighting) in the degradation of methyl orange and in the inactivation of a multiresistant bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The effects of hydrothermal treatment on the structure, photocatalytic behavior and antibacterial activity of FLH-R-TiO_2 are discussed.

  2. Development of nanostructured porous TiO2 thick film with uniform spherical particles by a new polymeric gel process for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshayesh, A.M.; Mohammadi, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    A novel simple synthetic procedure for fabrication of high surface area nanostructured TiO 2 electrode with uniform particles for photovoltaic application is reported. Modifying the TiO 2 particulate sol by pH adjustment together with employment of a polymeric agent, so-called polymeric gel process, was developed. The polymeric gel process was used to deposit nanostructured thick electrode by dip coating incorporated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that deposited film was composed of primary nanoparticles with average crystallite size in the range 21-39 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images showed that deposited film had nanostructured and porous morphology containing uniform spherical particles with diameter about 2.5 μm. The spherical particles were made of small nanoparticles with average grain size of 60 nm improving light scattering and dye loading of the DSSC. Moreover, atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis verified that the roughness mean square of prepared electrode was low, enhancing electron transport to the counter electrode. Photovoltaic measurements showed that solar cell made of polymeric gel process had higher photovoltaic performance than that made of conventional paste. An enhancement of power conversion efficiency from 4.54%, for conventional paste, to 6.21%, for polymeric gel process, was achieved. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study showed that the recombination process in solar cell made of polymeric gel process was slower than that in solar cell made of conventional paste. The presented strategy would open up new insight into fabrication of low-cost TiO 2 DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency

  3. Influence of temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2nanostructures: Negative impact with the nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakata, Nasser A.M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    In this study, the influence of the temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures was investigated. Two morphologies were used; nanoparticles and nanofibers. The nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning of a sol–gel consisting of titanium isopropoxide, silver...... nitrate and poly(vinyl acetate). The silver nitrate amount was changed to produce nanofibers having different silver contents. Typically, sol–gels containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 wt% silver nitrate were utilized. Calcination of the electrospun mats at 700 °C led to produce well morphology Ag...

  4. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Bui, H.V.; Valdesueiro Gonzalez, D.; Yuan, Shaojun; Liang, Bin; van Ommen, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on

  5. Influences of the iron ion (Fe3+)-doping on structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Naceur, J.; Mechiakh, R.; Bousbih, F.; Chtourou, R.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe 3+ ) concentrations were deposited on silicon (Si) (100) and quartz substrates by sol-gel Spin Coating technique followed by a thermal treatment at 600 deg. C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the doping, have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). XRD and Raman analyzes of our thin films show that the crystalline phase of TiO 2 thin films comprised only the anatase TiO 2 , but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe 3+ content increased from 0% to 20%. During the Fe 3+ addition to 20%, the phase of TiO 2 thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The grain size calculated from XRD patterns varies from 29.3 to 22.6 nm. The complex index and the optical band gap (E g ) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreased with an increasing Fe 3+ content.

  6. Synthesis and electron transfer studies of Ru-terpyridine based dyads attached to nanostructures TiO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolpher, H.; Sinha, S.; Pan, J.X.; Johansson, A.; Lundqvist, M.J.; Persson, P.; Lomoth, R.; Bergquist, J.; Sun, L.C.; Sundström, V.; Akermark, B.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2007), s. 638-651 ISSN 0020-1669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : TiO2 * electron transfer Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2007

  7. Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes utilizing CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals embedded in TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Huh, Chul; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2008-11-01

    Quantum-dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated on Si wafers by embedding core-shell CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals in TiO2 thin films via plasma-enhanced metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. The n-TiO2/QDs /p-Si LED devices show typical p-n diode current-voltage and efficient electroluminescence characteristics, which are critically affected by the removal of QD surface ligands. The TiO2/QDs /Si system we presented can offer promising Si-based optoelectronic and electronic device applications utilizing numerous nanocrystals synthesized by colloidal solution chemistry.

  8. The effect of aeration and solar intensity power on photocatalytic degradation of textile industrial wastewater using TiO2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Kassim, N.F.; Ku Hamid, K.H.; Azizan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solar photo catalytic degradation of the textile industry wastewater using TiO 2 thin films was studied. This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of aeration and solar intensity power on decreasing of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). A serpentine flow photo catalytic reactor was developed for this purpose. TiO 2 thin films photo catalyst supported on the stainless steel 304 substrates were prepared using sol-gel dip coating method. The results of thin films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). XRD result showed that the prepared thin films gave the anatase crystallite formation whilst SEM demonstrated the macro pores were formed. Finally, the aeration and solar intensity power factors are considered to be responsible for the photo catalytic degradation. (Author)

  9. Degradation of organic dyes using spray deposited nanocrystalline stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrodes under sunlight illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunge, Y. M.; Yadav, A. A.; Mahadik, M. A.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Shim, J. J.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhosale, C. H.

    2018-02-01

    The need to utilize TiO2 based metal oxide hetero nanostructures for the degradation of environmental pollutants like Rhodamine B and reactive red 152 from the wastewater using stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst under sunlight illumination. WO3, TiO2 and stratified WO3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by a spray pyrolysis method. It was found that the stratified WO3/TiO2 heterostructure has high crystallinity, no mixed phase formation occurs, strong optical absorption in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and large surface area. The photocatalytic activity was tested for degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) and reactive red 152 in an aqueous medium. TiO2 layer in stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst helps to extend its absorption spectrum in the solar light region. Rh B and Reactive red 152is eliminated up to 98 and 94% within the 30 and 40 min respectively at optimum experimental condition by stratified WO3/TiO2. Moreover, stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode has good stability and reusability than individual TiO2 and WO3 thin film in the degradation of Rh B and reactive red 152. The photoelectrocatalytic experimental results indicate that stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode is a promising material for dye removal.

  10. Optimization of time on CF_4/O_2 etchant for inductive couple plasma reactive ion etching of TiO_2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzhri, R.; Fathil, M. F. M.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Foo, K. L.; Nuzaihan, M. N. M.; Azman, A. H.; Zaki, M.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Hashim, U.; Ayub, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the optimum etching of titanium dioxide (TiO_2) using inductive couple plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) on our fabricated devices. By using a combination of CF_4/O_2 gases as plasma etchant with ratio of 3:1, three samples of TiO_2 thin film were etched with different time duration of 10 s, 15 s and 20 s. The ion bombardment of CF_4 gases with plasma enhancement by O_2 gas able to break the oxide bond of TiO_2 and allow anisotropic etch profile with maximum etch rate of 18.6 nm/s. The sample was characterized by using optical profilometer to determine the depth of etched area and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for etch profile characterization.

  11. Study the target effect on the structural, surface and optical properties of TiO2 thin film fabricated by RF sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sumit; Tiwary, Rohit; Shubham, Kumar; Chakrabarti, P.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of target (Ti metal target and TiO2 target) on Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films grown on ITO coated glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering has been investigated. A comparative study of both the films was done in respect of crystalline structure, surface morphology and optical properties by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies and ellipsometric measurements. The XRD results confirmed the crystalline structure and indicated that the deposited films have the intensities of anatase phase. The surface morphology and roughness values indicated that the film using Ti metal target has a smoother surface and densely packed with grains as compared to films obtained using TiO2 target. A high transmission in the visible region, and direct band gap of 3.67 eV and 3.75 eV for films derived by using Ti metal and TiO2 target respectively and indirect bandgap of 3.39 eV for the films derived from both the targets (Ti metal and TiO2 target) were observed by the ellipsometric measurements.

  12. PHOTO-ELECTROCHEMICAL QUANTUM EFFICIENCY OF TiO2 THIN FILMS : EFFECT OF CRISTAL STRUCTURE, PLASMA HYDROGENATION AND SURFACE PHOTOETCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E TEYAR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of semi-conducting materials in the photoelectrochemical detoxification of water became a very important research field. For this purpose, TiO2 nanostructures thin films with size of 18 nm to 45nm have been synthesized at low temperature. It is found by means of cyclic voltametry and coulometry measurements that the best photoelectrochemical quantum efficiency under UV monochromatic light with a wavelength of 365 nm and a solution of NaOH 0.1N is obtained in the case of thermal oxidation deposition method which can reach 28% compared to ultrasonic spray and dip coating methods of which the quantum is less than 20%. The crystal structure has an influence on the photo-degradation of methanol. The crystal structure which is recommended for this task is the anatase one, especially in the dipping case when the quantum increases after addition of methanol more than twice compared to the solution of NaOH without methanol. The photoelectrochemical quantum efficiency of these films is related to the number of dips and annealing under air at 550°C during one hour. The annealing has no effect on the quantum efficiency of the films, but decreases there photocatalytic activity as showed by the measure of the photocurrent related to methanol photodegradation. The annealing has no effect on the crystal structure of the material. The impedance spectroscopy of six dips deposited films with and without methanol shows that the annealing increases the doping and weakly decreases the film quantum efficiency. This implies, the importance of surface morphology which the rough is decreasing as showed by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the precursor concentration in ethanol have been investigated by using films, synthesized at T=550°C. The quantum efficiency increases weakly according the precursor concentration. It tends towards a saturation at great concentrations of precursor. In Na OH with methanol added, it passes by a maximum at

  13. An in-situ real-time optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for monitoring the growth of TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Woo-Hu; Shih, Wen-Ching; Wu, Mu-Shiang

    2013-07-23

    An optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed for monitoring the thickness of deposited nano-thin films. A side-polished multimode SPR optical fiber sensor with an 850 nm-LD is used as the transducing element for real-time monitoring of the deposited TiO2 thin films. The SPR optical fiber sensor was installed in the TiO2 sputtering system in order to measure the thickness of the deposited sample during TiO2 deposition. The SPR response declined in real-time in relation to the growth of the thickness of the TiO2 thin film. Our results show the same trend of the SPR response in real-time and in spectra taken before and after deposition. The SPR transmitted intensity changes by approximately 18.76% corresponding to 50 nm of deposited TiO2 thin film. We have shown that optical fiber sensors utilizing SPR have the potential for real-time monitoring of the SPR technology of nanometer film thickness. The compact size of the SPR fiber sensor enables it to be positioned inside the deposition chamber, and it could thus measure the film thickness directly in real-time. This technology also has potential application for monitoring the deposition of other materials. Moreover, in-situ real-time SPR optical fiber sensor technology is in inexpensive, disposable technique that has anti-interference properties, and the potential to enable on-line monitoring and monitoring of organic coatings.

  14. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  15. Structural and electrical studies on sol-gel derived spun TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A K; Chaure, N B; Ray, A K; Nabok, A V; Habesch, S

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were prepared by spin coating of sol precursor onto microscopic glass slides, silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. Spin speed was varied between 1000 and 6000 rpm. From the morphological analysis, it is found that thin films spun with speed ω≤4000 rpm assume higher ordered structure than those spun at a speed higher than 4000 rpm. Conduction at low voltages is believed to be variable range hopping at temperatures T a = 0.46 eV below the conduction band edge becomes dominant at temperatures higher than 220 K. At high field charge transport is due to trap-controlled space charge limited mechanism. Traps with a density N t ∼1x10 22 m -3 are thought to be situated at energy level E t 0.3 eV below the conduction band and are associated with film nonstoichiometry and interface states

  16. Crystal Structure And Optical Properties Of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared By Reactive RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sputtering deposition process of TiO2, metal Ti or sintered TiO2 target is used as deposition source. In this study, we have compared the characteristic of target materials. When TiO2 target was used, stoichiometric TiO2 films was deposited under the Ar atmosphere containing 1.0% of oxygen. The highest sputtering rate under this atmosphere was 3.9nm/min at 3.4W/cm2. But, sintered TiO2 target is fragile and cannot endure higher density of input power than 3.4W/cm2. On the other hand, Ti target needs higher oxygen concentration (8% in sputtering gas atmosphere for obtaining rutile/anatase. Even though Ti target can be input twice power density of 7.9W/cm2, the highest deposition rate for Ti target was 1.4/nm, which was ~35% of the highest rate for TiO2 target. Then we have study out the composite target consisting of Ti plate and TiO2 chips. Using the composite target, stoichiometric TiO2 films were prepared in the rate of 9.6nm/min at 6.8 W/cm2 under the atmosphere of Ar/2.5%O2. Furthermore, we have found that the TiO2 films obtained from the composite target consisted of about 100% anatase, whereas TiO2 films obtained from other target have rutile dominant structure. The optical band gap energy of the film is determined by using the Tauc plot. The calculated band gap energies for the films deposited by Ti target and composite target were 2.95 and 3.24eV, which are equivalent to that of rutile and anatase structure, respectively.

  17. Chemically synthesized TiO2 and PANI/TiO2 thin films for ethanol sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawri, Isha; Ridhi, R.; Singh, K. P.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    Ethanol sensing properties of chemically synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) and polyaniline/titanium dioxide nanocomposites (PANI/TiO2) had been performed at room temperature. In-situ oxidative polymerization process had been employed with aniline as a monomer in presence of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The prepared samples were structurally and morphologically characterized by x-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectra, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. The crystallinity of PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite was revealed by XRD and FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of chemical bonding between the polymer chains and metal oxide nanoparticles. HR-TEM micrographs depicted that TiO2 particles were embedded in polymer matrix, which provides an advantage over pure TiO2 nanoparticles in efficient adsorption of vapours. These images also revealed that the TiO2 nanoparticles were irregular in shape with size around 17 nm. FE-SEM studies revealed that in the porous structure of PANI/TiO2 film, the intercalation of TiO2 in PANI chains provides an advantage over pure TiO2 film for uniform interaction with ethanol vapors. The sensitivity values of prepared samples were examined towards ethanol vapours at room temperature. The PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited better sensing response and faster response-recovery examined at different ethanol concentrations ranging from 5 ppm to 20 ppm in comparison to pure TiO2 nanoparticles. The increase in vapour sensing of PANI/TiO2 sensing film as compared to pure TiO2 film had been explained in detail with the help of gas sensing mechanism of TiO2 and PANI/TiO2. This provides strong evidence that gas sensing properties of TiO2 had been considerably improved and enhanced with the addition of polymer matrix.

  18. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells based on a nanostructured WO3-TiO2 core-shell electron transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, only mesoporous TiO2 and ZnO were successfully demonstrated as electron transport layers (ETL) alongside the reports of ZrO2 and Al2O3 as scaffold materials in organometal halide perovskite solar cells, largely owing to ease of processing and to high power conversion efficiency. In this article, we explore tungsten trioxide (WO3)-based nanostructured and porous ETL materials directly grown hydrothermally with different morphologies such as nanoparticles, nanorods and nanosheet arrays. The nanostructure morphology strongly influences the photocurrent and efficiency in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. We find that the perovskite solar cells based on WO3 nanosheet arrays yield significantly enhanced photovoltaic performance as compared to nanoparticles and nanorod arrays due to good perovskite absorber infiltration in the porous scaffold and more rapid carrier transport. We further demonstrate that treating the WO3 nanostructures with an aqueous solution of TiCl4 reduces charge recombination at the perovskite/WO3 interface, resulting in the highest power conversion efficiency of 11.24% for devices based on WO3 nanosheet arrays. The successful demonstration of alternative ETL materials and nanostructures based on WO3 will open up new opportunities in the development of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  19. Contribution of thickness dependent void fraction and TiSixOy interlayer to the optical properties of amorphous TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Xu, Zi-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zi-Yi; Yu, Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2013-01-01

    The optical properties of TiO 2 thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and analyzed quantitatively using effective medium approximation theory and an effective series capacitance model. The refractive indices of TiO 2 are essentially constant and approach to those of bulk TiO 2 for films thicker than 40 nm, but drop sharply with a decrease in thickness from 40 to 5.5 nm. This phenomenon can be interpreted quantitatively by the thickness dependence of the void fraction and interfacial oxide region. The optical band gaps calculated from Tauc law increase with an increase of film thickness, and can be attributed to the contribution of disorder effect. - Highlights: • Amorphous TiO 2 thin films fabricated on Si substrate by electron beam evaporation • The refractive index and band gap are obtained from spectroscopic ellipsometry. • The refractive index decreases with decreasing film thickness. • Effective medium approximation theory and effective series capacitance model introduced • A band gap increases gradually with an increase in film thickness

  20. A pM leveled photoelectrochemical sensor for microcystin-LR based on surface molecularly imprinted TiO2@CNTs nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meichuan; Ding, Xue; Yang, Qiwei; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Guohua; Yang, Nianjun

    2017-06-05

    A simple and highly sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor towards Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a kind of typical cyanobacterial toxin in water samples, was developed on a surface molecular imprinted TiO 2 coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MI-TiO 2 @CNTs) hybrid nanostructure. It was synthesized using a feasible two-step sol-gel method combining with in situ surface molecular imprinting technique (MIT). With a controllable core-shell tube casing structure, the resultant MI-TiO 2 @CNTs are enhanced greatly in visible-light driven response capacity. In comparison with the traditional TiO 2 (P25) and non-imprinted (NI-)TiO 2 @CNTs, the MI-TiO 2 @CNTs based PEC sensor showed a much higher photoelectric oxidation capacity towards MC-LR. Using this sensor, the determination of MC-LR was doable in a wide linear range from 1.0pM to 3.0nM with a high photocurrent response sensitivity. An outstanding selectivity towards MC-LR was further achieved with this sensor, proven by simultaneously monitoring 100-fold potential co-existing interferences. The superiority of the obtained MC-LR sensor in sensitivity and selectivity is mainly attributed to the high specific surface area and excellent photoelectric activity of TiO 2 @CNTs heterojunction structure, as well as the abundant active recognition sites on its functionalized molecular imprinting surface. A promising PEC analysis platform with high sensitivity and selectivity for MC-LR has thus been provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Obtained by the Sputtering RF in Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Bedoya, Jairo Armando; Sanchez Velandia, Wilmer Asmed; Delgado Rosero, Miguel Iban; Florido Cuellar, Alex Enrique; Zelaya Angel, Orlando; Mendoza Alvarez, Julio G.

    2011-03-01

    The photocatalytic activity of Ti O2 thin films in wastewater, under an UV irradiation, is studied. The films were prepared on corning glass substrates by the sputtering RF technique. We present evidence on the photocatalytic degradation, carried out by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in domestic wastewater pretreated with UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Ti O2 films were illuminated with ultraviolet light during a time of 4 hours (λ ≅ 264 nm). We could see the effect of degraded operation in the absorbance measurement using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The results show an increased rate of degradation of the wastewater by 30% compared to the values reflected biologically treated wastewater by anaerobic reactors.

  2. Nanostructured Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Film Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 paste was prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal method with various precursors. Nanostructured mesoporous TiO2 thin-film back electrode was fabricated from the nanoparticle colloidal paste, and its performance was compared with that made of commercial P25 TiO2. The best performance was demonstrated by the DSSC having a 16 μm-thick TTIP-TiO2 back electrode, which gave a solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.03%. The ability of stong adhesion on ITO conducting glass substrate and the high surface area are considered important characteristics of TiO2 thin film. The results show that a thin film with good adhesion can be made from the prepared colloidal paste as a result of alleviating the possibility of electron transfer loss. One can control the colloidal particle size from sol-gel method. Therefore, by optimizing the preparation conditions, TiO2 paste with nanoparticle and narrow diameter distribution was obtained.

  3. Biomimetic growth and substrate dependent mechanical properties of bone like apatite nucleated on Ti and magnetron sputtered TiO2 nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Das, Apurba; Barman, Pintu; Pal, Arup R.

    2016-04-01

    This report presents findings on biomimetic growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals on Ti and sputtered TiO2 substrates. The possibility of TiO2 nanostructure as candidate materials for future biomedical applications has been explored through the comparison of microstructural and mechanical properties of bone like apatite grown on Ti and nano-TiO2 surfaces. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies reveal formation of carbonate apatite with apparent domain size in the nanoscale range. A better interaction at the nano-TiO2/nano-HAp interface due to higher interfacial area could promote the growth of bone like apatite. The crystal phases, crystallinity, and surface morphology of nano-TiO2 are considered as parameters to understand the nucleation and growth of apatite with different mechanical properties at the nanoscale. The methodology of x-ray line profile analysis encompasses deconvolution of merged peaks by preserving broadening due to nanosized HAp aggregates. The Young’s modulus of bone like apatite exhibits crystallographic directional dependence which suggests the presence of elastic anisotropy in bone like apatite. The lattice contraction in the c-direction is associated with the degree of carbonate substitution in the apatite lattice. The role of residual stress is critical for the lattice distortion of HAp deposited at physiological conditions of temperature and pH of human blood plasma. The ion concentration is crucial for the uniformity, crystallinity, and mechanical behaviour of the apatite.

  4. Biomimetic growth and substrate dependent mechanical properties of bone like apatite nucleated on Ti and magnetron sputtered TiO2 nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Bimal K; Das, Apurba; Barman, Pintu; Pal, Arup R

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings on biomimetic growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals on Ti and sputtered TiO 2 substrates. The possibility of TiO 2 nanostructure as candidate materials for future biomedical applications has been explored through the comparison of microstructural and mechanical properties of bone like apatite grown on Ti and nano-TiO 2 surfaces. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies reveal formation of carbonate apatite with apparent domain size in the nanoscale range. A better interaction at the nano-TiO 2 /nano-HAp interface due to higher interfacial area could promote the growth of bone like apatite. The crystal phases, crystallinity, and surface morphology of nano-TiO 2 are considered as parameters to understand the nucleation and growth of apatite with different mechanical properties at the nanoscale. The methodology of x-ray line profile analysis encompasses deconvolution of merged peaks by preserving broadening due to nanosized HAp aggregates. The Young’s modulus of bone like apatite exhibits crystallographic directional dependence which suggests the presence of elastic anisotropy in bone like apatite. The lattice contraction in the c-direction is associated with the degree of carbonate substitution in the apatite lattice. The role of residual stress is critical for the lattice distortion of HAp deposited at physiological conditions of temperature and pH of human blood plasma. The ion concentration is crucial for the uniformity, crystallinity, and mechanical behaviour of the apatite. (paper)

  5. Fabrication of TiO2/EP super-hydrophobic thin film on filter paper surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhengxin; Zhai, Xianglin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Ming; Zang, Deli; Wang, Chengyu

    2015-09-05

    A composite filter paper with super-hydrophobicity was obtained by adhering micro/nano structure of amorphous titanium dioxide on the filter paper surface with modifying low surface energy material. By virtue of the coupling agent, which plays an important part in bonding amorphous titanium dioxide and epoxy resin, the structure of super-hydrophobic thin film on the filter paper surface is extremely stable. The microstructure of super-hydrophobic filter paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the images showed that the as-prepared filter paper was covered with uniform amorphous titanium dioxide particles, generating a roughness structure on the filter paper surface. The super-hydrophobic performance of the filter paper was characterized by water contact angle measurements. The observations showed that the wettability of filter paper samples transformed from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 153 ± 1°. Some experiments were also designed to test the effect of water-oil separation and UV-resistant by the super-hydrophobic filter paper. The prepared super-hydrophobic filter paper worked efficiently and simply in water-oil separation as well as enduringly in anti-UV property after the experiments. This method offers an opportunity to the practical applications of the super-hydrophobic filter paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Gardenia Blue on TiO2 Photoelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured porous TiO2 paste was deposited on the FTO conductive glass using squeeze printing technique in order to obtain a TiO2 thin film with a thickness of 10 μm and an area of 4 cm2. Gardenia blue (GB extracted from Gardenia jasminode Ellis was employed as the natural dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Adsorption studies indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GB on the surface of TiO2 thin film was approximately 417 mg GB/g TiO2 photoelectrode. The commercial and natural dyes, N-719 and GB, respectively, were employed to measure the adsorption kinetic data, which were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with successive adsorptions of GB dye was about 0.2%.

  7. The photocatalytic application and regeneration of anatase thin films with embedded commercial TiO2 particles deposited on glass microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Valtierra, Jorge; Garcia-Servin, Josafat; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Calixto, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Anatase thin films ( 2 were prepared by sol-gel method. TiO 2 -anatase thin films were deposited on a fiberglass substrate and then ground to obtain glass microrods containing the composite films. The film structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the composite films, calcined at 450 deg. C, and the regeneration of the activity under the same experimental conditions, were assessed using gas chromatography to study the photodegradation of phenol, an industrial pollutant, in water under 365 nm irradiation. The film with 15.0 wt.% of P25 TiO 2 was found to be more photoactive (54 ppm of degraded phenol at 6 h of illumination) than the other ones

  8. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3 films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on multiple grams of TiO2 powder at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a fluidized bed reactor, resulting in the growth of uniform and conformal Al2O3 films with thickness control at sub-nanometer level. The as-deposited Al2O3 films exhibited excellent photocatalytic suppression ability. Accordingly, an Al2O3 layer with a thickness of 1 nm could efficiently suppress the photocatalytic activities of rutile, anatase, and P25 TiO2 nanoparticles without affecting their bulk optical properties. In addition, the influence of high-temperature annealing on the properties of the Al2O3 layers was investigated, revealing the possibility of achieving porous Al2O3 layers. Our approach demonstrated a fast, efficient, and simple route to coating Al2O3 films on TiO2 pigment powders at the multigram scale, and showed great potential for large-scale production development.

  9. The Effect of Film Thickness on the Gas Sensing Properties of Ultra-Thin TiO2 Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Wilson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyte sensitivity for gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides should be highly dependent on the film thickness, particularly when that thickness is on the order of the Debye length. This thickness dependence has previously been demonstrated for SnO2 and inferred for TiO2. In this paper, TiO2 thin films have been prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD using titanium isopropoxide and water as precursors. The deposition process was performed on standard alumina gas sensor platforms and microscope slides (for analysis purposes, at a temperature of 200 °C. The TiO2 films were exposed to different concentrations of CO, CH4, NO2, NH3 and SO2 to evaluate their gas sensitivities. These experiments showed that the TiO2 film thickness played a dominant role within the conduction mechanism and the pattern of response for the electrical resistance towards CH4 and NH3 exposure indicated typical n-type semiconducting behavior. The effect of relative humidity on the gas sensitivity has also been demonstrated.

  10. Studies of LPCVD and anodised TiO2 thin films and their photoelectrocatalytic photochemical properties for destruction of organic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, F.

    2001-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films prepared by CVD and anodisation methods and their applications for the photoelectrocatalytic and photocatalytic destruction of organic effluents are described in this thesis. The theoretical background of CVD, photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) and photocatalysis (PC) is introduced in Chapter 1. This chapter also contains an intensive literature review about TiO 2 thin film preparation, mainly by CVD, and about PEC and PC destruction of organic effluents by TiO 2 thin films. The experimental methods, which include CVD reactors, PEC cells and film characterisation and chemical analysis, are described in Chapter 2. The results for TiO 2 films deposited by LPCVD on SnO 2 coated glass using either TTIP or TTB precursors in the presence of O 2 , with or without water as a reagent, are discussed in Chapter 3 for a small CVD reactor and Chapter 4 for a large reactor. The effects of precursor, water and annealing on the crystal structure of the films have been investigated and compared. It was found that phase transition temperatures for changes from amorphous to anatase and anatase to rutile with TTIP were higher than those obtained with TTB. Water also had an effect by decreasing the temperature for depositing crystalline films. The other kind of TiO 2 films prepared by anodisation of titanium mesh was studied and the results are presented in Chapter 5. PEC or PC destruction of MPA, RDX and 4-CP have been studied using TiO 2 thin film anodes in small and large PEC reactors which are described in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7, respectively. PC destruction rates of organics are found to be improved significantly with an applied potential; i.e. by a PEC process. The effects of film properties, such as film crystallinity, thickness and film type on the PEC and PC efficiencies have been investigated. It was found that the different behaviour of films in PEC processes probably was due to surface effects rather than internal electric field differences. The extent of PEC and

  11. Elaboration and Characterization of TiO2 and Study of the Influence of The Number of Thin Films on the Methylene Blue Adsorption Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoui, Karima; Medjahed, Aicha; Hamici, Melia; Djamila, Abdi; Boudissa, Mokhtar

    2018-05-01

    Thin films of titanium oxide (TiO2) deposited on glass substrates were fabricated by using the sol-gel route. The realization of these thin layers was made using the dip-coating technique with a solution of titanium isopropoxyde as a precursor. The samples prepared with different numbers of deposited layers were annealed at 400 ° C for 2 hours. The main purposes of this work were investigations of both the effect of the number of thin TiO2 layers on the crystal structure of the anatase form first and, their ability to adsorb the solution of methylene blue in order to make colored filters from a photocatalytic process. The deposited titanium-oxide layers were characterized by using various techniques: namely, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The result obtained by using the XRD technique showed the appearance of an anatase phase, as was confirmed by using Raman spectroscopy. The AFM surface analysis allowed the surface topography to be characterized and the surface roughness to be measured, which increased with increasing number of layers. The UV-Visible spectra showed that the TiO2 films had a good transmittance varying from 65% to 95% according to the number of layers. The gap energy varied as a function of the number of deposited layers. The as deposited TiO2 layers were tested as a photocatalyst towards the adsorption of methylene blue dye. The results obtained during this study showed that the adsorption capacity varied according to the number of deposited thin layers and the exposing duration to ultraviolet (UV) light. The maximum absorption rate of the dye was obtained for the two-layer sample. Seventy-two hours of irradiation allowed the adsorption intensity of the dye to be maximized for two-layer films.

  12. A comparison of light-coupling into high and low index nanostructured photovoltaic thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pfadler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodically structured electrodes are typically introduced to thin-film photovoltaics for the purpose of light management. Highly effective light-trapping and optimal in-coupling of light is crucial to enhance the overall device performance in such thin-film systems. Here, wavelength-scale structures are transferred via direct laser interference patterning to electron-selective TiO2 electrodes. Two representative thin-film solar cell architectures are deposited on top: an organic solar cell featuring blended P3HT:PCBM as active material, and a hybrid solar cell with Sb2S3 as inorganic active material. A direct correlation in the asymmetry in total absorption enhancement and in structure-induced light in-coupling is spectroscopically observed for the two systems. The structuring is shown to be beneficial for the total absorption enhancement if a high n active material is deposited on TiO2, but detrimental for a low n material. The refractive indices of the employed materials are determined via spectroscopic ellipsometry. The study outlines that the macroscopic Fresnel equations can be used to investigate the spectroscopically observed asymmetry in light in-coupling at the nanostructured TiO2 active material interfaces by visualizing the difference in reflectivity caused by the asymmetry in refractive indices.

  13. Properties of TiO2-based transparent conducting oxide thin films on GaN(0001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, J.; Nakao, S.; Yamada, N.; Hitosugi, T.; Moriyama, M.; Goshonoo, K.; Hoang, N. L. H.; Hasegawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    Anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 transparent conducting oxide has been formed on GaN(0001) surfaces using a sputtering method. Amorphous films deposited at room temperature were annealed at a substrate temperature of 500 deg. C in vacuum to form single-phase anatase films. Films with a thickness of 170 nm exhibited a resistivity of 8x10 -4 Ω cm with absorptance less than 5% at a wavelength of 460 nm. Furthermore, the refractive index of the Nb-doped TiO 2 was well matched to that of GaN. These findings indicate that Nb-doped TiO 2 is a promising material for use as transparent electrodes in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs), particularly since reflection at the electrode/GaN boundary can be suppressed, enhancing the external quantum efficiency of blue LEDs.

  14. Influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of sol-gel derived nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, M; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, K Narasimha; Mohan, S; Gowda, K V Arjuna; Chakradhar, R P S

    2010-03-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films have been synthesized by sol-gel spin coating technique on glass and silicon substrates with and without surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG). XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of nano-crystalline (anatase) phase at an annealing temperature of 300 degrees C. The influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of TiO(2) thin films has been studied. Optical constants and film thickness were estimated by Swanepoel's (envelope) method and by ellipsometric measurements in the visible spectral range. The optical transmittance and reflectance were found to decrease with an increase in PEG percentage. Refractive index of the films decreased and film thickness increased with the increase in percentage of surfactant. The refractive index of the un-doped TiO(2) films was estimated at different annealing temperatures and it has increased with the increasing annealing temperature. The optical band gap of pure TiO(2) films was estimated by Tauc's method at different annealing temperature. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and optical properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by a two-step sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, I.; Lu, G.Q.; Meredith, P.; Zhao, X.S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns the preparation of mesoporous titania nanopowders and thin films for use in next generation photoelectrochemical solar cells. We have recently developed a novel method for preparing mesoporous TiO 2 powders using a Two-Step Sol-gel method (TSS). These materials have crystalline domains characteristic of anatase. The first step of the process involves the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide in a basic aqueous solution mediated by neutral surfactant. The solid product resulting from Step-1 is then treated in acidified ethanol solution containing a titanium precursor to yield anatase TiO 2 . The resultant powder exhibits a high surface area and large pore volume with uniform mesopores. Slurries made from the resultant powder of Steps 1 and 2 have been used to produce thin titania films on glass slides. The optical and structural properties of these films have been compared to the films made of a commercial titania (Degussa P25, BASF). We will discuss these properties with respect to the possible use of such mesoporous titania films as the wide band gap semiconductor in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 solar cells

  16. Photoluminescence study of trap-state defect on TiO2 thin films at different substrate temperature via RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S. A.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Nafarizal, N.; Saim, H.; Bakri, A. S.; Cik Rohaida, C. H.; Adriyanto, F.; Sari, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This paper highlights the defect levels using photoluminescence spectroscopy of TiO2 thin films. The TiO2 were deposited by Magnetron Sputtering system with 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C substrate temperature on microscope glass substrate. The PL result shows profound effect of various substrate temperatures to defect levels of oxygen vacancies and Ti3+ at titanium interstitial site. Increasing temperature would minimize the oxygen vacancy defect, however Ti3+ shows otherwise. Green region of PL consist of trapped hole for oxygen vacancy, while red region of PL is trapped electron associated to structural defect Ti3+. Green PL is dominant peak at temperature 200 °C, indicating that oxygen vacancy is the main defect at this temperature. However, PL peak shows slightly same value for others samples indicating that the temperature did not give high influence to other level of defect after 200 °C.

  17. Influence of Zr doping on structure and morphology of TiO2 nanorods prepared using hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimin, Masliana; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin; Tee, Tan Sin; Beng, Lee Hock; Hui, Tan Chun; Chin, Yap Chi

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of Zr doping on TiO2 nanostructure. TiO2 nanorods thin films with different Zr-doping concentrations (6 × 10-3 M, 13 × 10-3 M and 25 × 10-3 M) were successfully prepared using a simple hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological properties of the samples were evaluated using XRD and FESEM respectively. The XRD results revealed that the TiO2 in all samples stabilized as rutile phase. The FESEM micrographs confirmed that TiO2 exist as square like nanorods with blunt tips. Although the crystallographic nature remains unchanged, the introduction of Zr has altered the surface density, structure and morphology of TiO2 which subsequently will have significant effect on its properties.

  18. Nanostructured Thin Film Synthesis by Aerosol Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Tandeep S.

    Renewable energy sources offer a viable solution to the growing energy demand while mitigating concerns for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. This has led to a tremendous momentum towards solar and wind-based energy harvesting technologies driving efficiencies higher and costs lower. However, the intermittent nature of these energy sources necessitates energy storage technologies, which remain the Achilles heel in meeting the renewable energy goals. This dissertation focusses on two approaches for addressing the needs of energy storage: first, targeting direct solar to fuel conversion via photoelectrochemical water-splitting and second, improving the performance of current rechargeable batteries by developing new electrode architectures and synthesis processes. The aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD) process has emerged as a promising single-step approach for nanostructured thin film synthesis directly on substrates. The relationship between the morphology and the operating parameters in the process is complex. In this work, a simulation based approach has been developed to understand the relationship and acquire the ability of predicting the morphology. These controlled nanostructured morphologies of TiO2 , compounded with gold nanoparticles of various shapes, are used for solar water-splitting applications. Tuning of light absorption in the visible-light range along with reduced electron-hole recombination in the composite structures has been demonstrated. The ACVD process is further extended to a novel single-step synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes directly on the current collector for applications as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, mainly for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The effect of morphology of the nanostructures has been investigated via experimental studies and electrochemical transport modelling. Results demonstrate the exceptional performance of the single crystal one-dimensional nanostructures over granular

  19. Preparation of an orthodontic bracket coated with an nitrogen-doped TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film and examination of its antimicrobial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Baocheng; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Na; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yingjie

    2013-01-01

    A bracket coated with a nitrogen-doped (N-doped) TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film was prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering method. The physicochemical properties of the thin film were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, while the antimicrobial activity of the bracket against common oral pathogenic microbes was assessed on the basis of colony counts. The rate of antimicrobial activity of the bracket coated with nano-TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscous, and Candida albicans was 95.19%, 91.00%, 69.44%, and 98.86%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fewer microbes adhered to the surface of this newly designed bracket than to the surface of the normal edgewise bracket. The brackets coated with the N-doped TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film showed high antimicrobial and bacterial adhesive properties against normal oral pathogenic bacterial through visible light, which is effective in prevention of enamel demineralization and gingivitis in orthodontic patients.

  20. Surface characterization of poly(methylmethacrylate) based nanocomposite thin films containing Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.; Haynes, V.; Wheeler-Jones, R.; Sly, J.; Perks, R.M.; Piccirillo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) based nanocomposite electron beam resists have been demonstrated by spin coating techniques. When TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles were directly dispersed into the PMMA polymer matrix, the resulting nanocomposites produced poor quality films with surface roughnesses of 322 and 402 nm respectively. To improve the surface of the resists, the oxide nanoparticles were encapsulated in toluene and methanol. Using the zeta potential parameter, it was found that the stabilities of the toluene/oxide nanoparticle suspensions were 7.7 mV and 19.4 mV respectively, meaning that the suspension was not stable. However, when the TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles were encapsulated in methanol the zeta potential parameter was 31.9 mV and 39.2 mV respectively. Therefore, the nanoparticle suspension was stable. This method improved the surface roughness of PMMA based nanocomposite thin films by a factor of 6.6 and 6.4, when TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 were suspended in methanol before being dispersed into the PMMA polymer.

  1. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Synthesized V2O5 and TiO2 Thin Films with/without Erbium Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pınar Gökdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative work of with/without erbium- (Er- doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were carried out via sol-gel technique by dissolving erbium (III nitrate pentahydrate (Er(NO33·5H2O in vanadium (V oxoisopropoxide (OV[OCH(CH32]3 and titanium (IV isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CH32]4. Effect of Er doping was traced by Fourier transform IR (FTIR, thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA, and photoluminescence measurements. UV-Vis transmission/absorption measurement indicated a blue shift upon Er doping in V2O5 film due to the softening of V=O bond while appearance of typical absorption peaks in Er-doped TiO2 film. Granule size of the films increased (reduced upon Er substitution on host material compared to undoped V2O5 and TiO2 films, respectively.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and analysis of enhanced photocatalytic activity of Zr-doped TiO2 nanostructured powders under UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, M. Chandra; Purusottam Reddy, B.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Shanmugam, Gnanendra; Ahn, Chang-Hoi; Park, Si-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Zr-doped and pure TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a simple inexpensive sol-gel method. X-ray powder diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed the presence of anatase-phase TiO2 NPs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the average nanocrystalline size of approximately 15 nm. The photocatalytic activities of these materials were evaluated using Rhodamine B (Rh B) as an organic contaminant. The photocatalytic activity of pure and Zr-doped TiO2 NPs (with at% 4, 8, 12 and 16) was measured in terms of the degradation of Rh B under UV light. The antibacterial activities of pure and Zr-doped (with 8 at%) TiO2 NPs were evaluated against Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A maximum inhibition zone (19 mm) was observed for pure TiO2 NPs, against Bacillus subtillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Zr-doped TiO2 (8 at%) exhibited a lesser inhibition zone (18 mm) against the same Bacillus subtillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18 mm). However, Zr-doped TiO2 (8 at%) NPs exhibited a greater inhibition zone against Escherichia coli (17 mm), while the activity of pure TiO2 NPs against Escherichia coli (15 mm) was retarded. Thus, pure TiO2 NPs and Zr-doped TiO2 (8 at%) NPs have competent activities and can be used as antibacterial agents against different bacteria.

  3. On the optical, structural, and morphological properties of ZrO2 and TiO2 dip-coated thin films supported on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto, Luisa F.; Sanchez, Enrique; Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.; Hirata, Gustavo A.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the optical and morphological properties of dip-coated TiO 2 and ZrO 2 thin films on soda-lime glass substrates by metal-organic decomposition (MOD) of titanium IV and zirconium IV acetylacetonates respectively. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (DTA-TG) were performed on the precursor powders, indicating pure TiO 2 anatase and tetragonal ZrO 2 phase formation. Phase crystallization processes took place in the range of 300-500 deg. C for anatase and of 410-500 deg. C for ZrO 2 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to confirm precursor bidentate ligand formation with keno-enolic equilibrium character. Deposited films were heated at different temperatures, and their structural, optical and morphological properties were studied by grazing-incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) respectively. Film thinning and crystalline phase formation were enhanced with increasing temperature upon chelate decomposition. The optimum annealing temperature for both pure anatase TiO 2 and tetragonal ZrO 2 thin films was found to be 500 deg. C since solid volume fraction increased with temperature and film refractive index values approached those of pure anatase and tetragonal zirconia. Conditions for clean stoichiometric film formation with an average roughness value of 2 nm are discussed in terms of material binding energies indicated by XPS analyses, refractive index and solid volume fraction obtained indirectly by UV-Vis spectra, and crystalline peak identification provided by GIXRD

  4. Studies on transient characteristics of unipolar resistive switching processes in TiO2 thin film grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Vikas Kumar; Das, Amit K.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Misra, P.

    2018-05-01

    The transient characteristics of resistive switching processes have been investigated in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to study the temporal evolution of the switching processes and measure the switching times. The reset and set switching times of unipolar Au/TiO2/Pt devices were found to be ~250 µs and 180 ns, respectively in the voltage windows of 0.5–0.9 V for reset and 1.9–4.8 V for set switching processes, obtained from quasi-static measurements. The reset switching time decreased exponentially with increasing amplitude of applied reset voltage pulse, while the set switching time remained insensitive to the amplitude of the set voltage pulse. A fast reset process with a switching time of ~400 ns was achieved by applying a reset voltage of ~1.8 V, higher than that of the quasi-static reset voltage window but below the set voltage window. The sluggish reset process in TiO2 thin film and the dependence of the reset switching time on the amplitude of the applied voltage pulse was understood on the basis of a self-accelerated thermal dissolution model of conducting filaments (CFs), where a higher temperature of the CFs owing to enhanced Joule heating at a higher applied voltage imposes faster diffusion of oxygen vacancies, resulting in a shorter reset switching time. Our results clearly indicate that fast resistive switching with switching times in hundreds of nanoseconds can be achieved in ALD-grown TiO2 thin films. This may find applications in fast non-volatile unipolar resistive switching memories.

  5. Large improvement of electron extraction from CdSe quantum dots into a TiO2 thin layer by N3 dye coabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora-Sero, Ivan; Dittrich, Thomas; Susha, Andrei S.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Bisquert, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Extraction of electrons and holes photogenerated in CdSe quantum dots (QD) of 2.3 nm diameter, is monitored by Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy. The extraction of electrons into a thin TiO 2 layer increases five-fold by absorption of N3 dye molecules on top of the QD layer. This process is facilitated by efficient hole extraction from the valence band of the QDs to the ground state of the N3 dye. Our results represent a direct measurement of charge separation in the N3/QD/TiO 2 system

  6. Effect of growth time on the structure, morphology and optical properties of hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanorod thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, A. K.; Nayak, J.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a single step rapid hydrothermal process. The concentration of the precursor, the temperature of the reaction mixture were optimized in order to enhance the rate of deposition. Unlike the previously reported hydrothermal treatment for 24 - 48 h, the deposition of well aligned titanium dioxide nanorods was achieved in a short time such as 3 - 8 h. The crystal structure of the films were investigated by X-rays diffraction. The morphology of the nanorod films were studied with scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties were studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  7. Effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of Nb-doped anatase TiO2: recovery of high conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 (TNO). The insulating TNO films were intentionally fabricated by annealing conductive TNO films in oxygen ambient at 400 °C. Reduced free carrier absorption in the insulating TNO films indicated carrier compensation due to excess oxygen. With H 2 -annealing, both carrier density and Hall mobility recovered to the level of conducting TNO, demonstrating that the excess oxygen can be efficiently removed by the annealing process without introducing additional scattering centers. (paper)

  8. Annealing time dependence of the physical, electrical and pH response characteristics of spin coated TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkefle, M A; Rahman, R A; Yusoff, K A; Herman, S H; Abdullah, W F H; Rusop, M

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin film was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and used as sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor. The thin film was fabricated using sol- gel spin coating method. All samples were annealed at 400 °C but the annealing time was varied. This is done to study the effects of annealing time on physical and electrical properties of titanium dioxide thin film. The sensitivity of each sample towards H + ion was measured and result shows that sample annealed for 45 minutes has the highest sensitivity (52.6 mV/pH). It is found that increasing annealing duration will increase the pH sensitivity but a limit will be reached at certain point. Longer annealing processes done beyond this point will results in lower pH sensitivity. (paper)

  9. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  10. Development of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Sputtered N-Doped TiO2 Thin Films: From Modeling the Growth Mechanism of the Films to Fabrication of the Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, D. A.; Massi, M.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by DC reactive sputtering at different doping levels for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells. The mechanism of film growth during the sputtering process and the effect of the nitrogen doping on the structural, optical, morphological, chemical, and electronic properties of the TiO2 were investigated by numerical modeling and experimental methods. The influence of the nitrogen doping on the working principle of the prototype...

  11. Ambiguous Role of Growth-Induced Defects on the Semiconductor-to-Metal Characteristics in Epitaxial VO2/TiO2 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Cristian N; Symeou, Elli; Svoukis, Efthymios; Negrea, Raluca F; Ghica, Corneliu; Teodorescu, Valentin; Tanase, Liviu C; Negrila, Catalin; Giapintzakis, John

    2018-04-25

    Controlling the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature in epitaxial VO 2 thin films remains an unresolved question both at the fundamental as well as the application level. Within the scope of this work, the effects of growth temperature on the structure, chemical composition, interface coherency and electrical characteristics of rutile VO 2 epitaxial thin films grown on TiO 2 substrates are investigated. It is hereby deduced that the transition temperature is lower than the bulk value of 340 K. However, it is found to approach this value as a function of increased growth temperature even though it is accompanied by a contraction along the V 4+ -V 4+ bond direction, the crystallographic c-axis lattice parameter. Additionally, it is demonstrated that films grown at low substrate temperatures exhibit a relaxed state and a strongly reduced transition temperature. It is suggested that, besides thermal and epitaxial strain, growth-induced defects may strongly affect the electronic phase transition. The results of this work reveal the difficulty in extracting the intrinsic material response to strain, when the exact contribution of all strain sources cannot be effectively determined. The findings also bear implications on the limitations in obtaining the recently predicted novel semi-Dirac point phase in VO 2 /TiO 2 multilayer structures.

  12. The Effect of Normal Force on Tribocorrosion Behaviour of Ti-10Zr Alloy and Porous TiO2-ZrO2 Thin Film Electrochemical Formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dănăilă, E.; Benea, L.

    2017-06-01

    The tribocorrosion behaviour of Ti-10Zr alloy and porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy was evaluated in Fusayama-Mayer artificial saliva solution. Tribocorrosion experiments were performed using a unidirectional pin-on-disc experimental set-up which was mechanically and electrochemically instrumented, under various solicitation conditions. The effect of applied normal force on tribocorrosion performance of the tested materials was determined. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements performed before, during and after sliding tests were applied in order to determine the tribocorrosion degradation. The applied normal force was found to greatly affect the potential during tribocorrosion experiments, an increase in the normal force inducing a decrease in potential accelerating the depassivation of the materials studied. The results show a decrease in friction coefficient with gradually increasing the normal load. It was proved that the porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy lead to an improvement of tribocorrosion resistance compared to non-anodized Ti-10Zr alloy intended for biomedical applications.

  13. CORONA DISCHARGE REACTOR FOR SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS AND HYDROCARBONS USING OZONATION AND PHOTOXIDATION OF OVER TIO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a process that combines the use of surface corona for the production of ozone by passing air or oxygen through a high voltage electrical discharge and the emitted UV is being used to activate a photocatalyst. A thin film of nanostructured TiO2 with primary part...

  14. Damage performance of TiO2/SiO2 thin film components induced by a long-pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Dai Gang; Zhang Hongchao; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the long-pulsed laser induced damage performance of optical thin films, damage experiments of TiO 2 /SiO 2 films irradiated by a laser with 1 ms pulse duration and 1064 nm wavelength are performed. In the experiments, the damage threshold of the thin films is measured. The damages are observed to occur in isolated spots, which enlighten the inducement of the defects and impurities originated in the films. The threshold goes down when the laser spot size decreases. But there exists a minimum threshold, which cannot be further reduced by decreasing the laser spot size. Optical microscopy reveals a cone-shaped cavity in the film substrate. Changes of the damaged sizes in film components with laser fluence are also investigated. The results show that the damage efficiency increases with the laser fluence before the shielding effects start to act.

  15. Hydrogenated TiO2 Thin Film for Accelerating Electron Transport in Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Liang, Junhui; Li, Yuelong; Luo, Jingshan; Shi, Biao; Wei, Changchun; Zhang, Dekun; Li, Baozhang; Ding, Yi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-10-01

    Intensive studies on low-temperature deposited electron transport materials have been performed to improve the efficiency of n-i-p type planar perovskite solar cells to extend their application on plastic and multijunction device architectures. Here, a TiO 2 film with enhanced conductivity and tailored band edge is prepared by magnetron sputtering at room temperature by hydrogen doping (HTO), which accelerates the electron extraction from perovskite photoabsorber and reduces charge transfer resistance, resulting in an improved short circuit current density and fill factor. The HTO film with upward shifted Fermi level guarantees a smaller loss on V OC and facilitates the growth of high-quality absorber with much larger grains and more uniform size, leading to devices with negligible hysteresis. In comparison with the pristine TiO 2 prepared without hydrogen doping, the HTO-based device exhibits a substantial performance enhancement leading to an efficiency of 19.30% and more stabilized photovoltaic performance maintaining 93% of its initial value after 300 min continuous illumination in the glove box. These properties permit the room-temperature magnetron sputtered HTO film as a promising electron transport material for flexible and tandem perovskite solar cell in the future.

  16. Relation between crystallinity and chemical nature of surface on wettability: A study on pulsed laser deposited TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Phase, Deodatta; Sathe, Vasant; Choudhary, Ram Janay; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Kulkarni, Sulabha K.

    2011-01-01

    Pure titania (TiO 2 ) polycrystalline thin films in rutile, anatase and mixed phase have been grown on amorphous glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition method at various oxygen gas pressure. Wettability investigations have been carried out on these films. Consistent with our previous report [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 155308 (2008)] it has been observed that for nearly same surface roughness large contact angle or superhydrophobicity is present when sample has a pure single phase and lower contact angle or hydrophobicity when mixed phases were present. Structural characterizations suggest that in addition to roughness, pure phase film surface associated with hydrophobic sites and mixed phase film surface show association of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites, which might be inducing specific wetting character. UV treatment induces superhydrophilicity in the films. It was observed that UV irradiation causes nonequilibrium state on the TiO 2 surface, leading to changes in the electron density, which in turn produces decrement in the crystallinity and lattice expansion. Reversible changes in the wetting state on the pure phase surfaces were observed to be faster than those on the mixed phase surfaces. We tried to establish the possible relation between crystalline phases, chemical nature of surface on reversible wettability besides the main governing parameter viz. surface roughness.

  17. Polaron variable range hopping in TiO2-δ(-0.04=<δ=<0.2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heluani, S.P.; Comedi, D.; Villafuerte, M.; Juarez, G.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrical conduction in TiO 2-δ (-0.04= 2 +Ar gas atmospheres where changes in δ and film structure had been achieved by varying the O 2 flow rate and the substrate temperature. The electrical transport properties of these samples were investigated by measuring the conductivity as a function of temperature between 17K and room temperature. At the temperature range between 200 and 290K the best fit to the experimental data was obtained assuming a dependence characteristic of adiabatic variable range hopping. At lower temperature the activation energy for the conductivity tends to zero. The results suggest that the conduction mechanism is adiabatic small polaron hopping, which switches to conduction in a polaron band at low temperatures

  18. Hierarchical top-porous/bottom-tubular TiO 2 nanostructures decorated with Pd nanoparticles for efficient photoelectrocatalytic decomposition of synergistic pollutants

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2012-02-22

    In this paper, top-porous and bottom-tubular TiO 2 nanotubes (TiO 2 NTs) loaded with palladium nanoparticles (Pd/TiO 2 NTs) were fabricated as an electrode for an enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity toward organic dye decomposition. TiO 2 NTs with a unique hierarchical top-porous and bottom-tubular structure were prepared by a facile two-step anodization method and Pd nanoparticles were decorated onto the TiO 2 NTs via a photoreduction process. The PEC activity of Pd/TiO 2 NTs was investigated by decomposition of methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB). Because of formation Schottky junctions between TiO 2 and Pd, which significantly promoted the electron transfer and reduced the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes, the Pd/TiO 2 NT electrode showed significantly higher PEC activities than TiO 2 NTs. Interestingly, an obvious synergy between two dyes was observed and corresponding mechanism based on facilitated transfer of electrons and holes as a result of a suitable energy level alignment was suggested. The findings of this work provide a fundamental insight not only into the fabrication but also utility of Schottky junctions for enhanced environmental remediation processes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Manoj A; Tadvani, Jalil K; Tung, Wing Sze; Lopez, Lorena; Daoud, Walid A, E-mail: Walid.Daoud@sci.monash.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Nanostructured thin films is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and sensor technologies. Highly tuned thin films, in terms of thickness, crystallinity, porosity and optical properties, can be fabricated on different substrates using the sol-gel method, chemical solution deposition (CSD), electrochemical etching, along with other conventional methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The above mentioned properties of these films are usually characterised using surface analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, ellipsometry, electrochemistry, SAXS, reflectance spectroscopy, STM, XPS, SIMS, ESCA, X-ray topography and DOSY-NMR. This article presents a short review of the preparation and characterisation of thin films of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and modified silicon as well as their application in solar cells, water treatment, water splitting, self cleaning fabrics, sensors, optoelectronic devices and lab on chip systems.

  20. Raman scattering and x-ray diffractometry studies of epitaxial TiO2 and VO2 thin films and multilayers on α-Al2O3(11 bar 20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.M.; Chiarello, R.P.; Chang, H.L.M.; You, H.; Zhang, T.J.; Frase, H.; Parker, J.C.; Lam, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of TiO 2 and VO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /VO 2 multilayers were grown on (11 bar 20) sapphire (α-Al 2 O 3 ) substrates using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique and were characterized using Raman scattering and four x-ray diffractometry. X-ray diffraction results indicate that the films are high quality single crystal material with well defined growth plane and small in-plane and out-of-plane mosaic. Single-layer films are shown to obey the Raman selection rules of TiO 2 and VO 2 single crystals. The close adherence to the Raman selection rules indicates the high degree of orientation of the films, both parallel and perpendicular to the growth plane. Selection rule spectra of two and three layer TiO 2 /VO 2 multilayers are dominated by the VO 2 layers with only minimal signature of the TiO 2 layers. Due to the low band gap of semiconducting vanadium dioxide, we attribute the strong signature of the VO 2 layers to resonant enhancement of the VO 2 Raman component accompanied with absorption of the both the incident and scattered laser light from the TiO 2 layers

  1. Combination of short-length TiO_2 nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO_2 nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO_2 nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO_2 nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO_2 nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.10%, along with an open

  2. Colorimetric gas detection by the varying thickness of a thin film of ultrasmall PTSA-coated TiO2 nanoparticles on a Si substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Joost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorimetric gas sensing is demonstrated by thin films based on ultrasmall TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs on Si substrates. The NPs are bound into the film by p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA and the film is made to absorb volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Since the color of the sensing element depends on the interference of reflected light from the surface of the film and from the film/silicon substrate interface, colorimetric detection is possible by the varying thickness of the NP-based film. Indeed, VOC absorption causes significant swelling of the film. Thus, the optical path length is increased, interference wavelengths are shifted and the refractive index of the film is decreased. This causes a change of color of the sensor element visible by the naked eye. The color response is rapid and changes reversibly within seconds of exposure. The sensing element is extremely simple and cheap, and can be fabricated by common coating processes.

  3. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO2 thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi; Liu, Bin; Cao, Baocheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO 2 thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  4. Skyrmion states in thin confined polygonal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Ryan Alexander; Beg, Marijan; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Kluyver, Thomas; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Carey, Rebecca; Vousden, Mark; Albert, Maximilian; Wang, Weiwei; Hovorka, Ondrej; Fangohr, Hans

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that skyrmionic states can be the ground state in thin-film FeGe disk nanostructures in the absence of a stabilising applied magnetic field. In this work, we advance this understanding by investigating to what extent this stabilisation of skyrmionic structures through confinement exists in geometries that do not match the cylindrical symmetry of the skyrmion—such as squares and triangles. Using simulation, we show that skyrmionic states can form the ground state for a range of system sizes in both triangular and square-shaped FeGe nanostructures of 10 nm thickness in the absence of an applied field. We further provide data to assist in the experimental verification of our prediction; to imitate an experiment where the system is saturated with a strong applied field before the field is removed, we compute the time evolution and show the final equilibrium configuration of magnetization fields, starting from a uniform alignment.

  5. 500 keV Ar2+ ion irradiation induced anatase to brookite phase transformation and ferromagnetism at room temperature in TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, B.; Mishra, N. C.; Kanjilal, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2018-01-01

    In our earlier report, where we have demonstrated ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature (RT) in TiO2 thin films deposited through electron beam evaporation technique followed by annealing either in Ar or O2 atmosphere [Mohanty et al., Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 355 (2014) 240-245], here we have studied the evolution of structure and magnetic properties after irradiating the TiO2 thin films with 500 keV Ar2+ ions. The pristine film while exhibits anatase phase, the films become amorphous after irradiating at fluence in the range 1 × 1014 to 1 × 1016 ions/cm2. Increasing the fluence up to 5 × 1016 ions/cm2, amorphous to crystalline phase transformation occurs and the structure becomes brookite. Although anatase to rutile phase transformation is usually reported in literatures, anatase to brookite phase transformation is an unusual feature which we have reported here for the first time. Such anatase to brookite phase transformation is accompanied with grain growth without showing any change in film thickness evidenced from Rutherford's Back Scattering (RBS) measurement. From scanning probe micrographs (SPM), roughness is found to be more in amorphous films than in the crystalline ones. Anatase to brookite phase transformation could be realized by considering the importance of intermediate amorphous phase. Because due to amorphous phase, heat deposited by energetic ions are localized as dissipation of heat is less and as a result, the localized region crystallizes in brookite phase followed by grain growth as observed in highest fluence. Further, we have demonstrated ferromagnetic behavior at RT in irradiated films similar to pristine one, irrespective of their phase and crystallinity. Origin for room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) is attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies which is confirmed by carrying out XPS measurement.

  6. Evolution of structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped TiO2 thin films irradiated with 100 MeV Ag7+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P; Singh, V P; Rath, Chandana; Mishra, N C; Ojha, S; Kanjilal, D

    2014-01-01

    In continuation to our earlier studies where we have shown room temperature ferromagnetism observed in TiO 2 and Co-doped TiO 2 (CTO) thin films independent of their phase (Mohanty et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 325301), here the modifications in structure and magnetic properties in CTO thin films using 100 MeV Ag 7+ ion irradiation are reported. Owing to the important role of defects in tailoring the magnetic properties of the material, we vary the ion fluence from 5 × 10 11 to 1 × 10 12  ions cm −2 to create post-deposition defects. While the film deposited under 0.1 mTorr oxygen partial pressure retains its crystallinity showing radiation-resistant behaviour even at a fluence of 1 × 10 12  ions cm −2 , films deposited under 1 to 300 mTorr oxygen partial pressure becomes almost amorphous at the same fluence. Using Poisson's law, the diameter of the amorphized region surrounding the ion path is calculated to be ∼4.2 nm from the x-ray diffraction peak intensity ((1 1 0) for rutile phase) as a function of ion fluence. The saturation magnetization (M s ) decreases exponentially similar to the decrease in x-ray peak intensity with fluence, indicating magnetic disordered region surrounding the ion path. The diameter of the magnetic disordered region is found to be ∼6.6 nm which is larger than the diameter of the amorphized latent track. Therefore, it is confirmed that swift heavy ion irradiation induces a more significant magnetic disorder than the structural disorder. (paper)

  7. Impact of ultra-thin Al2O3-y layers on TiO2-x ReRAM switching characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapatseli, Maria; Cortese, Simone; Serb, Alexander; Khiat, Ali; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2017-05-01

    Transition metal-oxide resistive random access memory devices have demonstrated excellent performance in switching speed, versatility of switching and low-power operation. However, this technology still faces challenges like poor cycling endurance, degradation due to high electroforming (EF) switching voltages and low yields. Approaches such as engineering of the active layer by doping or addition of thin oxide buffer layers have been often adopted to tackle these problems. Here, we have followed a strategy that combines the two; we have used ultra-thin Al2O3-y buffer layers incorporated between TiO2-x thin films taking into account both 3+/4+ oxidation states of Al/Ti cations. Our devices were tested by DC and pulsed voltage sweeping and in both cases demonstrated improved switching voltages. We believe that the Al2O3-y layers act as reservoirs of oxygen vacancies which are injected during EF, facilitate a filamentary switching mechanism and provide enhanced filament stability, as shown by the cycling endurance measurements.

  8. Highly coercive thin-film nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.; Sorge, K.D.; Sui, Y.; Daniil, M.; Gao, L.; Yan, M.L.; Liou, S.-H.; Kirby, R.D.; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The processing, structure, and magnetism of highly coercive Sm-Co and FePt thin-film nanostructures are investigated. The structures include 1:5 based Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets, particulate FePt:C thin films, and FePt nanotubes. As in other systems, the coercivity depends on texture and imperfections, but there are some additional features. A specific coercivity mechanism in particulate media is a discrete pinning mode intermediate between Stoner-Wohlfarth rotation and ordinary domain-wall pinning. This mechanism yields a coercivity maximum for intermediate intergranular exchange and explains the occurrence of coercivities of 5 T in particulate Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets

  9. Evidence of room temperature ferromagnetism in argon/oxygen annealed TiO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P.; Kabiraj, D.; Mandal, R.K.; Kulriya, P.K.; Sinha, A.S.K.; Rath, Chandana

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique annealed in either O 2 or Ar atmosphere showed ferromagnetism at room temperature. The pristine amorphous film demonstrates anatase phase after annealing under Ar/O 2 atmosphere. While the pristine film shows a super-paramagnetic behavior, both O 2 and Ar annealed films display hysteresis at 300 K. X-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford’s backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to refute the possible role of impurities/contaminants in magnetic properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the O 2 annealed film is found to be higher than the Ar annealed one. It is revealed from shifting of O 1s and Ti 2p core level spectra as well as from the enhancement of high binding energy component of O 1s spectra that the higher magnetic moment is associated with higher oxygen vacancies. In addition, O 2 annealed film demonstrates better crystallinity, uniform deposition and smoother surface than that of the Ar annealed one from glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We conclude that although ferromagnetism is due to oxygen vacancies, the higher magnetization in O 2 annealed film could be due to crystallinity, which has been observed earlier in Co doped TiO 2 film deposited by pulsed laser deposition (Mohanty et al., 2012 [10]). - Highlights: • TiO 2 films were deposited by e-beam evaporation technique and post annealed under O 2 /Ar at 500 °C. • The pristine film shows SPM behavior where as O 2 and Ar annealed films demonstrate RTFM. • The presence of magnetic impurities has been discarded by various characterization techniques. • The magnetic moment is found to be higher in O 2 annealed film than the Ar annealed one. • The higher M s in O 2 annealed film is attributed to oxygen vacancies as well as crystallinity

  10. Effect of Diethanolamine on Property of Thin Film TiO2 in Treating Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Jirapattarasakul, Sudarat

    2006-01-01

    In this research titanium dioxide thin film was synthesized from hydrolysis and condensation process by sol-gel method. Titanium alkoxide was used as initial substrate. The solvent was ethanal and the additive substance was diethanolamine. All substances are mixed altogether in different ratios. To study the effect of diethanolamine on properties of titanium dioxide thin film, various film analysis were performed which included mass weighing, adhesive test, corrosion test using acid and alkali, surface morphology analysis with scanning electron microscope (SEM), thin film structure analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photo activity by chromium removal test. It was found that diethanolmine enhanced the film strength and improved the adhesive property. The smooth surface was obtained. This thin film showed the effectiveness in chromium removal with high photo activity. Even tough the developed thin film can remove chromium (VI) efficiently, the reaction rate constant (k) was slightly reduced from that using the normal thin film titanium dioxide (without adding diethanolamine). In addition, the reaction time is required little longer to accomplish the chromium (VI) removal with the same performance

  11. Interaction of NO during cathodic polarization in alkaline conditions at the interface of Pt-nanostructures supported on C and TiO2-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estudillo-Wong, L.A.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Manzo-Robledo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The electroreduction of nitric oxide (NO) in alkaline media was carried out on Pt nanoparticles (5 wt.% Pt), which were synthesized by the carbonyl route. The as-prepared materials were supported on Carbon Black (XC-72R, C) and TiO 2 -C composite (10 wt.% TiO 2 ) and deposited on glassy carbon (GC) electrode. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), CO-stripping and hydrogen adsorption-desorption (H upd ) analysis were employed to characterize the structure and electrochemical properties. According to XRD patterns, the particle size increases from 3.95 to 8.98 nm due to the interaction of Pt with TiO 2 in the carbon matrix. This modification promotes a better performance during CO-oxidation and proton adsorption-desorption. As a consequence, the performance toward NO-reduction was more important in TiO 2 -C composite, linked with the electrochemical active-surface area and chemical surface area relationship (ECSA/CSA). It was found that the mechanism for the reduction of nitric oxide toward nitrogen is a bi-functional process with coupled chemical and electrochemical interfacial-reactions with NH 2 specie as intermediate, as demonstrated by the induced reduction reaction of NO 2 − and NO 2 − + NO, and UV-vis spectrometry

  12. Nb and Ta Co-Doped TiO2 Transparent Conductive Thin Films by Magnetron Sputtering: Fabrication, Structure, and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Peng, Qian; Qiao, Yadong; Yang, Guang

    2018-06-01

    Nb and Ta co-doped anatase titanium dioxide (NTTO) nanocrystalline thin films were deposited on quartz and Si (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The influence of RF power on the growth, structure, morphology, and properties of the samples are discussed in detail. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the films are polycrystalline with anatase tetragonal structure, which is further confirmed by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Meanwhile, Raman spectroscopy results indicate that the peak width of E g(1) mode, which is directly correlated to the carrier density, changes obviously with RF power. It is found that the substitution of Nb5+ and Ta5+ at Ti site is significantly improved with the increase of RF power from 150 W to 210 W. For the sample deposited at 210 W, the optical transmittance is above 82% in the visible range and the electrical resistivity is as low as 1.3 × 10-3 Ω cm with carrier density of 1.1 × 1021 cm-3 and Hall mobility of 4.5 cm2 V-1 s-1. The optical and electrical properties of NTTO thin films can be compared to those of Nb or Ta doped anatase TiO2. However, co-doping with Nb and Ta gives a possible platform to complement the limitations of each individual dopant.

  13. Development of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Sputtered N-Doped TiO2 Thin Films: From Modeling the Growth Mechanism of the Films to Fabrication of the Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by DC reactive sputtering at different doping levels for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells. The mechanism of film growth during the sputtering process and the effect of the nitrogen doping on the structural, optical, morphological, chemical, and electronic properties of the TiO2 were investigated by numerical modeling and experimental methods. The influence of the nitrogen doping on the working principle of the prototypes was investigated by current-voltage relations measured under illuminated and dark conditions. The results indicate that, during the film deposition, the control of the oxidation processes of the nitride layers plays a fundamental role for an effective incorporation of substitutional nitrogen in the film structure and cells built with nitrogen-doped TiO2 have higher short-circuit photocurrent in relation to that obtained with conventional DSSCs. On the other hand, DSSCs built with nondoped TiO2 have higher open-circuit voltage. These experimental observations indicate that the incorporation of nitrogen in the TiO2 lattice increases simultaneously the processes of generation and destruction of electric current.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantis, T.M.; Fotiou, T.; Kaloudis, T.; Kontos, A.G.; Falaras, P.; Dionysiou, D.D.; Pelaez, M.; Hiskia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► N-TiO 2 exhibited effective degradation of MC-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light. ► Complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under UV-A and solar light. ► The organic nitrogen is mainly released as ammonium and nitrate ions. - Abstract: In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N-TiO 2 ) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO 2 , Kronos and reference TiO 2 nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO 2 followed by N-TiO 2 with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO 2 nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO 2 for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO 2 displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO 2 − , NO 3 − and NH 4 + ) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  15. Sol-gel deposition and electrical properties of laser irradiated Cu doped TiO2 multilayer thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available Multilayer thin films (3, 5 and 7 of 20% copper doped titanium dioxide (Cu:TiO2 have been deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. After deposition, films have been irradiated by a beam of continuous wave diode laser (532 nm for two minutes at the angle of 45°. Structural, surface morphology and electrical properties of films have been investigated by X-rays diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and four point probe technique respectively. XRD shows the formation of titanium copper oxide. Surface morphology of thin films indicated that the average grain size is increased by increasing the number of layers. The average sheet resistivity of 3, 5 and 7 layers of thin films measured by four point probe technique is 2.2 × 104, 1.2 × 104 and 1.0 × 104 (Ohm-cm respectively. The present study will facilitate a cost effective and environmental friendly study for several properties of materials. Keywords: Cu:TiO2, Multilayer thin films, Diode laser

  16. Quantitative Measurements of Photocatalytic CO-Oxidation as a Function of Light Intensity and Wavelength over TiO2 Nanotube Thin Films in mu-Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; In, Su-il; Olsen, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase photooxidation of CO over TiO2 catalysts (P25 and TiO2 nanotubes) in mu-reactors with quantitative product detection was used to study turnover as a function of illumination intensity over 4 orders of magnitude. Turnover was found to be of order 0.84 in illumination intensity. A CO phot...

  17. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, B. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), LUNAM Universite, Universite de Nantes, Centrale Nantes, CRTT, 37 Bd de l' Universite, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France); Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [CEMHTI/CNRS (UPR 3079 CNRS), Universite d' Orleans, 3A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-05-07

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  18. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  19. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  20. Preparation and Performance of TiO2-ZnO/CNT Hetero-Nanostructures Applied to Photodegradation of Organic Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Da Dalt,Silvana; Alves,Annelise Kopp; Bergmann,Carlos Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Water pollution by organic compounds is one of the major challenges faced by industries that use dyeing processes. Thus, some methods were developed for degrading dyes in wastewaters, including heterogeneous photocatalysis by semiconductor oxides. However, these oxides have limited photocatalytic activity due to the fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The aim of this study is the use of a carbon nanotube (CNT) and TiO2-ZnO oxide junction from modified sol-gel method to p...

  1. The preparation, surface structure, zeta potential, surface charge density and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanostructures of different shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-01-01

    Titania based nanocatalysts such as sodium titanates of different morphology having superior surface properties are getting wide importance in photocatalysis research. Despite having sodium (Na) contents and its high temperature synthesis (that generally deteriorate the photoreactivity), these Na-titanates often exhibit better photoactivity than P25-TiO 2 catalyst. Hence, this work demonstrated the influence of crystal structure, BET surface area, surface charge, zeta potential (ζ) and metal loading on the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared sodium titanate nanotube (TNT) and titania nanorod (TNR). Straw like hollow orthorhombic-TNT (Na 2 Ti 2 O 5 ·H 2 O) particles (W = 9–12 nm and L = 82–115 nm) and rice like pure anatase-TNR particles (W = 8–13 nm and L = 81–134 nm) are obtained by the hydrothermal treatment of P25-TiO 2 with NaOH, which in fact, altered the net surface charge of TNT and TNR particles. The observed ζ = −2.82 (P25-TiO 2 ), −13.5 (TNT) and −22.5 mV (TNR) are significantly altered by the Ag and Cu deposition. It has been found here that TNT displayed best photocatalytic activity for the imidacloprid insecticide (C 9 H 10 ClN 5 O 2 ) degradation to CO 2 formation under UV irradiation because of its largest surface area 176 m 2 g −1 among the catalysts studied.

  2. The preparation, surface structure, zeta potential, surface charge density and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanostructures of different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-09-01

    Titania based nanocatalysts such as sodium titanates of different morphology having superior surface properties are getting wide importance in photocatalysis research. Despite having sodium (Na) contents and its high temperature synthesis (that generally deteriorate the photoreactivity), these Na-titanates often exhibit better photoactivity than P25-TiO2 catalyst. Hence, this work demonstrated the influence of crystal structure, BET surface area, surface charge, zeta potential (ζ) and metal loading on the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared sodium titanate nanotube (TNT) and titania nanorod (TNR). Straw like hollow orthorhombic-TNT (Na2Ti2O5·H2O) particles (W = 9-12 nm and L = 82-115 nm) and rice like pure anatase-TNR particles (W = 8-13 nm and L = 81-134 nm) are obtained by the hydrothermal treatment of P25-TiO2 with NaOH, which in fact, altered the net surface charge of TNT and TNR particles. The observed ζ = -2.82 (P25-TiO2), -13.5 (TNT) and -22.5 mV (TNR) are significantly altered by the Ag and Cu deposition. It has been found here that TNT displayed best photocatalytic activity for the imidacloprid insecticide (C9H10ClN5O2) degradation to CO2 formation under UV irradiation because of its largest surface area 176 m2 g-1 among the catalysts studied.

  3. Modification of the microstructure and electronic properties of rutile TiO_2 thin films with 79 MeV Br ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Haripriya; Dash, P.; Singh, U.P.; Avasthi, D.K.; Kanjilal, D.; Mishra, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Modifications induced by 79 MeV Br ions in rutile titanium dioxide thin films, synthesized by dc magnetron sputtering are presented. Irradiations did not induce any new XRD peak corresponding to any other phase. The area and the width of the XRD peaks were considerably affected by irradiation, and peaks shifted to lower angles. But the samples retained their crystallinity at the highest fluence (1 × 10"1"3 ions cm"−"2) of irradiation even though the electronic energy loss of 79 MeV Br ions far exceeds the reported threshold value for amorphization of rutile TiO_2. Fitting of the fluence dependence of the XRD peak area to Poisson equation yielded the radius of ion tracks as 2.4 nm. Ion track radius obtained from the simulation based on the thermal spike model matches closely with that obtained from the fluence dependence of the area under XRD peaks. Williamson–Hall analysis of the XRD spectra indicated broadening and shifting of the peaks are a consequence of irradiation induced defect accumulation leading to microstrains, as was also indicated by Raman and UV–Visible absorption study.

  4. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous and crystalline TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Rajiv, K.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, M.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-10-01

    TiO2 thin films of widely different structural and morphological characteristics were grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (50 °C ≤ Ts ≤ 400 °C). Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were carried out to investigate the effect of growth temperature on the optical properties of the films. Measured SE data were analyzed by considering double layer optical model for the sample together with the single oscillator Tauc-Lorentz dispersion relation. Surface roughness was taken into consideration due to the columnar growths of grains in crystalline films. The refractive index was found to be increased from amorphous (Ts ≤ 150 °C) to the nanocrystalline films (2500 < Ts ≤ 400 °C). The pronounced surface roughening for the large-grained anatase film obtained at the amorphous to crystalline phase transformation temperature of 200 °C, impeded SE measurement. The dispersions of refractive indices below the interband absorption edge were found to be strongly correlated with the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (WD) model. The increase in dispersion energy parameter in WD model from disordered amorphous to the more ordered nanocrystalline films was found to be associated with the increase in the film density and coordination number.

  5. TiO2 thin and thick films grown on Si/glass by sputtering of titanium targets in an RF inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 thin and thick films were deposited on silicon/glass substrates using RF inductive plasma in continuous wave. The films thickness, as well as phases control, is achieved with a gradual increase in temperature substrates varying supplied RF power or working gas pressure besides deposition time as well. The deposition conditions were: argon 80%/oxygen 20% carefully calibrated mixture of 2 to 7×10 −2 mbar as working gas pressure range. Deposition time 0.5 to 5 hours, 500 or 600 W RF power at 13.56 MHz frequency and 242-345 °C substrates temperature range. The titanium dioxide deposited on the substrates is grown by sputtering of a titanium target negatively polarized at 3-5 kV DC situated 14 mm in front of such substrates. The plasma reactor is a simple Pyrex-like glass cylindrical vessel of 50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. Using the before describe plasma parameters we obtained films only anatase and both anatase/rutile phases with stoichiometric different. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), stylus profilometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  6. Characterization of thin TiO2 films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for optical and photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk-Guzenda, A.; Gazicki-Lipman, M.; Szymanowski, H.; Kowalski, J.; Wojciechowski, P.; Halamus, T.; Tracz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Thin titanium oxide films were deposited using a radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. Their optical properties and thickness were determined by means of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Films of the optical parameters very close to those of titanium dioxide have been obtained at the high RF power input. Their optical quality is high enough to allow for their use in a construction of stack interference optical filters. At the same time, these materials exhibit strong photocatalytic effects. The results of structural analysis, carried out by Raman Shift Spectroscopy, show that the coatings posses amorphous structure. However, Raman spectra of the same films subjected to thermal annealing at 450 o C disclose an appearance of a crystalline form, namely that of anatase. Surface morphology of the films has also been characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing granular, broccoli-like topography of the films.

  7. Nanostructured refractory thin films for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, E.; Dunoyer, N.; Dellea, O.; Szambolics, H.

    2014-08-01

    Selective solar absorbers are key elements of all solar thermal systems. Solar thermal panels and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems aim respectively at producing heat and electricity. In both cases, a surface receives the solar radiation and is designed to have the highest optical absorption (lowest optical reflectivity) of the solar radiation in the visible wavelength range where the solar intensity is the highest. It also has a low emissivity in the infrared (IR) range in order to avoid radiative thermal losses. Current solutions in the state of the art usually consist in deposited interferential thin films or in cermets [1]. Structured surfaces have been proposed and have been simulated because they are supposed to be more efficient when the solar radiation is not normal to the receiving surface and because they could potentially be fabricated with refractory materials able to sustain high operating temperatures. This work presents a new method to fabricate micro/nanostructured surfaces on molybdenum (refractory metal with a melting temperature of 2623°C). This method now allows obtaining a refractory selective surface with an excellent optical selectivity and a very high absorption in the visible range. This high absorption performance was obtained by achieving a double structuration at micro and nano scales thanks to an innovative process flow.

  8. Synthesis of TiO2-loaded Co0.85Se thin films with heterostructure and their enhanced catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Yong; Song, Ji-Ming; Niu, He-Lin; Mao, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Sheng-Yi; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    P-nitrophenol (4-NP) and hydrazine hydrate are considered to be highly toxic pollutants in wastewater, and it is of great importance to remove them. Herein, TiO 2 -loaded Co 0.85 Se thin films with heterostructure were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selective-area electron diffraction. The results demonstrate that TiO 2 nanoparticles with a size of about 10 nm are easily loaded on the surface of graphene-like Co 0.85 Se nanofilms, and the NH 3  · H 2 O plays an important role in the generation and crystallization of TiO 2 nanoparticles. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurement shows that the obtained nanocomposites have a larger specific surface area (199.3 m 2 g −1 ) than that of Co 0.85 Se nanofilms (55.17 m 2 g −1 ) and TiO 2 nanoparticles (19.49 m 2 g −1 ). The catalytic tests indicate Co 0.85 Se–TiO 2 nanofilms have the highest activity for 4-NP reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition within 10 min and 8 min, respectively, compared with the corresponding precursor Co 0.85 Se nanofilms and TiO 2 nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic performance can be attributed to the larger specific surface area and higher rate of interfacial charge transfer in the heterojunction than that of the single components. In addition, recycling tests show that the as-synthesized sample presents stable conversion efficiency for 4-NP reduction. (paper)

  9. Manufacturing and investigation of surface morphology and optical properties of composite thin films reinforced by TiO2, Bi2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarka, Paweł; Tański, Tomasz; Matysiak, Wiktor; Krzemiński, Łukasz; Hajduk, Barbara; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of submitted paper is to present influence of manufacturing parameters on optical properties and surface morphology of composite materials with a polymer matrix reinforced by TiO2 and SiO2 and Bi2O3 nanoparticles. The novelty proposed by the authors is the use of TiO2 and SiO2 and Bi2O3 nanoparticles simultaneously in polymeric matrix. This allows using the combined effect of nanoparticles to a result composite material. The thin films of composite material were prepared by using spin-coating method with various spinning rates from solutions of different concentration of nanoparticles. In order to prepare the spinning solution polymer, Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used as a matrix. The reinforcing phase was the mixture of the nanoparticles of SiO2, TiO2 and B2O3. In order to identify the surface morphology of using thin films and arrangement of the reinforcing phase Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used. In order to study the optical properties of the obtained thin films, the thin films of composites was subjected to an ellipsometry analysis. The measurements of absorbance of the obtained materials, from which the value of the band gap width was specified, were carried out using the UV/VIS spectroscopy. The optical properties of obtain composite thin films depend not only on the individual components used, but also on the morphology and the interfacial characteristics. Controlling the participation of three kinds of nanoparticles of different sizes and optical parameters allows to obtaining the most optimal optical properties of nanocomposites and also controlling the deposition parameters allows to obtaining the most optimal surface morphology of nanocomposites.

  10. High efficient photocatalytic activity from nanostructuralized photonic crystal-like p-n coaxial hetero-junction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Fang-Ting; Chang, Yin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Structuring the materials in the form of photonic crystals is a new strategy for photocatalytic applications. Herein, a new concept of photonic crystal-induced p-n coaxial heterojunction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 (CTS/PhC-TNAs) was well-designed and successfully fabricated by combining periodic pulse anodic oxidation and in-situ self-assembling methods Such nanostructured CTS/PhC-TNAs exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic degradation activity under simulated sunlight irradiation with methyl orange (MO) as the target pollutants. Within 120 min, 82% of the MO (10 mg/L) was photodegraded and its kinetic constant per specific surface area reached 0.05332 μmol/m2h, which is 1.6 and 12.8 times more quickly than that of PhC-TNAs and CTS, respectively. Its significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity could be mainly attributed to a joint effect of the unique photonic crystal property of PhC-TNAs and the nanostructured hollow p-n coaxial hetero-junction, which result in an increased efficiency of charge separation and transfer and also an improved spectral response capability. This photonic crystal film photocatalyst has the potential for enhancing the photocatalytic activity via further optimizing the photonic stop band of PhC-TNAs. The study presents a new means to design the kind of photonic crystal structural-induced novel photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activities in pollution treatment.

  11. Nanostructured manganese oxide thin films as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, are alternative energy storage devices, particularly for applications requiring high power densities. Recently, manganese oxides have been extensively evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their low cost, environmental benignity, and promising supercapacitive performance. In order to maximize the utilization of manganese oxides as the electrode material for the supercapacitors and improve their supercapacitive performance, the nanostructured manganese oxides have therefore been developed. This paper reviews the synthesis of the nanostructured manganese oxide thin films by different methods and the supercapacitive performance of different nanostructures.

  12. Bactericidal performance of visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst with silver nanostructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Show Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Titania dioxide (TiO(2 photocatalyst is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Visible-light responsive anion-doped TiO(2 photocatalysts contain higher quantum efficiency under sunlight and can be used safely in indoor settings without exposing to biohazardous ultraviolet light. The antibacterial efficiency, however, remains to be further improved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using thermal reduction method, here we synthesized silver-nanostructures coated TiO(2 thin films that contain a high visible-light responsive antibacterial property. Among our tested titania substrates including TiO(2, carbon-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (C] and nitrogen-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (N], TiO(2 (N showed the best performance after silver coating. The synergistic antibacterial effect results approximately 5 log reductions of surviving bacteria of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Scanning electron microscope analysis indicated that crystalline silver formed unique wire-like nanostructures on TiO(2 (N substrates, while formed relatively straight and thicker rod-shaped precipitates on the other two titania materials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggested that proper forms of silver on various titania materials could further influence the bactericidal property.

  13. Preparation of TiO2/boron-doped diamond/Ta multilayer films and use as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Li, Mingji; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2015-12-01

    We report nanostructured TiO2/boron-doped diamond (BDD)/Ta multilayer films and their electrochemical performances as supercapacitor electrodes. The BDD films were grown on Ta substrates using electron-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Ti metal layers were deposited on the BDD surfaces by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, and nanostructured TiO2/BDD/Ta thin films were prepared by electrochemical etching and thermal annealing. The successful formation of TiO2 and Ta layered nanostructures was demonstrated using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The electrochemical responses of these electrodes were evaluated by examining their use as electrical double-layer capacitors, using cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance measurements. When the TiO2/BDD/Ta film was used as the working electrode with 0.1 M Na2SO4 as the electrolyte, the capacitor had a specific capacitance of 5.23 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 for a B/C ratio of 0.1% w/w. Furthermore, the TiO2/BDD/Ta film had improved electrochemical stability, with a retention of 89.3% after 500 cycles. This electrochemical behavior is attributed to the quality of the BDD, the surface roughness and electrocatalytic activities of the TiO2 layer and Ta nanoporous structures, and the synergies between them. These results show that TiO2/BDD/Ta films are promising as capacitor electrodes for special applications.

  14. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim of fabricating efficient mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells, we used tris[2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert- butylpyridine)cobalt(iii) tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide)] (FK209) as a p-dopant for spiro-OMeTAD. The mixture of spiro-OMeTAD, FK209, lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibited significantly higher performance than mixtures of pristine spiro-OMeTAD, spiro-OMeTAD, and FK209, and spiro-OMeTAD, Li-TFSI, and TBP. Such a synergistic effect between the Co-complex and Li-TFSI in conjunction with spiro-OMeTAD effectively improved the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the fabricated solar cells. As a result, we achieved PCE of 10.4%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm-2). © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. A Designed TiO2 /Carbon Nanocomposite as a High-Efficiency Lithium-Ion Battery Anode and Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Bai, Yuanjuan; Feng, Yangyang; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-12

    Herein, a peapod-like TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite has successfully been synthesized by a rational method for the first time. The novel nanostructure exhibits a distinct feature of TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated inside and the carbon fiber coating outside. In the synthetic process, H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes serve as precursors and templates, and glucose molecules act as the green carbon source. With the alliciency of hydrogen bonding between H2 Ti3 O7 and glucose, a thin polymer layer is hydrothermally assembled and subsequently converted into carbon fibers through calcinations under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, the precursors of H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes are transformed into the TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers. The achieved unique nanocomposites can be used as excellent anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and photocatalytic reagents in the degradation of rhodamine B. Due to the synergistic effect derived from TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon fibers, the obtained peapod-like TiO2 /carbon cannot only deliver a high specific capacity of 160 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles in LIBs, but also perform a much faster photodegradation rate than bare TiO2 and P25. Furthermore, owing to the low cost, environmental friendliness as well as abundant source, this novel TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite will have a great potential to be extended to other application fields, such as specific catalysis, gas sensing, and photovoltaics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO2@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO43- in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO43- and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO2@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L-1 to 2.30 μmol P L-1. This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated

  17. Influence of substrate on structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reaction magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 films have been prepared by DC reaction magnetron sputtering technique on different substrates (glass, SiO2, platinum electrode-Pt, Silicon-Si. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that all TiO2 films were grown along the preferred orientation of (110 plane. Samples on Si and Pt substrates are almost monophasic rutile, however, samples on glass and SiO2 substrates accompanied by a weak anatase structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images revealed uniform grain distribution except for films on Pt substrates. Photoluminescence (PL spectra showed obvious intrinsic emission band, but films on glass was accompanied by a distinct defect luminescence region. Raman spectroscopy suggested that all samples moved to high wavenumbers and films on glass moved obviously.

  18. Hydrogen-bonding-mediated synthesis of atomically thin TiO2 films with exposed (001) facets and applications in fast lithium insertion/extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Yang, Zhenzhen; Gan, Wei; Zhao, Yanfei; Yu, Bo; Xu, Huanjun; Ma, Zhishuang; Hao, Leiduan; Chen, Dechao; Miao, Shiding; Liu, Zhimin

    2015-10-05

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystalline materials show high specific surface area (SA) of high energy (HE) facets, imparting a significant improvement in their performances. Herein we report a novel route to synthesize TiO2 nanofilms (NFs) with atomic thickness (lithium insertion/extraction, demonstrating foreseeable applications in the energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N., E-mail: nned@ie.bas.bg [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Nanosecond laser pulse nanostructuring of ZnO thin films on metal substrate is demonstrated. • Two regimes of the thin film modification are observed depending on the applied laser fluence. • At high fluence regime the ZnO film is homogeneously decomposed into nanosized particles. • The characteristic size of the formed nanostructures corresponds to the domain size of the thin film. - Abstract: In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  20. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films prepared by TiO2 nanorods exhibited larger surface roughness than those prepared by the commercial TiO2 particles. It was found that a pure anatase phase of TiO2 nanorods can be obtained from the hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with TiO2 nanorods exhibited a higher solar efficiency than those fabricated with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles directly. Further, triple-layer structures of TiO2 thin films with different particle sizes were investigated to improve the solar efficiency.

  1. Anatase TiO2 hierarchical structures composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing high percentage {0 0 1} facets and their application in quantum-dot sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dapeng; Zhang, Shuo; Jiang, Shiwei; He, Jinjin; Jiang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 hierarchical structures assembled from ultra-thin nanosheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were employed as photoanode materials to improve the performance of CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • THSs composited of nanosheets exposing high percent {0 0 1} facets were prepared. • THSs improve the QDs loading amount and light scattering of the photoanode. • THSs suppress the carrier recombination and finally lead to ∼25% PCE improvement. - Abstract: TiO 2 hierarchical structures (THSs) composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were prepared via a hydrothermal method. Time dependent trails revealed the formation of THSs experienced a self-assemble process. The as-prepared product were used as the photoanode materials for CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, and the THSs/nanoparticle hybrid photoanode demonstrated a power conversion efficiency of 3.47%, indicating ∼25% improvement compared with the nanoparticle cell

  2. Engineering Nano-Structured Multiferroic Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Pui Lam

    Multiferroics exhibit remarkable tunabilities in their ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and magnetoelectric properties that provide the potential in enabling the control of magnetizations by electric field for the next generation non-volatile memories, antennas and motors. In recent research and developments in integrating single-phase ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, multiferroic composite demonstrated a promising magnetoelectric (ME) coupling for future applications. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, on the other hand, allows fabrications of complex multiferroic nanostructures to investigate interfacial coupling between the two materials. In this work, radical-enhanced ALD of cobalt ferrite (CFO) and thermal ALD of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were combined in fabricating complex multiferroic architectures in investigating the effect of nanostructuring and magnetic shape anisotropy on improving ME coupling. In particular, 1D CFO nanotubes and nanowires; 0D-3D CFO/PZT mesoporous composite; and 1D-1D CFO/PZT core-shell nanowire composite were studied. The potential implementation of nanostructured multiferroic composites into functioning devices was assessed by quantifying the converse ME coupling coefficient. The synthesis of 1D CFO nanostructures was realized by ALD of CFO in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. This work provided a simple and inexpensive route to create parallel and high aspect ratio ( 55) magnetic nanostructures. The change in magnetic easy axis of (partially filled) CFO nanotubes from perpendicular to parallel in (fully-filled) nanowires indicated the significance of the geometric factor in controlling magnetizations and ME coupling. The 0D-3D CFO/PZT mesoporous composite demonstrated the optimizations of the strain transfer could be achieved by precise thickness control. 100 nm of mesoporous PZT was synthesized on Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si using amphiphilic diblock copolymers as a porous ferroelectric template (10 nm pore diameter) for

  3. Synthesis of TiO_2 thin films by the SILAR method and study of the influence of annealing on its structural, morphological and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Garcia, F N; Segura-Giraldo, B; Restrepo-Parra, E; Lopez-Lopez, G A

    2015-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of TiO_2 films were made. Films were synthesized on glass substrates by the SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction) method. The preparation consisted of 150 cycles of a successive and alternate immersion of substrates in the precursor solution and in distilled water at 353 K. Growing was conducted at two conditions of the precursor solution which contained TiCl_3 and NH_2CONH_2: at room temperature and at 343 K. After the growth, films were annealed at 723 K for 2 hours. Regarding characterization, samples were studied using XRD, SEM and UV-Vis. Structural characterization results showed that, in general, the films presented an amorphous crystalline structure except those which were grown with precursor solution at 343 K and thermally treated after the growths, which presented an anatase crystalline structure. Concerning their morphology, a granular structure and a random distribution of a flower-like structure were observed. Grain sizes did not change significantly after annealing. The optical study was carried out taking into account an indirect transition allowed determining the band gap energy to be around 3.1 eV. This value, which is typical for TiO_2, decreases after annealing, usual for this type of films

  4. Nanocrystalline SnO2-TiO2 thin film deposited on base of equilateral prism as an opto-electronic humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, B. C.; Verma, Nidhi; Singh, Satyendra

    2012-09-01

    Present paper reports the synthesis of SnO2-TiO2 nanocomposite, its characterization and performance as opto-electronic humidity sensor. Nanocrystalline SnO2-TiO2 film was deposited on the base of an equilateral prism using a photo resist spinner and the as prepared film was annealed at 200 °C for 2 h. The crystal structure of the prepared film was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Minimum crystallite size of the material was found 7 nm. Surface morphology of the film was investigated by Scanning electron microscope (SEM LEO-0430, Cambridge). SEM image shows that the film is porous. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of as synthesized material shows two exothermic peaks at about 40 and 110 °C, respectively which are due to the evaporation of chemical impurities and water. Further the prepared film was investigated through the exposure of humidity and relative humidity (%RH) was measured directly in terms of modulation in the intensity of light recorded on a digital power meter. The maximum sensitivity of sensor was found 4.14 μW/%RH, which is quite significant for sensor fabrication purposes.

  5. Effect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlaf, Mario; Caes, Sebastien; Dewalque, Jennifer; Colomer, María Teresa; Moreno, Rodrigo; Cloots, Rudi; Boschini, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO 2 and RE 2 O 3– TiO 2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er 3+ and Eu 3+ was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu 3+ and Er 3+ f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. - Highlights: • Eu and Er–TiO 2 mesoporous films were prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly. • Influence of humidity on porosity and photoluminescent properties has been tested. • Influence of calcination on structural and textural properties has been also studied. • f–f transitions indicate that the thin films are active photoluminescent materials

  6. Fullerene nanostructures, monolayers and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotier, B.N.

    2000-10-01

    The interaction of submonolayer, monolayer and multilayer coverages of C 60 with the Ag/Si(111)-(√3x√3)R30 deg. (√3Ag/Si) and Si(111)-7x7 surfaces has been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM). It is shown that it is possible to preserve the √3Ag/Si surface, normally corrupted by exposure to air, in ambient conditions when immersed beneath a few layers of C 60 molecules. Upon removal of the fullerene layers in the UHV-STM some corruption is observed which is linked to the morphology of the fullerene film (defined by the nature of the interaction of C 60 with √3Ag/Si). This technique opens up the possibility of performing experiments on the clean √3Ag/Si surface outside of UHV conditions. With the discovery of techniques whereby structures may be formed that are composed of only a few atoms/molecules, there is a need to perform electrical measurements in order to probe the fascinating properties of these 'nano-scale' devices. Using AFM, PES and STM evaporated metals and ion implantation have been investigated as materials for use in forming sub-micron scale contacts to nanostructures. It is found that ion implantation is a more promising approach after studying the response to annealing of treated surfaces. Electrical measurements between open/short circuited contacts and through Ag films clearly demonstrate the validity of the method, further confirmed by a PES study which probes the chemical nature of the near surface region of ion-implanted samples. Attempts have been made to form nanostructure templates between sub-micron scale contacts as a possible precursor to forming nanostructures. The bonding state of C 60 molecules on the Si(111)-7x7 surface has been in dispute for many years. To properly understand the system a comprehensive AFM, PES and STM study has been performed. PES results indicate covalent bond formation, with the number of bonds

  7. A thick hierarchical rutile TiO2 nanomaterial with multilayered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shengli; Xie, Guoqiang; Yang, Xianjin; Cui, Zhenduo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We synthesized a new rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure. ► The nano architecture structure consist of nanorods and nanoflower arrays. ► The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). ► The TiO 2 nanomaterials present a multilayer structure. - Abstract: In the present paper, we synthesized a new type of rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure using a novel method, which combined dealloying process with chemical synthesis. The structure characters were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). The hierarchical structure of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial consists of large quantities nanorods and nanoflower arrays. The nanoflowers consist of serveral nanopetals with diameter of 100–200 nm. The cross section of TiO 2 nanomaterials presents a multilayer structure with the layer thickness of about 3–5 μm. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has high specific surface area. The formation mechanism of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial was discussed according to the experimental results. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has potential applications in catalysis, photocatalysis and solar cells

  8. Impedance spectroscopy studies of surface engineered TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Impedance; nanoTiO2; self-assembled monolayers; electrical resistivity; permittivity. 1. Introduction ... search studies showed that nanostructured TiO2 ceramics possess ..... tion handbook (ed) J Cazes (New York: Marcel Dekker). 3rd ed, p ...

  9. Correlation Spectroscopy of Surfaces, Thin Films, and Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Berakdar, Jamal

    2004-01-01

    Here, leading scientists present an overview of the most modern experimental and theoretical methods for studying electronic correlations on surfaces, in thin films and in nanostructures. In particular, they describe in detail coincidence techniques for studying many-particle correlations while. critically examining the informational content of such processes from a theoretical point viewpoint. Furthermore, the book considers the current state of incorporating many-body effects into theoretical approaches. Covered topics:. -Auger-electron photoelectron coincidence experiments and theories. -Co

  10. Density, thickness and composition measurements of TiO2 -SiO2 thin films by coupling X-ray reflectometry, ellipsometry and electron probe microanalysis-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodroj, A.; Roussel, H.; Crisci, A.; Robaut, F.; Gottlieb, U.; Deschanvres, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Mixed TiO 2 -SiO 2 thin films were deposited by aerosol atmospheric CVD method by using di-acetoxi di-butoxi silane (DADBS) and Ti tetra-butoxide as precursors. By varying the deposition temperatures between 470 and 600 deg. C and the ratios between the Si and Ti precursors (Si/Ti) from 2 up to 16, films with different compositions and thicknesses were deposited. The coupled analysis of the results of different characterisation methods was used in order to determine the variation of the composition, the thickness and the density of the films. First EPMA measurements were performed at different acceleration voltages with a Cameca SX50 system. By analysing, with specific software, the evolution of the intensity ratio I x /I std versus the voltage, the composition and the mass thickness (product of density by the thickness) were determined. In order to measure independently the density, X-ray reflectometry experiments were performed. By analysing the value of the critical angle and the Kiessig fringes, the density and the thickness of the layers were determined. The refractive index and the thickness of the films were also measured by ellipsometry. By assuming a linear interpolation between the index value of the pure SiO 2 and TiO 2 films, the film composition was deduced from the refractive index value. XPS measurements were also performed in order to obtain an independent value of the composition. A good agreement between the ways to measure the density is obtained

  11. Properties of Nanostructure Bismuth Telluride Thin Films Using Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth telluride has high thermoelectric performance at room temperature; in present work, various nanostructure thin films of bismuth telluride were fabricated on silicon substrates at room temperature using thermal evaporation method. Tellurium (Te and bismuth (Bi were deposited on silicon substrate in different ratio of thickness. These films were annealed at 50°C and 100°C. After heat treatment, the thin films attained the semiconductor nature. Samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to show granular growth.

  12. Spectral Sensitization of TiO2 Substrates by Monolayers of Porphyrin Heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Boschloo, G.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Goossens, A.; Schaafsma, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical cells have been constructed by depositing monolayers of oriented covalently linked zinc/free base porphyrin heterodimers onto ~30 nm nonporous layers of TiO2 on ITO, deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD), and onto ~100 nm porous, nanostructured TiO2

  13. Rational design of carbon and TiO2 assembly materials: covered or strewn, which is better for photocatalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guan-wei; Wang, Wei-liang; Ma, Ming-yue; Zhang, Ming; Xia, Xin-yuan; Han, Feng-yun; Shi, Xi-feng; Zhao, Ying-qiang; Dong, Yu-bin; Tang, Bo

    2013-07-21

    The rational design of carbonaceous hybrid nanostructures is very important for obtaining high photoactivity. TiO2 particles strewn with an optimal quantity of carbon nanodots have a much higher photoactivity than that of TiO2 covered with a carbon layer, showing the importance of carbon morphology in the photocatalysis of carbonaceous hybrid nanostructures.

  14. High pressure structural phase transitions of TiO2 nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quan-Jun; Liu Bing-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the high pressure study on the TiO 2 nanomaterials has attracted considerable attention due to the typical crystal structure and the fascinating properties of TiO 2 with nanoscale sizes. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress in the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials. We discuss the size effects and morphology effects on the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials with different particle sizes, morphologies, and microstructures. Several typical pressure-induced structural phase transitions in TiO 2 nanomaterials are presented, including size-dependent phase transition selectivity in nanoparticles, morphology-tuned phase transition in nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials, and pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) and polyamorphism in ultrafine nanoparticles and TiO 2 -B nanoribbons. Various TiO 2 nanostructural materials with high pressure structures are prepared successfully by high pressure treatment of the corresponding crystal nanomaterials, such as amorphous TiO 2 nanoribbons, α -PbO 2 -type TiO 2 nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials. These studies suggest that the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials depend on the nanosize, morphology, interface energy, and microstructure. The diversity of high pressure behaviors of TiO 2 nanomaterials provides a new insight into the properties of nanomaterials, and paves a way for preparing new nanomaterials with novel high pressure structures and properties for various applications. (topical review)

  15. TiO2 Nanotubes on Transparent Substrates: Control of Film Microstructure and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matus Zelny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of semiconductor thin films on transparent and or flexible substrates is a highly desirable process to enable photonic, catalytic, and sensing technologies. A promising approach to fabricate nanostructured TiO2 films on transparent substrates is self-ordering by anodizing of thin metal films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO. Here, we report pulsed direct current (DC magnetron sputtering for the deposition of titanium thin films on conductive glass substrates at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 450 °C. We describe in detail the influence that deposition temperature has on mechanical, adhesion and microstructural properties of titanium film, as well as on the corresponding TiO2 nanotube array obtained after anodization and annealing. Finally, we measure the photoelectrochemical water splitting activity of different TiO2 nanotube samples showing that the film deposited at 150 °C has much higher activity correlating well with the lower crystallite size and the higher degree of self-organization observed in comparison with the nanotubes obtained at different temperatures. Importantly, the film showing higher water splitting activity does not have the best adhesion on glass substrate, highlighting an important trade-off for future optimization.

  16. The Recovery of a Magnetically Dead Layer on the Surface of an Anatase (Ti,CoO2 Thin Film via an Ultrathin TiO2 Capping Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thantip S. Krasienapibal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an ultrathin TiO2 capping layer on an anatase Ti0.95Co0.05O2−δ (001 epitaxial thin film on magnetism at 300 K was investigated. Films with a capping layer showed increased magnetization mainly caused by enhanced out-of-plane magnetization. In addition, the ultrathin capping layer was useful in prolonging the magnetization lifetime by more than two years. The thickness dependence of the magnetic domain structure at room temperature indicated the preservation of magnetic domain structure even for a 13 nm thick film covered with a capping layer. Taking into account nearly unchanged electric conductivity irrespective of the capping layer’s thickness, the main role of the capping layer is to prevent surface oxidation, which reduces electron carriers on the surface.

  17. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L W; Crane, S P; Chu, Y-H; Holcomb, M B; Gajek, M; Huijben, M; Yang, C-H; Balke, N; Ramesh, R [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: lwmartin@lbl.gov

    2008-10-29

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities-such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature-researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  18. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L. W.; Crane, S. P.; Chu, Y.-H.; Holcomb, M. B.; Gajek, M.; Huijben, M.; Yang, C.-H.; Balke, N.; Ramesh, R.

    2008-10-01

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities—such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature—researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  19. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L W; Crane, S P; Chu, Y-H; Holcomb, M B; Gajek, M; Huijben, M; Yang, C-H; Balke, N; Ramesh, R

    2008-01-01

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities-such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature-researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  20. Electrical conductivity characteristic of TiO2 nanowires from hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Amat, Noor Faridah; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Rajan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    One dimensional nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) were synthesized via hydrothermal method by mixing TiO 2 as precursor in aqueous solution of NaOH as solvent. Then, heat and washing treatment was applied. Thus obtained wires had diameter ∼15 nm. TiO 2 nanowires will be used as a network in solar cell such dye-sensitized solar cell in order to improve the performance of electron movement in the device. To improve the performance of electron movement, the characteristics of TiO 2 nanowires have been analyses using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis, x-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis and brunauer emmett teller (BET) analysis. Finally, electrical conductivity of TiO 2 nanowires was determined by measuring the resistance of the TiO 2 nanowires paste on microscope glass.

  1. An innovative approach to synthesize highly-ordered TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isimjan, Tayirjan T; Yang, D Q; Rohani, Sohrab; Ray, Ajay K

    2011-02-01

    An innovative route to prepare highly-ordered and dimensionally controlled TiO2 nanotubes has been proposed using a mild sonication method. The nanotube arrays were prepared by the anodization of titanium in an electrolyte containing 3% NH4F and 5% H2O in glycerol. It is demonstrated that the TiO2 nanostructures has two layers: the top layer is TiO2 nanowire and underneath is well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes. The top layer can easily fall off and form nanowires bundles by implementing a mild sonication after a short annealing time. We found that the dimensions of the TiO2 nanotubes were only dependent on the anodizing condition. The proposed technique may be extended to fabricate reproducible well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes with large area on other metals.

  2. Photocatalytic effects for the TiO2-coated phosphor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. → The photobleaching of an MB aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. → The ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor composite showed much higher photocatalytic reactivity. → The light emitted from the phosphors contributed to the photo-generation. - Abstract: This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. A TiO 2 thin film was deposited on CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Nd 3+ phosphor particles by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and its photocatalytic reaction was investigated by the photobleaching of an aqueous solution of methylene-blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. To clarify the mechanism of the TiO 2 -phosphorescent materials, two different samples of TiO 2 -coated phosphor and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor particles were prepared. The photocatalytic mechanisms of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor powders were different from those of the pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor. The absorbance in a solution of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor decreased much faster than that of pure TiO 2 under visible irradiation. In addition, the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor showed moderately higher photocatalytic degradation of MB solution than the TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor did. The TiO 2 -coated phosphorescent materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS).

  3. Synthesis of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanorod-nanotube arrays by filling TiO2 nanotubes with Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Susanta K; Banerjee, Subarna; Misra, Mano

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanostructures on a titania (TiO 2 ) nanotubular template is carried out using a pulsed electrodeposition technique. The TiO 2 nanotubes are prepared by the sonoelectrochemical anodization method and are filled with iron (Fe) by pulsed electrodeposition. The Fe/TiO 2 composite is then annealed in an O 2 atmosphere to convert it to Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The length of the Fe 2 O 3 inside the TiO 2 nanotubes can be tuned from 50 to 550 nm by changing the deposition time. The composite material is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible studies to confirm the formation of one-dimensional Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The present approach can be used for designing variable one-dimensional metal oxide heterostructures

  4. Novel bamboo structured TiO2 nanotubes for energy storage/production applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, J. J.; Beh, K. P.; Cheong, Y. L.; Yusuf, W. A. A.; Yam, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 received much attention owing to its high surface-to-volume ratio, which can be advantageous in energy storage and production applications. However, the increase in energy consumption at present and possibly the foreseeable future has demanded energy storage and production devices of even higher performance. A direct approach would be manipulating the physical aspects of TiO2 nanostructures, particularly, nanotubes. In this work, dual voltage anodization system has been implemented to fabricate bamboo shaped TiO2 nanotubes, which offers even greater surface area. This unique nanostructure would be used in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) fabrication and its performance will be evaluated and compared along other forms of TiO2 nanotubes. The results showed that bamboo shaped nanotubes indeed are superior morphologically, with an increase of efficiency of 107% at 1.130% efficiency when compared to smooth walled nanotubes at 0.546% efficiency.

  5. Pure and Nb2O5-doped TiO2 amorphous thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature: Surface and photo-induced hydrophilic conversion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Tudose, I.V.; Vernardou, D.; Lygeraki, M.I.; Anastasiadis, S.H.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Photo-induced hydrophilicity of titanium dioxide makes this material one of the most suitable for various coating applications in antifogging mirrors and self-cleaning glasses. The field of functional titanium dioxide coatings is expanding rapidly not only in applications for glass but also in applications for polymer, metal and ceramic materials. The high hydrophilic surface of TiO 2 is interesting for understanding also the basic photon-related surface science of titanium dioxide. In doing so, it is inevitably necessary to understand the relationship between the photoreaction and the surface properties. In this work, photo-induced hydrophilic conversion was evaluated on amorphous pure and niobium oxide-doped titanium dioxide thin films on Corning 1737F glass grown by dc magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. This study is focused on the influence of the Ar:O ratio during sputtering plasma deposition on thin film surface morphology and subsequent photo-induced hydrophilic conversion results. Structural characterization carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) has shown that our films are amorphous and extremely smooth with a surface roughness bellow 1 nm. Contact angle measurements were performed on as-deposited and during/after 10 min UV exposure. We present evidence that the photo-induced hydrophilic conversion of film surface is directly correlated with surface morphology and can be controlled by growth conditions

  6. Synthesis of titanate, TiO2 (B), and anatase TiO2 nanofibers from natural rutile sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavasupree, Sorapong; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Kawahata, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Titanate nanofibers were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) and anatase TiO 2 (high crystallinity) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-100 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively. The samples characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, HRTEM, and BET surface area. This synthesis method provides a simple route to fabricate one-dimensional nanostructured TiO 2 from low cost material. -- Graphical abstract: Titanate nanofibers (b) were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand (a) as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) (c) and anatase TiO 2 (d) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-50 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively

  7. Light-induced antifungal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles/ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, N.; Abdi, Y.; Haghighi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal activity of TiO 2 /ZnO nanostructures under visible light irradiation was investigated. A simple chemical method was used to synthesize ZnO nanowires. Zinc acetate dihydrate, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and deionized water were used as precursor, capping and solvent, respectively. TiO 2 nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanowires using an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition system. X-ray diffraction pattern of TiO 2 /ZnO nano-composite has represented the diffraction peaks relating to the crystal planes of the TiO 2 (anatase and rutile) and ZnO. TiO 2 /ZnO nanostructure antifungal effect on Candida albicans biofilms was studied and compared with the activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles and ZnO nanowires. The high efficiency photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles leads to increased antifungal activity of ZnO nanowires. Scanning electron microscope was utilized to study the morphology of the as prepared nanostructures and the degradation of the yeast.

  8. Facile synthesis of 3D few-layered MoS2 coated TiO2 nanosheet core-shell nanostructures for stable and high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Zhao, Naiqin; Guo, Lichao; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Liu, Enzuo

    2015-07-01

    Uniform transition metal sulfide deposition on a smooth TiO2 surface to form a coating structure is a well-known challenge, caused mainly due to their poor affinities. Herein, we report a facile strategy for fabricating mesoporous 3D few-layered (glucose as a binder. The core-shell structure has been systematically examined and corroborated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. It is found that the resultant 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2 as a lithium-ion battery anode delivers an outstanding high-rate capability with an excellent cycling performance, relating to the unique structure of 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2. The 3D uniform coverage of few-layered (glucose as a binder. The core-shell structure has been systematically examined and corroborated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. It is found that the resultant 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2 as a lithium-ion battery anode delivers an outstanding high-rate capability with an excellent cycling performance, relating to the unique structure of 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2. The 3D uniform coverage of few-layered (<4 layers) MoS2 onto the TiO2 can remarkably enhance the structure stability and effectively shortens the transfer paths of both lithium ions and electrons, while the strong synergistic effect between MoS2 and TiO2 can significantly facilitate the transport of ions and electrons across the interfaces, especially in the high-rate charge-discharge process. Moreover, the facile fabrication strategy can be easily extended to design other oxide/carbon-sulfide/oxide core-shell materials for extensive applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary SEM, TEM, XPS and EIS analyses. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03334a

  9. Improvement of light harvesting and device performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using rod-like nanocrystal TiO2 overlay coating on TiO2 nanoparticle working electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Gao, Mei; Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Weidong; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Novel TiO 2 single crystalline nanorods were synthesized by electrospinning and hydrothermal treatment. The role of the TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode in improvement of light harvesting and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was examined. Although the TiO 2 nanorods had lower dye loading than TiO 2 nanoparticle, they showed higher light utilization behaviour. Electron transfer in TiO 2 nanorods received less resistance than that in TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregation. By just applying a thin layer of TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle working electrode, the DSSC device light harvesting ability and energy conversion efficiency were improved significantly. The thickness of the nanorod layer in the working electrode played an important role in determining the photovoltaic property of DSSCs. An energy conversion efficiency as high as 6.6% was found on a DSSC device with the working electrode consisting of a 12 μm think TiO 2 nanoparticle layer covered with 3 μm thick TiO 2 nanorods. The results obtained from this study may benefit further design of highly efficient DSSCs. - Highlights: • Single crystalline TiO 2 nanorods were prepared for DSSC application. • TiO 2 nanorods show effective light scattering performance. • TiO 2 nanorods have higher electron transfer efficiency than TiO 2 nanoparticles. • TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode improve DSSC efficiency

  10. Annealing of TiO2 Films Deposited on Si by Irradiating Nitrogen Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Katsuhiro; Yano, Yoshinori; Miyashita, Fumiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were deposited on Si at a temperature of 600 deg. C by an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method. The TiO2 films were annealed for 30 min in Ar at temperatures below 700 deg. C. The as-deposited TiO2 films had high permittivities such 200 εo and consisted of crystallites that were not preferentially oriented to the c-axis but had an expanded c-axis. On the annealed TiO2 films, permittivities became lower with increasing annealing temperature, and crystallites were oriented preferentially to the (110) plane

  11. Intrinsic Photocatalytic Assessment of Reactively Sputtered TiO2 Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Driessen, Rick Theodorus; Driessen, Rick T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were prepared by DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering, a transition from metallic Ti to TiO2 was identified by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline nature of the film developed during

  12. Electron microscopy observation of TiO2 nanocrystal evolution in high-temperature atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian; Li, Zhaodong; Kvit, Alexander; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Davydov, Albert V; Wang, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of amorphous and crystalline phases during atomic layer deposition (ALD) is essential for creating high quality dielectrics, multifunctional films/coatings, and predictable surface functionalization. Through comprehensive atomistic electron microscopy study of ALD TiO2 nanostructures at designed growth cycles, we revealed the transformation process and sequence of atom arrangement during TiO2 ALD growth. Evolution of TiO2 nanostructures in ALD was found following a path from amorphous layers to amorphous particles to metastable crystallites and ultimately to stable crystalline forms. Such a phase evolution is a manifestation of the Ostwald-Lussac Law, which governs the advent sequence and amount ratio of different phases in high-temperature TiO2 ALD nanostructures. The amorphous-crystalline mixture also enables a unique anisotropic crystal growth behavior at high temperature forming TiO2 nanorods via the principle of vapor-phase oriented attachment.

  13. Nanoscale TiO2 and Fe2O3 Architectures for Solar Energy Conversion Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedach, Pavel Anatolyvich

    The direct conversion of sunlight into more useable forms of energy has the potential of alleviating the environmental and social problems associated with a dependence on fossil fuels. If solar energy is to be utilized en-masse, however, it must be inexpensive and widely available. In this vein, the focus of this thesis is on nanostructured materials relevant to solar energy conversion and storage. Specifically, this thesis describes the ambient sol-gel synthesis of titanium dioxide (Ti02) nanowires designed for enhanced charge-transfer in solar collection devices, and the synthesis of novel disordered metal-oxide (MOx) catalysts for water oxidation. The introductory chapter of this thesis gives an overview of the various approaches to solar energy conversion. Sol---gel reaction conditions that enable the growth of one-dimensional (1-D) anatase TiO2 nanostructures from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) for photovoltaics (PVs) are described in the second chapter. The generation of these linear nanostructures in the absence of an external bias or template is achieved by using facile experimental conditions (e.g., acetic acid (HOAc) and titanium isopropoxide (Ti(OiPr)4) in anhydrous heptane). The procedure was developed by functionalizing base-treated substrates with Ti-oxide nucleation sites that serve as a foundation for the growth of linear Ti-oxide macromolecules, which upon calcination, render uniform films of randomly oriented anatase TiO2 nanowires. A systematic evaluation of how reaction conditions (e.g., solvent volume, stoichiometry of reagents, substrate base treatment) affect the generation of these TiO 2 films is presented. A photo-organic MO. deposition route (i.e., photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD)) used to deposit thin-films of amorphous iron oxide (a-Fe2O3) for water oxidation catalysis is detailed in third chapter. It is shown that the irradiation of a spin-coated metal-organic film produces a film of non-crystalline a-Fe203. It is shown

  14. Up-conversion luminescence application in Er3+: TiO2 thin film prepared by dip coating sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Y.; Battisha, I.K.; Salah, A.; Salem, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sol-gel derived nano-crystalline titanium dioxide films doped with 1 up to 5% Er 3+ ions were prepared by dip coating sol-gel method. The coating sol was obtained by hydrolysis of Ti(OC 4 H 9 ) 4 in ethanol/HCI solution. The FT-Raman and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to determine the crystal structure of the prepared samples. The morphology SEM and the cross-sectional of the film were used to characterize the microstructure and the thickness of the prepared film. It is shown that relative homogeneous, crack-free and transparent film was achieved via dipping process at 500 deg C. After the excitation with laser diode at wavelength 808 nm, visible (Vis) and infrared (IR) up-conversion emissions were evidenced in the thin film samples under investigation. The up-conversion was found to depend strongly on the Er 3+ ion concentrations. The visible emission was found to be at 540, 560, 590 and 640 nm for thin film. They are attributed to intra-4f transition of Er 3+ ions and assigned to the ( 2 H 11/2 + 4 S 3/2 ) and 4 F 9/2 , which are populated through excited state absorption (ESA) for 808 nm excitation. (author)

  15. Photoelectrochemical Properties of FeO Supported on TiO2-Based Thin Films Converted from Self-Assembled Hydrogen Titanate Nanotube Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Jong Noh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photoanode was fabricated using hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles which had been held in a thin film of hydrogen titanate nanotubes (H-TiNT, synthesized by repetitive self-assembling method on FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide glass, which were incorporated via dipping process in aqueous Fe(NO33 solution. Current voltage (I-V electrochemical properties of the photoanode heat-treated at 500°C for 10 min in air were evaluated under ultraviolet-visible light irradiation. Microstructure and crystallinity changes were also investigated. The prepared Fe2O3/H-TiNT/FTO composite thin film exhibited about threefold as much photocurrent as the Fe2O3/FTO film. The improvement in photocurrent was considered to be caused by reduced recombination of electrons and holes, with an appropriate amount of Fe2O3 spherical nanoparticles supported on the H-TiNT/FTO film. Nanosized spherical Fe2O3 particles with about 65 wt% on the H-TiNT/FTO film showed best performance in our study.

  16. Structural and optical properties of cobalt doped multiferroics BiFeO3 nanostructure thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannakumara, R.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) and Cobalt doped BiFeO3 (BiFe1-XCoXO3) nanostructure thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method. The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of the grown BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films showed distorted rhombohedral structure. The shifting of peaks to higher angles was observed in cobalt doped BiFeO3. The surface morphology of the BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films were studied using FESEM, an increase in grain size was observed as Co concentration increases. The thickness of the nanostructure thin films was examined using FESEM cross-section. The EDX studies confirmed the elemental composition of the grown BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films. The optical characterizations of the grown nanostructure thin films were carried out using FTIR, it confirms the existence of Fe-O and Bi-O bands and UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the increase in optical band gap of the BiFeO3 nanostructure thin films with Co doping by ploting Tauc plot.

  17. Numerical analysis of light extraction enhancement of GaN-based thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes with high-refractive-index buckling nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qing-Yang; Yang, Yang; Cheng, Zhen-Jia; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high-refractive-index (TiO2) buckling nanostructures was studied using the three-dimensional finite difference time domain method. Compared with 2-D photonic crystals, the buckling structures have the advantages of a random directionality and a broad distribution in periodicity, which can effectively extract the guided light propagating in all azimuthal directions over a wide spectrum. Numerical studies revealed that the light extraction efficiency of buckling-structured LEDs reaches 1.1 times that of triangular lattice photonic crystals. The effects of the buckling structure feature sizes and the thickness of the N-GaN layer on the light extraction efficiency for TFFC LEDs were also investigated systematically. With optimized structural parameters, a significant light extraction enhancement of about 2.6 times was achieved for TiO2 buckling-structured TFFC LEDs compared with planar LEDs.

  18. Nanostructured hematite thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maabong, Kelebogile; Machatine, Augusto G. J.; Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Braun, Artur; Bora, Debajeet K.; Toth, Rita; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured hematite thin films prepared by dip coating technique were investigated for their photoelectrochemical activity for generation of hydrogen from water splitting. Structural, morphological and optical analyses of the doped/undoped films were performed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution field emission-scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry and Raman spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements of the films showed enhanced photoresponse and cathodic shift of the onset potential upon Ti doping indicating improved transfer of photoholes at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Films doped with 1 at% Ti produced 0.72 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs RHE which is 2 times higher than current density for the pure film (0.30 mA/cm2, at 1.23 V vs RHE). Gas chromatography analysis of the films also showed enhanced hydrogen evolution at 1 at% Ti with respect to pure film.

  19. Unusual photoelectric behaviors of Mo-doped TiO2 multilayer thin films prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering: effect of barrier tunneling on internal charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B. X.; Luo, S. Y.; Mao, X. G.; Shen, J.; Zhou, Q. F.

    2013-01-01

    Mo-doped TiO2 multilayer thin films were prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering. Microstructures, crystallite parameters and the absorption band were investigated with atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Internal carrier transport characteristics and the photoelectric property of different layer-assemble modes were examined on an electrochemical workstation under visible light. The result indicates that the double-layer structure with an undoped surface layer demonstrated a red-shifted absorption edge and a much stronger photocurrent compared to the uniformly doped sample, signifying that the electric field implanted at the interface between particles in different layers accelerated internal charge transfer effectively. However, a heavily doped layer implanted at the bottom of the three-layer film merely brought about negative effects on the photoelectric property, mainly because of the Schottky junction existing above the substrate. Nevertheless, this obstacle was successfully eliminated by raising the Mo concentration to 1020 cm-3, where the thickness of the depletion layer fell into the order of angstroms and the tunneling coefficient manifested a dramatic increase. Under this circumstance, the Schottky junction disappeared and the strongest photocurrent was observed in the three-layer film.

  20. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport layer modified photoelectrode. The graphene electron transport layer reduces effectively the back reaction in the interface between the ITO transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC.

  1. Preparation of Anatase TiO2 Thin Films with (OiPr)2Ti(CH3COCHCONEt2)2 Precursor by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byoung Jae; Seo, Won Seok; Miah, Arzu; Park, Joon T.; Lee, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Keun Chong

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide with 2 equiv of N,N-diethyl acetoacetamide affords Ti(O i Pr) 2 (CH 3 COCHCONEt 2 ) 2 (1) as colorless crystals in 80% yield. Compound 1 is characterized by spectroscopic (Mass and 1 H/ 13 C NMR) and microanalytical data. Molecular structure of 1 has been determined by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study, which reveals that it is a monomeric, cis-diisopropoxide and contains a six coordinate Ti(IV) atom with a cis(CONEt 2 ), trans(COCH 3 ) configuration (1a) in a distorted octahedral environment. Variable-temperature 1 H NMR spectra of 1 indicate that it exists as an equilibrium mixture of cis, trans (1a) and cis, cis (1b) isomers in a 0.57 : 0.43 ratio at -20 .deg. C in toluene-d 8 solution. Thermal properties of 1 as a MOCVD precursor for titanium dioxide films have been evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and vapor pressure measurement. Thin films of pure anatase titanium dioxide (after annealing above 500 .deg. C under oxygen) have been grown on Si(100) with precursor 1 in the substrate temperature range of 350- 500 .deg. C using a bubbler-based MOCVD method

  2. Enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells performances by improving electron density in conduction band of nanostructure TiO2 electrode with using a metalloporphyrin as additional dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojiri-Foroushani, M.; Dehghani, H.; Salehi-Vanani, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► N719 and ZnTCPP dyes were used in a sequential adsorption process. ► By using two dyes, improved the performance of the cell. ► Density of electrons in the conduction band of TiO 2 electrodes improved. -- Abstract: A zinc(II)-porphyrin dye with four carboxyphenyl moiety of ancillary (ZnTCPP) was studied as a sensitizer in combination with a ruthenium complex (N719) in co-sensitized solar cells. The high molar extinction coefficient (ε) of porphyrin dyes leads to high light absorption in the dye-sensitized TiO 2 electrode. In spite of the high ε of porphyrin dyes, they usually have a narrow absorption band and also to suffer from dye aggregation due to their planar structural nature. This causes lower efficiencies of the DSSCs for the porphyrins than the ruthenium complexes. Co-sensitization of two or more dyes with complementary absorption spectra on TiO 2 film is an important method to further enhance the IPCE response and energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, when the ZnTCPP electrode was used to assemble a co-sensitized solar cell by additional adsorption of N719 dye, the efficiency improved to 6.35% (in comparison to N719 that the efficiency was 4.74%). The results indicated that the co-sensitized device shows enhancements of photovoltaic performance not only in short-circuit current density (J SC ) but also in open-circuit voltage (V OC ). In the present study we have been shown that co-sensitization of a zinc(II)-porphyrin with N719 dye changes the energy levels of the TiO 2 electrode and in result produces further improvement for its device performance

  3. Synergistic effects for the TiO2/RuO2/Pt photodissociation of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondel, G; Harriman, A; Williams, D

    1983-07-01

    Compressed discs of naked TiO2 or TiO2 coated with a thin film of a noble metal (e.g. Pt) do not photodissociate water upon illumination with UV light, but small amounts of H2 are generated if the TiO2 has been reduced in a stream of H2 at 600 C. Discs prepared from mixtures of TiO2/RuO2 facilitate the UV photodissociation of water into H2 and O2 although the yields are very low. When a thin (about 9 nm) film of Pt is applied to the TiO2/RuO2 discs, the yields of H2 and O2 observed upon irradiation with UV light are improved drastically. 25 references.

  4. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  5. Thin film nano-photocatalyts with low band gap energy for gas phase degradation of p-xylene: TiO2 doped Cr, UiO66-NH2 and LaBO3 (B  =  Fe, Mn, and Co)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loc Luu, Cam; Thuy Van Nguyen, Thi; Nguyen, Tri; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Hoang, Tien Cuong; Ha, Cam Anh

    2018-03-01

    By dip-coating technique the thin films of nano-photocatalysts TiO2, Cr-doped TiO2, LaBO3 perovskites (B  =  Fe, Mn, and Co) prepared by sol-gel method, and UiO66-NH2 prepared by a solvothermal were obtained and employed for gas phase degradation of p-xylene. Physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were examined by the methods of BET, SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, TGA, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. The thickness of film was determined by a Veeco-American Dektek 6M instrument. The activity of catalysts was evaluated in deep photooxidation of p-xylene in a microflow reactor at room temperature with the radiation sources of a UV (λ  =  365 nm) and LED lamps (λ  =  400-510 nm). The obtained results showed that TiO2 and TiO2 doped Cr thin films was featured by an anatase phase with nanoparticles of 10-100 nm. Doping TiO2 with 0.1%mol Cr2O3 led to reduce band gap energy from 3.01 down to 1.99 eV and extend the spectrum of photon absorption to the visible region (λ  =  622 nm). LaBO3 perovkite thin films were also featured by a crystal phase with average particle nanosize of 8-40 nm, a BET surface area of 17.6-32.7 m2 g-1 and band gap energy of 1.87-2.20 eV. UiO66-NH2 was obtained in the ball shape of 100-200 nm, a BET surface area of 576 m2 g-1 and a band gap energy of 2.83 eV. The low band gap energy nano-photocatalysts based on Cr-doped TiO2 and LaBO3 perovskites exhibited highly stable and active for photo-degradation of p-xylene in the gas phase under radiation of UV-vis light. Perovskite LaFeO3 and Cr-TiO2 thin films were the best photocatalysts with a decomposition yield being reached up to 1.70 g p-xylene/g cat.

  6. Chalcogenide Sensitized Carbon Based TiO2 Nanomaterial For Solar Driven Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pawan

    The demand for renewable energy is growing because fossils fuels are depleting at a rapid pace. Solar energy an abundant green energy resource. Utilizing this resource in a smart manner can resolve energy-crisis related issues. Sun light can be efficiently harvested using semiconductor based materials by utilizing photo-generated charges for numerous beneficial applications. The main goal of this thesis is to synthesize different nanostructures of TiO2, develop a novel method of coupling and synthesizing chalcogenide nanocrystals with TiO2 and to study the charge transportation effects of the various carbon allotropes in the chalcogenide nanocrystal sensitized TiO2 nanostructure. We have fabricated different nanostructures of TiO2 as solar energy harvesting materials. Effects of the different phases of TiO2 have also been studied. The anatase phase of TiO2 is more photoactive than the rutile phase of TiO2, and the higher dimension of the TiO2 can increase the surface area of the material which can produce higher photocurrent. Since TiO2 only absorbs in the UV range; to increase the absorbance TiO2 should be coupled to visible light absorbing materials. This dissertation presents a simple approach to synthesize and couple chalcogenide nanocrystals with TiO2 nanostructure to form a heterostructured composite. An atmospheric pressure based, single precursor, one-pot approach has been developed and tested to assemble chalcogenide nanocrystal on the TiO2 surface. Surface characterization using microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis indicates the formation of nanocrystals along the nanotube walls and inter-tubular spacing. Optical measurements indicate that the chalcogenide nanocrystals absorb in the visible region and demonstrate an increase in photocurrent in comparison to bare TiO2 nanostructure. The CdS synthesized TiO2 nanostructure produced the highest photocurrent as measured in the three electrode system. We have also assembled the PbS nanocrystal

  7. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Sagar B.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  8. Nanostructured tungsten trioxide thin films synthesized for photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Chong, Meng Nan; Chan, Eng Seng

    2014-11-01

    The recent developments of nanostructured WO3 thin films synthesized through the electrochemical route of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition for the application in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting are reviewed. The key fundamental reaction mechanisms of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition methods for synthesizing nanostructured WO3 thin films are explained. In addition, the effects of metal oxide precursors, electrode substrates, applied potentials and current densities, and annealing temperatures on size, composition, and thickness of the electrochemically synthesized nanostructured WO3 thin films are elucidated in detail. Finally, a summary is given for the general evaluation practices used to calculate the energy conversion efficiency of nanostructured WO3 thin films and a recommendation is provided to standardize the presentation of research results in the field to allow for easy comparison of reported PEC efficiencies in the near future. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Flow-Regulated Growth of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) Nanotubes in Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Chen, Xinye; Wang, Zihao; Custer, David; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-08-01

    Electrochemical anodization of titanium (Ti) in a static, bulk condition is used widely to fabricate self-organized TiO 2 nanotube arrays. Such bulk approaches, however, require extended anodization times to obtain long TiO 2 nanotubes and produce only vertically aligned nanotubes. To date, it remains challenging to develop effective strategies to grow long TiO 2 nanotubes in a short period of time, and to control the nanotube orientation. Here, it is shown that the anodic growth of TiO 2 nanotubes is significantly enhanced (≈16-20 times faster) under flow conditions in microfluidics. Flow not only controls the diameter, length, and crystal orientations of TiO 2 nanotubes, but also regulates the spatial distribution of nanotubes inside microfluidic devices. Strikingly, when a Ti thin film is deposited on silicon substrates and anodized in microfluidics, both vertically and horizontally aligned (relative to the bottom substrate) TiO 2 nanotubes can be produced. The results demonstrate previously unidentified roles of flow in the regulation of growth of TiO 2 nanotubes, and provide powerful approaches to effectively grow long, oriented TiO 2 nanotubes, and construct hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays on silicon-based materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Fabrication of band gap engineered nanostructured tri-metallic (Mn-Co-Ti) oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Adil; Yusof, Farazila Binti; Nay-Ming, Huang

    2018-04-01

    In continuation of our previous studies on photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of titanium based composite oxide thin films, an effort is made to develop thin films of 1:1:2 manganese-cobalt-titanium oxide composite, Mn2O3-Co2O3-4TiO2 (MCT), using Co(OAc)2 and a bimetallic manganese-titanium complex, [Mn2Ti4(TFA)8(THF)6(OH)4(O)2].0.4THF (1), where OAc = acetato, TFA = trifluoroacetato and THF = tetrahydrofuran, via aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic analyses confirmed formation of thin film of Mn2O3-Co2O3-4TiO2 composite material with uniformly distributed agglomerated particles. The average size of 39.5 nm, of the particles embedded inside agglomerates, was estimated by Scherer's equation. Further, UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to estimate the band gap of 2.62 eV for MCT composite thin film.

  11. Unraveling the charge transfer/electron transport in mesoporous semiconductive TiO2 films by voltabsorptometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Christophe; Nicole, Lionel; Sanchez, Clément; Costentin, Cyrille; Balland, Véronique; Limoges, Benoît

    2015-04-28

    In this work, we demonstrate that chronoabsorptometry and more specifically cyclic voltabsorptometry are particularly well suited techniques for acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of electron transfer/charge transport within a transparent mesoporous semiconductive metal oxide film loaded with a redox-active dye. This is illustrated with the quantitative analysis of the spectroelectrochemical responses of two distinct heme-based redox probes adsorbed in highly-ordered mesoporous TiO2 thin films (prepared from evaporation-induced self-assembly, EISA). On the basis of a finite linear diffusion-reaction model as well as the establishment of the analytical expressions governing the limiting cases, it was possible to quantitatively analyse, predict and interpret the unusual voltabsorptometric responses of the adsorbed redox species as a function of the potential applied to the semiconductive film (i.e., as a function of the transition from an insulating to a conductive state or vice versa). In particular, we were able to accurately determine the interfacial charge transfer rates between the adsorbed redox species and the porous semiconductor. Another important and unexpected finding, inferred from the voltabsorptograms, is an interfacial electron transfer process predominantly governed by the extended conduction band states of the EISA TiO2 film and not by the localized traps in the bandgap. This is a significant result that contrasts those previously observed for dye-sensitized solar cells formed of randomly sintered TiO2 nanoparticles, a behaviour that was ascribed to a particularly low density of localized surface states in EISA TiO2. The present methodology also provides a unique and straightforward access to an activation-driving force relationship according to the Marcus theory, thus opening new opportunities not only to investigate the driving-force effects on electron recombination dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells but also to study the

  12. Electrospinning processed nanofibrous TiO2 membranes for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Katsuhiro; Ding, Bin; Tsuge, Yosuke; Naka, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Michiyo; Sugi, Shinichiro; Ohno, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Masato; Shiratori, Seimei

    2006-02-01

    We have recently fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising nanofibrous TiO2 membranes as electrode materials. A thin TiO2 film was pre-deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrate by immersion in TiF4 aqueous solution to reduce the electron back-transfer from FTO to the electrolyte. The composite polyvinyl acetate (PVac)/titania nanofibrous membranes can be deposited on the pre-deposited thin TiO2 film coated FTO by electrospinning of a mixture of PVac and titanium isopropoxide in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The nanofibrous TiO2 membranes were obtained by calcining the electrospun composite nanofibres of PVac/titania as the precursor. Spectral sensitization of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes was carried out with a ruthenium (II) complex, cis-dithiocyanate-N,N'-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) ruthenium (II) dihydrate. The results indicated that the photocurrent and conversion efficiency of electrodes can be increased with the addition of the pre-deposited TiO2 film and the adhesion treatment using DMF. Additionally, the dye loading, photocurrent, and efficiency of the electrodes were gradually increased by increasing the average thickness of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes. The efficiency of the fibrous TiO2 photoelectrode with the average membrane thickness of 3.9 µm has a maximum value of 4.14%.

  13. Solvothermal synthesis and high optical performance of three-dimensional sea-urchin-like TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yi; Wang, Yutang; Li, Mengyao; Li, Xuzhi; Yi, Qin; Deng, Pan; Wu, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: I–V characteristics of different TiO 2 microspheres based DSSCs (a) 3D sphere-like, (b) 3D flower-like, (c) 3D sea-urchin-like. - Highlights: • 3D sea-urchin-like TiO 2 was synthesized by solvothermal method. • The effects of preparation parameters on the microstructure of the microspheres were investigated. • The photoelectric properties of 3D sea-urchin-like TiO 2 were studied upon DSSCs. • The PCE of the 3D sea-urchin-like TiO 2 was higher than that of other morphologies. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) sea-urchin-like TiO 2 microspheres were successfully synthesised by solvothermal method. The effects of preparation parameters including reaction temperature, concentration and mass fraction of precursor, and solvent volume on the microstructure of the microspheres were investigated. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the preparation parameters played a critical role in the morphology of 3D sea-urchin-like TiO 2 . In addition, when the sea-urchin-like TiO 2 nanostructures were used as the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) anode, the power-conversion efficiency was higher than that of other morphologies, which was due to the special 3D hierarchical nanostructure, large specific surface area, and enhanced absorption of UV–vis of the TiO 2 nanostructures

  14. Effect of geometric nanostructures on the absorption edges of 1-D and 2-D TiO₂ fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Huang; Liu, Chien-Min; Cheng, Hsyi-En; Chen, Chih

    2013-05-01

    2-Dimensional (2-D) TiO2 thin films and 1-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated on Si and quartz substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD) with an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template at 400 °C. The film thickness and the tube wall thickness can be precisely controlled using the ALD approach. The intensities of the absorption spectra were enhanced by an increase in the thickness of the TiO2 thin film and tube walls. A blue-shift was observed for a decrease in the 1-D and 2-D TiO2 nanostructure thicknesses, indicating a change in the energy band gap with the change in the size of the TiO2 nanostructures. Indirect and direct interband transitions were used to investigate the change in the energy band gap. The results indicate that both quantum confinement and interband transitions should be considered when the sizes of 1-D and 2-D TiO2 nanostructures are less than 10 nm.

  15. Tin dioxide nanostructured thin films obtained through polymeric precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antônio Dal Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 nanostructured thin films with low proportion of defects and low roughness were produced through the systematic control of temperature and viscosity of the precursor solutions used for thin films deposition. These solutions were obtained through the citrate method and the films were deposited through the ‘dip-coating’ technique on glass substrate and after thermal treatment at 470ºC/4h, they were characterized both structurally and morphologically through the X-ray diffractometry, optic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray excited photoelectrons spectroscopy. The film thickness was obtained through scanning electronic microscopy of the films cross-section and correlated to the proportion of Sn and Si obtained through X-ray fluorescence. X-ray diffractometry of the films revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to the SnO2 crystalline phase, overlapping a wide peak between 20 and 30º (2?, characteristic of the glass substrate. Optic microscopy, Scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed homogeneous films, with low roughness, suitable to several applications such as sensors and transparent electrodes. It could be observed through the UV-Vis absorption analysis that the films presented high optical transparency and ‘band gap’ energy 4.36 eV. The X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of SnO2, as well as traces of the elements present in the glass substrate and residual carbon from the thermal treatment of the films.

  16. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-01

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope "5"7Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  17. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-15

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope {sup 57}Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  18. Photocatalytic Study of New Immobilized TiO2 Technique Towards Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on TiO2 for wastewater remediation has gained interest among researchers. However, the application of this photocatalyst is limited due to non-recyclability of conventional TiO2. Thus, immobilization technique has been developed to solve this issue. Hence, a comparison study between two types of immobilized photocatalysts namely titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA has been conducted in this work to observe the significant effect of PVA polymer in photocatalysis reaction of reactive red 4 (RR4 dye. Double sided adhesive tape (DSAT was used as thin layer binder in this immobilization system. The result shows that the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-PVA/DSAT was higher than that of TiO2/DSAT under both normal UV and visible light irradiations due to the conjugated unsaturated polymer from PVA serve as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Besides, TiO2-PVA/DSAT was also found to possess much better adhesion strength to the support material compared to TiO2/DSAT. Based on the findings, this TiO2 immobilization system is expected to be beneficial in the industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, further study to improve the photocatalytic activity of this immobilized TiO2 will be in our future work.

  19. Love Wave Ultraviolet Photodetector Fabricated on a TiO2/ST-Cut Quartz Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Water

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A TiO2 thin film deposited on a 90° rotated 42°45′ ST-cut quartz substrate was applied to fabricate a Love wave ultraviolet photodetector. TiO2 thin films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structure and surface morphology of TiO2 thin films were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The effect of TiO2 thin film thickness on the phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient, temperature coefficient of frequency, and sensitivity of ultraviolet of devices was investigated. TiO2 thin film increases the electromechanical coupling coefficient but decreases the temperature coefficient of frequency for Love wave propagation on the 90° rotated 42°45′ ST-cut quartz. For Love wave ultraviolet photodetector application, the maximum insertion loss shift and phase shift are 2.81 dB and 3.55 degree at the 1.35-μm-thick TiO2 film.

  20. Versatile preparation method for mesoporous TiO2 electrodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    cyanate into CuI layer further enhanced the efficiency up to 2⋅75% under the irradiance .... an extremely easy way to dope films with virtually any .... to see the effect of ionic liquid on CuI, 1-ethyl-3-methyl- ... This analysis showed that TiO2 electrodes were polycrys- .... thin insulating layer of Al2O3 by using dip-coating meth-.

  1. RHEED transmission mode and pole figures thin film and nanostructure texture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental principle of electron diffraction, basic instrumentation of RHEED, definitions of textures in thin films and nanostructures, mechanisms and control of texture formation, and examples of RHEED transmission mode measurements of texture and texture evolution of thin films and nanostructures. Also presented is a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode called RHEED pole figure technique that can be used to monitor the texture evolution in thin film growth and nanostructures and is not limited to single crystal epitaxial film growth. Details of the construction of RHEED pole figures and the interpretation of observed pole figures are presented.  Materials covered include metals, semiconductors, and thin insulators. This book also: Presents a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode Introduces a variety of textures from metals, semiconductors, compound semiconductors, and their characteristics in RHEED pole figures Provides examples of RHEED measurements o...

  2. New TiO2/DSAT Immobilization System for Photodegradation of Anionic and Cationic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Izhan Nawawi Wan Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new immobilized TiO2 technique was prepared by coating TiO2 solution onto double-sided adhesive tape (DSAT as a thin layer binder without adding any organic additives. Glass plate was used as support material to immobilized TiO2/DSAT. Two different charges of dyes were applied, namely, anionic reactive red 4 (RR4 and cationic methylene blue (MB dyes. Photocatalytic degradation of RR4 and MB dyes was observed under immobilized TiO2/DSAT with the degradation rate slightly lower and higher, respectively, compared with TiO2 in suspension mode. It was observed that DSAT is able to provide a very strong intact between glass and TiO2 layers thus making the reusability of immobilized TiO2/DSAT be up to 30 cycles. In fact, a better photodegradation activity was observed by number of cycles due to increasing formation of pores on TiO2 surface observed by SEM analysis.

  3. Recent advances in ZnO nanostructures and thin films for biosensor applications: Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, Sunil K.; Saha, Shibu; Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E.; Gupta, Vinay; Bhansali, Shekhar; Singh, Surinder P.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanostructures have shown binding of biomolecules in desired orientation with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, their compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes them suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films, and their applications in biosensor technology. Highlights: ► This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films. ► Article highlights the importance of ZnO nanostructures as biosensor matrix. ► Article highlights the advances in various biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures. ► Article describes the potential of ZnO based biosensor for new generation healthcare devices. - Abstract: Biosensors have shown great potential for health care and environmental monitoring. The performance of biosensors depends on their components, among which the matrix material, i.e., the layer between the recognition layer of biomolecule and transducer, plays a crucial role in defining the stability, sensitivity and shelf-life of a biosensor. Recently, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and thin films have attracted much interest as materials for biosensors due to their biocompatibility, chemical stability, high isoelectric point, electrochemical activity, high electron mobility, ease of synthesis by diverse methods and high surface-to-volume ratio. ZnO nanostructures have shown the binding of biomolecules in desired orientations with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes ZnO nanostructures suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review

  4. Recent advances in ZnO nanostructures and thin films for biosensor applications: Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, Sunil K., E-mail: sunilarya333@gmail.com [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, A-Star 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Saha, Shibu [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E. [Engineering Science and Materials Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (United States); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Bhansali, Shekhar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Singh, Surinder P., E-mail: singh.uprm@gmail.com [National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2012-08-06

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanostructures have shown binding of biomolecules in desired orientation with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, their compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes them suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films, and their applications in biosensor technology. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article highlights the importance of ZnO nanostructures as biosensor matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article highlights the advances in various biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article describes the potential of ZnO based biosensor for new generation healthcare devices. - Abstract: Biosensors have shown great potential for health care and environmental monitoring. The performance of biosensors depends on their components, among which the matrix material, i.e., the layer between the recognition layer of biomolecule and transducer, plays a crucial role in defining the stability, sensitivity and shelf-life of a biosensor. Recently, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and thin films have attracted much interest as materials for biosensors due to their biocompatibility, chemical stability, high isoelectric point, electrochemical activity, high electron mobility, ease of synthesis by diverse methods and high surface-to-volume ratio. ZnO nanostructures have shown the binding of biomolecules in desired orientations with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes Zn

  5. Amine functionalized TiO2-carbon nanotube composite: synthesis, characterization and application to glucose biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasviri, Mahboubeh; Rafiee-Pour, Hossain-Ali; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2011-12-01

    The synthesis of amine functionalized TiO2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NH2-TiO2-CNTs) using sol-gel method was investigated. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized with XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, BET test and SEM imaging. The results demonstrated a unique nanostructure with no destruction of the CNTs' shape. In addition, the presence of amine groups on the composite surface was confirmed by FTIR. This nanocomposite was used for one-step immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) to sense glucose. The result of cyclic voltammetry showed a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible peaks for direct electron transfer of GOx in the absence of glucose. Also, the result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that GOx was successfully immobilized on the surface of NH2-TiO2-CNTs. Furthermore, good amperometric response showed that immobilized GOx on the NH2-TiO2-CNTs exhibits exceptional bioelectrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation.

  6. Decolorization of dyeing wastewater in continuous photoreactors using tio2 coated glass tube media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with a decolorization development of malachite green (MG dyeing wastewater using TiO2 thin films coated glass tube media in photoreactor. The TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by three methods: TTIP sol-gel, TiO2 powder-modified sol, and TiO2 powder suspension coating on raschig ring glass tube media and was investigated crystallinity phase by SEM, XRD, and AFM. Degradation kinetics of the dyeing wastewater by photocatalytic was carried out under UV light irradiation. The Langmuir first-order model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The catalyst prepared by powder suspension technique and coated on glass tube had given the highest of decolorization kinetics and efficiency. Continuous photoreactor packed with the TiO2 coating media was designed and proven to be the high effectiveness for MG dyeing degradation and stable throughout the recyclability test. The light intensity, dye solution flow rate, and TiO2 loading were the most important parameters that response to decolorization efficiency. The optimum condition of photo decolorization of MG dye solution can be obtained from RSM model. Effectiveness of the synthesized TiO2 thin films using suspension technique and the continuous photoreactor design were obtained with a great potential to be proven for wastewater treatment at industrial scale.

  7. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Azhar, N. E. I.; Uzer, M.; Mamat, M. H. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, N. D. Md. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, Kampus Pasir Gudang, 81750 Masai, Johor (Malaysia); Saurdi, I. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak, Kampus Kota Samarahan Jalan Meranek, Sarawak (Malaysia); Shuhaimi, A. [Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University ofMalaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A. [Research Chair of Targeting and Treatment Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Department Of Biochemistry, College Of Science, King Saud University, P.O: 2454 Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    CH{sub 4} gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  8. TiO2 Nanorod Arrays Based Self-Powered UV Photodetector: Heterojunction with NiO Nanoflakes and Enhanced UV Photoresponse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanyan; Xu, Jianping; Shi, Shaobo; Dong, Hong; Cheng, Yahui; Wei, Chengtai; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yin, Shougen; Li, Lan

    2018-04-04

    The self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs) have attracted increasing attention due to their potential applications without consuming any external power. It is important to obtain the high-performance self-powered UV PDs by a simple method for the practical application. Herein, TiO 2 nanorod arrays (NRs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method, which were integrated with p-type NiO nanoflakes to realize a high performance pn heterojunction for the efficient UV photodetection. TiO x thin film can improve the morphological and carrier transport properties of TiO 2 NRs and decrease the surface and defect states, resulting in the enhanced photocurrent of the devices. NiO/TiO 2 nanostructural heterojunctions show excellent rectifying characteristics (rectification ratio of 2.52 × 10 4 and 1.45 × 10 5 for NiO/TiO 2 NRs and NiO/TiO 2 NRs/TiO x , respectively) with a very low reverse saturation current. The PDs based on the heterojunctions exhibit good spectral selectivity, high photoresponsivity, and fast response and recovery speeds without external applied bias under the weak light radiation. The devices demonstrate good stability and repeatability under UV light radiation. The self-powered performance could be attributed to the proper built-in electric field of the heterojunction. TiO 2 NRs and NiO nanoflakes construct the well-aligned energy-band structure. The enhanced responsivity and detectivity for the devices with TiO x thin films is related to the increased interfacial charge separation efficiency, reduced carrier recombination, and relatively good electron transport of TiO 2 NRs.

  9. Photocorrosion Mechanism of TiO2-Coated Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Didden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition was used to coat CdS photoanodes with 7 nm thick TiO2 films to protect them from photocorrosion during photoelectrochemical water splitting. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the TiO2 coating does not provide full protection against photocorrosion. The degradation of the film initiates from small pinholes and shows oscillatory behavior that can be explained by an Avrami-type model for photocorrosion that is halfway between 2D and 3D etching. XPS analysis of corroded films indicates that a thin layer of CdS remains present on the surface of the corroded photoanode that is more resilient towards photocorrosion.

  10. TiO2 Nanotubes Supported NiW Hydrodesulphurization Catalysts: Characterization and Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palcheva, R.; Dimitrov, L.; Tyuliev, G.; Spojakina, A.; Jirátová, Květa

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 265, JAN 15 (2013), s. 309-313 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : nano-structured TiO2 * NiW catalysts * XPS Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013

  11. Enhanced Absorption in Organic Thin-Films from Imprinted Concave Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a rapid, replicable method for imprinting concave nanostructures to be used as functional light-trapping nanostructures in organic thin-films is presented. Porous anodic alumina templates were fabricated both by anodization of thick Al foils and by anodization of submicrometer thin Al...... patterns and used for imprinting of spin coated photoresist on glass substrates. We have investigated semi-periodic and aperiodic imprinted large concave patterns fabricated from rigid masters after anodization of Al in H3PO4. We show that metal covered imprinted concaves show enhancement in absorption...

  12. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained

  13. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained

  14. Relationships among surface processing at the nanometer scale, nanostructure and optical properties of thin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria

    2004-05-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the optical properties of nanostructured semiconductor oxide thin films. Various examples of models for the dielectric function, based on Lorentzian oscillators combined with the Drude model, are given based on the band structure of the analyzed oxide. With this approach, the optical properties of thin films are determined independent of the dielectric functions of the corresponding bulk materials, and correlation between the optical properties and nanostructure of thin films is investigated. In particular, in order to discuss the dependence of optical constants on grain size, CeO{sub 2} nanostructured films are considered and parameterized by two-Lorentzian oscillators or two-Tauc-Lorentz model depending on the nanostructure and oxygen deficiency. The correlation among anisotropy, crystalline fraction and optical properties parameterized by a four-Lorentz oscillator model is discussed for nanocrystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. Indium tin oxide thin films are discussed as an example of the presence of graded optical properties related to interfacial reactivity activated by processing conditions. Finally, the example of ZnO shows the potential of ellipsometry in discerning crystal and epitaxial film polarity through the analysis of spectra and the detection of surface reactivity of the two polar faces, i.e. Zn-polarity and O-polarity.

  15. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Photocatalysis of Au/Pt-decorated TiO2 Nanopillar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Shuang; Lv, Ruitao; Xie, Zheng; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-05-01

    The low quantum yields and lack of visible light utilization hinder the practical application of TiO2 in high-performance photocatalysis. Herein, we present a design of TiO2 nanopillar arrays (NPAs) decorated with both Au and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) directly synthesized through successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) at room temperature. Au/Pt NPs with sizes of ~4 nm are well-dispersed on the TiO2 NPAs as evidenced by electron microscopic analyses. The present design of Au/Pt co-decoration on the TiO2 NPAs shows much higher visible and ultraviolet (UV) light absorption response, which leads to remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities on both the dye degradation and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. Its photocatalytic reaction efficiency is 21 and 13 times higher than that of pure TiO2 sample under UV-vis and visible light, respectively. This great enhancement can be attributed to the synergy of electron-sink function of Pt and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au NPs, which significantly improves charge separation of photoexcited TiO2. Our studies demonstrate that through rational design of composite nanostructures one can harvest visible light through the SPR effect to enhance the photocatalytic activities initiated by UV-light, and thus realize more effectively utilization of the whole solar spectrum for energy conversion.

  16. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface nanostructuring of sputtered platinum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Ainara, E-mail: airodriguez@ceit.es [CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Morant-Miñana, Maria Carmen; Dias-Ponte, Antonio; Martínez-Calderón, Miguel; Gómez-Aranzadi, Mikel; Olaizola, Santiago M. [CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser-induced surface nanostructures on sputtered platinum thin films. • Three types of structures obtained: random nanostructures, LSFL and HSFL. • Two different modification regimes have been established based on laser fluence. - Abstract: In this work, submicro and nanostructures self-formed on the surface of Platinum thin films under femtosecond laser-pulse irradiation are investigated. A Ti:Sapphire laser system was used to linearly scan 15 mm lines with 100 fs pulses at a central wavelength of 800 nm with a 1 kHz repetition rate. The resulting structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 2D-Fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT) analysis. This analysis of images revealed different types of structures depending on the laser irradiation parameters: random nanostructures, low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL) with a periodicity from about 450 to 600 nm, and high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL) with a periodicity from about 80 to 200 nm. Two different modifications regimes have been established for the formation of nanostructures: (a) a high-fluence regime in which random nanostructures and LSFL are obtained and (b) a low-fluence regime in which HSFL and LSFL are obtained.

  17. Enhanced photoelectrochemical efficiency and stability using a conformal TiO2 film on a black silicon photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanhao; Zhang, Zheng; Yin, Xin; Kvit, Alexander; Liao, Qingliang; Kang, Zhuo; Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xudong

    2017-06-01

    Black silicon (b-Si) is a surface-nanostructured Si with extremely efficient light absorption capability and is therefore of interest for solar energy conversion. However, intense charge recombination and low electrochemical stability limit the use of b-Si in photoelectrochemical solar-fuel production. Here we report that a conformal, ultrathin, amorphous TiO2 film deposited by low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of b-Si can simultaneously address both of these issues. Combined with a Co(OH)2 thin film as the oxygen evolution catalyst, this b-Si/TiO2/Co(OH)2 heterostructured photoanode was able to produce a saturated photocurrent density of 32.3 mA cm-2 at an external potential of 1.48 V versus reversible reference electrode (RHE) in 1 M NaOH electrolyte. The enhanced photocurrent relative to planar Si and unprotected b-Si photoelectrodes was attributed to the enhanced charge separation efficiency as a result of the effective passivation of defective sites on the b-Si surface. The 8-nm ALD TiO2 layer extends the operational lifetime of b-Si from less than half an hour to four hours.

  18. Growth of α-sexithiophene nanostructures on C60 thin film layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Madsen, Morten; Balzer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Organic molecular beam grown -sexithiophene (-6T) forms nanostructured thin films on buckminsterfullerene (C60) thin film layers. At substrate temperatures of 300K during growth a rough continuous film is observed, which develop to larger elongated islands and dendritic- as well as needle like ...... fluorescence polarimetry measurements the in-plane orientation of the crystalline sites within the needle like structures is determined. The polarimetry investigations strongly indicate that the needle like structures consist of lying molecules....

  19. Broadband THz pulse emission and transmission properties of nanostructured Pt thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Mingzhe [Department of Physics and Electronics, Liupanshui Normal University, Liupanshui, Guizhou 553004 (China); College of Electronics and Information, Guizhou University, Huaxi 550025, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Mu, Kaijun; Zhang, Cunlin [Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Yuquan Road 100082, Beijing (China); Gu, Haoshuang, E-mail: guhs@hubu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Sci& Tech, Hubei University, Xueyuan Road 430062, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Ding, Zhao [College of Electronics and Information, Guizhou University, Huaxi 550025, Guiyang, Guizhou (China)

    2015-10-01

    The THz transmission and emitting properties of a composite metallic nanostructure, composed of Ag nanowires electrodeposited in an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and a Pt thin film, were investigated by using a femtosecond pulse laser irradiation. The microstructure of the above sub-wavelength nanostructure was investigated by XRD, SEM, AFM and TEM. The results indicated that the thickness of the Pt thin film was about 200 nm and the Ag nanowire array had a sparse and random distribution inside the AAO template, with a length distribution in the range of 10–25 μm. The THz radiation properties of above sub-wavelength nanostructure indicated that the generated THz fluence from the Pt film was a magnitude of μW scale with a broadband frequency range and its subsequent transmission could be significantly improved by the better impedance matching property of the Ag nanowire embedded AAO film compared with that of the empty AAO film.

  20. MnSi nanostructures obtained from epitaxially grown thin films: magnetotransport and Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, D.; Steinki, N.; Schilling, M.; Fernández Scarioni, A.; Krzysteczko, P.; Dziomba, T.; Schumacher, H. W.; Menzel, D.; Süllow, S.

    2018-06-01

    We present a comparative study of the (magneto)transport properties, including Hall effect, of bulk, epitaxially grown thin film and nanostructured MnSi. In order to set our results in relation to published data we extensively characterize our materials, this way establishing a comparatively good sample quality. Our analysis reveals that in particular for thin film and nanostructured material, there are extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the electronic transport properties, which by modeling the data we separate out. Finally, we discuss our Hall effect data of nanostructured MnSi under consideration of the extrinsic contributions and with respect to the question of the detection of a topological Hall effect in a skyrmionic lattice.

  1. Tuning the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids by tungsten doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haiping; Liao, Jianhua; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Wang, Zhuyi; Shi, Liyi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were prepared by hydrothermal methods. • The properties of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids can be tuned by tungsten doping. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher stability and dispersity. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The effects of tungsten doping on the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were investigated. The nanostructure, chemical state of Ti, W, O, and the properties of tungsten doped TiO 2 samples were investigated carefully by TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis, PL and photocatalytic degradation experiments. And the structure–activity relationship was discussed according to the analysis and measurement results. The analysis results reveal that the morphology, zeta potential and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be easily tuned by changing the tungsten doping concentration. The tungsten doped TiO 2 colloid combines the characters of high dispersity and high photocatalytic activity

  2. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagul, Sagar B., E-mail: nano.sbbagul@gmail.com; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal, E-mail: rps.phy@gmail.com [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (India)

    2016-05-06

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  3. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  4. Fabrication of TiO_2-modified polytetrafluoroethylene ultrafiltration membranes via plasma-enhanced surface graft pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yingjia; Chi, Lina; Zhou, Weili; Yu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Zhenjia; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multifunctional TiO_2/PAA/PTFE ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated via tight coating of TiO_2 functional layer onto the plasma-assisted graft of PAA on PTFE. • The high water flux rate, remarkable enhanced ultrafiltration performance and excellent self-cleaning ability were demonstrated. • The formation of COO−Ti bidentate coordination between TiO_2 and PAA was responsible for the successful coating. - Abstract: Surface hydrophilic modification of polymer ultrafiltration membrane using metal oxide represents an effective yet highly challenging solution to improve water flux and antifouling performance. Via plasma-enhanced graft of poly acryl acid (PAA) prior to coating TiO_2, we successfully fixed TiO_2 functional thin layer on super hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The characterization results evidenced TiO_2 attached on the PTFE-based UF membranes through the chelating bidentate coordination between surface-grafted carboxyl group and Ti"4"+. The TiO_2 surface modification may greatly reduce the water contact angle from 115.8° of the PTFE membrane to 35.0° without degradation in 30-day continuous filtration operations. The novel TiO_2/PAA/PTFE membranes also exhibited excellent antifouling and self-cleaning performance due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity and photocatalysis properties of TiO_2, which was further confirmed by the photo-degradation of MB under Xe lamp irradiation.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of thin-transparent nanostructured films for surface protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, S.; Sokullu, E.; Barberio, M.; Gauthier, M. A.; Antici, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates that very thin and optically transparent nanocomposite films can be conveniently applied on surface materials, displaying potent antibacterial properties without affecting the aesthetics of the underlying material. In our approach we propose new composite materials, which ensure the surface protection by inactivating the bacteria before a biofilm can be formed. The films contain very small loadings of TiO2, graphene, or fullerene, and can easily be applied on large surfaces using conventional brushes or air-brushes. These nanocomposite films are very promising candidates for the preservation of statues, mosaics, floors, buildings, and other objects that are exposed to challenging environmental conditions such as Architectonical Heritage or building materials (materials featuring stone, pigments, bronze, granite, marble, and glass).

  6. Optical studies of cobalt implanted rutile TiO2 (110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Shalik Ram; Padmanabhan, B.; Chanda, Anupama; Mishra, Indrani; Malik, V.K.; Mishra, N.C.; Kanjilal, D.; Varma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The present study displays formation of nanostructures after Co implantation on TiO 2 surfaces. • Preferential sputtering leads to the creation of oxygen vacancies on the surface. • A large enhancement in visible light absorbance (nearly 5 times compared to pristine) is observed. • Creation of self-organized nanostructures and Ti 3+ oxygen vacancies promote photoabsorption. • Formation of Co-nanoclusters and Co–Ti–O phase play concerted role in enhancing photo-absorption. - Abstract: Present study investigates the photoabsorption properties of single crystal rutile TiO 2 (110) surfaces after they have been implanted with low fluences of cobalt ions. The surfaces, after implantation, demonstrate fabrication of nanostructures and anisotropic nano-ripple patterns. Creation of oxygen vacancies (Ti 3+ states), development of cobalt nano-clusters as well as band gap modifications have also been observed. Results presented here demonstrate that fabrication of self organized nanostructures, upon implantation, along with the development of oxygen vacancies and ligand field transitions of cobalt ion promote the enhancement of photo-absorbance in both UV (∼2 times) and visible (∼5 times) regimes. These investigations on nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces can be important for photo-catalysis.

  7. Photocatalytic activity of self-assembled porous TiO2 nano-columns array fabricated by oblique angle sputter deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengjun; Li, Xibo; Zhang, Qiuju; Yi, Zao; Luo, Jiangshan

    2018-04-01

    A well-separated and oriented TiO2 nano-columns arrays with porous structure were fabricated by the oblique angle sputter deposition technique and subsequently annealing at 450 °C in Ar/O2 mixed atmosphere. The deposited substrate was firstly modified by a template of self-assembled close-packed arrays of 500 nm-diameter silica (SiO2) spheres. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) images show that the porous columnar nanostructure is formed as a result of the geometric shadowing effect and surface diffusion of the adatoms in oblique angle deposition (OAD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements reveal that the physically OAD film with annealing treatment are generally mixed phase of rutile and anatase TiO2 polymorphic forms. The morphology induced absorbance and band gap tuning by different substrates was demonstrated by the UV–vis spectroscopy. The well-separated one-dimensional (1D) nano-columns array with specific large porous surface area is beneficial for charge separation in photocatalytic degradation. Compared with compact thin film, such self-assembled porous TiO2 nano-columns array fabricated by oblique angle sputter deposition performed an enhanced visible light induced photocatalytic activity by decomposing methyl orange (MO) solution. The well-designed periodic array-structured porous TiO2 films by using modified patterned substrates has been demonstrated significantly increased absorption edge in the UV-visible light region with a narrower optical band gap, which are expected to be favorable for application in photovoltaic, lithium-ion insertion and photocatalytic, etc.

  8. Comparative analysis of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) having different nanocrystalline TiO2 layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcade, Fresnel; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Vigil, Elena; Jennings, James R.; Duna, Halina; Wang, Hongxia; Peter, Laurence M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are very prospective because of their low cost and comparatively not so low efficiency. This represents an advantage together with the innocuous character of the constituent materials. We study different types of DSSC. The procedure for making them has been the same except for the TiO 2 layer structure. This layer must be porous and nanocrystalline in order to increase light absorption by the sensitizer. On the other hand, this condition causes that the electrolyte contacts the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) underneath the TiO 2 originating undesired recombinations. Also the electrical contact of the Tio to the TCO depends on the technology used to deposit the TiO 2 . In order to avoid possible leakage currents caused by recombinations from the TCO to the electrolyte and improve TiO 2 -TCO electrical contact, a thin TiO 2 film is placed in between the porous TiO 2 layer and the TCO. Different structures are obtained using different technologies to obtain the thin TiO 2 film. These structures are analyzed from their volt-amperic characteristic, external quantum efficiency spectra and voltage decay observed when light is suppressed. Results obtained allow making recommendations regarding nanocrystalline TiO 2 structure to be used in DSSC. (author)

  9. Kingfisher feathers - colouration by pigments, spongy nanostructures and thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Tinbergen, Jan; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of the common kingfisher, Alcedo atthis, reside in the barbs of the three main types of feather: the orange breast feathers, the cyan back feathers and the blue tail feathers. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the orange barbs contain small pigment granules. The cyan and blue barbs contain spongy nanostructures with slightly different dimensions, causing different reflectance spectra. Imaging scatterometry showed that the pigmented barbs create a diffuse orange scattering a...

  10. Characterization of nanostructured photosensitive cadmium sulphide thin films grown by SILAR deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Bargal, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of photosensitive nanostructured CdS thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature. To obtain good quality CdS thin films, preparative conditions such as concentration of cationic and anionic precursors, adsorption and rinsing time durations etc. are optimized. The structural, optical and electrical characterizations of the as-deposited and annealed CdS thin films were carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption and electrical resistivity methods. The photoconductivity studies showed that the annealed films are more than that photosensitive. The TEP measurement shows that deposited films are of n-type. (author)

  11. Facile Synthesis of Novel Nanostructured MnO2Thin Films and Their Application in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanostructured α-MnO2thin films with different morphologies are grown on the platinum substrates by a facile solution method without any assistance of template or surfactant. Microstructural characterization reveals that morphology evolution from dandelion-like spheres to nanoflakes of the as-grown MnO2is controlled by synthesis temperature. The capacitive behavior of the MnO2thin films with different morphologies are studied by cyclic voltammetry. The α-MnO2thin films composed of dandelion-like spheres exhibit high specific capacitance, good rate capability, and excellent long-term cycling stability.

  12. Controllable preparation of TiO2 nanowire arrays on titanium mesh for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenwu; Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 nanowire arrays with controlled morphology and density have been synthesized on Ti mesh substrates by hydrothermal approach for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells which showed well photovoltaic efficiency of 3.42%. - Highlights: • Flexible titanium mesh was first used for hydrothermal preparation of TiO 2 NWAs. • The formation mechanism of the TiO 2 nanostructures was discussed. • The density, average diameter, and morphology of TiO 2 NWAs can be controlled. • The effects of the sensitization temperature and time on the properties were studied. - Abstract: TiO 2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) with an average diameter of 80 nm have been successfully synthesized on titanium (Ti) mesh substrates via hydrothermal method. The effects of preparing conditions such as concentration of NaOH solution, reaction time, and hydrothermal temperature on the growth of TiO 2 nanoarrays and its related photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photovoltaic properties test. The growth mechanism of the Ti mesh-supported TiO 2 nanostructures was discussed in detail. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to determine the optimized temperature and time of the dye sensitized process for the flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is demonstrated that hydrothermal parameters had obvious influence on the morphology and growth density of the as-prepared TiO 2 nanoarrays. In addition, the performance of the flexible DSSC depended strongly on the sensitization temperature and time. By utilizing Ti mesh-supported TiO 2 NWAs (with a length of about 14 μm) as a photoanode, the flexible DSSC with a short circuit current density of 10.49 mA cm −2 , an open-circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.42% was achieved

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF LITHIUM LANTHANUM TITANATE THIN FILMS MADE BY ELECTRON BEAM EVAPORATION FROM NANOSTRUCTURED La0.67-xLi 3xTiO3 TARGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nang Dinh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk nanostructured perovskites of La0.67-xLi3xTiO3 (LLTO were prepared by using thermally ball-grinding from compounds of La2O3, Li2CO3 and TiO2. From XRD analysis, it was found that LTTO materials were crystallized with nano-size grains of an average size of 30 nm. The bulk ionic conductivity was found strongly dependent on the Li+ composition, the samples with x = 0.11 (corresponding to a La0.56Li0.33TiO3 compound have the best ionic conductivity, which is ca. 3.2 x 10-3 S/cm at room temperature. The LLTO amorphous films were made by electron beam deposition. At room temperature the smooth films have ionic conductivity of 3.5 x 10-5  S/cm and transmittance of 80%. The optical bandgap of the films was found to be of 2.3 eV. The results have shown that the perovskite La0.56Li0.33TiO3  thin films can be used for a transparent solid electrolyte in ionic battery and in all-solid-state electrochromic devices, in particular.

  14. Structural properties of TiO2 nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusior, Anna; Banas, Joanna; Trenczek-Zajac, Anita; Zubrzycka, Paulina; Micek-Ilnicka, Anna; Radecka, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The surface of solids is characterized by active, energy-rich sites that determine physicochemical interaction with gaseous and liquid media and possible applications in photocatalysis. The behavior of materials in such processes is related to their form and amount of various species, especially water and forms of oxygen adsorbed on the surface. The preparation of materials with controlled morphology, which includes modifications of the size, geometry, and composition, is currently an important way of optimizing properties, as many of them depend on not only the size and phase composition, but also on shape. Hydroxylated centers on the surface, which can be treated as trapping sites, are particularly significant. Water adsorbed on the surface bridging hydroxyl groups can distinctly modulate the properties of the surface of titania. The saturation of the surface with hydroxyl groups may improve the photocatalytic properties. TiO2 nanomaterials were obtained via different methods. SEM and TEM analysis were performed to study the morphology. The analysis of XRD and Raman data revealed a phase composition of obtained materials. To examine the surface properties, FTIR absorption spectra of TiO2 nanomaterials were recorded. The photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was investigated through the decomposition of methylene blue. It was demonstrated that each surface modification affects the amount of adsorbed hydroxyl groups. The different contributions of the two species to the ν(H2O) FTIR bands for different nanostructures result from the preparation conditions. It was noted that pre-adsorbed water (the surface-bridging hydroxyl) might significantly modulate the surface properties of the material. The increase in hydroxyl group density on the titanium dioxide surface enhances the effectiveness of the photocatalytic processes. It was demonstrated that flower-like titania obtained via hydrothermal synthesis exhibits the weakest catalytic activity, in

  15. Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured CsPbBr3 perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikova, A. A.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Andronov, A. A.; Sokolov, V. S.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured perovskites cesium lead halide thin films is described. The method of deposition is based on alternate immersion of the substrate in the precursor solutions or colloidal solution of nanocrystals and methyl acetate/lead nitrate solution using the device for deposition of films by SILAR and dip-coating techniques. An example of obtaining a photosensitive structure based on nanostructures of ZnO nanowires and layers of CsBbBr3 nanocrystals is also shown.

  16. Selective growth of ZnO thin film nanostructures: Structure, morphology and tunable optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakanth, Katturi Naga; Sunandana, C. S. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Rajesh, Desapogu, E-mail: rajesh.esapogu@gmail.com, E-mail: mperd@nus.edu.sg [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-23

    The ZnO nanostructures (spherical, rod shape) have been successfully fabricated via a thermal evaporation followed by dip coating method. The pure, doped ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the spherical, rod shape ZnO nanostructures are discussed. XRD patterns revealed that all films consist of pure ZnO phase and were well crystallized with preferential orientation towards (002) direction. Doping by PVA, PVA+Cu has effective role in the enhancement of the crystalline quality and increases in the band gap.

  17. Preparation of sol-gel TiO2/purified Na-bentonite composites and their photovoltaic application for natural dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saelim, Ni-on; Magaraphan, Rathanawan; Sreethawong, Thammanoon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Natural dye from red cabbage was successfully employed in DSSC. → A fast sol-gel method to produce TiO 2 /clay thin film was proposed. → The sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay was applied as the scattering layer on top of TiO 2 electrode. → Thicker sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay electrode showed higher DSSC efficiency. - Abstract: The sol-gel TiO 2 /purified natural clay electrodes having Ti:Si molar ratios of 95:5 and 90:10 were initially prepared, sensitized with natural red cabbage dye, and compared to the sol-gel TiO 2 electrode in terms of physicochemical characteristics and solar cell efficiency. The results showed that the increase in purified Na-bentonite content greatly increased the specific surface area and total pore volume of the prepared sol-gel TiO 2 /purified Na-bentonite composites because the clay platelets prevented TiO 2 particle agglomeration. The sol-gel TiO 2 /5 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite and sol-gel TiO 2 /10 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite composites could increase the film thickness of solar cells without cracking when they were coated as a scattering layer on the TiO 2 semiconductor-based film, leading to increasing the efficiency of the natural dye-sensitized solar cells in this work.

  18. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiue-Hsyan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-porous TiO2 thin films have been widely used as the working electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In this work, the phase-pure anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2 and rutile TiO2 (r-TiO2 have been prepared using hydrothermal processes. The investigation of photo-to-electron conversion efficiency of DSSCs fabricated from mixed-TiO2 with a-TiO2 and r-TiO2 ratio of 80 : 20 (A8R2 was performed and compared to that from commercial TiO2 (DP-25. The results showed higher efficiency of DSSC for A8R2 cells with same dependence of cell efficiency on the film thickness for both A8R2 and DP-25 cells. The best efficiency obtained in this work is 5.2% from A8R2 cell with TiO2 film thickness of 12.0 μm. The correlation between the TiO2 films thickness and photoelectron chemical properties of DSSCs fabricated from A8R2 and DP-25 was compared and discussed.

  19. Low-temperature preparation and microwave photocatalytic activity study of TiO2-mounted activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yazi; Yang Shaogui; Hong Jun; Sun Cheng

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films were deposited on granular activated carbon by a dip-coating method at low temperature (373 K), using microwave radiation to enhance the crystallization of titania nanoparticles. Uniform and continuous anatase titania films were deposited on the surface of activated carbon. BET surface area of TiO 2 -mounted activated carbon (TiO 2 /AC) decreased a little in comparison with activated carbon. TiO 2 /AC possessed strong optical absorption capacity with a band gap absorption edge around 360 nm. The photocatalytic activity did not increase when the as-synthesized TiO 2 /AC was thermally treated, but was much higher than commercial P-25 in degradation of phenol by irradiation of electrodeless discharge lamps (EDLs)

  20. Photocatalytic activity of galvanically synthesized nanostructure SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Sumanta, E-mail: sumantajana85@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Mitra, Bibhas Chandra [Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Bera, Pulakesh [Department of Chemistry, Panskura Banamali College, Purba Medinipur, Panskura 721152, WB (India); Sikdar, Moushumi [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Mondal, Anup, E-mail: anupmondal2000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India)

    2014-07-25

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured porous tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films have been synthesized by simple and cost effective galvanic technique. The synthesized porous SnO{sub 2} thin films show excellent photocatalytic activity for degrading methyl orange (MO) dye under light irradiation. The porous morphological grain growth due to annealing is likely to play an active role for this degradation. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} thin films have been successfully synthesized by galvanic technique. • A drastic morphological change occurs after annealing as deposited SnO{sub 2} thin films. • Morphological advantage results enhanced photodegradation of dye. - Abstract: The study demonstrates an approach to synthesize nanostructure SnO{sub 2} thin films on TCO (transparent conducting oxide) coated glass substrates by galvanic technique. Aqueous solution of hydrated stannic chloride (SnCl{sub 4}⋅5H{sub 2}O) in potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) solution was used as the working solution. The process involves no sophisticated reactor or toxic chemicals, and proceeds continuously under ambient condition; it provides an economic way of synthesizing nanostructure SnO{sub 2} semiconductor thin films. The influence of sintering temperature on crystalline structure, morphology, electrical and dielectric properties has been studied. A detail analysis of I−V, C−V and dielectrics for annealed SnO{sub 2} thin films have been carried out. The morphological advantage i.e. nanoporous flake like structure allows more efficient transport of reactant molecules to the active interfaces and results a strong photocatalytic activity for degrading methyl orange (MO) dye.

  1. Guided aggregation of three-dimensional nanostructures in stressed thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Qiwei; Bassani, John L; Lou, Yucun

    2012-01-01

    Stress fields induced by external loads can alter the energy landscape in alloy systems and direct precipitation to form organized nanostructures. The aggregation of periodically patterned nanostructures via surface indentation on thin films is investigated using a phase-field model, which includes chemical, interfacial and elastic energies coupled with externally imposed stress fields. Both cylindrical and spherical indenters are considered, which lead to the formation of nanorods and nanodots, respectively, in the film, and the effects of loading geometry and material properties are systematically studied through 3D simulations. Nanostructures can be formed with varying precipitate morphologies. The results are shown to be consistent with estimates of elastic interaction energies associated with transformation strain, contrast in elastic properties and external loading. (paper)

  2. Black metal thin films by deposition on dielectric antireflective moth-eye nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Caringal, Gideon Peter; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    2015-01-01

    Although metals are commonly shiny and highly reflective, we here show that thin metal films appear black when deposited on a dielectric with antireflective moth-eye nanostructures. The nanostructures were tapered and close-packed, with heights in the range 300-600 nm, and a lateral, spatial...... frequency in the range 5-7 mu m(-1). A reflectance in the visible spectrum as low as 6%, and an absorbance of 90% was observed for an Al film of 100 nm thickness. Corresponding experiments on a planar film yielded 80% reflectance and 20% absorbance. The observed absorbance enhancement is attributed...... to a gradient effect causing the metal film to be antireflective, analogous to the mechanism in dielectrics and semiconductors. We find that the investigated nanostructures have too large spatial frequency to facilitate efficient coupling to the otherwise non-radiating surface plasmons. Applications...

  3. Surface modification of cadmium sulfide thin film honey comb nanostructures: Effect of in situ tin doping using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.C., E-mail: wilsonphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Polytechnic College Kothamangalam, Chelad P O, Ernakulam, Kerala 686681 (India); Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India); Basheer Ahamed, M. [Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel honey comb like cadmium sulfide thin film nanostructures prepared using chemical bath deposition on glass substrates. • Honey comb nanostructure found in two layers: an ultra thin film at bottom and well inter connected with walls of < 25 nm thick on top; hence maximum surface area possible for CdS nanostructure. • Shell size of the nanostructures and energy band gaps were controlled also an enhanced persistent conductivity observed on Sn doping. - Abstract: Even though nanostructures possess large surface to volume ratio compared to their thin film counterpart, the complicated procedure that demands for the deposition on a substrate kept them back foot in device fabrication techniques. In this work, a honey comb like cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films nanostructure are deposited on glass substrates using simple chemical bath deposition technique at 65 °C. Energy band gaps, film thickness and shell size of the honey comb nanostructures are successfully controlled using tin (Sn) doping and number of shells per unit area is found to be maximum for 5% Sn doped (in the reaction mixture) sample. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption analysis showed that cadmium sulfide and cadmium hydroxide coexist in the samples. TEM measurements showed that CdS nanostructures are embedded in cadmium hydroxide just like “plum pudding”. Persistent photoconductivity measurements of the samples are also carried out. The decay constants found to be increased with increases in Sn doping.

  4. Core–shell TiO2 microsphere with enhanced photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hong; Tian, Dongxue; Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Yapeng; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Xiangjun

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic hollow core–shell spheres have attracted considerable interest due to their singular properties and wide range of potential applications. Herein a novel facile generic strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare core–void–shell anatase TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregates with an excellent photocatalytic activity, and enhanced lithium storage in large quantities. Amorphous carbon can be loaded on the TiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly under a suitably formulated ethanol/water system in the solvothermal alcoholysis process, and the subsequent calcination results of the formation of core–shell–shell anatase TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregates. The intrinsic core–void–shell nature as well as high porosity of the unique nanostructures contributes greatly to the superior photocatalytic activity and improved performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: A novel strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare unique core–void–shell anatase TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage. Highlights: ► TiO 2 mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. ► It is core–void–shell structure and the thickness of shell is estimated to 80 nm. ► It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

  5. Interconnected TiO2 Nanowire Networks for PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method for the fabrication of an interconnected porous TiO2 nanostructured film via dip coating in a colloidal suspension of ultrathin TiO2 nanowires followed by high-temperature annealing. The spheroidization of the nanowires and the fusing of the loosely packed nanowire films at the contact points lead to the formation of nanopores. Using this interconnected TiO2 nanowire network for electron transport, a PbS/TiO2 heterojunction solar cell with a large short-circuit current of 2.5 mA/cm2, a Voc of 0.6 V, and a power conversion efficiency of 5.4% is achieved under 8.5 mW/cm2 white light illumination. Compared to conventional planar TiO2 film structures, these results suggest superior electron transport properties while still providing the large interfacial area between PbS quantum dots and TiO2 required for efficient exciton dissociation.

  6. Three-dimensional TiO2/Au nanoparticles for plasmon enhanced photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianyu; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Wang, Zhenlin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms of plasmonic nanostructures assisted photocatalytic processes are fundamental and of great importance and interest for decades. Therefore, we adopt a unique porous structure of three-dimensional TiO2/Au nanoparticles to experimentally explore the potential mechanisms of rhodamine B (RhB) based photocatalytic degradation. The highly efficient absorbance measured across the entire ultraviolet and infrared regions shows the broadband light harvesting capability and photocatalytic activity, in which the direct bandgap transition, plasmon sensitization as well as the plasmonic photothermal effect can be beneficial for the photocatalytic reaction. The RhB photocatalytic degradation experiments were conducted systematically under solar irradiance with finely chosen optical filters. Apart from the ultraviolet-driven degradation of TiO2, the plasmon assisted photocatalytic rate of our TiO2/Au structure can be enhanced by >30% as compared to the referenced TiO2 structure (equivalent to 2-4 times promotion with respect to the same quantity of the active material TiO2). Detailed wavelength-dependent analyses have revealed that the visible-driven degradation rate can be enhanced by 10 times because of the plasmon sensitization effect; while infrared-driven degradation rate is enhanced by 4 times as well for the plasmonic photothermal effect, respectively. Our experimental results may provide a clear understanding for the wavelength-dependent plasmon enhanced photocatalytic processes.

  7. CdSxSe1−x alloyed quantum dots-sensitized solar cells based on different architectures of anodic oxidation TiO2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen; Yu, Libo; Liu, Yingbo; Sun, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured TiO 2 translucent films with different architectures including TiO 2 nanotube (NT), TiO 2 nanowire (NW), and TiO 2 nanowire/nanotube (NW/NT) have been produced by second electrochemical oxidization of TiO 2 NT with diameter around 90–110 nm via modulation of applied voltage. These TiO 2 architectures are sensitized with CdS x Se 1−x alloyed quantum dots (QDs) in sizes of around 3–5 nm aiming to tune the response of the photoelectrochemical properties in the visible region. One-step hydrothermal method facilitates the deposition of CdS x Se 1−x QDs onto TiO 2 films. These CdS x Se 1−x QDs exhibit a tunable range of light absorption with changing the feed molar ratio of S:Se in precursor solution, and inject electrons into TiO 2 films upon excitation with visible light, enabling their application as photosensitizers in sensitized solar cells. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.00, 1.72, and 1.06 % are achieved with CdS x Se 1−x (obtained with S:Se = 0:4) alloyed QDs sensitized solar cells based on TiO 2 NW/NT, TiO 2 NW, and TiO 2 NT architectures, respectively. The significant enhancement of power conversion efficiency obtained with the CdS x Se 1−x /TiO 2 NW/NT solar cell can be attributed to the extended absorption of light region tuned by CdS x Se 1−x alloyed QDs and enlarged deposition of QDs and efficient electrons transport provided by TiO 2 NW/NT architecture

  8. EGFET pH Sensor Performance Dependence on Sputtered TiO2 Sensing Membrane Deposition Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Aimi Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were sputtered by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method and have been employed as the sensing membrane of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET for pH sensing detection application. The TiO2 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrates at room temperature and 200°C, respectively. The effect of deposition temperature on thin film properties and pH detection application was analyzed. The TiO2 samples used as the sensing membrane for EGFET pH-sensor and the current-voltage (I-V, hysteresis, and drift characteristics were examined. The sensitivity of TiO2 EGFET sensing membrane was obtained from the transfer characteristic (I-V curves for different substrate heating temperatures. TiO2 thin film sputtered at room temperature achieved higher sensitivity of 59.89 mV/pH compared to the one deposited at 200°C indicating lower sensitivity of 37.60 mV/pH. Moreover the hysteresis and the drift of TiO2 thin film deposited at room temperature showed lower values compared to the one at 200°C. We have also tested the effect of operating temperature on the performance of the EGFET pH-sensing and found that the temperature effect was very minimal.

  9. Pt Catalyst Supported within TiO2 Mesoporous Films for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dekang; Zhang, Bingyan; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Yibo; Wittstock, Gunther; Wang, Mingkui; Shen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dispersed Pt nanoparticles into mesoporous TiO 2 thin films are fabricated by a facile electrochemical deposition method as electro-catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction. The mesoporous TiO 2 thin films coated on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by screen printing allow a facile transport of reactants and products. The structural properties of the resulted Pt/TiO 2 electrode are evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry measurements are performed to study the electrochemical properties of the Pt/TiO 2 electrode. Further study demonstrates the stability of the Pt catalyst supported within TiO 2 mesoporous films for the oxygen reduction reaction

  10. Influences of Stacking Architectures of TiO2 Nanoparticle Layers on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers on characteristics and performances of DSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles of different sizes and compositions were characterized for their morphological and optical/scattering properties in thin films. They were used to construct different stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers for use as working electrodes of DSSCs. Characteristics and performances of DSSCs were examined to establish correlation of the stacking architectures of TiO2 nanoparticle layers with characteristics of DSSCs. The results suggest that the three-layer DSSC architecture, with sandwiching a 20 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer between a 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer and a hundred nm sized TiO2 back scattering/reflection layer, is effective in enhancing DSSC efficiencies. The high-total-transmittance 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer with a larger haze can serve as an effective front scattering layer to scatter a portion of the incident light into larger oblique angles and therefore increase optical paths and absorption.

  11. A fast-reliable methodology to estimate the concentration of rutile or anatase phases of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Zanatta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium-dioxide (TiO2 is a low-cost, chemically inert material that became the basis of many modern applications ranging from, for example, cosmetics to photovoltaics. TiO2 exists in three different crystal phases − Rutile, Anatase and, less commonly, Brookite − and, in most of the cases, the presence or relative amount of these phases are essential to decide the TiO2 final application and its related efficiency. Traditionally, X-ray diffraction has been chosen to study TiO2 and provides both the phases identification and the Rutile-to-Anatase ratio. Similar information can be achieved from Raman scattering spectroscopy that, additionally, is versatile and involves rather simple instrumentation. Motivated by these aspects this work took into account various TiO2 Rutile+Anatase powder mixtures and their corresponding Raman spectra. Essentially, the method described here was based upon the fact that the Rutile and Anatase crystal phases have distinctive phonon features, and therefore, the composition of the TiO2 mixtures can be readily assessed from their Raman spectra. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the suitability of Raman spectroscopy in estimating the concentration of Rutile or Anatase in TiO2 and is expected to influence the study of TiO2-related thin films, interfaces, systems with reduced dimensions, and devices like photocatalytic and solar cells.

  12. Ion induced segregation in gold nanostructured thin films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, J.; Satyam, P.V.

    2008-01-01

    We report a direct observation of segregation of gold atoms to the near surface regime due to 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion impact on isolated gold nanostructures deposited on silicon. Irradiation at fluences of 6 x 10 13 , 1 x 10 14 and 5 x 10 14 ions cm -2 at a high beam flux of 6.3 x 10 12 ions cm -2 s -1 show a maximum transported distance of gold atoms into the silicon substrate to be 60, 45 and 23 nm, respectively. At a lower fluence (6 x 10 13 ions cm -2 ) transport has been found to be associated with the formation of gold silicide (Au 5 Si 2 ). At a high fluence value of 5 x 10 14 ions cm -2 , disassociation of gold silicide and out-diffusion lead to the segregation of gold to defect - rich surface and interface regions.

  13. PLD prepared nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} thin films containing ionic platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorokhta, M., E-mail: vorohtam@gmail.com [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Khalakhan, I.; Matolínová, I.; Nováková, J.; Haviar, S. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Lančok, J.; Novotný, M. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague, Czhech Republic (Czech Republic); Yoshikawa, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Matolín, V. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} thin catalyst films were grown on plasma etched and non-etched carbon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. • The surface composition of the nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} films was investigated by surface analysis techniques. • The effect of film roughening was separated from the effect of platinum-ceria atomic interactions. - Abstract: The composition of nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} films on graphite substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition has been investigated by means of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The influence of morphology of the graphite substrates was investigated with respect to the relative concentrations of ionic and metallic Pt species in the films. It was found that the degree of Pt{sup 2+} enrichment is directly related to the surface morphology of graphite substrates. In particular, the deposition of Pt-CeO{sub 2} films on rough graphite substrate etched in oxygen plasma yielded nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} catalyst films with high surface area and high Pt{sup 2+}/Pt{sup 0} ratio. The presented results demonstrate that PLD is a suitable method for the preparation of thin Pt-CeO{sub 2} catalyst films for fuel cell applications.

  14. Physical properties of chemical vapour deposited nanostructured carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, D.B.; Shinde, S.S.; Bhosale, C.H.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: In the present paper, nanostructured carbon films are grown using a natural precursor 'turpentine oil (C 10 H 16 )' as a carbon source in the simple thermal chemical vapour deposition method. The influence of substrate surface topography (viz. stainless steel, fluorine doped tin oxide coated quartz) and temperature on the evolution of carbon allotropes surfaces topography/microstructural and structural properties are investigated and discussed. - Abstract: A simple thermal chemical vapour deposition technique is employed for the deposition of carbon films by pyrolysing the natural precursor 'turpentine oil' on to the stainless steel (SS) and FTO coated quartz substrates at higher temperatures (700-1100 deg. C). In this work, we have studied the influence of substrate and deposition temperature on the evolution of structural and morphological properties of nanostructured carbon films. The films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD study reveals that the films are polycrystalline exhibiting hexagonal and face-centered cubic structures on SS and FTO coated glass substrates respectively. SEM images show the porous and agglomerated surface of the films. Deposited carbon films show the hydrophobic nature. FTIR study displays C-H and O-H stretching vibration modes in the films. Raman analysis shows that, high ID/IG for FTO substrate confirms the dominance of sp 3 bonds with diamond phase and less for SS shows graphitization effect with dominant sp 2 bonds. It reveals the difference in local microstructure of carbon deposits leading to variation in contact angle and hardness, which is ascribed to difference in the packing density of carbon films, as observed also by Raman.

  15. Mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) with hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures: formation mechanism and highly enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Li-Hua; Rooke, Joanna Claire; Deng, Zhao; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Shao-Zhuan; Wang, Li; Li, Yu; Krief, Alain; Su, Bao-Lian

    2013-03-15

    Mesoporous TiO(2) with a hierarchically 3D dendrimeric nanostructure comprised of nanoribbon building units has been synthesized via a spontaneous self-formation process from various titanium alkoxides. These hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures can be obtained by a very facile, template-free method, by simply dropping a titanium butoxide precursor into methanol solution. The novel configuration of the mesoporous TiO(2) nanostructure in nanoribbon building units yields a high surface area. The calcined samples show significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and degradation rates owing to the mesoporosity and their improved crystallinity after calcination. Furthermore, the 3D dendrimeric architectures can be preserved after phase transformation from amorphous TiO(2) to anatase or rutile, which occurs during calcination. In addition, the spontaneous self-formation process of mesoporous TiO(2) with hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures from the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of titanium butoxide in methanol has been followed by in situ optical microscopy (OM), revealing the secret on the formation of hierarchically 3D dendrimeric nanostructures. Moreover, mesoporous TiO(2) nanostructures with similar hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures can also be obtained using other titanium alkoxides. The porosities and nanostructures of the resultant products were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, and N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements. The present work provides a facile and reproducible method for the synthesis of novel mesoporous TiO(2) nanoarchitectures, which in turn could herald the fabrication of more efficient photocatalysts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tantalum coating on TiO2 nanotubes induces superior rate of matrix mineralization and osteofunctionality in human osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, Christine J.; Brammer, Karla S.; Noh, Kunbae; Johnston, Gary; Jin, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured surface geometries have been the focus of a multitude of recent biomaterial research, and exciting findings have been published. However, only a few publications have directly compared nanostructures of various surface chemistries. The work herein directly compares the response of human osteoblast cells to surfaces of identical nanotube geometries with two well-known orthopedic biomaterials: titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and tantalum (Ta). The results reveal that the Ta surface chemistry on the nanotube architecture enhances alkaline phosphatase activity, and promotes a ∼ 30% faster rate of matrix mineralization and bone-nodule formation when compared to results on bare TiO 2 nanotubes. This study implies that unique combinations of surface chemistry and nanostructure may influence cell behavior due to distinctive physico-chemical properties. These findings are of paramount importance to the orthopedics field for understanding cell behavior in response to subtle alterations in nanostructure and surface chemistry, and will enable further insight into the complex manipulation of biomaterial surfaces. With increased focus in the field of orthopedic materials research on nanostructured surfaces, this study emphasizes the need for careful and systematic review of variations in surface chemistry in concurrence with nanotopographical changes. - Highlights: • A TiO 2 nanotube surface structure was coated with tantalum. • Osteoblast cell response was compared between the tantalum coated and as-formed TiO 2 nanotube surface. • We observed superior rates of bone matrix mineralization and osteoblast maturation on the tantalum coated nanotube surface

  17. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  18. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  19. Influence of annealing temperature on the nanostructure TiO2-SnO2 prepared by electron gun method on the glass substrate and the aluminum/glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Beigmohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  TiO2-SnO2 thin films were coated on glass and Al / glass substrates by electron gun method. In coating process, the vacuum was 1.5×10-5 torr. Then, films were annealed at 450, 500 and 550 ˚ C. The crystallographic structure and film morphology were investigated by means of XRD and SEM. The electrical (I-V and optical properties were studied by the two point props system and UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometer. The results showed the films under 550 ˚ C were crystalline. The thickness and grain size were 350 and 50 nm respectively. The electrical conductivity in the sample with Al / glass substrate under 550 ˚ C was better than the other samples. When temperature increased, the energy gap decreased from 4.05 to 4.03 eV for direct cases.

  20. Highly piezoelectric BaTiO3 nanorod bundle arrays using epitaxially grown TiO2 nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Min; Yang, Su Chul

    2018-06-01

    Low-dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoribbons and nanosheets have been developed for potential applications as energy harvesters, tunable sensors, functional transducers and low-power actuators. In this study, lead-free BaTiO 3 nanorod bundle arrays (NBA) with highly piezoelectric properties were successfully synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate via a two-step process consisting of TiO2 epitaxial growth and BaTiO3 conversion. Through the TiO2 epitaxial growth on FTO substrate, (001) oriented TiO2 nanostructures formed vertically-aligned NBA with a bundle diameter of 80 nm and an aspect ratio of six. In particular, chemical etching of the TiO2 NBA was conducted to enlarge the surface area for effective Ba2+ ion diffusion during the perovskite conversion process from TiO2 to BaTiO3. The final structure of perovskite BaTiO3 NBA was found to exhibit a feasible piezoelectric response of 3.56 nm with a clear phase change of 180° from the single BaTiO3 bundle, by point piezoelectric forced microscopy (PFM) analysis. Consequently, highly piezoelectric NBA could be a promising nanostructure for various nanoscale electronic devices.

  1. Highly piezoelectric BaTiO3 nanorod bundle arrays using epitaxially grown TiO2 nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Min; Yang, Su Chul

    2018-06-08

    Low-dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoribbons and nanosheets have been developed for potential applications as energy harvesters, tunable sensors, functional transducers and low-power actuators. In this study, lead-free BaTiO 3 nanorod bundle arrays (NBA) with highly piezoelectric properties were successfully synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate via a two-step process consisting of TiO 2 epitaxial growth and BaTiO 3 conversion. Through the TiO 2 epitaxial growth on FTO substrate, (001) oriented TiO 2 nanostructures formed vertically-aligned NBA with a bundle diameter of 80 nm and an aspect ratio of six. In particular, chemical etching of the TiO 2 NBA was conducted to enlarge the surface area for effective Ba 2+ ion diffusion during the perovskite conversion process from TiO 2 to BaTiO 3 . The final structure of perovskite BaTiO 3 NBA was found to exhibit a feasible piezoelectric response of 3.56 nm with a clear phase change of 180° from the single BaTiO 3 bundle, by point piezoelectric forced microscopy (PFM) analysis. Consequently, highly piezoelectric NBA could be a promising nanostructure for various nanoscale electronic devices.

  2. Facile fabrication of robust TiO2@SnO2@C hollow nanobelts for outstanding lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinghua; Li, Lingxiangyu; Chen, Jizhang; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2018-02-01

    Elaborate fabrication of state-of-the-art nanostructure SnO2@C-based composites greatly contributes to alleviate the huge volume expansion issue of the SnO2 anodes. But the preparation processes of most of them are complicated and tedious, which is generally adverse to the development of SnO2@C-based composite anodes. Herein, a unique nanostructure of TiO2@SnO2@C hollow nanobelts (TiO2@SnO2@C HNBs), including the characteristics of one-dimensional architecture, sandwich protection, hollow structure, carbon coating, and a mechanically robust TiO2 support, has been fabricated by a facile approach for the first time. As anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the as-fabricated TiO2@SnO2@C HNBs exhibit an outstanding lithium storage performance, delivering capacity of 804.6 and 384. 5 mAh g-1 at 200 and even 1000 mA g-1 after 500 cycles, respectively. It is demonstrated that thus outstanding performance is mainly attributed to the unique nanostructure of TiO2@SnO2@C HNBs.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H.; Kinge, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO 2 layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10 −2  A W −1 and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10 9  Jones at 1530 nm wavelength

  4. Preparation and solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 composites: TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Three TiO2 loaded composites, TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite, were prepared in order to improve the solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity could obviously be enhanced by loading appropriate amount of inorganic mineral materials. Meanwhile, TiO2 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the photocatalytic activity were reviewed. Otherwise, the effect of solar light irradiation time and dye concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red B was investigated. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism and adsorption process were also discussed.

  5. A highly selective and wide range ammonia sensor—Nanostructured ZnO:Co thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Ganesh Kumar; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cobalt doped nanostructured ZnO thin films were spray deposited on glass substrates. • Co-doped ZnO film was highly selective towards ammonia than ethanol, methanol, etc. • The range of ammonia detection was improved significantly by doping cobalt in ZnO. - Abstract: Ammonia sensing characteristics of undoped and cobalt (Co)-doped nanostructured ZnO thin films were investigated. Polycrystalline nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure and high crystalline quality with dominant (0 0 2) plane orientation of Co-doped ZnO film were confirmed by the X-ray diffractogram. Scanning electron micrographs of the undoped film demonstrated the uniform deposition of sphere-shaped grains. But, smaller particles with no clear grain boundaries were observed for Co-doped ZnO thin film. Band gap values were found to be 3.26 eV and 3.22 eV for undoped and Co-doped ZnO thin films. Ammonia sensing characteristics of Co-doped ZnO film at room temperature were investigated in the concentration range of 15–1000 ppm. Variation in the sensing performances of Co-doped and pure ZnO thin films has been analyzed and compared

  6. Hydrogen Gas Sensing Characteristics of Nanostructured NiO Thin Films Synthesized by SILAR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Irmak; Çorlu, Tugba; Yıldırım, M. Ali; Ateş, Aytunç; Acar, Selim

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructured NiO thin films have been synthesized by a facile, low-cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, and the effects of the film thickness on their hydrogen gas sensing properties investigated. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The XRD results revealed that the crystallinity improved with increasing thickness, exhibiting polycrystalline structure. SEM studies showed that all the films covered the glass substrate well. According to optical absorption measurements, the optical bandgap decreased with increasing film thickness. The gas sensing properties of the nanostructured NiO thin films were studied as a function of operating temperature and gas concentration. The samples showed good sensing performance of H2 gas with high response. The maximum response was 75% at operating temperature of 200°C for hydrogen gas concentration of 40 ppm. These results demonstrate that nanostructured NiO thin films synthesized by the SILAR method have potential for application in hydrogen detection.

  7. New roots to formation of nanostructures on glass surface through anodic oxidation of sputtered aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Inoue, Song-Zhu Chu, Kenji Wada, Di Li and Hajime Haneda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New processes for the preparation of nanostructure on glass surfaces have been developed through anodic oxidation of sputtered aluminum. Aluminum thin film sputtered on a tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin film on a glass surface was converted into alumina by anodic oxidation. The anodic alumina gave nanometer size pore array standing vertically on the glass surface. Kinds of acids used in the anodic oxidation changed the pore size drastically. The employment of phosphoric acid solution gave several tens nanometer size pores. Oxalic acid cases produced a few tens nanometer size pores and sulfuric acid solution provided a few nanometer size pores. The number of pores in a unit area could be changed with varying the applied voltage in the anodization and the pore sizes could be increased by phosphoric acid etching. The specimen consisting of a glass substrate with the alumina nanostructures on the surface could transmit UV and visible light. An etched specimen was dipped in a TiO2 sol solution, resulting in the impregnation of TiO2 sol into the pores of alumina layer. The TiO2 sol was heated at ~400 °C for 2 h, converting into anatase phase TiO2. The specimens possessing TiO2 film on the pore wall were transparent to the light in UV–Visible region. The electro deposition technique was applied to the introduction of Ni metal into pores, giving Ni nanorod array on the glass surface. The removal of the barrier layer alumina at the bottom of the pores was necessary to attain smooth electro deposition of Ni. The photo catalytic function of the specimens possessing TiO2 nanotube array was investigated in the decomposition of acetaldehyde gas under the irradiation of UV light, showing that the rate of the decomposition was quite large.

  8. Synchrotron X-ray studies of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Jeffrey A.

    The study of ferroelectric thin films is a field of considerable scientific and technological interest. In this dissertation synchrotron x-ray techniques were applied to examine the effects of lateral confinement and epitaxial strain in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures. Three materials systems were investigated: laterally confined epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures on SrTiO3 (001), ultra-thin commensurate SrTiO 3 films on Si (001), and coherently strained films of BaTiO3 on DyScO3 (110). Epitaxial films of BiFeO3 were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO 3 (001) substrates. Laterally confined nanostructures were fabricated using focused ion-beam processing and subsequently characterized with focused beam x-ray nanodiffraction measurements with unprecedented spatial resolution. Results from a series of rectangular nanostructures with lateral dimensions between 500 nm and 1 mum and a comparably-sized region of the unpatterned BiFeO3 film revealed qualitatively similar distributions of local strain and lattice rotation with a 2-3 times larger magnitude of variation observed in those of the nanostructures compared to the unpatterned film. This indicates that lateral confinement leads to enhanced variation in the local strain and lattice rotation fields in epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures. A commensurate 2 nm thick film of SrTiO3 on Si was characterized by the x-ray standing wave (XSW) technique to determine the Sr and Ti cation positions in the strained unit cell in order to verify strain-induced ferroelectricity in SrTiO3/Si. A Si (004) XSW measurement at 10°C indicated that the average Ti displacement from the midpoint between Sr planes was consistent in magnitude to that predicted by a density functional theory (DFT) calculated ferroelectric structure. The Ti displacement determined from a 35°C measurement better matched a DFT-predicted nonpolar structure. The thin film extension of the XSW technique was employed to

  9. High cyclability of carbon-coated TiO2 nanoparticles as anode for sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Yeqian; Jiang, Han; Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Hu, Yi; Qiu, Yiping; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Titanium oxide nanopaticles were modified by carbon coating from pyrolyzing of PVP. • Carbon coating gave rise to excellent cycling ability of TiO 2 for sodium-ion batteries. • The reversible capacity of carbon-coated TiO 2 reached 242.3 mAh g −1 at 30 mA g −1 . • Good rate performance of carbon-coated TiO 2 was presented up to 800 mA g −1 . - Abstract: Owing to the merits of good chemical stability, elemental abundance and nontoxicity, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has drawn increasing attraction for use as anode material in sodium-ion batteries. Nanostructured TiO 2 was able to achieve high energy density. However, nanosized TiO 2 is typically electrochemical instable, which leads to poor cycling performance. In order to improve the cycling stability, carbon from thermolysis of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) was coated onto TiO 2 nanoparticles. Electronic conductivity and electrochemical stability were enhanced by coating carbon onto TiO 2 nanoparticles. The resultant carbon-coated TiO 2 nanoparticles exhibited high reversible capacity (242.3 mAh g −1 ), high coulombic efficiency (97.8%), and good capacity retention (87.0%) at 30 mA g −1 over 100 cycles. By comparison, untreated TiO 2 nanoparticles showed comparable reversible capacity (237.3 mAh g −1 ) and coulombic efficiency (96.2%), but poor capacity retention (53.2%) under the same condition. The rate performance of carbon-coated TiO 2 nanoparticles was also displayed as high as 127.6 mAh g −1 at a current density of 800 mA g −1 . The improved cycling performance and rate capability were mostly attributed to protective carbon layer helping stablize solid electrolyte interface formation of TiO 2 nanoparticles and improving the electronic conductivity. Therefore, it is demonstrated that carbon-coated TiO 2 nanoparticles are promising anode candidate for sodium-ion batteries

  10. Significance of a Noble Metal Nanolayer on the UV and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Grown from a Scalable PECVD/PVD Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Quesada-Gonzalez, Miguel; Bonot, Sébastien; Collard, Delphine; Boscher, Nicolas D; Choquet, Patrick

    2017-11-29

    UV and visible light photocatalytic composite Pt and Au-TiO 2 coatings have been deposited on silicon and glass substrates at low temperature using a hybrid ECWR-PECVD/MS-PVD process. Methylene blue, stearic acid, and sulfamethoxazole were used as dye, organic, and antibiotic model pollutants, respectively, to demonstrate the efficiency of these nanocomposite coatings for water decontamination or self-cleaning surfaces applications. Raman investigations revealed the formation of anatase polymorph of TiO 2 in all synthesized coatings with a shifting of the main vibrational mode peak to higher wavenumber in the case of Au-TiO 2 coating, indicating an increase number of crystalline defects within this coating. Because of the difference of the chemical potentials of each of the investigated noble metals, the sputtered metal layers exhibit different morphology. Pt sputtered atoms, with high surface adhesion, promote formation of a smooth 2D layer. On the other hand, Au sputtered atoms with higher cohesive forces promote the formation of 5-10 nm nanoparticles. As a result, the surface plasmon resonance phenomenon was observed in the Au-TiO 2 coatings. UV photoactivity of the nanocomposite coatings was enhanced 1.5-3 times and 1.3 times for methylene blue and stearic acid, respectively, thanks to the enhancement of electron trapping in the noble metal layer. This electron trapping phenomenon is higher in the Pt-TiO 2 coating because of its larger work function. On the other hand, the enhancement of the visible photoactivity was more pronounced (3 and 7 times for methylene blue and stearic acid, respectively) in the case of Au-TiO 2 thanks to the surface plasmon resonance. Finally, these nanocomposite TiO 2 coatings exhibited also a good ability for the degradation of antibiotics usually found in wastewater such as sulfamethoxazole. However, a complementary test have showed an increase of the toxicity of the liquid medium after photocatalysis, which could be due the presence of sulfamethoxazole's transformation byproducts.

  11. Using TiO2 as a Conductive Protective Layer for Photocathodic H2 Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas; Laursen, Anders Bo

    2013-01-01

    Surface passivation is a general issue for Si-based photoelectrodes because it progressively hinders electron conduction at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. In this work, we show that a sputtered 100 nm TiO2 layer on top of a thin Ti metal layer may be used to protect an n+p Si photocatho...

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet by thiourea-doped TiO2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimisation of the photocatalytic behaviour of crystal violet (CV) by thiourea (Tu)-codoped TiO2 thin film in fixed bed photoreactor was investigated by central composite designs (CCDs). The effective variables were pH, the concentration of CV dye, flow rate and reaction time. The results of the CCD model ...

  13. Electrochemical Characterization of TiO 2 Blocking Layers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kavan, Ladislav; Té treault, Nicolas; Moehl, Thomas; Grä tzel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Thin compact layers of TiO2 are grown by thermal oxidation of Ti, by spray pyrolysis, by electrochemical deposition, and by atomic layer deposition. These layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells to prevent recombination of electrons from

  14. Multifunctional Roles of TiO 2 Nanoparticles for Architecture of Complex Core−Shells and Hollow Spheres of SiO 2 −TiO 2 −Polyaniline System

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Dan Ping

    2009-10-27

    Nanoparticles are often used as seeds to grow one-dimensional nanomaterials or as core materials to prepare core-shell nanostructures. On the other hand, the presynthesized inorganic nanoparticles can also be used as starting building blocks to prepare inorganic-polymer nanocomposites. In this work, we explore the roles of metal-oxide nanoparticles (anatase TiO2) in the area of constructional synthesis of highly complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanostructures comprising SiO2, TiO2, and polyaniline (PAN). In particular, multifunctional roles of oleate-surfactant-protected TiO2 nanoparticles have been revealed in this study: they provide starting sites for polymerization of aniline on the surface of SiO2 mesospheres; they land on the inner surface of polyaniline shell to form a secondary material phase; they work as initial crystalline seeds for homogeneous growth of interior TiO2 shell; and they serve as primary nanobuilding blocks to form exterior TiO2 shell on the polyaniline via self-assembly. With the assistance of the TiO2 nanoparticles, a total of six complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanocomposites (SiO 2/TiO2, SiO2/TiO2/PAN, SiO 2/TiO2/PAN/TiO2, TiO2/PAN, TiO 2/PAN/TiO2, and TiO2/TiO2) have been made in this work through controlled self-assembly, templating growth, polymerization, and homogeneous seeded growth. Applicability of these nanostructures in photocatalytic applications has also been demonstrated by our preliminary investigations. The easy separation of used catalysts after reaction seems to be advantageous because of relatively large external diameters of the lightweight nanocomposites. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  15. Dispersions of geometric TiO2 nanomaterials and their toxicity to RPMI 2650 nasal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Trevor B.; Kerr, Lei L.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Schlager, John J.; Hussain, Saber M.

    2014-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) based nanofilaments—nanotube, nanowire, nanorod—have gained interest for industrial, electrical, and as of recent, medical applications due to their superior performance over TiO2 nanoparticles. Safety assessment of these nanomaterials is critical to protect workers, patients, and bystanders as these technologies become widely implemented. Additionally, TiO2 based nanofilaments can easily be inhaled by humans and their high aspect ratio, much like asbestos fibers, may make them toxic in the respiratory system. The tendency of TiO2 nanofilaments to aggregate makes evaluating their nanotoxicity difficult and the results controversial, because incomplete dispersion results in larger particle sizes that are no longer in the nano dimensional size range. TiO2 nanofilaments are aggregated and difficult to disperse homogeneously in solution by conventional methods, such as sonication and vortexing. In this study, a microfluidic device was utilized to produce stable, homogeneous dosing solutions necessary for in vitro toxicity evaluation by eliminating any toxicity caused by aggregated TiO2 nanomaterials. The toxicity results could then be directly correlated to the TiO2 nanostructure itself. The toxicity of four TiO2 nanogeometries—nanotube, nanowire, nanorod, and nanoparticle—were assessed in RPMI 2650 human nasal epithelial cells at representative day, week, and month in vitro exposure dosages of 10, 50, 100 μg/ml, respectively. All TiO2 based nanomaterials dispersed by the microfluidic method were nontoxic to RPMI 2650 cells at the concentrations tested, whereas higher concentrations of 100 μg/ml of nanowires and nanotubes dispersed by sonication reduced viability up to 27 %, indicating that in vitro toxicity results may be controlled by the dispersion of dosing solutions.

  16. Preparation and characterization of photocatalytic performance of hierarchical heterogeneous nanostructured ZnO/TiO2 films made by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Phuc Quy; Vu Thi Hanh Thu

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to enhance photocatalytic properties and anti-Ecoli bacteria abilities of TiO 2 thin films; hierarchical heterogeneous nanostructured ZnO/TiO 2 (HN s ) films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. The obtained results showed that both the photocatalytic performance and anti-Ecoli bacteria ability of HN s films exhibited enhancement in comparison with standard TiO 2 films. This enhancement was explained due to the reduction of the electron - hole recombination and the red shift of absorption edge of the HNs films. (author)

  17. Carbon and oxide nanostructures. Synthesis, characterisation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorhana [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Fundamental and Applied Sciences

    2010-07-01

    This volume covers all aspects of carbon and oxide based nanostructured materials. The topics include synthesis, characterization and application of carbon-based namely carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres, fullerenes, carbon filled composites etc. In addition, metal oxides namely, ZnO, TiO2, Fe2O3, ferrites, garnets etc., for various applications like sensors, solar cells, transformers, antennas, catalysts, batteries, lubricants, are presented. The book also includes the modeling of oxide and carbon based nanomaterials. The book covers the topics: - Synthesis, characterization and application of carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres, fullerenes - Synthesis, characterization and application of oxide based nanomaterials. - Nanostructured magnetic and electric materials and their applications. - Nanostructured materials for petro-chemical industry. - Oxide and carbon based thin films for electronics and sustainable energy. - Theory, calculations and modeling of nanostructured materials. (orig.)

  18. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.co [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Nataraj, D. [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India)

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  19. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  20. 3D visualization of the internal nanostructure of polyamide thin films in RO membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pacheco Oreamuno, Federico

    2015-11-02

    The front and back surfaces of fully aromatic polyamide thin films isolated from reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were characterized by TEM, SEM and AFM. The front surfaces were relatively rough showing polyamide protuberances of different sizes and shapes; the back surfaces were all consistently smoother with very similar granular textures formed by polyamide nodules of 20–50 nm. Occasional pore openings of approximately the same size as the nodules were observed on the back surfaces. Because traditional microscopic imaging techniques provide limited information about the internal morphology of the thin films, TEM tomography was used to create detailed 3D visualizations that allowed the examination of any section of the thin film volume. These tomograms confirmed the existence of numerous voids within the thin films and revealed structural characteristics that support the water permeance difference between brackish water (BWRO) and seawater (SWRO) RO membranes. Consistent with a higher water permeance, the thin film of the BWRO membrane ESPA3 contained relatively more voids and thinner sections of polyamide than the SWRO membrane SWC3. According to the tomograms, most voids originate near the back surface and many extend all the way to the front surface shaping the polyamide protuberances. Although it is possible for the internal voids to be connected to the outside through the pore openings on the back surface, it was verified that some of these voids comprise nanobubbles that are completely encapsulated by polyamide. TEM tomography is a powerful technique for investigating the internal nanostructure of polyamide thin films. A comprehensive knowledge of the nanostructural distribution of voids and polyamide sections within the thin film may lead to a better understanding of mass transport and rejection mechanisms in RO membranes.

  1. 3D visualization of the internal nanostructure of polyamide thin films in RO membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pacheco Oreamuno, Federico; Sougrat, Rachid; Reinhard, Martin; Leckie, James O.; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The front and back surfaces of fully aromatic polyamide thin films isolated from reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were characterized by TEM, SEM and AFM. The front surfaces were relatively rough showing polyamide protuberances of different sizes and shapes; the back surfaces were all consistently smoother with very similar granular textures formed by polyamide nodules of 20–50 nm. Occasional pore openings of approximately the same size as the nodules were observed on the back surfaces. Because traditional microscopic imaging techniques provide limited information about the internal morphology of the thin films, TEM tomography was used to create detailed 3D visualizations that allowed the examination of any section of the thin film volume. These tomograms confirmed the existence of numerous voids within the thin films and revealed structural characteristics that support the water permeance difference between brackish water (BWRO) and seawater (SWRO) RO membranes. Consistent with a higher water permeance, the thin film of the BWRO membrane ESPA3 contained relatively more voids and thinner sections of polyamide than the SWRO membrane SWC3. According to the tomograms, most voids originate near the back surface and many extend all the way to the front surface shaping the polyamide protuberances. Although it is possible for the internal voids to be connected to the outside through the pore openings on the back surface, it was verified that some of these voids comprise nanobubbles that are completely encapsulated by polyamide. TEM tomography is a powerful technique for investigating the internal nanostructure of polyamide thin films. A comprehensive knowledge of the nanostructural distribution of voids and polyamide sections within the thin film may lead to a better understanding of mass transport and rejection mechanisms in RO membranes.

  2. Enhanced gas sensing performance of TiO2 functionalized magneto-optical SPR sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Maria Grazia; Montagna, G.; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; González-García, Lola; Sánchez-Valencia, J.R.; González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, José Miguel; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles Reig, Gaspar; Rella, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Porous TiO2 thin films deposited by glancing angle deposition are used as sensing layers to monitor their sensing capabilities towards Volatile Organic Compounds both in a standard Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor and in Magneto-Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (MO-SPR) configuration in order to compare their sensing performances. Here our results on the enhanced sensing capability of these TiO2 functionalized MO-SPR sensors with Au/Co/Au transducers with respect to traditional SPR gas...

  3. Functionalized TiO2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Baoli; Li, Duxin; Liu, Qingquan; Zhou, Zhihua; Liao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle with highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface, via the reaction between toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The main effect factors on the reaction of TiO 2 with TDI were studied by determining the reaction extent of hydroxyl groups on TiO 2 surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The dispersion of the TDI-functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Owing to the TDI molecules covalently bonded on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface, it was established that the TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in toluene, thus indicating that this functionalization method can prevent TiO 2 nanoparticle from agglomerating. -- Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanoparticle was functionalized with toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate. ► Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in xylene. ► Compatibility of TiO 2 nanoparticle and organic solvent is significantly improved. ► TiO 2 containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry.

  4. Evaluate humidity sensing properties of novel TiO2–WO3 composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wang-De; Lai, De-Sheng; Chen, Min-Hung; Wu, Ren-Jang; Chen, Fu-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 –WO 3 (1:1) showed better humidity sensing properties than others within the range of 12–90% relative humidity (RH), the response and recovery time were about 20 s and 160 s, respectively. Compared to the previous studies, the prepared sensor exhibits higher sensitivity (S = 451) and the low hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. - Highlights: • Novel TiO 2 –WO 3 composite material was prepared for humidity sensor. • The sensor exhibits higher sensitivity (S = 451). • Low hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. - Abstract: A novel TiO 2 –WO 3 composite material was prepared using a different proportion of TiO 2 and WO 3 to that investigated in previous studies. The obtained mesoporous material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The humidity-sensing properties were measured using an inductance, capacitance and resistance analyzer. The results demonstrated that the TiO 2 –WO 3 sample with a ratio of 1:1 showed better humidity sensing properties. Compared to previous studies, the prepared sensor exhibited higher sensitivity (S = 451) and the lower hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. Complex impedance analysis indicated that the enhanced humidity sensitivity was probably due to spherical Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area and the hetero-junction between TiO 2 –WO 3 thin films, while the impedance varied about three orders of magnitude. Our results demonstrated the potential application of TiO 2 –WO 3 composite for fabricating high performance humidity sensors

  5. Cellulose nanofiber-templated three-dimension TiO 2 hierarchical nanowire network for photoelectrochemical photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaodong Li; Chunhua Yao; Fei Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Xudong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) nanostructures with extremely large porosity possess a great promise for the development of high-performance energy harvesting storage devices. In this paper, we developed a high-density 3D TiO2 fiber-nanorod (NR) heterostructure for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The hierarchical structure was synthesized on a...

  6. THERMALLY STABLE NANOCRYSTALLINE TIO2 PHOTOCATALYSTS SYNTHESIZED VIA SOL-GEL METHODS MODIFIED WITH IONIC LIQUID AND SURFACTANT MOLECULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, sol-gel methods employing ionic liquids (ILs) have shown significant implications for the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured inorganic materials. Herein, we synthesized nanocrystalline TiO2 particles via an alkoxide sol-gel method employing a water-immi...

  7. Controlled growth of epitaxial CeO2 thin films with self-organized nanostructure by chemical solution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Chemical solution deposition is a versatile technique to grow oxide thin films with self-organized nanostructures. Morphology and crystallographic orientation control of CeO2 thin films grown on technical NiW substrates by a chemical solution deposition method are achieved in this work. Based...

  8. Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Takayama, Osamu; Michael-Lindhard, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanostructured gratings with an aspect ratio of up to 50. The gratings were made by a combination of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and dry etch techniques. The workflow included fabrication of a Si template using deep reactive ion etching...... spectroscopy. The approach presented opens the possibility to fabricate high quality optical metamaterials and functional nanostructures....

  9. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  10. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfi, Y; Doucet, J B; Larrieu, G

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness. (paper)

  11. Characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited through vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alberto Alvarado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel technique to deposit ZnO thin films through a metal vacuum evaporation technique using colloidal nanoparticles (average size of 30 nm, which were synthesized by our research group, as source. These thin films had a thickness between 45 and 123 nm as measured by profilometry. XRD patterns of the deposited thin films were obtained. According to the HRSEM micrographs worm-shaped nanostructures are observed in samples annealed at 600 °C and this characteristic disappears as the annealing temperature increases. The films obtained were annealed from 25 to 1000 °C, showing a gradual increase in transmittance spectra up to 85%. The optical band gaps obtained for these films are about 3.22 eV. The PL measurement shows an emission in the red and in the violet region and there is a correlation with the annealing process.

  12. Magneto-optical spectroscopy of diluted magnetic oxides TiO2-δ: Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan'shina, E.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Orlov, A.F.; Perov, N.S.; Vashuk, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental study on transversal Kerr effect (TKE) in magnetic oxide semiconductors TiO 2-δ :Co. The TiO 2-δ : Co thin films were deposited on LaAlO 3 (0 0 1) substrates by magnetron sputtering in the argon-oxygen atmosphere at oxygen partial pressure of 2x10 -6 -2x10 -4 Torr. It was obtained that TKE spectra in ferromagnetic samples are extremely sensitive to the Co-volume fraction, the crystalline structure, and technology parameters. The observed well-pronounced peaks in TKE spectra for anatase Co-doped TiO 2-δ films at low Co ( 2-δ matrix that indicates on intrinsic ferromagnetism in these samples. With increase of Co-volume fraction up to 5-8% the fine structure of TKE spectra disappears and magneto-optical response in reflection mode becomes larger than that for thick Co films

  13. Multifunctional Roles of TiO 2 Nanoparticles for Architecture of Complex Core−Shells and Hollow Spheres of SiO 2 −TiO 2 −Polyaniline System

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Dan Ping; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2009-01-01

    to prepare inorganic-polymer nanocomposites. In this work, we explore the roles of metal-oxide nanoparticles (anatase TiO2) in the area of constructional synthesis of highly complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanostructures comprising SiO2, TiO2

  14. Deposition of Nanostructured Thin Film from Size-Classified Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camata, Renato P.; Cunningham, Nicholas C.; Seol, Kwang Soo; Okada, Yoshiki; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Materials comprising nanometer-sized grains (approximately 1_50 nm) exhibit properties dramatically different from those of their homogeneous and uniform counterparts. These properties vary with size, shape, and composition of nanoscale grains. Thus, nanoparticles may be used as building blocks to engineer tailor-made artificial materials with desired properties, such as non-linear optical absorption, tunable light emission, charge-storage behavior, selective catalytic activity, and countless other characteristics. This bottom-up engineering approach requires exquisite control over nanoparticle size, shape, and composition. We describe the design and characterization of an aerosol system conceived for the deposition of size classified nanoparticles whose performance is consistent with these strict demands. A nanoparticle aerosol is generated by laser ablation and sorted according to size using a differential mobility analyzer. Nanoparticles within a chosen window of sizes (e.g., (8.0 plus or minus 0.6) nm) are deposited electrostatically on a surface forming a film of the desired material. The system allows the assembly and engineering of thin films using size-classified nanoparticles as building blocks.

  15. Assessment of Environmental Performance of TiO2 Nanoparticles Coated Self-Cleaning Float Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Pini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, superhydrophilic and photocatalytic self-cleaning nanocoatings have been widely used in the easy-to-clean surfaces field. In the building sector, self-cleaning glass was one of the first nanocoating applications. These products are based on the photocatalytic property of a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on the surface of any kind of common glass. When exposed to UV radiation, TiO2 nanoparticles react with the oxygen and water molecules adsorbed on their surface to produce radicals leading to oxidative species. These species are able to reduce or even eliminate airborne pollutants and organic substances deposited on the material’s surface. To date, TiO2 nanoparticles’ benefits have been substantiated; however, their ecological and human health risks are still under analysis. The present work studies the ecodesign of the industrial scale-up of TiO2 nanoparticles self-cleaning coated float glass production performed by the life cycle assessment (LCA methodology and applies new human toxicity indicators to the impact assessment stage. Production, particularly the TiO2 nanoparticle application, is the life cycle phase most contributing to the total damage. According to the ecodesign approach, the production choices carried out have exacerbated environmental burdens.

  16. Foldable and Cytocompatible Sol-gel TiO2 Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lin, Hongtao; Zerdoum, Aidan B; Geiger, Sarah J; Liu, Yangchen; Xiao, Nicholas; Zou, Yi; Ogbuu, Okechukwu; Du, Qingyang; Jia, Xinqiao; Li, Jingjing; Hu, Juejun

    2015-09-07

    Integrated photonics provides a miniaturized and potentially implantable platform to manipulate and enhance the interactions between light and biological molecules or tissues in in-vitro and in-vivo settings, and is thus being increasingly adopted in a wide cross-section of biomedical applications ranging from disease diagnosis to optogenetic neuromodulation. However, the mechanical rigidity of substrates traditionally used for photonic integration is fundamentally incompatible with soft biological tissues. Cytotoxicity of materials and chemicals used in photonic device processing imposes another constraint towards these biophotonic applications. Here we present thin film TiO2 as a viable material for biocompatible and flexible integrated photonics. Amorphous TiO2 films were deposited using a low temperature (<250 °C) sol-gel process fully compatible with monolithic integration on plastic substrates. High-index-contrast flexible optical waveguides and resonators were fabricated using the sol-gel TiO2 material, and resonator quality factors up to 20,000 were measured. Following a multi-neutral-axis mechanical design, these devices exhibit remarkable mechanical flexibility, and can sustain repeated folding without compromising their optical performance. Finally, we validated the low cytotoxicity of the sol-gel TiO2 devices through in-vitro cell culture tests. These results demonstrate the potential of sol-gel TiO2 as a promising material platform for novel biophotonic devices.

  17. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Haynes, J Allen

    2013-08-09

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  18. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Jellison, Gerald E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Winter, Kyle O.; Christen, David K.; Hunter, Scott R.; Haynes, J. Allen

    2013-08-01

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  19. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Allen Haynes, J

    2013-01-01

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie–Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military. (paper)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped TiO2 photocatalyst by the sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, Cam Loc; Ho, Si Thoang; Nguyen, Quoc Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Thin layers of pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 doped by different amounts of Fe 2 O 3 have been prepared by the sol–gel method with tetraisopropyl orthotitanate and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . Physico-chemical properties of catalysts were characterized by BET Adsorption, x-ray Diffraction (XRD), FE-SEM, as well as Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained materials was investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of p-xylene in gas phase under the radiation of UV (λ=365 nm) and LED (λ=470 nm) lamps. It has been found that the particle size of all samples was distributed in the range 20–30 nm. The content of the rutile phase in Fe-doped TiO 2 samples varied in the range 6.8 to 41.8% depending on the Fe content. Iron oxide doped into TiO 2 enables the photon absorbing zone of TiO 2 to extend from UV towards visible waves as well as to reduce its band gap energy from 3.2 to 2.67 eV. Photocatalytic activities of the TiO 2 samples modified by Fe 3+ have been found to be higher than those of pure TiO 2 by about 2.5 times

  1. TiO2-TiO2 composite resistive humidity sensor: ethanol crosssensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamboran, Milad; Saedi, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication method and characterization results of a TiO 2 -TiO 2 composite bead used for humidity sensing along with its negative cross-sensitivity to ethanol vapor are reported. The bead shaped resistive sample sensors are fabricated by the drop-casting of a TiO 2 slurry on two Pt wire segments. The dried bead is pre-fired at 750°C and subsequently impregnated with a Ti-based sol. The sample is ready for characterization after a thermal annealing at 600°C in air. Structurally, the bead is a composite of the micron-sized TiO 2 crystallites embedded in a matrix of nanometric TiO 2 particle aggregates. The performance of the beads as resistive humidity sensors is recorded at room temperature in standard humidity level chambers. Results evince the wide dynamic range of the sensors fabricated in the low relative humidity range. While the sensor conductance is not sensitive to ethanol vapor in dry air, in humid air, sensor's responses are negatively affected by the contaminant. (paper)

  2. Optimization of charge transfer and transport processes at the CdSe quantum dots/TiO2 nanorod interface by TiO2 interlayer passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo-Quintero, O A; Rincon, M E; Triana, M A

    2017-01-01

    Surface trap states hinder charge transfer and transport properties in TiO 2 nanorods (NRs), limiting its application on optoelectronic devices. Here, we study the interfacial processes between rutile TiO 2 NR and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using TiO 2 interlayer passivation treatments. Anatase or rutile TiO 2 thin layers were deposited on an NR surface by two wet-chemical deposition treatments. Reduced interfacial charge recombination between NRs and CdSe QDs was observed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with the introduction of TiO 2 thin film interlayers compared to bare TiO 2 NRs. These results can be ascribed to in-gap trap state passivation of the TiO 2 NR surface, which led to an increase in open circuit voltage. Moreover, the rutile thin layer was more efficient than anatase to promote a higher photo-excited electron transfer from CdSe QDs to TiO 2 NRs due to a large driving force for charge injection, as confirmed by surface photovoltage spectroscopy. (paper)

  3. TiO2/Gold nanocomposite as an extremely sensitive molecule sensor for NO2 detection: A DFT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirali Abbasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available First-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT have been performed to investigate the interactions of NO2 molecules with TiO2/Gold nanocomposites in order to completely exploit the adsorption properties of these nanostructures. Given the need to further comprehend the behavior of the NO2 molecules positioned between the TiO2 nanoparticle and Au monolayer, we have geometrically optimized the complex systems consisting of the NO2 molecule oriented at appropriate positions between the nanoparticle and Au monolayer. The structural properties such as bond lengths, bond angles, adsorption energies and Mulliken population analysis and the electronic properties including the density of states and molecular orbitals have been also analyzed in detail. The results indicate that the interaction between NO2 and undoped TiO2-N/Gold nanocomposites is stronger than that between gas molecules and N-doped TiO2/Gold nanocomposites, which reveals that the pristine nanocomposite can react with NO2 molecule more efficiently. Therefore, the obtained results also suggest a theoretical basis for the potential applications of TiO2/Gold nanocomposites in gas sensing, which could help in the developing of novel TiO2 based advanced sensor devices.

  4. Microwave-induced solid-state synthesis of TiO2(B) nanobelts with enhanced lithium-storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yun; Hu Xianluo; Huang Yunhui

    2012-01-01

    A fast and economical route based on an efficient microwave-induced solid-state process has been developed to synthesize metastable TiO 2 (B) nanobelts with widths of 30–100 nm and lengths up to a few micrometers on a large scale. This new method reduces the synthesis time for the preparation of TiO 2 (B) nanobelts to less than half an hour, allowing the screening of a wide range of reaction conditions for optimizing and scaling up the production and facilitating the formation of metastable phase TiO 2 (B). The as-formed TiO 2 (B) nanobelts exhibit enhanced lithium-storage performances, compared with the TiO 2 (B) product obtained by the conventional heating. This study provides a new way for large-scale industrial production of high-quality metastable TiO 2 (B) nanostructures. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy.

  5. The Function of TiO2 with Respect to Sensitizer Stability in Nanocrystalline Dye Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barkschat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyes of characteristically different composition have been tested with respect to long-term stability in operating standardized dye sensitized cells during a time period of up to 3600 hours. Selective solar illumination, the use of graded filters, and imaging of photocurrents revealed that degradation is linked to the density of photocurrent passed. Photoelectrochemical degradation was observed with all sensitizers investigated. Sensitization was less efficient and sensitizers were less photostable with nanostructured ZnO compared to nanostructured TiO2. The best performance was confirmed for cis-RuII(dcbpyH22(NCS2 on TiO2. However, it was 7–10 times less stable under other identical conditions on ZnO. Stability is favored by carboxylate anchoring and metal-centred electron transfer. In presence of TiO2, it is enhanced by formation of a stabilizing charge-transfer complex between oxidized Ru dye and back-bonding interfacial Ti3+ states. This is considered to be the main reason for the ongoing use of expensive Ru complexes in combination with TiO2. The local surface chemistry of the nanocrystalline TiO2 turned out to be a crucial factor for sensitizer stability and requires further investigation.

  6. Characterization of nanostructured Mn3O4 thin films grown by SILAR method at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Belkhedkar, M.R.; Sakhare, Y.S.; Singh, Arvind; Gurada, Chetan; Kothari, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method has been successfully employed to grow nanostructured conducting nearly transparent thin films of Mn 3 O 4 on to glass substrates at room temperature using MnCl 2 and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The structural and morphological characterizations of the as deposited Mn 3 O 4 films have been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FESEM), EDAX, Atomic Fore Microscopy (AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) analysis. The optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were carried out to investigate optical band gap and activation energy of Mn 3 O 4 films deposited by SILAR method. The optical band gap and activation energy of the as deposited film is found to be 2.70 and 0.14 eV respectively. The thermo-emf measurements of Mn 3 O 4 thin film confirm its p-type semiconducting nature. Highlights: ► Nanostructured Mn 3 O 4 thin film is prepared by SILAR method at room temperature. ► The film is nanocrystalline with orthorhombic structure of Mn 3 O 4 . ► The XRD, FTIR, FESEM, EDX and AFM characterization confirms nanocrystalline nature. ► Optical band gap, electrical resistivity and activation energy of film is reported. ► A thermo-emf measurement confirms p-type conductivity of Mn 3 O 4 films.

  7. Photodegradation of rhodamine B and methyl orange over one-dimensional TiO2 catalysts under simulated solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Changsheng; Xu Jian; He Yan; Zhang Yuan; Wang Yuqiu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 nanostructures, nanotube and nanowire were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using Degussa P25 TiO 2 as a precursor. The synthesized anatase TiO 2 nanotubes with the diameters of 10-20 nm and length of several hundred nanometers were formed from P25 and NaOH with the hydrothermal treatment temperature at 150 deg. C, and anatase TiO 2 nanowires with the diameters of 10-40 nm and length up to several micrometers were prepared at 180 deg. C. The photocatalytic activity of the two nanostructures was evaluated by degrading rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solutions under simulated solar light irradiation. The results suggested that the TiO 2 nanocatalysts displayed higher degradation activity compared to P25. For RhB, 98.9% and 91.9% of RhB were removed by nanotubes and nanowires, respectively after 60 min irradiation in comparison to the 81.8% removal by P25. Similar trend was observed for MO, with the removal percentage of 95.6%, 88.3% and 74.9%, respectively by TiO 2 nanotubes, nanowires and P25. Meanwhile, RhB and MO showed different photodegradation rates in nanotubes and nanowires suspensions, probably due to the morphology and crystal structure of the TiO 2 nanocatalysts which play important roles in the degradation activity of the catalysts.

  8. Synergic effect of the TiO2-CeO2 nanoconjugate system on the band-gap for visible light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-García, M.E.; García-Benjume, M. Lorena; Macías-Andrés, Víctor I.; Barajas-Ledesma, E.; Medina-Flores, A.; Espitia-Cabrera, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanostructured TiO 2 -CeO 2 films are successfully synthesized by combining of sputtering and electrophoresis methods. • Synergic effect of CeO 2 on TiO 2 band gap was demonstrated, CeO 2 diminishes it from 3.125 to 2.74. • Morphologic characterization of the nanoconjugate TiO 2 -CeO 2 films by different microscopy techniques. - Abstract: The TiO 2 -CeO 2 photocatalytic system in films is proposed here, in order to obtain photocatalytic systems that can be excited by solar light. The films were obtained through the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of TiO 2 -CeO 2 gel on sputtered Ti Corning glass substrates. The synergic effect of CeO 2 in TiO 2 films was analyzed as a function of the optical band gap reduction at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 15 mol%). The effect of two thermal treatments was also evaluated. The lowest band gap value was obtained for the sample with 5 mol% ceria that was thermally treated at 700 °C. The nanostructured films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high angle annular dark field (HAADF), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanocomposites were formed by TiO 2 and CeO 2 nanoparticles in the anatase and fluorite type phases, respectively

  9. Preparation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles using low hydrothermal temperature for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, N.; Ridhova, A.; Yuwono, A. H.; Udhiarto, A.

    2018-03-01

    One device being developed as an alternative source of renewable energy by utilizing solar energy source is dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This device works using simple photosynthetic-electrochemical principle in the molecular level. In this device, the inorganic oxide semiconductor of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a great potential for the absorption of the photon energy from the solar energy source, especially in the form of TiO2 nanoparticle structure. This nanoparticle structure is expected to improve the performance of DSSC because the surface area to weight ratio of this nanostructures is very large. In this study, the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticle from its precursors has been performed along with the fabrication of the DSSC device. Effort to improve the size of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 was accomplished by low hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures whereas the crystallinity of the anatase phase in the structure was performed by calcination process. Characterization of the materials was performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the DSSC performance was examined through a high precision current versus voltage (I-V) curve analyzer. The results showed that pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles could be obtained at low hydrothermal of 100, 125, and 150 °C followed by calcination at 450 °C. The best performance of photocurrent-voltage characteristic was given by TiO2 hydrothermally synthesized at 150 °C with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.40 %, whereas the standard TiO2 nanoparticles has PCE only 4.02 %. This result is very promising in terms low temperature and thus low cost of anatase TiO2 semiconductor preparation for DSSC application.

  10. Enhanced supercapacitor performance using hierarchical TiO2 nanorod/Co(OH)2 nanowall array electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadoss, Ananthakumar; Kim, Sang Jae

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO 2 /Co(OH) 2 hierarchical nanostructure was prepared by a combination of hydrothermal and cathodic electrodeposition method. • Hierarchical nanostructure electrode exhibited a maximum capacitance of 274.3 mF cm −2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s −1 . • Combination of Co(OH) 2 nanowall with TiO 2 NR into a single system enhanced the electrochemical behavior of supercapacitor electrode. - Abstract: We report novel hierarchical TiO 2 nanorod (NR)/porous Co(OH) 2 nanowall array electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors fabricated using a two-step process that involves hydrothermal and electrodeposition techniques. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images reveal a bilayer structure consisting of TiO 2 NR arrays with porous Co(OH) 2 nanowalls. Compared with the bare TiO 2 NRs, the hierarchical TiO 2 NRs/Co(OH) 2 electrodes showed improved pseudocapacitive performance in a 2-M KOH electrolyte solution, exhibiting an areal specific capacitance of 274.3 mF cm −2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s −1 . The electrodes exhibited good stability, retaining 82.5% of the initial capacitance after 4000 cycles. The good pseudocapacitive performance of the hierarchical nanostructures is mainly due to the porous structure, which provides fast ion and electron transfer, a large surface area, short ion diffusion paths, and a favourable volume change during the cycling process

  11. Nanostructured plasma etched, magnetron sputtered nanolaminar Cr2AlC MAX phase thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieseler, Rolf; Hähnlein, Bernd; Stubenrauch, Mike; Kups, Thomas; Wilke, Marcus; Hopfeld, Marcus; Pezoldt, Jörg; Schaaf, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of new materials determines essentially their usability and functionality when used in micro- and nanostructures. MAX phases are new and highly interesting materials due to their unique combination of materials properties. In this article a new method for producing the Cr 2 AlC MAX phase is presented. Thin film elemental multilayer deposition and subsequent rapid thermal annealing forms the MAX phase within seconds. Additionally, free standing microstructures (beams and cantilevers) based on this MAX phase films are prepared by plasma etching. The mechanical properties of these MAX phase microstructures are investigated

  12. Physical properties of nanostructured CeO2 thin films grown by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ishaque Ahmed; Belkhedkar, M. R.; Salodkar, R. V.; Ubale, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured CeO2 thin films have been deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method onto glass substrate using (CeNO3)3 6H2O and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors respectively. The structural and morphological characterizations were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction, FTIR, FESEM and EDX studies. The highly resistive (1010 Ω cm) semiconducting CeO2 film exhibits 2.95 eV optical band gap.

  13. Patterned Diblock Co-Polymer Thin Films as Templates for Advanced Anisotropic Metal Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Stephan V; Santoro, Gonzalo; Risch, Johannes F H; Yu, Shun; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Boese, Torsten; Döhrmann, Ralph; Zhang, Peng; Besner, Bastian; Bremer, Philipp; Rukser, Dieter; Rübhausen, Michael A; Terrill, Nick J; Staniec, Paul A; Yao, Yuan; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-06-17

    We demonstrate glancing-angle deposition of gold on a nanostructured diblock copolymer, namely polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film. Exploiting the selective wetting of gold on the polystyrene block, we are able to fabricate directional hierarchical structures. We prove the asymmetric growth of the gold nanoparticles and are able to extract the different growth laws by in situ scattering methods. The optical anisotropy of these hierarchical hybrid materials is further probed by angular resolved spectroscopic methods. This approach enables us to tailor functional hierarchical layers in nanodevices, such as nanoantennae arrays, organic photovoltaics, and sensor electronics.

  14. Nanostructuring on zinc phthalocyanine thin films for single-junction organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Lokendra, E-mail: lokendrakr@allduniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211 002 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Vertically aligned and random oriented crystalline molecular nanorods of organic semiconducting Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) have been grown on ITO coated glass substrate using solvent volatilization method. Interesting changes in surface morphology were observed under different solvent treatment. Vertically aligned nanorods of ZnPc thin film were observed in the films treated with acetone, where as the random oriented nanorods were observed in the films treated with chloroform. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used for characterization of nanostructures. The optical properties of the nanorods have been investigated by UV-Vis. absorption spectroscopy.

  15. Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of TiO_2 Buffered IGZO/TiO_2 Bi-Layered Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil

    2016-01-01

    In and Ga doped ZnO (IGZO, 100-nm thick) thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating on a bare glass substrate and a TiO_2-deposited glass substrate to determine the effect of the thickness of a thin TiO_2 buffer layer on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films. The thicknesses of the TiO_2 buffer layers were 5, 10 and 15 nm, respectively. As-deposited IGZO films with a 10 nm-thick TiO_2 buffer layer had an average optical transmittance of 85.0% with lower resistivity (1.83×10-2 Ω cm) than that of IGZO single layer films. The figure of merit (FOM) reached a maximum of 1.44×10-4 Ω-1 for IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO_2 bi-layered films, which is higher than the FOM of 6.85×10-5 Ω-1 for IGZO single layer films. Because a higher FOM value indicates better quality transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, the IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO_2 bi-layered films are likely to perform better in TCO applications than IGZO single layer films.

  16. Determination of optical properties in nanostructured thin films using the Swanepoel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, J.; Diaz-Parralejo, A.; Ortiz, A.L.; Guiberteau, F.

    2006-01-01

    We present the methodological framework of the Swanepoel method for the spectrophotometric determination of optical properties in thin films using transmittance data. As an illustrative case study, we determined the refractive index, thickness, absorption index, and extinction coefficient of a nanostructured 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 -doped ZrO 2 (yttria stabilized zirconia, 3YSZ) thin film prepared by the sol-gel method and deposited by dipping onto a soda-lime glass substrate. In addition, using the absorption index obtained with the Swanepoel method, we calculated the optical band gap of the film. The refractive index was found to increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with increasing wavelength of the radiation, while the absorption index and extinction coefficient decreased monotonically to zero. These trends are explained in terms of the location of the absorption bands. We also deduced that this 3YSZ thin film has a direct optical band gap of 4.6 eV. All these results compared well with those given in the literature for similar thin films. This suggests that the Swanepoel method has an important role to play in the optical characterization of ceramic thin films

  17. Composition-dependent nanostructure of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} powders and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnohr, C.S., E-mail: c.schnohr@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Kämmer, H.; Steinbach, T.; Gnauck, M. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Rissom, T.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Stephan, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Schorr, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Atomic-scale structural parameters of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} powders and polycrystalline thin films were determined as a function of the In and Cu contents using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. No difference in the two sample types is observed for the average bond lengths demonstrating the strong tendency towards bond length conservation typical for tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. In contrast, the bond length variation is significantly smaller in the thin films than in the powders, particularly for Cu-poor material. This difference in the nanostructure is proposed to originate from differences in the preparation conditions, most prominently from the different history of Cu composition. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} powders and thin films are studied with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. • Structural parameters are determined as a function of the In and Cu contents. • The element-specific average bond lengths are identical for powders and thin films. • The Ga-Se/In-Se bond length variation is smaller for thin films than for powders. • The differences are believed to stem from the different history of the Cu content.

  18. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  19. Determination of optical properties in nanostructured thin films using the Swanepoel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain); Diaz-Parralejo, A. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain); Ortiz, A.L. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain)]. E-mail: alortiz@unex.es; Guiberteau, F. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain)

    2006-06-30

    We present the methodological framework of the Swanepoel method for the spectrophotometric determination of optical properties in thin films using transmittance data. As an illustrative case study, we determined the refractive index, thickness, absorption index, and extinction coefficient of a nanostructured 3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped ZrO{sub 2} (yttria stabilized zirconia, 3YSZ) thin film prepared by the sol-gel method and deposited by dipping onto a soda-lime glass substrate. In addition, using the absorption index obtained with the Swanepoel method, we calculated the optical band gap of the film. The refractive index was found to increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with increasing wavelength of the radiation, while the absorption index and extinction coefficient decreased monotonically to zero. These trends are explained in terms of the location of the absorption bands. We also deduced that this 3YSZ thin film has a direct optical band gap of 4.6 eV. All these results compared well with those given in the literature for similar thin films. This suggests that the Swanepoel method has an important role to play in the optical characterization of ceramic thin films.

  20. Nano-MnO2@TiO2 microspheres: A novel structure and excellent performance as anode of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiguang; Chen, Xiaoqiao; Xing, Lidang; Liao, Youhao; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiang; Li, Weishan

    2018-03-01

    A structurally hierarchical MnO2/TiO2 composite (Nano-MnO2@TiO2) is fabricated by calcining MnCO3 microspheres and coating a thin layer of TiO2 through the heat decomposition of tetrabutyl titanate, and evaluated as anode of gravimetrically and volumetrically high energy density lithium ion battery. The characterizations from FESEM, TEM, HRTEM and XRD, indicate that the resulting Nano-MnO2@TiO2 takes a spherical morphology with a core of about 2 μm in diameter, consisting of compact MnO2 nanoparticles, and a shell of 60 nm thick, consisting of smaller TiO2 nanoparticles. The charge/discharge tests demonstrate that Nano-MnO2@TiO2 exhibits excellent performance as anode of lithium ion battery, delivering a capacity of 938 mAh g-1 at 300 mA g-1 after 200 cycles, compared to the 103 mAh g-1 of the uncoated sample. The microsphere consisting of compact nanoparticles provides Nano-MnO2@TiO2 with high specific gravity. The dimensionally and structurally stable TiO2 maintains the integrity of MnO2 microspheres and facilitates lithium insertion/extraction. This unique structure yields the excellent cyclic stability and rate capability of Nano-MnO2@TiO2.